John Leach's Encyclopedia of Postal Authorities :

Arad - Azores

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Arad (French Occupation)

Hungarian stamps overprinted Occupation Française.

Dates:		1919 only
Currency:	100 filler = 1 korona

Album:		French Occupation Issues


Stamps of Fiume overprinted Arbe during the last month (Nov-Dec 1920) of the Carnaro regency
in Fiume.  Arbe became the Yugoslav island of Rab.  Fiume has been renamed Rijeka.

Dates:		1920 only
Currency:	100 centesimi = 1 lira

Album:		Fiume

Archipel des Comores

Refer:		Comoro Islands

* Argentina

Dates:		1858 -
Capital:		Buenos Aires
Currency:	100 centavos = 1 peso

* Argentine Territories

Includes:		Buenos Aires;

* Armenia

Following the dissolution of the USSR in 1991, Armenia became an independent republic and
started to issue its own stamps in 1992.

Dates:		1992 -
Capital:		Yerevan
Currency:	100 kopecks = 1 rouble

Includes:		Armenia (pre-Soviet)

See also:		Transcaucasian Federation;
		Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR)

Armenia (pre-Soviet)

Formerly part of Transcaucasian Russia, Armenia gained temporary independence after the 1917
Russian Revolution.  During 1922-1924, Armenia formed part of the Transcaucasian Federation
with Azerbaijan and Georgia.  Used stamps of the USSR 1924-1991.

Dates:		1919 - 1923
Capital:		Yerevan
Currency:	100 kopecks = 1 rouble

Album:		Armenia

Army Post

Refer:		Egypt (British Forces)


Refer:		Nagorno-Karabakh

* Aruba

Aruba is a small, rocky and semi-arid island in the Caribbean, about 165 miles north of
Venezuela.  It is one of the Leewards and is near the Dutch islands of Curacao and Bonaire.
Oil refining was its major industry until 1985 when the refinery was closed down.  Attempts are
now being made to promote tourism.  The population is cosmopolitan with Dutch the official

The island was occupied by Spain early in the 16th century.  The Spaniards were driven out by
the Dutch in 1634.  Apart from a brief period of British rule during the Napoleonic Wars, it
has remained a Dutch territory ever since, forming part of the Netherlands Antilles until 1986.

The economic situation in the 1970s led to demands for separation.  This was achieved on 1
January 1986 when Aruba was granted the status of internal autonomy within the Kingdom of the
Netherlands.  It is part of a Commonwealth that consists of Netherlands, Netherlands Antilles
and Aruba.  The first stamps were issued on 1 January 1986.

Dates:		1986 -
Capital:		Oranjestad
Currency:	100 cents = 1 gulden

See also:		Netherlands Antilles


Refer:		Ile Rouad

* Ascension

Used GB stamps 1867-1922.

Dates:		1922 -
Capital:		Georgetown
Currency:	(1922) 12 pence = 1 shilling; 20 shillings = 1 pound
		(1971) 100 pence = 1 pound

Asch (Sudetenland)

There was an unauthorised issue by German occupiers in September 1938.

Refer:		Czechoslovakia


Island in the Dodecanese which belonged to Italy 1912-45 and used general issues of Aegean
Islands (Egeo) throughout that period.  Also issued own stamps inscribed STAMPALIA,
which is the Italian name of the island.

Dates:		1912 - 1932
Currency:	100 centesimi = 1 lira (Italian)

Album:		Aegean Islands (Dodecanese)

Ataman Semyonov Regime (Transbaikal)

This was based at Chita until it was overthrown by forces of the Far Eastern Republic.

Dates:		1920 only
Capital:		Chita
Currency:	100 kopecks = 1 rouble

Album:		Russian Civil War Issues

Aunus (Finnish Occupation)

The Russian town of Olonetz was occupied by Finland during the Russian Civil War.  Finnish
stamps were issued with an overprint of AUNUS.

Dates:		1919 only
Currency:	100 penni = 1 markka

Album:		Finnish Occupation Issues

* Australia

Before 1913, the individual states had their own issues.

Dates:		1913 -
Capital:		Canberra
Currency:	(1913) 12 pence = 1 shilling; 20 shillings = 1 pound
		(1966) 100 cents = 1 dollar

See also:		New South Wales;
		South Australia;
		Western Australia

* Australian Antarctic Territory

Dates:		1957 -
Currency:	(1957) 12 pence = 1 shilling; 20 shillings = 1 pound
		(1966) 100 cents = 1 dollar

* Austria

Dates:		1850 -
Capital:		Vienna
Currency:	(1850) 60 kreuzer = 1 gulden
		(1858) 100 kreuzer = 1 gulden
		(1899) 100 heller = 1 krone
		(1925) 100 groschen = 1 schilling
		(1938) 100 pfennige = 1 Reichsmark (German)
		(1945) 100 groschen = 1 schilling
		(2002) 100 cents = 1 euro (€)

See also:		Lombardy & Venetia


The Austrian Empire was formed in 1804 to anticipate the dissolution in 1806 of the ancient and
maligned Holy Roman Empire by Napoleon.  Austria, home of the Habsburg dynasty, had been the
central part of the Holy Roman Empire.  In the aftermath of Waterloo, Austria was one of the
strongest nations in Europe and its foreign minister Metternich became the architect of the
Concert of Europe which was able to maintain peace in a divided continent for several decades.
Hungary, the land of the Magyars that lies to the east of Austria, was part of the Austrian
Empire at that time but it constantly sought control of its own affairs.

