Nueva Vizcaya has 15 towns politically divided into two districts, the North district and the South district.

North District:
  1. Bayombong
  2. Solano
  3. Villaverde
  4. Quezon
  5. Bagabag
  6. Diadi

South District:
  1. Bambang
  2. Ambaguio
  3. Kasibu
  4. Kayapa
  5. Dupax del Norte
  6. Dupax del Sur
  7. Aritao
  8. Sta. Fe
  9. Alfonso Castańeda


BAYOMBONG is the capital of the province of Nueva Vizcaya. lt is situated along the banks of the Magat River. lt is bounded on the North by Solano, on the East by the Magat River and PalaIi Mountains, on the South by Bambang and on the West by the Bangte and Liri Mountains.

The first inhabitants of Bayombong were the intrepid Ifugaos from the neighboring mountain provinccs. following by the gaddanes from Daruyat, Angadanan, Isabela and Amanga, Cagayan and the Mallaates also of Isabela.

The Malaates settled at Paitan while the Gaddanes established their communities at the Calepquep Hills ( what is now a part of Vista Alegre Hill). However, the Gaddanes were fierce, more concentrated and frowned on the influx of other ethnic groups. Thus, having been driven away, the lfugao Tribes retreated back to their original abode and arc now settlers of today's lfugao Province.

The town of "Bayumbung" was established at the southeastern part of the present La Tone where the Bayumbung River passed through. The name " Bayombong " came from the Gaddang word " Bayongyong " which means confluence of a mighty river. Legends handed down through the years has another version of the origin of the town's name. The Gaddanes never welcomed the arrival of the Malaates. This resistance triggered the first tribal war resulting from the Malaates retreat to the nearby areas. In their retreat, they left their prized valuable possession. the " Bayongyong ", a bamboo about two (2) meter long used by the Malaates to carry fresh water from wells built along the river banks. The place were literally littered with so many abandoned Bayongyong and since then the place was named " Bayumbung " as fitting reminder tu the Gaddane of their first taste of victory of resisting invasions to their private domains.

lt was a delightful sight for the Spanish missionaries to see the peop1e parading in long queus .with their " Bayongyong " filled with water on their shouldiers. Asked by the Friars about the bamboo water containers, the carriers chorused " Bayongyong " in response. For convenience " BAYOMBONG " was used to mellow the harsh, unpleasant and provincially-hard sound of the word " Bayumbung ".

Bayombong has beauty spots to offer. Among this is the famous Villa Margarita Resort. lt is Iocated five ( 5 ) kilometers away from die heart of Bayombong. lt has an aesthetic value, making the area a potential tourist spot that can equal rival tourist areas in Northem and Southern Provinces of Luzon. Adjacent to this resort is another potential tourist spot, the Banaue Mountain Resort. Another sprawling tourist spot in the Municipality is the Natividad Resort whicb is located in the Western part ofthe Municipality.

The Capitol Park, the Children's Park and the People's Park are some of the pride of the municipality which are located within the-Poblacion. They are the best if not the most beautiful Park in Region 02. They bost of multi-colored fountains, boating lagoon with tropical fishes, swings, slides, etc.... for the children to enjoy, trimmed shrubs and blooming flowers.

Another potential scenic spots is the Bangan Hill which is being considered as a National Park. This is where Father Pedro Freire celebrated the First Mass on April 12, 1739, marking the formal official birth of the town of Bayombong. In addition, during lenten season, this is where the people of Bayombong re-enacts the Crucifixion of Jesus Christ in Mt. Calvary.
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In 1767, a Dominican Friar in the name of Father Alejandro Vidal, a Dominican Priest and the first Spanish Missionary founded the Municipality of Solano which was then called, "Lungabang" which means cave in the Gaddang dialect and was later changed to“Lumabang“ by the Spaniards for convenience.

In 1851, by Executive Order, Govenor General Antonio Urbiztondo declared Lumabang as a barrio of Bayombong for not having sufficient inhabitants and revenue to maintain itself. Governor General Ramon Solano y Landeral authorized the Separation of Lumabang as barrio from Bayombong.

