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Ashwagandha
Withania somnifera Reports of Use by Reverend MeO "In the land of the blind, this 3rd eyed Ayurvedic herb is king." For all of the information below, 900mg. of a 1 1/2% pure Withanolids extract from the root of Withania somnifera was used -- without any other herbs or medications. THE PULL & THE VISUALS Within about 45 minutes the sedation begins, a tiring and drying effect upon the eyeballs -- eyelids fight to close. Sleep comes very easy at this time. While it is possible to fight the sleep-pull, it is uncomfortable. The behind-the-eye-visuals begin soon after laying down. They are continual and easy to make out. While they are well-defined, they change very often -- with no certain image staying more than 30 seconds. Upon laying down, the body goes still, and you can feel yourself floating. This works well sometimes with the visuals. It is very possible to look down upon your sleeping body. TOLERANCE? There is no large degree of tolerance that builds with continuous use of Ashwagandha. However, if after taking the herb nightly for several weeks,you stop for a night, and then continue the next evening, the visuals are clearer than with steady nightly use. WILL I PAY FOR THE WONDERFUL SLEEP IN THE MORNING? If 8-10 hours of sleep is not allotted, you will wake up feeling mentally and physically "fuzzy". No matter how much sleep you get, eyes will be glossy and lightly red. IS THIS HEALTHY? Health benefits can be found with continual use. A resistance to sickness and an over-all healing effect starts. A friend compared this effect to Ginseng -- I prefer to compare it to Echinacea. PAIN RELIEVER / MUSCLE RELAXANT Oh yeah! With other sedating herbs (Valerian, Skullcap, Passion Flower, et al) my body tends to wake up exhausted -- and with a lower back pain from sleeping too long. This is NOT the case with Ashwagandha. The body wakes up, without any pain at all -- with a warm and soft protective sheen seemingly coating the entire being. If you do suffer from chronic pains (which Ashwagandha relieved), the pains will return about 4-6 hours after waking up -- as it seems that this is the time the herb wears off almost completely. (Total time of action: ~10-12 hours) DREAM RECALL -- LUCIDITY As with many "sleep" supplements (5-HTP, Skullcap, etc...) dream recall is enhanced, even though some of these items are said to decrease REM activity. Some way or another, dream recall and lucidity comes much easier with any of these substances, though. Ashwagandha seems to greatly assist dream recall (not as well as 5-HTP, I must add), and chances of lucidity (once again, not as well as 5-HTP). Eyelids begin to flutter soon after sleep begins. Query NCU-3e Common Name: 'Culebra' Family: Solanaceae Juss. Country of Origin: Columbia - high and geographically isolated Indian village of Sibundoy Habitat: forested slopes of the mountains to the south of the valley of Sibundoy Description: Originally classified as Methysticodendron amesianum by R.E. Schultes in 1955 (Bot. Mus. Leaf., 17, 1, 1955) Description of Methysticodendron Amesianum- R. E. Schultes in Bot. Mus Leafl. Harvard Univ. 17 (1955) 2. Tree up to 25 feet tall, with short, densely leafy branches. Leaves membranaceous, dark green, narrowly linear-ligulate, apically acuminate, basally gradually attenuate (very often without distinct petiole), marginally commonly subundulate or undulate, in adult state 20-26 cm long, 1.3-2.0 cm wide; central nerve strong, beneath strongly elevated, secondary nerves almost parallel, somewhat conspicuous, towards margin arcuateanastomosing; both surfaces minutely and irregularly (near veins denser) pilose. Flowers up to 28 (mostly more or less 23) cm long apically 10-13 cm in diameter in bud, at dusk and night very strongly and sweetly fragant. Calyx spathaceous, green, papyraceous or membranaceous, 2- to 5-parted, with acute teeth, tubiform for half its length, 3/5 as long as corolla (up to 13 cm long), both surfaces very minutely and irregularly pilose. Corolla divided for 3/5-4/5 its length, with lobes usually 5 (but abnormally 4 or 6), membranaceous, white, spreading, spathulate or almost spathulately rhombiform, apically long acuminate, circinnate, entire, upper half strongly inflexed, 14-16 cm long, towards apex of tube usually 6mm. (but in widest part 2.5-3.3 cm) wide, near base very remotely and irregularly pilose within and without, with 3 conspicuous, strongly parallel veins; tube rather densely white-pilose within. Stamens usually 5, shorter than corolla lobes; with terete filaments, more or less 5 cm long, 2 mm in diameter at base, apically strongly twisted and lightly bent, pilose except at apex; anthers yellow, 2.7-3 cm long, 3-4 mm in diameter. Ovary sub-cylindric, conspicuously 3-sulcate, glabrous, up to 1.5 cm long, 0.5 cm in diameter, gradually produced into styles. Styles glabrous, up to more or less 9 cm long, 2.5 mm in diameter, apically slightly clavellate and strongly flattened, with stigmatic tissue on very apex and along adges up to 1-1.5 cm in decurrent form, black (when dry) and papillose. Appendix (rudimentary style?) like styles arising from central part of ovary, up to 5.5 cm long, accompanied by 1 or 2 subclavellate, fleshy appendices 2-5 mm long. Uses: This plant is known only from the valley of Sibundoy where it is employed by the Inga and Kams� Indians in their witchcraft. Its use in each tribe is restricted to several witch-doctors, and these practitioners grow the plant with special care in the neighbourhood of their huts. The wild habitat of the species is said to be the forested slopes of the mountains to the south of the valley of Sibundoy, especially the slopes of the botanically almost completely unknown Cerro Patascoy. When in cultivation, the plant is apparently the hereditary property of certain families, as the sorcerers pass it on to the eldest son together with the secrets attending its use. Restrictions: Poisonous Plant Parts - Not for Human Consumption tropane alkaloids - fatally toxic Accession Data: Accession #: 200200022 Source: Rich Sanders Provenance: Cuttings from Richard Sanders Feb2002. Original material from Andre Hodnik, France ex Sibundry Valley, SW Columbia (only known wild source of this clone) Accession Date: 02/11/02 Bench: 1209 - Solanaceae Qty: 1 confirmed on 06/26/02 Classification: Division: Magnoliophyta Class: Magnoliopsida SubClass: Asteridae Order: Solanales SubOrder: Family: Solanaceae SubFamily: Tribe: SubTribe: Based upon: Watson, L., and Dallwitz, M. J. (1992 onwards). �The Families of Flowering Plants: Descriptions, Illustrations, Identification, and Information Retrieval.� Version: 19th August 1999. http://biodiversity.uno.edu/delta/. Search Internet: Search Google for this taxon Search Metacrawler for this taxon Class Usage in the past 36 months: None Recorded Material to other institutions in the past 60 months: None Recorded Pesticide applications and bio-control releases in the past 12 months: None Recorded Miscellaneous Notations: None Recorded Credits: Personal communication with Rich Sanders, who provided the cuttings for us. Methysticodendron Amesianum - posted at Lycaeum Website - last visited 04/26/02 Disclaimer: This website contains a large amount of information regarding the plants housed in our diverse collections. This information is gathered from a wide variety of electronic, print and other sources. We have included reference information on each page to denote the original source of such information. More importantly, many of the plants in our collections have reputed medicinal properties according to some sources. We will only reproduce information we believe to be correct, but we make no claims as to the validity of this information. In particular, many plants with medicinal properties are also toxic and frequently FATAL if taken at incorrect dosages or if not prepared in a specific fashion. We do not advocate the consumption of reputed medicinal plant products without prior consultation with your physician or other natural plant products professional. The staff of the EEB Conservatory are not trained medical personnel and information from this website or from personnel affiliated with our facility should be treated as anecdotal information only and not as specific recomendations for usage. We make no claims about the efficacy of any plant or plant part for any specific remedies which may be alluded to on this website. -

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ichinese herb list and western herb 1877#in list reffer 2 site 2 order 4 ref.only here. http://www.herculesengines.com all old engines steam boilers etc. iChineseHerbs.com Chinese Herbs A through B (pin yin names) All quantities are 1 pound unless otherwise noted. All Herbs are Available in Sulphur Free, Chlorine Free, Aluminum Phosphate Free Policy for Wholesale Purchase. iChineseHerbs.com is a wholesale site and qualifications are required to obtain wholesale prices. Minimum purchase is $100.00 ($50.00 for students) Item # Pin Yin Common Name Quantity Price 25202 Ai Ye Artemisia Leaf / Mugwort $4.89 25202C Ai Ye Artemisia Leaf / Mugwort Concentrate 100 grams $8.39 24420 Ba Ji Tian #2 Morinda Root $16.09 24420P Ba Ji Tian #2 Morinda Root Powder $13.29 24420C Ba Ji Tian #2 Morinda Root Concentrate 100 grams $15.39 22500 Ba Jiao Hui Xiang Star Anise $6.99 22500P Ba Jiao Hui Xiang Star Anise Powder $6.29 22500C Ba Jiao Hui Xiang Star Anise Concentrate 100 grams $10.49 25134 Ba Wang Hua Hylocerus Flower $5.59 25135 Ba Wang Hua-Prep. Hylocerus Flower -Prepared $6.29 25310 Ba Yue Zha Akebia Fruit $11.19 25310C Ba Yue Zha Akebia Fruit 100 grams $11.19 25748 Bai Bu Stemona Root $6.99 25748P Bai Bu Stemona Root Powder $7.69 25748C Bai Bu Stemona Root Concentrate 100 grams $8.39 25333 Bai Dou Kou Round Cardamon Fruit $20.99 25333P Bai Dou Kou Round Cardamon Fruit Powder $21.69 25333C Bai Dou Kou Round Cardamon Fruit Concentrate 100 grams $13.99 25609 Bai Fu Zi Typhonium Rhizome $10.49 25609P Bai Fu Zi Typhonium Rhizome Powder $11.89 25609C Bai Fu Zi Typhonium Rhizome Concentrate 100 grams $11.19 22438 Bai Guo Ginkgo Nut $13.99 22438C Bai Guo Ginkgo Nut Concentrate 100 grams $17.49 25205 Bai Guo Ye Gingko Leaf $5.59 25205P Bai Guo Ye Gingko Leaf Powder $6.99 25205C Bai Guo Ye Gingko Leaf Concentrate 100 grams $11.89 25040 Bai He Lily Bulb $6.29 25040P Bai He Lily Bulb Powder $6.99 25040C Bai He Lily Bulb Concentrate 100 grams $9.09 25518 Bai Hua She She Cao Oldenlandia Herb $4.19 25518P Bai Hua She She Cao Oldenlandia Herb Powder $6.29 25518C Bai Hua She She Cao Oldenlandia Herb Concentrate 100 grams $9.09 25894 Bai Ji Bletilla Rhizome $6.99 25894P Bai Ji Bletilla Rhizome Powder $8.39 25894 Bai Ji Bletilla Rhizome Concentrate 100 grams $8.39 25424 Bai Ji Li Tribulus Fruit $5.59 25424P Bai Ji Li Tribulus Fruit Powder $6.99 25424C Bai Ji Li Tribulus Fruit Concentrate 100 grams $9.79 25546 Bai Jiang Cao Patrina Herb / Pennycress $5.59 25546P Bai Jiang Cao Patrina Herb / Pennycress Powder $6.29 25546C Bai Jiang Cao Patrina Herb / Pennycress Concentrate 100 grams $7.69 25825 Bai Jie Zi White Mustard Seed $5.59 25825P Bai Jie Zi White Mustard Seed Powder $6.29 25825C Bai Jie Zi White Mustard Seed Concentrate 100 grams $8.39 25151 Bai Lian Hua White Lotus Flower $8.39 25001 Bai Liu Pi White Willow Bark $5.59 25787 Bai Mao Gen Imperata / Woolly Grass Rhizome $5.59 25787P Bai Mao Gen Imperata / Woolly Grass Rhizome Powder $5.59 25787C Bai Mao Gen Imperata / Woolly Grass Rhizome Concentrate 100 grams $6.99 25136 Bai Moa Hua Imperata / Woolly Grass Flower $6.99 22839 Bai Mu Er Tremella Fungus $4.19 22839P Bai Mu Er Tremella Fungus Powder $6.99 22839C Bai Mu Er Tremella Fungus Concentrate 100 grams $7.69 25656 Bai Qian Cynanchum Stautoni Root $7.69 25656P Bai Qian Cynanchum Stautoni Root Powder $8.39 25656C Bai Qian Cynanchum Stautoni Root Concentrate 100 grams $8.39 25702 Bai Sho Yao White Peony Root $9.79 25702P Bai Sho Yao White Peony Root Powder $6.99 25702C Bai Sho Yao White Peony Root Concentrate 100 grams $12.59 25718 Bai Tou Weng Pulsatilla Root $5.59 25718P Bai Tou Weng Pulsatilla Root Powder $5.59 25718C Bai Tou Weng Pulsatilla Root Concentrate 100 grams $6.99 25654 Bai Wei Swallowwort Root $5.59 25654P Bai Wei Swallowwort Root Powder $6.29 25654C Bai Wei Swallowwort Root Concentrate 100 grams $7.69 25660 Bai Xian Pi Dittany Root - Bark $5.59 25660P Bai Xian Pi Dittany Root - Bark Powder $6.29 25660C Bai Xian Pi Dittany Root - Bark Concentrate 100 grams $10.49 25612 Bai Zhi Dahurican Angelica Root $7.69 25612P Bai Zhi Dahurican Angelica Root Powder $6.99 25612C Bai Zhi Dahurican Angelica Root Concentrate 100 grams $10.49 25867 Bai Zhi Ma White Sesame Seed $3.49 25782 Bai Zhu White Atractylodes Rhizome $7.69 25782P Bai Zhu White Atractylodes Rhizome Powder $9.09 25782C Bai Zhu White Atractylodes Rhizome Concentrate 100 grams $13.99 25823 Bai Zi Ren Biota Seed $8.39 25823P Bai Zi Ren Biota Seed Powder $9.09 25823C Bai Zi Ren Biota Seed Concentrate 100 grams $11.19 25506 Ban Bian Lian Chinese Lobelia Herb $6.29 25506P Ban Bian Lian Chinese Lobelia Herb Powder $6.99 25506C Ban Bian Lian Chinese Lobelia Herb Concentrate 100 grams $8.39 25672 Ban Lan Gen Isatis Root $5.59 25672P Ban Lan Gen Isatis Root Powder $6.29 25672C Ban Lan Gen Isatis Root Concentrate 100 grams $9.09 25798 Ban Xia Pinellia Rhizome Processed $11.19 25798P Ban Xia Pinellia Rhizome Processed Powder $11.89 25798C Ban Xia Pinellia Rhizome Processed Concentrate 100 grams $9.09 25537 Ban Zhi Lian Scutellaria Barbata Root $6.29 25537P Ban Zhi Lian Scutellaria Barbata Root Powder $6.29 25537C Ban Zhi Lian Scutellaria Barbata Root Concentrate 100 grams $11.19 22453 Bei Sha Shen Adenophora Glehnia Root $8.39 22453P Bei Sha Shen Adenophora Glehnia Root Powder $9.09 22453C Bei Sha Shen Adenophora Glehnia Root Concentrate 100 grams $9.79 25403 Bi Ba Long Pepper Fruit $9.79 25403P Bi Ba Long Pepper Fruit Powder $9.09 25403C Bi Ba Long Pepper Fruit Concentrate 100 grams $14.69 25783 Bi Xie Hypoglauca Rhizome $5.59 25783P Bi Xie Hypoglauca Rhizome Powder $6.29 25783C Bi Xie Hypoglauca Rhizome Concentrate 100 grams $7.69 25845 Bian Dou Dolichos Seed $5.59 25848P Bian Dou Dolichos Seed Powder $4.89 25848C Bian Dou Dolichos Seed Concentrate 100 grams $6.99 25891 Bian Dou Yi Dolichos Seed Skin $6.29 25524 Bian Xu Knotwed Grass $3.49 25524P Bian Xu Knotwed Grass Powder $6.29 25524C Bian Xu Knotwed Grass Concentrate 100 grams $6.99 25516 Bo He Mint Herb $5.59 25516P Bo He Mint Herb Powder $6.29 25516C Bo He Mint Herb Concentrate 100 grams $6.29 25864 Bu Gu Zhi Psoralea Fruit $4.89 25864P Bu Gu Zhi Psoralea Fruit Powder $5.59 25864C Bu Gu Zhi Psoralea Fruit Concentrate 100 grams $6.99 iChineseHerbs.com Chinese Herbs C through E (pin yin names) All quantities are 1 pound unless otherwise noted. All Herbs are Available in Sulphur Free, Chlorine Free, Aluminum Phosphate Free Policy for Wholesale Purchase. iChineseHerbs.com is a wholesale site and qualifications are required to obtain wholesale prices. Minimum purchase is $100.00 ($50.00 for students) Item# Pin Yin Botanical Name Quantity Price 25440 Cang Er Zi Xanthium Fruit $4.89 25440P Cang Er Zi Xanthium Fruit Powder $5.59 25440C Cang Er Zi Xanthium Fruit Concentrate 100 grams $9.79 25780 Cang Zhu Atractylodes Lancea Rhizome $6.29 25780P Cang Zhu Atractylodes Lancea Rhizome Powder $7.69 25780C Cang Zhu Atractylodes Lancea Rhizome Concentrate 100 grams $8.39 25340 Cao Dou Kou Alpinia Katsumadai Seed $6.99 25340C Cao Dou Kou Alpinia Katsumadai SeedConcentrate 100 grams $9.09 25336 Cao Guo Tsao-Ko Fruit $8.39 25336C Cao Guo Tsao-Ko Fruit Concentrate 100 grams $9.09 25786 Cao He Che Chinese Paris Rhizome $6.99 25786P Cao He Che Chinese Paris Rhizome Powder $7.69 25786C Cao He Che Chinese Paris Rhizome Concentrate 100 grams $7.69 25055 Ce Bai Ye Biota Leaves $5.59 25055P Ce Bai Ye Biota Leaves Powder $4.89 25055C Ce Bai Ye Biota Leaves Concentrate 100 grams $6.29 25648 Chai Hu Medium Bupleurum Root $16.09 25648P Chai Hu Medium Bupleurum Root Powder $8.39 25648C Chai Hu Medium Bupleurum Root Concentrate 100 grams $11.19 25977 Chan Tui Cicad Slough $19.59 25977P Chan Tui Cicad Slough Powder $23.79 25977C Chan Tui Cicad Slough Concentrate 100 grams $14.69 25658 Chang Shan Chinese Quinine / Dichroa Root $5.59 25658C Chang Shan Chinese Quinine / Dichroa Root Concentrate 100 grams $6.99 25520 Che Qian Cao Plantago - Plaintain Leaf $4.19 25520P Che Qian Cao Plantago - Plaintain Leaf Powder $4.89 25520C Che Qian Cao Plantago - Plaintain Leaf Concentrate 100 grams $6.29 25860 Che Qian Zi Plantago - Plaintain Seed $9.09 25860P Che Qian Zi Plantago - Plaintain Seed Powder $7.69 25860C Che Qian Zi Plantago - Plaintain Seed Concentrate 100 grams $6.99 22476 Chen Pi Tangerine Peel Matured $6.99 22476P Chen Pi Tangerine Peel Matured Powder $6.29 22476C Chen Pi Tangerine Peel Matured Concentrate 100 grams $9.09 22478 Chen Pi (Xin Hui) Tangerine Peel (Special Grade) $32.19 24712 Chi Fu Lin Red Poria Fungus $6.29 25704 Chi Shao Yao Red Peony Root $5.59 25704P Chi Shao Yao Red Peony Root Powder $10.49 25704C Chi Shao Yao Red Peony Root Concentrate 100 grams $11.89 25970 Chi Shi Zhi Halloysite $4.19 25834 Chi Xiao Dou Aduki Bean $4.89 25834P Chi Xiao Dou Aduki Bean Powder $5.59 25834C Chi Xiao Dou Aduki Bean Concentrate 100 grams $6.29 25388 Chong Wei Zi Leonuri / Motherwort Fruit $4.89 25388C Chong Wei Zi Leonuri / Motherwort Fruit Concentrate 100 grams $10.49 25640 Chou Wu Tong Clerondendron Herb $5.59 25640C Chou Wu Tong Clerondendron Herb Concentrate 100 grams $8.39 25020 Chuan Bei Mu Tendrilled Fritillary Bulb $53.89 25020P Chuan Bei Mu Tendrilled Fritillary Bulb Powder $54.59 25020C Chuan Bei Mu Tendrilled Fritillary Bulb Concentrate 100 grams $59.49 25431C Chuan Hua Jiao Prickly Ash Fruit Concentrate 100 grams $10.49 25593 Chuan Jin Pi Shrubalthea Bark $5.59 25593P Chuan Jin Pi Shrubalthea Bark Powder $6.29 25398 Chaun Lian Zi Melia / Pagoda Tree Fruit $5.59 25398P Chaun Lian Zi Melia / Pagoda Tree Fruit Powder $6.99 25398C Chaun Lian Zi Melia / Pagoda Tree Fruit Concentrate 100 grams $8.39 25603 Chuan Niu Xi Sichuan Ox Knee Root $7.69 25603P Chuan Niu Xi Sichuan Ox Knee Root Powder $8.39 25603C Chuan Niu Xi Sichuan Ox Knee Root Concentrate 100 grams $7.69 25604 Chuan Wu Sichuan Aconite Root Prepared $10.49 25604P Chuan Wu Sichuan Aconite Root Prepared Powder $10.49 25604C Chuan Wu Sichuan Aconite Root Prepared Concentrate 100 grams $9.79 25456 Chuan Xin Lian Andrographis Herb $5.59 25456P Chuan Xin Lian Andrographis Herb Powder $6.99 25456C Chuan Xin Lian Andrographis Herb Concentrate 100 grams $8.39 24801 Chuan Xiong Ligusticum $6.99 24801P Chuan Xiong Ligusticum Powder $7.69 24801C Chuan Xiong Ligusticum Concentrate 100 grams $12.59 25012 Chun Gen Pi Ailanthus Bark $5.59 25966 Ci Shi Magnetite $3.49 25966P Ci Shi Magnetite Powder $4.19 25966C Ci Shi Magnetite Concentrate 100 grams $5.59 25965 Ci Shi (Duan) Magnetite (prepared) $3.49 25079 Ci Wu Jia Eleuthero / Siberian Ginseng Root $4.89 25079P Ci Wu Jia Eleuthero / Siberian Ginseng Root Powder $5.59 25079C Ci Wu Jia Eleuthero / Siberian Ginseng Root Concentrate 100 grams $8.39 25883 Da Feng Zi Hydnocarpus Seed $5.59 25800 Da Huang Rhubarb Root $5.59 25800P Da Huang Rhubarb Root Powder $6.29 25800C Da Huang Rhubarb Root Concentrate 100 grams $6.99 25409 Da Mai Miao Barley Grass Powder $9.09 25215 Da Qing Ye Isatis / Woad Leaf $4.89 25215P Da Qing Ye Isatis / Woad Leaf Powder $5.59 25215C Da Qing Ye Isatis / Woad Leaf Concentrate 100 grams $6.99 25018C Da Suan Garlic Concentrate 100 grams $9.09 25472 Da Xiao Ji Thistle $4.89 25472P Da Xiao Ji Thistle Powder $5.59 25472C Da Xiao Ji Thistle Concentrate 100 grams $6.99 25430 Da Zao Jujube Fruit / Chinese Date (Black) $4.19 25430P Da Zao Jujube Fruit / Chinese Date (Black) Powder $4.89 25430C Da Zao Jujube Fruit / Chinese Date (Black) Concentrate 100 grams $8.39 25960 Dai Zhe Shi Hematite $4.89 25960P Dai Zhe Shi Hematite Powder $5.59 25960C Dai Zhe Shi Hematite Concentrate 100 grams $6.99 25870 Dan Dou Chi Soy Bean Prepared $4.89 25870P Dan Dou Chi Soy Bean Prepared Powder $5.59 25870C Dan Dou Chi Soy Bean Prepared Concentrate 100 grams $9.09 25564 Dan Nan Xing Arisaema Rhizome $14.69 25730 Dan Shen Salvia / Red Sage Root $8.39 25730P Dan Shen Salvia / Red Sage Root Powder $9.09 25730C Dan Shen Salvia / Red Sage Root Concentrate 100 grams $12.59 25508 Dan Zhue Ye Bamboo Leaf & Stem $3.49 25508P Dan Zhue Ye Bamboo Leaf & Stem Powder $4.19 25508C Dan Zhue Ye Bamboo Leaf & Stem Concentrate 100 grams $6.29 24697 Dang Gui Pian #2 Angelica Root (Processed) (Palm Sliced) $8.39 24697C Dang Gui Pian #2 Angelica Root (Processed) (Palm Sliced) Concentrate 100 grams $10.49 24660 Dang Gui Tou (6's) Angelica Root (6's) $9.09 24660P Dang Gui Tou (6's) Angelica Root (6's) Powder $6.29 24694 Dang Gui Wei-Tails Angelica Root-Tails $5.59 24694P Dang Gui Wei-Tails Angelica Root-Tails Powder $4.89 24694C Dang Gui Wei-Tails Angelica Root-Tails Concentrate 100 grams $8.39 24120 Dang Shen #2 Codonopsis Root $24.49 24120P Dang Shen #2 Codonopsis Root Powder $9.79 24120C Dang Shen #2 Codonopsis Root Concentrate 100 grams $13.29 25581 Deng Xin Cao Rush Pith $8.39 25581P Deng Xin Cao Rush Pith Powder $6.99 25581C Deng Xin Cao Rush Pith Concentrate 100 grams $14.69 25385 Di Fu Zi Kochia Seed $4.89 25385P Di Fu Zi Kochia Seed Powder $5.59 25385C Di Fu Zi Kochia Seed Concentrate 100 grams $6.99 25082 Di Gu Pi Lycium