In truth the fate of Patani Malay people should not be placed in the hands of the Siam-Thai government. Rather, measures to improve their fate and condition should be placed in their own hands

History Of Patani
Chapter One
Chapter Two
Chapter Three
Chapter Four

Sejarah Kerjaan Patani
Pesanan Ibrahim Syukri
Bab Satu
Bab Dua
Bab Tiga
Bab Empat


The Queens Of Patani



     In time Kedah was developed and became a prosperous country and Singapura and Melaka were developed by Malays who came from the island of Sumatera. In this period the name Patani was not yet known. It is believed that in the area which came to be known as Patani there lived Siam-Asli as it is definitely known that long ago all of Malaya was settled by these peoples. Even so, at that time there were Malays who came from the island of Sumatera and settled on the coasts of Malaya, and some of them gained power and established countries in the south such as Singapura and Melaka. Nevertheless, the influence of the Malays did not yet extend to the north. The Siam-Asli continued to control the north of Malaya, in Pahang, Kedah, Kelantan, and thus also in Patani. All of the governments of the Siam-Asli were under the protection of the center of their government which was established at Ligor or Nakhon Sri Thammarat.

At this time in Patani there was established a kingdom of Siam-Asli the center of whose rule was located in the district of Perawan, although the actual name of the country is not known ('Now called Kampung Perawan situated in the district of Jering. Its official name is "Krung" which in the Siamese language mans city or citadel of the raja [Kota Raja]. In this village there still exists the ruins of the Kota Raja and traces of antiquity which were erected by the Siam­Asli. There also is a large Buddhist idol in a cave on top of a hill which is revered by Buddhists in the District of Yala yet today. This idol was made by the Siam-Ash and there is evidence which indicates that this figure was made during the same period that Maharaja Srivijaya Palembang erected the pillars of the sanctuary at Ligor. In view of the traces still present it is believed that the kingdom of the Siam-Asli in Patani was long established and was not insignificant.). The stories concerning Patani say only that it was called "Kota Mahligai." (The name is still a matter of confusion because the word Mahligai is from the Persian language, not from the Siamese or Hindu languages. It is possible also that writers of books concerning Patani have been mistaken in taking this word from "maha nikaya" which means country of followers of the Mahayana sect of Buddhism. It also can be under­stood from the translation of the Pra Wang to mean Kota Raja which then was called Kota Mahligai. In this matter it is not yet certain which [interpretation] is correct). From its traces, still clearly visible, this country was large and was ruled by a number of rajas and eventually was ruled by a raja known in the time of his reign as Raja Sri Wangsa (The name of this raja is written in a book of stories on Patani as "Paya korp Mahyana," meaning raja who worships the Mahayana religion. This was not his official name. In the words of the Malay Annals it is stated that the name of the raja who first opened up the country of Patani was Raja Sri Bangsa or Sri Wangsa. This writer is of the opinion that the name Sri Wangsa is more accurate). At Kota Mahligai there were Malays who came from countries which were recently established in the south of Malaya and also from the island of Sumatera. They came and resided on the coasts by the sea. The country of Kota Mahligai was situated very far inland, some tens of miles from the sea, because the Siam-Asli did not like living near the sea. Because of this, Kota Mahligai only with difficulty was reached by traders and merchants, causing the prosperity and luxury of Kota Mahligai to decrease with each day. Finally the inhabitants of the country gradually were forced to leave and make a living outside of the country's capital. As Kota Mahligai began to lose its inhabitants, the villages newly founded by Malays near the sea became more developed and populated because merchant boats began to stop and sell their goods there. Among the merchants were some who chose to stay, working and trading in that place so that it became prosperous and densely populated.

At that time oil the coast of the country of Patani a village was established and first settled by an old Malay fisherman named "Tani." This old man was very well-mannered and refined and lie became the head of the group of fishermen there. The inhabitants of that village honored and praised him, and he was given the title of Bapak, and called "Pak Tani.i32 That village increased in population day by day until finally it was called Kampung Pak Tani [Village of Pak Tanil.

This village was situated in a very beautiful area with level land high above the floods of the rainy season. Its coast formed a wide bay while in front of it extended a long cape, so that within the bay there was a very good harbor for boats and ships, well protected from the danger of waves and heavy winds. The fisher­men in Kampung Pak Tani were able to catch fish and other marine life in the bay without having to go far into the middle of the sea. Within the area of the high and level land, the inhabi­tants of Kampung Pak Tani worked their wet rice fields. Near their village there was a small river by which boats could easily go to and from the sea, known today as the Kerisik River. Because of this it was not long before Kampung Pak Tani became large and its inhabitants numerous. It became a large city while on the coast there was a trading center for merchants who regularly came to the city.

As Katnpung Pak Tani grew increasingly large, Kota Ma}iligai became more and more lonely because many of its inhabitants left. Finally Raja Sri Wangsa decided to move from the capital of the country. He moved with all of the royal family and common people, and erected a large palace near Kampung Pak Tani in the District of Kerisik. This royal citadel [kota istana] was built across

the river facing Kampung Pak Tani. The entrance of the royal citadel faced the river to facilitate traffic by boat. This river was named the Papiri River, not Parit River as it is known today. (The Papiri River has since been filled in.)

As soon as the royal citadel was completed, his majesty ordered the excavation of a moat around the citadel as a defense against attacks by enemies, according to the defensive strategies of that era. The moat was dug beginning from the Kerisik River proceeding behind his majesty's citadel until it rejoined with the Papiri River at Kampung Parit. Raja Sri Wangsa together with all his royal family and commoners settled within the royal citadel of Kampung Kerisik, and Kota Mahligai was abandoned.

At that time the place where the royal citadel was built by Raja Sri Wangsa had not yet been named, but because it was situated near Kampung Pak Tani most people simply called it the country of Pak Tani. Then it began to be known by the name of "Pak Tani." Thus the Arabs who came to trade at Patani also called it "Patani" as that was easier for them to pronounce." Then Patani began to be known throughout the world, East and West, and became the subject of several fantastic and remarkable tales from the past until this day.

After Raja Sri Wangsa was established as the ruler of Patani, the country became even more populous and trading progressed due to visits by merchants from other countries. Several years later Raja Sri Wangsa died and he was replaced on the throne of Patani by his son who was named Raja Intera (Indra).34

The raja in power and all of the commoners in Patani continued to follow the religion introduced by the Hindus, the Buddhist religion of the Mahayana sect. At the same time on the island of Sumatera there existed a country named Pasai whose residents had embraced the Islamic religion, but surrounding their country there were still many people of the Hindu religion. Therefore, the country of Pasai was frequently attacked by the Hindus causing the Muslims in the country of Pasai to endure a life of hardship. Some of them left for other countries to save themselves. Among them there were those who fled in the direc­tion of Patani, so that Patani began to receive Muslims arriving from Pasai. They built a village there, all the residents of which were people from Pasai, and the village was named Kampung Pasai, as it is today.

Among the Pasai Muslims there was an old man learned in religious law named Sheik Syafialudin. This old man was also known as a dukun skilled in treating many different illnesses.3s Because of this the residents of Patani honored and were exceedingly respectful toward the Tuan Sheik.'