The people‘s lasting remembrance from the unparalleled wisdom of the late Father Juan Villaverde is the almost perfect planning of the town. The poblacion consists of fourteen (14 wide streets, each having a width of twenty ( 20 ) meters, arranged in parallel from North to South and East West, with the total number of 100 square blocks occupying an aggregate area of one (1) hectare more or less per block.

Solano was once the biggest municipality in the province but when its two barangays of Caliat and Bintawan were separated to become the municipalities of Quezon and Villaverde, its land area was correspondingly reduced to 13,980 hectares more or less.

Solano at present has Twenty Two (22) Barangays, and being on the artery of commerce, had made inevitable commercial progress.The municipality of Solano under the leadership of a very able and development-oriented town‘s executive, the Honorable Mayor Heraldo D. Dacayo, will not only seek to remain as the center of trade and commerce in the Province of Nueva Vizcaya but will also aspire, considering its human and natural potentials, to become a metropolitan community by the near future.
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Villaverde was formerly a banjo of Solano, Nueva Vizcaya called IBUNG, founded hy a Dominican Friar named Alejandro Vidal in the year 1767. More than a century later, an order from the Spanish Government was issued to Father Juan Villaverde giving instructions to organize into a town. Thus, on May 28, 1872 Ibung became a town of the Province of Nueva Vizcaya.

When the Americans took over the reign of government in the country, lbung lost us identity as a town because of insufficient funds.• Moreover, most of the people residing in the area transferred to the adjoining towns for fear of their lives from the barbaric non-Christian trihes of the Cordillera Mountains in the Nortwest part of the town. Thus, the population was reduced so lbung became again a mere barangay of the Municipality of Solano.

On June 17, 1957 through the sponsorship of the then Congressman Hon. Leonardo Perez, Republic Act. No. 197 was enacted providing for the creation of the town of lbung On September 01, 1957 Hon. Antonio Aquino was appointed as the first Municipal Major of the town of Ibung.

On June 21, 1959, Republic Act. No. 2515 was enacted amending Republic Act. No. 1972 changing the name of IBUNG to VILLAVERDE in honor of the Spanish Missionary, Father Juan Villaverde who had initiated the first step in the creation of the town. Hon. Romualdo was appointed as the first Municipal Mayor.
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The Municipality of Quezon with an area of 17,620 hectares was created by virtue of Republic Act No. 4327 dated June 18, 1961. Based 011 the order assigned to the Commission 0n Elections referred to as Case No. 405 dated March 7, 1963 the people of Quezon participated in the Nov. 12, 1963 election and elected its Municipal District Mayor and Members of the Municipal District.

Five years later, immediately after the local elections, the Municipal/district of Quezon became a full-pledge Municipality of Nueva Vizcaya.

The original barangays that composed the Municipality at the time of creation were, Baresbes, Caliat, Buliwao, Darubba, Madiangat, and Nalubbunan. Sometime last November 12, 1967, new barangays namely Maasin, Calaocan, Bonifacio, Aurora, Runruno were created and the last barangay created last 1979 was barangay Dagupan, thus a total of twelve (12) barangays in Quezon. Quezon, a fifth dass municipality in an agricultural town. lt is situated at the northwestern part of Nueva Vizcaya and ideally located in the center of seven municipalities, bounded on the west by Solano, North by the municipalities of Bagabag and Diadi; East by the municipality of Diffun, Province of Quirino, southeast by Kasibu and Southwest by Bayombong.
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The town of Bagabag was originally founded during the Spanish Regime by the late Father Emilio de la Quintana, a Spanish Priest at sitio "Nagcumventuan" a place now situated between Pogonsino, Bagabag, Nueva Vizcaya and Bangar, Solano, Nueva Vizcaya. The present name of the sitio bears proof to the fact that the Spanish Priest constructed a church in the original town site. Due to the continous erosion and flood of the Magat River, the town site was later transferred by Friar de la Quintana to "Nassa" a place which is now between Barangay Lantap and Santa Lucia, Bagabag, Nueva Vizcaya. The later place is an open and was muddy throughout the year. Friar de la Quintana for the second time transferred the town site to its present site where numerous palms were then growing. It was from this palm the name of Bagabag originated, the same being called by the natives as "Bagabag". No account could be given on the date of the year, the town of Bagabag was founded as the records were destroyed during the world war.

