NORTH CAUCASIAN
BIBLIOGRAPHY AND LIBRARY
(Including Abkhaz Material)
 Introduction
3. Encyclopaedias
8. Politics and Current Affairs
13. Art, Architecture and Culture
 
 Notes
4. Travels and Geography
 9. Sociology and Ethnicity
 14.  Industry, Economy, Agriculture and Tourism
 
 Acknowledgements
5. Languages, Linguistics and Education
 10. Anthropology, Ethnography, Archaeology and Antiquity
 15. Science and Medicine
 
1. Catalogs, Collections, and Bibliographies
6. Literature
 11. Mythology and Religion
 
 
2. Journals, Serial, Periodicals and Newsletters
7. History
 12. Music
 
 
More than 3,800 references, including some 450 links to on-line books, articles and documents
Collected and Prepared by: AMJAD JAIMOUKHA
(Zischimiwezhin schi'eqim
To err is human - Circassian proverb)

You may search for and order the books documented herein by using the following powerful Amazon Search Engine.
The author of this Bibliography will obtain a percentage for each item purchased through this site. It is a most convenient way of subsidizing this effort.
 Search: Enter keywords... 

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Introduction

  This is a first attempt on my part at constructing a comprehensive reference book on North Caucasian printed matter: bibliographies, collections, catalogues, journals, periodicals, books, music books, articles, magazines, etc. I have also included references on music written on North Caucasian themes or by North Caucasian composers. I collected some of the data documented herein in the course of my research at the University of Manchester and the School of Oriental and African Studies (SOAS), during several sojourns in England in the years 1985-1988.

  It goes without saying that this collection is far from being complete. It is my hope that people who are interested in this subject send me material to augment this work. Also corrections and suggestions would be absolutely welcome. I hope that in the near future this page would be comprehensive enough to be worthy of being printed and published.

  Please note that the entries are mainly in Western European languages. Some bibliographies in Russian and Turkish are, however, included. Some time in the near future, I will start to upload a reference list of North Caucasian books in Russian and the local vernaculars. A bibliography of works in Turkish, especially archival material, is extremely important. I hope that some researcher would send me the relevant information in this regard.

  Due to the excessive length of this file (1.18 megabytes, about 270 pages of print), it is recommended that you either save it locally or print it and then read it at your leisure. However, since the file is currently being updated and added to at the rate of 20 k per week, it is worthwhile to re-visit the site every once in a while to keep abreast of developments.

Amjad Jaimoukha,
    Amman-Jordan, 1998

NOTES ON THE REFERENCE BOOK:
  1. Language of entry is language of title unless otherwise stated.
  2. The entries have been classified into categories: geography, language, history, etc. If an entry deals with more than one aspect, it is either assigned to the dominant one, or entered in all the relevant sections. Any misplacement is entirely my fault.
  3. Within each category the entries have been arranged alphabetically according to the title, although there are some slight local variations. This is how I would like the information to be presented to me. It is hoped that the material would be interesting enough to be read as opposed to be just used for reference. However, an alphabetical listing according to the author will eventually be published on this site.
  4. If you want to find a particular author, subject or a word: go to edit mode and select 'find in page', then type your search object. This is a powerful search and indexing facility that enhances the value of this page.
  5. The arrangement within each entry is again in accordance with my own preferences.
  6. The sign "?" displayed before a piece of information indicates uncertainty or unavailability.
  7. The information after the sign "/" is on one location of the entry. It is mainly in my collection, in the library of the University of Manchester (UNI. MAN.), the British Museum (BRIT. MUS.), in the library of the School of Oriental and African Studies (SOAS), and the Wardrop Collection in the Bodleian Library, Oxford.
  8. The information between the "{}" brackets is mainly my commentary on the contents and other additions.
  9. Diacritics have been omitted from French, German and Turkish entries.

Acknowledgements
The contributions in terms of corrections and additions of the following people are very much appreciated:
 Karen A. Rondestvedt, Eve Rachel Greenfield, JonArno Lawson, Imad Jaimoukha, Olli Salmi, Dr. Hussein Toga, Kevin Brook, Ali Kassay