At one time Raja Intera (Raja Patani) was afflicted by a disease which broke out over his body, leprosy. The longer it

lasted the worse it became. Many dukun and healers of the Siam­Ash were called to treat his majesty but to no avail. Then his majesty ordered his servant to beat a cymbal throughout the country to find someone able to treat his majesty's disease, offering several gifts. The raja's servant traveled while striking the cymbal through every village and field looking for a dukun able to treat his majesty's illness but without success until he entered the village of the people of Pasai. When Sheik Syafialudin heard the striking of the cymbal he went out and asked, "Why do you strike that cymbal?" Replied the raja's servant, "Our raja is afflicted with leprosy, every one of the dukun in the country has tried to treat it without success. Because of this I walk striking the cymbal looking for someone who is able to treat his majesty's illness, and his majesty has promised to give a fine gift to the one able to treat him." Then said Sheik Syafialudin, "Tell your raja I am able to treat his disease."

Several days later Sheik Syafialudin was seen coming to the royal citadel and entered into the presence of His Majesty Raja Intera. When his majesty inquired whether it was true that Tuan Sheik was able to treat his disease, respectfully he replied, "Your will be done, Your Majesty, a thousand pardons, your humble servant is willing to treat it, but with the stipulation that Your Majesty will make a vow to your humble servant first." His majesty said, "What promises do you want?" Answered Sheik Syafialudin, "It is the wish of your humble servant that should your Sovereign Majesty's disease be cured by our humble servant, Your Majesty would be willing to leave behind the Buddhist religion and follow that of your humble servant, the Islamic religion." The wish of Sheik Syafialudin was granted by his majesty. After several days his majesty's disease was cured by the Tuan Sheik. So exceedingly happy was his majesty that he bestowed much property upon Sheik Syafialudin. But his majesty's promise to change his religion was not fulfilled.

It was not long thereafter that his majesty's disease again recurred. His majesty ordered that Sheik Syafialudin be called to treat him once again. Sheik Syafialudin agreed to treat him but with the condition already noted to which the raja must submit. After treating him for several days the disease was cured. Again his majesty disavowed the wishes of the sheik and the disease

returned for a third time. It was again ordered that Sheik Syafialudin treat him. This time Sheik Syafialudin came respect­fully to the raja saying, "As long as Your Majesty does not fulfill Your Majesty's promises to your humble servant, during that time Your Majesty's disease will not be cured." Upon hearing the words of the Sheik, his majesty commanded, "Cure my disease this time and I will be obliged to fulfill my promises." Then Sheik Syafialudin once again treated his majesty's illness until finally it was cured, and after that his majesty's body was restored.

After this his majesty invited Sheik Syafialudin into this palace and ordered him to teach the confession of faith. Sheik Syafialudin was extremely pleased knowing that his desire was achieved, and taught his majesty how to pronounce the confession of faith. Since that time his majesty firmly embraced the Islamic faith and turned away from the Buddhist religion.

At the behest of Raja Intera, Sheik Syafialudin was appointed to teach Islamic law in his palace and he was given the elevated title of "Datuk Sri Raja Patih," Thus Datuk Sri Raja Patih continued teaching Islamic law to his majesty, the royal family, and other important people until they too embraced the Islamic religion. After this the Islamic religion began to spread beyond the royal palace and was accepted by the common people of Patani as well. Finally, all the people of Patani embraced the religion of Islam, and the Hindu religion gradually began to weaken as the people of Patani no longer paid it any attention. Buddhist idols and places of worship were completely collapsed

and destroyed."

Since that time the people of Patani have followed the religion of Islam, which until this day has become their national religion. One day Datuk Sri Raja Patih convened a public gathering to install Raja Intera as sultan according to Islamic customs, giving his majesty the title Sultan Mahmud Shah. Then the titles of all the raja's chief men were arranged according to the style of titles which are used in Malay countries, titles for the rank of their ministers being called datuk and orang kaya, so that those titles were soon restricted [to only those people holding certain offices].

When matters within the country were thus settled, Sultan Mahmud Shah composed a missive to foreign lands to be carried by a party of his ambassadors to the sultan of Melaka to strengthen the bonds of friendship between the two countries, especially as Melaka was known as the oldest Malay country and the first to embrace Islam. At that time the sultan who ruled Melaka was Sultan Mahmud Shah (Ascending to the throne of the kingdom of Melaka in the year A.D. 1478, his majesty was the last sultan to govern the country of Malacca. In the year 1511 Melaka was subjugated by the Portuguese. When the ambassadors from the Malay kingdom of Patani arrived in Melaka they were greeted by the sultan of Melaka with full honors. When the ambassadors returned to Patani many things were sent as gifts to the sultan of Patani.

Not many years thereafter Sultan Mahmud Shah [of Patani] sent a mission to the country of Siam, which was ruled from Ayuthia, in order to form friendly ties between his majesty and the Siam-Thai raja (At that time the country of Siam was under the control of the Siam-Thai. At first their center of administration was in Sukothai; subsequently their center of government was moved to Ayuthia). After that Patani became increasingly known to the outside world so that its name was recognized by all the Eastern and Western peoples. Even more than during the time of his majesty's father, merchants began to gather in Patani, selling and buying their wares. They included Siam-Thai, Chinese, Japanese, Javanese, Indians, and Arabs. Only the Europeans had not yet arrived at Patani.

Each day Patani increased in populousness while the trading between peoples continually progressed. The mouth of the Patani River was constantly frequented by ships which carried trade goods from foreign lands so that the development of Patani at that time was no less than that of Melaka, which was older. Development in Patani continued until the year A.D. 1516, the century of the arrival of the European peoples in East Asia. In that year Patani first received a Portuguese ship arriving from Melaka carrying many different kinds of trade goods with the intention of trading in the country of Patani. By that time Melaka had been subju­gated by the Portuguese. When the Portuguese ship arrived at Kuala Patani, its captain landed on the beach and came before his majesty asking permission to trade within Patani. This request was for a factory for their trade in the city of Patani. This was the first visit of the European peoples to Patani, and the Portuguese were the first who came to trade in Patani.                                                                                                               The arrival of the Portuguese in East Asia was solely for the purpose of trade.' On the continent of Europe they had estab­lished a trading company whose purpose was to expand their trade in the eastern region. Early in the fifteenth century A.D. Portuguese trading ships began to sail for India. From there they first heard of the fame of Melaka's commerce. When they saw that Melaka's location was very favorable from a commercial standpoint, even better than they had dreamed, and that internal commerce was well developed, an imperialistic spirit arose among the Portuguese, who desired to govern Melaka themselves. There­fore in April of A.D. 1511 there arrived a force of Portuguese war ships captained by Alphonso d'Alberquerque, who attacked and landed his troops in the beach of Melaka. A fierce battle with the people of Melaka took place, but the defenses of the city of Melaka, which were regarded as being invincible, were successfully destroyed and the country of Melaka fell into the hands of the Portuguese. Melaka then became a center for Portuguese trade in Southeast Asia. The Portuguese then began to send their trading ships to Patani.

