AAD - Post-nominal letters for the Ad Astra Decoration.
Ad Astra Decoration (AAD) - A military decoration instituted in 1987, for excellent flying skill or ingenuity by SA Air Force aircrew in emergencies or unusual situations. It was discontinued in 2003.
Africa Service Medal - Instituted in 1943, this was awarded to members of the Union Defence Forces, the SA Police, and the SA Railways & Harbours Police who volunteered for service in World War II. It was initially intended to cover only service in Africa up to 1943, but was later extended to cover service anywhere in the world up to the end of the war in 1945.
Air Efficiency Award - The South African version of a British military medal, instituted in 1950 for Citizen Force members of the SA Air Force who completed 10 years efficient service. It was never awarded and was replaced by the John Chard Medal in 1952.
Air Force Cross (CA) - Instituted in 1991, this was awarded to air force personnel for exceptional courage, leadership, skill or ingenuity in dangerous or critical situations. It was discontinued in 2003.
Aloe - A tough, sturdy plant which the police adopted as their emblem around 1970. It is depicted on several police decorations and medals. It also appears on the military Pro Patria Medal.
Anglo-Boer War (1899-1902) - In 1899, the British government provoked the South African Republic and its ally, the Orange Free State, into war. The conflict raged across South Africa for three years, devastated the republics, and ended with their capitulation, and conversion into British colonies, in 1902. The grievances caused by the bitter war shaped much of 20th-century South African politics, and were indirectly reflected in the way that the honours system later developed.
Around 300 members of the Cape and Natal colonial forces were awarded British decorations (including 11 Victoria Crosses) during the war. Their campaign medals were the Queen's South Africa Medal and King's South Africa Medal. Their Boer opponents received more than 600 decorations, and their campaign medal was the Zuidafrikaanse Republiek en Oranje Vrijstaat Oorlogsmedalje.
"Anglo-Boere Oorlog Medal" - Unofficial name for the Zuidafrikaanse Republiek en Oranje Vrijstaat Oorlogsmedalje.
Angola - In 1975-76, the SA Defence Force supported the UNITA and FNLA movements in their unsuccessful war against the Cuban-backed MPLA for control of the country after independence from Portugal. The Pro Patria Medal, with 'Cunene' clasp was issued for this campaign.
MPLA victory was followed by a long-running civil war between it and UNITA, and in 1987-88, the SA Defence Force once again supported UNITA in a campaign against Cuban- and Soviet-backed Angolan government forces. This ended in a peace settlement which also ended the Border War in South West Africa. The Pro Patria Medal and the Southern Africa Medal were issued for the 1987-88 campaign.
Animal Recipients - The only official decoration instituted for animals is the SA Police Service Canine & Equine Star for Bravery (2004), which may be awarded to police dogs and horses for bravery in dangerous circumstances.
APLA - Azanian People's Liberation Army.
Arm-of-service emblems - Miniature crossed swords (army), an eagle (air force), an anchor (navy), or the Rod of Aesculapius (military health service). The first three were introduced in 1952 for the ribbons of the John Chard Decoration and John Chard Medal, to indicate the arm of service in which the recipient served. Since 2003, these emblems have indicated that the decoration was earned during a military operation, and they are authorised for the ribbons of the Nkwe ya Gauta, Nkwe ya Selefera and Nkwe ya Boronse and for operational awards of iPhrothiya yeGolide, iPhrothiya yeSiliva, and iPhrothiya ye Bhronzi.
Armed Struggle (1961-94) - A 33-year-long struggle by the exiled African political movements and their military forces (Umkhonto weSizwe and the Azanian People's Liberation Army) against the nationalist government, to establish democracy and majority rule.
The first phase (1961-63) was a sabotage campaign against government installations. It was followed by an unsuccessful attempt to re-infiltrate South Africa through Rhodesia. In 1979, MK launched a new campaign, which developed into full-scale conflict inside the country in the mid-1980s. The armed struggle was suspended after the government agreed in 1990 to negotiate a settlement.
The South African security forces' campaign medals for operations against the liberation armies were the SA Police Medal for Combating Terrorism, the Pro Patria Medal, and the SA Railways Police Medal for Combating Terrorism. The liberation armies' were the Southern Africa Service Medal and the Operational Service Medal for Southern Africa.
Army Cross (CM) - Instituted in 1991, this was awarded to army personnel for exceptional courage, leadership, skill or ingenuity in dangerous or critical situations. It was discontinued in 2003.
