Dalling, William - First recipient of the King's Medal for Bravery (Silver), in 1939. He risked his life in an unsuccessful attempt to rescue a miner after an underground rockburst.
Danie Theron Medal (DTM) - Instituted in 1970, this military medal for diligent service in the Commandos was originally reserved for officers but was opened to all ranks in 1975. It was discontinued in 2003.
Dart, Prof Raymond OSG - First recipient of the Order of the Southern Cross, in 1987. He was a renowned anthropologist.
DCS - Department of Correctional Services.
DCS Cross for Merit (CPM) - Instituted in 1980, this decoration was awarded to non-commissioned officers for outstanding service. It was discontinued in 1996.
DCS Cross for Valour (Diamond) (CPV) - This decoration was instituted in 1980 to recognise death-defying valour in thje line of duty or in saving or protecting life or property. It was never awarded and was discontinued in 1996.
DCS Cross for Valour (Ruby) (CPF) - Instituted in 1980 to recognise valour in the line of duty or in saving or protecting life or property. It was discontinued in 1996.
DCS Medal for Merit (Commissioned Officers) - Instituted in 1980 and awarded to officers for "special" (i.e. meritorious) service. It was discontinued in 1996.
DCS Medal for Merit (Non-Commissioned Officers) - The equivalent medal for other ranks, also instituted in 1980 and discontinued in 1996.
DCS Star for Distinction (SPO) - This decoration was instituted in 1980 for general officers who rendered exemplary service in promoting DCS efficiency. It was discontinued in 1996.
DCS Star for Excellence (SPE) - The highest-ranking DCS decoration, instituted in 1980 for general officers who rendered excellent service in promoting DCS efficiency. All the recipients had already received the Star for Distinction. The decoration was discontinued in 1996.
DCS Star for Merit (SPM) - Instituted in 1981 and discontinued in 1996, this was awarded to officers for outstanding service.
De Jong, Ernst - Artist. He designed the 1967 State President's Sports Award.
De Klerk, F.W. OMG DMS - State president 1989-94. He instituted a few medals, and scaled down the distribution of honours and awards.
De Wet, 2Lt Christoffel HCG - First recipient of the Honoris Crux Gold, in 1976. He won the decoration in Angola, by clearing a road of landmines while under enemy fire.
De Wet, Gen Christiaan - Orange Free State military commander during the Anglo-Boer War. The De Wet Decoration (1965) and De Wet Medal (1987) were named after him.
De Wet, Lt J.M. - Police officer, He designed the 1963 SAP Cross for Bravery.
De Wet Decoration (DWD) - A military medal, instituted in 1965 for officers in the Commandos who completed 20 years efficient service. It was available to all ranks from 1986, and was superseded by the Medalje vir Troue Diens and the Emblem for Reserve Force Service in 2003.
De Wet Medal - This medal was instituted in 1987, and was awarded to members of the Commandos after 10 years efficient service. It was superseded by the Medalje vir Troue Diens in 2003.
Decoration - An award which has higher status than a medal, but lower status than an order. There is no hard and fast definition of the term, but it is generally applied to awards for gallantry, leadership, and meritorious service (even though some of them have the word "medal" in their names). Many decorations are in the form of crosses or stars, usually 38mm (1½in) - 44mm (1¾in) in diameter.
Decoration for Devoted Service - Official English name of the Dekoratie voor Trouwe Dienst, seldom used as the recipients were all Afrikaners.
Decoration for Distinguished Service in the SARPF - see Decoration for Outstanding Service in the SARPF.
Decoration for Merit in Gold (DMG) - A 1st-level decoration, instituted in 1996 for outstanding service in Umkhonto weSizwe between 1961 and 1994.
Decoration for Meritorious Service (DMS) - A civil honour, instituted in 1970 to recognise distinguished service to South Africa. It was superseded by the Order for Meritorious Service in 1986. The decoration was awarded mostly to cabinet ministers, judges, university rectors, church leaders, captains of commerce and industry, and other "establishment" figures.