1
CATALOGUES, COLLECTIONS AND BIBLIOGRAPHIES
  1. ABKHAZIJA I ABKHAZY V SREDNEVEKOVYKH GRUZINSKIKH POVESTVOVATEL'NYKH ISTOCHNIKAKH [Abkhazia and the Abkhazians in Georgian narrative sources of the Middle Ages]. G. AMICHBA. TBILISI, 1988.
  2. A COMPREHENSIVE BIBLIOGRAPHY OF THE KABARDIAN LANGUAGE. COLLECTED AND PREPARED BY AMJAD JAIMOUKHA. PUBLISHED ON THE NET. {Only works in Western European languages are included}
  3. A COMPREHENSIVE BIBLIOGRAPHY OF WORKS ABOUT THE KHAZARS 1895-1999. KEVIN BROOK. PUBLISHED ON THE NET. {"Includes citations and summaries of books and articles in the field of Khazar studies, examining issues like Khazar culture, North Caucasian trade routes, medieval documents, and the structure of Khazar settlements and fortresses in the North Caucasus... This is still under development, but all data will be online in April. Eventually there will be several hundred entries." These comments were received from the author by e-mail. This work bridges a gaping chasm in North Caucasian history. Hopefully it would spur more interest in, and research on, the Khazar Empire}
  4. A COMPREHENSIVE BIBLIOGRAPHY OF WORKS ON KABARDIAN PROVERBS AND SAYINGS. COLLECTED AND PREPARED BY AMJAD JAIMOUKHA. PUBLISHED ON THE NET AT THE END OF CIRCASSIAN PROVERBS AND SAYINGS. {Includes 13 works: one in English, Kabardian and Russian, four in Kabardian and Russian, the rest in Kabardian}
  5. ADIGII, BALKARTSE I KARACHAIVTSE V IZVESTIYAKH EVROPEISKIKH AVTOROV XIII-XIX vv. COLLECTED BY V. G. KARDAN. NAL'CHIK, 1974. {Circassians, Balkars and Karachais in (the Works of) Famous European Writers. Comments by collector. 634 pages}
  6. A SHORT BIBLIOGRAPHY OF SOME RECENT ARTICLES ON OIL, GAS AND ECOLOGY IN THE CAUCASUS AND CASPIAN LITTORAL. PUBLISHED ON THE NET AS AN ADJUNCT TO THE CONFERENCE: THE GEOPOLITICS OF OIL, GAS AND ECOLOGY IN THE CAUCASUS AND CASPIAN SEA, BY THE BERKELEY PROGRAM IN SOVIET & POST-SOVIET STUDIES AND THE CENTER FOR SLAVIC & EAST EUROPEAN STUDIES, UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, BERKELEY, 1998.
  7. BIBLIOGRAFIA CAUCASICA ET TRANSCAUCASICA. M. M. MIANSAROV. OPYT SPRAVOCHNOGO SISTEMATICHESKOGO KATALOGA PECHATNYM SOCHINENIIAM O KAVKAZE, ZAKAVKAZ'I I PLEMENACH ETI KRAIA NASELIAIUSHCHIK. St. PETERSBURG: TIPOGRAFIIA O.I. BAKSTA I GOGENFEL'DEN I KOMP., 1874-76. T. 1, OTD. 1, 2. SPB., 1967. (848 pages). {No more published. Still a fundamental bibliography. The volume published covers geography, ethnography, travels, antiquities, numismatics and history.}
  8. BIBLIOGRAFICHESKII UKAZATEL' LITERATURY O KUBANSKOI OBLASTI, KUBANSKOMKAZACH'EM VOISKE I CHERNOMORSKOI GUBERNII [KUBANSKII SBORNIK, 5-6, EKATERINODAR, 1899-1900], E. D. FELITSYN.
  9. BIBLIOGRAFICHESKII UKAZATEL' RUSSKOI ETNOGRAFICHESKOI LITERATURY O VNESHNEMBYTE NARODOV ROSSI, 1700-1910, D. K. ZELENIN. ZAPISKI IMPERATORSKOGO RUSSKOGO GEOGRAFICHESKOGO OBSHCHESTVA PO OTDELENIIU ETNOGRAFII, Vol. 40: 1, SPb., 1913. {CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO SUBJECTS AND SECONDARILY TO PEOPLES, THOSE OF THE CAUCASUS BEING CONSIDERED TOGETHER; ONLY THE SECTION ON ECONOMY HAS A BREAKDOWN ACCORDING TO POLITICAL AND ADMINISTRATIVE UNITS. ENTRIES 804-21: BIBLIOGRAPHIES ON THE PEOPLES OF THE CAUCASUS}
  10. BIBLIOGRAFIIA IAZYKOVEDCHESKOI LITERATURY OB IBERIISKO-KAV-KAZSKIKH IAZYKAKH, I. IZD. KAF. KAVK. IAZ. TBIL. GOS. UNIV. IM STALINA. TIFLIS, 1958.
  11. BIBLIOGRAFIIA KUBANSKOGO KRAIA [SISTEMATICHESKII UKAZATEL' LITERATURY O KUBANSKOI OBLASTI S RETSENZIIAMI I REFERATAMI, VYP. 1-4, EKATERINODAR, 1918-19], B. M. GORODETSKII.
  12. "BIBLIOGRAFIIA PO ETNOGRAFII I LINGVISTIKE KAVKAZA", KUL'TURA I PIS'MENNOST' GORSKIKH NARODOV SEVERNOGO KAVKAZA. BELIAEV. ROSTOV, 1931, PP. 71-145. {Bibliography of the Ethnography and Linguistics of the Caucasus. The Culture and Literature of the Mountain Peoples of the Northern Caucasus. "Not all Russian and other authors are indicated" - R. Traho}
  13. BIBLIOGRAPHICAL LITERATURE WRITTEN UNDER THE MAMLUKS. REFER TO DONALD P. LITTLE'S AN INTRODUCTION TO MAMLUK HISTORIOGRAPHY. WIESBADEN: FRANZ STEINER VERLAG, 1970.
  14. BIBLIOGRAPHIE. DEPARTMENT OF CAUCASIAN STUDIES, HEIDELBERG UNIVERSITY. PUBLISHED ON THE NET.
  15. BIBLIOGRAPHIE (Monographien). Neue Kaukasische Post, Nummer 4, August 1997.
  16. BIBLIOGRAPHIE ANALYTIQUE DES OUVRAGES DE M. MARIE-FELICITE BROSSET. SPb., 1887. {Lists not only works by Brosset but also a large number of West European and Russian publications. Annotated}
  17. BIBLIOGRAPHIE DE LA CAUCAS(I)E. T. I, PAR LE COMITE DES ÉMIGRÉS CIRCASSIENS. CONSTANTINOPLE, 1919.
  18. BIBLIOGRAPHIE DER TSCHERKESSEN. Özbek, Batïray. Ankara 1997. (= Ethnographie der Tscherkessen 5). {Laut ihrer Einleitung umfasst die Bibliographie ca. 3000 Titel. Sie ist zusammengestellt aus der Datensammlung Dr. Landmanns (Heidelberg), die dem Autor zur Verfügung gestellt wurde, sowie aus Ergänzungen, die der Autor aus folgenden Quellen zusammengetragen hat: 1. Bibliographischen Veröffentlichungen: Miansorof, M.: Bibliographia Caucasica et Transcaucasica. St. Petersburg, 1874-1876. Nachdruck Amsterdam, 1967; Orientalische Bibliographie. Berlin, 1881-1911, 25 Bde.; Bibliographie Nationale, 1897-1981; British Museum General Cataloge. London 1965-1966; Traho, Ramazan: Literature on Circassia and the Circassians. In: CR 1, S. 145-162 München, 1955; Berzig, Vedat: Türkiye’de Kuzey Kafkasya ilgili yayïnlar bibliyoýrafyasï 1, 1928-1966, Samsun 1986. 2. den Universitätsbibliotheken, Institutsbibliotheken und Staatsbibliotheken von Heidelberg, Göttingen, Hamburg, Berlin, Freiburg und Wien, der Bibliothek des British Museum und des in Amman/Jordanien tätigen tscherkessischen Kulturvereins. 3. den Bibliographien zahlreicher wissenschaftlicher Werke und Zeitschriften, unter anderem, Luzbetak, Lois J. Lavrova, L.I. Klimov, G.V. Caucasica, Caucasian Revue, Yeni Kafkasya und Kafkasya usw... Es wurden nur solche Publikationen ausgewählt, die sich mit dem Nordwestkaukasus bzw. Nordkaukasus beschäftigen. Als Orientierung dienten geographischen Namen wie Tuaps, Kuban, Abzib, Anapa, Schwarzes Meer und Namen von Stämmen wie Abedzech, Beslenej, Abchaz, Tapanta usw... „Als Tscherkessen verstehe ich vorrangig die Adygejisch sprechenden Völkerschaften. Dazu gehören selbstverständlich auch die Ubychen, die ihre Sprache verlernt haben, aber mehrheitlich die adygejische Sprache und zum Teil auch die abchasische sprechen. [...] Ferner habe ich die Publikationen über Abchasen, Osseten, Tschetschenen und Inguschen, Lesgier und Dagestaner aufgenommen. Diese werden im offiziellen Gebrauch in der Türkei als Tscherkessen aufgeführt. Gegenüber Fremden geben sie sich auch als Tscherkessen aus und arbeiten in den Nordkaukasischen Vereinen in der Diaspora zusammen [...].“ (Einleitung, S. V)... Die Bibliographie enthält ausserdem Veröffentlichungen aus dem zaristischen Russland, aus osmanischer Zeit sowie die Publikationen der tscherkessischen Diaspora und in verschiedenen europäischen Sprachen bis 1996."- BIBLIOGRAPHIE (Monographien). Neue Kaukasische Post, Nummer 4, August 1997}
  19. BIBLIOGRAPHIE FRANCAIS DE LA GEORGIE [REVUE DES BIBLIOTHEQUES, Vol. 38-39. PARIS, 1931-32], SH. BERIDZE.
  20. BIBLIOGRAPHY. COMPILED AND EDITED BY KLAUS RASMUSSEN, DANISH ASSOCIATION FOR RESEARCH ON THE CAUCASUS, DEPARTMENT OF POLITICAL SCIENCE, UNIVERSITY OF COPENHAGEN. PUBLISHED ON THE NET. {About 700 books, articles and other sources mainly on Georgia, Abkhazia and South Ossetia. 35 pages of print}