Bark / Wolfberry Root-Bark $4.89 25082P Di Gu Pi Lycium Bark / Wolfberry Root-Bark Powder $5.59 25082C Di Gu Pi Lycium Bark / Wolfberry Root-Bark Concentrate 100 grams $7.69 25734 Di Yu Sanguisorba / Burnet / Bloodwort Root $4.19 25734P Di Yu Sanguisorba / Burnet / Bloodwort Root Powder $5.59 25734C Di Yu Sanguisorba / Burnet / Bloodwort Root Concentrate 100 grams $10.49 25075 Ding Gong Teng Erycibes Vine $4.89 25110 Ding Xiang Cloves $8.39 25110P Ding Xiang Cloves Powder $9.09 25110C Ding Xiang Cloves Concentrate 100 grams $9.79 22161 Dong Chong Xia Cao Cordyceps Fungus- Price per ounce 1 ounce $104.99 22315 Dong Gua- Hua (Md) Shiitake Mushroom (Md) $11.19 22310 Dong Gua- Hua (Sm) Shiitake Mushroom (Sm) $10.49 22310P Dong Gua- Hua (Sm) Shiitake Mushroom (Sm) Powder $28.69 22350 Dong Gu- (Ri Ben) (Lg) Shiitake Flower Mushroom (Lg) $34.29 22350C Dong Gu- (Ri Ben) (Lg) Shiitake Flower Mushroom (Lg) Concentrate 100 grams $25.19 25586 Dong Gua Pi Winter Melon Peel $4.89 25586C Dong Gua Pi Winter Melon Peel Concentrate 100 grams $6.99 25821 Dong Gua Zi Winter Melon Seed $6.29 25821P Dong Gua Zi Winter Melon Seed Powder $6.99 25821C Dong Gua Zi Winter Melon Seed Concentrate 100 grams $6.29 25204 Dong Kui Ye Musk Mallow / Abutilon Leaf $3.49 25811 Dong Kui Zi Musk Mallow / Abutilon Seed $5.59 25811P Dong Kui Zi Musk Mallow / Abutilon Seed Powder $6.29 25811C Dong Kui Zi Musk Mallow / Abutilon Seed Concentrate 100 grams $6.29 22255 Dong Ling Cao Raddosia Rubescens Herb $4.89 25615 Du Huo Angelica Du Huo Root $7.69 25615P Du Huo Angelica Du Huo Root Powder $6.29 25615C Du Huo Angelica Du Huo Root Concentrate 100 grams $7.69 24310 Du Zhong #1 Eucommia Bark #1 $17.49 24310C Du Zhong #1 Eucommia Bark #1Concentrate 100 grams $16.09 24320 Du Zhong #2 Eucommia Bark #2 $11.19 24320P Du Zhong #2 Eucommia Bark #2 Powder $11.89 25208 Du Zhong Ye Eucommia Leaf $4.89 25208C Du Zhong Ye Eucommia Leaf Concentrate 100 grams $6.99 Policy for Wholesale Purchase. iChineseHerbs.com is a wholesale site and qualifications are required to obtain wholesale prices. Minimum purchase is $100.00 ($50.00 for students) Item# Pin Yin Common Name Quantity Price 25203 Fan Xie Ye Senna Leaf $4.89 25203P Fan Xie Ye Senna Leaf Powder $5.59 25203C Fan Xie Ye Senna Leaf Concentrate 100 grams $7.69 25740 Fang Feng Ledebouriella / Siler Root $9.79 25740P Fang Feng Ledebouriella / Siler Root Powder $10.49 25740C Fang Feng Ledebouriella / Siler Root Concentrate 100 grams $13.99 25746 Fang Ji Stephania Root $6.99 25746P Fang Ji Stephania Root Powder $6.29 25746C Fang Ji Stephania Root Concentrate 100 grams $8.39 25875 Fei Zi Torreya Nut $6.99 25875C Fei Zi Torreya Nut Concentrate 100 grams $11.19 2945 Feng Hua Fen Bee Pollen $6.29 25362 Fo Shou Gan Finger Citron Fruit $20.99 25362P Fo Shou Gan Finger Citron Fruit Powder $23.09 25362C Fo Shou Gan Finger Citron Fruit Concentrate 100 grams $11.89 25935 Fu Hai Shi Pumice $6.29 24720 Fu Ling (Curled) Poria / Hoelen Fungus (Curled) $10.49 24725 Fu Ling (Lump) Poria / Hoelen Fungus (Lump) $10.49 24711 Fu Ling (Sliced) Poria / Hoelen Fungus (Sliced) $8.39 24711P Fu Ling (Sliced) Poria / Hoelen Fungus (Sliced) Powder $7.69 24711C Fu Ling (Sliced) Poria / Hoelen Fungus (Sliced) Concentrate 100 grams $12.59 24728 Fu Ling (Spirit) Poria / Hoelen Fungus (Spirit) $8.39 24728P Fu Ling (Spirit) Poria / Hoelen Fungus (Spirit) Powder $7.69 24728C Fu Ling (Spirit) Poria / Hoelen Fungus (Spirit) Concentrate 100 grams $12.59 24735 Fu Ling Pi (Skin) Poria / Hoelen Fungus (Skin) $5.59 24735P Fu Ling Pi (Skin) Poria / Hoelen Fungus (Skin) Powder $4.89 24735C Fu Ling Pi (Skin) Poria / Hoelen Fungus (Skin) Concentrate 100 grams $9.09 25993 Fu Long Gan Ignited Yellow Earth $4.89 25418 Fu Pen Zi Raspberry Fruit $6.29 25418P Fu Pen Zi Raspberry Fruit Powder $8.39 25418C Fu Pen Zi Raspberry Fruit Concentrate 100 grams $9.79 25502 Fu Ping Spirodela / Duckweed $3.49 25502P Fu Ping Spirodela / Duckweed Powder $4.19 25502C Fu Ping Spirodela / Duckweed Concentrate 100 grams $6.29 25132 Fu Rong Hua Hibiscus Flower $11.19 25428 Fu Xiao Mai Immature Wheat Grain $4.19 25428P Fu Xiao Mai Immature Wheat Grain Powder $4.19 25428C Fu Xiao Mai Immature Wheat Grain Concentrate 100 grams $8.39 25608 Fu Zi Aconite / Accessory Root (Prepared) $9.79 25608P Fu Zi Aconite / Accessory Root (Prepared) Powder $10.49 25608C Fu Zi Aconite / Accessory Root (Prepared) Concentrate 100 grams $14.69 24812 Gan Cao #2 Licorice Root #2 $5.59 24812P Gan Cao #2 Licorice Root #2 Powder $4.89 24812C Gan Cao #2 Licorice Root #2 Concentrate 100 grams $9.09 24815 Gan Cao (Zhi) Honey Coated Licorice Root $6.29 24815P Gan Cao (Zhi) Honey Coated Licorice Root Powder $5.59 24815C Gan Cao (Zhi) Honey Coated Licorice Root Concentrate 100 grams $9.09 25806 Gan Jiang Ginger Root dried $4.89 25806P Gan Jiang Ginger Root dried Powder $5.59 25806C Gan Jiang Ginger Root dried Concentrate 100 grams $10.49 25674 Gao Ben Ligusticum / Chinese Lovage Root $6.29 25674P Gao Ben Ligusticum / Chinese Lovage Root Powder $6.99 25674C Gao Ben Ligusticum / Chinese Lovage Root Concentrate 100 grams $10.49 25771 Gao Liang Jiang Alpinia / Galangal Rhizome $4.89 25771P Gao Liang Jiang Alpinia / Galangal Rhizome Powder $5.59 25771C Gao Liang Jiang Alpinia / Galangal Rhizome Concentrate 100 grams $7.69 25716 Ge Gen Pueraria / Kudzu Root $6.29 25716P Ge Gen Pueraria / Kudzu Root Powder $6.99 25716C Ge Gen Pueraria / Kudzu Root Concentrate 100 grams $7.69 25210 Gong Lao Ye Chinese Holly Leaf $4.89 25210C Gong Lao Ye Chinese Holly Leaf Concentrate 100 grams $8.39 25788 Gou Ji Cibotium Rhizome $6.99 25788P Gou Ji Cibotium Rhizome Powder $6.29 25788C Gou Ji Cibotium Rhizome Concentrate 100 grams $7.69 25680 Gou Qi Gen Lycium / Wolfberry Root $4.89 25220 Gou Qi Ye Lycium / Wolfberry Leaf $6.29 24510 Gou Qi Zi #1 Lycium Wolfberry Fruit #1 $10.49 24520 Gou Qi Zi #2 Lycium Wolfberry Fruit #2 $8.39 24520P Gou Qi Zi #2 Lycium Wolfberry Fruit #2 Powder $8.39 24520C Gou Qi Zi #2 Lycium Wolfberry Fruit #2 Concentrate 100 grams $9.09 25759 Gou Teng Uncaria Vine With Hooks $4.89 25759P Gou Teng Uncaria Vine With Hooks Powder $5.59 25759C Gou Teng Uncaria Vine With Hooks Concentrate 100 grams $7.69 25124 Gu Jing Cao Pipewort Scapus $9.09 25124P Gu Jing Cao Pipewort Scapus Powder $8.39 25124C Gu Jing Cao Pipewort Scapus Concentrate 100 grams $10.49 25794 Gu Sui Bu Drynaria Rhizome $4.89 25794P Gu Sui Bu Drynaria Rhizome Powder $5.59 25794C Gu Sui Bu Drynaria Rhizome Concentrate 100 grams $7.69 25406 Gu Ya Germinated Rice Millet Sprout $9.09 25406P Gu Ya Germinated Rice Millet Sprout Powder $6.99 25406C Gu Ya Germinated Rice Millet Sprout Concentrate 100 grams $7.69 25434 Gua Lou Pi Trichosanthes Peel $6.99 25434C Gua Lou Pi Trichosanthes Peel Concentrate 100 grams $8.39 25877 Gua Lou Ren Trichosanthes Seed $6.29 25877P Gua Lou Ren Trichosanthes Seed Powder $6.99 25877C Gua Lou Ren Trichosanthes Seed Concentrate 100 grams $7.69 25433 Gua Lou Shi Trichosanthes Fruit $5.59 25433P Gua Lou Shi Trichosanthes Fruit Powder $6.99 25433C Gua Lou Shi Trichosanthes Fruit Concentrate 100 grams $9.79 25407 Guan Ye Jin Si Tao St. John's Wort Herb $4.89 25407P Guan Ye Jin Si Tao St. John's Wort Herb Powder $5.59 25795 Guan Zhong Dryopteris / Male Fern Rhizome $4.19 25795P Guan Zhong Dryopteris / Male Fern Rhizome Powder $4.89 25795C Guan Zhong Dryopteris / Male Fern Rhizome Concentrate 100 grams $6.99 25068 Hai Feng Teng Kadsura Stem $4.19 25068P Hai Feng Teng Kadsura Stem Powder $4.89 25068C Hai Feng Teng Kadsura Stem Concentrate 100 grams $9.79 25886 Hai Jin Sha Lygodium Spores $9.09 25886C Hai Jin Sha Lygodium Spores Concentrate 100 grams $17.49 25078 Hai Tong Pi Erythrina Bark $6.29 25078P Hai Tong Pi Erythrina Bark Powder $4.89 25078C Hai Tong Pi Erythrina Bark Concentrate 100 grams $6.99 25893 Hai Zao Sargasso Seaweed $4.89 25893P Hai Zao Sargasso Seaweed Powder $5.59 2593C Hai Zao Sargasso Seaweed Concentrate 100 grams $7.69 25746 Han Fang Ji Stephania Root $6.29 25746P Han Fang Ji Stephania Root Powder $6.29 25746C Han Fang Ji Stephania Root Concentrate 100 grams $7.69 25482 Han Lian Cao Eclipta Herb $4.89 25482P Han Lian Cao Eclipta Herb Powder $5.59 25482C Han Lian Cao Eclipta Herb Concentrate 100 grams $8.39 25908 Han Shui Shi Calcite $4.89 25102 He Huan Hua Albizzia / Mimosa Flower $6.29 25102C He Huan Hua Albizzia / Mimosa Flower Concentrate 100 grams $8.39 25072 He Huan Pi Albizzia / Mimosa Bark $5.59 25072P He Huan Pi Albizzia / Mimosa Bark Powder $6.29 25072C He Huan Pi Albizzia / Mimosa Bark Concentrate 100 grams $7.69 25352 He Shi Wormseed / Carpesium Fruit $4.89 25352P He Shi Wormseed / Carpesium Fruit Powder $5.59 25352C He Shi Wormseed / Carpesium Fruit Concentrate 100 grams $9.79 25712 He Shou Wu Polygonum Multiflorum / Foti Root (Sliced) $5.59 25712P He Shou Wu Polygonum Multiflorum / Foti Root (Sliced) Powder $6.29 25712C He Shou Wu Polygonum Multiflorum / Foti Root (Sliced) Concentrate 100 grams $9.09 25423 He Zi Terminalia Fruit $4.89 25423P He Zi Terminalia Fruit Powder $5.59 25423C He Zi Terminalia Fruit Concentrate 100 grams $7.69 25108 Hong Hua Carthamus Flower / Safflower $7.69 25108P Hong Hua Carthamus Flower / Safflower Powder $8.39 25108C Hong Hua Carthamus Flower / Safflower Concentrate 100 grams $8.39 25432 Hong Zao Chinese Date (Red) $4.89 25432P Hong Zao Chinese Date (Red) Powder $5.59 25432C Hong Zao Chinese Date (Red) Concentrate 100 grams $3.00 25084 Hou Po Magnolia Bark $9.79 25084P Hou Po Magnolia Bark Powder $10.49 25084C Hou Po Magnolia Bark Concentrate 100 grams $12.59 25807 Hu Huang Lian Picrorrhiza Root $11.19 25807P Hu Huang Lian Picrorrhiza Root Powder $11.89 25807C Hu Huang Lian Picrorrhiza Root Concentrate 100 grams $13.29 25405 Hu Jiao Black Pepper $9.09 25405P Hu Jiao Black Pepper Powder $10.49 25405C Hu Jiao Black Pepper Concentrate 100 grams $11.19 25841 Hu Lu Ba Fenugreek Seed $4.89 25841P Hu Lu Ba Fenugreek Seed Powder $5.59 25841C Hu Lu Ba Fenugreek Seed Concentrate 100 grams $8.39 25990 Hu Po Amber $17.49 25990P Hu Po Amber Powder $11.89 25990C Hu Po Amber Concentrate 100 grams $23.09 25431 Hua Jiao Prickly Ash Fruit $9.79 25431P Hua Jiao Prickly Ash Fruit Powder $11.19 25431C Hua Jiao Prickly Ash Fruit Concentrate 100 grams $11.89 25992 Hua Shi Talc $4.89 25992P Hua Shi Talc Powder $4.89 25992C Hua Shi Talc Concentrate 100 grams $5.59 25162 Huai Hua Pagoda Tree Flower $5.59 25162P Huai Hua Pagoda Tree Flower Powder $11.19 25162C Huai Hua Pagoda Tree Flower Concentrate 100 grams $7.69 25422 Huai Jiao Zi Pagoda Tree Fruit $5.59 25422P Huai Jiao Zi Pagoda Tree Fruit Powder $6.29 25422C Huai Jiao Zi Pagoda Tree Fruit Concentrate 100 grams $6.99 25602 Huai Niu Xi Achyranthes / Two Tooth Root $5.59 25602P Huai Niu Xi Achyranthes / Two Tooth Root Powder $5.59 25602C Huai Niu Xi Achyranthes / Two Tooth Root Concentrate 100 grams $8.39 25095 Huang Bai Phellodendron / Corktree Bark $6.99 25095P Huang Bai Phellodendron / Corktree Bark Powder $7.69 25095C Huang Bai Phellodendron / Corktree BarkConcentrate 100 grams $9.79 25799 Huang Jing Polygonatum Rhizome $7.69 25799P Huang Jing Polygonatum Rhizome Powder $8.39 25799C Huang Jing Polygonatum Rhizome Concentrate 100 grams $8.39 25791 Huang Lian Coptis / Golden Thread Rhizome $43.39 25791P Huang Lian Coptis / Golden Thread Rhizome Powder $44.79 25791C Huang Lian Coptis / Golden Thread Rhizome Concentrate 100 grams $45.49 24030 Huang Qi Astragalus Root $8.39 24030P Huang Qi Astragalus Root Powder $6.99 24030C Huang Qi Astragalus Root Concentrate 100 grams $11.89 25736 Huang Qin Scutellaria / Skullcap Root $6.99 25736P Huang Qin Scutellaria / Skullcap Root Powder $7.69 25736C Huang Qin Scutellaria / Skullcap Root Concentrate 100 grams $13.29 25781 Huang Yao Zi Dioscorea Bulbifera Bulb $4.89 25781P Huang Yao Zi Dioscorea Bulbifera Bulb Powder $5.59 25781C Huang Yao Zi Dioscorea Bulbifera Bulb Concentrate 100 grams $8.39 25350 Huo Ma Ren Cannabis Seed $6.99 25350P Huo Ma Ren Cannabis Seed Powder $7.69 25350C Huo Ma Ren Cannabis Seed Concentrate 100 grams $8.39 25452 Huo Xiang Patchouli / Pogostemon Herb $5.59 25452P Huo Xiang Patchouli / Pogostemon Herb Powder $6.29 25452C Huo Xiang Patchouli / Pogostemon Herb Concentrate 100 grams $7.69 25067 Ji Xue Teng Millettia Stem $5.59 25067P Ji Xue Teng Millettia Stem Powder $6.29 25067C Ji Xue Teng Millettia Stem Concentrate 100 grams $7.69 25792 Jiang Huang Tumeric Rhizome $6.99 25792P Jiang Huang Tumeric Rhizome Powder $7.69 25792C Jiang Huang Tumeric Rhizome Concentrate 100 grams $9.09 25209 Jiao Gu Lan Gynostemma Pentaphyllum Herb $5.59 25209P Jiao Gu Lan Gynostemma Pentaphyllum Herb Powder $4.89 25209C Jiao Gu Lan Gynostemma Pentaphyllum Herb Concentrate 100 grams $10.49 25708 Jie Geng Platycodon / Balloon Flower Root $6.99 25708P Jie Geng Platycodon / Balloon Flower Root Powder $7.69 25708C Jie Geng Platycodon / Balloon Flower Root Concentrate 100 grams $8.39 25501 Jin Qian Cao Lysimachia Herb $4.89 25501P Jin Qian Cao Lysimachia Herb Powder $6.29 25501C Jin Qian Cao Lysimachia Herb Concentrate 100 grams $7.69 25144 Jin Yin Hua Honeysuckle Flower $9.09 25144P Jin Yin Hua Honeysuckle Flower Powder $9.79 25144C Jin Yin Hua Honeysuckle Flower Concentrate 100 grams $14.69 25416 Jin Ying Zi Rose Hip $4.89 25416P Jin Ying Zi Rose Hip Powder $5.59 25416C Jin Ying Zi Rose Hip Concentrate 100 grams $6.29 25536 Jing Jie Schizonepeta Stem and Bud $5.59 25536P Jing Jie Schizonepeta Stem and Bud Powder $6.29 25536C Jing Jie Schizonepeta Stem and Bud Concentrate 100 grams $6.99 25813 Jui Cai Zi Chinese Leek Seed $5.59 25813P Jui Cai Zi Chinese Leek Seed Powder $6.29 25813C Jui Cai Zi Chinese Leek Seed Concentrate 100 grams $7.69 25587 Ju Hong Red Tangerine Peel $23.09 25587P Ju Hong Red Tangerine Peel Powder $24.49 25587C Ju Hong Red Tangerine Peel Concentrate 100 grams $26.59 25116 Ju Hua Chrysanthemum Flower $5.59 25116P Ju Hua Chrysanthemum Flower Powder $6.29 25116C Ju Hua Chrysanthemum Flower Concentrate 100 grams $8.39 25540 Juan Bai Selaginellia / Involute Spikemoss Herb $4.89 25540C Juan Bai Selaginellia / Involute Spikemoss Herb Concentrate 100 grams $8.39 25829 Jue Ming Zi Cassia Seed $5.59 25829P Jue Ming Zi Cassia Seed Powder $6.29 25829C Jue Ming Zi Cassia Seed Concentrate 100 grams $7.69 i Chinese Herbs, an online herb company offering Medicinal, Oriental, Western, Organic, Native American, Natural, Bulk and Ayurvedic Herbs at discount prices. www.ichineseherbs.com [email protected] 1-360-923-0486 Local * 1-888-842-2049 Toll Free 1-772-382-2668 Fax number Mailing Address i Chinese Herbs PO Box 336 East Olympia, WA 98540 Physical Address Policy for Wholesale Purchase. iChineseHerbs.com is a wholesale site and qualifications are required to obtain wholesale prices. Minimum purchase is $100.00 ($50.00 for students) Item# Pin Yin Common Name Quantity Price 25203 Fan Xie Ye Senna Leaf $4.89 25203P Fan Xie Ye Senna Leaf Powder $5.59 25203C Fan Xie Ye Senna Leaf Concentrate 100 grams $7.69 25740 Fang Feng Ledebouriella / Siler Root $9.79 25740P Fang Feng Ledebouriella / Siler Root Powder $10.49 25740C Fang Feng Ledebouriella / Siler Root Concentrate 100 grams $13.99 25746 Fang Ji Stephania Root $6.99 25746P Fang Ji Stephania Root Powder $6.29 25746C Fang Ji Stephania Root Concentrate 100 grams $8.39 25875 Fei Zi Torreya Nut $6.99 25875C Fei Zi Torreya Nut Concentrate 100 grams $11.19 2945 Feng Hua Fen Bee Pollen $6.29 25362 Fo Shou Gan Finger Citron Fruit $20.99 25362P Fo Shou Gan Finger Citron Fruit Powder $23.09 25362C Fo Shou Gan Finger Citron Fruit Concentrate 100 grams $11.89 25935 Fu Hai Shi Pumice $6.29 24720 Fu Ling (Curled) Poria / Hoelen Fungus (Curled) $10.49 24725 Fu Ling (Lump) Poria / Hoelen Fungus (Lump) $10.49 24711 Fu Ling (Sliced) Poria / Hoelen Fungus (Sliced) $8.39 24711P Fu Ling (Sliced) Poria / Hoelen Fungus (Sliced) Powder $7.69 24711C Fu Ling (Sliced) Poria / Hoelen Fungus (Sliced) Concentrate 100 grams $12.59 24728 Fu Ling (Spirit) Poria / Hoelen Fungus (Spirit) $8.39 24728P Fu Ling (Spirit) Poria / Hoelen Fungus (Spirit) Powder $7.69 24728C Fu Ling (Spirit) Poria / Hoelen Fungus (Spirit) Concentrate 100 grams $12.59 24735 Fu Ling Pi (Skin) Poria / Hoelen Fungus (Skin) $5.59 24735P Fu Ling Pi (Skin) Poria / Hoelen Fungus (Skin) Powder $4.89 24735C Fu Ling Pi (Skin) Poria / Hoelen Fungus (Skin) Concentrate 100 grams $9.09 25993 Fu Long Gan Ignited Yellow Earth $4.89 25418 Fu Pen Zi Raspberry Fruit $6.29 25418P Fu Pen Zi Raspberry Fruit Powder $8.39 25418C Fu Pen Zi Raspberry Fruit Concentrate 100 grams $9.79 25502 Fu Ping Spirodela / Duckweed $3.49 25502P Fu Ping Spirodela / Duckweed Powder $4.19 25502C Fu Ping Spirodela / Duckweed Concentrate 100 grams $6.29 25132 Fu Rong Hua Hibiscus Flower $11.19 25428 Fu Xiao Mai Immature Wheat Grain $4.19 25428P Fu Xiao Mai Immature Wheat Grain Powder $4.19 25428C Fu Xiao Mai Immature Wheat Grain Concentrate 100 grams $8.39 25608 Fu Zi Aconite / Accessory Root (Prepared) $9.79 25608P Fu Zi Aconite / Accessory Root (Prepared) Powder $10.49 25608C Fu Zi Aconite / Accessory Root (Prepared) Concentrate 100 grams $14.69 24812 Gan Cao #2 Licorice Root #2 $5.59 24812P Gan Cao #2 Licorice Root #2 Powder $4.89 24812C Gan Cao #2 Licorice Root #2 Concentrate 100 grams $9.09 24815 Gan Cao (Zhi) Honey Coated Licorice Root $6.29 24815P Gan Cao (Zhi) Honey Coated Licorice Root Powder $5.59 24815C Gan Cao (Zhi) Honey Coated Licorice Root Concentrate 100 grams $9.09 25806 Gan Jiang Ginger Root dried $4.89 25806P Gan Jiang Ginger Root dried Powder $5.59 25806C Gan Jiang Ginger Root dried Concentrate 100 grams $10.49 25674 Gao Ben Ligusticum / Chinese Lovage Root $6.29 25674P Gao Ben Ligusticum / Chinese Lovage Root Powder $6.99 25674C Gao Ben Ligusticum / Chinese Lovage Root Concentrate 100 grams $10.49 25771 Gao Liang Jiang Alpinia / Galangal Rhizome $4.89 25771P Gao Liang Jiang Alpinia / Galangal Rhizome Powder $5.59 25771C Gao Liang Jiang Alpinia / Galangal Rhizome Concentrate 100 grams $7.69 25716 Ge Gen Pueraria / Kudzu Root $6.29 25716P Ge Gen Pueraria / Kudzu Root Powder $6.99 25716C Ge Gen Pueraria / Kudzu Root Concentrate 100 grams $7.69 25210 Gong Lao Ye Chinese Holly Leaf $4.89 25210C Gong Lao Ye Chinese Holly Leaf Concentrate 100 grams $8.39 25788 Gou Ji Cibotium Rhizome $6.99 25788P Gou Ji Cibotium Rhizome Powder $6.29 25788C Gou Ji Cibotium Rhizome Concentrate 100 grams $7.69 25680 Gou Qi Gen Lycium / Wolfberry Root $4.89 25220 Gou Qi Ye Lycium / Wolfberry Leaf $6.29 24510 Gou Qi Zi #1 Lycium Wolfberry Fruit #1 $10.49 24520 Gou Qi Zi #2 Lycium Wolfberry Fruit #2 $8.39 24520P Gou Qi Zi #2 Lycium Wolfberry Fruit #2 Powder $8.39 24520C Gou Qi Zi #2 Lycium Wolfberry Fruit #2 Concentrate 100 grams $9.09 25759 Gou Teng Uncaria Vine With Hooks $4.89 25759P Gou Teng Uncaria Vine With Hooks Powder $5.59 25759C Gou Teng Uncaria Vine With Hooks Concentrate 100 grams $7.69 25124 Gu Jing Cao Pipewort Scapus $9.09 25124P Gu Jing Cao Pipewort Scapus Powder $8.39 25124C Gu Jing Cao Pipewort Scapus Concentrate 100 grams $10.49 25794 Gu Sui Bu Drynaria Rhizome $4.89 25794P Gu Sui Bu Drynaria Rhizome Powder $5.59 25794C Gu Sui Bu Drynaria Rhizome Concentrate 100 grams $7.69 25406 Gu Ya Germinated Rice Millet Sprout $9.09 25406P Gu Ya Germinated Rice Millet Sprout Powder $6.99 25406C Gu Ya Germinated Rice Millet Sprout Concentrate 100 grams $7.69 25434 Gua Lou Pi Trichosanthes Peel $6.99 25434C Gua Lou Pi Trichosanthes Peel Concentrate 100 grams $8.39 25877 Gua Lou Ren Trichosanthes Seed $6.29 25877P Gua Lou Ren Trichosanthes Seed Powder $6.99 25877C Gua Lou Ren Trichosanthes Seed Concentrate 100 grams $7.69 25433 Gua Lou Shi Trichosanthes Fruit $5.59 25433P Gua Lou Shi Trichosanthes Fruit Powder $6.99 25433C Gua Lou Shi Trichosanthes Fruit Concentrate 100 grams $9.79 25407 Guan Ye Jin Si Tao St. John's Wort Herb $4.89 25407P Guan Ye Jin Si Tao St. John's Wort Herb Powder $5.59 25795 Guan Zhong Dryopteris / Male Fern Rhizome $4.19 25795P Guan Zhong Dryopteris / Male Fern Rhizome Powder $4.89 25795C Guan Zhong Dryopteris / Male Fern Rhizome Concentrate 100 grams $6.99 25068 Hai Feng Teng Kadsura Stem $4.19 25068P Hai Feng Teng Kadsura Stem Powder $4.89 25068C Hai Feng Teng Kadsura Stem Concentrate 100 grams $9.79 25886 Hai Jin Sha Lygodium Spores $9.09 25886C Hai Jin Sha Lygodium Spores Concentrate 100 grams $17.49 25078 Hai Tong Pi Erythrina Bark $6.29 25078P Hai Tong Pi Erythrina Bark Powder $4.89 25078C Hai Tong Pi Erythrina Bark Concentrate 100 grams $6.99 25893 Hai Zao Sargasso Seaweed $4.89 25893P Hai Zao Sargasso Seaweed Powder $5.59 2593C Hai Zao Sargasso Seaweed Concentrate 100 grams $7.69 25746 Han Fang Ji Stephania Root $6.29 25746P Han Fang Ji Stephania Root Powder $6.29 25746C Han Fang Ji Stephania Root Concentrate 100 grams $7.69 25482 Han Lian Cao Eclipta Herb $4.89 25482P Han Lian Cao Eclipta Herb Powder $5.59 25482C Han Lian Cao Eclipta Herb Concentrate 100 grams $8.39 25908 Han Shui Shi Calcite $4.89 25102 He Huan Hua Albizzia / Mimosa Flower $6.29 25102C He Huan Hua Albizzia / Mimosa Flower Concentrate 100 grams $8.39 25072 He Huan Pi Albizzia / Mimosa Bark $5.59 25072P He Huan Pi Albizzia / Mimosa Bark Powder $6.29 25072C He Huan Pi Albizzia / Mimosa Bark Concentrate 100 grams $7.69 25352 He Shi Wormseed / Carpesium Fruit $4.89 25352P He Shi Wormseed / Carpesium Fruit Powder $5.59 25352C He Shi Wormseed / Carpesium Fruit Concentrate 100 grams $9.79 25712 He Shou Wu Polygonum Multiflorum / Foti Root (Sliced) $5.59 25712P He Shou Wu Polygonum Multiflorum / Foti Root (Sliced) Powder $6.29 