In truth the fate of Patani Malay people should not be placed in the hands of the Siam-Thai government. Rather, measures to improve their fate and condition should be placed in their own hands

History Of Patani
Introduction
Chapter One
Chapter Two
Chapter Three
Chapter Four

Sejarah Kerjaan Patani
Pesanan Ibrahim Syukri
Pengenalan
Bab Satu
Bab Dua
Bab Tiga
Bab Empat

ประวัติปัตตานี
ข้อความจากผู้แปล
บทนำ
บทที่หนึ่ง
บทที่สอง
บทที่สาม
บทที่สี่

Others
The Queens Of Patani

CHAPTER 3: THE GOVERNMENT OF PATANI IN THE PERIOD OF DECLINE

When Raja Kuning was dead and there were no more descendants of Raja Sri Wangsa who could be installed as ruler to occupy the throne of the kingdom of Patani, all the rayal family and chiefs met to choose a person who was suitable and qualified to ascend the royal throne. An aged chief named Raja Bakar was then living in Kampung Teluk who was invited to ascend the royal throne of Patani. But after Raja Bakar had ruled just a few years on the royal throne, he too dead.

Thus the question of choosing a Raja to ascend the throne of the kingdom of Patani was again brought before the council of the royal family and their chiefs. It was decided that those who would be raja of Patani should be descended from a pure raja. At that time in Patani there were none of the line of rajas who could ascend the throne of the kingdom. Therefore, with agreement of the council, one of the sons of the raja of Kelantan, whose name was Raja Mas Kelantan, was invited to become raja of Patani. From that time Patani was ruled by rajas descended from the raja of Kelantan. Raja Mas ruled in Patani a few years until he died and the throne of the kingdom of Patani was given over to his daughter named Raja Mas Chayam.

After a few years Raja Mas Chayam died, also without leaving an heir. Then, with the agreement of the council, a son of a raja named Raja Ahmad from Kampung Dawai (nor in the Rakap district) was chosen. He ascended the throne of the kingdom of Patani and was given the title Sultan Mahmud.

While Patani was ruled by Raja Bakar, Raja Mas Kelantan and Raja Mas Chayam, Patani was in a state of peace, never attacked by its enemies, including the Siam-Thai. However, in the question of progress, the country of Patani gradually had begun to decline, particularly in commercial matters. During the rule of the rajas of Patani who were descended from Raja Sri Wangsa, Patani was known as a great commercial center in Southeast Asia and was frequently visited by European peoples. During the rule of the Kelantan rajas commercial progress began to decline. The European peoples all were gone. All that remained in Patani were the Eastern peoples from Japan, China, Indian Muslim business­men, and Arabs. They lived harmoniously with the Patani Malays, carrying on business peacefully. Because the Indians and Arabs were Muslims, they easily mingled with the Malays and with no obstacle they finally became Malays.

The Siam-Thai, the primary enemies of the people at that time, no longer came to attack Patani because at that time Siam was experiencing such problems as treachery, individual usurpation of power, and frequent civil war, so that the royal throne was constantly being shaken. In addition, the Burmese, who were their constant enemies, did not cease attacking the country of Siam­Thai, with the result that the raja of Siam had no chance to attack and subjugate Patani.

      In the year A.D. 1767 the citadel of Ayuthia, center of government of Siam at that time, was captured by the Burmese. Severe disruption was caused when the Burmese entered and ruled Ayuthia. All the minor rajas who ruled the various territories subject to Siam at that time each eagerly desired to rule independently and free themselves from subjugation to the raja of Siam. The raja in the country of Ligor used this opportunity to re-establish his free and independent kingdom. Then he arranged the freedom of his kingdom in southern Siam. The countries of Singgora and Pattalung having become his vassals, he sent his minister to become ruler in these territories.

While Siam was disorganized and its minor rajas in all those territories had established their individual kingdoms, there arose a Siam-Thai chief called Phraya Tak. He was able to assemble a group of Siam-Thai and organize a large army. Then he led this army in a counterattack on the Burmese in Ayuthia. Finally he succeeded and the Burmese were completely routed and killed, and Ayuthia was restored to the hands of the Siam-Thai. The Siam-Thai kingdom was re-established and he himself became its raja. But its center of government was moved to another place in the territory of Thonburi.

        Then Phraya Tak, Raja of Siam, sent an army through all his subject territories to defeat the minor rajas who strongly desired independence from the rule of the raja of Siam-Thai. In just a short time all the minor rajas were bowing their heads to him again. Only the raja of Ligor was not yet defeated. Thus in the year A.D. 1769 the Siam-Thai raja launched a great attack on Ligor. Because his strength was greater, the raja of Siam defeated the raja of Ligor. And the raja of Ligor, who had greatly desired independence, was forced to flee to Singgora, but he was pursued by the raja of Siam. Finally the raja of Ligor, the raja of Singgora, and the raja of Pattalung, taking their royal families, fled to Patani and asked for shelter from Sultan Mahmud.

        However the Siam-Thai had followed them to the district of Tiba, that is the border of Patani with Siam. From there he sent a mission to Sultan Mahmud asking that the three rajas who had fled from Singgora be arrested and sent to him.

       If Sultan Mahmud hesitated to fulfill this wish, he would certainly attack Patani. The mission of the Siam-Thai raja arrived in Patani in the month of December A.D. 1769. Sultan Mahmud met with his chiefs seeking a decision whether or not to accede to the wish of the Siam-Thai raja. Their decision was that it should be acceded to because of concern for the safety and security of the country, which otherwise would be attacked by the Thai raja for such an insignificant reason. In addition, His Majesty Sultan Mahmud felt he had no connection with the raja of Ligor and the other rajas. Afterwards, his majesty ordered his men to arrest the raja of Ligor and take him to the raja of Siam. Then the raja of Siam-Thai sailed back, carrying the three rajas as his prisoners. Since that time Ligor was once again subjugated by the Siam-Thai raja.

The return home of the Siam-Thai raja did not eliminate his evil designs on the country of Patani. He was inflamed with the desire that Patani be subjugated and the Malays there be enslaved, just as he had succeeded in subjugating Ligor, Singgora, and Pattalung. Because his strength was not yet sufficient, he was forced to be silent, meanwhile awaiting a better time.

With matters thus, in A.D. 1776 the Burmese came to attack the northern part of Siam. The Siam-Thai raja wished to know whether Sultan Mahmud, raja of Patani, feared his influence. As a pretense, he sent a mission to Patani asking Sultan Mahmud to help him to resist the Burmese attack and requesting a sum of 80,000 baht (similar missions also were sent to the sultans of Kelantan and Trengganu as well as Patani.). But Sultan Mahmud did not heed these requests. When the Siam-Thai raja became aware that his wish had not been heeded, he became very angry and his intention to subjugate Patani became increasingly firm.

      Meanwhile, in A.D. 1782, the Siam-Thai raja named Phraya Tak or the raja of Thonburi died, murdered by one of his commanders, and this commander was elevated to become raja of Siam-Thai. He was given the title Phraphutta Yotfa Culalok, or Raja Rama the First of the line of Mahachakri. In the reign of this raja the present city of Bangkok was founded.