  21. BIBLIOGRAPHY -- GEORGIA (CAUCASUS). LIBRARY OF COONGRESS. FEDERAL RESEARCH DIVISION, COUNTRY STUDIES, AREA HANDBOOK.
  22. BIBLIOGRAPHY OF MUSIC ON KABARDIAN THEMES. APPENDED TO KABARDINO-BALKAR MUSIC. H. HAKHUPASHA. KABARDINO-BALKAR BOOK PRESS, NALCHIK, 1963, PP. 143-47. {This is a very valuable work for research into music history of the Kabardino-Balkar Republic. The works referred to are by Kabardian and Russian composers}
  23. BIBLIOGRAPHY OF THE CIRCASSIANS [CAUCASIAN REVIEW, MUNICH (CRM), No. 1, 1955, pp. 145-62], R[AMAZAN] TRAHO.
  24. BIBLIOGRAPHY OF THE NART EPOS AND NORTH CAUCASIAN MYTHOLOGY. COLLECTED AND PREPARED BY AMJAD JAIMOUKHA. PUBLISHED ON THE NET. {Includes 47 entries in Western European languages}
  25. BOOKS ABOUT GEORGIA & CAUCASUS (IN ENGLISH, FRENCH, GERMAN, ITALIAN). PIERRE-YVES BERTRAND. PUBLISHED ON THE NET. {306 ENTRIES}
  26. BOOKS IN ENGLISH ON THE SOVIET UNION, 1917-1973: A BIBLIOGRAPHY. DAVID L. JONES (COMPILER). NEW YORK: GARLAND, 1975. {Refer to pages 238-54, "The Nationalities"}
  27. BOOKS RELATED TO CHECHNYA (IN ENGLISH). PUBLISHED ON THE NET.
  28. BOOKS RELATED TO CHECHNYA (IN RUSSIAN). PUBLISHED ON THE NET.
  29. BULLETIN BIBLIOGRAPHIQUE SPELEOLOGIQUE. SPELEOLOGICAL ABSTRACTS. UNION INTERNATIONALE DE SPELEOLOGIE. INTERNATIONAL UNION OF SPELEOLOGY. THE RELEVANT SECTIONS ON THE CAUCASUS ARE THE FOLLOWING: 89 / 2.12, 90 / 2.12, 91 / 2.12, 92 / 2.12, 93 / 2.12, 94 / 2.12.
  30. CATALOGUE OF GEORGIAN AND OTHER CAUCASIAN PRINTED BOOKS IN THE BRITISH MUSEUM. COMPILED BY DAVID MARSHALL LANG. PUBLISHED BY THE TRUSTEES OF THE BRITISH MUSEUM, LONDON, 1962. (Pp. XI, 430).
  31. CATALOGUE OF THE WARDROP COLLECTION AND OF OTHER GEORGIAN BOOKS AND MANUSCRIPTS IN THE BODLEIAN LIBRARY. DAVID BARRET, DEPARTMENT OF ORIENTAL BOOKS, BODLEIAN LIBRARY, OXFORD.
  32. DER KAUKASUS IN DER DEUTSCHEN WISSENSCHAFTLICHEN LITERATURE. HERAUGEGEBEN VON B. BRENTJES. KONGRESS- UND TAGUNGSBERICHTE DER MARTIN-LUTHER-UNIVERSITAT HALLE-WITTENBERG. HALLE (SAALE): MARTIN-LUTHER UNIVERSITAT HALLE-WITTENBERG, 1982. {Caucasus Civilization Congresses. Caucasus Antiquities Congresses. Caucasus Discovery and Exploration Congresses}
  33. ETHNIC SEPARATISM IN A CONSOLIDATING RUSSIA - TO 1923. A WORKING MILITARY HISTORY INSTITUTE (MHI) BIBLIOGRAPHY OF MHI SOURCES. MILITARY HISTORY INSTITUTE, US ARMY. PUBLISHED ON THE NET.
  34. For a bibliography on North-West Caucasian languages, refer to pp. 11-22 of Georges Dumezil's ETUDES COMPARATIVES SUR LES LANGUES CAUCASIENNES DU NORD-OUEST (MORPHOLOGIE), PARIS, 1932 and to pp. 142-51 of W. K. Matthews' LANGUAGES OF THE USSR, CAMBRIDGE, 1951.
  35. For a bibliography on Shamil and the Murid Movement, refer to SHAMIL AND THE MURID MOVEMENT, 1830-1859: AN ATTEMPT AT A COMPREHENSIVE BIBLIOGRAPHY [CENTRAL ASIAN SURVEY (SPECIAL NORTH CAUCASUS ISSUE), Vol. 10, No. 1/2, 1991, pp. 189-247], MOSHE GAMMER. And THE CENTENNIAL OF THE CAPTURE OF SHAMIL: A SHAMIL BIBLIOGRAPHY [CAUCASIAN REVIEW, MUNICH, No. 8, 1959, pp. 83-91, and 101-2], T. TATLOK.
  36. For a bibliography on Sufism, refer to SUFISM IN THE USSR: A BIBLIOGRAPHY OF SOVIET SOURCES [CENTRAL ASIAN SURVEY, Vol. 2, No. 4, 1983, pp. 81-108], ALEXANDRE BENNIGSEN.
  37. For an extensive bibliography on the Russian-Caucasian War, refer to CENTRAL ASIAN SURVEY, Vol. X, No. 1-2.
  38. For a list of archival sources on the Caucasian War, refer to Moshe Gammer's work MUSLIM RESISTANCE TO THE TSAR: SHAMIL AND THE CONQUEST OF CHECHNIA AND DAGHESTAN. LONDON: FRANK CASS, 1994. PP. 434-435.
  39. For a bibliography on the Circassian Nart Epic, refer to pp. 16-18 of Georges Dumezil's LEGENDES SUR LES NARTES, SUIVIES DE CINQ NOTES MYTHOLOGIQUES. PARIS, 1930.
  40. GEORGIAN BLACK SEA - GEOLOGICAL MAPS CATALOG. EASTERNOIL SERVICES, INC.  EASTERNOIL SERVICES, INC.
  41. INOSTRANNAIA LITERATURA PO ETNOGRAFII KAVKAZA ZA POSLEDNIE 10 LET [SOVETSKAIA ETNOGRAFIIA, 1936: 4-5, PP. 274-277], E. G. KAGAROV. {Ethnographic literature on the Caucasus in the Periodical}
  42. ISTORIIA VOINY I VLADYCHESTVA RUSSKIKH NA KAVKAZE. T. 1, Kn. 3: BIBLIOGRAFICHESKII UKAZATEL' ISTOCHNIKOV K DVUM PERVYM KNIGAM. SPb., N. F. DUBROVIN, 1871. {The history of the War and Russian rule in the Caucasus. Contains 2355 titles. Annotated. Indexes of authors and subjects}
  43. IZDANIYA INSTITUTA ISTORII, YAZIKA I LITERATURY, IM. G. TSADASY ZA 60 LET 1924-1984. L. N. SEBOVA (Ed.). MAKHACHKALA: THE DAGHESTAN FILIAL OF THE ACADEMY OF SCIENCES, 1986.
  44. KATALOG PECHATNYKH KNIG I PUBLIKATSII NA YAZYKAKH NARODOV DAGESTANA - DOREVOLYUTSIONNYI PERIOD. A. A.. ISAEV (Ed.). MAKHACHKALA: THE DAGHESTAN FILIAL OF THE ACADEMY OF SCIENCES, 1989.
  45. KAVKAZSKAIA VOINA: XIX VEK (NEIZVESTNYE STRANITSY) [RODINA, 3-4, 1994, pp. 10-151]. {"A recent collection of essays by Russian scholars on the North Caucasian Wars" - Bulent Gokay}
  46. KAVKAZSKII SBORNIK.
  47. LITERATURE ON ABKHAZIA AND THE ABKHAZIAN-ABAZINIANS (ABAZES) [CAUCASIAN REVIEW, MUNICH (CRM), No. 7, 1958, pp. 125-43], T. ABKHAZIAN. {Has some 270 entries. Essential for research on Abkhazia, the Abkhazians and Abazas. There is also a recent bibliographic work with some 300 entries collected by Professor Brian George Hewitt THE ABKHAZIANS: REFERENCES & GENERAL BIBLIOGRAPHY. See below}
  48. LITERATURE ON CIRCASSIA AND THE CIRCASSIANS [CAUCASIAN REVIEW, MUNICH (CRM). JOURNAL OF THE INSTITUTE FOR THE STUDY OF USSR, No. 1 (14), 1955, pp. 145-62], R[AMAZAN] TRAHO. {English edition of Russian original. For bibliographical information on Traho, refer toCAUCASIAN REVIEW, No. 3, MUNICH, GERMANY, 1956, AUGUSTENSTRASSE 46, P. 135}
  49. LITERATURE ON DAGHESTAN AND ITS PEOPLE [CAUCASIAN REVIEW, MUNICH (CRM), No. 4, MUNICH, 1957, PP. 101-18], R. ADIGHE (pseud. R. Traho).
  50. LITERATURE ON OSSETIA AND THE OSSETIANS [CAUCASIAN REVIEW, MUNICH (CRM), No. 6, 1958, PP. 107-26], T. TRILATI. {Includes some 224 entries}
  51. LITERATURE ON THE CHECHEN-INGUSH AND KARACHAI-BALKARS [CAUCASIAN REVIEW, MUNICH (CRM), No. 5, 1957, pp. 76-96], R[AMAZAN] TRAHO.
  52. LITERATURE ON THE HEALTH RESORTS, TOURISM, AND MOUNTAIN CLIMBING IN THE NORTHERN CAUCASUS [CAUCASIAN REVIEW, MUNICH (CRM), No. 9, 1959, PP. 152-7], T. TATLOK.
  53. MAMLUK BIBLIOGRAPHY: SUBJECT GUIDE. PUBLISHED BY THE MIDDLE EAST DOCUMENTATION CENTER, THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO. {THERE IS A VERY USEFUL SEARCH FACILITY SEARCH THE MAMLUK BIBLIOGRAPHY}
  54. MATERIALY PO ISTORII DAGESTANA I CHECHNI. G. E. GRUMBERG AND S. K. BUSHUEV (Eds.).
  55. NARODNAIA SLOVESNOST' KAVKAZA (MATERIALY DLIA BIBLIOGRAFICHESKOGO UKAZATELIA), A. V. BAGRII, IZV. VOST. FAK. AZERB. GOS. UNIVERSITETA. VOSTOKOVEDENIE, I. BAKU, 1926, PP. 203-330.
  56. NEW YORK PUBLIC LIBRARY. {CIRCASSIAN LANGUAGE COLLECTION: 1. Q ZS n.c. 17, 35; 2. Q ZS (CIRCASSIAN) n.c. 1-3-4; 3. Q ZS n.c. 16; 4. Q ZS (KABARDIAN) n.c. 1.
  57. ORIENTALISCHE BIBLIOGRAPHIE, BEGRUNDET VON Dr. A. MULLER. BERLIN, 1887-1926. {For literature on the Paleocaucasian peoples see section "Armenien und Kaukasuslander"}
  58. Periodicals Published in the Caucasus [CAUCASIAN REVIEW, MUNICH (CRM), No. 2, 1956, P. 135 ff.].
  59. Photographs in the Wardrop Collection. {WARDR. 13.25, 13.34, 13.69}
  60. Recent Literature on the Caucasus Published in the USSR and Abroad [CAUCASIAN REVIEW, MUNICH (CRM), No. 3, 1956, P. 128 ff.].