25712C He Shou Wu Polygonum Multiflorum / Foti Root (Sliced) Concentrate 100 grams $9.09 25423 He Zi Terminalia Fruit $4.89 25423P He Zi Terminalia Fruit Powder $5.59 25423C He Zi Terminalia Fruit Concentrate 100 grams $7.69 25108 Hong Hua Carthamus Flower / Safflower $7.69 25108P Hong Hua Carthamus Flower / Safflower Powder $8.39 25108C Hong Hua Carthamus Flower / Safflower Concentrate 100 grams $8.39 25432 Hong Zao Chinese Date (Red) $4.89 25432P Hong Zao Chinese Date (Red) Powder $5.59 25432C Hong Zao Chinese Date (Red) Concentrate 100 grams $3.00 25084 Hou Po Magnolia Bark $9.79 25084P Hou Po Magnolia Bark Powder $10.49 25084C Hou Po Magnolia Bark Concentrate 100 grams $12.59 25807 Hu Huang Lian Picrorrhiza Root $11.19 25807P Hu Huang Lian Picrorrhiza Root Powder $11.89 25807C Hu Huang Lian Picrorrhiza Root Concentrate 100 grams $13.29 25405 Hu Jiao Black Pepper $9.09 25405P Hu Jiao Black Pepper Powder $10.49 25405C Hu Jiao Black Pepper Concentrate 100 grams $11.19 25841 Hu Lu Ba Fenugreek Seed $4.89 25841P Hu Lu Ba Fenugreek Seed Powder $5.59 25841C Hu Lu Ba Fenugreek Seed Concentrate 100 grams $8.39 25990 Hu Po Amber $17.49 25990P Hu Po Amber Powder $11.89 25990C Hu Po Amber Concentrate 100 grams $23.09 25431 Hua Jiao Prickly Ash Fruit $9.79 25431P Hua Jiao Prickly Ash Fruit Powder $11.19 25431C Hua Jiao Prickly Ash Fruit Concentrate 100 grams $11.89 25992 Hua Shi Talc $4.89 25992P Hua Shi Talc Powder $4.89 25992C Hua Shi Talc Concentrate 100 grams $5.59 25162 Huai Hua Pagoda Tree Flower $5.59 25162P Huai Hua Pagoda Tree Flower Powder $11.19 25162C Huai Hua Pagoda Tree Flower Concentrate 100 grams $7.69 25422 Huai Jiao Zi Pagoda Tree Fruit $5.59 25422P Huai Jiao Zi Pagoda Tree Fruit Powder $6.29 25422C Huai Jiao Zi Pagoda Tree Fruit Concentrate 100 grams $6.99 25602 Huai Niu Xi Achyranthes / Two Tooth Root $5.59 25602P Huai Niu Xi Achyranthes / Two Tooth Root Powder $5.59 25602C Huai Niu Xi Achyranthes / Two Tooth Root Concentrate 100 grams $8.39 25095 Huang Bai Phellodendron / Corktree Bark $6.99 25095P Huang Bai Phellodendron / Corktree Bark Powder $7.69 25095C Huang Bai Phellodendron / Corktree BarkConcentrate 100 grams $9.79 25799 Huang Jing Polygonatum Rhizome $7.69 25799P Huang Jing Polygonatum Rhizome Powder $8.39 25799C Huang Jing Polygonatum Rhizome Concentrate 100 grams $8.39 25791 Huang Lian Coptis / Golden Thread Rhizome $43.39 25791P Huang Lian Coptis / Golden Thread Rhizome Powder $44.79 25791C Huang Lian Coptis / Golden Thread Rhizome Concentrate 100 grams $45.49 24030 Huang Qi Astragalus Root $8.39 24030P Huang Qi Astragalus Root Powder $6.99 24030C Huang Qi Astragalus Root Concentrate 100 grams $11.89 25736 Huang Qin Scutellaria / Skullcap Root $6.99 25736P Huang Qin Scutellaria / Skullcap Root Powder $7.69 25736C Huang Qin Scutellaria / Skullcap Root Concentrate 100 grams $13.29 25781 Huang Yao Zi Dioscorea Bulbifera Bulb $4.89 25781P Huang Yao Zi Dioscorea Bulbifera Bulb Powder $5.59 25781C Huang Yao Zi Dioscorea Bulbifera Bulb Concentrate 100 grams $8.39 25350 Huo Ma Ren Cannabis Seed $6.99 25350P Huo Ma Ren Cannabis Seed Powder $7.69 25350C Huo Ma Ren Cannabis Seed Concentrate 100 grams $8.39 25452 Huo Xiang Patchouli / Pogostemon Herb $5.59 25452P Huo Xiang Patchouli / Pogostemon Herb Powder $6.29 25452C Huo Xiang Patchouli / Pogostemon Herb Concentrate 100 grams $7.69 25067 Ji Xue Teng Millettia Stem $5.59 25067P Ji Xue Teng Millettia Stem Powder $6.29 25067C Ji Xue Teng Millettia Stem Concentrate 100 grams $7.69 25792 Jiang Huang Tumeric Rhizome $6.99 25792P Jiang Huang Tumeric Rhizome Powder $7.69 25792C Jiang Huang Tumeric Rhizome Concentrate 100 grams $9.09 25209 Jiao Gu Lan Gynostemma Pentaphyllum Herb $5.59 25209P Jiao Gu Lan Gynostemma Pentaphyllum Herb Powder $4.89 25209C Jiao Gu Lan Gynostemma Pentaphyllum Herb Concentrate 100 grams $10.49 25708 Jie Geng Platycodon / Balloon Flower Root $6.99 25708P Jie Geng Platycodon / Balloon Flower Root Powder $7.69 25708C Jie Geng Platycodon / Balloon Flower Root Concentrate 100 grams $8.39 25501 Jin Qian Cao Lysimachia Herb $4.89 25501P Jin Qian Cao Lysimachia Herb Powder $6.29 25501C Jin Qian Cao Lysimachia Herb Concentrate 100 grams $7.69 25144 Jin Yin Hua Honeysuckle Flower $9.09 25144P Jin Yin Hua Honeysuckle Flower Powder $9.79 25144C Jin Yin Hua Honeysuckle Flower Concentrate 100 grams $14.69 25416 Jin Ying Zi Rose Hip $4.89 25416P Jin Ying Zi Rose Hip Powder $5.59 25416C Jin Ying Zi Rose Hip Concentrate 100 grams $6.29 25536 Jing Jie Schizonepeta Stem and Bud $5.59 25536P Jing Jie Schizonepeta Stem and Bud Powder $6.29 25536C Jing Jie Schizonepeta Stem and Bud Concentrate 100 grams $6.99 25813 Jui Cai Zi Chinese Leek Seed $5.59 25813P Jui Cai Zi Chinese Leek Seed Powder $6.29 25813C Jui Cai Zi Chinese Leek Seed Concentrate 100 grams $7.69 25587 Ju Hong Red Tangerine Peel $23.09 25587P Ju Hong Red Tangerine Peel Powder $24.49 25587C Ju Hong Red Tangerine Peel Concentrate 100 grams $26.59 25116 Ju Hua Chrysanthemum Flower $5.59 25116P Ju Hua Chrysanthemum Flower Powder $6.29 25116C Ju Hua Chrysanthemum Flower Concentrate 100 grams $8.39 25540 Juan Bai Selaginellia / Involute Spikemoss Herb $4.89 25540C Juan Bai Selaginellia / Involute Spikemoss Herb Concentrate 100 grams $8.39 25829 Jue Ming Zi Cassia Seed $5.59 25829P Jue Ming Zi Cassia Seed Powder $6.29 25829C Jue Ming Zi Cassia Seed Concentrate 100 grams $7.69 i Chinese Herbs, an online herb company offering Medicinal, Oriental, Western, Organic, Native American, Natural, Bulk and Ayurvedic Herbs at discount prices. www.ichineseherbs.com [email protected] 1-360-923-0486 Local * 1-888-842-2049 Toll Free 1-772-382-2668 Fax number Mailing Address i Chinese Herbs PO Box 336 East Olympia, WA 98540 Physical Address iChineseHerbs.com Chinese Herbs F through J (pin yin names) All quantities are 1 pound unless otherwise noted. All Herbs are Available in Sulphur Free, Chlorine Free, Aluminum Phosphate Free Policy for Wholesale Purchase. iChineseHerbs.com is a wholesale site and qualifications are required to obtain wholesale prices. Minimum purchase is $100.00 ($50.00 for students) Item# Pin Yin Common Name Quantity Price 25203 Fan Xie Ye Senna Leaf $4.89 25203P Fan Xie Ye Senna Leaf Powder $5.59 25203C Fan Xie Ye Senna Leaf Concentrate 100 grams $7.69 25740 Fang Feng Ledebouriella / Siler Root $9.79 25740P Fang Feng Ledebouriella / Siler Root Powder $10.49 25740C Fang Feng Ledebouriella / Siler Root Concentrate 100 grams $13.99 25746 Fang Ji Stephania Root $6.99 25746P Fang Ji Stephania Root Powder $6.29 25746C Fang Ji Stephania Root Concentrate 100 grams $8.39 25875 Fei Zi Torreya Nut $6.99 25875C Fei Zi Torreya Nut Concentrate 100 grams $11.19 2945 Feng Hua Fen Bee Pollen $6.29 25362 Fo Shou Gan Finger Citron Fruit $20.99 25362P Fo Shou Gan Finger Citron Fruit Powder $23.09 25362C Fo Shou Gan Finger Citron Fruit Concentrate 100 grams $11.89 25935 Fu Hai Shi Pumice $6.29 24720 Fu Ling (Curled) Poria / Hoelen Fungus (Curled) $10.49 24725 Fu Ling (Lump) Poria / Hoelen Fungus (Lump) $10.49 24711 Fu Ling (Sliced) Poria / Hoelen Fungus (Sliced) $8.39 24711P Fu Ling (Sliced) Poria / Hoelen Fungus (Sliced) Powder $7.69 24711C Fu Ling (Sliced) Poria / Hoelen Fungus (Sliced) Concentrate 100 grams $12.59 24728 Fu Ling (Spirit) Poria / Hoelen Fungus (Spirit) $8.39 24728P Fu Ling (Spirit) Poria / Hoelen Fungus (Spirit) Powder $7.69 24728C Fu Ling (Spirit) Poria / Hoelen Fungus (Spirit) Concentrate 100 grams $12.59 24735 Fu Ling Pi (Skin) Poria / Hoelen Fungus (Skin) $5.59 24735P Fu Ling Pi (Skin) Poria / Hoelen Fungus (Skin) Powder $4.89 24735C Fu Ling Pi (Skin) Poria / Hoelen Fungus (Skin) Concentrate 100 grams $9.09 25993 Fu Long Gan Ignited Yellow Earth $4.89 25418 Fu Pen Zi Raspberry Fruit $6.29 25418P Fu Pen Zi Raspberry Fruit Powder $8.39 25418C Fu Pen Zi Raspberry Fruit Concentrate 100 grams $9.79 25502 Fu Ping Spirodela / Duckweed $3.49 25502P Fu Ping Spirodela / Duckweed Powder $4.19 25502C Fu Ping Spirodela / Duckweed Concentrate 100 grams $6.29 25132 Fu Rong Hua Hibiscus Flower $11.19 25428 Fu Xiao Mai Immature Wheat Grain $4.19 25428P Fu Xiao Mai Immature Wheat Grain Powder $4.19 25428C Fu Xiao Mai Immature Wheat Grain Concentrate 100 grams $8.39 25608 Fu Zi Aconite / Accessory Root (Prepared) $9.79 25608P Fu Zi Aconite / Accessory Root (Prepared) Powder $10.49 25608C Fu Zi Aconite / Accessory Root (Prepared) Concentrate 100 grams $14.69 24812 Gan Cao #2 Licorice Root #2 $5.59 24812P Gan Cao #2 Licorice Root #2 Powder $4.89 24812C Gan Cao #2 Licorice Root #2 Concentrate 100 grams $9.09 24815 Gan Cao (Zhi) Honey Coated Licorice Root $6.29 24815P Gan Cao (Zhi) Honey Coated Licorice Root Powder $5.59 24815C Gan Cao (Zhi) Honey Coated Licorice Root Concentrate 100 grams $9.09 25806 Gan Jiang Ginger Root dried $4.89 25806P Gan Jiang Ginger Root dried Powder $5.59 25806C Gan Jiang Ginger Root dried Concentrate 100 grams $10.49 25674 Gao Ben Ligusticum / Chinese Lovage Root $6.29 25674P Gao Ben Ligusticum / Chinese Lovage Root Powder $6.99 25674C Gao Ben Ligusticum / Chinese Lovage Root Concentrate 100 grams $10.49 25771 Gao Liang Jiang Alpinia / Galangal Rhizome $4.89 25771P Gao Liang Jiang Alpinia / Galangal Rhizome Powder $5.59 25771C Gao Liang Jiang Alpinia / Galangal Rhizome Concentrate 100 grams $7.69 25716 Ge Gen Pueraria / Kudzu Root $6.29 25716P Ge Gen Pueraria / Kudzu Root Powder $6.99 25716C Ge Gen Pueraria / Kudzu Root Concentrate 100 grams $7.69 25210 Gong Lao Ye Chinese Holly Leaf $4.89 25210C Gong Lao Ye Chinese Holly Leaf Concentrate 100 grams $8.39 25788 Gou Ji Cibotium Rhizome $6.99 25788P Gou Ji Cibotium Rhizome Powder $6.29 25788C Gou Ji Cibotium Rhizome Concentrate 100 grams $7.69 25680 Gou Qi Gen Lycium / Wolfberry Root $4.89 25220 Gou Qi Ye Lycium / Wolfberry Leaf $6.29 24510 Gou Qi Zi #1 Lycium Wolfberry Fruit #1 $10.49 24520 Gou Qi Zi #2 Lycium Wolfberry Fruit #2 $8.39 24520P Gou Qi Zi #2 Lycium Wolfberry Fruit #2 Powder $8.39 24520C Gou Qi Zi #2 Lycium Wolfberry Fruit #2 Concentrate 100 grams $9.09 25759 Gou Teng Uncaria Vine With Hooks $4.89 25759P Gou Teng Uncaria Vine With Hooks Powder $5.59 25759C Gou Teng Uncaria Vine With Hooks Concentrate 100 grams $7.69 25124 Gu Jing Cao Pipewort Scapus $9.09 25124P Gu Jing Cao Pipewort Scapus Powder $8.39 25124C Gu Jing Cao Pipewort Scapus Concentrate 100 grams $10.49 25794 Gu Sui Bu Drynaria Rhizome $4.89 25794P Gu Sui Bu Drynaria Rhizome Powder $5.59 25794C Gu Sui Bu Drynaria Rhizome Concentrate 100 grams $7.69 25406 Gu Ya Germinated Rice Millet Sprout $9.09 25406P Gu Ya Germinated Rice Millet Sprout Powder $6.99 25406C Gu Ya Germinated Rice Millet Sprout Concentrate 100 grams $7.69 25434 Gua Lou Pi Trichosanthes Peel $6.99 25434C Gua Lou Pi Trichosanthes Peel Concentrate 100 grams $8.39 25877 Gua Lou Ren Trichosanthes Seed $6.29 25877P Gua Lou Ren Trichosanthes Seed Powder $6.99 25877C Gua Lou Ren Trichosanthes Seed Concentrate 100 grams $7.69 25433 Gua Lou Shi Trichosanthes Fruit $5.59 25433P Gua Lou Shi Trichosanthes Fruit Powder $6.99 25433C Gua Lou Shi Trichosanthes Fruit Concentrate 100 grams $9.79 25407 Guan Ye Jin Si Tao St. John's Wort Herb $4.89 25407P Guan Ye Jin Si Tao St. John's Wort Herb Powder $5.59 25795 Guan Zhong Dryopteris / Male Fern Rhizome $4.19 25795P Guan Zhong Dryopteris / Male Fern Rhizome Powder $4.89 25795C Guan Zhong Dryopteris / Male Fern Rhizome Concentrate 100 grams $6.99 25068 Hai Feng Teng Kadsura Stem $4.19 25068P Hai Feng Teng Kadsura Stem Powder $4.89 25068C Hai Feng Teng Kadsura Stem Concentrate 100 grams $9.79 25886 Hai Jin Sha Lygodium Spores $9.09 25886C Hai Jin Sha Lygodium Spores Concentrate 100 grams $17.49 25078 Hai Tong Pi Erythrina Bark $6.29 25078P Hai Tong Pi Erythrina Bark Powder $4.89 25078C Hai Tong Pi Erythrina Bark Concentrate 100 grams $6.99 25893 Hai Zao Sargasso Seaweed $4.89 25893P Hai Zao Sargasso Seaweed Powder $5.59 2593C Hai Zao Sargasso Seaweed Concentrate 100 grams $7.69 25746 Han Fang Ji Stephania Root $6.29 25746P Han Fang Ji Stephania Root Powder $6.29 25746C Han Fang Ji Stephania Root Concentrate 100 grams $7.69 25482 Han Lian Cao Eclipta Herb $4.89 25482P Han Lian Cao Eclipta Herb Powder $5.59 25482C Han Lian Cao Eclipta Herb Concentrate 100 grams $8.39 25908 Han Shui Shi Calcite $4.89 25102 He Huan Hua Albizzia / Mimosa Flower $6.29 25102C He Huan Hua Albizzia / Mimosa Flower Concentrate 100 grams $8.39 25072 He Huan Pi Albizzia / Mimosa Bark $5.59 25072P He Huan Pi Albizzia / Mimosa Bark Powder $6.29 25072C He Huan Pi Albizzia / Mimosa Bark Concentrate 100 grams $7.69 25352 He Shi Wormseed / Carpesium Fruit $4.89 25352P He Shi Wormseed / Carpesium Fruit Powder $5.59 25352C He Shi Wormseed / Carpesium Fruit Concentrate 100 grams $9.79 25712 He Shou Wu Polygonum Multiflorum / Foti Root (Sliced) $5.59 25712P He Shou Wu Polygonum Multiflorum / Foti Root (Sliced) Powder $6.29 25712C He Shou Wu Polygonum Multiflorum / Foti Root (Sliced) Concentrate 100 grams $9.09 25423 He Zi Terminalia Fruit $4.89 25423P He Zi Terminalia Fruit Powder $5.59 25423C He Zi Terminalia Fruit Concentrate 100 grams $7.69 25108 Hong Hua Carthamus Flower / Safflower $7.69 25108P Hong Hua Carthamus Flower / Safflower Powder $8.39 25108C Hong Hua Carthamus Flower / Safflower Concentrate 100 grams $8.39 25432 Hong Zao Chinese Date (Red) $4.89 25432P Hong Zao Chinese Date (Red) Powder $5.59 25432C Hong Zao Chinese Date (Red) Concentrate 100 grams $3.00 25084 Hou Po Magnolia Bark $9.79 25084P Hou Po Magnolia Bark Powder $10.49 25084C Hou Po Magnolia Bark Concentrate 100 grams $12.59 25807 Hu Huang Lian Picrorrhiza Root $11.19 25807P Hu Huang Lian Picrorrhiza Root Powder $11.89 25807C Hu Huang Lian Picrorrhiza Root Concentrate 100 grams $13.29 25405 Hu Jiao Black Pepper $9.09 25405P Hu Jiao Black Pepper Powder $10.49 25405C Hu Jiao Black Pepper Concentrate 100 grams $11.19 25841 Hu Lu Ba Fenugreek Seed $4.89 25841P Hu Lu Ba Fenugreek Seed Powder $5.59 25841C Hu Lu Ba Fenugreek Seed Concentrate 100 grams $8.39 25990 Hu Po Amber $17.49 25990P Hu Po Amber Powder $11.89 25990C Hu Po Amber Concentrate 100 grams $23.09 25431 Hua Jiao Prickly Ash Fruit $9.79 25431P Hua Jiao Prickly Ash Fruit Powder $11.19 25431C Hua Jiao Prickly Ash Fruit Concentrate 100 grams $11.89 25992 Hua Shi Talc $4.89 25992P Hua Shi Talc Powder $4.89 25992C Hua Shi Talc Concentrate 100 grams $5.59 25162 Huai Hua Pagoda Tree Flower $5.59 25162P Huai Hua Pagoda Tree Flower Powder $11.19 25162C Huai Hua Pagoda Tree Flower Concentrate 100 grams $7.69 25422 Huai Jiao Zi Pagoda Tree Fruit $5.59 25422P Huai Jiao Zi Pagoda Tree Fruit Powder $6.29 25422C Huai Jiao Zi Pagoda Tree Fruit Concentrate 100 grams $6.99 25602 Huai Niu Xi Achyranthes / Two Tooth Root $5.59 25602P Huai Niu Xi Achyranthes / Two Tooth Root Powder $5.59 25602C Huai Niu Xi Achyranthes / Two Tooth Root Concentrate 100 grams $8.39 25095 Huang Bai Phellodendron / Corktree Bark $6.99 25095P Huang Bai Phellodendron / Corktree Bark Powder $7.69 25095C Huang Bai Phellodendron / Corktree BarkConcentrate 100 grams $9.79 25799 Huang Jing Polygonatum Rhizome $7.69 25799P Huang Jing Polygonatum Rhizome Powder $8.39 25799C Huang Jing Polygonatum Rhizome Concentrate 100 grams $8.39 25791 Huang Lian Coptis / Golden Thread Rhizome $43.39 25791P Huang Lian Coptis / Golden Thread Rhizome Powder $44.79 25791C Huang Lian Coptis / Golden Thread Rhizome Concentrate 100 grams $45.49 24030 Huang Qi Astragalus Root $8.39 24030P Huang Qi Astragalus Root Powder $6.99 24030C Huang Qi Astragalus Root Concentrate 100 grams $11.89 25736 Huang Qin Scutellaria / Skullcap Root $6.99 25736P Huang Qin Scutellaria / Skullcap Root Powder $7.69 25736C Huang Qin Scutellaria / Skullcap Root Concentrate 100 grams $13.29 25781 Huang Yao Zi Dioscorea Bulbifera Bulb $4.89 25781P Huang Yao Zi Dioscorea Bulbifera Bulb Powder $5.59 25781C Huang Yao Zi Dioscorea Bulbifera Bulb Concentrate 100 grams $8.39 25350 Huo Ma Ren Cannabis Seed $6.99 25350P Huo Ma Ren Cannabis Seed Powder $7.69 25350C Huo Ma Ren Cannabis Seed Concentrate 100 grams $8.39 25452 Huo Xiang Patchouli / Pogostemon Herb $5.59 25452P Huo Xiang Patchouli / Pogostemon Herb Powder $6.29 25452C Huo Xiang Patchouli / Pogostemon Herb Concentrate 100 grams $7.69 25067 Ji Xue Teng Millettia Stem $5.59 25067P Ji Xue Teng Millettia Stem Powder $6.29 25067C Ji Xue Teng Millettia Stem Concentrate 100 grams $7.69 25792 Jiang Huang Tumeric Rhizome $6.99 25792P Jiang Huang Tumeric Rhizome Powder $7.69 25792C Jiang Huang Tumeric Rhizome Concentrate 100 grams $9.09 25209 Jiao Gu Lan Gynostemma Pentaphyllum Herb $5.59 25209P Jiao Gu Lan Gynostemma Pentaphyllum Herb Powder $4.89 25209C Jiao Gu Lan Gynostemma Pentaphyllum Herb Concentrate 100 grams $10.49 25708 Jie Geng Platycodon / Balloon Flower Root $6.99 25708P Jie Geng Platycodon / Balloon Flower Root Powder $7.69 25708C Jie Geng Platycodon / Balloon Flower Root Concentrate 100 grams $8.39 25501 Jin Qian Cao Lysimachia Herb $4.89 25501P Jin Qian Cao Lysimachia Herb Powder $6.29 25501C Jin Qian Cao Lysimachia Herb Concentrate 100 grams $7.69 25144 Jin Yin Hua Honeysuckle Flower $9.09 25144P Jin Yin Hua Honeysuckle Flower Powder $9.79 25144C Jin Yin Hua Honeysuckle Flower Concentrate 100 grams $14.69 25416 Jin Ying Zi Rose Hip $4.89 25416P Jin Ying Zi Rose Hip Powder $5.59 25416C Jin Ying Zi Rose Hip Concentrate 100 grams $6.29 25536 Jing Jie Schizonepeta Stem and Bud $5.59 25536P Jing Jie Schizonepeta Stem and Bud Powder $6.29 25536C Jing Jie Schizonepeta Stem and Bud Concentrate 100 grams $6.99 25813 Jui Cai Zi Chinese Leek Seed $5.59 25813P Jui Cai Zi Chinese Leek Seed Powder $6.29 25813C Jui Cai Zi Chinese Leek Seed Concentrate 100 grams $7.69 25587 Ju Hong Red Tangerine Peel $23.09 25587P Ju Hong Red Tangerine Peel Powder $24.49 25587C Ju Hong Red Tangerine Peel Concentrate 100 grams $26.59 25116 Ju Hua Chrysanthemum Flower $5.59 25116P Ju Hua Chrysanthemum Flower Powder $6.29 25116C Ju Hua Chrysanthemum Flower Concentrate 100 grams $8.39 25540 Juan Bai Selaginellia / Involute Spikemoss Herb $4.89 25540C Juan Bai Selaginellia / Involute Spikemoss Herb Concentrate 100 grams $8.39 25829 Jue Ming Zi Cassia Seed $5.59 25829P Jue Ming Zi Cassia Seed Powder $6.29 25829C Jue Ming Zi Cassia Seed Concentrate 100 grams $7.69 i Chinese Herbs, an online herb company offering Medicinal, Oriental, Western, Organic, Native American, Natural, Bulk and Ayurvedic Herbs at discount prices. www.ichineseherbs.com [email protected] 1-360-923-0486 Local * 1-888-842-2049 Toll Free 1-772-382-2668 Fax number Mailing Address i Chinese Herbs PO Box 336 East Olympia, WA 98540 Physical Address i Chinese Herbs 5018 View Ridge Drive Olympia, WA 98501 Links to Ayurvedic, Medicinal, Oriental, Western, Organic, Native American iChineseHerbs.com is a wholesale site and qualifications are required to obtain wholesale prices. Minimum purchase is $100.00 ($50.00 for students) Item# Pin Yin Botanical Name Quantity Price 25742 Ku Shen Sophora Root $4.89 25742P Ku Shen Sophora Root Powder $5.59 25742C Ku Shen Sophora Root Concentrate 100 grams $8.99 25128 Kuan Dong Hua Coltsfoot Flower $6.99 25128P Kuan Dong Hua Coltsfoot Flower Powder $25.89 25128C Kuan Dong Hua Coltsfoot Flower Concentrate 100 grams $25.19 25898 Kun Bu Laminaria / Kelp $4.89 25898P Kun Bu Laminaria / Kelp Powder $5.59 25898C Kun Bu Laminaria / Kelp Concentrate 100 grams $7.69 25866 Lai Fu Zi Radish Seed $4.89 25866P Lai Fu Zi Radish Seed Powder $5.59 25866C Lai Fu Zi Radish Seed Concentrate 100 grams $6.99 25305 Lei Wan Omphalia / Thunderball Fungus $6.29 25305P Lei Wan Omphalia / Thunderball Fungus Powder $6.99 25305C Lei Wan Omphalia / Thunderball Fungus Concentrate 100 grams $11.89 25374 Lain qiao Forsythia Fruit $4.89 25374P Lain qiao Forsythia Fruit Powder $5.59 25374C Lain qiao Forsythia Fruit Concentrate 100 grams $9.09 22420 Lotus Seed (White) Lotus Seed (White) $5.59 22420P Lian Zi (Bai) Lotus Seed (White) Powder $6.29 22420C Lian Zi (Bai) Lotus Seed (White) Concentrate 100 grams $9.79 25583 Lian Zi Xin Lotus Plumule $6.99 25583C Lian Zi Xin Lotus Plumule Concentrate 100 grams $8.39 25776 Liang Tou Jian Anemone Raddeana Rhizome $5.59 25776C Liang Tou Jian Anemone Raddeana Rhizome Concentrate 100 grams $9.79 25528 Liao Diao Zhu Cynanchum / Pycnostelma Herb $9.79 25528C Liao Diao Zhu Cynanchum / Pycnostelma Herb Concentrate 100 grams $19.59 22252 Ling Zhi (red) Ganoderma /Reishi Mushroom $13.99 22252P Ling Zhi (red) Ganoderma /Reishi Mushroom Powder $18.89 22252C Ling Zhi (red) Ganoderma /Reishi Mushroom Concentrate 100 grams $17.49 25458 Liu Ji Nu Artemisia /Anomala Herb $4.89 25458P Liu Ji Nu Artemisia /Anomala Herb Powder $5.59 25458C Liu Ji Nu Artemisia /Anomala Herb Concentrate 100 grams $6.99 25946 Long Chi Dragon's Teeth $9.09 25946P Long Chi Dragon's Teeth Powder $9.79 25946C Long Chi Dragon's Teeth Concentrate 100 grams $16.79 25670 Long Dan Cao Gentiana Root $6.99 25670P Long Dan Cao Gentiana Root Powder $7.69 25670C Long Dan Cao Gentiana Root Concentrate 100 grams $14.69 25530 Lu Xian Cao Pyrola Herb $4.19 25530P Lu Xian Cao Pyrola Herb Powder $4.89 25530C Lu Xian Cao Pyrola Herb Concentrate 100 grams $6.99 25871 Ma Qian Zi Nux Vomica Seed (Prepared) $11.19 25700 Mai Men Dong Ophiopogon Tuber $9.09 25700P Mai Men Dong Ophiopogon Tuber Powder $9.79 25700C Mai Men Dong Ophiopogon Tuber Concentrate 100 grams $9.79 25382 Mai Ya Barley Sprout $4.89 25382P Mai Ya Barley Sprout Powder $4.19 25382C Mai Ya Barley Sprout Concentrate 100 grams $9.09 25429 Man Jing Zi Vitex / Chastetree Fruit $6.99 