       Two years later, in A.D. 1784, the Burmese came again and attacked Ligor, which was subject to the raja of Siam. The raja of Siam sent his younger brother, who was the raja muda, with an army to fight the Burmese. This army went forth from Bangkok with several warships toward Ligor. When they arrived at Ligor the Siam-Thai commander immediately landed his troops and united with the force of Siam-Ligor to fight the Burmese. The war continued for several months, after which the Burmese were forced to retreat home having been defeated by the Siam-Thai force from Bangkok.

After the end of the war, the raja muda of Siam took his army to Singgora in order to put in order affairs of government there. Having finished his work, he sent a mission to Patani asking Sultan Mahmud to submit to him properly. When the mission of the Siam-Thai raja arrived in Patani, Sultan Mahmud called a meeting of his chiefs. It was unanimously decided to reject the demand to submit, which was aimed at usurping the sovereignty of the raja and the freedom of the country of Patani.

This decision was announced to the Thai mission. When the Thai raja knew that his desire was unfilled and that in addition he had received a proud answer from Sultan Mahmud, the breath of imperialism flared hotly in his heart and he decided to attack Patani. Then he told his commander named Phraya Kalahom to take his army and attack Patani and he ordered the commander to fight to the end until Patani became subjugated .12

           Sultan Mahmud, after the departure of the Siam-Thai mission, was certain that this time the Siam-Thai would attack Patani. Therefore his majesty, with no further delay, ordered weapons of war to be assembled, defense forts to be built, and as many war supplies as could be obtained be prepared.

           But unhappily the position of Patani at that time was weak, its power had declined, and all its weapons of war would be insufficient if the war were long. Since the end of war with the Siam-Thai during the reign of Raja Kuning, almost half a century earlier, Patani had not equipped itself with weapons of war as no enemies had come to attack. During that time the Patani Malays had lived securely and peacefully and they had forgotten how to prepare for war. Tactics for guarding their land were nearly forgotten. Thus as time passed the bravery of the Malays had gradually weakened while the weapons which were kept in the armories were nearly useless and not of the same standard as the new weapons in the hands of the Thai army.

         Thus was the situation. Nevertheless, seeing the attitude of the Siam-Thai raja, who fully intended to subjugate Patani, Sultan Mahmud did not lose hope. Rather, his majesty immediately assembled the old weapons which still existed and advised his people that the coming war would determine the success or failureand the life or death of the Malay kingdom of Patani, asking his people to unite and take full part in the fight to defend the independence of their people and kingdom. Sultan Mahmud's request was gladly received by the people of Patani and all were willing to resist the wickedness of the Siam-Thai even though they were forced to sacrifice themselves and break their limbs and bodies. It was better to sacrifice themselves thus in war to defend their independence than to live as vassals dominated by the Siam­Thai.

        When the Siamese army approached Patani, all the people of Patani were mobilized by Sultan Mahmud to assemble outside the royal citadel and were divided into two forces. The first force was ordered to guard the forts on the shore in order to defend against landings by the Siam-Thai from their warships. The second force was ordered to guard the front of the royal citadel. All weapons, including cannon and cannonballs, were divided equally. The large cannon Sri Negara and Sri Patani which had once before defeated the Thai were again brought out and placed outside the citadel to await the official order to let fly their reliable projectiles.

        Both defense forces awaited the moment to repulse the Siam-Thai attack. Not many days later the Thai army led by Phraya Kalahom arrived in Kuala Patani and anchored there while awaiting a propitious time to launch its attack. At this most important moment, in the group of Sultan Mahmud's chiefs there was a Siam-Thai named Nai Chanthong who came originally from Siam-Ligor to live in Patani with some followers. He had been of great service to the kingdom of Patani so that Sultan Mahmud placed full confidence in him and had appointed him a royal chief.

      While the Siam-Thai army was anchored in Kuala Patani, there rose in him an evil feeling toward the kingdom of Patani, and wishing to show devotion to his race and kingdom, he devised an evil plan. Quickly he went before His Majesty Sultan Mahmud to say that he was willing to fight the Siam-Thai invasion but he wished to be appointed the leader of the force of Malays defend­ing the forts on the beach, and he requested the sultan give hima large boat five cubits long to be equipped with cannon and weapons. Trustingly, Sultan Mahmud granted his request and Nai Chanthong with his boat pretended to set off for the defense forts on the shore. Here he began to put his evil plan into effect against the Patani kingdom.

When midnight came, when the world is dark and gloomy and shelters a person who would do evil, Nai Chanthong went out in his boat toward the Siam-Thai warships and asked to meet with commander Phraya Kalahom. Upon meeting him, he [Nai Chanthong] revealed the secrets of the Patani Malays' defenses. Phraya Kalahom was very pleased to learn the secrets of the Malay defenses. He was sure that this time his army would certainly win and that this time it was assured that the kingdom of Patani would topple, overturned by his army.

        When the proper moment arrived, the commander began to direct his cannon to bombard the Malay defense forts on the beach and quickly he landed his troops on the beach under cover of the projectiles fired by his cannon. Unfortunately every time a shell was fired by the Thai cannon it fell in a Malay fort, so that after just a few rounds many Malays were killed. However the Malays determinedly and fiercely returned the fire. The attack and bombardment of the Siam-Thai increased in intensity until all the Thai forces had come up on the beach and with all their combined strength attacked the Malay forts. Suddenly the Malay position was surrounded and they were cut off from the second force which was defending the citadel. Although they were surrounded and their hope was gone, the Malays in the forts continued to resist without faltering. Afterwards the defense of the Malays on the shore was destroyed and the forts and their cannon were captured by the Siam-Thai.

      After the defensive line of the Malays on the shore fell, commander Phraya Kalahom reassembled his remaining military power and immediately launched his attack on the citadel. The commander's attack met fierce opposition from the Malay defenders in front of the royal citadel, and Sultan Mahmud himself came forth to organize the defense. The cannon Sri Negara and Sri Patani too began to fire their trusty projectiles hitting the Siam-Thai advance and fierce hand-to-hand fighting with swords and daggers ensued.

This battle continued for several days without ceasing. Sadly, Sultan Mahmud was struck by a cannonball fired by the Siam­Thai, and his majesty fell and died in the midst of the battle. Not many hours after the death of his majesty, the defenses of the Malays in front of the royal citadel were pierced and the Siam­Thai attack continued just as powerfully. The Malay defense reached its final moment and broke, and everyone scattered. The royal citadel fell into the hands of the Siam-Thai and the battle ended with the defeat of the Malays.

This defeat was the first in the history of the Malay kingdom of Patani, and signified the loss of independence of the Malay kingdom of Patani and the abolition of the sovereignty of the Malay rajas which had been defended for hundreds of years. The purpose of the Siam-Thai raja was accomplished, which he had long desired, to subjugate Patani and to enslave its people.

The loss of the Patani Malays on this occasion was caused by several factors, the most important of which were:

  1. The secrets of the Malay defense and their strength were revealed by Nai Chanthong to the Siam-Thai commander;
  2. Sultan Mahmud died in the battle;
  3. The supply of weapons of the Malays was insufficient; (4) The military might of the Siam-Thai was greater than the Malays.

      All the Patani Malay defenses were destroyed, and Patani fell under the yoke of Thai subjugation. This was the first defeat of the country of Patani, which had been sovereign and independent for hundreds of years since the reign of the Raja Sri Wangsa, so the defeat was very significant in the history of the Malay kingdom of Patani. Thus the struggle and sacrifice of the Patani rajas for hundreds of years to defend their royal sovereignty and the independence of the Malays finally had achieved a most saddening result. The sovereignty of the Patani rajas and the independence of the Malays fell under the yoke of Thai subjugation, and this defeat brought Patani directly under the Siam-Thai yoke to this day.