Azanian People's Liberation Army - The military wing formed by the Pan-Africanist Congress in 1961, and originally called Poqo. Together with Umkhonto weSizwe, it waged an armed liberation struggle against the nationalist government in the 1980s, and in 1994 it was absorbed into the new SA National Defence Force.
Decorations and medals were instituted in 1996 for service in APLA between 1961 and 1994: Gold Star for Bravery, Bravery Star in Silver, Star for Conspicuous Leadership, Gold Decoration for Merit, Silver Medal for Merit, Bronze Medal for Merit, Operational Service Medal for Southern Africa, Service Medal.
Bambatha Rebellion - see Natal Rebellion.
Baobab - A species of tree which is very important in African culture. An order was named after it in 2002.
Baobab, Order of - see Order of the Baobab.
Bar - A metal strip attached to the ribbon of a decoration or medal - also known as a "clasp". It is placed midway between the upper and lower edges of the ribbon; if more than one bar is worn then they are evenly spaced with the first bar at the bottom. When the service ribbon is worn, a bar is usually represented by a small emblem attached to the ribbon.
In the case of a decoration, a bar indicates an additional award. In the case of a campaign medal (where it is often called a "clasp"), it identifies a campaign or military operation, or an additional period of operational service. In the case of a long service medal (where it is also often called a "clasp"), it indicates completion of an additional period of service over and above the original period for which the medal was granted. On a champion shot medal, it identifies the year in which the medal was won.
Barnard, CPO L. CN - He and AB A. Doult were the first recipients of the Navy Cross, in 1994. These navy divers were decorated for rescuing survivors from a vessel which capsized at sea.
Baston, Brig George - First recipient of the King's Police Medal for Distinguished Service, in 1944. He was Acting Commissioner of the SA Police.
Beauchamp Proctor, Capt Andrew VC DSO MC & Bar DFC - The most highly decorated South African serviceman ever. During the last nine months of World War I, while serving in the Royal Air Force in France, he shot down 54 enemy aircraft and distinguished himself on many other occasions. He was awarded the Military Cross, followed in short order by a bar, then the Distinguished Flying Cross (a brand-new decoration at that time), the Distinguished Service Order, and finally the Victoria Cross.
Bechuanaland Campaign (1896-97) - A military operation by the Cape military forces to track down and apprehend three fugitive BaTswana "rebel" leaders who had taken refuge in the Langberg mountains in Bechuanaland. The Cape of Good Hope General Service Medal was issued for the campaign.
Bell, Charles - Designer of Sir Harry Smith's Medal for Gallantry (1851). He also designed the famous triangular Cape postage stamps.
Berlin Airlift - SA Air Force personnel served in the Royal Air Force during the airlift operations to supply Soviet-blockaded East Berlin in 1948-49. One SAAF pilot was decorated.
Bester, Dirk - This teenager was the first recipient of the Woltemade Decoration for Bravery (Gold) in 1984. He was decorated for fighting off armed intruders who had broken into his home and were threatening his family.
Beukes, Lilla - Co-designer, with Priscilla Broberg, of the 1975 SA Defence Force decorations and medals.
Biermann, Adm Hugo SSA SD OBE - First recipient of the Southern Cross Decoration, in 1976. It was presented to him on his retirement as Chief of the SADF.
Blaauw, Brig Jan SM DFC - The most highly decorated South African serviceman of the Korean War (in which the SA contingent served under American command and therefore received American decorations). Then a major, he was awarded the Silver Star and the Air Medal with three oakleaf clusters. The Silver Star was for providing air cover to a fellow SAAF pilot who had been shot down.
BMM - Post-nominal letters for the APLA Bronze Medal for Merit.
Bophuthatswana - One of the former African homelands inside South Africa. It was self-governing from 1972 and "independent" from 1977 to 1994. Bophuthatswana had its own honours system, comprising the Order of the Leopard, and series of decorations and medals for its defence force, police, and prisons service. They all became obsolete when the homeland was reincorporated into South Africa in 1994.
Border War - South Africa's refusal to give up control of South West Africa (Namibia) led to a long-running military conflict between South African security forces and the People's Liberation Army of Namibia from 1966 to 1989. The SA Police were responsible for operations until 1974, when the SA Defence Force took over.