  61. Recent Literature Published in Soviet Georgia [CAUCASIAN REVIEW, MUNICH (CRM), No. 5, 1957, P. 150 ff.].
  62. Recent Soviet Literature on Georgia [CAUCASIAN REVIEW, MUNICH (CRM), No. 2, 1956, P. 144 ff.].
  63. REFER TO "MARRIAGE AND THE FAMILY IN CAUCASIA," IN THE ANTHROPOLOGY SECTION BELOW FOR A BIBLIOGRAPHY OF BIBLIOGRAPHIES.
  64. SCYTHICA ET CAUCASICA, IZVESTIIA DREVNIKH PISATELEI GRECHESKIKH I LATINSKIKH O SKIFII I KAVKAZE. V. V. LATYSHEV. 2 Vols. SPb., 1890. {Reprinted in the 1947-9 issues of the Vestnik Drevnei Istorii, Moscow. The new edition contains additions and copious footnotes but lacks the original texts, which are given in the first edition}
  65. SHORT BIBLIOGRAPHY OF WORKS ON THE CAUCASUS (IN ENGLISH). GRADUATE TRAINING AND RESEARCH PROGRAM ON THE CONTEMPORARY CAUCASUS, PROGRAM IN SOVIET AND POST-SOVIET STUDIES, THE UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, BERKELEY. PUBLISHED ON THE NET. (8 pages of print).
  66. SVEDIENIIA ARABSKIKH PISATELEI O KAVKAZE, ARMENII I AZERBAIDZHANE, N. A. KARAULOV, SBORNIK MATERIALOV DLIA OPISANIIA MESTNOSTEI I PLEMEN KAVKAZA, Vol. 29, 1901, Vol. 31, 1902, Vol. 32, 1903, Vol. 38, 1908.
  67. THE ABKHAZIANS: REFERENCES & GENERAL BIBLIOGRAPHY. Pp. 251-62 in THE ABKHAZIANS: A HANDBOOK. [Brian] GEORGE HEWITT (Ed.). IN THE SERIES CAUCASUS WORLD: PEOPLES OF THE CAUCASUS & THE BLACK SEA. SERIES EDITOR NICHOLAS AWDE. RICHMOND, SURREY, ENGLAND: CURZON PRESS, 1999. {Has some 300 entries. See also LITERATURE ON ABKHAZIA AND THE ABKHAZIAN-ABAZINIANS (ABAZES) above}
  68. THE COLLECTION OF DATA ABOUT CAUCASIAN MOUNTAIN PEOPLES.
  69. UKAZATEL' STATEI PO KAVKAZOVEDENIIU, POMESHCHENNYKH V GAZETE " TERSKIE VEDOMOSTI" (s 1883 po 1916 god). G. A. DZAGUROV. VLADIKAVKAZ, 1923.
  70. Yeni Kafkas [CAUCASIAN REVIEW, MUNICH (CRM), No. 4, 1957, P. 157 ff.].
2
JOURNALS, SERIALS, PERIODICALS AND NEWSLETTERS
  1. ABKHAZIAN NEWSLETTER (APSNYT'VYI ADYRRAKVA). Prepared by The International Documentation and Information Centre for Abkhazia (IDICA) [Aduneizhvlarbzhjarat'vyi Apsny Arshahatganc'arei Adyrratarei Rygvta (AAAAR)]. The Netherlands. {This publication is a demonstration of the realization by the Abkhazians of the power of the media in making their views accessible to the outside world. To subscribe, send an-e-mail to <chirikba@pcmail.LeidenUniv.nl> with the word "SUBSCRIBE" as the subject of the message. To unsubscribe, send an-e-mail to <chirikba@pcmail.LeidenUniv.nl> with the word "UNSUBSCRIBE" as the subject of the message. You can ask for back issues of the Newsletter}
  2. AKTY SOBRANNYE KAVKAZSKOI ARKHEOGRAFICHESKOI KOMMISSIEI (AKAK). [Acts gathered by the Caucasian Archaeographical Commission]. Vols. 1-12, 1866-1904. {Another source transcribes the title as follows: Akty, sobrannye Kavkazskoj arkheograficheskoj komissiej}
  3. ANNUAL FOR THE STUDY OF CAUCASIA, CHICAGO.
  4. BEDI KARTLISA. REVUE DE KARTVELOLOGIE, PARIS, 1957-84. THEREAFTER: REVUE DES ETUDES GEORGIENNES ET CAUCASIENNES. PARIS: PEETERS FRANCE, 1985-. / WARDROP COLLECTION.
  5. BULLETIN DE L'OBSERVATOIRE DE L'ASIE CENTRALE ET DU CAUCASE. ISTANBUL, TURQUIE: OAC, 1996 - .
  6. BULLETIN D'INFORMATION DU PARTI DU PEUPLE DES MONTAGNARDS DU CAUCASE. PARIS.
  7. BULLETIN DU COMITE DE L'INDEPENDANCE DU CAUCASE. PARIS: EDITIONS MAISONNEUVE FRERES.
  8. BULLETIN OF THE SPECIAL ASTROPHYSICAL OBSERVATORY -- NORTH CAUCASUS. USSR ACADEMY OF SCIENCES ASTROPHYSICAL OBSERVATORY SERIES. NEW YORK, NEW YORK: ALLERTON PRESS. ISSN 0190-2709. ? CEASED IN 1992. {TRANSLATION OF RUSSIAN PERIODICAL}
  9. BULLETIN OF THE SPECIAL ASTROPHYSICAL OBSERVATORY NORTH-CAUCASUS (Akademiia Nauk Sssr. Spetsial'Naia Astrofizicheskaia Observatoriia)
  10. CAHIERS DU MONDE RUSSE ET SOVIETIQUE. PARIS, LA HAYE. (PERIODICAL).
  11. CASPIAN CROSSROADS MAGAZINE. PUBLISHED BY THE US-AZERBAIJAN COUNCIL. ISSN 1091-4900. {DEALS MAINLY WITH ISSUES CONCERNING CASPIAN OIL}
  12. CAUCASIAN QUARTERLY. / WARDROP COLLECTION
  13. CAUCASIAN REGIONAL STUDIES. THE INTERNATIONAL ASSOCIATION FOR CAUCASIAN REGIONAL STUDIES (IACRS): LAW, POLITICS, SOCIOLOGY, ECONOMICS, MODERN HISTORY, AND INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS. {BASED IN TBILISI, GEORGIA. ESTABLISHED IN 1995. HOSTED BY THE CENTRE FOR POLITICAL SCIENCE OF THE VRIJE UNIVERSITEIT BRUSSEL, BELGIUM. ENGLISH EDITION IS ONLY PUBLISHED ELECTRONICALLY. BOTH Vol. 1, ISSUE 1, 1996 AND Vol. 2, ISSUE 1, 1997 ARE PUBLISHED ON THE NET. ARTICLES ON ANY ASPECT ON THE CAUCASUS ARE SOLICITED FOR INCLUSION IN UPCOMING ISSUES. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION, E-MAIL: iacrs@iacrs.org.ge. Editor: Stephen Jones}
  14. CAUCASIAN REVIEW (CRM). PERIODICAL PUBLICATION. MUNCHEN: INSTITUT ZUR ERFORSCHUNG DER UdSSR (MUNICH: INSTITUTE FOR THE STUDY OF THE USSR), 1955-1960. {ABSORBED BY STUDIES ON THE SOVIET UNION}
  15. CAUCASICA. PERIODICAL PUBLICATION. FASC. 1-11, LEIPZIG, 1924-1934. / BRIT. MUS. / WARDROP COLLECTION
  16. CAUCASUS REPORT. A WEEKLY REVIEW OF POLITICAL DEVELOPMENTS IN THE NORTH CAUCASUS AND TRANSCAUCASIA FROM RADIO FREE EUROPE / RADIO LIBERTY. FIRST ISSUE MARCH 3rd, 1998. {VERY CONCISE AND UP-TO-DATE REPORTING. SITE CONTAINS ALL ISSUES OF THE WEEKLY. TO SUBSCRIBE, SEND E-MAIL TO CAUCASUS-REPORT@LIST.RFERL.ORG WITH THE WORD SUBSCRIBE IN THE SUBJECT LINE OR IN THE BODY OF THE MESSAGE}
  17. CAUCASUS WORLD. GENERAL EDITOR: NICHOLAS AWDE. {"Caucasus World with Nicholas Awde as its General Editor, is a new imprint established by Curzon Press. It is dedicated exclusively to providing for the growing international interest in the Caucasus - a crossroads of politics, people, cultures and religions - both contemporary and historical. ... This list offers authoritative treatments of major issues and themes concerning the Caucasus, with special emphasis on providing background material and handbooks. Books, collections of papers and reference works by leading indigenous as well as western experts will provide fresh perspectives on this rapidly changing region, with equal emphasis on the past, the present and the future. ... Subject encompass the rage of history, politics, economics, religion, ethnography, language and linguistics, art and architecture. Caucasus World will include not only new books, but also reprints of important works previously unavailable or difficult to find. Proposals for books are welcomed, especially those designed to serve the needs of students and those with strong international appeal."}
  18. CENTRAL ASIA AND CAUCASUS CHRONICLE. PUBLISHED BIMONTHLY BY THE SOCIETY FOR CENTRAL ASIAN STUDIES, LONDON, 1989-1990. ISSN 0956-7208. CEASED IN 1990. CONTINUED FROM: THE CENTRAL ASIAN NEWSLETTER. OXFORD: SOCIETY FOR THE STUDY OF CENTRAL ASIA (1981-89).
  19. CENTRAL ASIA AND CAUCASUS UPDATE. THE CENTER FOR POLITICAL AND STRATEGIC STUDIES, WASHINGTON, DC. {"A MONTHLY UPDATE ON NEWS AND EVENTS ON CONFLICTS IN CENTRAL ASIA AND THE SOUTHERN CAUCASUS"}
  20. CENTRAL ASIA AND THE CAUCASUS IN WORLD AFFAIRS. HASTINGS: CENTRAL ASIA INFORMATION SERVICE, 1992- . (ISSN 09678689).
  21. CENTRAL ASIA AND THE CAUCASUS REVIEW. A QUARTERLY PUBLISHED BY THE CENTER FOR THE STUDY OF CENTRAL ASIA & THE CAUCASUS, INSTITUTE FOR POLITICAL AND INTERNATIONAL STUDIES, THE ISLAMIC REPUBLIC OF IRAN.