Bagabag is approximately 20 kilometers away from the Capital town of Bayombong. It is located in the northeastern part of the province with a total land area of 26,000 hectares. Bagabag is like a semi "L" in shape and is bounded as follows: on the west by the Municipality of Villaverde; on the east by the Municipality of Diadi; on the north by the Municipality of Lamut, Ifugao Province and the southwest by the Municipality of Solano and on the south by the Municiaplity of Quezon. One of the outstanding landmark is the Bagabag Airport which is up for improvement purposely to attract more tourists.

Its total population is 28,279 as of September 1, 1995. The natives of Bagabag are the Gaddangs whose ancesstors originally came from the Cagayan and Isabela Provinces. Bagabag has a total of 17 Barangays majority of which are classified as rural.
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Diadi was once a barrio of Bagabag in the province of Nueva Vizcaya. lt was one of the places discovered by the missionaries in 1740. Diadi was first located at the foot of Namamparang Mountain. From here, it was transferred to "Picat" where there was a permanent camarin which was later called Diadi on May 22, 1872 when it was made a town. In the sixth Congress of the Philippines, Congressman Leonardo B. Perez filed on February 28, 1966 in the House of Representatives House Bill No. 182, entitled; An Act Creating the Municipal District of Diadi in the Province of Nueva Vizcaya“, and was passed by that chamber through Committee Report No. 54 of the Committee on Provincial and Municipal Governments.

More than a year later, on May 9,1967 Senator John S. Osmefia, Jr., Chairman of the Committee on Provincial and Municipal Governments and Cities in the upper house recommended for the approval of the bill through Committee Report No. 1053.

Finally on June 17, 1967 Republic Act 4973, otherwise known as, An Act Creating the Municipal District of Diadi in the Province of Nueva Vizcaya, was passed into law by both chambers of that Congress.

Physical Profile
With an area of 18,120 hectares, upon its creation Diadi has an original 10 barangays upon which later, 9 others were created by virtue of the Revised Barangay Charter of Republic Act No. 3950. To date there are 19 barangays that comprise the municipality, namely: Ampakleng, Arwas, Balete, Bugnay, Butao, Decabacan, Escoting, Langka, Lurad, Nagsabaran, Namamparan, Pinya, Poblacion, Rosario, San Luis, San Pablo, Villa Aurora and Villa Florentino. lt is approximately 306 kilometers from Manila. Based on the 1995 NSO Population Census, Diadi has a total population of 12, 433 with an average growth rate of 2.22%

Population density is approximately 68 persons per square kilometers. Total number of household is 2,558 and average family size is 4.86 person per household.
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The history of Bambang, like most of the country, has its beginning in the early period of Spanish colonization. The first mission that dared to penetrate the dangerous wilderness and insectinfested jungles of what is southern Nueva Vizcaya today was by the Dominican Order in 1607. However, it was only two years later (1609) when a dominican missionary coming from Pangasinan. Father Tomas Gutierez arrived to establish the first missionary settlement. This settlement was subsequently called YTUY which today actually comprises the towns of ARITAO, DUPAX, BAMBANG and a part of the Igorot tribal lands to the west (now Kayapa). Originally these places were inhabited by the Aetas and Panuypuyes (Aritao), the Ilongots (Dupax and Bambang) and the Igorots in the area west from the present native population of Dupax, Aritao and Bambang came about by the inter-marriages of the tribes mentioned above.