     After capturing all the defenses of the Malays, the first thing the Thai in Patani did was to arrest and kill unarmed Patani Malay men, women, and young children, and to steal all property and weapons. Then the palace of the late Sultan Mahmud was burnt to the ground.

      For about a month the Siam-Thai sacked Patani in order to gain complete revenge on the Patani Malays, who had been characterized as their greatest enemy. The commander Phraya Kalahom began to organize the laws of government in Patani according to the pattern of laws of subjugation and took away the sovereignty of the raja and his chiefs.

After establishing these laws, the Siamese commander ordered his troops to return to the warships, weigh anchor, andsail back to Bangkok, carrying some Malay captives, including men, women, and children, along with the booty of war. Among this booty, the most valuable thing to the Malays were the great cannon made in the reign of Raja Biru. One of them was carried along with the captives to Bangkok, but the second fell into the sea off Kuala Patani while the Siam-Thai were carrying it up to the ship. One was taken to Bangkok. To this day the great Patani cannon decorates the front of the office of the Minister of War in Bangkok.

     The laws of government composed by the Thai commander before his return to Bangkok included the appointment of a Malay to be ruler of Patani as a puppet raja. The administration of the country was put under the supervision of the Siam-Thai raja in Ligor, and he was forced to send tribute to Bangkok to show his loyalty (What tribute was sent by the raja of Patani to the raja of Siam at that time is not yet clearly known. In later times tribute was known to be sent once every three years in the form of a flowering tree with five tiers of leaves [commonly known as the bunga emas], all made of ten karat gold.63 Besides this golden flowering tree, it also was necessary to send with it three golden boxes and three lances also plated with gold. The total gold making up the flowing tree, boxes and lances was no less than forty lahil in weigh ). The puppet raja appointed by the Siam-Thai was Raja Bendang Badang named Tungku Lamidin."

      When Tungku Lamidin was elevated by Siam to be the raja of Patani, his first duty was to rebuild the palace and reassemble the people of Patani, who had fled. But when he saw the palace in Kerisik was completely destroyed and deserted because many of the people had died in the war and many more had been captured by Siam and taken to Bangkok, Tungku Lamidin did not want to stay in Kerisik. Then his majesty built a new palace in Perawan and appointed a chief named Datuk Pangkalan, who lived in Kampung Pangkalan Besar, to be ruler in Kerisik."

        Although Tungku Lamidin had been appointed by the Siam­Thai to be a puppet raja, a feeling of sadness took root in his heart in account of the deeds of the Siam-Thai against the Patani Malays. Therefore his majesty firmly resolved to seek revenge for this defeat and to free the kingdom of Patani from the yoke of Siam-Thai subjugation. His majesty only awaited a good opportunity to carry out this intention.

      With matters thus, in A.D. 1789 his majesty sent a mission carrying a letter to the raja of Annam (Vietnam) in Indochina, named Raja "Wan Cheng Su," inviting that raja to join him in attacking Siam. His majesty would attack southern Siam and the raja of Annam would attack from the north.

      Unfortunately the raja of Annam sent Tungku Lamidin's letter to the raja of Siam in Bangkok. When the raja of Siam learned of the raja of Patani's plan he became very angry and ordered his commander Phraya Kelahom to arrest the raja of Patani. Meanwhile Tungku Lamidin had completely re-equipped his army and he rose up with his troops and attacked the country of Tiba, driving out the Siam-Thai there. Immediately thereafter he invaded the territory of Chenak, meeting little opposition and finally arriving at Singgora. When his majesty arrived at Singgora he met a force of Siam-Thai who were fortified at Kampung Bukit Anak Gajah. There they fought for several days.

      News of the Malay attack on Singgora reached the Siam­Thai raja in Ligor, who sent reinforcements to help the Singgora Siam-Thai. The attack of the Malays under the direction of Tungku Lamidin became increasingly ferocious, and finally the defense of the Singgora Siam-Thai was defeated. The Siam-Thai rajas of Singgora and Ligor fled to the country of Pattalung, but they were immediately pursued by the Malays so that a battle also took place in the country of Pattalung.

         With matters thus, the force of commander Phraya Kalahom arrived from Bangkok seeking to capture the raja of Patani. This army united with the rajas of Singgora and Ligor and together they fought against the Patani attack. This war continued fiercely for three years with no winner or loser. Because the war lasted so long, the Malay forces became weakened. Far from their home base, it was very difficult for them to get assistance of food and weapons from Patani. In the end Tungku Lamidin was forced to withdraw his people to Patani.

The retreat of Tungku Lamidin did not bring any benefit whatsoever to his majesty as it provided an opportunity for the Siamese to launch their counterattack. All during their retreat they were constantly followed by the Siam-Thai. Finally the Malays arrived in Patani and together they prepared to defend Perawan and awaited the Siamese attack.

       Because the Siamese army was collected from three large forces they were more numerous than the Malays. In the end Perawan was surrounded by the Siamese and they cut all commu­nication of the Malays with their comrades outside the citadel. With matters thus, after a long Malay defense Perawan finally fell into the hands of the Siamese and Tungku Lamidin was arrested by the Siamese. His majesty was sentenced to be killed for his crime of treachery against the Siam-Thai Raja in Bangkok. Then the Malays broke and fled. This defeat occurred in 1791, the second defeat in the history of the Malay kingdom of Patani. As usual the Siam-Thai entered Perawan capturing and killing Malays and stealing all their property. When they were sated with terrorizing, they returned to Singgora, taking some Malay captives.

        Before the Thais returned, they chose a Malay chief to be elevated as raja to rule Patani, "Datuk Pangkalan," who they gave the title Luang.b' Because of this all children of this chief also are called Luang. In order to watch over the Malays and guard against treachery they also appointed a Siamese chief named "Laksamana Dajang"`i8 to control the Malay chiefs and a few Siam­Thai were also asked to remain to keep order in Patani.

       Afterwards affairs in Patani were somewhat calmer but the ruler, Datuk Pangkalan, frequently quarreled with the Siamese because he had no freedom to conduct the government of the country. He was continually surrounded by Siam-Thai whose attitude was evil and who continually committed cruelties against the Patani Malay people. Therefore in A.D. 1808 there arose a fierce dispute between Datuk Pangkalan and the Siamese.

         Losing his patience, Datuk Pangkalan came with his men and launched a surprise attack against the Siam-Thai. They were forced to save themselves and flee with their leader Laksamana Dajang to Singgora. The raja of Singgora sent a letter to Bangkok stating that Datuk Pangkalan and the Patani Malays were traitors to the Siam-Thai raja. Meanwhile, the raja of Ligor and the raja of Singgora came with their troops to Patani in order to arrest Datuk Pangkalan.

          In Patani all the families of the chiefs, that is Datuk Pangkalan, Datuk Sai, Datuk Pujud, and others, were ready and collected their strength, awaiting the arrival of the Siamese from Ligor and Singgora. When the Siamese arrived they fought the people of Patani for months. The people of Patani under the leadership of the chiefs fought to the end, firmly determined to drive the Siamese from Patani and free themselves from the yoke of Thai subjugation. Against this holy purpose, the Siamese were lost and retreated to Singgora, and Laksamana Dajang returned to Ligor.