Until 1977, the object was to prevent PLAN forces infiltrating SWA from neighbouring Zambia and Angola, but from 1978 onwards the SADF carried out many attacks on PLAN bases in those countries. The conflict became entangled with the civil war in Angola, and the two were eventually ended by a three-way peace settlement in 1989. South Africa handed over SWA to the United Nations in 1989 and the territory became a republic in 1990.
At least 200 members of the security forces were decorated during the war. The campaign medals were the SAP Medal for Combating Terrorism, the Pro Patria Medal, the SA Railways Police Medal for Combating Terrorism, and the Southern Cross Medal.
Boshoff, Hendrik WD - First recipient of the Woltemade Cross for Bravery (Gold), in 1988. He was decorated for single-handedly rescuing a man from the clutches of a leopard.
Botha, WO C.J. SCG - First recipient of the SA Police Silver Cross for Gallantry. He was decorated for single-handedly pursuing and firing on three armed MK soldiers.
Botha, P.W. SSA DMS - Defence minister 1966-80, prime minister 1978-84, and state president 1984-89. He was the first recipient of the Order of the Star of South Africa (Civilian Division), in 1979. As state president, he instituted the SAP Silver Cross for Gallantry (1986), the Order of the Southern Cross and the Order for Meritorious Service (1986), the President's Decoration (1987), the Woltemade Cross for Bravery (1988), and the SAP Cross for Bravery (1989). He created the Chancery of Orders in 1986, and bestowed orders lavishly.
Bravery - see Gallantry.
Bravery Star in Silver (BSS) - A 3rd-level decoration, instituted in 1996 for Azanian People's Liberation Army members who performed acts of bravery while in danger, between 1961 and 1994.
Breast Star - Until 2002, the insignia of the first and second classes of South African orders included breast stars, usually in gold for the first class and silver for the second. 72mm was adopted as the standard diameter in 1986.
Breytenbach, Cmdt Cornelius HCS SM MMM - The only man to win two different classes of the Honoris Crux Decoration. He won the Honoris Crux Silver for airlifting troops in and out of a battle zone under enemy fire in 1979, and the Honoris Crux for airlifting out casualties under enemy fire in 1980.
Breytenbach, Cmdt Jan DVR SD SM MMM - He and Lt Cdr (later V Adm) Lambert Woodburne were the first and only recipients of the Van Riebeeck Decoration, awarded in 1974 for distinguished service in an operation in Tanzania in 1972.
British honours and awards - South Africans became eligible for British honours and awards in 1814. The first knighthood was conferred in 1821, the first baronetcy in 1840, the first order in 1860, and the first military decorations in 1877-78. From the 1870s until 1924, South Africans featured regularly in the twice-yearly honours lists for civil honours. During the Anglo-Boer War and both World Wars, the South African forces received British military orders, decorations and medals.
When South Africa established her own honours system in 1952, British awards were ranked after the new South African awards (except for the Victoria Cross which, until 1967, retained its premier position). This remains the precedence.
Broberg, Priscilla - Co-designer, with Lilla Beukes, of the 1975 SA Defence Force decorations and medals. She was later a member of the Heraldry Council.
Bronze Leopard - see Nkwe ya Boronse.
Bronze Medal for Merit (BMM) - A 3rd-level decoration, instituted in 1996 for service of a high standard in the Azanian People's Liberation Army between 1961 and 1994.
Bronze Protea - see iPhrothiya yeBhronzi.
BSS - Post-nominal letters for the APLA Bravery Star in Silver.
Burgers, Thomas - State president of the South African Republic 1872-77. He created the Burgers Cross,
Burgers Cross - A civil decoration for meritorious service, awarded by President Thomas Burgers to three women in the 1870s. It was made of gold from the republic's recently discovered goldfields.
Burundi - Since 2001, the SA National Defence Force has been involved in African Union (AMIB) and United Nations (UNOB) peacekeeping operations in Burundi.
Bush War - Alternative name for the 1966-89 Border War. Also used to refer to SA Police operations in Rhodesia from 1967 to 1975.
Buxton, Viscount - Governor-general 1914-20. He instituted the RNVR long service awards in 1915.
CA - Post-nominal letters for the Air Force Cross ("Crux Aeronautica").
Cabinet Ministers - A feature of the nationalist-era honours system was that, from 1974 to 1992, cabinet ministers were awarded the Decoration for Meritorious service and its successor, the Order for Meritorious Service, evidently based solely on cabinet seniority. They made up the largest single category of recipients of national honours during that period.
Cadet Corps Champion Shot Medal - Instituted in 1987, this was awarded annually to the winners of the school cadet shooting championships. It was discontinued in 2003.
