Paper 5

Other evidence

Written by Ramin Amir mardfar

            Paper 6

"Fungi are creatures whose cells have real nucleus and chlorophyll substance is not seen in their structure", such as vascular system of the excellent plant.
"If the minerals are available for fungi, they can provide them directly from the substances mentioned", as the root of plant.
The important point to know is that root are fungi which live in the soil the and are coexistent with parasite fungi and moss, so they produce the rooty excellent plant. Dodder, Masslinn and Broomrege have no root because soil-living fungi have not participated in their group. Lycopsida (Wolf's claw) plants have no real root, because their group has not soil-living and coexistent fungi. But in a rooty excellent plant, there is parasite fungus and moss (Bryophyta), as well as soil-living fungus. Here, the soil-living fungus absorbs water and minerals from soil, parasite fungus transmits them to leaves, and moss provides organic materials. In suitable conditions, these three live together, but when the conditions change, this kind of life form into competition life. For example, When we fertilize the plants with nitrogenous fertilizer,
the growth of branches increases. So we have provided the parasite fungus and it grows more. When we fertilize the plants with Ferro fertilizer, we have provided the moss plants with necessary minerals, so the number of leaves increases and more chlorophyll is produced.
In autumn, when it gets cool, the activity of moss plant decreases and it faints, in this case soil-living fungus takes more advantage of this condition and absorbs all of the food materials, then saves and uses it during the winter. Moss plant component on the branches as a dormant bud and waits for being hot. When it is hot in spring, it starts to grow again and produces parenchyma tissue. At this time, parasite fungus finds a suitable condition for growing and penetrates the parenchyma tissue. Parasite fungus gets the organic materials from moss and uses some of it itself and gives some to the root (soil-living fungus), instead, forces him to absorb water and minerals from soil. On the whole, the life of a plant is a kind of competition between ingredients or coexistence between these ingredients.
When a excellent plant is placed in droughty region, it uses another soil-living fungus called Mycorrhiza. The excellent plant joins these fungus and makes it one of the constructing ingredients. These new fungus absorb water more and transmit it to other members of the group (Moss + Parasite fungus + Soil-living fungus), instead, they give a small amount organic materials to the fungus. So they from a coexistent life. That is, a simple ingredient is added to the group. Here, changing the condition is only factor that forces them to accept a new partner. In a droughty region, when we add mycorrhiza fungi to the soil that the plants grow better, this is the same as that we add a new atom to a molecule in order to increase the members of the group.
Sometimes plants diseases can help us to discover components of the excellent plant. When a pathogen attacks to the plant, it is only able to destroy one component of the plant. That is, pathogen can not attack to both the soil-living fungus (root) and moss (parenchyma tissue) as well as parasite fungus (vessel system). Pathogen only attacks to its desired tissue and is only able to live inside the tissue and multiplied. By attacking pathogen to one of the plant ingredients, that ingredient faints, so the other ingredients in the competition stage take more advantages of its partner weakness and grow more. For example "Fan leaf" virus attacks to the parenchyma tissue the vitis' leaf, it faints moss. At this time, the fungus is benefited from the moss weakness and grow more and the vein leaves (rib) grow as a thin cord. By using herbicide hormonal (example: 2,4-D or MCPA), we make this procedures in the cotton plant. This hormone can weaken the moss (parenchyma tissue), then parasite fungus grow more and lengthens ribs. Through using different pathogen and hormonal materials, we can observer the weakness of one component and more growing of other component.
* "In some kinds of fungus, mycelium consists of relatively thick cord called Rhizomorph construction is thick and hard and end part of it is the same as roots of the plants. The resistance of Rhizomorph against unfavorable and harmful conditions is high they sleep until reaching season but after providing suitable condition, Rhizomorph starts to grow and its length increases." This is the same characteristic we have in the rooty excellent plants.
* "Hyphae will grow under ideal conditions and they have unlimited growth. According to the accomplished consideration, some of the colonial fungi have continued living for more them 400 years, several of the mycelium are living more than one thousand years." This is the case with excellent plants.
* "During one season, one species of fungus has several asexual reproduction such being the case that sexual reproduction are reproduced only once a year." This is exactly the case with excellent plants.
* "By dividing hyphe into different pieces, each of these parts can grow and create a new fungus. "This procedure is the same as propagation in excellent plants.
* "Circulation of cell nucleus: Fungus like other living beings have circular process of growing nucleus cell that are involved in two stages as haploid and diploid and this cycle is similar to the stages of gametophyte and sporophyte in excellent plants."
* "Wall partition fungus cell is cellulose." As an example of excellent plants cell.

The result is that this similarity between fungi and excellent plants is that fungi are the smallest unit of constituent in excellent plants.The fungus into co-existent or independently have similar characteristics and that is why excellent plants have the common characteristic features.


Paper 6 

             Book 1: Relationship between Gravity and Evolution

             Emil: [email protected]


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