        A few months later, a Thai force from Bangkok led by Phraya Kalahom arrived with several warships and landed, followed by Siamese from Singgora and Ligor. This time the battle took place simultaneously on land and sea, the land battle occurring in Bawarah, and the sea battle at Kerisik. Finally the Patani Malays lost. Datuk Pangkalan died in the struggle, and all the other chiefs fled.

        After achieving victory, the exulting Siam-Thai entered and ruled Patani, took Malays prisoner, seized all their possessions, and arranged the laws of the government in Patani to suit their wishes. Then the Siam-Thai began to carry out their plan to destroy the sovereignty of the Malay rajas. They elevated a Siam­Thai named "Nai Khwan Sai" to be raja of Patani. After complet­ing the organization of the government of Patani, commander Phraya Kalahom returned to Bangkok with his army. Nai Khwan Sai was a son of the raja of Chenak, who was descended from a Chinese who came to do business in Chenak. Afterwards Nai Khwan Sai came to rule in Patani and brought several hundred Singgora Siamese and [they] made their settlement in the city.

        Thenceforth, the sovereignty of the Malay rajas and the country of Patani was eliminated and full power fell into the hands of the Siam-Thai. In the next few years Raja Khwan Sai died and was succeeded by his son "Nai Phai" who became raja of Patani. A son of his older brother named "Nai Yim Sai" was given the title Luang Sawatphakdi and elevated to become his aide.

         During the time Nai Phai ruled the country of Patani as raja, the situation in the country was not as peaceful as in the reign of the previous Malay rajas. Because the Siamese considered themselves more powerful, they continually acted cruelly and fiercely toward the Malays of Patani, and were always in conflict with the Malays. This state of affairs caused the Malays to hate them deeply.

        Nai Phai was of the opinion that the Malays were always plotting revenge against the Siamese, and he became worried that the Malays might revolt and demand their freedom. Therefore he sent a letter to the raja of Singgora expressing his concern, and the raja of Singgora conveyed this concern to the raja of Siam in Bangkok. The question was brought before a meeting with his ministers to decide on consolidating their rule in the subject territory of Patani.

      The conference agreed that the strength of Patani should be dispersed so that it could be ruled more easily. In this way the position of the Malays could be weakened. The raja of Siam sent one of his ministers named "Phraya Aphaisongkhram" to Singgora to confer with the raja of Singgora in order to divide the country of Patani into seven small provinces, Patani, Jering, Nongchik, Yala, Sia, Rahman, and Ligeh.

     Thus the country of Patani which before was ruled by just one raja and never divided, now had been split up into several provinces. It was split up by the raja of Siam with the intention of weakening the strength of the Malays in order to make it easy for him to rule and enslave the Malays according to the principles of colonization (imperialism), that is, "divide and rule." When the task of dividing Patani was complete, Nai Phai was elevated to become raja of Jering and to him was surrendered the authority to supervise all the other provinces. All matters of internal government were placed beneath the care and control of the raja of Singgora. For each of those provinces Nai Phai was allowed to choose men who he trusted and he sent them to rule in each of those provinces and gave them the rank of raja.

The men chosen by Nai Phai and sent to govern in the provinces are as follows:

1.      Tuan Sulong was elevated to be the raja of Patani and resided in Kota Kerisik;

2.      Tuan Nik was elevated to be the raja of Nongchik and resided in Kota Nongchik;69

3.      Tuan Mansor was elevated to become the raja of Rahman and resided in Kota Baharu;

4.      Tuan Jalur was elevated to be the raja of Yala and resided in Yala;

5.      Nik Dah was elevated to be the raja of Ligeh and resided in Kota Ligeh;

6.      Nik Dih was elevated to be the raja of Sia and resided in Jeringu.

         Tuan Sulong, who became the raja of Patani, was a grandchild of Datuk Pangkalan and resided with his family in Kampung Kerisik. Nai Phai trusted all the men completely except for him. While Tuan Sulong was raja of Patani, his majesty strongly stressed Islamic religious affairs and it was his majesty who constructed the mosque in Pintu Gerbang, and remains of which still can be found in Kampung Kerisik today.

         In A.D. 1817 Tuan Jalur who ruled the province of Yala died and was succeeded by his son Tuan Bangkok. Then Tuan Nik, raja of Nongchik, also died and Tuan Kechil, younger brother of Tuan Sulong, the raja of Patani, was elevated to succeed him and rule in Nongchik. A few years later Tuan Mansur, raja of Rahman, also died and was succeeded by his son named Tuan Kundur. Thus was the government in Patani while it was dominated by the authority of the Siamese. The system of government was under the yoke of their colonization.

      Beginning at this point the country of Patani was involved with the country of Kedah. Therefore it is best if we introduce some of Kedah's history while it was connected with the history of the kingdom of Patani and the Thai so that we may easily understand it. At that time the country of Kedah was ruled by a Malay raja known as Sultan Ahmad Tajud'din Abdulhalim Shah or Tungku Pengeran. His majesty was defeated by the Siam-Thai raja and fled to save himself in Melaka. The country of Kedah came to be ruled by a son of the raja of Siam-Ligor.

        In A.D. 1831 a son from the royal family of Kedah together with Tungku Rudin assembled all the people of Kedah who were still loyal to their raja and launched an attack on the Siamese in Kedah. Finally they regained the royal palace occupied by the Siamese raja and the Siamese raja with his chiefs fled back to Singgora. There he conferred with the raja of Singgora and his father the raja of Ligor in order to form a large force to reconquer the people of Kedah. Each agreed to this plan and they gathered an armed force of the combined men of Singgora and Siam-Ligor.

     This Siamese force launched a heavy counterattack on Kedah. Tungku Din himself went out to lead the people of Kedah in fighting the Siam-Thai attack. This battle continued, but the Siamese attack did not succeed in conquering the people of Kedah, and the Siamese Raja was forced to retreat with his army to Singgora. Throughout his retreat he was pursued and attacked by Tungku Din and his people as far as Singgora.

      Seeing that the attack of the Kedah people had reached his country, the raja of Singgora informed the raja of Siam in Bangkok and asked him for help quickly. A letter was also sent to Raja Nai Phai in Patani asking that help be sent to him to fight the Kedah people.

      When the letter arrived in Patani, Raja Nai Phai directed all the rajas of the six provinces in Patani to bring their people and assemble in the district of Jering (Jambu) because they were to be sent to the raja of Singgora. The raja of Patani, the raja of Nongchik, the raja of Ligeh, and the raja of Yala each brought their people to assemble in Jering. Only the raja of Sia and the raja of Rahman did not come. Nai Phai asked those rajas to take their men and go to Singgora, but the rajas were reluctant to follow his order because they knew their men would be taken to fight their brothers, the people of Kedah, who were the same type of people [that is, Malays] as they. Nai Phai was forced to carry out harsh measures and threats until the four rajas were willing to take their men to Singgora. Only then did his harsh measures cease.

        With matters thus, the four rajas secretly met to discuss their problem. Each was firmly opposed to taking their men to Singgora to fight their brothers the people of Kedah and each agreed to rebel against the Raja Nai Phai and the Siamese who were in Patani.