  22. CENTRAL ASIAN SURVEY. ISSN 0263-4937. EDITED BY MARIE BENNIGSEN BROXUP. PUBLISHED BY CARFAX PUBLISHING LIMITED. {Central Asian Survey is the only established journal in the world concerned primarily with the history, politics, cultures, religions and economics of the Central Asian and Caucasian regions. These include those territories and predominantly Muslim Irano-Turkic populations from western China to western Anatolia sharing a common historical, ethnic, cultural and linguistic heritage and in some cases communist experience. Foremost among these are the republics of former Soviet Central Asia, Azerbaijan, Crimea, and the Muslim Ibero-Caucasian and Turkic peoples of the North Caucasus, Middle Volga and Urals whose territories are included in the Russian Federation. Also covered are Chinese Xinjiang, Afghanistan, Iran, Turkey, Armenia and Georgia. ... The recent unfolding of political, demographic, economic and military events which have precipitated new strategic linkages, raise the spectre of important local and regional change and make Central Asia and the Caucasus an area of significant contemporary interest}
  23. CIRCASSIAN STAR. K. I. NATHO (Ed.). NEW YORK: G. A. PRESS. MAGAZINE.
  24. CONFLICTS & NEGOTIATIONS. PUBLISHED BY THE INTERNATIONAL CENTER ON CONFLICT AND NEGOTIATION, TBILISI, REPUBLIC OF GEORGIA. EDITED BY GEORGE KHUTSISHVILI.
  25. CONTEMPORARY CAUCASUS NEWSLETTER, THE BERKELEY PROGRAM IN SOVIET & POST-SOVIET STUDIES, GRADUATE TRAINING AND RESEARCH PROGRAM ON THE CONTEMPORARY CAUCASUS, THE UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA. {ALSO LISTED UNDER NEWSLETTER}
  26. GEORGICA: A JOURNAL OF GEORGIAN AND CAUCASIAN STUDIES. ISSN 0232-4490. / WARDROP COLLECTION. {ANNUAL ON GEORGIAN AND CAUCASIAN ISSUES}
  27. GEORGIE. / WARDROP COLLECTION
  28. IAZYKI SEVERNOGO KAVKAZA I DAGESTANA. SBORNIK LINGVISTICHESKIKH ISSLEDOVANII. MOSCOW, Vol. 1, 1935, Vol. 2, 1949.
  29. IBERO-CAUCASICA. TIFLIS, 1946-.
  30. IZVESTIIA KAVKAZSKOGO OTDELA IMPERATORSKOGO (LATER: GOSUDARSTVENNOGO) RUSSKOGO GEOGRAFICHESKOGO OBSHCHESTVA. Vol. 1-29, TIFLIS, 1872-1906.
  31. JOURNAL FOR THE STUDY OF CAUCASIA.
  32. KAVKAZ. TIFLIS, 1846-1876. {Newspaper; Until 1849 daily, later twice a week}
  33. KAVKAZ. LE CAUCASE. PARIS, 1934-39. / BRIT MUS.
  34. KAVKAZSKII ETNOGRAFICHESKII SBORNIK, I (= TRUDY INSTITUTA ETNOGRAFII IM. N. N. MIKLUKHO-MAKLAIA, N.S., T. 26), MOSCOW, 1955.
  35. KAVKAZSKII KALENDAR'. TIFLIS, 1854-1916.
  36. KAVKAZSKII SBORNIK. No. 1-30, TIFLIS, 1876-1910.
  37. KHAZARIA.COM NEWS. (Khazaria Info Center's opt-in news service. To unsubscribe from this mailing list, or to change the e-mail address you receive these bulletins at, please write to: kbrook@khazaria.com. To submit a news bulletin for possible inclusion in The Khazaria Info Center News, please write to: kbrook@khazaria.com. This Newsletter is prepared by Kevin Alan Brook of Connecticut, USA)
  38. KUBANSKII SBORNIK. EKATERINODAR, 1883 ff. (Vol. 18, 1913).
  39. LE CAUCASE. ORGANE DE LA PENSEE NATIONALE INDEPENDANTE. REVUE MENSUELLE. PARIS, 1937-.
  40. LES MONTAGNARDS DU CAUCASE. ORGANE DU PARTI POPULAIRE DES MONTAGNARDS DU CAUCASE.
  41. MAMLUK STUDIES REVIEW. AN ANNUAL JOURNAL PUBLISHED BY THE MIDDLE EAST DOCUMENTATION CENTER, THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO. ISSN 1086-170X.
  42. MATERIALY PO ARKHEOLOGII KAVKAZA. Vol. 1-14, MOSCOW, 1888-1916.
  43. MONDE RUSSE ET SOVIETIQUE.
  44. NEWSLETTER OF THE BERKELEY PROGRAM IN SOVIET & POST-SOVIET STUDIES, GRADUATE TRAINING AND RESEARCH PROGRAM ON THE CONTEMPORARY CAUCASUS, THE UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA. {ALSO LISTED UNDER CONTEMPORARY CAUCASUS NEWSLETTER}
  45. OBSERVATOIRE DU CAUCASE ET DE L'ASIE CENTRALE. INSTITUT FRANCAIS D'ETUDES ANATOLIENNES (IFEA).
  46. Periodicals Published in the Caucasus [CAUCASIAN REVIEW, MUNICH (CRM), No. 2, 1956, p. 135 ff.].
  47. PERSPECTIVE. PUBLISHED BY THE INSTITUTE FOR THE STUDY OF CONFLICT, IDEOLOGY, AND POLICY, BOSTON UNIVERSITY.
  48. PROMETHEE. ORGANE DE DEFENSE NATIONALE DES PEUPLES DU CAUCASE, DE L'UKRAINE ET DU TURKESTAN, PARIS. / WARDROP COLLECTION
  49. REVUE DES ETUDES GEORGIENNES ET CAUCASIENNES. ASSOCIATION DES ETUDES GEORGIENNES ET CAUCASIENNES. PARIS: PEETERS FRANCE, 1985-. ISSN 0373-1537. {ANNUAL DEVOTED TO LINGUISTIC, LITERARY, HISTORICAL, ARCHAELOGICAL AND CULTURAL MATERIALS ON THE CAUCASUS}
  50. RUSSIAN REGIONAL REPORT (RRR), OPEN MEDIA RESEARCH INSTITUTE (OMRI). {Russian Regional Report provides weekly updates on political and social developments in the 89 regions of the Russian Federation}
  51. SBORNIK GAZETY KAVKAZ.
  52. SBORNIK MATERIALOV DLIA OPISANIIA MESTNOSTEI I PLEMEN KAVKAZA. Vol. 1-44, TIFLIS, 1881-1915; Vol. 45, MAKHACH-KALA, 1926.
  53. SBORNIK SVEDENII O KAVKAZE. Vol. 1-9, TIFLIS, 1871-1885.
  54. SBORNIK SVEDENII O KAVKAZSKIKH GORTSAKH. Vol. 1-10, TIFLIS, 1868-1881.
  55. SOVETSKAYA ETNOGRAFIIA. {Soviet Ethnography}
  56. SOVIET ANTHROPOLOGY AND ARCHAEOLOGY.
  57. SOVIET STUDIES.
  58. STUDIA CAUCASICA. PERIODICAL. THE HAGUE: MOUTON, 1963- , 1-. ISSN 0081-6345. {Articles chiefly in English, some in Russian with English summaries}
  59. STUDIA CAUCASOLOGICA.
  60. STUDIES ON THE SOVIET UNION.
  61. SVOBODNII KAVKAZ. THE FREE CAUCASUS. DER FREIE KAUKASUS. CAUCASE LIBRE. MUNICH, 1952. / BRIT. MUS.
  62. TERSKIE VEDOMOSTI. VLADIKAVKAZ, 1883-1916.
  63. THE ANNUAL OF THE SOCIETY FOR THE STUDY OF CAUCASIA. CHICAGO, ILLINOIS: THE SOCIETY FOR THE STUDY OF CAUCASIA, 1989 - . (ISSN 10736255).
  64. THE CAUCASIAN QUARTERLY. PERIODICAL PUBLICATION.
  65. THE CAUCASUS & TRANSCAUCASIA. MOSCOW: WPS / RADIO FREE EUROPE / RADIO LIBERTY RESEARCH INSTITUTE, SLAVIC, BALTIC AND EURASIAN ARCHIVE, 1992- .
  66. THE CAUCASUS. DER KAUKASUS. ORGAN OF INDEPENDENT NATIONAL THOUGHT. UNITED CAUCASUS. VEREINIGTES KAUKASIEN. PERIODICAL PUBLICATION. MUNICH, 1953-. / BRIT. MUS.
  67. THE CURRENT DIGEST OF POST-SOVIET PRESS. {Weekly review of the Russian press, carrying English translations of articles from major Russian newspapers and magazines. It is headed by Robert S. Ehlers, Adjunct Associate Professor in the Department of Slavic and East European Languages and Literatures, Ohio State University}
  68. THE GEORGIAN CHRONICLE. A MONTHLY BULLETIN COVERING MAJOR EVENTS AND TRENDS IN THE POLITICAL, ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL LIFE OF THE REPUBLIC OF GEORGIA. IT IS PUBLISHED BY THE CAUCASIAN INSTITUTE FOR PEACE, DEMOCRACY AND DEVELOPMENT (CIPDD), TBILISI, GEORGIA. ISSN 1022-6702.
  69. THE JOURNAL OF CENTRAL ASIAN AND CAUCASIA REVIEW. TEHRAN: CENTER FOR CENTRAL ASIA AND CAUCASIA RESEARCH, INSTITUTE FOR POLITICAL AND INTERNATIONAL STUDIES, 1993- .
  70. THE JOURNAL OF THE SOCIETY FOR THE STUDY OF CAUCASIA.
  71. THE KEBZEH REVIEW NEWSLETTER. PUBLISHED 4 TIMES A YEAR. IT FEATURES ARTICLES, STORIES, COMMENTARY, POEMS AND DRAWINGS ALL BASED ON THE APPLICATION OF THE PRINCIPLES OF KEBZEH. AVAILABLE BY JOINING THE KEBZEH FOUNDATION OR BY SUBSCRIPTION FOR $25 A YEAR. ADDRESS: P.O. BOX 1207-W, VERNON, BRITISH COLUMBIA, CANADA V1T 6N6.
  72. The Study of the Caucasus in Western Europe [CAUCASIAN REVIEW, MUNICH (CRM), No. 2, 1956, P. 135 ff.].
  73. TURCICA.
  74. UNITED CAUCASUS. ORGAN OF THE NORTH CAUCASIAN NATIONAL THOUGHTS. A PERIODICAL. (IN RUSSIAN).
  75. ZAPISKI KAVKAZSKOGO OTDELA IMPERATORSKOGO (LATER: GOSUDARSTVENNOGO) RUSSKOGO GEOGRAFICHESKOGO OBSHCHESTVA. Vol. 1-30, TIFLIS, 1852-1916.