In Patani the trade of the Portuguese steadily increased because at that time there were no other European peoples conducting trade there and they were able to do so freely. One trade item that the Portuguese brought, which was exceedingly remarkable in the eyes of the Patani Malays, was firearms, that is, guns and their bullets. The Patani Malays were not yet acquainted with these weapons. Only when they were brought by the Portuguese did they learn and master their use. After that time trading ships and Portuguese flocked to trade in Patani.

A Portuguese merchant named Pinto who came to trade in Patani in the year A.D. 1538 wrote in his diary as follows: "At the time I arrived in Patani in that year, I met nearly 300 Portuguese who lived within the city of Patani. Besides these Portuguese there were also Eastern peoples such as Siam-Thai, Chinese, and Japanese. The Japanese commerce is very extensive in this city.""

Information found in books on Patani's history indicates that His Majesty Sultan Mahmud Shah, who then occupied the throne of the Malay kingdom of Patani, always governed justly, causing the country of Patani gradually to increase the level of its development. Several years thereafter his majesty died leaving two sons, that is Raja Muzafar and Raja Mansur, together with one daughter named Raja Aisyah. Raja Aisyah married Raja Jalalludin who governed the country of Sai.

With the agreement of the royal family and the chiefs, Raja Muzafar was proclaimed sultan to replace his father the late Sultan Mahmud Shah, and he was given the title Sultan Muzafar Shah. His younger brother, Raja Mansur was appointed Raja Muda while his majesty appointed the grandchild of Datuk Sri Raja Patih to become one of his chiefs, as was to be the case from generation to generation."

After Sultan Muzafar Shah had occupied the throne of the kingdom of Patani for some time, his majesty considered visiting the country of Siam-Thai in order to make acquaintances and to create a closer friendship with that country's raja. As soon as preparations had been completed his majesty temporarily turned over the government of the country to his younger brother, Raja Mansur. Then his majesty set sail with several ships escorted by his chiefs and their soldiers in the direction of the country of Siam-Thai. After several days' sail his majesty arrived at the mouth of the Chao Phrya River, that is the estuary of the country of Siam. By following this river his majesty's expedition proceeded upstream straight to the city of Ayuthia (This was the center of the Thai government once they gained control of the country of Siam. Its raja was named Phra Maha Cakkraphat. [He reigned between 1548 and 1568/69.]). His majesty was not well received by the raja of Siam-Thai because the raja of Siam-Thai considered the rank of his majesty very much lower than his own. After his majesty had stayed there but a few days, his majesty returned to Patani with a feeling of grievance and dissatisfaction aroused by the proud nature of the Siam-Thai. When his majesty departed, the raja of Siam-Thai gave him several slaves from his prisoners of war, people of Pegu (Burma) and people of Khmer (Cambodia). All the captive slaves were brought back to Patani and his majesty gave them a village in which to live. To this day their descendants are still to be found in that village. Because those people were still of the Buddhist religion, a monastery was built within their village which was named Kedi, meaning monk's house. Because of this, the Malays of Patani named that village Kampung Kedi, and so it has remained until this day.

In the year A.D. 1563 there came to Sultan Muzafar Shah the news that the country of Siam was under attack by the Burmese. His majesty remembered the proud nature of the Siam­Thai which had been shown during the time of his majesty's visit to the city of Ayuthia. His majesty met in council with his younger brother and his chiefs and a decision was reached to attack Ayuthia as repayment for their shame and to take revenge upon the Siam-Thai. His younger brother, Raja Mansur, together with all ministers and war chiefs agreed to accompany his majesty to war.

Then his majesty commanded the preparation of 200 war­ships, one thousand soldiers, and 100 women as a combined force led by his majesty to attack Siam. Several days later the army departed from Patani and headed for the country of the Siam­Thai, while the government of the country was left to one of his majesty's chiefs. Then his majesty sailed with his army to Siam­Thai.

When Sultan Muzafar Shah arrived with his army at Siam­Thai he discovered that the citadel of Ayuthia was surrounded by Burmese soldiers. Quickly his majesty landed his army and immediately invaded the royal citadel of Siam-Thai, running amuck and killing the Siamese until the Siam-Thai, who were guarding the front of the citadel, were killed by the Patani Malay soldiers." Finally, all the defenses of the Siam-Thai were weakened, and one by one they fled. At that time their raja was within his palace. When he heard the war cries of the Malay soldiers, who had successfully seized the citadel's gate, he fled through a door in the back of the citadel and ran to hide in a place named "Maha Phram Island." There the Siam-Thai regathered their strength to counter-attack the army of Patani Malays.

As soon as they were sated with running amuck and killing the Siam-Thai, the Malay army left the citadel, returned to their

ships, and immediately weighed their anchors to sail back to Patani. But when their army had gone as far as the mouth of the Chao Phrya River, by the will of God who is all powerful, His Majesty Sultan Muzafar Shah suddenly died, and they were forced to bury him at the estuary of the country of Siam. The army returned to Patani with sadness at the loss of their beloved raja.

At the time that Sultan Muzafar Shah set out to attack Siam, his queen was pregnant. After his majesty died and Raja Mansur had returned to Patani the queen had not yet given birth. There arose a question as to who should be elevated to the throne of the late sultan. At that time there was an older son of his majesty named Raja Mambang, a child borne by a concubine. According to royal prescripts, offspring from a concubine may not be elevated to become sultan. Because of this the entire royal family and all of the chiefs decided that Raja Mansur would become sultan and be given the title Sultan Mansur Shah.

As soon as the ceremony inaugurating Raja Mansur was completed, the queen of the late sultan gave birth to a son who was named Raja Patik Siam, to obtain good fortune from the death of his father in Siam." Not long thereafter word came of the death of Raja Jelal, ruler of the country of Sai and husband of Raja Aisyah, and that he had died without leaving a single child. Sultan Mansur Shah elevated one of his chiefs to govern that country and invited Raja Aisyah to return and reside with his majesty in Patani.

For nine years Sultan Mansur Shah occupied the throne of the Malay kingdom of Patani. When he died he left two sons, Raja Bahadur and Raja Bima, a child borne by a concubine. Before he died, his majesty made a will to the effect that should his majesty die it was his wish that Raja Patik Siam, the son of his brother, be inaugurated sultan. This was carried out by Raja Aisyah, his aunt, who became regent.

There was also Raja Mambang, elder brother of the sultan. When he saw that his younger brother had become sultan he felt envy, hate and dissatisfaction towards his younger brother. He was constantly incited by his comrades until his hatred could not longer be contained. Thus one day while it was still morning, just at the break of dawn, while Sultan Patik Siam was praying alone within

the palace, Raja Mambang entered that room with a drawn dagger [keris] intending to murder the sultan from behind.

Seeing this, Raja Aisyah realized Raja Mambang's intent and ran to embrace the sultan to protect him so that he would not be stabbed by Raja Mambang. But at that moment Raja Mambang lost his senses and, following the impulse of a passionate heart, immediately stabbed both intertwined bodies without pity. Sultan Patik Siam, together with his aunt Raja Aisyah, fell in the middle of the palace chamber completely smeared with blood and in but a moment both were dead.