25429P Man Jing Zi Vitex / Chastetree Fruit Powder $7.69 25429C Man Jing Zi Vitex / Chastetree Fruit Concentrate 100 grams $7.69 25850 Mang Gou He Mango Stone $4.89 25967 Mang Xiao Glauber's Salt / Mirabilite $3.49 25212 Mao Dong Qing Liex Root $5.59 25212P Mao Dong Qing Liex Root Powder $6.29 25719 Mao Zhao Cao Cat's Claw / Buttercup Herb $10.49 25158 Mei Gui Hua Chinese Rose $15.39 25104 Mi Meng Hua Buddieia Flower $4.89 25104P Mi Meng Hua Buddieia Flower Powder $5.59 25104C Mi Meng Hua Buddieia Flower Concentrate 100 grams $6.29 22436 Mi Zao Honey Date $3.49 25650 Ming Dang Shen Changium Root $6.99 25650C Ming Dang Shen Changium Root Concentrate 100 grams $10.49 25904 Ming Fan Potash Alum $3.49 25904P Ming Fan Potash Alum Powder $3.49 25139 Mo Li Hua Jasmine Flower $9.79 25938 Mo Yao Myrrh $6.29 25938P Mo Yao Myrrh Powder $7.69 25938C Mo Yao Myrrh Concentrate 100 grams $9.09 25854 Mu Bei Zi Momordica Seed $4.89 25854C Mu Bei Zi Momordica Seed Concentrate 100 grams $7.69 25090 Mu Dan Pi Moutan Root-Bark / Tree Peony Bark $7.69 25090P Mu Dan Pi Moutan Root-Bark / Tree Peony Bark Powder $8.39 25090C Mu Dan Pi Moutan Root-Bark / Tree Peony Bark Concentrate 100 grams $17.49 25356 Mu Gua Chaenomeles / Flowering Quince Fruit $4.89 25356P Mu Gua Chaenomeles / Flowering Quince Fruit Powder $4.19 25356C Mu Gua Chaenomeles / Flowering Quince Fruit Concentrate 100 grams $8.39 25857 Mu Hu Die Wooden Butterfly Seed $5.59 25857C Mu Hu Die Wooden Butterfly Seed Concentrate 100 grams $8.39 25924 Mu Li Oyster Shell Raw $4.89 25924P Mu Li Oyster Shell Raw Powder $4.89 25924C Mu Li Oyster Shell Raw Concentrate 100 grams $6.29 25130 Mu Mian Hua Gossampinus Flower $6.29 25060 Mu Tong Akebia Stem $6.29 25060P Mu Tong Akebia Stem Powder $6.99 25060C Mu Tong Akebia Stem Concentrate 100 grams $7.69 25732 Mu Xiang Saussurea / Auklandia / Costus Root $5.59 25732P Mu Xiang Saussurea / Auklandia / Costus Root Powder $7.69 25732C Mu Xiang Saussurea / Auklandia / Costus Root Concentrate 100 grams $13.99 25492 Mu Zei Scouring Rush / Shavegrass Herb $4.89 iChineseHerbs.com is a wholesale site and qualifications are required to obtain wholesale prices. Minimum purchase is $100.00 ($50.00 for students) i Chinese Herbs, an online herb company offering Medicinal, Oriental, Western, Organic, Native American, Natural, Bulk and Ayurvedic Herbs at discount prices. www.ichineseherbs.com [email protected] 1-360-923-0486 Local * 1-888-842-2049 Toll Free 1-772-382-2668 Fax number Mailing Address i Chinese Herbs PO Box 336 East Olympia, WA 98540 Physical Address i Chinese Herbs 5018 View Ridge Drive Olympia, WA 98501 Item # Pin Yin Common Name Quantity Price 25066 Ren Dong Teng Lonicera / Honeysuckle Vine $4.89 25066C Ren Dong Teng Lonicera / Honeysuckle Vine Concentrate 100 grams $7.69 25149 Ren Shen Hua Panax Ginseng Flower $10.49 21080 Ren Shen Kirin Slice Red Panax Ginseng, Sliced (Kirin) $9.79 21115 Ren Shen Kirin White White Panax Ginseng Root $35.69 21115P Ren Shen Kirin White White Panax Ginseng Root Powder $36.39 21115C Ren Shen Kirin White White Panax Ginseng Root Concentrate 100 grams $28.69 21180 Ren Shen Shi Chu Red Panax Ginseng (Shi Chu) $68.59 21118 Ren Shen Xu (Kirin) Red Panax Ginseng Rootlet (Kirin) $25.89 25260 Ren Shen Ye Ginseng Leaf $6.99 25709 Rou Cong Rong Cistanche Herb $21.69 25709P Rou Cong Rong Cistanche Herb Powder $16.09 25709C Rou Cong Rong Cistanche Herb Concentrate 100 grams $11.89 25855 Rou Dou Kou Nutmeg Seeds $13.29 25855P Rou Dou Kou Nutmeg Seeds Powder $13.29 25855C Rou Dou Kou Nutmeg Seeds Concentrate 100 grams $16.09 24821 Rou Gui Pi Cinnamon Bark (Pieces) $5.59 24821P Rou Gui Pi Cinnamon Bark (Pieces) Powder $6.29 24821C Rou Gui Pi Cinnamon Bark (Pieces) Concentrate 100 grams $7.69 22540 Rou Gui Tong Cinnamon Bark (Sticks) $6.99 24823 Rou Gui Zhi Cinnamon Twig (Sliced) $4.89 24823P Rou Gui Zhi Cinnamon Twig (Sliced) Powder $4.89 24823C Rou Gui Zhi Cinnamon Twig (Sliced) Concentrate 100 grams $7.69 25937 Ru Xiang Frankincense $6.99 25937P Ru Xiang Frankincense Powder $7.69 25937C Ru Xiang Frankincense Concentrate 100 grams $9.79 25578 Rui Ren Rou Prinsepia Seed $25.89 25801 San Leng Scirpus Rhizome $6.29 25801P San Leng Scirpus Rhizome Powder $6.99 25801C San Leng Scirpus Rhizome Concentrate 100 grams $6.99 25086 Sang Bai Pi Mulberry Root-Bark $4.89 25086P Sang Bai Pi Mulberry Root-Bark Powder $5.59 25086C Sang Bai Pi Mulberry Root-Bark Concentrate 100 grams $6.99 25757 Sang Ji Sheng Mulberry Twig $4.19 25757P Sang Ji Sheng Mulberry Twig Powder $4.89 25757C Sang Ji Sheng Mulberry Twig Concentrate 100 grams $7.69 25402 Sang Shen Zi Mulberry Fruit $5.59 25402P Sang Shen Zi Mulberry Fruit Powder $6.99 25402C Sang Shen Zi Mulberry Fruit Concentrate 100 grams $9.79 25230 Sang Ye Mulberry Leaf $4.89 25230P Sang Ye Mulberry Leaf Powder $4.89 25230C Sang Ye Mulberry Leaf Concentrate 100 grams $7.69 25753 Sang Zhi Mulberry Vine $4.89 25753P Sang Zhi Mulberry Vine Powder $6.29 25753C Sang Zhi Mulberry Vine Concentrate 100 grams $8.39 25796 Sha Jiang Kaempferia Rhizome $4.89 25796P Sha Jiang Kaempferia Rhizome Powder $6.29 25793C Sha Jiang Kaempferia Rhizome Concentrate 100 grams $9.09 25330 Sha Ren (Ke) Amomum Fruit / Grains of Paradise (Shell Only) $22.39 25330P Sha Ren (Ke) Amomum Fruit / Grains of Paradise (Shell Only) Powder $23.79 25330C Sha Ren (Ke) Amomum Fruit / Grains of Paradise (Shell Only) Concentrate 100 grams $21.69 25329 Sha Ren (Chuan) Amomum Fruit / Grains of Paradise (W/Shell) $20.29 25329P Sha Ren (Chuan) Amomum Fruit / Grains of Paradise (W/Shell) Powder $21.69 25328 Sha Ren (Guang) Amomum Fruit / Grains of Paradise (No Shell) $13.29 25819 Sha Yuan Zi Astragalus / Milk Vetch Seed $6.99 25819C Sha Yuan Zi Astragalus / Milk Vetch Seed Concentrate 100 grams $11.89 25743 Shan Dou Gen Sophora Subprostata Root $6.29 25743P Shan Dou Gen Sophora Subprostata Root Powder $6.99 25743C Shan Dou Gen Sophora Subprostata Root Concentrate 100 grams $5.59 24220 Shan Yao #3 Dioscorea Chinese Yam Root $9.09 24220P Shan Yao #3 Dioscorea Chinese Yam Root Powder $9.79 24220C Shan Yao #3 Dioscorea Chinese Yam Root Concentrate 100 grams $13.99 25368 Shan Zha Hawthorne Berry $4.89 25368P Shan Zha Hawthorne Berry Powder $4.19 25368C Shan Zha Hawthorne Berry Concentrate 100 grams $7.69 25366 Shan Zhu Yu Cornus Fruit $45.49 25366P Shan Zhu Yu Cornus Fruit Powder $18.19 25366C Shan Zhu Yu Cornus Fruit Concentrate 100 grams $18.89 25707P Shang Lu Phytolacca / Pokeberry Root Powder $6.29 25364 She Chuang Zi Cnidium Fruit $4.89 25364P She Chuang Zi Cnidium Fruit Powder $5.59 25364C She Chuang Zi Cnidium Fruit Concentrate 100 grams $10.49 25784 She Gan Belamcanda / Blackberry Rhizome $9.79 25784C She Gan Belamcanda / Blackberry Rhizome Concentrate 100 grams $9.09 25512 Shen Jin Cao Lycopodium / Clubmoss Herb $3.49 25512P Shen Jin Cao Lycopodium / Clubmoss Herb Powder $4.89 25512C Shen Jin Cao Lycopodium / Clubmoss Herb Concentrate 100 grams $9.09 25577 Shen Qu Medicated Leaven $4.19 25577P Shen Qu Medicated Leaven Powder $6.29 25577C Shen Qu Medicated Leaven Concentrate 100 grams $8.39 25722 Sheng Di Huang Rehmannia Root (Raw) $4.89 25722P Sheng Di Huang Rehmannia Root (Raw) Powder $5.59 25722C Sheng Di Huang Rehmannia Root (Raw) Concentrate 100 grams $9.09 25773C Sheng Jiang Raw Ginger Concentrate 100 grams $6.29 25789 Sheng Ma Cimicifuga Rhizome $6.29 25789P Sheng Ma Cimicifuga Rhizome Powder $6.99 25789C Sheng Ma Cimicifuga Rhizome Concentrate 100 grams $9.79 25785 Shi Chang Pu Acorus Gramineus Rhizome $6.99 25785P Shi Chang Pu Acorus Gramineus Rhizome Powder $6.29 25785C Shi Chang Pu Acorus Gramineus Rhizome Concentrate 100 grams $10.49 25050 Shi Di Persimmon Calyx $4.89 25050C Shi Di Persimmon Calyx Concentrate 100 grams $7.69 25905 Shi Gao, raw Gypsum (Raw) $3.49 25905P Shi Gao, raw Gypsum (Raw) Powder $4.19 25905C Shi Gao, raw Gypsum (Raw) Concentrate 100 grams $4.89 25913 Shi Gao, prepared Gypsum (Prepared) $3.49 25913P Shi Gao, prepared Gypsum (Prepared) Powder $4.19 25476 Shi Hu (Large) Dendrobium Stem (Large) $13.29 25476P Shi Hu (Large) Dendrobium Stem (Large) Powder $13.99 25476C Shi Hu (Large) Dendrobium Stem (Large) Concentrate 100 grams $12.59 25535 Shi Jian Chuan Salvia / Chinese Sage Herb $4.19 25535C Shi Jian Chuan Salvia / Chinese Sage Herb Concentrate 100 grams $8.39 25923 Shi Jue Ming Abalone Shell $4.89 25923P Shi Jue Ming Abalone Shell Powder $6.29 25923C Shi Jue Ming Abalone Shell Concentrate 100 grams $7.69 25412 Shi Jun Zi Rangoon Creeper Fruit $5.59 25412P Shi Jun Zi Rangoon Creeper Fruit Powder $7.69 25412C Shi Jun Zi Rangoon Creeper Fruit Concentrate 100 grams $8.39 25856 Shi Lian Zi Nelumbinis Fruit $4.89 25856C Shi Lian Zi Nelumbinis Fruit Concentrate 100 grams $11.19 25592 Shi Liu Pi Pomegranate Husk $4.19 25201 Shi Liu Ye Guava Leaf $3.49 25201P Shi Liu Ye Guava Leaf Powder $4.19 25541 Shi Shang Bai Selaginella / Spikemoss Herb $3.49 25882 Shi Shuang Bing Persimmon Fruit, Frosted $3.49 25882P Shi Shuang Bing Persimmon Fruit, Frosted Concentrate 100 grams $9.09 25532 Shi Wei Pyrrosia Leaf $12.59 25532C Shi Wei Pyrrosia Leaf Concentrate 100 grams $6.29 22943 Shi Ye Persimmon Leaf $4.19 25720 Shu Di Huang Rehmannia Root (Prepared) $5.59 25720P Shu Di Huang Rehmannia Root (Prepared) Powder $6.29 25720C Shu Di Huang Rehmannia Root (Prepared) Concentrate 100 grams $10.49 25572C Shui Fei Ji Milk Thistle Herb Concentrate 100 grams $11.89 25098 Si Gua Luo Luffa Sponge $3.49 25098C Si Gua Luo Luffa Sponge Concentrate 100 grams $7.69 25575 Song Jie Knotty Pine Wood Node $4.19 25575P Song Jie Knotty Pine Wood Node Powder $4.89 25576 Su Mu Sappan Wood $6.99 25576C Su Mu Sappan Wood Concentrate 100 grams $8.39 25140 Su Xin Hua Common White Jasmine Flower $16.09 25880 Suan Zao Ren (Prepared) Zizyphus Spinosa Sour Jujuba Seed (Prepared) $9.09 25881 Suan Zao Ren, (Raw) Zizyphus Spinosa Sour Jujuba Seed (Raw) $8.39 25881P Suan Zao Ren, (Raw) Zizyphus Spinosa Sour Jujuba Seed (Raw) Powder $9.09 25881C Suan Zao Ren, (Raw) Zizyphus Spinosa Sour Jujuba Seed (Raw) Concentrate 100 grams $13.99 25065 Suo Yang Cynomorium Herb $4.89 25065P Suo Yang Cynomorium Herb Powder $5.59 25065C Suo Yang Cynomorium Herb Concentrate 100 grams $8.39 25714 Tai Zi Shen Pseudostellaria / Prince Ginseng Root $11.19 25714P Tai Zi Shen Pseudostellaria / Prince Ginseng Root Powder $11.89 25714C Tai Zi Shen Pseudostellaria / Prince Ginseng Root Concentrate 100 grams $11.89 25580 Tan Xiang Sandalwood $25.89 25580P Tan Xiang Sandalwood Powder $31.49 25858 Tao Ren Peach Kernal $7.69 25858P Tao Ren Peach Kernal Powder $8.39 25858C Tao Ren Peach Kernal Concentrate 100 grams $9.09 25479 Tian Hua Fen Trichosanthes Snake Gourd Root $7.69 25479P Tian Hua Fen Trichosanthes Snake Gourd Root Powder $8.39 25479C Tian Hua Fen Trichosanthes Snake Gourd Root Concentrate 100 grams $10.49 22939 Tian Ju Ye Stevia Leaf $4.89 22939C Tian Ju Ye Stevia Leaf Concentrate 100 grams $7.69 22166 Tian Ma Gastrodia Rhizome $34.29 22166P Tian Ma Gastrodia Rhizome Powder $42.69 22166C Tian Ma Gastrodia Rhizome Concentrate 100 grams $29.39 25048 Tain Men Dong Aspragus Tuber $9.09 25048P Tain Men Dong Aspragus Tuber Powder $9.79 25048C Tain Men Dong Aspragus Tuber Concentrate 100 grams $9.79 25778 Tian Nan Xiag Arisaema Rhizome $13.99 25778P Tian Nan Xiag Arisaema Rhizome Powder $15.39 25778C Tian Nan Xiag Arisaema Rhizome Concentrate 100 grams $14.69 23238 Tian San Qi Noto Ginseng Root (Whole) $28.69 23238P Tian San Qi Noto Ginseng Root (Whole) Powder $34.29 23238C Tian San Qi Noto Ginseng Root (Whole) Concentrate 100 grams $27.29 25048 Tian Zhu Huang Bamboo Tabasheer $18.89 25048P Tian Zhu Huang Bamboo Tabasheer Powder $25.89 25847 Ting Li Zi Lepidium Seed $4.89 25847C Ting Li Zi Lepidium Seed Concentrate 100 grams $5.59 25582 Tong Cao Rice Paper Pith / Tetrpanax $8.39 25582C Tong Cao Rice Paper Pith / Tetrpanax Concentrate 100 grams $12.59 25555 Tou Gu Cao Speranskia Herb $5.59 25555P Tou Gu Cao Speranskia Herb Powder $6.29 25555C Tou Gu Cao Speranskia Herb Concentrate 100 grams $8.39 25802P Tu Chang Shan Hydrangea Root Powder $4.89 25802C Tu Chang Shan Hydrangea Root Concentrate 100 grams $6.99 25652 Tu Fu Ling Smilax $4.89 25652P Tu Fu Ling Smilax Powder $5.59 25652C Tu Fu Ling Smilax Concentrate 100 grams $7.69 25484 Tu Gong Ying Elephantopus Herb $4.19 25484P Tu Gong Ying Elephantopus Herb Powder $4.89 25605 Tu Niu Xi Achyranthes Common Root $4.89 25605P Tu Niu Xi Achyranthes Common Root Powder $5.59 25605C Tu Niu Xi Achyranthes Common Root Concentrate 100 grams $8.39 25837 Tu Si Zi Cuscuta / Dodder Seed $7.69 25837P Tu Si Zi Cuscuta / Dodder Seed Powder $8.39 25837C Tu Si Zi Cuscuta / Dodder Seed Concentrate 100 grams $9.79 Links to Ayurvedic, Medicinal, Oriental, Western, Organic, Native American, Natural Bulk and Chinese Herbs Chinese Herbs | Botanicals, Herbs, Chinese Herb, Formulations & Extracts | Aphrodisiacs, Libido & Sexual Enhancement, Chinese Herbs | Western Herbs, Spices & Organic Botanicals, Chinese Herb | Chinese Herb, Herbal Remedies & Natural Medicine Prices are subject to change without notice. This web site is intended for information only. It is not to be used to diagnosis, treat, cure, or in place of medical supervision. Consult with your Naturopathic Doctor, or health care professional. FDA has not evaluated this statement and these products, are not intended for prevention, treatment, cure or mitigation of disease. All rights reserved. Copyright � Be Fit 1998-2003 Web Design by HowToInternet.com Policy for Wholesale Purchase. iChineseHerbs.com is a wholesale site and qualifications are required to obtain wholesale prices. Minimum purchase is $100.00 ($50.00 for students) Item # Pin Yin Common Name Quantity Price 25955 Wa Leng Zi Ark / Cockle Shell $4.89 25955P Wa Leng Zi Ark / Cockle Shell Powder $5.59 25955C Wa Leng Zi Ark / Cockle Shell Concentrate 100 grams $6.29 25879 Wang Bu Liu Xing Vaccaria Seed $4.89 25879C Wang Bu Liu Xing Vaccaria Seed Concentrate 100 grams $7.69 25331 Wei Ling Cai Potentilla Herb $4.19 25652 Wei Ling Xian Clematis Root $6.29 25652P Wei Ling Xian Clematis Root Powder $6.99 25652C Wei Ling Xian Clematis Root Concentrate 100 grams $7.69 25494 Wei Jing Cao Horsetail / Bootle Brush Herb $5.59 25494C Wei Jing Cao Horsetail / Bootle Brush Herb Concentrate 100 grams $8.39 25444 Wu Bei Zi Gall Nut Of Chinese Sumac $9.09 25444P Wu Bei Zi Gall Nut Of Chinese Sumac Powder $9.79 25444C Wu Bei Zi Gall Nut Of Chinese Sumac Concentrate 100 grams $10.49 25074 Wu Jia Pi Acanthopanax Root Bark $6.29 25074P Wu Jia Pi Acanthopanax Root Bark Powder $6.99 25074C Wu Jia Pi Acanthopanax Root Bark Concentrate 100 grams $8.39 25404 Wu Mei Mume Fruit $4.89 25404P Wu Mei Mume Fruit Powder $5.59 25404C Wu Mei Mume Fruit Concentrate 100 grams $8.39 25420 Wu Wei Zi Schisandra Fruit $9.09 25420P Wu Wei Zi Schisandra Fruit Powder $6.29 25420C Wu Wei Zi Schisandra Fruit Concentrate 100 grams $11.19 25676 Wu Yao Lindera Root $6.29 25676P Wu Yao Lindera Root Powder $6.99 25676C Wu Yao Lindera Root Concentrate 100 grams $7.69 25503 Wu Zhao Long Ipomoea Cairica / Morning Glory Herb $5.59 25370 Wu Zhu Yu Evodia Fruit $12.59 25370P Wu Zhu Yu Evodia Fruit Powder $13.29 25370C Wu Zhu Yu Evodia Fruit Concentrate 100 grams $16.09 i Chinese Herbs, an online herb company offering Medicinal, Oriental, Western, Organic, Native American, Natural, Bulk and Ayurvedic Herbs at discount prices. www.ichineseherbs.com [email protected] 1-360-923-0486 Local * 1-888-842-2049 Toll Free 1-772-382-2668 Fax number Home | Contact Us | Certificate of Analysis | Privacy Policy Contact Information for iChineseHerbs.com Business Hours: Monday through Friday 8:00am - 6:00pm Pacific Standard Time Saturday 9:00am until 12:00pm Pacific Standard Time Closed on Chinese New Year, Christmas, Thanksgiving, Halloween, New Year, Easter Need Contact us Fast? Toll Free Number 1-888-842-2049 Local Number 1-360-923-0486 Fax Number 1-772-382-2268 When faxing please included: Contact Name, Fax Number, and Email Address Email Address [email protected] Mailing Address iChineseHerbs.com PO Box 336 East Olympia, WA 98540 Physical Address iChineseHerbs.com 5018 View Ridge Drive Olympia, WA 98501 Top of Form 1 Bottom of Form 1 i Chinese Herbs, an online herb company offering Medicinal, Oriental, Western, Organic, Native American, Natural, Bulk and Ayurvedic Herbs at discount prices. www.ichineseherbs.com [email protected] 1-360-923-0486 Local * 1-888-842-2049 Toll Free 1-772-382-2668 Fax number Mailing Address i Chinese Herbs PO Box 336 East Olympia, WA 98540 Physical Address i Chinese Herbs 5018 View Ridge Drive Olympia, WA 98501 Links to Ayurvedic, Medicinal, Oriental, Western, Organic, Native American, Natural Bulk and Chinese Herbs Chinese Herbs | Botanicals, Herbs, Chinese Herb, Formulations & Extracts | Aphrodisiacs, Libido & Sexual Enhancement, Chinese Herbs | Western Herbs, Spices & Organic Botanicals, Chinese Herb | Chinese Herb, Herbal Remedies & Natural Medicine Prices are subject to change without notice. This web site is intended for information only. It is not to be used to diagnosis, treat, cure, or in place of medical supervision. Consult with your Naturopathic Doctor, or health care professional. FDA has not evaluated this statement and these products, are not intended for prevention, treatment, cure or mitigation of disease. All rights reserved. Copyright � Be Fit 1998-2003 Web Design by HowToInternet.com BULK WESTERN HERBS IN THIS LIST HERE! i Chinese Herbs. com Western Bulk Herbs Organic, Wildcraft, Cut, Powder, Granules and Sliced Prices reflect 1 pound purchase Discounts are available for 25 pounds, 100 pounds Item# Common Name Botanical Name Origin WholeSale 1045 Allspice Whole Pimenta Dioica Allspice Whole. Origin Guatemala. $4.78 1035 Angelica Root c/s Angelica archangelica Angelcia Root cut and sift. Wildcrafted. Origin Bulgaria. $11.70 1055 Astragalus Root Sliced Astragalus membranaceus Astragalus Root Sliced Approx. 6-8 inches long Origin China $25.99 1057 Balm of Gilead W Populus candicans Balm of Gilead Whole Approx. 1/2 inch in length. $14.15 1063 Barberry Root Bark Berberis vulgaris Barberry Root Bark cut and sift. Wildcrafted. Origin India. $6.86 1067 Basil Leaf c/s Ocimum basilicum Basil Leaf cut and sift from Egypt also available in Powder upon request $5.19 1070 Bay Leaf W Laurus nobilis Bay Leaf Whole. Origin Turkey. Large leaves 2 - 2 1/2 inches. $7.14 10704 Bayberry Bark P Myrica cerifera Bayberry Bark Powder. Wildcrafted. Origin India $27.40 1096 Bentonite Clay (fine) Montmorillinite Bentonite Clay, fine powder. Origin United States. $6.06 1097 Bilberries Whole Vaccinium myrtillus Bilberries Whole Origin Bulgaria Organic. . $25.35 1100 Black Cohosh c/s WC Cimicifuga racemosa Black Cohosh cut and sift. Wildcrafted. Origin United States. New lower price $13.01 1103 Black Cohosh Powder WC Cimicifuga racemosa Black Cohosh Powder. Wildcrafted. $13.36 1110 Bladderwrack Granules Fucus vesiculosus Bladderwrack Granules Origin Canada Also available in Powder $6.37 1120 Blood Root W Sanguinaria canadensis Dr. Weil talks about this herb in his books. $42.25 11201 Blue Cohosh Root c/s WC Caulophyllum thalictroides Blue Cohosh Root cut and sift Wild Crafted. Origin United States $12.73 1119 Blue Violet Leaf Viola odorata Blue violet leaf cut and sift Wildcrafted Origin Bulgaria $14.26 1149 Bupleurum Root Slices Bupleurem chinese Bupleurum Root Slices. Origin China. $13.00 1151 Burdock Root Cut and Sift Arctium lappa Burdock Root Origin Italy $10.40 1160 C Vitamin fine granules 100 % pure Vitamin C Origin China $19.49 1166 Calamus Root c/s Acorus calamus Calamus Root cut and sift Origin India. $9.96 1180 Cat's Claw Bark Unicaria tomentosa Cat's Claw Bark Wild Crafted Powder Only Origin Peru Harvested Ecologically $22.75 1174 Catnip Leaf Nepeta cataria Catnip Leaf cut and sift Origin United States $7.85 1175 Catnip Leaf c/s ** Nepeta cataria Catnip Leaf cut and sift Organic Origin United States $14.95 1185 Cayenne Pepper Powder 90,000h.u. Capsicum annum" Cayenne Pepper Powder. Origin India. Warning: Do not get into eyes. Wear glasses and a mask when using this. $6.43 1186 Cayenne Pepper Powder "180,000 h.u./ Capsicum annum" Cayenne Pepper Powder. At 180,000 H.U. it is the hottest Cayenne we carry. Origin Zimbabwe. $9.44 1191 Celendine Herb c/s Chelidonium majus Celendine Herb cut and sift. Origin Hungary. $9.52 1200 Chamomile Flower Powder Egyptian Matricaria recutita Chamomile Flower Powder Origin Egypt $7.49 1202 Chamomile Flowers Whole Roman Chamaemelum nobile Chamomile Flowers Whole Roman Origin France These Chamomile flowers are large and of excellent quality. $22.97 1205 Chaparral Leaf c/s Larrea tridentata Chaparral Leaf cut and sift. Wildcrafted. Origin Mexico $5.85 1210 Chaste Tree Berry (Vitex) Whole Vitex agnus castus Chaste Tree Berry Origanic Vitex Origin Bulgaria $10.41 1220 Chickweed c/s Stellaria media Chickweed Herb cut and sift Origin Bulgaria $7.80 1231 Cinnamon Sticks 4 inches long Cinnamomum cassia Cinnamon Sticks 4 inches long Origin Indonesia $4.74 1242 Cleavers c/s Galium aparine Cleavers Cut and Sift Wild Crafted Origin Bulgaria $9.10 1244 Cloves Powder Syzygium aromaticum Cloves Powder. Origin Madagascar. $9.54 1245 Cloves Whole Syzygium aromaticum Cloves Whole, Origin Madagascar. Perfect for making Orange and clove balls. $11.04 1255 Comfrey Root Organic Symphytum officinale Comfrey Root cut and sift Organic Origin United States $7.87 1260 Cornsilk c/s Zea mays Corn Silk Origin Bulgaria $6.43 1270 