Decoration for Outstanding Service in the SARPF (SMO) - This decoration was instituted in 1966 as the Decoration for Distinguished Service in the SARPF, and was renamed in 1980. Like its SA Police counterpart, it was the successor to the Queen's Police Medal, and was awarded in two categories: (i) for particular gallantry, or (ii) for outstanding service. The decoration became obsolete when the SA Railways Police Force was disbanded in 1986.
Decoration for Valour in the SAPS (CPV) - Instituted in 1968, this decoration was awarded to SA Prisons Service members for conspicuous and exceptional gallantry in the line of duty or in saving life or property. It was replaced by the SAPS (later DCS) Cross for Valour (Diamond) in 1980.
Defence Legislation - The SA Defence Act 1912 authorised the governor-general to issue regulations for the award of decorations and medals. This authority was used not only to adopt British medals for Union Defence Forces use, but also to institute entirely new awards for Boer veterans of the Anglo-Boer War.
It was superseded by the Defence Act 1957, which authorised the governor-general to institute military decorations and medals, and to award decorations previously reserved for the queen's approval. This authority was transferred to the state president in 1961, and an amendment in 1974 authorised him to institute military orders too. The SA Defence Force orders, decorations and medals instituted between 1965 and 1991 were established under this Act.
The 1957 Act has been superseded by the Defence Act 2002 which authorises the president to institute decorations and medals for the SA National Defence Force. However, the warrants for the SANDF awards introduced that year cited the Constitution as the authority.
Dekoratie voor Trouwe Dienst (DTD) - A military decoration instituted in 1920 for meritorious service during the Anglo-Boer War. It was awarded to veterans who had served as officers in the Boer forces, and corresponded to the British Distinguished Service Order.
Department of Correctional Services - Established in 1911 as the Prisons Department, renamed the SA Prisons Service in 1959, and the Department of Correctional Services in 1990. It took over the colonial prisons services and, until 1916, continued to award the medals previously granted to the Natal prisons staff (which had formed part of the Natal Police).
The first medal exclusive to the department was the Prisons Good Service Medal (1922), which was the sole award until 1968, when a trio of police-style decorations and medals was instituted. That in turn was replaced by a larger series of military-style awards in 1980. They were discontinued in 1996, when the DCS gave up its military-style uniforms, ranks and other trappings and returned to a more civilian culture. Correctional Services medals were:
1922-68: Faithful Service Medal.
1968-80: Decoration for Valour in the SAPS, Medal for Meritorious Service for the SAPS, Medal for Faithful Service in the SAPS.
1980-96: DCS Star for Excellence, Star for Distinction, Cross for Valour (Diamond), Cross for Valour (Ruby), Star for Merit, Cross for Merit, Medal for Merit (Commissioned Officers), Medal for Merit (Non-Commissioned Officers), and Medal for Faithful Service.
Department of Foreign Affairs - From 1973 to 1986, the Department of Foreign Affairs administered the Order of Good Hope. The Chancery of Orders took over the responsibility in 1986.
Designers - Designers (where known) of South African orders, decorations and medals have been: E. Stokoe (Boer War decorations, 1920), Renée Joubert (King's Medal for Bravery, 1938), E. Naylor (Africa Service Medal, 1943), Maj George van Rhyn (military decorations, 1952-70), Lt J.M. du Toit (SAP Cross for Bravery, 1963), Ernst de Jong (State President's Sports Award, 1967), Lilla Beukes and Priscilla Broberg (military decorations, 1974-75), Col Buks van Staden (SAP Silver Cross for Gallantry, 1985), Gold Mametja (Orders of Mapungubwe, Baobab, and Companions of O.R. Tambo, 2002), Gareth Smart (Orders of Mendi, Luthuli, and Ikhamanga, 2003).
Diederichs, Dr Nico DMS - State president 1975-78. He instituted the Order of the Star of South Africa and other new SADF decorations (1975) and the civil defence medals (1976).
Disa - The floral symbol of the Western Cape. It is depicted on the province's honours (one of which is named after it), and it also appeared on the SA Defence Force's 1967 and 1975 Pro Merito Medals.
Disa, Order of - see Order of the Disa.
Disposal of Insignia - The recipient of an order, decoration or medal may not sell it or barter it or give it away or throw it away. The only way he/she may dispose of it is by leaving it to someone in his/her Will.