Although the seat of the vast missionary settlement of YTUY which was Aritao, was established as early as 1609, it was not until 1747 that the first missionaries arrived in Bambang. They were Father Urmaza and Franco. At that time the people had the rudiments of government. The head of their government was a chieftain who was responsible for the welfare of the people. They have also developed a highly articulate language. They composed their own songs and sang them during socio-religious rites occasion.

In 1751 Fr. Urmaza was transferred, leaving Father Franco alone in the gigantic task of attending to the spiritual needs of the 16 converted natives. He therefore, felt a need to converge them in one site. The site selected was located in PUNAWA. There, the people settled once again, built their houses and communal barns, at the Tabangan Hill before World War II. Unfortunately these stone edifices disappeared due to intense agricultural development.

April 13, 1774 was a red-letter day for the settlers of Punawa, for on this day the first Holy Mass was celebrated and the people adopted the name Sta. Maria de Abiang.

In 1777, the village people transferred to a place within the vicinity of a pit (,,bangbang“) where the warring Ilongots and Igorots buried their weapons to symbolize the end of their tribal feuds. lncidentally the name of the town is derived from the term (Bang-bang). The villager chose Sta. Cataliria de Sienna as the town‘s patroness and she remains so to this day.

Miguel Penalosa is said to have been the first elected gobemadorcillO of Bambang. However on September 16, 1782, the title for the town‘s executive was changed to Alkalde de Naturales. The first to be given the title was Nieolas Dalimang Calderon. The period between 1782 and 1789 saw the rise of permanent edifices like the Casa Tribal, the church and separate school building for boys and girls.

With the American colonization of the Philippines in 1902, some monumental changes and educational opportunities were offered to most of the town folk, which greatly influenced the political, social and economic development of the town. The opening of the San. Fe- San Jose road further boosted the economic development of the town. With the influx of immigrants from as far north as Cagayari and South as the Visayas, Bambang became the melting pot of different ethnic groups.

From this time on, development and progress of the municipality of Bambang keep going onwards.
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Before the 1960’s Ambaguio was once a part of the municipality of Bayombong. Hon. Leonardo B. Perez, then Congressman of Nueva Vizcaya, authored a bill seeking for the creation of Ambaguio into an independent Municipality. The bill was approved on June 18, 1966 by Virtue of Republic Act. No. 4735 and the same year, Mr. Mariano L. Agnahe, The Incumbent barrio Lieutenant was appointed as the first mayor of the town.

Ambaguio is a conglomeration of mountains, forest, rivers and lakes with a total land area of 18,560 hectares. The place was once a place of wild animals like deers, pigs, ducks, and chickens.

The original inhabitants of Ambaguio are Kalanguyas, Ifugaos and Ibaloys who prefer to build their housed along the river valleys and plains. The inhabitants source of income are from practical farming, hunting and fishing. The people carry their farm products to market using bamboo basket called “Kayabang” passing through narrow trails.

These tribes are united and organized themselves having a Datu as their leader. As told by Lakay Tagantang, the first datu, Ambaguio got its name from the word “Ambangiw” meaning moss which is prevalently found on barks of trees, stones, rocks, a and top soils. Later, the inhabitants by way of unanimous decision called the place “Ambaguio” which mean the land of the mosses, and the climate similar to that of Ambaguio meaning “Like Baguio.”

By the total land area of 18,560 hectares, the Alienable and Disposable Land is 1,128 hectares while the Forest Land is 17,432 hectares. As per the census, the total population of Ambaguio is 7, 241.
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Long before the opening of municipal district of Kasibu, there was a school and a constabulary detachment for the llongots, which necessitated the establishment of a kind of goverment to administer the place. For this reason, the provincial board during Govemor Castaneda‘s time requested the Govenor -General to authorize the establishment of this place as a provisional municipal district to be supervised and administered by the provincial board through the office of the provincial governor. So, in 1925, the Governor -General issued an Executive Order for the organization of this place to be known as the municipal district of Kasibu.

lt was Governor Leon Cabarruguis who saw the great possibility of these extensive, fertile regions. So under bis initiative, he made the provincial board pass a resolution requesting the Bureau of Lands to make a survey and subdivision of the one hundred hectares of land with each lot containing six hectares. To own a lot in this subdivision, one hand to work on the road from San Fernando, Banibang to Kongkong one hundred twenty days.