The palace was shaken by word that the sultan and Raja Aisyah had been murdered by Raja Mambang. All of the raja's people gathered to look for Raja Mambang within the palace, surrounded Raja Mambang in a chamber, and stabbed him with a lance. Raja Mambang died before he was able to flee the palace.

After Sultan Patik Siam died, the royal family and chiefs agreed to elevate Raja Bahadur, son of the late Sultan Mansur Shah, to become sultan, and he was given the name Sultan Bahadur Shah. For many years his majesty sat upon the throne of the kingdom until one day there occurred a dispute between his majesty and his elder brother, Raja Bima. This dispute became increasingly heated until it caused Raja Bima to become unfaithful to his majesty.

The contentious atmosphere became grimmer with the pass­ing of each day and finally resulted in a saddening incident. One day, as his majesty was praying within his palace, Raja Bima entered quietly and stealthily, then quickly stabbed his majesty from behind so that his dagger disappeared in his majesty's stomach. His majesty fell forward without a chance to fight. In a moment his majesty was died. Similarly Raja Bima, before he could run away, was surrounded by his majesty's people and he too in turn was stabbed until he died. At his death Sultan Bahadur Shah left behind three daughters, but no sons. The daughters were named Raja Hijau, Raja Biru, and Raja Ungu [Green Princess, Blue Princess, and Purple Princess].

In a council meeting among the royal family and the chiefs, a decision was made to elevate Raja Hijau to ascend the throne of the kingdom of Patani, the very first female Raja to rule the country of Patani.

For many years Raja Hijau governed with feminine justice and skill. Her name became famous in all countries including the continent of Europe, so that rajas of those countries sent missions to Patani in order to strengthen bonds of friendship. Raja Hijau also sent missions to the rajas of those countries to return their expressions of friendship. Among them were the rajas of Siam and Japan. This is known from the information provided by Pinto, the Portuguese merchant, who stated that earlier there were Japanese who came to trade in Patani but that their raja had not yet established official ties of friendship with the kingdom of Patani. Only during the reign of the female Raja did the raja of Japan begin to take notice and send his envoys to Patani request­ing official permissions to trade in Patani.

In the history of the Japanese people it is said that in the year A.D. 1592 there set sail a ship from Japan carrying a letter from their raja together with many kinds of gifts to the raja of Patani and requesting official permission for Japanese to conduct trade in Patani. The raja of Japan's mission was well received by the raja of Patani and all of its requests were granted.

Seven years later, that is in the year A.D. 1599, the raja of Patani sent a mission to Japan to appear before their raja to secure ties of friendship, and a second mission was sent in the year A.D. 1606. Each time the missions of the raja of Patani arrived they were well received by the raja of Japan. Afterwards commer­cial relations between Patani and Japan steadily increased.

At that time the largest center of commerce in Japan was the country of "Birado" which was situated near the territory of present-day Nagasaki. From that country Japanese trading ships carried their trade goods to Patani. These ships sailed back and forth without interruption.

Thus also relations with Siam became increasingly close because Siam was very close to the country of Patani. Trading ships continually came and went and crowds of Siam-Thai came to trade in Patani. Thus also the people of Patani frequently traded in Siam. The Raja of Patani and the Raja of Siam-Thai regularly sent missions in order to enhance friendly relationships.

In all communications the raja of Siam-Thai always referred to the raja of Patani by the title of Pra Nang Chau Ying, meaning her majesty the female Raja. This title over time became permanent so that the female rajas who occupied the throne of the kingdom of Patani after Raja Hijau were always referred to by this title by the raja of Siam. This title became increasingly well known so that the Malays of Patani themselves called their raja in accordance with what she was called by the Raja of Siam. But because of the accent of the Malays, this title Pra Nang Chau Ying was pronounced Raja Nang Chayang. This title continued to be used by all of the female rajas who governed the country of Patani.

During the time that Raja Hijau occupied the throne of the kingdom of Patani the country became increasingly developed and populous. Her majesty was exceedingly conscientious concerning the problems of her populace. One of the works that her majesty performed was the digging of a river. At that time the Kerisik River which flowed in the midst of the common people was almost useless because the water was brackish and it did not go far inland. All the wet rice fields there could not produce a good crop because of the brackish water. Thus one day her majesty called upon the corvee laborers and gathered all of her people to extend the river beginning from the Kerisik River proceeding inland until it joined the Sungai Besar [Big River] at Kuala Temangan (at the present-day fort of Kampung Perigi). As soon as it joined the Sungai Besar, the water came down following the river that was excavated and swiftly poured into the Kerisik River and then into the sea at Kuala Ru. With the arrival of the water from upstream, the water in the Kerisik River became fresh and all of the wet rice fields were able to produce satisfactorily (Later the excavated river was filled in again by Raja Biru and the brackish water returned once again.)

While Patani was governed by Raja Hijau its name became well-known and famous throughout the world, East and West. Its harbor was always full of the trading ships of several peoples. The Dutch also came to conduct their commerce in Patani and became the second European people after the Portuguese.                                                                            The Dutch arrived in East Asia after they learned of the success of Portuguese commerce in Asia, which produced exceed­ingly good profits. Wishing to share in the profits of the Portuguese, the Dutch were inspired to form a trading company to carry out trade in Asia. The Dutch began to send trading ships to Asia, and the country of India became their first goal. From India the Dutch first came to Malaya. The arrival of the Dutch caused a feeling of dissatisfaction among the Portuguese, who felt that it would disturb the basis of their trade with the Asian peoples. With time, this feeling became increasingly strong, finally resulting in a dispute between the two peoples, each of whom endeavored to gain power in every aspect of trade. The Portuguese began to take steps to block all progress in trade by the Dutch.

The Dutch conducted their trade without heeding the actions of the Portuguese until in the year A.D. 1641, Melaka, which had been ruled by tile Portuguese and had become the center for their trade, was attacked by the Dutch. The battle between the two European peoples over Melaka was violent, and in that year Melaka fell into the hands of the Dutch, causing the commercial power of the Portuguese to decline and their influence in Malaya to erode. Finally all of their relationships with Malaya were eliminated by the Dutch. After that the Dutch began to establish a relationship with the Kingdom of Patani.

One day, in the year A.D. 1602, a Dutch trading ship suddenly entered the harbor of Patani, captained by Daniel van de Leck. As soon as the ship dropped anchor, the captain landed and entered the palace of the raja, coming before the raja of Patani with gifts and requesting permission that the Dutch might conduct their trade in Patani. Her majesty granted this request.

At this all of the Dutch landed and built a factory for their trade. The entry of the Dutch to Patani was very alarming to the Japanese and Portuguese. A feeling of hate towards the Dutch was implanted in the hearts of the Japanese and Portuguese, but because they did not have the chance to oppose the Dutch they were forced to remain silent for several years.

At that time Patani had reached such a high level of progress and prosperity that it would be difficult to find Malay countries comparable to Patani. A German traveler named Mandelslohe had the opportunity to visit Patani during that period. In his diary he wrote:

Patani is a very prosperous country. The people of Patani are able to eat fruits of scores of different kinds each month. Chickens here lay eggs twice each day. The paddy is exceedingly plentiful, there are many kinds of meat such as beef, mutton, goose, duck, chicken, capon, peacock, deer jerky, mouse-deer, and birds, together with hundreds of kinds of fruits.