Cadet Corps Medal - Instituted in 1966 for officers in the school cadet organisation who completed 20 years efficient service. The medal became obsolete when the school cadets were absorbed into the Commandos in 1967.
Campaign Medals - Medals which are awarded for taking part in wars, campaigns, and other operations. The qualification is usually to have served for a minimum period of time (anything from one day to six months) in a designated operational area, between specified dates. The nature or quality of the service is seldom material.
In terms of precedence, campaign medals rank after decorations, and before commemorative medals and long service medals (except in the police forces from 1974 to 1990, when they ranked after long service medals).
South African campaign medals have been: the Cape of Good Hope General Service Medal (1900), the Natal Native Rebellion Medal (1907), the Victory Medal (1919), the Zuidafrikaanse Republiek en Oranje Vrijstaat Oorlogsmedalje (1920), the Africa Service Medal (1943), the Korea Medal (1953), the SA Police Medal for Combating Terrorism (1974), the Pro Patria Medal (1974), the SA Railways Police Medal for Combating Terrorism (1980), the Southern Africa Medal (1989), the General Service Medal (1989), the Southern Africa Service Medal (2000?), the Operational Service Medal for Southern Africa (2000?), and the current Tshumelo Ikatelaho (2003).
Cape Colonial Forces - The Cape Colony's military forces consisted of the para-military Frontier Armed & Mounted Police (later Cape Mounted Riflemen) and a part-time Volunteer Force - both formed in 1855 - and a division of the Royal Navy Volunteer Reserve formed in 1905. They were collectively designated "Cape Colonial Forces" in 1901. The CCF were eligible for British military decorations and medals, and from 1894 they had their own issues of the Distinguished Conduct Medal and long service medals. The CCF fought in several campaigns between 1877 and 1881, in Bechuanaland in 1896-97, in the 1899-1902 Anglo-Boer War, and the 1906 Natal Rebellion. The units were embodied in the Union Defence Forces in 1913.
The CCF had the following awards: Distinguished Conduct Medal, Volunteer Oficers' Decoration, Colonial Auxiliary Forces Officers' Decoration, Cape of Good Hope General Service Medal, Medal for Long Service & Good Conduct, Medal for Meritorious Service, Volunteer Long Service Medal, and Colonial Auxiliary Forces Long Service Medal.
Cape Colony - see Cape of Good Hope.
Cape Copper Company's Medal - Issued by the Cape Copper Company Ltd in 1902, to members of the garrison of O'Okiep, who had held the town against Boer forces for a month. Although unofficial, the medal is well known and, because of its rarity, a valuable collector's item.
Cape Mounted Police - This para-military police force was established in 1904 and its members were eligible for British military decorations. From 1907, they were also eligible for the military Medal for Long Service & Good Conduct. The CMP was absorbed into the Union Defence Forces in 1913.
Cape of Good Hope - The first European settlement in South Africa, colonised by the Dutch in 1652. From 1814 it was a British colony, and in 1910 it became a province of the Union of South Africa. Cape colonists were eligible for British honours and awards - which were granted regularly from the 1870s onwards - and from 1894 the government issued military long service medals to the Cape Colonial Forces.
Cape of Good Hope General Service Medal - Instituted in 1900 for surviving Cape Colonial Forces veterans of the Basutoland Gun War (1880-81), the Transkei Campaign (1880-81), and the Bechuanaland Campaign (1896-97). A clasp was issued for each campaign.
Castle of Good Hope - South Africa's oldest military building: a 17th-century stone fortification in Cape Town. The Castle of Good Hope Decoration was named after it, and the distinctive five-pointed ground plan was also used for the Van Riebeeck Decoration and Medal, and as a military rank badge.
Castle of Good Hope Decoration (CGH) - The highest South African military decoration, instituted in 1952 as a substitute for the Victoria Cross. It was reserved for acts of most conspicuous bravery in the presence of the enemy, and was never awarded. The decoration was superseded by the Nkwe ya Gauta in 2003. As it was never awarded, it has been omitted from the new (2005) table of precedence.
CC - Post-nominal letters for the SA Medical Service Cross ("Crux Curationis").
Certificate of Award - Most South African orders, decorations and medals are accompanied by a certificate of award. In the case of medals which are issued unnamed, the certificates are the primary evidence that the recipients are entitled to the medals.
CGH - Post-nominal letters for the Castle of Good Hope Decoration.