DMG - Post-nominal letters for the MK Decoration for Merit in Gold.
DMS - Post-nominal letters for the Decoration for Meritorious Service.
Doult, AB A. CN - He and CPO L. Barnard were the first recipients of the Navy Cross, in 1994. These navy divers were decorated for rescuing survivors from a vessel which had capsized at sea.
Drake, Francis - First (and only) recipient of the King's Medal for Bravery (Gold). He was decorated in 1943 for climbing down into a deep well to rescue an infant who fallen in.
DSB - Post-nominal letters for the Intelligence Services Distinguished Service Medal (Bronze).
DSG - Post-nominal letters for the Intelligence Services Distinguished Service Medal (Gold).
DSS - Post-nominal letters for the Intelligence Services Distinguished Service Medal (Silver).
DTM - Post-nominal letters for the Danie Theron Medal.
Du Preez, Gen Willem SPE SPO SPM - First (posthumous) recipient of the new SA Prisons Service Star for Excellence, Star for Distinction, and Star for Merit, in 1980. He had been Commissioner of the SAPS.
Du Toit, Maj André PCFG - First recipient of the SA Police Cross for Bravery (Gold), in 1991. He was decorated for twice single-handedly disposing of bombs, and for bravery while leading a raid on an armed fugitive's hideout.
Du Toit, Lt Gen Christiaan DSO - First recipient of the Union Medal - and thus presumably the first Permanent Force officer to receive a long service medal - in 1954. He was the Chief of the General Staff.
Du Toit, Lt Gen Heinrich SSA SM - First recipient of the Order of the Star of South Africa (Military) in 1976. He was SADF Chief of Staff Intelligence at the time, and had chaired the committee which developed the new military honours system.
DVR - Post-nominal letters for the Van Riebeeck Decoration.
DWD - Post-nominal letters for the De Wet Decoration.
ED - Post-nominal letters for (i) the Efficiency Decoration, and (ii) the NIS Decoration for Outstanding Leadership.
Efficiency Decoration (ED) - A military medal instituted in 1939 for Citizen Force officers who completed 20 years efficient service. It was a South African version of a medal adopted by the United Kingdom and other British Commonwealth members a few years earlier. It was replaced by the John Chard Decoration in 1952.
Efficiency Medal - Also instituted in 1939, this was awarded to other ranks of the Citizen Force, after 12 years service. It was replaced by the John Chard Medal in 1952.
Emblem - A small metal emblem granted as an award. It may be an award in its own right, e.g. the King's Commendation (1941), the Mention in Despatches (1967), Commendation by the CSADF (1968), and Okhankanyiweyo (2003) emblems. Or it may be worn on a service ribbon to indicate that a bar or clasp has been awarded in addition to the decoration or medal. In the case of the Castle of Good Hope Decoration and the John Chard Decoration, it was worn on the ribbon to emphasise status and not to denote a clasp or anything else.
Emblem for Reserve Force Service - Instituted in 2003, this emblem is awarded to members of the SANDF's Reserve Force after 20 years service. It is worn on the ribbon of the Medalje vir Troue Diens.
Engelbrecht, WO1 H.L. PMD SM - First recipient of the Pro Merito Decoration, in 1976. He was, for many years, in charge of the medals section at Defence HQ.
Engels, Lt Gen F.L.C. SOO SOE - First recipient of the SA Police Star for Distinguished Service (2nd Type) in 1979.
Ethiopia/Eritrea - Since 2000, SA National Defence Force contingents have been serving in African Union and United Nations missions in Ethiopia and Eritrea (OLMEE and UNMEE).
Faithful Service - A term introduced by the SA Prisons Service in 1959 for its long service medal. It was later adopted by the SA Police (1963), SA Railways Police (1966), and National Intelligence Service (1981) and was superseded by "loyal service" in 2003.
Faithful Service Medal of the Prisons Department - This medal was instituted in 1922 as the Prisons Good Service Medal and was renamed in 1959. It could be awarded either for (i) gallant or distinguished conduct, or (ii) 18 years exemplary service. Only non-commissioned ranks were eligible. The medal was superseded by the Medal for Faithful Service in the SAPS in 1968.