Cramp Bark c/s WC Viburnum opulus Cramp bark cut and sift. Wildcrafted. Origin United States. New lower price as of 12-02-02 $29.50 1280 Cranesbill c/s Geranium maculatum Cranesbill Root cut and sift. Origin United States. Wildcrafted. $14.63 1295 Dandelion Leaf c/s Taraxacum officinale Dandelion Leaf cut and sift. Origin Bulgaria. $7.59 1296 Dandelion Root c/s Taraxacum officinale Dandelion Root cut and sift. Origin China $7.80 1297 Dandelion Root Powder Taraxacum officinale Dandelion Root Powder. Origin China $9.10 1299 Devils Claw c/s WC Harpagophytum procumbens Devils Claw cut and sift. Wildcrafted. Origin South Africa. $17.41 13095 Echinacea Purp. Herb c/s Echinacea Pupurea Echinacea Purpurea Herb cut and sift Organic Origin United States $9.67 1305 Elcampane Root Inula helenium Elcampane Root cut and sift. Origin China. $7.15 1300 Elder Berries whole Wild Craft Sambucus nigra Elder Berries Whole Wild Crafted Origin Bulgaria $8.13 1301 Elderberry Flowers Sambucus nigra Elderberry Flowers whole. Also written as Elder Berry. Origin Bulgaria. $13.99 1310 Eluethero Root c/s Eleutherococcus senticocus Eluethero Root cut and sift. (Eluethero Ginseng Root) Origin China $8.83 1320 English Lavender Whole Select Purple Lavandula angustifolia English Lavender Select. Origin France $11.05 1330 Eucalyptus Leaf Eucalyptus globulus Eucalyptus Leaf cut and sift. Origin India. $6.22 1335 Eyebright c/s Euphrasia officinalis Eyebright cut and sift. Origin Bulgaria $11.43 1334 False Unicorn Root c/s Chamaelirium Luteum False Unicorn Root cut and sift. Origin United States. Wildcrafted. Please note, this is a special order item. $95.65 1340 Fennel Seed Whole Foeniculum vulgare Fennel Seed Whole Origin India $4.48 1341 Fennel Seed Whole Organic** Foeniculum vulgare Fennel Seed Whole Organic. Origin Egypt $6.50 1345 Fenugreek Seed Whole Trigonella foenum graecum Fenugreek Seed whole. Origin India $3.93 1352 Flax Seed Whole ** Linum usitatissimum Flax seed Whole Organic. Origin United States. Perfect for making eye pillow as well as internal use. $3.37 1241 French Green Clay Origin United States $9.53 1360 Garlic Granules Allium sativum Garlic Granules. Origin United States. $3.67 1361 Garlic Powder Organic. Allium sativum Garlic Powder. Origin United States. Certified Organic. $5.62 1390 Gentian Root WC c/s Gentiana lutea Gentian Root cut and sift. Wildcrafted. Bulgaria. $12.06 1396 Ginger Root Crystallized Zingiber Officinale Ginger Root Crystallized sliced. Origin Australia. $9.67 1398 Ginger Root Powder ** Zingiber Officinale Ginger Root Powder. Certified Organic. Origin Australia. $9.63 1395 Ginger Root Whole Zingiber Officinale Ginger Root Whole. Origin China. Use in cooking, teas, and extracts. $3.87 1397 Ginger Root Powder Zingiber Officinale Ginger Root Powder. Very Fine powder. Origin China. New lower price. $3.09 1400 Ginkgo Biloba Leaf c/s Ginkgo biloba Ginkgo Biloba Leaf cut and sift. Origin China. $7.79 1410 Goldenseal Leaf c/s WC Hydrastis canadensis Goldenseal Leaf cut and sift. Wildcrafted. Origin United States $40.05 1411 Goldenseal Root WC Hydrastis canadensis Goldenseal Root Wildcrafted. cut and sift. Same price for 2 years. Ecologically harvested. $69.11 1413 Gotu Kola Herb c/s Centella asiatica Gotu Kola Herb cut and sift. Origin India. $5.85 1419 Gravel Root c/s WC Eupatorium Purpuream Gravel Root cut and sift. Wildcrafted. Origin United States. New crop and new lower price $11.70 1420 Gum Arabic Powder Acacia species Gum Arabic Powder. Fine. Origin Sudan $16.10 1412 Gymnema Slyvestre P Gymnema sylvestre Gymnema Slvestre Powder. Origin India. The powder can be used in making capsules, decoctions, teas. $9.17 1425 Hawthorn Berries Whole Crataegus laevigata Hawthorn Berries Whole. Wildcrafted. Origin Bulgaria. $4.63 1426 Hawthorn Berries Whole ** Crataegus laevigata Hawthorn Berries Whole Organic. Small tiny berries about the size of a pea. $9.61 1430 Hibiscus Flower Whole Hibiscus sabdariffa Hibiscus Flowers Whole Origin China $6.71 1435 Honeysuckle Flowers W Lonicera japonica Honeysuckle Flowers Whole. Origin China. Fragrant, a pleasant drink, either hot or cold. $24.60 1440 Hops Whole Humulus lupulus Hops Whole Flowers. Origin United States. One of the ingredients in making beer, hops and barely. $11.04 1445 Horehound Herb c/s Marrubium vulgare Horehound Herb cut and sift. Wildcrafted. Origin Bulgaria New lower price. $7.63 1453 Horseradish powder Armoracia rustincana Horseradish Powder. Origin Germany. Fabulous Taste. One of the best condiments that is available. $10.40 1454 Hydrangea Root c/s WC Hydrangea arborescens Hydrangea Root cut and sift. Wildcrafted. Origin United States. $12.16 1455 Hyssops Leaf c/s Hyssopus officinalis Hyssops Leaf cut and sift. Wildcrafted. Origin Bulgaria. $8.42 1459 Jamaican Dogwood, WC Piscidia erythrina Jamaican Dogwood, Wildcrafted. $39.00 1460 Juniper Berries Blue Whole Juniperus communis Juniper Berries Blue Whole. Origin Bulgaria. Certified Organic. This is new for us, we have not been able to have organic before. $9.49 1470 Kelp Atlantic Granules Asco phyllum - nodosum Kelp Atlantic Granules. Origin United States. $3.25 1473 Kelp Atlantic Powder Asco phyllum - nodosum Kelp Atlantic Powder. Origin United States. Lower Price. $4.31 1468 Kola Nut Powder Cola acuminata Kola Nut Powder. Origin Ivory Coast. $5.61 1515 Licorice Root 1/4 cut Glycyrrhiza uralensis Licorice Root 1/4 inch cut. Origin China. $5.49 1516 Licorice Sticks 4 inches Glycyrrhiza uralensis Licorice Sticks 4 inches. Origin China. Lower Price $7.15 1509 Linden Flowers Tilla europea Linden Flowers and Leaf. cut and sift. Origin Bulgaria $13.00 1517 Lobelia Herb c/s Lobelia inflata Lobelia Herb cut and sift. Origin India $6.50 1519 Mace Powder Myristica fragrans Mace Powder. Origin Peru Lower price as of 12-02-02. $14.01 1520 Mandrake Root c/s WC Podophyllum peltatum Mandrake Root cut and sift. Wildcrafted. Origin United States $11.63 1539 Menthol Crystals Origin United States $21.48 1530 Milk Thistle Seed Whole Silybum marianum Milk Thistle Seed Whole. Certified Organic. Origin Holland $12.90 1540 Motherwort Herb c/s Leonurus cardiaca Motherwort Herb cut and sift. Wildcrafted. Origin Hungary $9.44 1545 Mugwort Organic c/s** Artemisia vulgaris Mugwort Herb cut and sift. Certified Organic. Origin Spain. New Price $10.68 1550 Mullein Leaf c/s Verbascum thapsus Mullein Leaf cut and sift. Certified Organic. Origin Bulgaria. $9.09 1560 Muria Puama chips Liriosma ovata Muria Puama Chips. Origin Brazil New lower price $11.21 1565 Myrrh Gum Powder Commiphora molmol Myrrh Gum Powder. Origin Somalia. $11.70 1571 Neem Leaf c/s Azadirachta indica Neem Leaf cut and sift Origin India $12.49 1572 Nettles Leaf c/s** Urtica dioica Nettle Leaf cut and sift Organic. Origin Italy. Picked when the leaves are young and tender. $9.59 1576 Nettles Root Powder Urtica dioica Nettle Root Powder. Wildcrafted. Origin Bulgaria $9.74 1581 Nutmeg Whole Myristica fragrans Nutmeg Whole. Origin Sri Lanka. $12.60 1583 Nutmeg Whole Organic Nyristica frangrans Nutmeg Whole. Certified Organic. Origin Sri Lanka. $14.01 1595 Oatstraw c/s Avena sativa Oatstraw cut and sift. Origin United State. Very fine cut, a lovely golden color. $5.75 1600 Olive Leaf c/s Olea suropaea Olive Leaf cut and sift. Certified Organic. Origin Italy, come on where else would it come from? $8.32 1606 Orange Peel 1/4 cut Citrus aurantium Orange Peel 1/4 inch square cut. Origin Israel. Orange peel is one of our most popular during the holidays. $5.39 1610 Oregano Organic c/s** Origanum vulgare Oregano Leaf cut and sift Organic Origin Italy $8.13 1615 Orris Root Granules Iris x germanica Orris Root Peel Granules. Origin Morocco. New lower price. $13.00 1616 Orris Root Powder Iris x germanica Orris Root Peel Powder. Origin Morocco $13.65 1620 Osha Root c/s Organic Ligusticum Porteri Osha Root cut and sift. Certified Organic. Origin United States. $31.98 1622 Papaya Leaf Carica papaya Papaya Leaf cut and sift. Origin India $5.82 1625 Parsley Leaf ** Petroselinum crispum Parsley Leaf Flakes. Certified Organic. Origin Egypt. Full vibrant green color. Excellent in all recipes, plus makes a wonderful tea. $9.74 1630 Passion Flower c/s Passiflora incarnata Passion Flower Leaf, cut and sift. Origin India $9.17 1635 Pau D Arco Barkc/s Tabebuia heptaphylla Pau D Arco Bark cut and sift. Wildcrafted. Ecologically harvested. Cut into small fine stripes which are a golden-red-brown color. $7.87 1640 Pennyroyal Herb c/s Mentha pulegium Pennyroyal Herb Leaf, cut and sift. Origin Morocco. Pennyroyal does come with a warning. Please consult with your doctor before using. $7.23 1646 Peppermint Leaf c/s** Mentha piperita Peppermint Leaf cut and sift. Certified Organic. Origin United States. The aroma of the peppermint is magnificent. Wonderful green color, and when brewed for tea, superior taste. $10.55 1645 Peppermint Powder Mentha piperita Peppermint Powder. New lower price. Origin United States. Not sure how to use Peppermint Powder? Use it in cooking, baths, teas, capsules, soaps, eye pillows, and my favorite mix peppermint powder with Epson Salts and soak my feet. $7.12 1660 Pipsissew Herb c/s Chimaphila umbellata Pipsissew Herb cut and sift. $12.39 1665 Plantian Leaf c/s Organic Plantago major Plantian Leaf cut and sift. Certified Organic. Origin Bulgaria. $12.99 1670 Pleurisy Root c/s Asclepias tuberosa Pleurisy Root cut and sift. Wildcrafted. Origin United States. Quality number #1 root. $18.73 1680 Psyllium Husk Powder Plantago ovata Psyllium Husk Powder. Origin India. $5.96 1681 Psyllium Husk Whole Plantago ovata Psyllium Husk Whole. Origin India. $5.95 1682 Psyllium Seed Whole Plantago ovata Psyllium seed whole. Origin India. Lower price $5.65 1689 Queen of the Meadow Eupatorium Purpuream Queen of the Meadow cut and sift. Origin United States. Queen of the Meadow is one of our specialty. $9.75 1691 Red Clover Blossoms Whole Trifolium pratense Red Clover Blossoms Whole. Wildcrafted. Origin Albania $8.13 1695 Red Raspberry Leaf c/s Rubus idaeus Red Raspberry Leaf cut and sift. Wildcrafted. Origin Albania. $6.43 1696 Red Root c/s WC Ceanothus Americana Red Root cut and sift. Wildcrafted. Origin United States. $14.26 1700 Reishi Mushroom Whole Ganoderma lucidum Reishi Mushroom Whole Approximently 2-4 inches round. Wonderful brown earth color. Also known as red reishi mushrooms $16.55 1702 Rooibos Tea c/s ** Aspulathus Linearis Rooibos Tea cut and sift. Certified Organic. Origin South Africa. $12.66 1706 Rose Hips Seedless Rosa canina Rose Hips seedless cut and sift. Wildcrafted. Origin Chile. $7.83 1705 Rose Hips Whole Rosa canina Rose Hips Whole. Wildcrafted. Origin Chile $5.49 1710 Rosemary Leaf ** Rosmarinus officinalis Rosemary Leaf. Whole. Certified Organic. Origin Italy. New Lower Price. $7.50 1715 Safflower c/s Carthamus Tinctorius Safflower cut and sift. Origin China $9.10 1719 Sage Leaf Rubbed c/s Salvia officinalis Sage Leaf, Dalmation. Rubbed. cut and sift. Origin Croatia $7.37 1725 Sarsaparilla c/s Smilax medica Saraparilla root cut and sift. Wildcrafted. Origin Mexico $11.39 1726 Sassafras root c/s Sassafras albidum Sassafras Root Bark cut and sift. Wildcrafted. Origin United States. Sassafras makes such a great refreshing drink. $22.05 1730 Saw Palmetto Berries** Serenoa repens Saw Palmetto Berries. Certified Organic. cut and sift. $15.36 1752 Schizandra Berries whole Schisandra chinesis Schizandra Berries Whole. Origin China. $9.75 1755 Shavegrass c/s WC Equisetum arvense Shavegrass cut and sift. Wildcrafted. Origin Bulgaria. Also known as Horsetail. $7.16 1756 Shavegrass Herb c/s** Equisetum arvense Shavegrass Herb cut and sift. Certified Organic. Origin Bulgaria. This plant is also known as horsetail. $9.72 1765 Shepards Purse Powder Capsella bursa pastoris Shepards Purse Powder. Wildcrafted. Origin Bulgaria. $7.14 1736 Skullcap Herb Organic** c/s Scutellaria laterifloria Skullcap Herb cut and sift. Certified Organic. Origin $22.09 1770 Slippery Elm Bark Powder Ulmus rubra Slippery Elm Bark Powder. Wildcrafted. Origin United States. $16.53 1790 Spearmint Leaf c/s Mentha spicata Spearmint Leaf, cut and sift. Origin United States $4.62 1792 Spearmint Leaf Organic c/s** Mentha spicata Spearmint Leaf cut and sift. Certified Organic. Origin United States. $12.39 1795 Speedwell Herb Powder Veronica officinalis Speedwell Herb Powder. Wildcrafted. Origin Hungary. Special Order 7 day lead time $12.35 1797 Spirulina Powder ** Spirulina platensis Spirulina Powder. Certified Organic. This price is the lowest we have ever had it at. Origin United States $26.33 1800 Squawvine c/s Mitchella repens Squawvine cut and sift. Wildcrafted. Origin United States $28.41 1808 St Johns Wort c/s Hypericum perforatum St; Johns Wort Leaf and Flower. cut and sift. Wildcrafted. Origin Bulgaria $9.24 1805 St. Johns Wort Organic c/s** Hypericum perforatum St. Johns Wort leaves and flowers cut and sift. Certified Organic. Origin Chile. Wonderful quality, excellent to make into a tea. $11.74 1810 St. Johns Wort Powder ** Hypericum perforatum St. Johns Wort Leaf and Flower. Powder. Certified Organic. Origin Chile $9.74 1801 Stevia Green Powder Symphytum officinale Stevia Green Powder Origin China $10.41 1802 Stevia Powder (white) Stevia rebaudiana Stevia Powder white. Origin China. Very sweet, I believe that when I read one of the cooking books the ration was 1 tablespoon of stevia, in place of 1/4 cup of sugar. $30.10 1811 Strawberry Leaf c/s Fragaria vesca Strawberry Leaf cut and sift. Wildcrafted. Origin Bulgaria $8.39 1820 Tansy c/s Tanacetum vulgare Tansy Herb cut and sift. Origin Hungary. $7.44 1825 Thyme c/s ** Thyme vulgaris Thyme Leaf cut and sift. Certified Organic. Origin Spain. $9.65 1826 Triphala Powder Blend Blend Triphala Powder Blend. Origin India. Harada fruit, Amla fruit, and Behada fruit. $14.26 1829 Turkey Rhubarb c/s ** Rheum officinales Turkey Rhubarb cut and sift. Certified Organic. Origin United States. $11.99 1830 Turkey Rhubarb Powder Rheum officinales Rhubarb Powder (Turkey). Origin United States. $14.69 1835 Turmeric Powder Curcuma longa Turmeric Powder. Origin India $4.16 1840 Usnea Whole Usnea barbata $47.44 1845 Uva Ursi Leaf c/s** arctostaphylos uva ursi Uva Ursi Leaf cut and sift. Certified Organic. Origin Croatia. $11.19 1850 Valerian Root Valeriana wallichii Valerian Root cut and sift. Origin India. New lower price. $5.43 1853 Valerian Root Organic ** Valeriana wallichii Valerian Root cut and sift Organic Origin Bulgaria $12.56 1121 Vervain (Blue) Verbena hasta Blue Vervain Herb cut and sift Wildcrafted Origin Bulgaria $11.55 1834 Wheatgrass Powder Triticum Asetivum Wheatgrass Powder --Origin United States No additives, pure "green" $12.35 1856 White Oak Bark c/s Quercus alba White Oak Bark cut and sift Wildcrafted Origin United States $6.43 1854 White Oak Bark P Quercus alba White Oak Bark Powder Origin United States Wildcrafted $7.53 1860 Wild Cherry Bark c/s Prunus serotina Wild Cherry Bark cut and sift Wild craft Origin United States $6.64 1865 Wild Yam Root c/s Dioscorea villosa Wild Yam Root cut and sift Wild craft Origin Mexico $11.02 1870 Wintergreen Leaf c/s Gaultheria procumbens Wintergreen Leaf cut and sift Origin India Full body aroma, and a vibrant green color. $7.55 1867 Witch Hazel Bark c/s Hamamelis virginiana Witch Hazel Bark cut and sift. Wildcrafted. Origin United States. $13.75 1872 Wood Bentony Herb c/s Stachys officinales Wood Bentony Herb cut and sift. Wildcrafted. Origin Bulgaria. $8.53 1880 Yarrow Flowers Achillea millefolium Yarrow Flowers cut and sift. Wildcrafted. Origin Bulgaria. $8.42 1881 Yarrow Flowers P Achillea millefolium Yarrow Flowers Powder. Origin Bulgaria Wildcrafted. $7.14 1885 Yellow Dock c/s Rumex crispus Yellow Dock cut and sift. Wildcrafted. Origin India. $6.53 1890 Yerba Mate Leaf c/s Ilex paraguariensis Yerba Mate Leaf cut and sift. Origin Brazil. $6.53 1900 Yohimbee Bark Pausinystlia yohimbe Yohimbee Bark cut and sift. Wildcrafted Origin Africa. $17.58 1902 Yucca Powder Yucca schidigera Yucca Root Powder. Wildcrafted. Origin United States. $10.02 iChineseHerbs.com Western Bulk Herb PAGE 1 OF Withania somnifera {Solanaceae},
(or,ALMOST A PANACEA)
THE PART ABOVE THIS HAS BEEN THE PAGE 2 THIS IS INCLUDED HERE TO SAVE SKIP! old colour=bg#9900FFtxt=#00FFFF Withania somnifera {Solanaceae},<BR>(or,ALMOST A PANACEA) image; and
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Withania somniferaAtropa belladonna Brugmansia aurea Brugmansia suaveolens Brugmansia versicolor Brunfelsia pauciflora var. calycina Brunfelsia unidentifed Capsicum chinense Capsicum gemnifolium Capsicum pubescens Cestrum alternifolium Cestrum nocturnum Cyphomandra betacea Iochroma unidentified Lycianthes unidentified Lycium carolinianum Nicotiana glauca Solandra longiflora Solandra maxima Solanum asarifolium Solanum auriculatum Solanum jasminoides Solanum quitoense Solanum seaforthianum Solanum wendlandii Streptosolen jamesonii Withania somnifera Contact:=Ecology & Evolutionary Biology Conservatory & Gardens 75 North Eagleville Rd., Unit 3043 Storrs, CT 06269-3043 Office: (860) 486-0809 Greenhouse: (860) 486-4052 Fax: (860) 486-6364SEARCH THESE RESOURCES ON UNIVERSITY SITE

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an altogether healing relaxing plantTumors,psorissis,smallpox,ringworm,scabies,cictitis,debility,lumbago,candida,fungicide,andi anthrax sedative,nervine,rhematism,tumors--Steeped in warm castor oil and applied to carbunkle,swillings,-natives used leaves for colds,enama for imfants,roots fo embola,-contains withanolide C28 H35 O6 and somnitol C33 H44 O5

Ashwangandha or withanias

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Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal General information: Query NCU-3e Common Name: Family: Solanaceae Juss. Country of Origin: Australia, E. Asia, Africa. Habitat: Open places, disturbed areas etc. shruA stony places.OTHER LIST LOCATIONS, Distributional range: Native: Africa: Algeria; Angola; Botswana; Cape Verde; Chad; Egypt; Eritrea; Ethiopia; Kenya; Lesotho; Liberia; Libya; Malawi; Mali; Mauritius; Morocco; Namibia; Nigeria; Somalia; South Africa - Cape Province, Natal, Orange Free State, Transvaal; Spain - Canary Islands; Sudan; Tanzania; Tunisia; Uganda; Zimbabwe Asia-Temperate: Afghanistan; Arabia; Iran [s.]; Iraq; Israel; Jordan; Lebanon; Syria; Turkey Asia-Tropical: India; Pakistan; Sri Lanka Europe: Greece [incl. Crete]; Italy - Sardinia, Sicily; Spain [incl. Baleares] Description: Additional Common Names: Ajagandha, Kanaje Hindi, Samm Al Ferakh USES COMMON TO VARIOUS SOCIETIES, Abortifacient; Adaptogen; Antibiotic; Aphrodisiac; Astringent; Deobstruent; Diuretic; Narcotic; Sedative; Tonic. Ashwagandha is one of the most widespread tranquilisers used in India, where it holds a position of importance similar to ginseng in China[238]. It acts mainly on the reproductive and nervous systems, having a rejunative effect on the body, and is used to improve vitality and aid recovery after chronic illness[238, 254]. The plant is little known in the West[192]. The whole plant, but especially the leaves and the root bark, are abortifacient, adaptogen, antibiotic, aphrodisiac, deobstruent, diuretic, narcotic, strongly sedative and tonic[169, 192, 238, 240]. Internally, it is used to tone the uterus after a miscarriage and also in treating post-partum difficulties[192]. It is also used to treat nervous exhaustion, debility, insomnia, wasting diseases, failure to thrive in children, impotence, infertility, multiple sclerosis etc[238]. Externally it has been applied as a poultice to boils, swellings and other painful parts[192, 240]. The root is harvested in the autumn and dried for later use[238]. Some caution is advised in the use of this plant since it is toxic[K]. The fruit is diuretic[240]. The seed is diuretic and hypnotic[240]. Other Uses Repellent; Soap. The fruit is rich in saponins and can be used as a soap substitute[169, 192]. The leaves are an insect repellent[169].
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MORE MEDICINAL INFO Edible Uses Curdling agent. The seeds are used to curdle plant milks in order to make vegetarian cheeses[183, 240]. Medicinal Uses Disclaimer Abortifacient; Adaptogen; Antibiotic; Aphrodisiac; Astringent; Deobstruent; Diuretic; Narcotic; Sedative; Tonic. Ashwagandha is one of the most widespread tranquilisers used in India, where it holds a position of importance similar to ginseng in China[238]. It acts mainly on the reproductive and nervous systems, having a rejunative effect on the body, and is used to improve vitality and aid recovery after chronic illness[238, 254]. The plant is little known in the West[192]. The whole plant, but especially the leaves and the root bark, are abortifacient, adaptogen, antibiotic, aphrodisiac, deobstruent, diuretic, narcotic, strongly sedative and tonic[169, 192, 238, 240]. Internally, it is used to tone the uterus after a miscarriage and also in treating post-partum difficulties[192]. It is also used to treat nervous exhaustion, debility, insomnia, wasting diseases, failure to thrive in children, impotence, infertility, multiple sclerosis etc[238]. Externally it has been applied as a poultice to boils, swellings and other painful parts[192, 240]. The root is harvested in the autumn and dried for later use[238]. Some caution is advised in the use of this plant since it is toxic[K]. The fruit is diuretic[240]. The seed is diuretic and hypnotic[240].