  76.  

 3
ENCYCLOPAEDIAS
  1. BOL'SHAIA SOVIETSKAIA ENTSIKLOPEDIIA. 1st Ed., MOSCOW, 1926; 2nd Ed., MOSCOW, 1949-.
  2. ENCYCLOPAEDIA BRITANNICA.
  3. ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF ISLAM. LEYDEN-LONDON, 1908-1934.
  4. ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF RELIGION AND ETHICS. J. HASTINGS (Ed.). NEW YORK, EDINBURG, 1908-1927.
  5. ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF WORLD CULTURES, Vol. VI: RUSSIA AND EURASIA/CHINA. PAUL FRIEDRICH AND NORMA DIAMOND (Eds.). BOSTON: G. K. HALL & CO., 1994.
  6. INONU ANSIKLOPEDISI (FROM FASC. 34 ON: TURK ANSIKLOPEDISI). ANKARA, 1946-.
  7. ISLAM ANSIKLOPEDISI. ISTANBUL, 1940-. {THE LATTER TWO ENCYCLOPEDIAS CONTAIN IMPORTANT ARTICLES AND BIBLIOGRAPHICAL REFERENCES ON THE TURKIC AND OTHER ISLAMIC PEOPLES OF THE CAUCASUS}
  8. THE MODERN ENCYCLOPEDIA OF RELIGIONS IN RUSSIA AND THE SOVIET UNION. V. 1- 1988- .