To administer the regions, Govenor Cabarroguis had to appoint officials of the place as well as to creat an office in his office, a Deputy Governor. Leando U. Rosano, a former supervising teacher of the place administered the construction of the trail from San Fernando to Kongkong, which was completed by free labor and he also supervised the survey, subdivision and distribution of the lots within Kongkong subdivision. The defeat of Governor Cabarroguis in the general election of 1937, brought great changes in the place.

The first thing that Govemor Tomas Maddela did as soon as he assumed office was to visit and conduct the informal elections in the municipal district.

Govenor Maddela, with the cooperation of the Division Superintendent of Schools, oman L. Santos returned the llongot school which was discontinued by Govenor Cabarruguis, and with the cooperation of the district engineer, the Malasin-Monguia-Kasibu-Kongkong road was constructed and also widening of the trail from San Fernando to Kongkong. At present, Kasibu is a shining municipality, kudos to the pioneers of the land and local leaders who steered the town towards its progress and improvement.

Kasibu is located some 32 kilometers away on the Northeast of the Municipality o Bambang. lt is composed of 30 barangays and has an elevation 2,000 feet above sea level. This Municipality composed the watershed of Magat Dam and the proposed Diduyon Dam.
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More than two centuries ago, this municipality was founded by the Spanish Comandante, Govenor Dovila, who was sent by Governor Don Arandia to establish a civil government and spread the Christian faith among the tribes in the area. At that time, this municipality was inhabited by the Alagots, the second ascendants of Bomangi and Owac and the third descendants of the Kalanguya, llo-lo and Karao tribes who settled in this fertile Valley.

The present municipal name "KAYAPA" was coined by said comandante from two words in our native tongue, "Kalabow" (orange or pomelo) and "Yapa" (Valley).

For almost two centuries, the municipality was under Spanish rule. Kayapa was then a part of the province of Pangasinan. Later in 1881, a Royal Decree was signed by the Governor General whereby all Igorots, became concentrated under one rule, (hat of a friar whose administration was marked by tyranny and cruelty. Most of the Igorot leaders like, Galian Tidand, Beclay, Pantaf and Pacquias, resented this harsh wie and fled to the mountain and joined the revolutionary force organized by General Emilio Aguinaldo that fought the Spaniards and later the Americans.

For some years, Kayapa became a part of Mountain Province but in the year 1901 to 1904 municipality became again a part of Tayug, Pangasinan. A first district president was appoii and the sit of the municipal Government was established at Sitio Bayabas, Aniplotan, Kayapa. And sometime in the year 1907 when the municipal government was transferred to Pampang (Kayapa Central) but it was only in the year 1909 when the muncipal building was constructed.

On January 1, 1913, Newton W. Gilbert issued Executive Order No. 91 making Kayapa a part of Benguet, mountain Province, and later on January 29, 1915, Goveror General Francis Burton Harison signed and issued Executive Order No. 9 whereby all territories of the former Spanish comandancia of Kayapa except the area which lies within the Benguet watershed of (he Agno River, were transferred from the sub-province of Benguet to the province of Nueva Vizcaya. lt was also during this year when the Besong Settlement Farm School was established, wherein ihe education of (he Non-Christian was compulsory and free.

In the year 1942 to 1943 the Japanese occupied Kayapa and appointed a municipal mayor and re-named Kayapa as the Municipality of RICARTE.

After the liberation, this municipality was divided into municipalities, Pingkian and Kayapa. On November 11, 1950, Presidern Elpidio Quirino signed Executive Order No. 368 which proclairned the municipality of Kayapa as a regular town, thus merging Kayapa and Pingkian into one town as it is today. Physical Profile:
Kayapa is situated midway of Benguet province and Nueva Vizcaya. lt is the gateway to Baguio through Nueva Vizcaya - Benguet road. With an approximate area of 102,400 hectares the largest among the province and has a population of 9,347.