The four rajas ordered their men to take up their weapons and unite in attacking the Siamese in Patani. Because the Siamese were very few in number they were incapable of fighting the Malay revolt. Many Siamese were killed and many were able to flee to Singgora. But they were pursued by the Malays as far as Tiba and Chenak. When they crossed the border of Singgora, the Malays met their brothers, the people of Kedah, who were then fighting the Siamese of Singgora.

        The Malays of Patani united with their Kedah brothers and together fought the Siam-Thai. In this battle the Malays of Patani fortified themselves at Bukit Anak Gajah and Katnpung Bangkadan. While the battle was fiercely raging, a force of Siam-Thai from Bangkok arrived led by Phraya Phraklang who had been sent by their raja to help the raja of Singgora.70 This was a large military force, well-equipped with many weapons. After he had united with the Singgora Siamese, their strength to fight the Malays increased. But the Malays continued to fight without considering the greater power of their enemies. With matters thus, Tungku Kudin, commander of the Kedah men, died in the fighting and the people of Kedah scattered and fled. The Malays of Patani saw their brothers were scattered, and realizing they did not have the means to fight the more powerful Thai, they were forced to retreat to Patani, where they determined to make their final stand.

       The Siam-Thai commander Phraya Phraklang assembled all the Siamese forces and divided them into two troops. The first was sent to attack the Kedah people and the second force was sent to attack the people of Patani. The first troop launched their attack on Kedah, concentrating all their strength. After Kedah was again subjugated, the Siamese raja who had ruled previously was again elevated to be the Siamese ruler. After the conclusion of their battle with the people of Kedah, the second force went forth, led by Phraya Phraklang himself, toward Patani with several of his warships. When they arrived in Patani he landed his men on the beach at Kuala Patani and invaded the country. The Malays tinder the leadership of their four rajas put up a stout defense.

Tuan Sulong, who was ruler of Patani at that time, was a nephew of Long Ahmad, the sultan of Kelantan. When he learned that Patani was attacked by the Siamese, His Majesty Long Ahmad sent a troop of Kelantan people to help the people of Patani, who were at war with the Siam-Thai. This troop was led by the raja muda of Kampung Laut, his son Tungku Besar (Tungku Ahmad), and the raja of Banggul. Furthermore, the sultan of Trengganu sent a force to aid Patani led by Panglima Tungku Indris, Panglima Incik Kilan, Panglima Wan Kamal, and Panglima Incik Ismail." After these reinforcements arrived in Patani, they joined the people of Patani to battle the Siamese.

         This battle proceeded with the greatest ferocity in the history of Patani. Phraya Phraklang ordered the Siamese to fight to the finish and he did not care that the losses and destruction he sustained were greater than that of the Malays. Finally the Malay defenses collapsed and the gate of victory was opened to the Siamese. The Malays, who were not powerful enough to resist their attack, were forced to scatter. The people of Kelantan and Trengganu with their chiefs retreated to their countries.

        Tuan Sulong, raja of Patani, and Tuan Kundur, raja of Yala, fled with their wives and children to sanctuary in Kelantan. At the same time Tuan Kechil, raja of Nongchik, and Nik Dah, raja of Ligeh, fled to the interior of Patani, but they were pursued by the Siamese as far as the district of Jarum on the Perak border and there occurred a battle between the two Rajas and the Siamese. Tuan Kechil died in the battle and Nik Dah escaped to Perak. After the Rajas of Patani had all fled, the people of Patani suffered sorrowfully from oppression, murder, and rape by the Siam-Thai who prided themselves on their victories. All the property and foodstuffs of the Malays, such as rice, fowl, and others, were completely loaded aboard the ships as booty.

         When they were sated with sacking Patani, Phraya Phraklang, the Siamese commander, began to equip his army to invade Kelantan and Trengganu, wishing to gain revenge for the actions of their rajas, who had aided the Malays of Patani in battling the Siamese.

When this became known to Long Mahmud, sultan of Kelantan, his majesty worried lest Kelantan be attacked and subjugated by the Siam-Thai. In order to ensure that Kelantan not suffer the same fate as Patani, the sultan of Kelantan sent a peace mission to Phraya Phraklang seeking to submit to the raja of Siam and to pay for his mistake with a sum of $50,000. Tuan Sulong, raja of Patani, and Tuan Kundur, raja of Yala, and their wives and children who were in Kelantan, were sent back to the Siamese commander. With this, the plan to attack Kelantan was set aside.

         Then the Siam-Thai commander sent a mission to the sultan of Trengganu, reminding him of his mistake in aiding the people of Patani, and forcing him to send back all the people of Patani who had come for sanctuary in Trengganu, especially the Patani commanders Panglima Damit, Panglima Mahmud, Panglima Pia, and Panglima Ahmad. All the people of Patani and their commanders were surrendered by the sultan of Trengganu to the Siamese commander, who was waiting in Patani.

        After the government in Patani was re-established by the Siamese commander, in the month of September 1832 the Siam­Thai army returned to Bangkok, carrying with them prisoners of war and possessions seized in Patani. The Patani Malay captives taken by Siam this time were no less than 4,000 people, men, women, and children. The suffering borne by the Malays who were confined in the Siam-Thai warships during the journey to Bangkok cannot be written and some of them died in the ships before arriving in Bangkok .12

       Before the Siamese returned, their commander chose successors to those rajas of the small provinces of Patani who had been caught or who had died:

In Patani, Nik Yusuf of Gerisik was chosen;

In Nongchik, Nai Min, a Siamese of Chenak, was chosen;

In Yala, Nai Yim Sai (Luang Sawatphakdi), aide of Raja Nai Phai, was chosen;

In Ligeh, Nik Bungsu of Bapu, who was faithful to Nai Phai, was chosen.

       Nai Yim Sai, raja of Yala, resided in Kubang Teras. Nik Bongsu, raja of Ligeh, resided in Tanjong Emas. Nik Yusuf, raja of Patani, resided in Kuala Bekah, downriver from present-day Gedung China.

After that time the countries of Patani and Kedah were under the authority of the raja of Siam. Kedah was ruled by a son of the Siamese raja of Ligor and Patani was ruled by rajas appointed by the Siam-Thai. Their rule continued until the year A.D. 1838. There were two princes in the family of the raja of Kedah named Tungku Mahmud Sa'ad and Tungku Abdullah. These two princes devised a secret plan of action to overturn the power of the Siamese raja and retake control of the Malay kingdom of Kedah. When the appointed day and hour arrived, the people of Kedah under the leadership of the two princes attacked the Siamese, and immediately retook the palace and killed the Siamese in Kedah, but their raja was able to flee to Singgora with his people.

         The fleeing Siamese were immediately followed the pursued by the people of Kedah as far as Chenak, and here the Singgora Siamese came to aid their comrades in resisting the attack of the Kedah people. Because the Kedah people's attack became fiercer and fiercer, the raja of Singgora sent a messenger to Bangkok to ask for immediate aid. A similar message was sent to Raja Nai Phai in Jering.

         Raja Nai Phai called all the rajas of these provinces to bring their people to Singgora. Because these rajas were loyal to Raja Nai Phai and had for long been tools of his rule, they did not pose any obstacle to Raja Nai Phai and brought their people to Singgora. But when they arrived in Chenak, many of the people of Patani ran from their rajas because they did not want to help the Siamese. They were to be taken to fight their brothers, the people of Kedah. The people of Patani went to join their brothers the people of Kedah and turned to fight the Siamese.