sTIL MORE HEALTH DATA ONWithania somnifera (Ashwagandha) Therapeutic Actions: Anemia with emaciation Anti-inflammatory Antitumor activity, in animal studies Ayurvedic superior rejuvenative herb for the muscles, bone marrow and semen Catalyzes the anabolic processes of the body Free-radical scavenging activity Hypotensive Immunomodulating Increases phagocytosis and intracellular killing of peritoneal macrophages Inhibits aging Nervous exhaustion Nurtures and clarifies the mind promoting dreamless sleep Promotes the healing of tissue Regenerates the hormonal system Sedative Stimulates the immune system Stress-induced health conditions Clinical Indications: Aging prevention Alzheimer's Chronic fatigue syndrome Hypertension Impotence due to aging or stress Insomnia Memory loss Multiple sclerosis Anemia Aspergillus infection Chronic inflammation Cognitive function deficits Depressed white blood cell count due to cytotoxic drugs Glandular swelling Infertility Problems of old age Contraindications: Pregnancy Drug/Nutrient Interaction: No interactions have been reported Chemical Constituents: Ashwagandholine, an alkaloid Withaferin A, has significant antitumor and radiosensitizing effects in experimental tumors of animals in vivo, without any noticeable systemic toxicity Withanolides, steroidal compounds whose action and appearance resemble the active constituents of Asian ginseng (Panax ginseng) known as ginsenosides
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Ashwagandha
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Briefcase - Download File - Need Help? http://www.wrc.net/phyto/Ashvagandha.html Education Amalaki, Ashvagandha, Bala, Bhringaraja, Chandana, Gokshura, Haritaki, Mandukaparni, Vacha, Vibhitaka Ashvagandha, 'smelling like a horse' Botanical Name: Withania somnifera, Solanaceae Common Name: Asgandh (H), Amukkira (T), Winter Cherry (E) Part Used: root, leaves, fruit Dravyguna: root. �Rasa: tikta, kashaya �Vipaka: katu �Virya: ushna �Karma: Vatapittahara, Kaphakopa, balyam, vajikarana, tonic, adaptogen, relaxing nervine, post-partum tonic, immunomodulant, astringent, galactagogue, diuretic, thermogenic (Dash 1991, 59; Dash and Junius 1983, 155; Frawley and Lad 1986, 160; Varier 1996, 409) Indications: �Root: asthma, bronchitis, edema, leucoderma, anorexia, consumption, asthenia, anemia, exhaustion, aging, insomnia, ADD/ADHD, neurasthenia, infertility, impotence, repeated miscarriage, paralysis, memory loss, multiple sclerosis, immune-dysfunction, carcinoma, rheumatism, arthritis, lumbago (Dash 1991 59; Dash and Junius 1987, 155; Kirtikar and Basu 1993, 1775-76; Frawley and Lad 1986, 160; Nadkarni 1976, 1293-94; Varier 1996, 409) �Leaves: used internally for fever and hemorrhoids; externally for wounds, hemorrhoids, tumors, tuberculous glands, anthrax pustules, syphylitic sores, erysipelas, and in ophthalmitis (Kirtikar and Basu 1993 1775-76; Varier 1996, 409) �Fruit: used externally in ringworm (Kirtikar and Basu 1993 1775-76) Contraindications: Caution should be used with clients on anticonvulsants, barbituates and benzodiazepines. Ashvagandha is traditionally avoided in lymphatic congestion, during colds and flu, or symptoms of ama (Frawley and Lad 1986, 160). Toxicity: None reported (Aphale et al 1998). Dosage: root �Churna: 3 5 g b.i.d. - t.i.d. �Kashaya: 100 mL t.i.d. �Tincture: fresh root, 95%, 1:2; dried root, 50%, 1:4; 1 10 mL t.i.d. Medical research: �Adaptogen: The traditional use of Ashvagandha as a rasayana has been validated by scientific investigation. Wistar rats treated with an extract of Withania somnifera showed better stress tolerance in cold water swimming tests (Archana and Namasivayam 1999). �Antiinflammatory: A methanolic extract of the aerial parts of Withania somnifera had antiinflammatory activities comparable to that of hydrocortisone sodium succinate (al-Hindawi et al 1992). An 80% ethanolic extract of Withania somnifera displayed significant antiinflammatory activity on carrageenan-induced paw edema (al-Hindawi 1989). �Antioxidant: An aqueous suspension of root extract of Ashvagandha prevented the rise of experimentally induced lipid peroxidation in rabbits and mice (Dhuley 1998a). An extract of Withania somnifera, consisting of equimolar concentrations of sitoindosides VII-X and withaferin A, induced an increase in the levels of superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase in rat brain, consistent with other research that reports an antioxidant, immunomodulant and antiinflammatory activity (Bhattacharya et al 1997). �Cancer: The administration of Ashvagandha rasayana (an Ayurvedic polyherbal formulation containing Ashvagandha) significantly reduced the lung tumor nodule formation by 55.6% in experimental animals (Menon et al. 1997). An alcoholic extract of the dried roots as well as withaferin A isolated from the extract showed significant antitumor and radiosensitizing effects in experimental tumors in Chinese hamster cells, without any noticeable systemic toxicity (Devi 1996). The steroidal lactone withaferin A displayed significant antitumor and radiosensitizing effects, inhibiting tumor growth and increasing survival in Swiss mice inoculated with Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (Devi et al 1995; Sharad et al 1996). The administration of an extract of Withania somnifera was found to significantly reduce leucopenia induced by cyclophosphamide treated experimental animals, indicating its usefulness in cancer therapy (Davis and Kuttan 1998). The administration of methanolic extract of Ashvagandha was found to significantly increase the WBC count in normal Balb/c mice and reduce leucopenia induced by a sublethal dose of gamma radiation. Withania increased bone marrow cellularity and normalised the ratio of normochromatic erythrocytes and polychromatic erythrocytes. This observed activity was thought to be due to stem cell proliferation (Kuttan 1996). �Central Nervous system: Isolated constituents of Withania somnifera (sitoindosides VII-X and withaferin-A) increased cortical muscarinic acetylcholine receptor capacity, partly explaining the cognition-enhancing and memory-improving effects traditionally attributed to Ashvagandha (Schliebs et al 1997). A methanolic extract of Withania somnifera inhibited the specific binding of [3H]GABA and [35S]TBPS, and enhanced the binding of [3H]flunitrazepam to their putative receptor sites, suggesting a GABA-mimetic activity (Mehta et al 1991). A commercial root extract of Withania somnifera used repeatedly over 9 days attenuated the development of tolerance to the analgesic effect of morphine and suppressed morphine-withdrawal jumps (Kulkarni and Ninan 1997). �Immunity: Myelosuppressed mice treated with an extract of Ashvagandha displayed a significant increase in hemoglobin concentration, red blood cell count, white blood cell count, platelet count and body weight as compared to controls, as well as increased hemolytic antibody responses towards human erythrocytes (Ziauddin et al 1996). Researchers at the Amala Cancer Research Centre in Kerala, India, found that the administration of an extract from the powdered root of Withania somnifera enhanced the levels of interferon gamma, interleukin-2 and granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor in normal and cyclophosphamide-treated mice, suggesting an immunopotentiating and myeloprotective effect (Davis and Kuttan 1999). Mice infected intravenously with Aspergillus fumigatus and treated for 7 consecutive days with an oral preparation of an extract of Withania somnifera at a dose of 100mg/kg displayed increased phagocytic activity and prolonged survival time (Dhuley 1998). The antifungal activity of Withania has been confirmed elsewhere, attributed to the withanolides (Choudhary et al 1995). �Musculo-skeletal: A herbomineral formulation containing roots of Withania somnifera, the stem of Boswellia serrata, rhizomes of Curcuma longa and a zinc complex (Articulin-F), was evaluated in a randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled, cross-over study in clients with osteoarthritis. The results produced a significant drop in severity of pain and disability, although radiological assessment did not show any significant changes. Sideeffects were minimal and did not necessitate the withdrawal of treatment. (Kulkarni et al 1991) Comments: Ashvagandha is the Indian equivalent to Ginseng (Panax ginseng)., but unlike Ginseng, Ashvagandha has a sedative rather than stimulant action on the central nervous system, making it a superior medicine for exhaustion with nervous irritability. A rejuvenating preparation can be made by mixing Ashvagandha with 10-15% Pippali, taken with one half part ghrita and 1 part honey on an empty stomach, morning and evening. Ashvagandha is a useful nervine, taken before bed to relax and nourish the body in deficiency diseases, but is only seen to be efficacious when taken on a sustained basis- it is not a sufficient sedative to treat acute insomnia. For poor memory, lack of concentration and in the treatment of ADD/ADHD Ashvagandha may be used in equal proportions with Brahmi and Ling zhi (Ganoderma lucidum). Ashvagandha is widely used in any debility, emaciation or consumptive condition, in both adults and children (Kirtikar and Basu 1993, 1775; Nadkarni 1976, 1294). As its name �smelling like a horse?suggests, Ashvagandha is an important vajikarana rasayana, indicating the sexual potency of a stallion, and is used in the treatment of infertility, impotence and �seminal depletion?(Nadkarni 1976, 1293). When mixed with equal parts Shatavari (Asparagus racemosa), it is an appropriate treatment for female infertility and frigidity and is useful in threatened miscarriage. For poor eyesight Ashvagandha powder is mixed with equal proportions of Licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra root) powder and the fresh juice of Amalaki (Emblica officinalis fruit) (Nadkarni, 1294). An infusion of the leaves may be used in in the treatment of ophthalmia (Kirtikar and Basu 1993, 1776). In the form of Narayana taila, Ashvagandha may be taken internally, 3 10 gtt. b.i.d. for consumption and emaciation in children, and as an enema for anal fistula (Nadkarni 1976, 1294). Narayana taila may also be taken as nasya (2-3 gtt.) in cases of hearing loss and in abhyanga in cases of paralysis, tetanus, rheumatism and lumbago (Nadkarni 1976, 1294). Nadkarni mentions that Ashvagandha is used in the treatment of antiinflammatory joint disease (1976, 1293), but as Lad and Frawley suggest, Ashvagandha can facilitate the production of ama (1986, 160), and thus an eliminative regimen is best utilized prior to using this botanical. Likewise, Ashvagandha is an appropriate remedy in the treatment of asthma and bronchitis (Kirtikar and Basu 1993, 1775-6), but should be used concurrently with dravyas that have a dipana-pacana property to avoid the production of ama. Varrier mentions that a paste made of the roots and bruised leaves may be applied to carbuncles, ulcers and painful swellings (1996, 409). References: al-Hindawi, M.K., I.H. Al-Deen, M.H. Nabi, and M.H. Ismail. 1989. Anti-inflammatory activity of some Iraqi plants using intact rats. J Ethnopharmacol. Sep; 26(2):163-8 Aphale A.A., A.D. Chhibba, N.R. Kumbhakarna, M. Mateenuddin and S.H. Dahat. 1998. Subacute toxicity study of the combination of ginseng (Panax ginseng) and ashwagandha (Withania somnifera) in rats: a safety assessment. Indian J Physiol Pharmacol Apr; 42(2):299-302 Archana, R. and A. Namasivayam. 1999. Antistressor effect of Withania somnifera. J Ethnopharmacol. Jan; 64(1):91-3 Bhattacharya, S.K., K.S. Satyan and S. Ghosal. 1997. Antioxidant activity of glycowithanolides from Withania somnifera. Indian J Exp Biol. Mar; 35(3):236-9 Choudhary, M.I., Dur-e-Shahwar, Z. Parveen, A. Jabbar , I. Ali, Atta-ur-Rahman. 1995. Antifungal steroidal lactones from Withania coagulance. Phytochemistry Nov; 40(4):1243-6 Dash, Bhagwan. 1991. Materia Medica of Ayurveda. New Delhi: B. Jain Publishers. ----------- and Manfred Junius. 1983. A Handbook of Ayurveda. New Delhi: Concept Publishing. Davis, L. and G. Kuttan. 1999. Effect of Withania somnifera on cytokine production in normal and cyclophosphamide treated mice. Immunopharmacol Immunotoxicol Nov; 21(4):695-703 Davis L. and G. Kuttan. 1998. Suppressive effect of cyclophosphamide-induced toxicity by Withania somnifera extract in mice. J Ethnopharmacol. Oct; 62(3):209-14 Devi, P.U. 1996. Withania somnifera Dunal (Ashwagandha): potential plant source of a promising drug for cancer chemotherapy and radiosensitization. Indian J Exp Biol. Oct; 34(10):927-32 Devi, P.U., A.C. Sharada, and F.E. Solomon. 1995. In vivo growth inhibitory and radiosensitizing effects of withaferin A on mouse Ehrlich ascites carcinoma. Cancer Lett. Aug 16; 95(1-2):189-93 Dhuley, J.N. 1998a. Effect of Ashwagandha on lipid peroxidation in stress-induced animals. J Ethnopharmacol. Mar; 60(2):173-8 Dhuley, J.N. 1998b. Therapeutic efficacy of Ashwagandha against experimental aspergillosis in mice. Immunopharmacol Immunotoxicol. Feb; 20(1):191-8 Frawley, David and Vasant Lad. 1986. The Yoga Of Herbs: An Ayurvedic Guide to Herbal Medicine. Santa Fe: Lotus Press. Kirtikar KR and BD Basu. 1993. Indian Medicinal Plants. 2nd ed. Vol. 1-4. 1935. Reprint. Delhi: Periodical Experts. Kulkarni, S.K. and I. Ninan. 1997. Inhibition of morphine tolerance and dependence by Withania somnifera in mice. J Ethnopharmacol. Aug; 57(3):213-7 Kulkarni, R.R., P.S. Patki, V.P. Jog, S.G. Gandage and B. Patwardhan. 1991. Treatment of osteoarthritis with a herbomineral formulation: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study. J Ethnopharmacol. May-Jun; 33(1-2):91-5 Kuttan, G. 1996. Use of Withania somnifera Dunal as an adjuvant during radiation therapy. Indian J Exp Biol. Sep; 34(9):854-6 Mehta, A.K., P. Binkley, S.S. Gandhi, and M.K. Ticku. 1991. Pharmacological effects of Withania somnifera root extract on GABAA receptor complex. Indian J Med Res. Aug; 94:312-5 Menon L.G., R. Kuttan, and G. Kuttan. 1997. Effect of rasayanas in the inhibition of lung metastasis induced by B16F-10 melanoma cells. J Exp Clin Cancer Res. Dec; 16(4):365-8 Nadkarni, Dr. K.M. 1976. The Indian Materia Medica, with Ayurvedic, Unani and Home Remedies. Revised and enlarged by A.K. Nadkarni. 1954. Reprint. Bombay: Bombay Popular Prakashan PVP. Schliebs, R., A. Liebmann , S.K. Bhattacharya, A. Kumar, S. Ghosal, and V. Bigl. 1997. Systemic administration of defined extracts from Withania somnifera (Indian Ginseng) and Shilajit differentially affects cholinergic but not glutamatergic and GABAergic markers in rat brain. Neurochem Int. Feb; 30(2):181-90 Sharad, A.C., F.E. Solomon, P.U. Devi, N. Udupa, and K.K. Srinivasan. 1996. Antitumor and radiosensitizing effects of withaferin A on mouse Ehrlich ascites carcinoma in vivo. Acta Oncol. 35(1):95-100 Varrier, P.S. 1996. Indian Medicinal Plants: A Compendium of 500 species. Edited by PK Warrier, VPK Nambiar and C Ramankutty. vol 5. Hyderabad: Orient Longman. Ziauddin, M., N. Phansalkar, P. Patki , S. Diwanay, B. Patwardhan. 1996. Studies on the immunomodulatory effects of Ashwagandha. J Ethnopharmacol. Feb; 50(2):69-76

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PRODUCT COLEUS FORSKOHLII EXTRACT POWDER 20% BOTANICAL NAME Coleus Forskohli PLANT PART USED Roots DESCRIPTION Dark Brown colour Powder with Odour Characteristic BULK DENSITY (TAPPED) 0.68 g/ml LOSS ON DRYING 2.00% PARTICLE SIZE 100% through 40 Mesh IDENTIFICATION Positive for Forskolin by HPLC ASSAY For Forskolin by HPLC (On 'AS IS' Basis) Above 20% MICRO BIOLOGICAL TOTAL PLATE COUNT 1000 CFU/GM YEAST & MOULD 100 CFU/GM SALMONELLA & E.COLI Negative HEAVY METALS Nil Coleus Forskohlii Herb Extract is drived from roots from Coleus Forskohlii. Coleus is used in India folk medicines and is a traditional digestive remedy. Currently the plant is extensively cultivated is Southern India. Forskohlii helps to lower blood pressure, dilates the blood vessels. It is concerted to be a good Heart tonic. Here we present a list of our main Herbal Extracts only. If you have interest in any other Herbal Extracts please contact us. 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Is prescribed for dyspepsia, flatulence and diarrhoea Salacia Reticulata 8% Glycosides Spirulina Powder 60% Protein Food Supplement, Rich in proteins Sida Cordifolia 6% Alkaloid Strychnos 6% Alkaloid Bitter Tonic Tamarindus Indica Fruit Fruit of tree found wild throughout India Brix 65 Antioxidant, Citric Terminalia Arjuna 1% Arjunic Acid Terminalia belerica Extract Tannins NLT -15% w/w Functions Terminalia chebula Extract Tribulus Terrestris Fruit The dried aerial parts of the ground creeper, growing wild all over India 20%, 40% & 60% Steroidal Saponins by Gravimetry Body building and Aphrodisiac Triphla 25% Tannins Normalize Gl tract Turmeric Root Roots & Plant cultivated & used as spice 95% Curcumin Antibiotic, Natural yellow colour Valerian Wallichi Root The roots & rootlets of the plant growing wild in Northern India 0.8% Valerenic acids by HPLC Sleep inducing and anti-spasmolytic Withania Somnifera Root The root of the plant Withania Somnifera also called Indian Ginseng cultivated throughout India 2% Alkaloids and 3% Withanolides both by Gravimetry Promoting vigor & vitality and increasing endurance Zingiber Officinale Tuber (Ginger) The dried rhizomes of Zingiber Officinale cultivated in the warmer regions of South India 5% Gingerols by HPLC Digestive and for relieving motion sickness, nausea and common cold -http://www.indo-world.com- FREE WORLD BOTANICAL RESOURCES INDO WORLD TRADING CORPORATION B-II/6, MOHAN CO-OP. 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Herb Information Name: Dianthus Biological Name: Herba dianthi Caryophyllaceae Other Names: Dianthus, Chinese pink flower, Qu mai Parts Used: Whole plant Remedies For: Diuretic, antibacterial, antiparasitic, stimulates peristalsis, lowers blood pressure Drains dampness, clears heat, promotes urination. It is indicated for genitourinary tract infections associated with damp heat, with painful and difficult urination, and possibly with blood. It can be used for damp heat associated with constipation or cessation of menses due to blood stagnation. Dosage: 6-12 grams Combinations: For urinary tract infections, combine 9 grams each of dianthus, plantain seeds, polyporus, and poria, 6 grams of cinnamon twigs, and 20 grams of talcum. For amenorrhea, combine 9 grams each of dianthus, peach seed, safflower, and leonurus. Safety: Dianthus should not be used by pregnant women or by those with deficiency of kidney or spleen qi : Gravel Root Biological Name: Eupatorium purpureum Compositae Other Names: Gravel Root, Gravelweed, Joe-Pye Weed, Queen of the Meadow, purple boneset, trumpet weed, kidney root Parts Used: Rhizome and root Active Compounds: Volatile oil, of unknown composition Flavonoids, including euparin Resin Remedies For: Diuretic, anti-lithic, anti-rheumatic, stimulant, tonic, astringent, relaxant. Gravel Root is used primarily for kidney stones or gravel. In urinary infections such as cystitis and urethritis it may be used with benefit, whilst it can also play a useful role in a systemic treatment of rheumatism and gout. Combinations : For kidney stones or gravel it combines well with Stone Root, Parsley Piert, Pellitory of the Wall or Hydrangea. Description: Found in the USA. Dosage: Decoction: Put 1 teaspoonful of the herb in a cup of water, bring to the boil and simmer for 10 minutes. This should be drunk three times a day. Tincture: Take 1-2 ml of the tincture three times a day. Safety: No information available. Some herbs are known to react with your medication. Please consult your physician before starting on any herb. : Guaiacum Biological Name: Guaiacum officinale Zygophyllaceae Other Names: Guaiacum, Guaiac, Lignum vitae, pockwood Parts Used: The heart-wood Active Compounds: Lignans; furoguaiacidin, guaiacin, furoguaiacin, furoguaiaoxidin. Resin acids; guaiaretic, hydroguaiaretic, guaiacic and a- and b- guaiaconic acids Miscellaneous; vanillin, terpenoids including guaiagutin, guaiasaponin. Remedies For: Anti-rheumatic, anti-inflammatory, laxative, diaphoretic, diuretic. Guaiacum is useful for rheumatic complaints. It is especially useful where there is much inflammation and pain present. Used in chronic rheumatism and rheumatoid arthritis. Aids in the treatment of gout and may be used in the prevention of its recurrence. Due to the high content of resins in this herb, care must be taken with patients with gastritis or peptic ulceration. Combinations : It may be used together with Bogbean, Meadowsweet or Celery Seed. Description: Guaiac is the resin from a tree that grows in West Indies, Mexico, Central America, and northern south America. The crooked trunk grows 30 to 40 feet high and provides lignum vitae, the olive brown, heavy, very hard wood which contains the oily resin. Dosage: Decoction: put 1 teaspoonful of the wood chips in a cup of water, bring to boil and simmer for 15-20 minutes. This should be drunk three times a day. Tincture: 1-2ml three times a day. Safety: Due to the high content of resins in this herb, care must be taken with patients with gastritis or peptic ulceration. No other information available. Some herbs are known to react with your medication. Please consult your physician before starting on any herb. Herb Information Name: Astragalus Biological Name: Astragalus membranaceus Family: Leguminosae Other Names: Huang qi, Astragalus Parts Used: Roots Active Compounds: Astragalus contains numerous components, including flavonoids, polysaccharides, triterpene glycosides (e.g., astragalosides I-VII), amino acids, and trace minerals. Astragalus appears to restore T-cell (a specific type of white blood cell ) counts to relatively normal ranges in some cancer patients. History: Shen Nong, the founder of Chinese herbal medicine, classified astragalus as a superior herb in his classical treatise Shen Nong Pen Tsao Ching (circa A.D. 100). The Chinese name huang qi translates as "yellow leader," referring to the yellow color of the root and its status as one of the most important tonic herbs. Traditional Chinese medicine utilized this herb for night sweats, deficiency of chi (e.g., fatigue, weakness, and loss of appetite), and diarrhea. Remedies For: Immune tonic, diuretic, lowers blood pressure, Qi tonic Astragalus is useful for the treatment of: Alzheimer's disease Chemotherapy support Common cold/sore throat Immune function Astragalus is the primary herb used in Chinese medicine to tone the immune system of the lungs. It is useful for conditions of immune deficiency that lead to spontaneous sweating. It is also used for spleen qi deficiency with symptoms of weak, low metabolism; edema; and prolapse of internal organs, as it raises the spleen yang and qi. It can be used for qi and blood deficiency caused by loss of blood or after childbirth. Description: Astragalus is native to northern China and the elevated regions of the Chinese provinces Yunnan and Sichuan. The portion of the plant used medicinally is the four- to seven-year-old dried root collected in the spring. While there are over 2,000 types of astragalus world-wide, the Chinese version has been extensively tested, both chemically and pharmacologically' Dosage: Textbooks on Chinese herbs recommend taking 9-15 grams of the crude herb per day in decoction form made by boiling the root in water for a few minutes and then brewing the tea. Supplements typically contain 500 mg of astragalus. Two to three tablets or capsules or 3-5 ml of tincture three times per day are often recommended. Safety: Astragalus should not be used for cases of excess or when there is deficiency of yin with heat signs, and it should not be used when there is stagnation of qi or dampness, especially when there is painful obstruction. Herb Information Name: Belladonna Biological Name: Atropa belladonna Other Names: Black cherry, deadly nightshade, dwale, poison black cherry, belladonna Parts Used: Leaves, tops, berries Remedies For: Antispasmodic, calmative, diaphoretic, diuretic, narcotic. The narcotic action of belladonna can produce paralysis by affecting the central nervous system. Not to be used without medical direction. Description: Belladonna is a perennial plant found occasionally in waste places in the eastern states of the U.S., more commonly in European pastures, mountain forests, ruins, and waste places. A thick, creeping, whitish, fleshy rootstock sends up an erect, leafy stem that usually splits into three branches and attains a height of up to 5 feet. The dull green, ovate leaves grow in pairs, one leaf being half as large as the other. Belladonna flowers are solitary, bell-shaped, and dull brown to dark purple in color. The fruit is a sweet-tasting, black, shiny berry about the size of a cherry. Safety: The narcotic action of belladonna can produce paralysis by affecting the central nervous system. Not to be used without medical direction. Your global phonecard account... Save much more on your phone calls! 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The Genus Datura: From Research Subject to Powerful Hallucinogen By Kirsten Bonde Datura is one of the most interesting plants with hallucinogenic properties. Despite having a reputation as one of the 'darker' hallucinogens, it has been widely used by societies historically in both the Old World and the New, and continues to be today. For those interested in ethnobotanical uses of this plant world-wide, Datura is a fascinating topic. While being limited in its uses economically, the alkaloids contained in the plant have been in demand in the past and its application as a subject for botanical research is vast. Heiser has stated that "Datura is a genus of contrasts - from smelly weeds to lovely ornamentals." This paper will attempt to provide an overview of this varied genus, with specific attention being given to Datura stramonium, most common in North America. Datura belongs to the family Solanaceae, the nightshades, which Includes some 2,400 species in total (Siegel 1989:36). Other plants with narcotic properties in this family are mandrake (Mandrogora), belladonna (Atropa), henbane (Hyoscyamus), and tobacco (Nicotiana). Appropriately called the "paradoxical plants" by Heiser, this family also includes such common food plants as the tomato, potato, and eggplant (Safford 1922:539). There seems to be some disagreement as to how many sections and species belong to the genus Datura. Conklin (1976:3-4) states that herbaceous Datura is now divided into five sections, while the older citation by Avery (1959:18) claims only four. in any case, this genus contains about ten different herbaceous species, the most important ones being D. stramonium, D. inoxia, D. metel, and D. ceratocaula (Schultes 1979:41-42). Common names for Datura are numerous, some of the most common ones being raving nightshade, thorn apple, stinkweed, Devil's apple, Jimson weed, and angel's trumpet (Heiser 1969:140 and Avery 1959:19). Datura can be found throughout Asia, Europe, and the Americas as either native or adventive plants, and some have also been found in Africa and Australia (Conklin 1976:5). The epicenter of diversity of this plant is in the New World, specifically in Andean South America and in the southwestern United States/Mexico region (Lewis 1977:423-4). This data correlates with the generally agreed upon origin of Datura, although this topic was debated for some time. Researchers now believe the plant originated and evolved in Mexico and the American Southwest, followed by adaptive radiation into new desert environments (Conklin 1976:5). Today, Datura (mainly the species stramonium) can be found all over North America as a roadside weed, but never in mountainous or forested habitats (Hutchens 1991:166). A possible explanation for its success as a weed has been offered by Heiser, who argues that the long duration of the seeds is responsible. Tests have shown that Datura seeds stored for 39 years still had a germination rate of 90% (Heiser 1969:140). The plant seems to prefer xeric environments and has an annual or short-lived perennial life cycle (Conklin 1976:5). Since Datura is not a widely grown crop plant, estimations on yield were difficult to locate. The only mention on the topic was in reference to experiments carried out to determine the effect of manure and other nitrogenous fertilizers on the plant. "In 1911 yields from Datura stramonium were reported as increasing from 23 kg. per 100 square meters, on unmanured land to 33 kg. per 100 square meters on land which had been dunged with farmyard manure" (James 1947:230-231). The earliest mention of a plant of this genus was by the Arab Avicenna in the 11 th century in an account of Arabian medicinal plants, later translated by Dioscorides. The "nut" of the plant was recognized by early botanists as a fruit of a solanaceous plant, later called Datura metel (Avery 1959:3). The generic name of Datura was first used by Linnaeus in his 1737 publication Hortus Cliffortianus. Objecting to "barbaric" nomenclature, he latinized Dhatura or Dutra into the modem name of Datura (Avery 1959:17). The English herbalist Gerard also made mention of Datura in reference to the plant Greek writer Theocrastus called Hippomanes, thought to drive horses mad. He also believed Datura was responsible for putting the priests of Apollo in ancient Greece into their prophetic state (Schultes 1979:109). Later historical accounts of Datura include Christoval Acosta's Tractado de las Drogas y Medicinas de las Indias Orientales (1578). He describes the use of Datura in the East Indies as an aphrodisiac and also states that the seeds were highly prized treasures by Hindu enamorades, who ground them into a powder to be added to wine or some other medium. Herbalist Li Shi-Chen, in a work on Chinese medicines entitled Peu ts'ao Kang mu (15 90), explained the origin of the Chinese name for Datura. Man t'o lo h ua is said to be taken from the famous Buddhist sutra "Fa hua ching," which states that when Buddha preaches a sermon from heaven, dew forms on the petals of Datura from raindrops. According to the Taoist tradition though, the name refers to a specific star whose envoy is supposed to carry a Datura flower in one hand (Safford 1922:540). These early accounts of the plant offer valuable insight into its widespread use and rich history. But while Datura continued to.be investigated, the most thorough study was conducted in the early 20th century by Albert F. Blakeslee, who spent most of his career using the plant to conduct groundbreaking research Into plant genetics. Perhaps the most Important contribution of Datura, at least in sclentIfIc terms, is its use as a research subject to better understand fundamental biological principles (Heiser 1069:141). Datura plants contain 12 pairs of chromosomes normally, but trisomic (2n+1) individuals can be grown which have an extra chromosome in one of their twelve sets. This was discovered by Blakeslee, who went on to identify twelve primary mutants, each with one of the normal chromosomes as an extra, and for many of these, two secondary mutants where the extra chromosome was a reduplicated half of the one of the normal ones (Avery 1959:viii). The Blakeslee himself understood the Implications of his work, as evident when he wrote an article for Smithsonian in 1930 and stated, "...it is our belief that in the future extra chromosomes will be consciously utilized as a source of desirable variations in plants of economic Importance" (449). How right he was! Another great accomplishment was the discovery of a haploid in Datura by Blakeslee. "This was the f1rst haploid to be found in vascular plants and created something of a sensation. Haploid plants, one thought, should be gamophytes, but here was a little plant, rather weak and nearly sterile, that was clearly a sporophyte, but that had only one set of chromosomes in its cells" (Avery 1959.