Kayapa is inhahited by different ethnic groups that speak several dialects. The largest percentage are Kalanguya followed by Ibaloi and others are either Kankanai, Ilocano and other local dialects.

The major crops of Kayapa are vegetables and root crops which grow abundantly and produced four times a year. These types of crops are mass produced because of the profitable return supplying, adjacent municipalities and the City of Baguio.

Other agricultural activities are rice and flower production, which are gaining an increased with the innovative techniques and irrigation and trough the support of the government.

The municipality is often dubbed as (he summer capital of Nueva Vizcaya due to its Baguio like climate and panoramic view. lt is in this municipality where Benguet pipes around which addveauy to isview. The municipality has a great potential for the tourist industry.
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The name of the municipality of Dupax in Nueva Vizcaya comes from the Isinay word "Dopaj". By "Dopaj the Isinays meant" to lie down in complete relaxation. According to folklores that have survived from generation to generation, even long before the founding fathers founded the municipality, the site of what eventually became the "poblacion" or town center of Dupax used to serve as a roaring camp for primitive hunters from surrounding tribal settlements. After hard days of hunting in the nearby mountains, the hunters would retire to the camp where they would feast on their catch of wild animals. When they were through with their brand of merry making they would lie down and relax completely before getting up again in order to run to their respective homes. Proximately because the camping area, which is a plain or a valley, was near their hunting grounds, they finally decided to settle there permanently, together with their families.

In time, the town‘s name metamorphosed into, and came to be called Dupax upon the coming of the Spaniards who for convenience, substituted, the letter "X" in lieu of letter "J".

And this was how the municipality of Dupax came into being.

Division of Dupax
The original town of Dupax, without doubt, is the largest municipality in the province of Nueva Vizcaya in terms of land area. But in 1971 Congress passed into law RA 6372 known as "An Act Creating die Municipality of Dupax del Norte in the Province of Nueva Vizcaya, sponsored by Congressman Benjamin B. Perez in the House of Representatives, and Senator Leonardo B. Perez in the Senate of the Philippines. To implement its provisions, His Excellency, President Ferdinand E. Marcos promulgated Presidential Decree 586 on November 6, 1974 which virtually paved the way for the division of the town of Dupax into two wit: Dupax del Norte and Dupax del Sur.

lt could be said however, that the division of Dupax has had some historical basis. As early as 1725, the Municipality of Dupax was said to be inhabited by two tribes, the Malaats and the Caraos. The Malaats, led by Chieftain named Dayag, occupied an area which is known as Parai (in Dupax del Norte) and the Caraos, led by chieftain Tiyum Pising lived with the Isinays (in Dupax del Sur). Another factor that also prompted the eventual division of Dupax is the transfer of the seat of the Municipal government from the old poblacion to the barrio of Malasin which is not only strategically Iocated has also beside the commercial center of Dupax ever since.

Dupax del Norte has a total land area of 3 9,600 hectares. Lot has wide tracts of virgin forest, rich and fertile plains and valleys and minerals deposits and is blessed with a climate suitable for agriculture. The Municipality is situated in the southeastern portion of the province; bounded by the Municipality of Kasibu and the Province of Quirino in the Northeast; the Municipality of Alfonso Cateneda in the East; the Municipality of Dupax del Sur in the Southwest and the Municipality of Bambang in rhe Northwest.

lt is located 250 kilomoters from Manila and 27 kilometers from Bayombong.