             This battle continued for some time until the Malays were weak. Tungku Mahmud Sa'ad, leader of the people of Kedah, died in the fight and Tungku Abdullah retreated with his people to Kedah. His retreat was followed by Siamese attacks on his rear as far as Kedah. Because the Kedah peoples' strength had been exhausted in the battle, Kedah easily fell again into the hands of the Siamese, and the Patani Malays who had joined the Kedah people were forced to flee.

After the end of the battle, the raja of Singgora asked the rajas of Patani from the six provinces to return with their subjects because he worried that a revolt of the Patani Malays might arise. Not many years later Raja Nai Phai, who ruled in the province of Jering, died. The center of government in Singgora was informed of his death. By order of the raja of Singgora, Nai Yim Sai, raja at Yala, was appointed to be the raja ruling in Jering. Then he appointed a Singgora Siamese named Nai Muang to be raja ruling in Yala, and Nai Muang moved from Kota Kubang and established a new town of Kampung Seting, across the Sungai Besar.

       In A.D. 1842 Kelantan was ruled by Sultan Tuan Senik the Red Mouth." In this year an atmosphere of conflict clouded the family of the raja of Kelantan. This conflict occurred between the sultan and several members of his family, including Sultan Dewa (Raja Penembang), the raja muda, Tungku Sri Indra, and Tungku Mahmud (Tungku Besar), son of the raja muda of Kampung Laut. This dispute caused enmity and civil war between the sultan and the rajas mentioned.

        After the civil war had continued for some time and there was no hope of obtaining peace, the two sides submitted the matter to the raja of Siam in Bangkok. This submission was well received by the raja of Siam. He sent one of his chiefs named Phraya Chaiya Thainam with the raja of Ligor and the raja of Singgora to Kelantan as intermediaries to stop the fighting.

        At the same time that the Thai rajas were working to end the civil war in Kelantan, Nai Yi Sai (Luang Sawatphakdi), raja of Jering, died. Nik Yusuf, raja of Patani, was elevated to succeed him, and because Patani had no raja, Tungku Mahmud (Tungku Besar) son of the raja muda of Kampung Laut was invited to move to Patani and he was officially installed as raja to rule Patani. All internal administration was put under the control and care of the Siamese raja of Singgora. Sultan Dewa went to Ligor and remained there permanently.

       In this transfer to Patani, Tungku Mahmud was accompanied by his relatives, including Tungku Tuan Menanjiwa and Tungku Banggul, together with their families, and also by Tungku Long Ahmad, raja of Bukit. All these rajas stayed together with Tungku Mahmud in Patani. At first Tungku Mahmud established his palace compound across from the end of the Peninsula, now called Kampung Tungku Besar Semarak, but not long afterward he decided that the area of that compound was not suitable. He and his relatives then moved and established a new palace in Kampung "Chabang Tiga" and to this day this is the site of the palace of the rajas of Patani.

          After Tungku Mahmud was chosen to become the raja of Patani, he was given the title Sultan Mahmud, but by the raja of Siam in Bangkok he was titled Phraya Tani. At the wish and order of the raja of Siam, all the royal family who accompanied Tungku Mahmud to Patani were given their own positions. The raja of Banggul was chosen to become Phraya Phitak, which means the office of adviser to the sultan of Patani, and all the other rajas also were chosen to become high officers of the kingdom. After two years the raja of Banggul and Tungku Long Ahmad, the raja of Bukit, both died in Patani. Then Tungku Tengah, son of the raja of Banggul, who chosen to become Phraya Phitak to replace his father.

       Since that time, the country of Patani began to be ruled by rajas from Kelantan who were appointed by the raja of Siam. Internal government was carried out under the supervision and control of the raja of Siam, through the administrative center at Singgora. Thus the sovereignty of Sultan Mahmud and his chiefs went no further than the end of the index finger of the raja of Siam. In other words, the government operated according to the beckoning of the finger of the raja of Siam, whose wishes were based on principles of their subjugation. Only in the era of the rule of Sultan Mahmud did the atmosphere in Patani graduallyy become increasingly calm and peaceful.

       Not long afterward, Nai Min, raja of the province of Nongchik was removed from office by the raja of Siam because he governed ineffectively. Nai Kliang, son to Nai Yi Sai, formerly the raja of Jering, was appointed raja of Nongchik. Nai Kliang moved his center of government from Nongchik to Kampung Tok Jong. Afterward, Nai Muang, raja of Yala, also was dismissed from his office by the raja of Siam because he was unqualified to rule. Tungku Mahmud Salih (Tuan Batu Putih) was appointed to become raja of Yala and Tungku Mahmud Salih moved the center of his government to Kampung Yala, where it had been in earlier times.

       Then Nik Dah, raja of the province of Sia and who lived in Jering, died; Tungku Halal Aladin (Nik Lebai), his son, was appointed to become the raja there.'° In the year A.D. 1853 Nik Yusuf, raja of the province of Jering, also died. This raja was called Raja Tok Ki by the people of Patani.75 The raja of Siam at Singgora chose Sultan Dewa who lived in Ligor to become raja in the province of Jering to replace him. After that Sultan Dewa moved with his children to rule in Jering and his son Tungku Sulong was elevated to become his aide with the title Luang Sunthonraya.

       After Sultan Dewa had been raja ruling in Jering for approximately one year he too died and his son Tungku Sulong requested permission from the raja of Siam to move back to Kelantan because he did not want to stay in Jering any more. Nik Timung, son of raja Nik Yusuf, former raja of Jering, was then appointed to become raja ruling in Jering.

      In the year A.D. 1856 Sultan Mahmud, raja of Patani, also died. His majesty was buried in the cemetery of Tanjung Datuk, therefore he is referred to as Almarhum Tanjung to this day. At his death, his majesty left four sons and two daughters, namely:

1.      Tungku Putih, who later became the second Raja of Patani;

2.      Tungku Bulat (Tungku Haji Tua);

3.      Tungku Hassan (Tungku Nik Mandarahan);

4.      Tungku Bongsu (Tungku Sulaiman Sharit Aladin, fourth

5.      Raja of Patani);76

6.    Tungku Temenal, married to Raja Rahman;

7.      Tungku Laboh, married to Tungku Chik, son of Tungku Banggul.

With the agreement of the raja at Siam, Tungku Putih was appointed to become raja of Patani in place of his father and given the title "Phraya Wichitphakdi (. In the reign of Tungku Putih the titles in the Siamese language for the raja of Patani and his chief men were officially fixed, as follows: the title for the raja of Patani was Phraya Wichitphakdi; the title for the adviser of the raja was Phraya Phithakthammasunthon; the title of the heir apparent was Phraya Si Burirattaphanit; the title of his assistant was Phraya Phiphitphakdi. From then on these titles were given by the raja of Siam to anyone who occupied these offices).            