Thus the words written by a German traveler demonstrate how prosperous was Patani during that period. In matters of commerce it is also believed that at that time Patani had become an important center of trade within Southeast Asia so that Ayuthia, the center of government of Siam during that period, could not equal the commercial progress of Patani. Seeing the progress of Patani, the raja of Siam was inspired with intense desire to subjugate Patani.

The intensity of the desire of the raja of Siam-Thai to subjugate Patani grew hotter and hotter until in the year A.D. 1603 a Siam-Thai navy from Ayuthia set off toward Patani with thousands of soldiers led by a commander named Okya Decho, who intended to rob the Malays of Patani of their independence and subjugate them.43 At this time the kingdom of Siam-Thai was governed by a raja who was named "Phraya Naresuan."`i4 This raja is very famous in the history of the Siam-Thai people and sought to expand the subjugated territories and to destroy the independence of other peoples.

When the Siam-Thai navy reached Patani, the Siamese commander began to land his troops at Kuala Patani and launched an invasion. The people of Patani under the leadership of their Raja came out to fight off the attack of the Siam-Thai. With full assistance from the merchants within Patani, including the Europeans, who gave assistance with firearms, cannon, and materials, they fought the aggression of the Siam-Thai. The people of Patani used cannon to bombard the Siam-Thai until they were weakened, landing further away because many of their soldiers were killed and wounded. Finally the Siam-Thai retreated to their ships and set sail for home, having suffered a terrible defeat.

When they arrived at Ayuthia the raja of Siam began to realize the importance of cannon in war. Several years later he sent a mission to Patani to buy cannon, because at that time these weapons were very plentiful in Patani and their sale became an important business. The raja of Japan also desired these cannon which were purchased from Patani.

In the national history of Japan it is written that in the year A.D. 1606 the raja of Japan sent a mission to the raja of Siam at Ayuthia asking the help of this raja to purchase cannon and send them to his country. Another mission was sent in the direction of India. There the English began to learn of the fame and progress of the commerce within Patani.

On the fifth of January A.D. 1611 a trading ship named The Globe left from London, captained by Anthony Heath, and carry­ing numerous trade goods together with gifts from his raja, in addition to a letter which was to be delivered to the female raja of Patani. This ship sailed for months in the direction of the continent of Asia, making short stops until on the 23rd of June A.D. 1611 this ship arrived at Patani. Her captain landed and came before the female raja of Patani carrying gifts and the letter from his raja, together with a request for permission from her majesty to allow the English to trade in Patani. Permission was granted by her majesty just as she had favored each of the other European peoples.

The people of Patani greeted the arrival of the English with gladness, but as for the Dutch, Portuguese, and others, the feeling of dissatisfaction was very strong and increasingly they hated the English. After the ship The Globe had been anchored at Patani a month the English built a trading factory to store their trade goods. After that the English began to trade in Patani.

Among the Englishmen who came with the ship The Globe was an English merchant named Peter Will Peloris. He wrote concerning his travels to Patani:

On the first of June in the year A.D. 1611 we departed from Bintam (on the island of Java) and sailed to Patani. We arrived at Patani on the 22nd of that June." We asked for news from people who were in a ship in the harbor concerning the customs and traditions of the inhabitants. On the 26th of June we landed, carrying a letter and gifts to the female raja of Patani. There we were greeted by an honor guard. Then we were brought into the city. The letter from our raja was received and placed on top of a small golden piece of gauze and then carried by an elephant into the city.

The palace of the female raja was beautifully constructed. We received permission from her majesty to trade within Patani, just as do the Dutch. We returned from the palace of the raja without being able to come before her majesty herself, but her people brought us to the house of one of her chiefs who is named "Orang Kaya Sri Nuna” (I It is believed that his name was Orang Kayo Inche Yunus, so it is said in the history of Patani). The next day we were favored by her majesty with many kinds of fruits ordered to be sent to our ship by her people.

On the third of July of that year a Dutch ship named Lipri Thim left Patani for Japan. We sent a letter with that ship to Mister Adams who traded in Japan. We planned to request permission from the raja of Patani to build a trading factory within Patani but we had to expend not a little expense for this matter.

In the time we stayed at Patani many people on our ship were afflicted by a disease. Mister Heath, captain of our ship, also was afflicted by this disease, and on the ninth of July he died. We selected Mister Brown to become captain, but Mister Brown also died of his disease, and we had to select Mister Thomas Eppington to replace him as well. Since then we have had increasingly ill luck. Many of our trade goods have been stolen. Nearly 280 bolts of cloth have been stolen from my box.

There are fifteen people within our house and at night a light is always lit until dawn. I suspect that the thief is none other than one of us because a large dog which we have had here all the time has never sounded a bark. I together with six friends was ordered to remain with the trade goods at Patani until the first of August and the ship The Globe set sail for Siam.

Our commerce in Patani was not very successful and I wished to open a factory for textile trade in the country of Makassar on the island of Celebes. Because of this, on the eighth of October I sent Mister John France to take goods there with a ship. On the next day, 9 October, we received word from Mister Eppington and his followers who went to the country of Siam saying [here what is written concerns only the country of Siam]."

We stayed in Patani until the end of the cold season and on 31 December the female raja of Patani departed to play at sea accompanied by 600 boats." On the 25th of January in the year 1612 we received word from Siam saying that our trade goods there had more than half been sold, the largest part being bought by the raja of Siam-Thai himself. Because of this, in the month of March we sent a ship to the country of Ayuthia to take additional goods there.

On 31 July 1612 the sultan of Pahang arrived at Patani. We were invited by the female raja of Patani on the first of August to witness the wedding ceremony of this sultan with the youngest sister of her majesty. We were informed of the reasons for which this marriage was to take place. Her majesty wished to marry her younger sister to the sultan of Pahang, so her majesty sent a mission to the sultan of Pahang to discuss this matter and to invite the sultan of Pahang to visit Patani in order to observe the countenance of her younger sister. But the sultan of Pahang refused to accept her majesty's invitation. Because of this her majesty was extremely angry with the sultan of Pahang as her wish was not granted. Then it was ordered to prepare an army totalling four thousand men and eighty boats to go to Pahang in order to threaten the sultan so that he would agree to marry her younger sister. Truly at that time the country of Pahang was in difficulties. Seeing the army from Patani, the sultan of Pahang was frightened that his country would be laid to waste. So the sultan of Pahang agreed to the wishes of the female raja of Patani and he departed for Patani and the marriage was carried out.

On 21 October in the year 1613 we all decided to return to England and we went before the female raja to inform her of our wish. After we made our request to her majesty, the female raja bestowed upon Captain Eppington a dagger [keris]. Then we returned to the ship The Globe and sailed to Masulipatum in India.

This is all that is written in the traveler's tale of an English merchant who came to Patani during the reign of Her Majesty Raja Hijau. His writings serve as an important memoir, portraying the progress and power of the Malay kingdom of Patani at the end of the sixteenth century which is properly commemorated by the Malays of Patani to this day.