Dupax del Norte is predominantly peopled by the llocanos. The far-flung villages of the municipahity, however are cultural minorities. Barangays Malasin, Ineangan, Lamo, Bitnong, Parai and Bulala are dominantly people by Ilocanos. Barangay Oyao, Macabenga, and Binnuangan are dickly populated by Igorots. The mountain villages of New Gomiad and Yabbi are inhabited by Bugkalots (Ilongots). The population census of 1990 recorded that Dupax del Norte has 4,160 families and population of 20,800.
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The name of the original town of Dupax in Nueva Vizcaya evolved from the lsinay word "dopaj" which is translated into English as to lie down in complete rest and relaxation. Accordingto folklore that have survived through generations since the founding of the municipality, the site of what eventually became the poblacion of Dupax used to be Camping site of primitive hunters from surrounding tribal settlements who usually congregate in the area after hard days of hunting in the nearby mountains. Herein, they would lie down and relax before returning to their homes. Eventually, the hunters decided to settle there permanently.

The first known settlers of the place were the Mala-ats(Ilongots). They are said to be ancestors of the Isinays who now inhabit the locality. Actually before 1725, two tribal groups- the Mala-ats and the lsinays - already lived in the vicinity of Dupax:

Spanish Missionaries of the Agustinians order arrived in the locality in June 1726. However, lt was not until April 22, 1731 that Dupax was formally founded by the Agustinian Missionaries.

While the Mala-ats were the original settlers found by the Spanish colonizers in Dupax, the former were forced to migrate deeper into the hinterlands with the influx of the Ilocanos, Igorots, lfugaos and other ethnic groups from other provinces before and after the turn of the century.

As early as 1928, during the term of the Municipal president Inocencio Suson, attempts were made to transfer the Municipal seat to barrio Malasin. The Plan, however did not materialized. Finally however in 1954, Congress passed a bill (R.A. 1181) authored by the Congressman Leonardo B Perez transferring the seat of the municipality of Dupax del Norte.

Dupax del Sur is situated in the southeastern portion of the Province of Nueva Vizcaya. It bounded by the municipalities of Dupax del Norteon the North; the municipalities of Castaneda on the South ; and on the norhtwestern portion is the municipality of Aritao. lt is 250 kms. from Manila and. kms. from the Provincial Capital town. The previous land area of the rnunicipality when the municipality Castaneda is still with the old tonw is 54.876 sq km. but with the passage of Parliamentary Bill No. 309 h. 1980, Castaneda was created as a new municipality leaving the municipality of Dupax del Sur with only 36.052 sq. kms. more of less.
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During the Spanish Regime Aritao was previously called Ajanas. This name was later changed to Aritao derived from an Isinay word “ARI-TAU” (meaning OUR KING) which originated from a famous Igorot, King Mengal.

In 1767, an intrepid Spanish missionary, Fr. Manuel Carripio succeeded and persuading Ari Mengal and his tribe to live in the low-land which became the seat of government of Aritao. Subsequently, these people were converted to Christianity by another friar, Fr. Tomas Gutierrez.

Ten years later, there was merging of Aritao with adjacent places into one pueblo (town) under the name of Aritao which was instantaneously approved by the Manila authorities, represented by Don Arrio Pedro, Acting Governor General of the Philippines. For many years, his town mates was ruled by the Spaniards until the break of the Philippine Revolution which marked the resounding victories subduing the Spanish Armed Forces.

The Revolutionary Government of Aritao was organized immediately through an election under the direction of Colonel Villacorta. This was welcomed by the people with great joy due to the birth of a new freedom in their lives.

Unfortunately, said government was cut-short, when the American Cavalry took possession of the town. The first Philippine Republic established by General Emilio Aguinaldo met its downfall.

The American Military Government ensured and a set of official was likewise elected. A civil government was later organized.

After a short period as a pueblo unpredictably it became a barrio of Dupax (old Dupax). The residents of Aritao had exerted tremendous effort in their clamour to regain its lost township. They worked cohesively for the grandeur and prosperity of their place and consequently on January 19, 1919, their petition for township was finally approved and elevated Aritao into a town up to the present.

The Municipality of Aritao is located at the southern portion of the Nueva Vizcaya, bounded on the north and northeast by the municipalities of Bambang and Dupax del Sur respectively, on the east by dupax del Norte, on the south by the province of Nueva Ecija and on the west and southwest by the municipalities of Kayapa and Santa Fe respectively. The total population as of 1995 Census of Population conducted by the National Statistics Office rose to 28, 948 having males and 14,431 females. The inhabitants are Ilocanos having the greatest number, followed by Igorots, Isinay, Pangasinanse, Tagalogs, Bicolanos, Pampanguenos and others.