In the reign of Tungku Putih the country of Patani became increasingly populous and many foreign businessmen came to do business in Patani. Among them the most numerous were the Chinese. Because of the large number of these people the village in which they lived became known as Kampung China, as it is today.                                                                          

Not many years later Tuan Kundur, raja at Rahman, and Tungku Mahmud Salih (Tuan Batu Putin), raja of Yala, both died. Tuan Timung, son of Tuan Kundur, was appointed to become the raja in Rahman, with the title Phraya Rattanaphakdi. It was this raja who moved and made his village at present-day Kota Baharu Rahman. In Yala, Tungku Sulaiman (Tuan Kechik), son of Tungku Mahmud Salih, was appointed to become raja replacing his father and bearing the title Phraya Narongritphakdi. Thus too in the province at Nongchik, after the death of its raja named Nia Keliam, a Siamese chief named Nia Wing became Raja there with the title Phraya Pichera Pibul Narubit.   

After this, Tungku Jeladaladin (Nik Lebai), raja of Sia, and 'I'uan Timung, raja of Rahman, also died. Tungku Abdul Kadir (Nik Kelapik), son of Tungku Jelaludin, became raja of the province of Sia, and was given the title Phraya Suriyasunthon Bowonphakdi, and Tungku Abdul Muta'ib (Nik Pik) was appointed to become his aide and given the title Phraya Rattanamontri. It was this Tungku Abdul Kadir who established the royal palace in Selindong Bayu or Teluban which still exists today.                                                                   

In the province of Rahman, Tungku Abdul Kendis (Tuan Jangong), younger brother of Tuan Timong, was appointed to become raja, with the title Phraya Rattanaphakdi. Tuan Bali Jawa, son of Tuan Timong, and Tuan Lebih, son of Tungku Abdul Kendis, were both appointed to become his aides (. Previous to this, the rajas of the seven provinces of Patani were only given the title of Phraya. For example, the raja of Patani was titled Phraya Tani, the raja of Yala was titled Phraya Yala, and so forth. From this time the rajas were distinguished with individual titles: the raja of Patani was titled Phraya Wichitphakdi; the raja of Nongchik was titled Phraya Phetcharaphiban; the raja of Yala was titled Phraya Narongrit Si Prathet Winetwangsa; the raja of Sia was titled Phraya Suriayasonthan Bowonphakdi; the raja of Rahman was titled Phraya Phuphaphakdi; the raja of Ligeh was titled Phraya Phuphaphakdi; and the raja of Jering was titled Phraya Phiphitphakdi. These titles were used officially until, in the year A.D. 1902, the sovereignty and authority of the Malay rajas were abolished by the Siamese kingdom.)

Tungku Putih continued to rule Patani securely and peace­fully. At the beginning of A.D. 1881, his majesty died after occupying the throne of the kingdom of Patani for twenty-six years. During his lifetime, his majesty had had two wives, namely: in Kelantan he had married Tungku Raja Puteri, the daughter of the sultan of Kelantan; in Patani he had married Tungku Wawah Puteri, daughter of Tungku Tengah who became advisor to the raja (Phraya Pitek). His majesty died of an illness while in Kelantan, and is remembered as Almarhum Mangkat di Kelantan.'8                                   

At his death his majesty left one son and six daughters,79 namely:                      From his Kelantan wife                                                                            

1.      Tungku Besar (Tungku Timung), the third raja of Patani;        

2.      Tungku Ambung, wife of the Raja Bendahara of Kelantan;                

From his Patani wife,

3.      Tungku Ambik, wife of Tungku Mahmud of Kelantan; Tungku Tengah, wife of the raja of Yala;

4.      Tungku Pik, wife of Tungku Mahmud, son of the raja of Belat;

5.      Tungku Patani, wife of Tungku Besar Indera, raja of Kelantan;

6.      Tungku Mahmud, who became raja muda in the government of Tungku Sulaiman Sharif Aladin.

         When Tungku Putih died his son Tungku Besar (Tungku Timung) was appointed to occupy the throne of the kingdom of Patani and became the third raja. Also at that time no one had yet been appointed to fill the office of advisor to the raja. After the death of the raja of Banggul, Tungku Tengah, son of the raja of Banggul was appointed to become advisor to the raja, and Tungku Sulaiman became raja muda. Tungku Abdul Kadir, son of Tungku Tengah, was appointed as an assistant to the raja.                                                                                                                                           Meanwhile Nai Wiang, raja of Nongchik, died and was replaced by a Siamese named Nia Ming who was given the title Phraya Phetcharaphiban. Not long afterward Nik Timun, raja of Jering, also died. His younger brother Nik Mah was appointed to become the raja ruling there and was given the title Phraya Phiphitsenamattayathibodi. Afterward, Nai Ming, raja of Nongchik, and Nik Bongsu, raja of Ligeh, also died. Nai Tud was appointed to become raja in Nongchik. Tuan Indu, son of Nik Bongsu, was appointed to become raja of Ligeh with the title Phraya Phuphaphakdi.

        Tungku Besar (Tuan Timung) had occupied the throne of the kingdom of Patani for nine years and was the third raja of Patani to rule under the control of the raja of Siam-Thai. Because Patani at that time had fallen under the subjugation of the Siam­Thai raja, the question of the safety of the country from attacks by its enemies was no longer an issue. Thus, during the period of Tungku Besar's reign, in Patani there occurred no conflict either with enemies outside the country of with its enemies within the country itself, that is with the Siam-Thai.

     In A.D. 1890 Tungku Besar died and was buried in a cemetery (Tok Ayah) which still exists today. At this death, his majesty left two sons and three daughters together with his three wives, Che Wah, Mek Putih, and Che Mek Inche Tih. Children by his wife Che Wah were (1) Tungku Besar, wife of the raja muda of Kelantan; (2) Tungku Wawah, wife of Tungku Hussein (Tungku Besar Nayara). His child by Mek Putih was (3) Tungku Mek Haji (Tungku Ismail).80 Children by his wife Che Mek Inche Tih were (4) Tungku Tengah, wife of Tungku Nga, son of the raja of Sia; (5) Tungku Mahmud (Tungku Che Kumat).

       After Tungku Besar died, Tungku Sulaiman Syarifalludin, the raja muda, was appointed to ascend the throne of the kingdom of Patani with the title Sultan Sulaiman Syarifalludin. He became the fourth raja during the period of Siam-Thai subjugation, and was titled by the Siam-Thai as Phraya Wichitphakdi.

       Then Tungku Mahmud, son of Tungku Besar, was appointed to become raja muda. At that time Tungku Tengah, who held the position of advisor to the raja (Phraya Phakdi), also died and was replaced by his son, Tungku Abdul Kadir. Tungku Abdul Kadir, son of Sulaiman, was appointed to become assistant to the raja (Phraya Phiphitphakdi).

During his reign Sultan Sulaiman Syarifalludin was very concerned about the safety of the lives of the Patani people. Among his acts was the straightening of the Sungai Patani, which required excavation from Kampung Perigi as far as Kampung Anak Buloh. It length was approximately seven kilometers, and is known now by the name of Sungai Baru.

Besides this, his majesty took very seriously Islamic religious affairs. At his wish a large mosque was built of stone which is known by the name "Great Mosque of Chabang Tiga," and exists to this day. His Majesty Sultan Sulaiman Syarifalludin did not pray in the palace which was built previously by Almarhurn Raja of Kelantan. Instead, his majesty built a new palace on the side of the city where the sun rose. In it his majesty prayed until [the day] he died, and this new palace became the place of prayer of Tungku Mahmud, the raja muda.

