A Brief Political History of Mesopotamia

Early Dynastic I & II
Early Dynastic III
Akkadian Empire
Gutian Period
Ur III Dynasty
Isin/Larsa Period
Old Assyrian Period
Old Babylonian Period
Kassite Period
Middle Assyrian Period
Middle Babylonian Period
Neo-Assyrian Empire
Neo-Babylonian Empire
Persian Period
Banner of Ur from Royal Cemetery c.2500 BC

The purpose of this article is to give an overview of the political history of the empires and rulers of Mesopotamia. In other words, to show who reigned when and where, and to chronicle the most important exploits of the various monarchs. As I read numerous books on Mesopotamia, I noticed that many of the ancient kings were mentioned but none of the books had a chronological listing of the kings from beginning to end. What was listed was the well known dynasties, such as the Akkadian and Ur III, and the Sumerian Kings List was sometimes listed, but never with dates. So I set down to create a list for my own benefit. Thus this web site was eventually born.
For the social and economic history of the region, see the bibliography . As for the dates of the reigns, as a general rule, they are approximate. I use the so-called middle chronology.
The dates, and sometimes the chronology, of the periods before 2000 BC are open to debate. For dates before 1500 BC, they could be altered by up to 64 years. From 1500-900 a shift of one to two decades could happen. For the period from 900-608, a shift of one to three years would be the most that would change. However, new information may one day alter this.

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