|Paper 10 : Animals|
These creatures during their growth into the embryo, compete on feed and exude against each other which we call them hormone. The suitable condition to grow each of the polycellular creatures by dividing the embryo cells. The nerve mechanism grows, the blood vessels grow and branch out. The appropriate place to grow blood vessels is marrow. The blood cells nestle there and increase orderly and continue their growth. These single creatures compete, but since they need each other, do not remove each other and live together peacefully, but when the conditions changes and one of them faints, its competitors prevail it and feed it. When a frog comes out of water in metamorphic stage, some parts like gills which do nothing else, are eaten by other co-existent components.
Other than co-existent creatures which accompany embryo stage, other creatures are added to them and become co-existent, such as the kinds of unicellulars parasite worms, and so on, which live into digestion mechanism of animals. A herbivorous animal will never be alive without unicellulars which have cellulaz enzyme, (such as sheep and termite). Then the larva of the animals make these unicellulars coexistent into their stomach but, the unicellulars may mix with the egg cell and insert their genes into egg cell, in this case, they do not need to find each other. And by growing the embryo of animal, the cells of unicellular creature are created and start to activity in the stomach of animal. This is observed in xylophagous insects of coleoptera.
The growth of single polycellular creatures in the body of animals is accomplished systematic, but some times this system is not considered and normal stages are not passed. For example, before the mechanisms of animal body grow completely and the animal comes of age, the reproductive systems grow, in this case this mechanism prevent the growth of other organs. This process is called neotenie (neoteny), i.e the early growth of reproductive systems. This process is observed in insects like "Glow-worm" from beetle of "Lampyride" family, female louse of "Coccidea" family and also workers of Termites. When insect is still larva, the reproductive systems of insect grows and the insect generate while it is larva and it no longer coverts a complete insect. This process is observed in Axolotl of Salamanders (Batrachians). This batrachian before complete their life circle and make metamorphic, in aquatic stage their reproductive systems grows and generate and can not come to age and have a land life. Of course, by varying conditions we can prevent of the early grows of reproductive systems. Because of the early growth of reproductive systems, Axolotl live in Mexico naturally and can not come to land. But it has been observed that the transferred Axolotl to England could pass adult and land stages. Injecting hormones can prevent of the early growth of reproductive systems so that the animal can have sufficient opportunity to grow other organs and comes to age. So, we observe that with changing environmental conditions, but without changing the genotype of the animal, a new animal is produced. In Mexico Axlotle is converted to one animal and in England where other environmental conditions is dominate, to other animal. A typical of the case, is "Schistocerca gregaria" (Orthoptera). In favourable conditions, this emigrant locust lives with affluent nourishment alone (sporadic), but during drought and less nourishment lives as grouping and emigrant. It is interesting that both of them differ morphologically and entomologists regard them as different species. In recent years, they noticed that these two locust (alone and emigrant) are one species and on different environmental conditions converts to two kinds of different insects morphologically and behaviorally. Therefore, the arrangement and amount of growth of each of co-existent single creatures in the body of an animal is effective on the animal kind. Perhaps two animals to be similar in kind of co-existent single creatures, but in different environmental conditions two different animals are produced. In one conditions, an single creature grows more, but in another condition, other single creature grows more. This is the case with the atom of carbon. Diamond and Graphite are made of carbon atoms but at different conditions. This different environmental conditions creates two different elements from one atom diamond and graphite. Gregarious (social) insects such as bees, termites and ants are aware of this process and utilize it. The genotype of worker been and queen been, is similar but insects produce worker or queen according to their gregarious. They specify the fate of larva by changing type of food. Larvas eat royal's jelly (special food) convert to queen, but they who eat normal food become worker. So we observe that here, the genotype of animal has no function in converting her into queen. It is only the environmental conditions which specifies its genre. By nourishment royal's jelly, the condition is favorable for some of the single coexistent creatures and they grow more, for example the single creature which creates the reproductive systems. In this condition, larva converts into queen. During nourishment normal food, the condition for other single creatures becomes favorite, and the genital mechanism can not grow more, then larva converts into a worker. So, we observe that the separation of single co-existent creatures is obvious.
A worker ant has identical genotype with a queen ant, but they differ morphologically. The queen ant has two pairs wings, larger bulkiness and complete genital mechanism, but a worker ant has no wing, its bulkiness is small, and its genital mechanism has not grown. Therefor we see that one type of genotype generates two kinds of different animals and this is accomplished only by changing life conditions. The single creature into the body of ant leads to making wings is in the body of both queen and worker. The conditions of growing the single creature is provided into the body of queen, but it is not provided into the body of worker ant.
Termites (insects) and mole-rat (mammals) use this process and produce worker, queen and soldier casts into their gregarious, in which they differ morphologically and inner organs.
Producing two different animal from one similar genotype is also observed in aphids. Aphids are insects which are seen in different from during one circle of life. Aphids which come out of egg in spring are called Fundarix (grounder female). Every fundarix can generate until several generation through parthenogenesis and born more female aphids. These aphids which are wingless ones are called "Fundatrigeneniae", and can produce similar female aphids until several generation through parthenogenesis. At the end of spring, winged ones are produced through long light and changing sap. These winged female aphids are called Migrants. Aphids generate as parthenogenesis and produce winged or wingless ones. At the end of summer and autumn vivipare female are produced. This aphids born larvas which some of them are male and other are female. After coupling these male and female aphids lay eggs which all of them convert to fundarix in spring of next year, and the cycle of life continues. The examples clarify that the change of environmental conditions and the kind of nourishment can produce, from one animal with identical genotype, different animals in terms of morphology and gender. This matter can not be explained unless by accepting co-existence of initial (single) creatures in the body of animals.
As long as there is an equilibrium among the initial components, the animal lives fairly, but when one of the components finds more power, grows willfully, the power equilibrium cancels and different diseases are produced, in animal body. Of course, illness or healthy is a relative matter and is defined depending on environmental conditions and other characteristics. Suppose that a new initial (single) creature attacks a co-existent group. If the existence of the new comer in the group profits them, anew animal will be produced and will live, otherwise, (If the existence of the new comer in the group bad them) we say that the animal is sick and after sometime it may die. Far example, at the age of reptiles, on animal did have hair on its body, and on the body of animals there was scale and spangle. Then, an initial creature attacked the group of coexistent and made the growth of hair on the skin of animals body. This matter was an illness and killed some animals, but some of them exploited the existence of hair on their body and wormed themselves through them. In this case, the initial creature comes to an agreement with the co- existent group and lived with them. So then new animals were produced whose body did have hair. (That is why after animals death, their hairs and nails are alive for sometime band grow). Therefore, we see that to come into existence hair on the body of animals does not need several years and evolution. Existing a peaceful life between the initial group and a new single creature is enough.
Because of the simplicity of this method, nature has been able to produce animal species. One has scale, other has hair, one has red cell but another does not have and ...