4
TRAVELS, GEOGRAPHY
AND GENERAL WORKS
  1. ABKHASES. W. BARTHOLD. DANS L'ENCYCLOPEDIE DE L'ISLAM.
  2. A CAPTIVE OF THE CAUCASUS. ANDREI BITOV (1937- ). LONDON: WEIDENFELD & NICOLSON, 1992; NEW YORK: FARRAR, STRAUS & GIROUX, 1992; LONDON: HARPER COLLINS, 1994. (323 PAGES. 24 cm. ISBN 0297840541). {"THE AUTHOR WRITES THAT RUSSIANS VISIT THE CAUCASUS WITH A SENSE OF HOMECOMING, RECOGNISING THE LANDSCAPES DESCRIBED BY LERMONTOV, PUSHKIN AND TOLSTOY. IN THE FIRST MEMOIR LESSONS OF ARMENIA (OUT OF PRINT), BITOV EXPLORES THE RUSSIANS RELATIONSHIP WITH THE CAUCASUS AND THE IDEA OF HOMELAND, AND IN THE SECOND, CHOOSING A LOCATION (OUT OF PRINT), HE DESCRIBES HIS JOURNEY THROUGH SOVIET GEORGIA." TRANSLATED FROM RUSSIAN BY SUSAN BROWNSBERGER}
  3. ACCOUNT OF CAUCASIAN NATIONS. GEORGE ELLIS ESQ. F.R.S. (1753-1815). {MAP OF CAUCASUS. VOCABULARY. ACCOUNT OF CAUCASIAN WAR}
  4. ACROSS THE CAUCASUS. MICHAEL PEREIRA (1928-). LONDON: GEOFFREY BLES, 1973. (272 PAGES. 23cm.). {16 PAGES OF ILLUSTRATIONS. INCLUDES MAPS. HAS BIBLIOGRAPHY ON PP. 265-6}
  5. A DRY SHIP TO THE MOUNTAINS: DOWN THE VOLGA AND ACROSS THE CAUCASUS IN MY FATHER'S FOOTSTEPS. DANIEL FARSON (1927- ). LONDON: MICHAEL JOSEPH, 1994; LONDON: PENGUIN, 1995. (246 pages. ISBN 0718135881. Available from ZORA BOOKS. Price: £15.99).  {Author is son of Negley Farson. See CAUCASIAN JOURNEY, below}
  6. ADVENTURE IN CIRCASSIA. W. WICKENDEN.
  7. ADVENTURES IN CAUCASIA. ALEXANDRE DUMAS (THE ELDER). WESTPORT, CONNECTICUT: GREENWOOD PRESS, 1962. REPRINTED IN UK, 1975. (Translated and edited by A. E. Murch. Available from ZORA BOOKS. Hardback. Price: £39.95).
  8. ADVENTURES IN THE CAUCASUS. ALEXANDRE DUMAS (THE ELDER). PETER OWEN, 1962.
  9. A GENERAL, HISTORICAL, AND TOPOGRAPHICAL DESCRIPTION OF MOUNT CAUCASUS. WITH A CATALOGUE OF PLANTS INDIGENOUS TO THE COUNTRY. TRANSLATED FROM THE WORKS OF Dr. REINEGGS AND MARSHAL BIEBERSTEIN BY CHARLES WILKINSON. LONDON, 1807. (TWO VOLUMES. Vol. 1: 407 PAGES. Vol. 2: 240 PAGES PLUS NOTES ON THE TWO VOLUMES. WITH A MAP AND PLATES. SEE ALSO BIEBERSTEIN'S WORK FLORA TAURICO-CAUCASICA EXHIBENS STIRPES PHAENOGAMAS, IN CHERSONESO TAURICA ET REGIONIBUS CAUCASICIS SPONTE CRESCENTES ... , BELOW}
  10. A GEOGRAPHICAL ANALYSIS OF NON-RUSSIAN MINORITIES IN RUSSIA AND ITS ETHNIC HOMELANDS [POST-SOVIET GEOGRAPHY, Vol. 34, No. 9, NOVEMBER 1993, PP. 543-97], C. D. HARRIS.
  11. A JOURNEY FROM LONDON TO PERSEPOLIS INCLUDING WANDERINGS IN DAGHESTAN, GEORGIA, ARMENIA, KURDISTAN, MESOPOTAMIA AND PERSIA. JOHN USSHER. LONDON: HURST AND BLACKETT, 1865.
  12. A JOURNEY IN SOVIET TRANSCAUCASIA. DAVID RODEN BUXTON. LONDON: BLACKWOOD'S MAGAZINE, 1933.
  13. A JOURNEY THROUGH THE CAUCASUS AND THE INTERIOR OF PERSIA. AUGUSTUS HENRY MOUNSEY. LONDON, 1872.
  14. ALEXANDER'S GATE, GOG AND MAGOG, AND THE INCLOSED NATIONS. A. R. ANDERSON.
  15. ALLGEMEINE HISTORISCH-TOPOGRAPHISCHE BESCHREIBUNG DES KAUKASUS. JAKOB [CHRISTIAN RUDOLF EHLICH] REINEGGS. AUS DESSEN NACHGELASSENEN PAPIEREN GESAMMELT UND HERAUSGEGEBEN VON F. E. SCHROEDER. GOTHA UND St. PETERSBURG, 1796-1797. 2 Vols.
  16. ALL THE RUSSIAS. TRAVELS AND STUDIES IN CONTEMPORARY EUROPEAN RUSSIA, FINLAND, SIBERIA, THE CAUCASUS, & CENTRAL ASIA. HENRY NORMAN, M.P. LONDON: WILLIAM HEINEMANN, 1902. (XII, 476 PAGES). {WITH 137 ILLUSTRATIONS CHIEFLY FROM THE AUTHOR'S PHOTOGRAPHS AND 4 MAPS. SOME REFERENCES GIVE SCRIBNER FOR THE PUBLISHER}
  17. ALTE GEOGRAPHIE DES KASPISCHEN MEERES, DES KAUKASUS UND DES SUDLICHENRUSSLANDS. Dr. EDUARD EICHWALD. BERLIN, 1838.
  18. AMMAN. G. LANKESTER HARDING. ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF ISLAM, NEW EDITION, Vol. 1.  {Account of Circassian settlement on p. 447}
  19. AN OVERVIEW OF THE NORTH CAUCASIAN PEOPLES. LARS FUNCH AND HELEN KRAG. IN CAUCASUS: WAR AND PEACE: NEW WORLD DISORDER IN CAUCASIA. MEHMET TUTUNCU (Ed.). HAARLEM, HOLLAND: FOUNDATION FOR THE RESEARCH OF TURKISTAN, AZERBAIJAN, CRIMEA, CAUCASUS AND SIBERIA (SOTA), 1998.
  20. ARGONAUTICON. APOLLONII RHODII (242 B.C.). LUGD. BAT., 1641, in-8. {FOR AN ENGLISH VERSION SEE THE ARGONAUTICA BELOW}
  21. ARISTOCRATS AND SERVITORS. ROBERT O. CRUMMEY. / UNI. MAN. {ACCOUNT OF THE CHERKASSKII PRINCELY FAMILY. THEY CAME FROM KABARDA TO THE RUSSIAN COURT IN THE 1550'S AND 1560'S AND IMMEDIATELY OCCUPIED PROMINENT POSITIONS IN THE ARMY AND AT COURT. "… THE CHERKASSKII'S WERE A LARGE SPRAWLING CLAN, A LOOSE COALITION OF COMPARATIVELY DISTANT RELATIVES … "}
  22. AROUND THE BLACK SEA. ASIA MINOR, ARMENIA, CAUCASUS, CIRCASSIA, DAGHESTAN, THE CRIMEA, ROUMANIA. WILLIAM ELEROY CURTIS. HODDER & STOUGHTON, NEW YORK, GEORGE H. DORAN COMPANY, 1911. (264 PAGES). {"THIS VOLUME IS COMPOSED OF NEWSPAPER LETTERS WRITTEN DURING THE SUMMER AND AUTUMN OF 1910." ... "THE CAUCASUS MOUNTAINS ARE NOT AS BEAUTIFUL AS THE ALPS, BUT ARE MORE IMPOSING AND MAJESTIC. ... AND THE STORY OF THE GOLDEN FLEECE IS NOT A LEGEND, BECAUSE EVEN TO-DAY THE MOUNTAINEERS ARE IN THE HABIT OF ANCHORING FLEECES OF WOOL FROM THEIR SHEEP IN THE STREAMS, AS TRAPS TO CATCH GRAINS OF GOLD THAT FLOAT DOWN IN THE WATER. ... THE CAUCASIANS HAVE ALWAYS BEEN FAMOUS AS GOLDSMITHS AND SILVERSMITHS, AND IN EVERY MUSEUM OF EUROPE YOU CAN FIND EXAMPLES OF THEIR SKILL AND TASTE." CHAPTER XI: DAGHESTAN, AND ITS ANCIENT PEOPLES, PP. 228-51. CHAPTER XII: THE CIRCASSIANS AND THE COSSACKS, PP. 252-64.  SOME FACTUAL MISTAKES, AS WHEN THE OSSETS ARE CLASSIFIED AS A CIRCASSIAN TRIBE. A MAP IS INCLUDED}
  23. ASIA; ODER, AUSFUHRLICHE BESCHREIBUNG DES REICHS DES GROSSEN MOGOLS UND EINES GROSSEN THEILS VON INDIEN, IN SICH HALTEND DIE LANDSCHAFFTEN KANDAHAR, KABUL ... NEBENST EINER VOLLKOMMENEN VORSTELLUNG DES KONIGREICHS PERSIEN, WIE AUCH GEORGIEN, MENGRELIEN CIRKASSIEN, UND ANDERER BENACHBARTEN LANDER. ZUSAMMT DEREN VERSCHIEDNEN NAMEN, GREUZEN, STADTEN, GEWACHSEN, THIEREN, SITTEN, TRACHTEN, REGIERUNG UND GOTTESDIENST. AUS UNTERSCHIEDLICHEN ALTEN UND NEUEN LAND- UND REISE-BESCHREIBUNGEN ANFANGS IN NIEDERLANDISCHER SPRACHE ZUSAMMENGETRAGEN DURCH O. DAPPER D. ANITZO ABER INS HOCHTEUTSCHE GETREULICHST UBERSETZT VON JOHANN CHRISTOFF BEERN. OLFERT DAPPER (1639-1689). NURNBERG: J. HOFFMANN GEDRUCKT BEY C. S. FROBERG, 1681. (2 Vols. IN 1. 33 cm.). {ADDED t.-p., ENGR. PART 2 (PAGED SEPARATELY) HAS TITLE: BESCHREIBUNG DES KONIGREICHS PERSIEN ... WITH HIS UMBSTANDLICHE UND EIGENTLICHE BESCHREIBUNG VON ASIA. NURNBERG, 1681.  ILLUSTRATED WITH PLATES (PART DOUBLE) AND DOUBLE MAPS}