Chain - see Collar.
Chancery of Orders - Established in 1986 to administer the National Orders. It forms part of the Presidency.
Chard, Lt John VC - British military officer who won the Victoria Cross for successfully leading the defence of Rorkes Drift against the Zulu army in 1879. The John Chard Decoration and Medal (1952) were named after him.
Chaskalson, Hon Arthur SCOB - First recipient of the Order of the Baobab (2002). He was Chief Justice at the time.
Chief of the SADF - The professional head of the SA Defence Force, originally called "Chief of the General Staff" (1922-56) and then "Commandant-General SADF" (1956-73). He was authorised to award the Commandant-General's Medal, the Commendation by the CSADF emblem, the Pro Patria Medal and, until 1993, the Military Merit Medal.
Ciskei - One of the former African homelands inside South Africa. It was self-governing from 1972 and "independent" from 1981 to 1994. Ciskei had its own honours system, comprising the Order of Indwe, some civil decorations, and series of decorations and medals for its defence force, police, and prisons service. They all became obsolete when the homeland was reincorporated into South Africa in 1994.
Citizen Force - see Reserve Force.
Civil Honours - Until the 1920s, South Africans were rewarded for their services to the country (and the British Empire) through the annual British honours lists and, from time to time, they also received British civil medals for bravery. A South African civil honours system began to develop in the 1930s. Since the 1970s, civil honours have generally comprised (a) decorations for bravery, (b) orders for meritorious service to the country, (c) decorations for meritorious public service, and (d) awards for sports achievements.
The four "independent" homelands inside South Africa also had civil honours, so there were several different series of awards from the 1970s until the homelands were reincorporated into the Republic in 1994: South Africa (1939-61, 1967-86, 1986-2002, 2002- ), Transkei (1976-94), Bophuthatswana (1977-94), Venda (1979-94), and Ciskei (1981-94).
Civil Protection Act - The Civil Protection Act 1977 authorised the state president to institute decorations and medals for civil defence personnel. The existing civil defence medals, which had been instituted in 1976 under the Defence Act, were re-instituted under the new Act.
Civil Protection Medal for Bravery - Instituted in 1976, this decoration was awarded to members of first aid organisations, civil defence organsisations and, until 1991, fire services, for bravery while in danger. It appears to have lapsed.
Civil Protection Medal for Meritorious Service - This decoration, also instituted in 1976, was awarded to members of first aid organisations, civil defence organisations and, until 1991, fire services, for particularly meritorious service and devotion to duty. It too appears to have lapsed.
Civil Service - see Public Service
Civilian - In the context of the pre-1994 South African honours system, this word included military officers. The Order of the Star of South Africa (Civilian Division) was open to foreign military officers, and the National Intelligence Service had two medals for "civilians", by whom they meant anyone - including military officers - who was not a member of the NIS.
Clarendon, Earl of - Governor-general 1931-37. He instituted the Railways & Harbours Police Long Service & Good Conduct Medal (1934).
Clasp - see Bar.
CLS - Post-nominal letters for the MK Conspicuous Leadership Star.
CM - Post-nominal letters for the Army Cross ("Crux Militaria").
CN - Post-nominal letters for the Navy Cross ("Crux Navalis").
Collar - The insignia of the first classes of the Order of Good Hope and the Orders of the Star of South Africa (Military) and (Civilian) originally included gold collars or neck chains to be worn on ceremonial occasions. They were discontinued in the late 1980s.
Collective Awards - A feature of the new (post-2002) national orders is that they can be awarded collectively to organisations and groups as well as to individuals. The Order of Mendi for Bravery was awarded in 2003 to the military units which carried out the 1991 Oceanos sea rescue and the 2000 Mozambique flood relief operations, the Order of Ikhamanga was awarded in 2004 to the 2010 Soccer World Cup Bid Committee, and the Order of the Baobab was awarded in 2005 to the University of Fort Hare.
Colonial Auxiliary Forces Long Service Medal - A British military medal for 20 years service in the part-time military forces in the dominions and colonies, adopted by Natal in 1900, the Cape in 1901, the Transvaal in 1906, and the Union of South Africa in 1913. It was superseded by the Efficiency Medal in 1939.
Colonial Auxiliary Forces Officers' Decoration (VD) - A British military decoration for 20 years commissioned service in the part-time military forces in the dominions and colonies, adopted by Natal in 1900, the Cape in 1901, the Transvaal in 1906, and the Union of South Africa in 1913. It was superseded by the Efficiency Decoration in 1939.