The younger sister of Raja Hijau who married the sultan of Pahang was Raja Ungu. After the marriage the sultan returned to Pahang, taking Raja Ungu with him. After that the kingdom of Patani was secure in progress and fame. All of the people lived peacefully and securely, undisturbed by their enemies. After the return of the ship The Globe to England, Patani became increas­

ingly well known among English merchants. Other English ships and merchants regularly came to trade at Patani.

The clearest evidence of this is stated in a history book on Patani which says that early in the seventeenth century Patani's harbor was visited by trading ships from several peoples and became a port of call for ships which came from the country of Surati (in India), Goa, and from the Coromandel coast, and became known as an excellent harbor by the sailing ships that came from the countries of China and Japan.

Meanwhile the feeling of envy and hate among the European merchants who traded in Patani became increasingly intense, especially the feeling of the Dutch against the English. At that time the Dutch had succeeded in taking control of the majority of trade centers in the island of Java. Because of this, the Dutch developed a strong desire to control all of the commercial affairs throughout East Asia for the benefit of their people alone. They began to implement a restrictive policy to reduce and exterminate the trading endeavors of other peoples, especially the English. Because of this, disputes frequently occurred between these people and there arose enmity on both land and sea. Dutch ships, when­ever they met with ships owned by the English, always attacked and fired upon them so that in all the eastern seas battles often occurred between Dutch and English ships. Each time these battles occurred the English ships usually were the ones which suffered losses.

With matters in this state, it was difficult for the English to conduct their trade in the East. The officials of the English Company met in council to find ways to protect their trading endeavors and prevent interference by the Dutch. The decision of this meeting was that merchant ships owned by the English Company were to be equipped with weapons in order to fight off enemy attacks. After that time all English merchant ships were changed to resemble the warships of the government.

In the year A.D. 1618, battles due to trade competition frequently occurred between the ships of the Dutch and the English. At Patani, two English merchant ships of the English Company named Simpson and Hound, full of trade goods bound for the country of Champa in Indochina, arrived at Patani on 17 July A.D. 1619, and dropped anchor. At that time Dutch ships were on guard there. When the English ships were seen coming to anchor the Dutch ships quickly attacked and loosed a terrific barrage on the two English ships. The firing startled all of the inhabitants of the city of Patani. The battle lasted five hours before it ended. The ships of the English Company sustained heavy damage and finally raised a flag of surrender and all of the property and trade goods within those ships was seized by the Dutch. The English were captured and the two ships burned.

With this naval victory the Dutch became increasingly bold and their hatred for the English burned hotter. Crowds of Dutchmen landed and began to mistreat the Englishmen in the city of Patani. But Her Majesty Raja Hijau did not permit them to do this; on the contrary she ordered her majesty's people to guard strongly the security of the English. The Dutch were afraid to violate the sovereignty of her majesty. When they met with Englishmen they could only threaten them with swords.

Because the ships of the English Company repeatedly suffered losses due to the actions of the Dutch, the officers of the Company decided to stop their trade within the countries of Patani, Siam, and Japan for the time begin. Beginning in the year A.D. 1623 all Englishmen within the city of Patani left to conduct trade within other countries. From that time relations between the English and Patani ceased, while on the other hand the position of the Dutch within Patani became increasingly strong and they continued their trade freely until their colony on the island of Java was firmly under their control. Only then did the Dutch move their center of trade there [that is to Java]. However, their contacts with Patani continued for some time afterwards.

Time passed, the days rolled by, and several years later Her Majesty Raja Hijau, ruler of the kingdom of Patani, died. Her majesty was given the title Marhum Ketemangan by her people in memory of her majesty's processions to visit her people digging the river at Kampung Temangan.

With the passing of her majesty, the royal household and their chiefs decided to elevate her younger sister Raja Biru to the throne of the kingdom of Patani. Three years later the river that had been dug from Kampung Temangan to Kerisik during the

reign of her elder sister, the late Raja Hijau, had begun to flow too swiftly and constantly caused the bank of the river at the foot of the palace to cave in. Moreover, because the water in the Kerisik River had become fresh, all the salt fields at the beach by the river mouth no longer formed salt. The water was not briny enough. Because of this, Her Majesty Raja Biru ordered the construction of a dam to divert the water from the Kerisik River and close off the mouth of the Papiri River. This dam was built with stone and to this day its site of construction is named Kampung Tahanduk Batu [Stone Dam Village]. Finally the river that had been dug dried up, as did the Papiri River.

Several years later news was received from Pahang that the sultan of Pahang, husband of Raja Ungu, had died. A chief was sent to Pahang to invite Raja Ungu to return to Patani. Raja Ungu returned to Patani bringing with her a daughter she had had with the sultan of Pahang. This daughter was given the name Raja Kuning [Yellow Raja] because her skin was whitish-yellow in color.

During the time that Patani was governed by Raja Biru there was constant rumor that the raja of Siam-Thai was preparing a large armed force to attack Patani. Hearing these rumors, her majesty the raja of Patani was continually worried that they might be true. Her majesty knew that the Siam-Thai people at that time were no longer like the Siam-Thai at the time of the attack on Patani during the reign of her elder sister, Raja Hijau. The power of the Siam-Thai had increased through the purchase of firearms and cannon. On the other hand, within the army of the kingdom of Patani, firearms were not fully utilized. All that was available were those weapons which had been used during the reign of her elder sister, Raja Hijau. In addition, the hope of receiving assistance from foreigners had lessened because most of them had moved away and firearms and cannon were no longer sold in Patani.

In view of these dangers, Her Majesty Raja Biru began to meet with her ministers and chiefs to decide how to obtain firearms in order to protect the independence of Patani and to guard against attack by her enemies. Her majesty proposed the construction of large cannon, as many as possible, as it was understood that the cannon sold by the Europeans were not sufficient to safeguard the independence of Patani and the sovereignty of her rajas.

All of the ministers and chiefs agreed to her majesty's proposal and the manufacture of large cannon began. But because there was not yet a steel foundry in Patani at that time, it was necessary to manufacture the large cannon from brass. In addition, the cannon that were brought by the Europeans to Patani at that time were mainly made from brass. Brass was a type of alloy easily obtainable in Patani at that time.

The manufacture of large cannon proceeded. The craftsman who agreed to make them was a person of Chinese descent who had accepted the Islamic faith, named Tok Kayan. Before embracing Islam he was named Lim Tho Khiam and came from China hoping to make a living in Patani 48 At that time he was living in the house of a chief of the raja and voluntarily embraced the Islamic faith. Because of his good character he was elevated to become the supervisor of import-export duties at the harbor.49

At that time his younger sister also arrived in Patani. Her name was Lim Kun Yew and she came to persuade her elder brother to return. When she learned that her elder brother had adopted Islam and did not want to return, and that he had turned from the religion of his forefathers, with a broken heart she killed herself by hanging from a janggus (ketirih) tree." The Chinese of Patani took her corpse and buried it according to the customs of their religion."

