Paper 9: 
  
Animals
Written by Ramin Amir mardfar

We observed that in the world, there are some principles called the principle of grouping components, the principle of independent components and the principle of co-existence in which all of the components in the world obey it. We also observed that any component itself is created by grouping and being together other simple components. The atoms, molecules, organelles, cells and simple polycellular, lichens and excellent plants, all have been created by grouping simple components of previous stair. But on the earth, other than plants, there are other creatures belong to the excellent animals. If the animals are one of the components of the world, they should also obey this basic principle. The question is that : whether the animals are created by grouping and co-existence of simpler creature? The body of animals like plants, has been created by apart mechanism and tissues. Are these mechanism considered as the grouped simple creatures? Circulatory system, Digestive system, Skeleton, Generation mechanism and Nervous system, all have apart and distinguished tissues, which live as co-existent.! Because, the cells are smaller than the creator unit of animals, it seems reasonable that between these two groups, i.e. the cell and animal, to be a middle stair. The body mechanisms are the most suitable components which can fill this middle stair. But there should be evidences to prove this view. We should observe the principle of independent components about them, too. That is, every component of it should have the independent ability to live, i.e. the observation of living the components form the animal in nature independently and lonely. We suppose that the excellent animals are created by grouping simple creatures and this simple creatures produce the excellent animals by co-existent life. So, to find the independent components of excellent animals, we should search it among single creatures. Among single creatures, we can find creatures which are composed by one kind or less mechanism. For example, we consider one worm of Flatworms (Platyhelminthes). This animal is simple. It has no circulatory system, respiratory system and skeleton. That is, this is an animal which created by being together few polycellular creatures. The various worms are the appropriate example about this material. Some of them have one mechanism and some have other mechanism! Enteroxenos (Gastropoda, Mollusca) has only genital mechanism of the body mechanisms. *********This animal lives in general cavity of body (Coelom) as a parasite in Holoturies (from Echinoderms). Therefore, its body constitutes by only one single component. That is , the genital mechanism can live in an environment alone and independently of other component. This corresponds to the independent principle of the components. So we observe that this is the case with animals. In the body of the excellent animals, the primary components live together as a co-existent. But when the environmental circumstances change this equilibrium may collapse and one of the components prevail other component. As long as the members of the group need a mechanism, they support it. But when they are in circumstances which that component is not necessary, they remove it and begin to eat or destroy it. For example, when an insect like Fleas (Siphonaptera) into the habit of parasite and hematophagous life, in this circumstances, in despite of the prepared food, the digestion mechanism is not necessary. At this time, the insect body starts to remove this mechanism. That is, there is a quarrel among single creature, so the compositor creature of the digestion mechanism is defeated and removed, because its existence is not necessary in the mass of co-existent. When the muscles are not used in the body of an animal, they faint and are removed gradually. Because the body eat muscular tissue. In the mass of co-existent, any single creature which does nothing and is not beneficial to the group, it is removed by other components in order to lessen the life partner. For example, in male fish, a parasite called Ceratias which sticks to female fish called Linophryne, gets the all foodstuffs from the female body. In this case, all of the mechanisms of the body of the parasite fish ruin, except, skeleton mechanism and genital mechanism. That is, the fishes created by co-existing of two single creatures which are the compositor of the skeleton and the compositor of the genital mechanism. When an animal places in zero gravity, its bones do nothing for an animal. So in this case, the sediment of calcium in the bones is reduced gradually and the bone tissue removes gradually. * W. Ruox, the German embryologist said, " There is quarrel among organs about food. The embryo of animals is the collection of agents of the single creatures which have collected in one place and each starts to grow and make different mechanisms of the body by creating favorable circumstances. * In 1905, "Conklin" shaked the Styele egg in a stage had four blastomere, so ruined two blastomers of it. By destroying two back blastomers, one part of the embryo, was created which did have not muscular and endoderm cells but had neural tissue and Neural tube and by destroying two front blastomers, one part of the embryo, was created which did have muscular and endoderm cells but had no neural tissue and Neural tube. Every part of the embryo belongs to the single creature which have been co-existed. We prevent the growth of that creature in embryo by destroying them. If we destroy the indicator of single creature which constitutes muscles, no muscle will be constituted in the embryo. If we ruin the single creature indicator of single creature which constitutes neural, no nervous mechanism will be grown in embryo. In contrary, we can do it, that is, instead of destroying one indicator, we double it. In this case, we get one indicator from the embryo and transfer it to another embryo. So in an embryo, there will be double indicator. After their growth, there will be two similar mechanism in an animal. This has done in some of beef cattle and there are two of each muscle. That is, two single creatures which are muscle compositors have been grown in its body. This method is observed about the genital mechanism. Some of the animals are hermaphrodite, i.e. they have both male genital mechanism and female genital mechanism, that is two single creatures have grown to make genital mechanism. Some of the crustacea can be male or female. (According to environmental circumstances). That is, by creating favorable circumstance to grow single creature compositor male genital mechanism, crustace finds male Or by creating favorable circumstances in the body, for growing single creature compositor female genital mechanism, crustace converts to female sex. That is, both single creatures are in the body of the animal, the condition is provided for growing each of them, the creature grows and specifies the sexuality of the animal. This process is observed in some of the fish such as Goby and the mentioned fish can change its sexuality according to the population lives in it. In some of the animals such as Girelle fish in youth ages, it has male sexual and in old ages, it has female sexual. This method is observed in much of the plants, then in the youth ages the male organ grows and then the female genital organ. That is both of them can not grow simultaneously, whichever wins in the competition grows firstly and lives, after fainting other creature prevails it and finds the growth chance. This itself is a very good reason which demonstrates that the body of animals is created by co-existing of several single creatures. Because the life of the single creatures are different one of them dies sooner and the other later, and their separation is distinguished. For example, the genitally mechanism in female animals dies sooner than other compositor components. That is why older female animals can not generate. Chimera occurs in animals too. When one part of an embryo grows beside other part of another animal, one chimera animal is created. In this process some of the single creatures of an embryo be comes co-existent which single creatures of other embryo and produce an animal, such as cross bred animals (mule) and cats have two eyes with different color. Similarly one atom is separated from a molecule and separate an atom from an other molecule and them produce a new molecule by these atoms. Therefore, we observe that the independent principle of components is the case with animal, and we can separate the components and use in other place. That is, although components participate in the structure of an animal body, but at the same time preserve their independence. Of course this process, during fetal, when the components have not grown more, is so easy, but after the animal growth their separation and transfer is so difficult. The single creatures which live together as co-existence, their initial cells mix and produce a egg cell in order to not lose together, so that all of the genetic contents exist into the cell as chromosomes. ( Like something we observed in excellent plants). The mixture of several cells and producing a cell is a practical process, as it is observed in a sperm and ovule. Sperm and ovule are separated cells, but after fecundation, they create one cell which contains the genes of both mixed cells. This process is the case with other single creature, that is one cell of a single creature mix with one or more similar cells, which belongs to other single creatures, and create a egg cell of an excellent animal. In the primary steps of the growth of this egg cell, the cells of each of these single creatures separate. That is why when we destroy one part of the embryo, one of these creatures destroys and no mechanism of the animal body is made.

             Paper 10
             Book 1: Relationship between Gravity and Evolution
 
 
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