Paper 4 :

The evidences

Written by Ramin Amir mardfar

            Paper 5

We understood that the fungi are one of the formational components of the excellent plants but it is necessary to accept this matter, we have the evidences. Dodder parasite plant is supposed. This plant absorb necessary materials form other excellent plant's tissue. Therefore, it inserts the haustoria into the host herbaceous tissue and transfer necessary materials into its vessels by this haustoria. Some of  herbaceous parasitic fungi, exactly do also this work. Herbaceous parasitic fungi insert the haustoria in to the tissue cells of the host to acquire necessary materials too. Then is observed that the vessels of dodder and herbaceous parasitic fungi use the similar procedure. The structure of haustoria is similar in both. The enzymes is similar that they use to pierce the tissue and to insert the haustorium into the cell. Shape and procedure of haustorium are quite similar too. Then it is an evidence that the vessels of the plants are similar to polycellular fungi. Other wise, the vessels of the plant are a free polycellular fungus at previous. Then are put in a class with other simple polycellular existents and make a complex class as excellent plants by symbiosis life.
Most of the hormones of the plants are similar to that are existent in herbaceous parasitic fungi. Giberralline hormone is first obtained from a parasitic fungus on the rice. This fungus caused to long of the stalk of the rice between two nodes of stalk by secretion this hormone into tissue of host plant. This work caused to the collapse of the rice stalks and damaged. After study on this hormone is cleared that same of this hormone is secreted in the plant vessels. That controls the rate of cell growth and cell size. The name of this hormone "Giberralline" is borrowed from the same race parasitic fungus. Then we observed that herbaceous parasitic fungi those are simple polycellular existent, have many similar to the vessels of the excellent plants. The other characteristic of the herbaceous parasitic fungi is that can grow in the plant body similar to vessels and are branched in different parts of the plant body. "loose smut of wheat" is a good example for this matter. A small fiber of parasitic fungus mycelium is hidden into wheat seed. When the wheat seed is planted and start to budding, the mycelium of the parasitic fungus also starts to growing and grows contemporary with wheat stalk growth and ascends. When the wheat flowered, reproductive organ of fungus is inserted to seed and there started to producing of spore. In "Bunt smut of wheat " instead wheat seed, is also produced fungus spores, too. "Polyporus sulphureus" (a tree parasitic fungi) grows under the bark and goes to the branches of them. Reproductive organs of this fungus come out from under the bark and make the caps of the fungi and then start to spreading the spores. The vessels of the plants also grow into plant similar to these fungi and arrive to leaves and branches. In reproduction season come out from the top of the branches or other sites of the plant and produce the reproductive organs. Obvious example of this matter is observed in the ferns. Vessels (ribs) grow in the leaf of fern and branch. Finally, at reproduction time, mace lake organ is formed in the end of the vessel and the epidermal layer of leaf is cleaved by this mace (Sporangium) swelling and sporogenic organ comes out, then the spores come out from this mace like organ. Exactly, this function is seen in "Rust of wheat" that is a parasitic fungus in leaves. The mycelia of this fungus grow in to leaf and its reproduction organ cleaves the epidermis leaf of at reproduction time and sheds out the spores.
This evidences can be interpreted following that:
Duckweed (Bryophyta) those are primary polycellular existents and are able to photosynthesis, lived in nature freely. But they couldn't grow their body because they didn't have material transmission system. Then a parasitic fungus attacked to this duckweed and inserted to its body. There it obtained many organic materials for itself. This fungus doesn't kill the duckweed because the source of organic materials is lossed by killing of duckweed. The fungus remains into duckweed as a parasite and helps it in water and mineral materials transmission till duckweed produces many organic materials for it. Also, the fungus secrete into duckweed hormones that cause to the rapid proliferation of duckweed cells. In this time, duckweed has water and material transmission  system and can growth and maintain itself and send to upper limbs from soil water and mineral materials. Therefore, duckweed isn't discomfort from existence of this parasitic fungus in its body and bears its existence, instead, the parasitic fungus uses duckweed as a former of organic materials and grows in the parenchyma tissue of duckweed (i.e. the vessels and ribs) and at reproduction season, brings out the reproductive organs from parenchyma tissue of duckweed and sends out the spores or seeds.
Incarnate a pollen of maize in your image that put on the cluster of other maize. This pollen starts to growing and moves to ovisac in style. The length of style of maize sometimes reaches to 20cm. This pollen must grow in this long style till can reach to ovisac. Certainly, at this growth, feeds from the host plant, because all materials aren't saved in the pollen. Thus, pollen produced a narrow fiber same parasitic fungi mycelia by feeding from the host plant parasitically till reaches to ovisac. Then e see that pollen exactly act similar to herbaceous parasitic fungus. Therefore we knew that the plants are formed from parasitic fungi attacking to duckweeds and starting to symbiosis life. Here, type and number of formational components of it determine the species of the plant as we observed in lichens. For example, type "A" of parasitic fungus is symbiosis with duckweed "B" and are made the plant "AB". Or type "C" of fungus is symbiosis with duckweed "D" and are made the plant "DC", and or type "A" of fungus and type "C" of fungus twice are symbiosis with type "D" of duckweed and are made the plant "ACD". We know that mycelia of fungi are different in point of view of male and female sexuality. Positive and negative words are used about fungi. This fiber of mycelium is positive or negative and two heterosexual fibers of fungus are coupled at sexual intercourse and genetic inter change. In excellent plants, we observe dioecious plants (for example palm tree) and monoecious plants (for example apple tree). In the structure of the monoecious plant, positive parasitic fungus and negative parasitic fungus participate and both together live in the body of duckweed. Finally male reproductive organ and female reproductive organ is male at production time of flower. But, in dioecious plants, positive parasitic fungus lives with one duckweed and negative parasitic fungus lives with another duckweed. Therefor, male plant is separate to female plant, for example palm tree.  Two positive and negative fungus maybe in one plant but come out from different sites of the body of duckweed, for example walnut tree that the male and female flowers of it is separate but is on one tree. If two fungi bring out from one site monoecious (hermaphrodite) flower is made, for example, bean, violet and apple tree and etc.
Thus generally, we knew that one or some simple polycellular fungi can crowd with one or some duckweeds in a class and are formed next more complex class. In this classification, "simple component classification law", "symbiosis law of components" and "components independently law" are all considered, there fore we can account this classification as a legal classification in world.

Paper 5  

             Book 1: Relationship between Gravity and Evolution

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