It has a total land area of 40,415 hectares. The terrain is mountainous and rolling interspersed with narrow plains and valleys with two major bodies of water: Marang and Santa Fe rivers reinforced by numerous creeks which augment the water supply primarily for irrigation and domestic purposes. It’s agricultural in nature. The climate is healthful and very suitable to the production of agricultural products, notably rice, vegetables, fruits. The contributory factors that substantially facilitate good harvests are its suitable climate, fertility of the soil and the technical capability of the farmers in crop production and management.

This is evidenced by the world competitive quality of our locally produce mangoes. Our onions and tomatoes consistently dominate other produce of their kind from other regions of the country. We are blessed with natural factors and manpower potentials in pursuing our objectives for maximum agricultural productivity
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The municipal district of Imugan (now Santa Fe) was an igorot settlement known during the Spanish time. lt was one of the settlements discovered during the missions of Ituy which later became part of the jurisdiction of the Commandencia of Kayapa, the part of Aritao before it was made a township.

Its original inhabitants were the Kalanguya, a cultural minority belonging to the lgorot tribe who first irnmigrated to the area, later followed by the Pangasinense and the Tagalogs. The name of the muncipality was rnade in honor of the patron Saint San Jose-Saint Fe.

The municipal district of Imugan (now Sta. Fe) was founded by Governor-General Francis Harrison by virtue of Executive Order No. 39. The evolution from a municipal district to a regula municipality was made possible by Executive Order No. 77 on July 1,1964 by then President Ferdinand E. Marcos, after the district has realized an annual average income of 5,851.40 during the four (4) consecutive fiscal years which ended on June 30, 1964., The enactment of R. A. 2179 on May 6, 1959 marked the emergence of a new town in the province of Nueva Vizcaya, through the pioneering leadership of Ex-Mayor Tom Chengay and succeeded by his son, William V. Chengay, by appointment and later by election covering the terms from 1979-1995.

The turn of the middle of 1995, a young, energetic and promising Local Chief Executive was given the mandate to lead the people of Santa Fe in the person of Hon. Teodorico DP. Padilla, Jr.
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In 1930 five families supposedly from Batac, Ilocos Norte settled in the Ilongot inhabited place of Lublub. After someyears, more were attracted to live in the place thus increasing the number of inhabitants, so that consequently, it became a Sitio of Barangay Marikit. Virgilio Castillo became the first Tiniente del Barrio after the people decided to organize themselves.

In 1950, it became an independent barangay of Pantabangan, Nueva Ecija.

The later part of 1974 marked a new leaf in the history of the place. The people of Lublub headed by Barangay Captain Alfredo Castillo requested Congressman Carlos M. Padilla to convert the barangay into an independent municipality. This dream of the people was realized when Assemblyman Padilla authored and sponsored Batasang Pambansa No. 27, which was approved by members of the Batasang Pambansa, and approved and signed by his Excellency, President Ferdinand E. Marcos on April 20, 1979. The bill created the new town of Alfonso Castaneda - named after the first Governor of Nueva Vizcaya from the south and the first governor who belonged to the cultural minority.

After its proclamation as a new municipality, Mayor Alfredo Castillo was appointed the first mayor of the town.

Location - Alfonso Castanieda is located in the heart of the Cordillera and the Sierra Madre rnountain ranges. lt is bounded on the North by the municipalities of Dupax del Norte and Dupax del Sur; on the South by the province of Aurora on the East by the province of Nueva Ecija and on the West by the province of Quirino.

Land Area - 41,606 hectares. Barangay Abuyo is the largest among the six barangays in terms of land area with 9,056 has., which is 21.77% of the town‘s land area while Barangay Pelaway is the smallest with its 5,483 hectare (13.18%).
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