This Lim Kun Yew was known as a woman of firm resolve who did not wish to turn her back on the religion of her ancestors and she killed herself because her elder brother had dishonored this religion. All of the Chinese strongly agreed with her, and her death is eternally remembered as a holy sacrifice. They took the

janggus tree and made an image of Lim Kun Yew which was then prayed to as a respected holy idol. The Malays of Patani called the statue of Lim Kun Yew Toh Pe Kong Mek and the image has been kept in the Toh Pe Kong in Patani until this very day.52

Since there was a craftsman who agreed to cast the large cannon which the female raja of Patani desired, her majesty commanded her chiefs to order anyone in Patani who possessed old brass to present it to her majesty's country to make cannon. It was forbidden to all of the people to send or sell brass outside of the country. For a period of three years anyone who broke this law would suffer the death penalty.

There was a Minangkabau merchant named Saudagar Gembak who came to trade in Patani with a servant named Abdul Mukmin.53 This merchant had stored large quantities of brass which he wished to sell. In that very year there came a ship from Melaka hoping to purchase brass in Patani. The master of the ship negotiated with Saudagar Gembak hoping to purchase all of his brass. He knew of the prohibition of the raja of Patani, but because the merchant was greedy he agreed to sell the brass and conspired to smuggle the brass at night. When night came, Saudagar Gembak with his servant Abdul Mukmin carried the brass in a sampan to the mouth of the Kuala Ru River towards the Melaka ship which was anchored there.

Unexpectedly the two of them were met by a watchman who arrested them and took them to the harbormaster [shahbandur]. When this matter was brought before the raja, her majesty was furious with Saudagar Gembak and his servant. It was ordered that they be killed and their corpses be thrown into the sea at Kuala Ru because of their sin of treachery against the orders of her majesty. The next day the corpses were washed ashore at high tide and they remained there for several days until they became worrisome to the people who came and went there because their odor was so foul. Finally it was necessary to request permission from the raja to bury the corpses. After her majesty assented, the corpses of Saudagar Gembak and his servant were taken to be buried at a place separate from the public cemetery. Their burial place was called "Kubur Tok Panjang," located in present-day Kampung Datu.s'

After some time much brass was collected by the populace and given to her majesty. The cannon were cast at a place inland from her majesty's citadel and the place where the forge once stood still can be seen to this day near Kampung Kerisik. The soil at that place has become black and not a plant can grow there. The casting of the cannon was an important event in the history of the Malay kingdom of Patani.

After several months the work was completed and three large cannon were made, two of which were very large. Their length was three depa, one hasta, one jengkal, and two and one half fingers, and their projectile was eleven fingers around." The small cannon's length was five hasta and one jengkal, and the span of nine fingers, and its projectile was three fingers in diameter. Her majesty named the two large pieces Sri Negara and Sri Patani, while the small one was named Mahalela. These three cannon were placed on wheeled carts and became the main weapons of war and defense at that time.

Several years thereafter Her Majesty Raja Biru died and her younger sister Raja Ungu, who was the wife of the sultan of Pahang, was elevated to the throne of the kingdom of Patani, replacing her elder sister. Not many years thereafter there came a mission from one of the raja of Johor's sons, who governed the country of Trengganu and who was titled the Yang di Pertuan Muda Johor. His purpose was to propose marriage to the daughter of the raja of Patani. The raja of Patani accepted the engagement [of her daughter] to the Johor raja's son with great gladness. After this the Yang di Pertuan Muda Johor came to Patani with one of his ministers named Incik Idris, together with three thousand of his people and tens of sailing ships, for the wedding. The raja of Patani delayed the marriage for three months in order to complete preparations for the wedding and it became necessary for the Yang di Pertuan Muda Johor to wait in Patani.

While Patani was busy preparing for the royal marriage ceremonies, the raja of Siam-Thai at Ayuthia increased his desire to subjugate Patani as his eternal slave. In the year A.D. 1632 a Siam-Thai naval force led by the commander Okya Decho arrived intending to attack Patani for a second time."

But before the Siam-Thai military force attacked Patani, the Siam-Thai raja established contact with the Dutch Company which was based at Batavia [Jakarta], requesting assistance in his attack. The Dutch Company agreed to send two warships together with weapons to assist the Siam-Thai, but when the Siam-Thai military force arrived at Patani the assistance promised by the Dutch Company had not been sent.

Even so, the Siam-Thai commander was resolved to carry out the attack and proceeded to order his forces to land on Patani's beach. The Patani Malays under the leadership of the raja and her commanders united with all of the people brought by the Yang di Pertuan Muda Johor to resist the attack of the Siam­Thai. The battle was carried out with great ferocity all along the beach. After several days of fighting the Siam-Thai army was still unable to enter the city [bandar] of Patani because of the tremendous resistance of the Patani Malays. In particular, the Patani Malays were well equipped with the weapons of war which

Raja Biru previously had readied. In this battle the three large cannon were used and brought extremely gratifying results because with but a few shots hundreds of Siam-Thai soldiers were killed. The efforts of the Siam-Thai army to enter the city of Patani were completely frustrated.

After several days of fighting, the Siam-Thai commander Okya Decho gave up his hope at defeating the Patani Malays. He saw that the Siam-Thai army was weakened in spirit because of the extremely heavy blows given by the weapons of war of the Patani Malays. He decided to order his forces to return to their ships. As soon as this retreat was completed the Siamese commander ordered his warships to sail back to Siam, humiliat­ingly disappointed because they had not succeeded in defeating the defenses of the Patani Malays.57

When the battle was over, Her Majesty Raja Biru immedi­ately proceeded with the wedding ceremony between her daughter and the Yang di Pertuan Muda Johor. When his marriage was completed the Yang di Pertuan Muda Johor resolved to remain in Patani, not wishing to return to Trengganu.

When the raja of Siam learned that his military commander had not succeeded in subjugating Patani as he had wished, he was extremely angry, which only served to increase his desire to subjugate Patani at all costs. Because of this in the year A.D. 1633 he again sent a mission to Batavia requesting the assistance of the Dutch Company and making known his resolve to attack Patani once again. The Dutch Company agreed to the request of the Siam-Thai raja and undertook to send six warships together with soldiers and their weapons to assist the Siam-Thai. As soon as this agreement was completed the raja of Siam-Thai ordered his military commander Okya Decho to prepare a large military force with the addition of thousands of Siam-Thai soldiers, in full confidence that this time they would be able to breach the defenses of the Patani Malays.

Then the military forces set sail for Patani. When they arrived at Patani the Siamese commander began to land his soldiers on the beach and then assembled to attack the city of Patani. Without hesitation the Patani Malays and the people of the Yang di Pertuan Muda Johor joined together to stop the Siamese attack. All batteries of cannon proceeded to bombard the Siam-Thai and [the Malays] attacked without pause or retreat. The attack of the Siam-Thai became increasingly strong as they tried with all their might to destroy the defenses of the Patani Malays.