February, Basil MDG - First (posthumous) recipient of the Mendi Decoration for Bravery (Gold) in 2003. He was decorated for an incident in 1968, when as an Umkhonto weSizwe soldier, he sacrificed his life in a contact with South African security forces to enable his comrades to escape.
Feni, Dumile OIG - First (posthumous) recipient of the Order of Ikhamanga (2003). He was an artist, who spent most of his career in exile.
Fire Brigade Services Act - The Fire Brigade Services Act 1987 authorised the state president to institute decorations and medals for fire brigades, but none were ever established.
Fire Services - From 1976 to 1990, members of fire services were eligible for the Civil Defence Medals for Bravery and for Meritorious Service.
Foreign Awards - South Africans have received many foreign awards over the years, and at one time details were published in the Government Gazette. They are supposed to obtain government clearance before accepting awards or, if that is not possible, to obtain it as soon as possible after receiving the award. Foreign awards take precedence after South African and British orders, decorations and medals. Until 1994, homeland awards were also classed as "foreign".
During World War I more than 350 foreign awards (mostly French) were granted to South Africans. About 50 imperial Russian orders were conferred on South African volunteers in the Russian Civil War. World War II brought more than 200 foreign awards (mostly American), while the 800-man Korean War contingent received more than 300 American and South Korean decorations, as well as unit citations. Chinese (Taiwanese) orders were presented to many politicians and senior military and police officers during the 1980s, when South Africa had close diplomatic relations with that country.
Foreign Citizens - Most South African orders, decorations and medals are intended for South African recipients. However, defence force medals may be awarded to members of foreign military forces serving with or supporting the South African forces, and a few civil honours have been instituted specifically for foreigners: the Order of Good Hope (1973-2002), the Order of the Star of South Africa (Civilian Division) (1978-88), the NIS Decoration (1981-94), and the Order of the Companions of O.R. Tambo (2002- ).
Forfeiture - The warrants and regulations for the various orders, decorations and medals provide for the president or other awarding authority to cancel and recall an award if the recipient is later convicted of a serious offence such as treason, sedition or mutiny, or does something else dishonourable. A notable instance was the decorated senior naval officer who was discovered to have been spying for the Soviet Union for years.
In the defence force, full-time personnel can lose their long service medals if they commit serious disciplinary offences, but they can apply for them to be reinstated after five years, provided they have kept their records clean during that period.
Fouché, Jacobus DMS - State president 1968-75. He instituted the Decoration for Meritorious Service (of which he was the first recipient), the Woltemade Decoration for Bravery, the Danie Theron Medal and the Jack Hindon Medal (all 1970), the SA Sports Merit Award (1971), the Order of Good Hope (1973), and a few medals.
Fount of Honour - The authority which establishes, regulates and confers state orders, decorations and medals. In Great Britain, the king or queen is the fount of honour. When Queen Victoria authorised colonial governments, in 1894, to grant selected military medals to members of their local defence forces, the role of the fount of honour began to split.
In South Africa, various Acts of Parliament later specifically authorised the Union government to issue regulations for awarding British medals to the military and other uniformed services. Between 1920 and 1934, regulations under these Acts were also used to institute entirely new decorations and medals, so it might be said that the South African Parliament, through the governor-general, became a fount of honour.
From 1934, South Africa was a constitutionally independent state, and the monarch - in his/her South African capacity - instituted royal decorations and medals for the country. However, in 1958 and 1959, Parliament transferred this royal prerogative to the governor-general, and when South Africa became a republic in 1961 it passed to the state president. All successive Constitutions (1983, 1994 and 1996) have confirmed the presidential prerogative of conferring honours. However, presidential warrants instituting honours and awards usually refer to the relevant sections of the Defence Act, the Police Act etc, as the source of the president's authority.
The president's position as fount of honour is not absolute. The Province of the Western Cape's provincial constitution (1997) authorises the provincial legislature to institute honours, and the Intelligence Services Act (2002) authorises the Minister of National Intelligence to establish decorations and medals for members of the intelligence services.