       Not many years later Wan Induk, the raja of Ligeh, died and Tuan Tengah, his relative, that is the son of Tuan Sulong, was appointed to become raja of Ligeh in his place. Thus also when Nik Mah, raja of Jering, died, his son Nik Wawa was appointed to become raja to rule there.

        Sultan Sulaiman Syarifalludin ruled with impartial justice and his majesty was very devoted to the people and the kingdom of Patani. Although his majesty's rule was carried out under the control and supervision of the Siam-Thai raja, nevertheless he upheld the position of his people, country, and kingdom.

       After Sultan Sulaiman Syarifalludin had occupied the throne of the kingdom of Patani for ten years, to the beginning of A.D. 1899, on the fourth of the month of Rabi'ul-awwal 1316, his majesty also died and was buried in the cemetery of Tok Ayah.

On his death his majesty left two sons and two daughters which were borne by two wives, namely:

His child by his Kelantan wife,

(1) Tungku Sulung, wife of Tungku Betara.

His children by Tungku Nik Putih, daughter of the Raja of Sia,

(2) Tungku Besar Tuan Kambing, wife of Tungku Mahmud,

the raja muda;

(3) Tungku Abdulkadir Kamaralladin, who later became the fifth raja of Patani,
(4) Tungku Mahmud Saleh.

      After the death of his majesty, his son Tungku Abdulkadir Kamaralladin was chosen to ascend the throne of the kingdom of Patani in place of his father, and became the fifth raja of Patani descended from the rajas of Kelantan. He was also the last Malay raja to rule the country of Patani.

       In the year A.D. 1902, the Siam-Thai raja in Bangkok decided to change the system of government in his subject territory of Patani. IIe wanted the seven provinces in Patani to be combined into a single province, called a region [boriwen]. He abolished the sovereignty and authority of the seven Malay rajas and placed the government of the country of Patani under the supervision and control of the raja of Singgora.

       The Siam-Thai raja well knew that this wish would certainly be resisted strongly by the Malay rajas because this meant withdrawing their sovereignty and their right of overlordship in the country of Patani. Therefore he sent a minister as envoy to Patani in order to discuss this matter with the Malay rajas. In this meeting he requested the signatures of the Malay rajas as a token of permission and agreement with the wish of the raja of Siam. At the same time he promised to give pensions to the rajas and their households until their deaths. However, the rights and revenues in the country of Patani all had to be surrendered to the raja of Siam in Bangkok. The Malay rajas would no longer be forced to send tribute of the bunga mas to Bangkok.

         By using all sorts of trickery and deceit many of the Malay rajas were deceived so that they were willing to give their signatures admitting agreement with the wishes of the raja of Siam-Thai. Only Tungku Abdulkadir Kamaralludin, raja of Patani, staunchly resisted the wishes of the raja of Siam and did not want to give his signature to the envoy from Siam who came to Patani. This was because his majesty knew that the desire of the raja of Siam meant the seizing of all rights of the Malay people, including the right of suzerainty over the country of Patani, and that the fate of the Malays would be to fall under the yoke of subjugation to the Siam-Thai, having lost their rights to freedom and independence.

         With this realization, Tungku Abdulkadir was fully determined not to agree to the wish of the raja of Siam-Thai. At this the ministerial envoy tried forcibly to arrest his majesty. One day he pretended to invite his majesty to the house where he was staying. He said he wanted to discuss many things. As soon as his majesty came to his house he was quickly confined by the Siam-Thai men in a room and not permitted to leave. This affair was so quickly carried out that his majesty himself did not realize what was happening.

      When the fact of his capture was known to the Malay chiefs they came in a crowd intending to free their raja from the captivity of the Siamese. But his majesty thought it useless to allow his people to spill their blood because he knew the strength of the people of Patani at that time was too small. So they left his majesty in captivity. The other Malay rajas agreed with the Siam­Thai raja by giving their signatures, except for the raja of Ligeh and the raja of Rahrnan, who were of the same opinion as his majesty. However, because they were threatened by the Siam­Thai, these rajas too later were forced to accede to the wishes of the raja of Siam.

       Afterward the ministerial envoy of Siam returned to Bangkok, taking with him Tungku Abdulkadir Kamaralludin with the hope of urging or threatening his majesty to give his signature and agree with the wishes of the raja of Siam. But his majesty was a Malay raja of stout heart and greatly valued the sovereignty of the kingdom of Patani. He steadfastly resisted the wish of the raja of Siam-Thai. Then his majesty was sent to a place of confinement in the country of Phitsanulok, north of the city of Bangkok. Then many among the Malays of Patani who were loyal to his majesty resolved to go together to Phitsanulok. Some of them died on the way and some of them died there.

       After two years and nine months during which his majesty was confined there, in A.D. 1905, his majesty received permission from the raja of Siam to return to Patani. At that time the system of government in the country of Patani had changed and altered according to the wishes of the Siam-Thai raja. The country of Patani had been combined into one province and was placed under the control and command of the raja of Singgora, and was ruled by a Siamese commissioner named Phraya Mahibanborirak, who lived in the country of Patani. All six rajas had lost their sovereignty and authority. Each lived only on his pension until the end of their lives.

      After the return of Tungku Abdulkadir Kamaralludin to Patani, his majesty no longer wanted to stay in Patani and immediately set off to live in Kelantan for a few years, until in A.D. 1933 his majesty died of bronchitis in Kelantan.

At his death his majesty left three sons and three daughters:81

(1) Tungku Ahmad Nuraladdin (Tungku Sri Akar Raja

Kelantan);

By Tuan Namsa,

(2) Tungku Zubaidah (Tungku Besar);

(3) Tungku Yusuf Shamsaladdin;

(4) Tungku Todzah, married to Raja Haji Ahmad of Perak,

(5) Tungku Kamarih:

By Che Manuk Patani,

(6) Tungku Yah, married to Tungku Abdulkadir (Tungku Putera), child of the Raja of Sia;

  (7) Tungku Mahmud Mahialaddin.

Thus, A.D. 1902 was the year of the ultimate fall of the country of Patani, the loss of the sovereignty of its rajas, the destruction of the right of suzerainty of the Malays in the country of Patani, and the pawning of all rights to liberty and independ­ence to the raja of Siam-Thai. This was the last and most unfortunate year in the history of the fall of the Malay kingdom of Patani.

          With the death of Tungku Abdulkadir Kamaralludin, the Malay rajas from the line of Kelantan rajas who occupied the throne of the kingdom of Patani were no more. From that time no one was elevated to become raja of Patani. The country of Patani had begun to be just one of the provinces subject to the Siam-Thai kingdom.  In A.D. 1906, also upon the wish of the raja of Siam, the government was dissolved and replaced by a newer method of government. All seven provinces in Patani were reunited in one provincial territory of Patani, in the Siamese language termed "monton Patani." Then the province of Patani was again divided into four territories which were called changwut, that is the changwat of Patani, Yala, Saiburi, and Narathiwat (Banganara). Then a Siam-Thai commissioner was appointed to rule in each changwat.

        A high commissioner (governor-general) was appointed and stationed in Patani, to govern the four provinces, and all the commissioners in each province governed under his supervision. The high commissioner was called, in the Siamese language, Samuha Thetsaphiban. The Siamese who first held this post of high commissioner in the province of Patani was named Phraya Sakseninarong, and his new titled was Phraya Dechanuchi. 



Patani Yg Diabai
ปัตตานีที่ถูกลืม


Patani Basin
 


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