Austria faced a crisis after its defeat by Prussia in the Seven Weeks War of 1866.  To
consolidate his power, the Emperor Franz Josef negotiated in March 1867 the Ausgleich
(Compromise) with the Magyar ruling classes.  As a result, Hungary gained control of its
internal affairs and the two states of Austria and Hungary were federated into what became
commonly known as the Dual Monarchy.  The words Kaiserliche und Königliche on Austrian stamps
refer to the Empire of Austria and the Kingdom of Hungary, both titles being held by Franz
Josef.  The Dual Monarchy endured until the end of WWI.

Austria and Hungary had separate postal administration from the time of the Ausgleich although
it was not until May 1871 that Hungary could issue its first stamps.  In the meantime, a set of
"neutral" stamps were issued that showed a profile of Franz Josef and a value.

The fact of the Dual Monarchy was emphasised in stamps issued abroad  by Austro-Hungarian post
offices or military forces.  Hence, reference should be made to Austria and Hungary separately
re home issues and to the various Austro-Hungarian entries for overseas issues.

Refer:		Austria;
		Austro-Hungarian Military Post;
		Austro-Hungarian Occupation of Bosnia & Herzegovina;
		Austro-Hungarian Post Offices in the Turkish Empire;

Austrian Italy

Refer:		Lombardy & Venetia

Austrian Levant

Refer:		Austro-Hungarian Post Offices in the Turkish Empire

Austrian Territories acquired by Italy

Refer:		Italian Austria

* Austro-Hungarian Military Post

Stamps inscribed K-u-K FELDPOST were issued in Serbia (1916), Montenegro (1917), Rumania
(1917-18) and Italy (1918).

Dates:		1915 - 1918
Currency:	100 heller = 1 krone (General Issues, Serbia, Montenegro);
		100 centesimi = 1 lira (Italy);
		100 bani = 1 leu (Rumania)

Includes:		Italy (Austrian Occupation);
		Montenegro (Austrian Occupation);
		Rumania (Austrian Occupation);
		Serbia (Austrian Occupation)

Austro-Hungarian Occupation of Bosnia & Herzegovina

Refer:		Bosnia & Herzegovina

* Austro-Hungarian Post Offices in the Turkish Empire

Austria had various issues, some with overprinted values, for use in its offices throughout the
Turkish Empire, including those in territory that now belongs to Greece.

The offices in what is now Greek territory were at: Prevesa (Epirus); Jannina (Epirus); Port
Lagos (Thrace); Dedeagatz (Thrace); Volos (Thessaly); Kavalla (Macedonia); Vathy (Samos);
Mytilene; Corfu; Salonika; Leros (Dodecanese); Rhodes.  There were special issues for the
Austrian offices in Crete.

Dates:		1867 - 1915
Currency:	(1867) 100 soldi = 1 gulden
		(1886) 40 paras = 1 piastre

See also:		Crete (Austro-Hungarian Post Offices)


Private air company.

Dates:		1950 - 1951
Currency:	100 centavos = 1 peso

Album:		Colombian Territories


Refer:		Azerbaijan

* Azerbaijan

Following the dissolution of the USSR in 1991, Azerbaijan became an independent state and has
issued its own stamps, inscribed AZARBAYCAN, since 1992.

Dates:		1992 -
Capital:		Baku
Currency:	100 qopik = 1 manat

Includes:		Azerbaijan (pre-Soviet);

See also:		Transcaucasian Federation;
		Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR)

Azerbaijan (pre-Soviet)

Formerly part of the Russian Empire, it became temporarily independent in May 1918 but was
invaded by the Soviet Union in April 1920.  Subsequently joined the Transcaucasian Federation
prior to incorporation within the USSR, whose stamps it used 1924-1991.

Dates:		1919 - 1921
Capital:		Baku
Currency:	100 kopecks = 1 rouble

Album:		Azerbaijan

See also:		Transcaucasian Federation;
		Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR)

* Azores (Acores)

Dates:		1980 -
Capital:		Ponta Delgada
Currency:	100 centavos = 1 escudo

Includes:		Azores (Portuguese Colonial Issues)

See also:		Africa (Portuguese Colonies);
		Azores Territories;

Azores (Portuguese Colonial Issues)

Dates:		1868 - 1931
Capital:		Ponta Delgada
Currency:	(1868) 1000 reis = 1 milreis
		(1912) 100 centavos = 1 escudo

Album:		Azores

* Azores Territories

Includes:		Angra;
		Ponta Delgada

See also:		Azores

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Date last modified: 03/21/2008 04:30:33
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