As the battle was fought, the Siam-Thai commander was still awaiting arrival of the assistance promised by the Dutch Company at Batavia. But though he waited and waited, the assistance did not arrive. The Siamese commander was not discouraged, on the contrary he continued fighting and concentrated all of his energy and skill on defeating the defenses of the Patani Malays. The warfare continued for several months until the supply of food brought by the Siam-Thai proved inadequate and the Siam-Thai commander had no means to find food for his people who were fighting. With the appearance of various diseases in his warships, his army began to weaken until the Siam-Thai had no more resources to carry on the battle. Finally the Siam-Thai commander was forced to withdraw his army to the ships and set sail for Singgora, and from there to Ayuthia, bringing home another defeat. Only after the Siam-Thai army had sailed for home did the Dutch warships from Batavia arrive, ready to aid them in attacking Patani according to the agreement between the raja of Siam-Thai and the Dutch Company. But since they arrived too late they did not meet the Siamese army. Upon learning that the Siam-Thai warships had returned they set sail for Batavia.

Two years after the end of the war with the Siamese, in the year A.D. 1635, Her Majesty Raja Ungu died. In a conference at the royal pavilion between the royal family and the chiefs it was agreed to elevate Raja Kuning, the daughter of her majesty, to succeed to the throne of the kingdom of Patani, assisted by her

husband the Yang di Pertuan Muda Johor.

In the history of Raja Kuning's life, is it noted that her majesty was a ruler who greatly enjoyed gardening and trading. During the time that her majesty ruled, never did her majesty use the revenue of her kingdom for daily expenditures, although her majesty had the right to that money. Instead, daily expenditures were met by selling of flowers and plants from within her majesty's gardens.

The period of Raja Kuning's reign was the first time that a raja of Patani had directly carried out trade outside of the country. Her majesty had a trading ship and appointed a captain that she trusted to carry all kinds of trade goods from Patani to all countries. This captain was known as the Saudagar Raja [the Raja's Merchant].

Even though the Siamese had attacked Patani three times, and each time their attack had failed with great loss and destruction, nevertheless the intense desire of the raja of Siam to subjugate Patani and the goal of enslaving the Malays never disappeared. With matters thus, he received news of Raja Ungu's death and that the governance of Patani had been entrusted to her daughter, Raja Kuning. Hearing this news, the Siam-Thai Raja sent his commander Okya Decho to Patani with an army. The arrival [of the Siam-Thai army] this time was not aimed at attacking Patani. Rather the visit was a mission from the Siamese raja politely requesting that the raja of Patani submit to placing herself under the suzerainty of the Siam-Thai raja. Raja Kuning did not heed the request of the Siam-Thai raja. On the contrary, it made her heroic blood seethe because such a request showed contempt for her majesty's sovereignty. After the Siamese raja learned that Raja Kuning had not accepted his request, his anger grew and his intense desire to subjugate Patani and enslave the Malays increased in strength. In the year A.D. 1638 the-country of Siam-Thai also changed its raja. With this, however, the desire of the kingdom of Siam to subjugate Patani did not disappear.

After the power of the country of Siam-Thai was given to the new raja, the Siam-Thai viceroy who ruled Ligor was ordered to take his people and attack Patani. This viceroy himself was of Japanese descent and was named Yamada. He had come to Siam as a military officer serving the Siam-Thai raja and led a troop of Japanese in the city of Ayuthia. Because of his qualities and service to the Siam-Thai raja, he was elevated to become the Siamese viceroy of Ligor and was given the title Okya Senaphimuk.

When he received the order from the Siam-Thai raja he came with a troop of Japanese and Siam-Ligor soldiers to attack Patani. But the Malays of Patani at that time were quite accustomed to war, greatly treasured the sovereignty of the raja, and knew the advantage of a life of independence. The attack of the Japanese and Siam-Ligor did not succeed this time either. Finally they were forced to return to Ligor, taking their defeat with them.

After four consecutive defeats, the raja of Siam began to understand his weakness, and all parties knew of his intention to subjugate Patani. Even though Patani was only a very small country to the maharaja [great raja] of Siam-Thai, the losses which succeeded one another made it evident that it was very difficult to subjugate the Malays, especially as the heroic blood of the Patani Malays at that time was still hot and they were exceedingly loyal to their raja. With such loyalty they were willing to die to the last man in order to defend the sovereignty of her majesty, and the independence of their country.

At that time Patani possessed a very extensive territory with many inhabitants. An Englishman named Hamilton was able to visit Patani at this time and wrote:

Patani at this time possessed forty-three territories including Trengganu and Kelantan, but when one of the raja of Johor's children came and married, becoming the husband of the female raja of Patani, Trengganu came to be included within the territories under Johor. The sultan of Johor has sent one of his trusted ministers to govern there, leaving only forty­two territories.

He continued: "Patani possesses two river mouths, that is Kuala Patani (Now called Kuala Ru or Kuala Tok Uguk. The anchorage for all ships and boats which came to trade at Patani was located there) and Kuala Bekah (Now called Kuala Sungai Patani.). The city of Patani is called Kota Kedaya."

Continuing, Hamilton wrote:

The populace of Patani at this time, counting the males (not including females) aged sixteen years to sixty years is 150,000. The inhabitants within the city of Patani are so numerous that this very large city is filled with a jumble of houses. Beginning at the gate of the royal citadel and continuing to the village there is no gap between the houses. If, for example, a cat were to walk on top of the houses' rafters beginning at the lower end going to the other end it would be possible to proceed without needing to descend to the ground.

Not long thereafter the son of the raja of Johor (husband of Raja Kuning) fell in love with a young women of great beauty, that is one of the "retainers" of the raja in Patani  (In the history of Patani it is stated that Raja Kuning kept dancing girls in the palace. One of these was named Dang, who was very clever with love charms. It is said that she kept a talisman [cemara babil.58 Her voice was very gentle and her dancing very good. Because of this, Her Majesty Raja Kuning's husband made her his mistress. This greatly angered Raja Kuning. Her husband took Dang secretly and built a house at a place inland. But finally her majesty's husband came to know of her love charm and stabbed her to death, and her majesty's husband returned to Patani. Because of this behavior there were constant fights between Her Majesty Raja Kuning and her husband.). Raja Kuning was angry and forced her husband to have made a chastity belt of gold the size of one hasta and the weight of five kall.59 The craftsman who made it was most astonished. When her majesty wore the chastity belt she appeared like a person who was pregnant. This was quite amusing to her chiefs who saw her. But there was none who laughed for fear of her majesty's wrath, and that of her husband.

After Her Majesty Raja Kuning had occupied the throne of the kingdom of Patani for some time the matter of the dispute with her husband became worse. Finally he was forced to depart and return to Johor together with his people.' This left Her Majesty Raja Kuning to govern Patani in a condition of peace and security until she passed away.

The date of her majesty's death is not definitely known but it is known that in the year A.D. 1686 a Frenchman visited Patani and noted that at that time Patani still was governed by a female raja. Because of this it is believed that the date of her majesty's death was subsequent to the date of the Frenchman's visit.

Her Majesty Raja Kuning was the very last female raja or Raja Nang Chayang to govern Patani. With her majesty's death there ended the line of succession from Raja Sri Wangsa, the raja who first established the country of Patani. See the genealogy from Raja Sri Wangsa which follow

Patani Yg Diabai

Patani Basin

Masji Kersik

Photo Album
Sejarawan Patani
Sejawaran Siam
Sejarawan Luar
Peristiwa Kersik
Tragedi Takbai
Tempat Bersejarah

Sri Patani

Masjid Teluk Manok


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