-Vili). With this research, much interest in polyploidy was aroused and investigations continued. While a total of six stages in the polyploidy series of Datura have now been Identified (1n, 2n, 3n, 4n, 6n, and 8n), the Initial work by Blakeslee was of vast importance. With the finding of polyploids containing four sets of chromosomes Instead of two "was born the concept of genic balance; that is, an organism that has complete extra sets of all of its genes is not very different from a normal organism of its type, whereas an organism that has a single extra chromosome, giving it an extra 'dose' of the genes carried on this chromosome and thus changing the ratio of these genes to those bome on the other chromosomes, has a profoundly changed appearance" (Heiser 1969:142). The research conducted by Blakeslee during his lifetime were of immeasurable value to such diverse aspects of botany as genetics, cytology, physiology, morphology, and anatomy. in the process of this, the Datura plant itself has become better understood. The numerous variations genetically in the plant has amazed many researchers and it is believed that "Datura now probably displays a larger number of distinguishable types due to gene mutations than any other species of plants except corn" (Avery 1959:110). Being a known hallucinogen, the chemistry and alkaloid composition of Datura also becomes important if one is to understand the plant itself as well as its history. The main alkaloids of medicinal value in Datura are members of the tropane class, namely atropine, hyoscyamine, and hyoscine (Avery 1959:48). All are commonly grouped under the headings of stramonine or daturine (Heiser 1969:141), and are present in varying concentrations in all parts of the plant. The variance is due to the stage of development of the plant and the environmental conditions it is grown in. There is a decreases in the concentration during the day and an increase at night, as well as less following a rainy period than after clear weather (Lewis 1977:419). The effect of environmental factors has been shown to cause as much variation as that found between specific races (Avery 1959:48). The medicinal value of the alkaloids themselves is significant, but Datura is not considered the best source for them. Atropine is present in small amounts in Datura and can be extracted from hyoscyarnine in a commercial process. The alkaloid has a paralyzing action that helps relieve bronchial spasms in the treatment of asthma. Old-fashioned methods of treating this respiratory problem included use of an inhaler containing stramonine and belladonna (also a primary source of atropine). When the supply of belladonna was cut off during World War II, the United States began intentional cultivation of D. stramonium as a domestic source of atropine. This was abandoned later because imported belladonna was cheaper than domestic Datura resources (Heiser 1969:141). The daturine alkaloids are also known to cause dilation of the pupil of the eye (mydriasis) and paralysis of the muscles of accommodation (cycloplegia). They effect the nervous system too, with atropine acting as a stimulant and hyoscine as a depressant. Atropine is used to counteract the depression associated with morphine and hyoscine acts as an antidote to highly toxic phosphate insecticides and so called "nerve gases." Other applications of hyoscine Include prevention of motion sickness, as an analgesic along with morphine in obstetrics to produce "twilight sleep," and as a truth drug (Avery 1959:51). While people may not have been aware of the chemical constituency of Datura, the plant was used medicinally all over the world in historical times. in the Old World, the Chinese used Datura to treat colds and nervous conditions (Siegel 1989:21). in India, the powdered seeds were mixed with butter and taken internally for impotence as well as being applied to genitalia to obtain sexual vigor (Lewis 1977:330). Referred to as the tuft of Shiva, the god of destruction, Datura was also used in the form of a liquid extract by thugs - worshipers of Kali, the goddess of fertility and death - to stupefy sacrificial victims. The plant was also given to young girls in India to bring them Into prostitution as well as on their clients (Siegel 1989:21). The leaves were smoked as well in that country to relieve asthma (Lewis 1977:395). European usage of Datura can be traced back to pagan rituals. The Church suppressed knowledge of the plant during the medieval witch-burning period and associated Datura and other plants such as deadly nightshade and monkshood with the Devil. "...flying ointments and magical salves were compounded out of Datura roots and seeds, parts of the plant rich in delirium- and delusion-producing tropane alkaloids. When this material was applied to the witch's body, it produced states of extraordinary derangement and delusion" (McKenna 1992:90). The use of broomsticks by witches can be explained by these practices, serving to apply the salves to sensitive vaginal membranes (Lewis 1977:420). Experiments on these controversial religious practices were carried out by Andres Laguna, a physician to Pope Julius III, and showed how the salves containing Datura took the women on "Journeys" by producing dreams only, contrary to widely-held folk beliefs of the period. Giovanni Battista Porta, a colleague of Galileo and who also took part in Laguna's experiment, described how men drank potions of Datura to create the illusion of being a bird or beast. The men wore wolfs skin and ran about on all fours following ingestion of the hallucinogen, providing the basis of our modem werewolf stories (Siegel 1989:22). While Datura was definitely used in the Old World, no where did it have as much application as in the New World. The seeds were used by ancient Peruvians in trepanning operations as an anesthetic and archeological evidence Indicates that these complex surgical procedures had a higher survival rate than one would expect (Heiser 1969:136). The use of enema syringes in Peru dates back to 600800 AD and could have contained Datura among other things, considering the vast herbal knowledge of the healers of this region (McKenna 1992:197-8). Wild and cultivated species of Datura were also used in other parts of western South America by indigenous peoples to Induce partial intoxication, to control unruly children, and the plant was given in large doses along with tobacco to women and slaves to deaden their senses before being buried alive with their dead husbands or masters. Extracts made from the bark, leaves, and seeds were also used in shamanistic rites and practices of this region (Avery 1959:4). The Aztecs also made use of Datura, specifically D. meteloides, which they called ololluhqui "the magic plant," for all kinds of diseases including paralysis and as an ointment for cuts or wounds (Safford 1922:550). The plant's narcotic effects were employed by Aztecan shamans and priests to communicate with spirits, causing visions and stimulating people to dance, laugh, weep, sleep, or tell oracular prophecies. The seeds were considered sacred and kept on altars or in secret boxes and sacrificial offerings made to them by the Aztecs (Avery 1959:4). Zuni Indians and other cultures in the American Southwest and Mexican region used Datura as well and referred to it as toloache Used to relieve pain during the setting of bones among other things, D. meteloides was the most universally used drug in the region. it was also taken by young boys in male initiation rituals and used in ceremonies following the death of a member of the tribe (Avery 1959:4). Attitudes toward the plant varied among tribes from no special reverence to attribution of supernatural powers. But while knowledge of this plant was widespread among Native Americans, early colonialists were not as aware of Its properties. An interesting example of this is what happened to British soldiers in 1676 sent to Jamestown, Virginia to quell Bacon's Rebellion. After including Datura stramonium in a salad, the soldiers were reported to have gone mad for eleven or so days before the effects finally wore off. This incident is probably the source for Datura's common name jimsonweed, a shortened version of James Town weed (Avery 1959:5). From an anthropological perspective, the use of Datura stramonium by Algonquin Indians of Virginia in their huskanawing ceremony provides an excellent example, of the role of hallucinogens during the liminal period in rites of passage. The concept of liminality was first discussed by Arnold Van Gennep in his Rites o Passaga (1908) and later elaborated on by Victor Turner. The liminal period is one part of rites of passage during which initiates are removed from social space and involved in reflection and learning about their particular society. Victor Turner has pointed to the Importance of studying this phenomenon in order to understand processes of social change generationally within a culture. The use of Datura in this rite provides such insight. Beverly in his History of Virginia (1705) described the rite of huskanawing. The rite was practiced by Algonquins every fourteen or sixteen years and involved taking the "choicest and briskest" young men of the society into the woods and ritually administering an intoxicating medicine (wysoccan), containing Datura, to them. The rite was necessary if the young men hoped to become great men or officers within their society. Kept in cages or enclosures for several months, the local medicine men carefully fed the boys only wysoccan, causing them to become "stark, raving mad" for a period of eighteen or twenty days so as to "perfectly lose the remembrance of all former things, even of their parents, their treasure, and their language." When sufficient dosages had been administered, the amount was reduced gradually and the young men slowly returned to their senses. But before the potion completely wore off, the boys were brought back, into their village and carefully observed to see if any memories of their former life as boys were discovered. If one did show signs of remembering, the entire ritual had to be undergone again, this time greatly endangering the life of the initiate (Safford 1922:558-9). While this may serve as a severe example of liminality, the purpose of the rite being one of transition follows Van Gennep's and Turner's theory perfectly. As Beverly describes, the boys are forced to relearn all aspects of their culture, "...thus they unlive their former lives, and commence men by forgetting that they ever have been boys" (Safford 1922:558-9). In order to become fully adult, socialized members of Algonquin society, the boys must leave their former role of boyhood and its accompanying memories behind. While possible reasons for the severity of the ritual are beyond the scope of this paper, the account by Beverly struck me as Important enough to Include and is worth further research in the future. While the above descriptions make it appear like Datura is a fairly widely used, relatively harmless hallucinogenic plant, this is not at all the case. There is adequate reason for Datura's dark -reputation and probably one of the more famous examples has to do with Abraham Lincoln's mother, Nancy Hanks. She apparently drank milk from a local cow that had grazed on the plant and consequently developed "milk sickness," a slow but fatal disease. Her death effected Lincoln tremendously and caused the President to remain abstinent from alcohol for the remainder of his life (Siegel 1989:259). The possibility of poisoning when taking Datura is fairly high and occurs often with symptoms similar to belladonna. As discussed earlier, chemical composition of the plant varies with environmental conditions the plant is grown In, thereby making it difficult to determine a safe dosage. Cases of children eating parts of the plant have often been reported, attracted by the colorful flowers and seedpods. Livestock poisoning seems to be rarer, possible due to Datura's odor and taste (Lewis 1977:54). With its long history of human usage, one may ask how people learned to use Datura safely. One possible answer lies in the foraging habits of animals. Tribal peoples, living in a much closer relationship with nature, probably observed the effects Datura had on different species of animals and copied their eating strategies when consuming the hallucinogen themselves. Modern scientists have watched hawk moths feed on the flowers at night and become disoriented. Nonetheless, the moths continue to attempt to return to the plant for further feeding. Hummingbirds also favor Datura and after ingesting the narcotic perch, fluff their feathers, and then freeze stiff like corpses for several hours (Siegel 1989:25). Other research has also demonstrated that animals chose to eat hallucinogenic plants on an infrequent basis only, seeming to realize that tolerances can easily develop with regular usage. Interestingly, some animals are unaffected by Datura Beetles have developed biochemical defenses against the plants potent chemicals and ants appear to have done the same, often being observed carrying away the seeds. Bees are unaffected as well and various species of birds are known to eat the seeds, thereby acting as a dispersal mechanism for the plant (Siegel 1989:24). Using animals as a model to learn from, ancient hunters and gatherers probably began using Datura and many incorporated it into shamanistic rituals, a more controlled environment for ingestion of such a powerful and dangerous hallucinogen. The uses of this plant historically have been numerous, but we can also benefit from Datura in the future. Detoxification of the environment used to be taken care of by nature back when human beings lived in a more harmonious relationship with the earth. With increasing amounts of pollution resulting from modernization and industrialization, cleaning up the mess becomes a Larger challenge every day. The Datura plant can aid in these efforts. "The shrub Datura stramonium can act like a toxin sponge, leaching heavy-metal elements from polluted soils. The toxins are concentrated in its tissue, which can then be removed" (McKenna 1989:8). When discovering this Information, I was further Impressed with the belief that only by becoming more in touch with plants and nature can we hope to sustain as a species in the future. By ignoring the knowledge plants such as Datura can offer, we miss the very means by which to insure our own survival. Literature Cited Avery, Amos G., S. Satina, and J. Rietsema. Blakeslee: The Genus Datura. New York: Ronald Press Co., 1959. Blakeslee, Albert F. "Extra Chromosomes, A Source of Variations in the Jimson Weed." Annual Report of the Board of Regents o the Smithsonian institution 1930. Washington: US Government Printing Office, 1931. Conklin, Marie E "Genetic and Biochemical Aspects of the Development of Datura" Monographs in Developmental Biology. New York: Karger, 1976. Heiser, Charles B. Jr. Nightshades., The Paradoxical Plants. San Francisco: WH Freeman and Co., 1969. Hutchens, Alma R. Indian Herbalogy of North America. Boston: Shambala, 1991. James, G.M. "Effects of Manuring on Growth and Alkaloid Content of Medicinal Plants." Economic Botany 2 (1947): 230-237. Lewis, Walter H. and M.P.F. Elvin-Lewis. Medical Botany: Plants Effecting Man's Health. New York: John Wiley and Sons, 1977. McKenna, Terence. Food of the Gods: The Search for the Original Tree of Knowledge. New York: Bantam Books, 1992. McKenna, Terence. "Plan, Plant, Planet." Whole Earth Review (64) Fall 1989. Safford, William E. "Daturas of the Old World and New: An Account of their Narcotic Properties and their Use in Oracular and Initiatory Ceremonies." Annual Report of the Board of Regents of the Smithsonian Institution 1920. Washington: Government Printing Office, 1922. Schultes, Richard E. and Albert Hoffman. Plants of the Gods. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1979. Siegel, Ronald K. Intoxication: Life in Pursuit of Artificial Paradise. New York: EP Dutton, 1989. EBL HOME PAGE Southern Illinois University Carbondale / Ethnobotanical Leaflets / URL: http://www.siu.edu/~ebl/ Last updated: 09-December-97 / du ************************
The Genus Datura: From Research Subject to Powerful Hallucinogen By Kirsten Bonde Datura is one of the most interesting plants with hallucinogenic properties. Despite having a reputation as one of the 'darker' hallucinogens, it has been widely used by societies historically in both the Old World and the New, and continues to be today. For those interested in ethnobotanical uses of this plant world-wide, Datura is a fascinating topic. While being limited in its uses economically, the alkaloids contained in the plant have been in demand in the past and its application as a subject for botanical research is vast. Heiser has stated that "Datura is a genus of contrasts - from smelly weeds to lovely ornamentals." This paper will attempt to provide an overview of this varied genus, with specific attention being given to Datura stramonium, most common in North America. Datura belongs to the family Solanaceae, the nightshades, which Includes some 2,400 species in total (Siegel 1989:36). Other plants with narcotic properties in this family are mandrake (Mandrogora), belladonna (Atropa), henbane (Hyoscyamus), and tobacco (Nicotiana). Appropriately called the "paradoxical plants" by Heiser, this family also includes such common food plants as the tomato, potato, and eggplant (Safford 1922:539). There seems to be some disagreement as to how many sections and species belong to the genus Datura. Conklin (1976:3-4) states that herbaceous Datura is now divided into five sections, while the older citation by Avery (1959:18) claims only four. in any case, this genus contains about ten different herbaceous species, the most important ones being D. stramonium, D. inoxia, D. metel, and D. ceratocaula (Schultes 1979:41-42). Common names for Datura are numerous, some of the most common ones being raving nightshade, thorn apple, stinkweed, Devil's apple, Jimson weed, and angel's trumpet (Heiser 1969:140 and Avery 1959:19). Datura can be found throughout Asia, Europe, and the Americas as either native or adventive plants, and some have also been found in Africa and Australia (Conklin 1976:5). The epicenter of diversity of this plant is in the New World, specifically in Andean South America and in the southwestern United States/Mexico region (Lewis 1977:423-4). This data correlates with the generally agreed upon origin of Datura, although this topic was debated for some time. Researchers now believe the plant originated and evolved in Mexico and the American Southwest, followed by adaptive radiation into new desert environments (Conklin 1976:5). Today, Datura (mainly the species stramonium) can be found all over North America as a roadside weed, but never in mountainous or forested habitats (Hutchens 1991:166). A possible explanation for its success as a weed has been offered by Heiser, who argues that the long duration of the seeds is responsible. Tests have shown that Datura seeds stored for 39 years still had a germination rate of 90% (Heiser 1969:140). The plant seems to prefer xeric environments and has an annual or short-lived perennial life cycle (Conklin 1976:5). Since Datura is not a widely grown crop plant, estimations on yield were difficult to locate. The only mention on the topic was in reference to experiments carried out to determine the effect of manure and other nitrogenous fertilizers on the plant. "In 1911 yields from Datura stramonium were reported as increasing from 23 kg. per 100 square meters, on unmanured land to 33 kg. per 100 square meters on land which had been dunged with farmyard manure" (James 1947:230-231). The earliest mention of a plant of this genus was by the Arab Avicenna in the 11 th century in an account of Arabian medicinal plants, later translated by Dioscorides. The "nut" of the plant was recognized by early botanists as a fruit of a solanaceous plant, later called Datura metel (Avery 1959:3). The generic name of Datura was first used by Linnaeus in his 1737 publication Hortus Cliffortianus. Objecting to "barbaric" nomenclature, he latinized Dhatura or Dutra into the modem name of Datura (Avery 1959:17). The English herbalist Gerard also made mention of Datura in reference to the plant Greek writer Theocrastus called Hippomanes, thought to drive horses mad. He also believed Datura was responsible for putting the priests of Apollo in ancient Greece into their prophetic state (Schultes 1979:109). Later historical accounts of Datura include Christoval Acosta's Tractado de las Drogas y Medicinas de las Indias Orientales (1578). He describes the use of Datura in the East Indies as an aphrodisiac and also states that the seeds were highly prized treasures by Hindu enamorades, who ground them into a powder to be added to wine or some other medium. Herbalist Li Shi-Chen, in a work on Chinese medicines entitled Peu ts'ao Kang mu (15 90), explained the origin of the Chinese name for Datura. Man t'o lo h ua is said to be taken from the famous Buddhist sutra "Fa hua ching," which states that when Buddha preaches a sermon from heaven, dew forms on the petals of Datura from raindrops. According to the Taoist tradition though, the name refers to a specific star whose envoy is supposed to carry a Datura flower in one hand (Safford 1922:540). These early accounts of the plant offer valuable insight into its widespread use and rich history. But while Datura continued to.be investigated, the most thorough study was conducted in the early 20th century by Albert F. Blakeslee, who spent most of his career using the plant to conduct groundbreaking research Into plant genetics. Perhaps the most Important contribution of Datura, at least in sclentIfIc terms, is its use as a research subject to better understand fundamental biological principles (Heiser 1069:141). Datura plants contain 12 pairs of chromosomes normally, but trisomic (2n+1) individuals can be grown which have an extra chromosome in one of their twelve sets. This was discovered by Blakeslee, who went on to identify twelve primary mutants, each with one of the normal chromosomes as an extra, and for many of these, two secondary mutants where the extra chromosome was a reduplicated half of the one of the normal ones (Avery 1959:viii). The Blakeslee himself understood the Implications of his work, as evident when he wrote an article for Smithsonian in 1930 and stated, "...it is our belief that in the future extra chromosomes will be consciously utilized as a source of desirable variations in plants of economic Importance" (449). How right he was! Another great accomplishment was the discovery of a haploid in Datura by Blakeslee. "This was the f1rst haploid to be found in vascular plants and created something of a sensation. Haploid plants, one thought, should be gamophytes, but here was a little plant, rather weak and nearly sterile, that was clearly a sporophyte, but that had only one set of chromosomes in its cells" (Avery 1959.-Vili). With this research, much interest in polyploidy was aroused and investigations continued. While a total of six stages in the polyploidy series of Datura have now been Identified (1n, 2n, 3n, 4n, 6n, and 8n), the Initial work by Blakeslee was of vast importance. With the finding of polyploids containing four sets of chromosomes Instead of two "was born the concept of genic balance; that is, an organism that has complete extra sets of all of its genes is not very different from a normal organism of its type, whereas an organism that has a single extra chromosome, giving it an extra 'dose' of the genes carried on this chromosome and thus changing the ratio of these genes to those bome on the other chromosomes, has a profoundly changed appearance" (Heiser 1969:142). The research conducted by Blakeslee during his lifetime were of immeasurable value to such diverse aspects of botany as genetics, cytology, physiology, morphology, and anatomy. in the process of this, the Datura plant itself has become better understood. The numerous variations genetically in the plant has amazed many researchers and it is believed that "Datura now probably displays a larger number of distinguishable types due to gene mutations than any other species of plants except corn" (Avery 1959:110). Being a known hallucinogen, the chemistry and alkaloid composition of Datura also becomes important if one is to understand the plant itself as well as its history. The main alkaloids of medicinal value in Datura are members of the tropane class, namely atropine, hyoscyamine, and hyoscine (Avery 1959:48). All are commonly grouped under the headings of stramonine or daturine (Heiser 1969:141), and are present in varying concentrations in all parts of the plant. The variance is due to the stage of development of the plant and the environmental conditions it is grown in. There is a decreases in the concentration during the day and an increase at night, as well as less following a rainy period than after clear weather (Lewis 1977:419). The effect of environmental factors has been shown to cause as much variation as that found between specific races (Avery 1959:48). The medicinal value of the alkaloids themselves is significant, but Datura is not considered the best source for them. Atropine is present in small amounts in Datura and can be extracted from hyoscyarnine in a commercial process. The alkaloid has a paralyzing action that helps relieve bronchial spasms in the treatment of asthma. Old-fashioned methods of treating this respiratory problem included use of an inhaler containing stramonine and belladonna (also a primary source of atropine). When the supply of belladonna was cut off during World War II, the United States began intentional cultivation of D. stramonium as a domestic source of atropine. This was abandoned later because imported belladonna was cheaper than domestic Datura resources (Heiser 1969:141). The daturine alkaloids are also known to cause dilation of the pupil of the eye (mydriasis) and paralysis of the muscles of accommodation (cycloplegia). They effect the nervous system too, with atropine acting as a stimulant and hyoscine as a depressant. Atropine is used to counteract the depression associated with morphine and hyoscine acts as an antidote to highly toxic phosphate insecticides and so called "nerve gases." Other applications of hyoscine Include prevention of motion sickness, as an analgesic along with morphine in obstetrics to produce "twilight sleep," and as a truth drug (Avery 1959:51). While people may not have been aware of the chemical constituency of Datura, the plant was used medicinally all over the world in historical times. in the Old World, the Chinese used Datura to treat colds and nervous conditions (Siegel 1989:21). in India, the powdered seeds were mixed with butter and taken internally for impotence as well as being applied to genitalia to obtain sexual vigor (Lewis 1977:330). Referred to as the tuft of Shiva, the god of destruction, Datura was also used in the form of a liquid extract by thugs - worshipers of Kali, the goddess of fertility and death - to stupefy sacrificial victims. The plant was also given to young girls in India to bring them Into prostitution as well as on their clients (Siegel 1989:21). The leaves were smoked as well in that country to relieve asthma (Lewis 1977:395). European usage of Datura can be traced back to pagan rituals. The Church suppressed knowledge of the plant during the medieval witch-burning period and associated Datura and other plants such as deadly nightshade and monkshood with the Devil. "...flying ointments and magical salves were compounded out of Datura roots and seeds, parts of the plant rich in delirium- and delusion-producing tropane alkaloids. When this material was applied to the witch's body, it produced states of extraordinary derangement and delusion" (McKenna 1992:90). The use of broomsticks by witches can be explained by these practices, serving to apply the salves to sensitive vaginal membranes (Lewis 1977:420). Experiments on these controversial religious practices were carried out by Andres Laguna, a physician to Pope Julius III, and showed how the salves containing Datura took the women on "Journeys" by producing dreams only, contrary to widely-held folk beliefs of the period. Giovanni Battista Porta, a colleague of Galileo and who also took part in Laguna's experiment, described how men drank potions of Datura to create the illusion of being a bird or beast. The men wore wolfs skin and ran about on all fours following ingestion of the hallucinogen, providing the basis of our modem werewolf stories (Siegel 1989:22). While Datura was definitely used in the Old World, no where did it have as much application as in the New World. The seeds were used by ancient Peruvians in trepanning operations as an anesthetic and archeological evidence Indicates that these complex surgical procedures had a higher survival rate than one would expect (Heiser 1969:136). The use of enema syringes in Peru dates back to 600800 AD and could have contained Datura among other things, considering the vast herbal knowledge of the healers of this region (McKenna 1992:197-8). Wild and cultivated species of Datura were also used in other parts of western South America by indigenous peoples to Induce partial intoxication, to control unruly children, and the plant was given in large doses along with tobacco to women and slaves to deaden their senses before being buried alive with their dead husbands or masters. Extracts made from the bark, leaves, and seeds were also used in shamanistic rites and practices of this region (Avery 1959:4). The Aztecs also made use of Datura, specifically D. meteloides, which they called ololluhqui "the magic plant," for all kinds of diseases including paralysis and as an ointment for cuts or wounds (Safford 1922:550). The plant's narcotic effects were employed by Aztecan shamans and priests to communicate with spirits, causing visions and stimulating people to dance, laugh, weep, sleep, or tell oracular prophecies. The seeds were considered sacred and kept on altars or in secret boxes and sacrificial offerings made to them by the Aztecs (Avery 1959:4). Zuni Indians and other cultures in the American Southwest and Mexican region used Datura as well and referred to it as toloache Used to relieve pain during the setting of bones among other things, D. meteloides was the most universally used drug in the region. it was also taken by young boys in male initiation rituals and used in ceremonies following the death of a member of the tribe (Avery 1959:4). Attitudes toward the plant varied among tribes from no special reverence to attribution of supernatural powers. But while knowledge of this plant was widespread among Native Americans, early colonialists were not as aware of Its properties. An interesting example of this is what happened to British soldiers in 1676 sent to Jamestown, Virginia to quell Bacon's Rebellion. After including Datura stramonium in a salad, the soldiers were reported to have gone mad for eleven or so days before the effects finally wore off. This incident is probably the source for Datura's common name jimsonweed, a shortened version of James Town weed (Avery 1959:5). From an anthropological perspective, the use of Datura stramonium by Algonquin Indians of Virginia in their huskanawing ceremony provides an excellent example, of the role of hallucinogens during the liminal period in rites of passage. The concept of liminality was first discussed by Arnold Van Gennep in his Rites o Passaga (1908) and later elaborated on by Victor Turner. The liminal period is one part of rites of passage during which initiates are removed from social space and involved in reflection and learning about their particular society. Victor Turner has pointed to the Importance of studying this phenomenon in order to understand processes of social change generationally within a culture. The use of Datura in this rite provides such insight. Beverly in his History of Virginia (1705) described the rite of huskanawing. The rite was practiced by Algonquins every fourteen or sixteen years and involved taking the "choicest and briskest" young men of the society into the woods and ritually administering an intoxicating medicine (wysoccan), containing Datura, to them. The rite was necessary if the young men hoped to become great men or officers within their society. Kept in cages or enclosures for several months, the local medicine men carefully fed the boys only wysoccan, causing them to become "stark, raving mad" for a period of eighteen or twenty days so as to "perfectly lose the remembrance of all former things, even of their parents, their treasure, and their language." When sufficient dosages had been administered, the amount was reduced gradually and the young men slowly returned to their senses. But before the potion completely wore off, the boys were brought back, into their village and carefully observed to see if any memories of their former life as boys were discovered. If one did show signs of remembering, the entire ritual had to be undergone again, this time greatly endangering the life of the initiate (Safford 1922:558-9). While this may serve as a severe example of liminality, the purpose of the rite being one of transition follows Van Gennep's and Turner's theory perfectly. As Beverly describes, the boys are forced to relearn all aspects of their culture, "...thus they unlive their former lives, and commence men by forgetting that they ever have been boys" (Safford 1922:558-9). In order to become fully adult, socialized members of Algonquin society, the boys must leave their former role of boyhood and its accompanying memories behind. While possible reasons for the severity of the ritual are beyond the scope of this paper, the account by Beverly struck me as Important enough to Include and is worth further research in the future. While the above descriptions make it appear like Datura is a fairly widely used, relatively harmless hallucinogenic plant, this is not at all the case. There is adequate reason for Datura's dark -reputation and probably one of the more famous examples has to do with Abraham Lincoln's mother, Nancy Hanks. She apparently drank milk from a local cow that had grazed on the plant and consequently developed "milk sickness," a slow but fatal disease. Her death effected Lincoln tremendously and caused the President to remain abstinent from alcohol for the remainder of his life (Siegel 1989:259). The possibility of poisoning when taking Datura is fairly high and occurs often with symptoms similar to belladonna. As discussed earlier, chemical composition of the plant varies with environmental conditions the plant is grown In, thereby making it difficult to determine a safe dosage. Cases of children eating parts of the plant have often been reported, attracted by the colorful flowers and seedpods. Livestock poisoning seems to be rarer, possible due to Datura's odor and taste (Lewis 1977:54). With its long history of human usage, one may ask how people learned to use Datura safely. One possible answer lies in the foraging habits of animals. Tribal peoples, living in a much closer relationship with nature, probably observed the effects Datura had on different species of animals and copied their eating strategies when consuming the hallucinogen themselves. Modern scientists have watched hawk moths feed on the flowers at night and become disoriented. Nonetheless, the moths continue to attempt to return to the plant for further feeding. Hummingbirds also favor Datura and after ingesting the narcotic perch, fluff their feathers, and then freeze stiff like corpses for several hours (Siegel 1989:25). Other research has also demonstrated that animals chose to eat hallucinogenic plants on an infrequent basis only, seeming to realize that tolerances can easily develop with regular usage. Interestingly, some animals are unaffected by Datura Beetles have developed biochemical defenses against the plants potent chemicals and ants appear to have done the same, often being observed carrying away the seeds. Bees are unaffected as well and various species of birds are known to eat the seeds, thereby acting as a dispersal mechanism for the plant (Siegel 1989:24). Using animals as a model to learn from, ancient hunters and gatherers probably began using Datura and many incorporated it into shamanistic rituals, a more controlled environment for ingestion of such a powerful and dangerous hallucinogen. The uses of this plant historically have been numerous, but we can also benefit from Datura in the future. Detoxification of the environment used to be taken care of by nature back when human beings lived in a more harmonious relationship with the earth. With increasing amounts of pollution resulting from modernization and industrialization, cleaning up the mess becomes a Larger challenge every day. The Datura plant can aid in these efforts. "The shrub Datura stramonium can act like a toxin sponge, leaching heavy-metal elements from polluted soils. The toxins are concentrated in its tissue, which can then be removed" (McKenna 1989:8). When discovering this Information, I was further Impressed with the belief that only by becoming more in touch with plants and nature can we hope to sustain as a species in the future. By ignoring the knowledge plants such as Datura can offer, we miss the very means by which to insure our own survival. Literature Cited Avery, Amos G., S. Satina, and J. Rietsema. Blakeslee: The Genus Datura. New York: Ronald Press Co., 1959. Blakeslee, Albert F. "Extra Chromosomes, A Source of Variations in the Jimson Weed." Annual Report of the Board of Regents o the Smithsonian institution 1930. Washington: US Government Printing Office, 1931. Conklin, Marie E "Genetic and Biochemical Aspects of the Development of Datura" Monographs in Developmental Biology. New York: Karger, 1976. Heiser, Charles B. Jr. Nightshades., The Paradoxical Plants. San Francisco: WH Freeman and Co., 1969. Hutchens, Alma R. Indian Herbalogy of North America. Boston: Shambala, 1991. James, G.M. "Effects of Manuring on Growth and Alkaloid Content of Medicinal Plants." Economic Botany 2 (1947): 230-237. Lewis, Walter H. and M.P.F. Elvin-Lewis. Medical Botany: Plants Effecting Man's Health. New York: John Wiley and Sons, 1977. McKenna, Terence. Food of the Gods: The Search for the Original Tree of Knowledge. New York: Bantam Books, 1992. McKenna, Terence. "Plan, Plant, Planet." Whole Earth Review (64) Fall 1989. Safford, William E. "Daturas of the Old World and New: An Account of their Narcotic Properties and their Use in Oracular and Initiatory Ceremonies." Annual Report of the Board of Regents of the Smithsonian Institution 1920. Washington: Government Printing Office, 1922. Schultes, Richard E. and Albert Hoffman. Plants of the Gods. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1979. Siegel, Ronald K. Intoxication: Life in Pursuit of Artificial Paradise. New York: EP Dutton, 1989. EBL HOME PAGE Southern Illinois University Carbondale / Ethnobotanical Leaflets / URL: http://www.siu.edu/~ebl/ Last updated: 09-December-97 / du