Colour-Coding - In the 1970s, colour-coding was introduced to identify different categories of decorations and medals. The ribbons of the awards in each category were predominantly in its colour. For the SA Defence Force (1975) and the Azanian People's Liberation Army and Umkhonto weSizwe (1996), the colours were orange (bravery), blue (meritorious service) and green (long service). In the Department of Correctional Services (1980) they were red (bravery), green (merit), and yellow (long service). In the National Intelligence Service (1981) they were violet (bravery), turquoise (merit) and white and red (long service). The SA National Defence Force uses light blue (bravery), blue (merit), and green (long service).
Commandant-General's Medal - see SADF Champion Shot Medal.
Commandant-General SADF - see Chief of the SADF
Commandos - see Reserve Force.
Commemorative Medals - Medals which are issued to commemorate specific events. Until 1917, they took precedence after decorations and before campaign medals, but since then they have ranked between campaign medals and long service medals (except for a few years in the 1980s, when police commemorative medals were ranked at the very end of the row, after all other categories of award).
South African commemorative medals have been: the Union of South Africa Commemoration Medal (1910), the Queen Elizabeth II Coronation Medal (1953), the SA Police 75th Anniversary Commemoration Medal (1988), the Unitas Medal (1994), the SA Police Service Amalgamation Medal, and the SAPS Ten Year Commemoration Medal (2004).
Commendation by the Chief of the SADF - An emblem introduced in 1968 to recognise services of a high standard which did not qualify for decorations. It was superseded by the C SADF Commendation Medal (later Military Merit Medal) in 1974. The bronze emblem (a protea flower) was worn on a strip of cloth which was mounted like a medal ribbon.
Companions of O.R. Tambo, Order of the - see Order of the Companions of O.R. Tambo.
Congo (Democratic Republic of) - Since 1999, the SA National Defence Force has participated in the United Nations peacekeeping operation (MONUC) in Congo.
Conradie, WO2 Johannes HC VRM - Winner of two decorations for gallantry. He earned the Van Riebeeck Medal in a secret operation in Tanzania in 1972, and the Honoris Crux for leadership under enemy fire in Angola in 1975.
Conspicuous Leadership Star (CLS) - Instituted in 1996 to recognise distinguished conduct and exceptional combat leadership in Umkhonto weSizwe between 1961 and 1994.
Constitution - When South Africa became a republic in 1961, the Constitution vested the queen's royal prerogatives - implicitly including the role of "fount of honour" - in the state president. It specifically authorised him to confer honours, and this authority was repeated in the 1984, 1994 and 1996 (current) Constitutions. None of the Constitutions mentioned instituting honours, but the conferment clause has been used over the years as the authority for creating a number of honours, particularly civilian ones.
Correctional Services - see Department of Correctional Services.
Correctional Services Decorations and Medals - South Africa has several different prisons services since the honours system was established in 1894. Most of them have had decorations and medals. From the 1960s until the abolition of prisons services medals in 1996, they generally comprised (a) decorations for bravery, (b) decorations for meritorious service, and (c) long service medals.
From the 1920s until the amalgamation of the prisons services in 1994-95, each organisation had its own series of awards: SA Prisons Service/Dept of Correctional Services (1922-68, 1968-80, 1980-96), Bophuthatswana Prisons Service (1984-94), Venda Prisons Service (1985-94), Transkei Prisons Service (c1988-94), Ciskei Prisons Service (1988-94), and KwaZulu Correctional Services (1990-94).
The former South West Africa Prisons Service also had its own awards, in the 1980s.
CPF Post-nominal letters for the DCS Cross for Valour: Ruby ("Crux Pro Fortitudine").
CPM - Post-nominal letters for the DCS Cross for Merit ("Crux Pro Merito").
CPV - Post-nominal letters for (i) the Decoration for Valour in the SA Prisons Service ('Custodi Pro Virtute"), and (ii) the DCS Cross for Valour: Ruby ("Crux Pro Virtute").
Cross of Honour - see Honoris Crux.
"Cross-Border Medal" - see Southern Africa Medal.
CSADF - Chief of the SA Defence Force.
CSADF Commendation Medal - see Military Merit Medal.
CV - Post-nominal letters for the NIS Cross for Valour: Gold ("Crux Virtus").
CVS - Post-nominal letters for the NIS Cross for Valour: Silver ("Crux Virtus Silver").