***************************** POPPY DIVINE HERB OF JOY - OR EVIL WEED OF DAEMONS? Who doesn't know this gorgeous flower, herald of the summer season? Poppy is a familiar sight throughout much of Europe. It commonly grows wild in corn fields or is cultivated as an ornamental in gardens. It is indeed lovely to see the delicate petals waft in the wind, mingling amongst the corn. Alas, it is a fleeting beauty - the pretty flowers only last a few days. Soon the petals fall away to reveal a bulging seed-pod, the true keeper of the Poppy's secret. Whilst most of us know that the tiny gray-blue seeds are used in baking or were sometimes pressed to yield a fine oil, few of us think of the Poppy as a powerful sacred herb. The greatest gift of this sacred plant is concealed within the its milky juice. This latex is present within the tissues of the whole plant, but is most prolific and potent in the capsules prior to the ripening of the seed. This juice, commonly referred to as 'raw Opium', has been known about and utilized for thousands of years. As one of the most ancient 'culture plants' Poppies have been a companion to humanity since its infancy during the upper Neolithic period. According to archeological studies, remains of Poppies have been found in prehistoric settlements in central Europe, Switzerland, Southern Germany and Southern England which date to at least 4000 BC. Scholars argue among themselves about the origin of this mysterious and strikingly beautiful magical herb. Some sources claim Asia as its original habitat, others the eastern Mediterranean region. Recent research seems to point at central and southern Europe as its original home, from where it is believed to have spread south to Egypt, east to India, Pakistan and China and north to England. Why Neolithic farmers should have cultivated a plant such as Poppy is also a point of argument. Some scientists have proposed the theory that it was grown for its edible seeds and the oil that could be pressed from them for use as a cooking oil as well as for lamp fuel. Whilst these uses may well have played a role, there are many other plants that could have been used for these purposes which would have been easier to process. It is more likely that our ancestors held Poppies in special regard for their psychotropic powers which may well have played a significant role within a ceremonial or ritual context. Naturally it is difficult for Ethnoarcheologists to substantiate their theories on prehistoric plant uses since organic matter has a habit of decomposing and conditions rarely allow for such substances to survive to the present day and age. Knowledge pertaining to the uses of plants was passed down as an oral tradition through successive generations for thousands of years before written language was even invented. However, based on what we know about the roles that psychoactive plants play in aboriginal societies even today, it is more than likely that our ancestors were not ignorant of the hidden powers of Poppy. Furthermore, it is likely that knowledge regarding such 'magical' plants, which allowed humans to transcend the world of mundane concerns and to commune with the Gods, were particularly sacred and not the subject of everyday breakfast conversations. Thus, the clues are indeed vague. We have to look at ancient mythologies and imagery to trace the hidden meaning and significance of sacred plants, which in turn may give some hints to yet more ancient traditional knowledge. In ancient Greece Poppies were considered sacred to Hypnos, the God of sleep. Ancient imagery often depicts Hypnos with Poppy heads in his hands and adorning his head. The doorway to his drowsy realm was also surrounded with Poppies. He brought prophetic dreams and soothed the pain of those suffering from emotional agony. The Romans knew this God as Somnus, a name which still echoes in Poppy's Latin name 'Papaver somniferus' - somnus ferre - bringer of sleep. But Poppy was also associated with Thanatos, or Hades the Lord of Dead and of eternal sleep, for it can also bring death. Such myths reveal Poppy as a plant of the Underworld, associated with both temporal and eternal sleep. Indeed, some archeological finds at ancient burial sites confirm Poppy's status as a sacred plant that was intimately connected with the rites of passage to the Underworld. At a site, known as 'Cueva de los Murci�lagos' (Bat Cave) situated near Albu�ol, (Granada) in Southern Spain evidence for this hypothesis has been discovered. The human remains found there were accompanied by bags of Esparto grass (Stipa tenacissima), containing numerous Poppy seed capsules. Subsequent carbon dating established the date of the burial at around 4200 BC. Likewise, a vase containing Opium remains has been discovered at the tomb of Kha at Deir el-Med�na in Egypt, though this is thought to be of a more recent age. (3000+ years old) In the days of Antiquity, Poppy was not just valued for its magical properties. Its medicinal powers, particularly evident in the potent latex, were no secret. It was used as a sedative and painkiller, to calm hysterics, lighten melancholy and heal colic, diarrhoea and persistent spasmodic coughs. It was also considered to be a powerful aphrodisiac. Dioscurides describes the process of obtaining the latex (raw Opium), which he calls 'opion' in detail: 'Those who wish to obtain the sap (of the Poppy) must go after the dew has dried and draw their knife around the star in such a manner as not to penetrate the inside of the capsule, and also make straight incisions down the sides. Then with your finger wipe the extruding tear into a shell. When you return to it not long after, you will find the sap thickened and the next day you will find it much the same. Pound the sap in your mortar and roll the mass into pills." The oldest text that mentions Poppy is of Sumerian origin and dates to about 3000 BC. The text refers to Poppy as a 'herb of joy'. It is also mentioned in the famous Ebers Papyrus (1600 BC) along with several other important healing plants. In Egypt it was also used medicinally - as a sedative painkiller for wounds and abscesses as well as for scalp complaints (?). Another Egyptian text, dating to about 1300 BC describes the custom of giving Poppy to children to stop them from crying. This ancient tradition has survived in northern Africa and the Asia Minor, and even, until the beginning of this century, was still practiced in some rural areas of northern France. It is said that it keeps children quiet, but also makes them stupid, as this remedy tends to make them sleep a lot. In ancient Greece Poppies were sacred to Demeter, the Earth-Goddess who taught wo/mankind the art of wheat and barley cultivation. Her myth is a sad story, for her only daughter, Persephone, was abducted by Hades, the Lord of the Underworld. One day, whilst out in the fields picking flowers and playing with her friends a deep chasm suddenly opened up in front of her and out came Hades. With one big swoop he grabbed the screaming girl and as quickly as he had appeared, vanished again into the abyss. Nobody had seen him commit this crime, for he was wearing his cap of invisibility. Demeter had heard her daughter's cry and as swiftly as a bird went off to find her - but in vain. Persephone had vanished and no one would tell Demeter whence she had gone. All over the surface of the Earth she searched for her lost daughter, neither eating, nor drinking as she went. Finally Helios and Hecate took pity on her and told her the truth. The story goes on to tell how Demeter, learning that Zeus had consented to Hades crime, swore never to set foot on mount Olympus again. Filled with rage and grief she refused to eat or drink or wash herself. She took refuge with some mortals, lived with them and suckled a mortal child, who grew to be 'almost' like the Gods themselves, but that is another story and shall be told another time... She taught her mysteries to the mortals and bid them to build a temple for her at Eleusis where they should perform her sacred rites each year at harvest time. And so it was done. But when she took leave from the mortals her heart was still full of grief for she was still without her daughter. For a whole year she let the Earth go barren until finally Zeus understood that he had to do something about the situation. He sent all the Gods to plead with Demeter, but to no avail. Finally he sent Mercury to make a deal with Hades to let Persephone return to the surface of the Earth and see her mother once again. But clever Hades secretly gave Persephone a seed of Pomegranate to eat before she left and thus ensured that she would return to him once a year. During the long search for her abducted daughter, Demeter was said to have found some relief from her pain by taking Poppy when she arrived at Mykon. Poppies are companion plants of wheat and barley, and the round-bellied, seed-filled capsules were regarded as a symbol of fertility. It is likely that Poppies also played an important role in Demeter's sacred rites at Eleusis. The mycologist Gordon Wasson proposed the hypothesis, that the active ingredient of the ritual brew given to the initiates at Eleusis was Ergot (Claviceps purpurea ), a psychotropic fungus that commonly grows on Barley, Rye and sometimes Wheat. This hypothesis, though it has been much debated, is quite likely true. A. Hoffman makes the point, that while Ergot contains some poisonous principles which can have a severe effect on those who might take it, these toxic alkaloids are non-watersoluable. It was therefore quite possible for the ancient Greeks to prepare a ritual brew that specifically excluded those agents or even use a species of Ergot found on a type of Wild Grass, which does not contain those compounds at all. The ill effects of Ergot poisoning expressed themselves in 'St. Anthony's Fire', a dreadful condition marked by convulsions, epileptic cramps and sometimes even loss of limbs due to an outbreak of foul blisters that literally rot the flesh away. Opium however, has been mentioned as a remedy against St. Anthony's fire, and it is highly likely that the sacred plant of Demeter was added to the ritual brew, both to prevent such cases of poisoning and to add a more peaceful and blissful dimension to the mystical experience of these sacred rites. Besides, the mysteries were a celebration of fertility and are said to have had a highly sexual content. Whilst Ergot can cause powerful visions and hallucinations, it is not generally known for its aphrodisiac properties. Poppy on the other hand had a well known reputation as a potent aphrodisiac and was also a symbol of fertility. Moreover, as has been demonstrated above, it was also connected to the Gods of the Underworld and thus combined all the aspects of Demeter's mysteries within itself. It is interesting to note that after the 1st World War Poppies became a symbol of remembrance rather than forgetfulness. To this day it is customary in England to wear a paper Poppy each year on the 11th of November as a symbol of remembrance for the soldiers who died in Flounders. It is said that in the year after the war, when people first returned to the site of the awful battles all they saw were fields and fields of scarlet red Poppies, which reminded them of the blood that had been shed there. These Poppies were Corn Poppies (Papaver rhoeas) rather than Opium-Poppies, though it maybe significant that since the rise of the Peace movement in England the habit of wearing a white paper Poppy as a symbol of peace and forgiveness has also become quite popular. Remembering Demeter's pain at the loss of her daughter, we can be sure that partaking of the Poppy plant did not make her forget her pain, but simply eased it - perhaps that is the deeper meaning of the Poppies association with the killing fields of Flounders - we remember the dead, not to stir up the pain, but to ease it through forgiveness. Another myths relates how Poppies had sprung from the tears of Aphrodite when she mourned for her beloved Adonis. Cyprus, the birthplace of Aphrodite, was one of the major regions of Poppy cultivation and it is thought that it was from here that Opium was first exported to Egypt. Numerous vases (known as Cypriote Base Ring I jugs) that resemble an upside down Poppy capsule have been found in Tell el-Amarna. Upon examination these vases, stemming from the period of the 18th Dynasty in Egypt, were shown to contain remains of Opium. It is hard to tell whether the contents of these juglets had been used for ritual or recreational purposes, - or both. It is known however, that in Egypt too Opium had been used for its powerful aphrodisiac properties. Even Queen Cleopatra was apparently familiar with its uses. Her enchanting potion is thought to have been a combination of palmwine, Opium and some type of nightshade (mandrake?). In Europe the use of Opium was widely spread since ancient times, but it was Andromachos' and his invention of Theriak which made its healing powers available on every market place. Theriak was a potion consisting of about sixty different substances which swiftly became one of the most commonly used panaceas throughout the old world. Paracelsus eventually simplified the recipe though it maintained the same popular appeal. The English Doctor Thomas Sydenham, developed yet another version of the elixir which became known as Laudanum. Apart from Opium it also contained Saffron, Cinnamon and Cloves, all macerated in Spanish wine. The first serious cases of Opium addiction in the West developed on account of excessive use of Laudanum. This was due to the fact that Laudanum was often overprescribed for children, which resulted in increased resistance to the drug in adulthood. Throughout the Middle Ages Poppy not only gained popularity due to its medicinal powers but it also acquired quite a reputation in connection with folkloristic magic. It's associations with the goddess Aphrodite made Poppy a herb of choice for many love charms and potions and it was considered most effective as a divinatory herb with regard to matters of the heart. For example, one could determine from which direction one's true love would appear by tossing a piece of Poppy cake out of the door and sending a dog out to fetch it. From whence the dog would reappear provided the answer to the question. One could also use Poppies to obtain prophetic dreams about one's future husband - on St. Andrews night maidens would scatter Poppy seeds behind them to dream about their hoped for husbands. Alternatively one could empty the seed capsule and write a question of the heart onto a piece of paper, put this into the seed pod and place it underneath the pillow. The answer to one's question would be revealed in a dream. As mentioned above, the plentiful seeds concealed in the round-bellied Poppy seed capsule had long been regarded as a symbol of fertility and prosperity. A traditional New Year's Eve custom was to prepare sweet-breads made with Poppy seeds as a magical food. Partaking of such bread was thought to convey the magical powers of the plant and thus bless the recipients with abundance for the New Year. Alternatively one could make use of these properties by making a necklace with gilded Poppy heads, which could be worn as a charm. On the other hand, Poppy seeds hidden in the shoes of a bride was believed to make her infertile. It was probably Poppy's association with the Gods of the Underworld that gave rise to a charm for invisibility. After all, Hades' had worn a cap that rendered him invisible when he abducted Persephone. It has been proposed that his cap was an allusion to this magical herb. At any rate, an invisibility potion could be prepared by steeping Poppy seeds in wine for 15 days. Thereafter a glassful of the brew should be taken for five consecutive days whilst fasting. This was said to make the person invisible at will. Poppy seeds were also considered a magical aid against Daemons. If one was unfortunate enough to be pursued by such nasty creatures one could throw a handful of seeds in their path. This would distract the daemons from their aim as they would feel compelled to stop and count the seeds. This charm was even believed to ward off vampires who were sometimes thought to violate fresh graves. If Poppy seeds were put into the coffin with the dead person's body any preying vampires also lost their purpose for the same reason. The Doctrine of Signatures consigned Poppy as a herb of Saturn and deemed its qualities either cold and moist as in the case of white Poppies, or cool and dry for black Poppies. Thus they were regarded as an antidote for St. Anthony's fire (antipathetic), and as a remedy for melancholy (sympathetic). Of course Poppy was also associated with various witches brews and it has been speculated that Opium was one of the integral parts of the infamous Witche's Flying Ointment. Since no authentic written recipe for this salve exists the hypothesis is hard to verify. However, taking into account the tales of people who claimed to have used the ointment and considering the properties of Opium, it is more than likely that it was indeed an important ingredient. Other magical uses associated with witchcraft and magic during the Middle Ages include the use of Poppy leaves and petals, as well as raw Opium as an incense ingredient for rituals of divination as well as using Poppy potions in connection with orgiastic rites and sex magic. Given such associations, it is perhaps surprising that Poppies even became absorbed into Christian symbolism. However, this is a typical development - many magically potent herbs that had long been associated with the old Gods eventually became 'christianized' by associating them with Christian Saints and symbols. Thus, the red petals of the Poppy and the cross-formation on the top of the seed capsule were regarded as a symbol of the Passion and the Eucharists saw a symbol of the savior in the combination of Wheat and Poppies - the wheat representing the body of Christ, whilst the red petals of the Poppies were seen as his blood. Meanwhile, the Arabs had spread Poppies and the knowledge of its uses in the East during their Asian crusades. Since the 11th century it was cultivated in many parts of Asia. As in Europe, they were much appreciated for their medicinal usefulness, though the Orientals seemed to be particularly fond of Opium's aphrodisiac effect. In India Poppies naturally became associated with Shiva, the shaman god of ecstasy and inner vision. Sadhus sometimes mixed the leaves with those of Shiva's other sacred plants, Cannabis and Datura. Opium is also thought to have played an important role as ritual drug in the practice of Tantra. It was soon absorbed into the Ajurvedic healing system and Indian doctors praised the aphrodisiac properties of the herb. The part of the Ayurveda that deals with potions and remedies for the reproductive system declares Opium as an effective tonic that could prolong erection and delay ejaculation whilst enhancing sensual pleasure. The aphrodisiac effect of Opium is said to be stronger when it is eaten rather than smoked. A certain preparation known as 'Oriental Happiness Pills', gained some fame in this respect. Sometimes known as 'Nepenthe', these pills were said to contain powdered tops of Cannabis, Opium, Arecanut, sugar and spices.[R�tsch] The knowledge pertaining to Poppy and its uses spread from India to China along the ancient trading routes. The Chinese also delighted in the aphrodisiac properties of the plant and some writers claim that China became one of the most fruitful nations on Earth due to its appetite for Opium. For several centuries the Chinese enjoyed Opium, either by eating it pure or mixing it with other herbs and substances also known for their aphrodisiac properties (e.g. Ginseng). Opium pressed into fish-shaped forms was sold as 'Ying-tsu-su' literally meaning 'fish and water are coming together' - an obvious allusion to sexual intercourse. [R�tsch] The habit of smoking Opium only arose in the 17th century and since then Opium dens have spread all over China. Their popularity may be compared to that of bars in the modern day western world. Opium consumption became such a popular pass-time in China that it lead to serious social problems. Before very long, China began to consume more Opium than it could cultivate - a situation that was promptly exploited by the British. Previously Britain had been in debt to China since it imported more silk and spices than what it could trade for. Britain quickly realized the potential for exploitation with regard to China's Opium consumption. To supply China's growing need the British East-India Company soon planted massive Poppy plantations in Bengal. The Emperor of China, realizing the potential for financial and human devastation, tried in vain to restrict the flood of imports - but it was too late. The only result was an incredibly lucrative black market business. The British knew how to bribe the Chinese officials and thus ensure their co-operation - even in the face of death penalties threatened by the Chinese Government. The turnover of Opium on the black-market rose from 12000kg in 1729 to 2400000kg in 1835! Eventually China realized that it was fighting a loosing battle and in order to pay off its huge debt, conceded to make deals with Britain. The trade deficit was supposed to be paid with tea exports to Britain. However, in 1838, Chinese officials unexpectedly destroyed 20 000 boxes of Opium which had been stored in Hong Kong, one of the most significant trading ports. This incidence caused the first so-called 'Opium-war'. After 2 years of fighting, China surrendered and accepted the demands of the British - a hefty fine as compensation for the boxes that had been dumped into the sea, as well as Amoy and Hong Kong as a booty for Britain. A further incident in 1856 caused yet more fighting and Britain, this time supported by France, invaded China. This war resulted in further trade benefits for the West and lifting of the restrictions on Opium trade. Due to a forced drug dependency China was firmly in the grip of the West. By 1885 the import of Opium had reached quite astronomical proportions - 180000 boxes of 60 kg each! The number of addicts still rose - by 1878 it was estimated at 20 Million people (!) - a situation that did not change until China was eventually 'allowed' to counteract the drug abuse in 1906. These dark times in the history of Opium also cast their shadow on the western world. However, in the West the numbers of actual Opium users remained relatively small. These were mainly working class people who inadvertently became addicted to Opium containing medicine. At one stage Opium smoking became popular among a small number of people associated with the Avant Garde who were originally attracted to the exotic romanticism surrounding the drug. This fashion only lasted a few years but despite its short duration gave rise to several great works of literature. Coleridge, Edgar Allen Poe, Thomas de Quincey, Baudelaire, Verlaine and Cocteau are all said to have been inspired by the Poppy- muse. The fad soon passed - yet a much more dangerous development was already on its way. Scientific advances had made it possible to isolate and extract morphine, the most potent alkaloid present in raw Opium. This substance was many times stronger - and far more addictive than Opium. At first its wondrous properties were much praised and it certainly proved its medicinal usefulness during the war of 1870 when it was much employed as an extremely powerful painkiller. The realization that many of the soldiers as well as other sick and suffering people were turning into addicts came soon - but not soon enough. Morphine use and subsequent addiction spread through all layers of society. There were no official laws aimed at curbing the use of the drug. Whilst the users may have been suffering from their addiction, the habit as such was not considered socially unacceptable. This meant that their condition of dependency did not seriously affect the social life of the user, so long as they could obtain the drug on a regular basis. It was a tolerated dysfunction, perhaps comparable to modern day views on nicotine addiction. However, far worse grief was soon to come... - with the discovery of a still more powerful substance that, in allusion to its 'heroic action', became known as Heroin. Heroin, a derivative of morphine turned out to exceed morphine's analgesic powers by several times. It even appeared to cure morphine addicts from their habit if they used the new drug instead, - or so it was thought. Alas, Heroin's moment of glory was short-lived indeed before its inherent dangers were realized and its deadly nature became obvious. Unfortunately for the morphine addicts though, - one addiction had merely been replaced by another, far more dangerous and deadly one. The use of Heroin spread dramatically, first in America and later also to Europe. It is interesting to note that whilst America was never a major Opium producer, it still soon became the biggest consumer of the deadly derivative, whereas in many countries where Opium had a long history of use heroin never played a significant role. Although Opium Poppy was never really cultivated in the New World and is now illegal to grow, an indigenous Poppy relation with lesser activity does in fact have a history of indigenous use among some of the Native American tribes, especially in the Southwestern regions of the U.S. and in parts of Central America. This species, known as 'Prickly Poppy' (Argemone mexicana) has definite Poppy features, though its leaves and overall appearance is much more prickly. The dried leaves of this plant may have been smoked as an aphrodisiac among the Indians, and may well still be used in that way. The Aztecs, not unlike the ancient Greeks, apparently also associated the plant with their Underworld, and used it for healing and ceremonial purposes. Whatever the magical and medicinal blessing of the Poppy may be, the dark side of its potent latex must not be underestimated. Whether in the form of Opium, Morphium or Heroin, opiates are addictive, and in that respect the difference between them is only a matter of degree. These days it is often argued that the problem of addiction is more a problem of an addictive personality structure, rather than the object of addiction. While this is no doubt true to a certain degree, it must be said that in a society suffering from a multitude of psychological dysfunctionalities addictive personalities have practically become the norm. Opium as such may not be much more addictive than Nicotine, perhaps even less so, as far as physical addiction is concerned, but anybody who has ever been addicted to Nicotine knows how difficult it is to break the habit - even such a non-gratifying one. How much more difficult to break a habit so seductive as that of Opium use! The history of Poppy and the cultural uses of Opium and its derivatives aptly illustrate and reflect the psychological development of our civilization. Once upon a time respected and loved as a potent gift of the Gods, which could induce visions of divine bliss, it has now fallen from grace. Not that its inherent qualities have changed, but cultural attitudes and abuses have profaned the sacred gift. In an effort to improve upon nature' by exploiting the power of one of its most potent plants, a poison has been created that turns its users into victims and takes them to the gates of hell. Removed from the sacred sphere where Opium (in its unrefined state) may have been used occasionally as a sacrament, the modern habit of using refined opiates recreationally, opens the doors for shameless exploitation and oppression, which furthermore has developed into a several million dollar black-market industry. The story of Poppy has much to teach us - not just about the herb itself, but more so about ourselves... (A million questions could and should be raised at this point - but since this is an essay about the cultural uses of Poppy and not on the sociology of drug abuse, its instigators and victims, I shall leave it up to you, dear reader, to ask those questions and to find your own answers - if you are so inclined) POPPY IN PROFILE Common names: Opium Poppy, Mawseed, Herb of Joy, Mohn, Klapper-Rosen, Mago, Magesamen, Weismagen, wilder Magen, Magensaph, Rosule Description: An erect herbaceous annual growing to a height of about 2-3' ft. The leaves and stem are bluish green with a rubbery appearance. The leaves are pinnately lobed with serrated margins that clasp around the stem. The flowers usually have four large petals that vary in colour from white to pink and purple with a dark spot at their base. (Some hybrids and uncommon forms are double flowered). In the center of the flower head, around the ovary are numerous stamens. The flowers only last a few days before the petals fall off and the ovary ripens into the characteristic round-bellied seed capsule. The capsule narrows at the top like a drawstring purse. When the seed is ripe the capsule begins to dry out thus lifting the top cover of the capsule and giving rise to little openings around the rim through which the seeds can be released. The seeds are numerous tiny gray to brown kidney-shaped speckles which are edible and yield a fine, high quality oil. The leaves, stem and capsule all contain a white milky juice, which extrudes as soon as the surface of any of these parts is broken. It becomes brown when dried and is commonly referred to as 'raw Opium'. Flowering time is between April and August. Distribution: Poppies are common throughout Europe and Eurasia as wild escapes from cultivation. They often grow in corn fields and waste places where they get plenty of sun and well drained soil. Status: In most countries it is illegal to cultivate Poppies without license, though in Europe it is commonly grown as an ornamental. Harvesting, however is strictly prohibited everywhere. Parts used: Seeds, latex, leaves, petals Constituents: Contains about 40 different alkaloids. The most prominent being morphine, Codeine, Thebaine, Papaverine and Noscapine Magical Uses: Love magic and divination, prophetic dreams, incense for divination, potions in sex magic, Flying Ointment, prosperity charm, protection against demons and vampires, happiness and peace, invisibility Medicinal Uses: Analgesic, narcotic, sedative, antispasmodic, anti-diarrheal, antitussive, diaphoretic, aphrodisiac The dried latex rolled into pills in combination with other substances has long been valued as a highly effective painkiller. As a sedative it is used to bring sleep to agitated children and suffering patients. It has also been employed to calm hysterics and otherwise mentally or emotionally disturbed patients. Its anti-diarrheal properties still make it one of the most powerful agents for the treatment of colic and dysentery, whilst its anti-tussive action are highly valued as one of the most widely used ingredients in all kinds of cough remedies and is invaluable in treating persistent spasmodic coughs(Codeine- alkaloid of Opium). In the past it was much used for the treatment of tuberculosis. As an aphrodisiac it plays an important role in treating sexual problems such as impotency and premature ejaculation. Caution: Opium, Morphine and Heroin are all highly addictive substances, besides which they are also highly illegal. Opium use can lead to constipation. This article is intended as an educational resource not as a guide to self-medication or to encourage illegal uses of drugs. FOOTNOTES: 1) Poppy seed oil is much revered among gourmet chefs for its nutty in flavour and its resistance to the process of oxidation. 2) Sleep is often referred to as �little death�. 3) opion = milk juice=latex 4) Andromachos was the personal doctor of Nero 5) The Doctrine of Signatures refers to a symbolic way of understanding the inherent qualities of the natural world and its phenomena and interpreting these according to a system of symbolic likenesses and astrological resonances, e.g. the power of the Sun was revealed in golden yellow herbs, which accordingly should be useful as general tonics and strengthen the whole constitution. Some fits worked better than others. Indeed, to an observant mind it often does seem as if nature is trying to convey a message concealed within the appearances of its creations - though these may or may not fit traditional astrological symbolism. 6) These plantations and the whole Opium export business were soon taken over by the British government. 7) In 1803 the French Chemist F. Derosne was the first to isolate various active alkaloids of Poppy Kay Morgenstern, 1997 Bibliography: G. & M. Haerk�tter, Hexenfurz und Teufelsdreck, Eichborn Verlag, Frankfurt 1987. R..E. Schultes & A. Hoffman, Pflanzen der G�tter, Hallwag, Bern 1987 Christian R�tsch, Lexikon der Zauberpflanzen, Adeva Verlag, Graz 1988 Christian R�tsch, Von den Wurzeln der Kultur, Sphinx Verlag, Basel, 1991, Christian R�tsch, Pflanzen der Liebe, AT Verlag, Aarau, 1995 Christian R�tsch, R�ucherstoffe - Der Atem des Drachen, AT Verlag, Aarau, 1996 Richard Rudgley, Essential Substances, Kodansha Globe International, 1993 Bert Marco Schuldes, Psychoaktive Pflanzen, Nachtschatten Verlag (Solothurn) & MedienXperimente (Lohrbach), Lise Manniche, An Ancient Egyptian Herbal, British Museum Press, 1993 T.F. Thiselton Dyer, The Folk-Lore of Plants,Llanerch Publishers, 1994 Esther Gallwitz, Kleiner Kr�uter Garten, Insel Verlag, 1992 Jaques Brosse, Magie der Pflanzen, Walter Verlag, 1992 Paul Huson, Mastering Herbalim, Stein and Day Publ. Scarborough, 1983 M. Grieves, A Modern Herbal, Penguin,1984 R.C.Wren, Potter's Encyclopaedia, C.W.Daniel, 1985 Richard Mabey, New Herbal, Penguin, 1991 Edith Hamilton, Mythology, Mentor, 1969 ALL CREDITS AND COPYWRITE TO LISTED AUTHORS! <
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