  24. ASIE RUSSE. E. RECLUS. {POPULATION DU CAUCASE EN 1880: LESGHIENS ET AUTRES MONTAGNARDS, 1,050,000; TARTARES ET TURCS, 1,330,000; GEORGIENS, 150,000; ARMENIENS, 720,000; RUSSES, 1,400,000; PERSANS (TATES ET TATICKES), 120,000; AUTRES PEUPLES, 90,000}
  25. ATLAS DES PEUPLES D'ORIENT: MOYEN-ORIENT, CAUCASE, ASIE CENTRALE. JEAN SELLIER, ANDRE SELLIER; CARTOGRAPHIE: ANNE LE FUR. PARIS: EDITIONS LA DECOUVERTE, 1993. (200 PAGES. 24 cm. ISBN 270712222X). {COLOUR MAPS. INCLUDES BIBLIOGRAPHICAL REFERENCES}
  26. A TRAVERS LE CAUCASE, NOTES ET IMPRESSIONS D'UN BOTANISTE. EMILE LEVIER. NEUCHATEL: ATTINGER FRERES EDITEURS, 1897.
  27. A TRIP IN THE NORTH CAUCASUS. DIMITRI IVANOVITCH TROUNOV. MOSCOW: PROGRESS PUBLISHERS, 1965. {TRANSLATED BY DAVID FIDLON).
  28. A TRIP THROUGH THE EASTERN CAUCASUS. JOHN ABERCROMBY. LONDON: EDWARD STANFORD, 1889.
  29. AU CAUCASE. EUGENE DE GROOTE. BRUXELLES-PARIS-GENEVE, 1891. (XXXV, 182 PAGES). {DESSINS ORIGINAUX DE DANIEL DE HAENE. TABLE: PREFACE, NOGAIS DE CRIMEE, COSAQUES DU KOUBAN, CIRCASSIENS, GEORGIENS, LES OSSES, LES KAISOURIS, ERIWAN. ... "LES AMIS DE MES ENNEMIS SONT MES ENNEMIS." MAXIME CIRCASSIENNE. ... "NULLE PART, ON NE TROUVERAIT UN GROUPE D'HOMMES AYANT CONSERVE AUSSI PUR LE MEME SUPERBE TYPE. ILS ONT TOUS LA MEME STATURE MOYENNE, LE MEME VISAGE OVALE, LA BARBE FINE, L'OEIL GENERALEMENT NOIR, INTELLIGENT, UN PEU HUMIDE. ... CELUI QUI N'A PAS VU LES CIRCASSIENS NE POURRAIT COMPRENDRE JUSQU'A QUELLE SUPREME ELEGANCE PEUT ATTEINDRE LE CORPS DE L'HOMME. LA TETE HAUTE, LES EPAULES TRES LARGES, MAIS SANS LA RAIDEUR QUI ACCOMPAGNE SOUVENT LA CARRURE, LES REINS FINS ET SOUPLES ADMIRABLEMENT CAMBRES, ET DANS TOUTE L'ALLURE UNE SOUPLESSE FELINE, DANS TOUTE LA PERSONNE UNE DISTINCTION SUPERIEURE, QUI SE TRADUIT DANS LE PORT DE TETE, LE GESTE, LA DEMARCHE. CE NE SONT PAS SEULEMENT, COMME DANS CERTAINES AUTRES RACES, DES BETES PUISSANTES, A FORTE ENCOLURE, AU RABLE ENORME DONT ON ADMIRE LA VIGUEUR - COMME ON ADMIRE UN BUFFLE - OU BIEN DES TRRAVAILLEURS COMME NOS PAYSANS, QUI, DANS L'ASSIDUITE D'UN MEME LABEUR, ONT DEVELOPPE SANS PROPORTION LES MUSCLES EMPLOYES: LEUR BEAUTE EST PLUS HAUTE, ELLE EST PLUS D'UN HOMME - ETRE INTELLIGENT, DONT TOUS LES DEHORS DOIIVENT REFLETER L'AME, QUI, PAR LA SOUPLESSE ET L'ENERGIE DES MEMBRES, LE PORT HAUTAIN DU BUSTE ET DE LA TETE, LA NOBLESSE DU REGARD ET DES TRAITS, MERITE D'ETRE LE ROI DU MONDE. ET LES PLUS DELICATS, LES PLUS RAFFINES MONDAINS QUI HANTENT LES BALS DE PETERSBOURG POURRAIENT PRENDRE DES LECON DE TENUE AU DERNIER DE CES SAUVAGES. ... LEUR COSTUME AUSSI EST ADMIRABLEMENT ET ESTHETIQUEMENT CHOISI POUR FAIRE VALOIR LA BEAUTE DE LA FORME: UN PANTALON COLLANT PRENANT BIEN LA JAMBE; LA TCHERKESSA, REDINGOTE QUI DESCEND JUSQU'A MI-CUISSE, EN COULEUR CLAIRE, MOULANT LE TORSE ET ORNEE SUR LA POITRINE D'UNE RANGEE DE CARTOUCHES EN ARGENT NIELLE. COMME ILS EMPLOIENT ENCORE TOUS LE FUSIL A PIERRE, ILS METTENT DANS CHAQUE ETUI UNE CHARGE DE POUDRE ET DE PLOMB. LE COSTUME SE COMPLETE PAR LE POIGNARD ET LE LONG FUSIL. ... LES TCHERKESSES SONT D'UNE MERVEILLEUSE INTELLIGENCE; ILS ONT LE GESTE TRES EXPRESSIF. ... LEUR INTELLIGENCE FRAPPE ENCORE PLUS QUE LEUR BEAUTE. ... LES FEMMES CONFECTIONNENT DES TISSUS RARES ET LES ARMURIERS DES ARMES DE PRIX. LE SABRE CIRCASSIEN ETAIT CONSIDERE AU CAUCASE COMME UNE VALEUR DE TRANSACTION ET VALAIT TROIS BOEUFS CHEZ LEURS VOISINS, LES OSSETES. ... JADIS, ILS OCCUPAIENT TOUT LE PAYS QUI S'ETEND AU NORD DU CAUCASE, DE LA MER NOIRE AU KASBEK. A L'EST, ILS AVAIENT POUR VOISINS LES TCHETCHENES, PLUS LOIN VENAIENT LES LESGHIENS - TROIS RACES SOEURS AYANT LES MEMES HABITUDES D'INDEPENDANCE ET DE BRAVOURE. ... LES TCHERKESSES FURENT LES ROIS DU CAUCASE, ET TOUT CE QUI LES TOUCHAIT AVAIT UNE ALLURE SI ELEGANTE ET SI ORIGINALE QUE LE CAUCASE ENTIER LES IMITA. TOUTES LES TRIBUS ADOPTERENT LEUR MERVEILLEUX COSTUME, LA TCHERKESSA AUX RANGEES DE CARTOUCHES NIELLEES, MAIS LEUR DECALQUAGE FUT, - COMME TOUTE IMITATION, - MALADROIT. ET C'EST AINSI QU'ON VOIT LES PAISIBLES GEORGIENS AFFUBLES DE LA REDINGOTE, MAIS LEURS CARTOUCHES N'ONT JAMAIS ETE SALIES AU CONTACT DU PLOMB ET DE LA TCHERKESSA, AUX FORMES SI BIEN PROPORTIONNEES, EST CHEZ EUX DEVENUE LONGUE, TOMBE JUSQU'A MI-JAMBE ET EMPETRE LEUR MARCHE, DEJA LOURDE. ILS SE SONT IMPOSES D'UNE FACON SI IMPERIEUSE QUE LEURS ENNEMIS HEREDITAIRES EUX-MEMES, LES COSAQUES, ADOPTERENT LEUR COSTUME, SE VETIRENT DE LA TCHERKESSA, PORTERENT LE PAPAK REJETE DANS NUQUE ET SE MIRENT A PARLER TARTARE. ... PENDANT LA GUERRE CONTRE LES MONTAGNARDS, LES COSAQUES TROUVAIENT ELEGANT DE PARLER LA LANGUE DES CIRCASSIENS ET DONNERENT AINSI A LEURS ADVERAIRES LE TEMOIGNAGE D'ESTIME LE PLUS SPONTANE ET LE PLUS INCONTESTABLE, CELUI D'ETRE ADMIRE ET IMITE PAR SES ENNEMIS. ... L'OBSERVATEUR IMPARTIAL QUI CONSIDERE CETTE DESOLATION SE DEMANDE SI C'EST AINSI QUE DOIT PROCEDER LA CIVILISATION ET QUELS BESOINS LES RUSSES AVAIENT DE DETRUIRE CETTE PEUPLADE SI COURAGEUSE."}
  30. AU CAUCASE ET EN CHINE: (1797-1806). JAN POTOCKI. PARIS: PHEBUS, 1991. (264 PAGES. ISBN 2-85940-166-0). {AVEC SIX DESSINS DE L'AUTEUR. ILLUSTRE}
  31. AU NORD DE LA CHAINE DU CAUCASE, SOUVENIRS D'UNE MISSION. BARON J. DE BAYE. PARIS: LIBRAIRIE NILSSON, 1899.
  32. AU PAYS DE LA TOISON D'OR. ODETTE KEUN. PARIS: FLAMMARION, 1922. {THERE IS AN ENGLISH TRANSLATION IN THE LAND OF THE GOLDEN FLEECE: THROUGH INDEPENDENT MENCHEVIST GEORGIA BELOW}
  33. AUS DEM KAUKASUS. C. VON HAHN. LEIPZIG.
  34. AUS DEN HOCHREGIONEN DES KAUKASUS. GOTTFRIED MERZBACHER. 2 Bde., LEIPZIG, 1901.
  35. AU SUD DE LA CHAINE DU CAUCASE. BARON J. DE BAYE. PARIS: LIBRAIRIE NILSSON, 1899.
  36. A VAGABOND IN THE CAUCASUS, WITH SOME NOTES OF HIS EXPERIENCES AMONG THE RUSSIANS. STEPHEN GRAHAM. LONDON: JOHN LANE, THE BODLEY HEAD; NEW YORK: JOHN LANE COMPANY MCMXI, 1911. (311 PAGES). {WITH SIXTEEN ILLUSTRATIONS AND TWO MAPS}
  37. A WINTER JOURNEY THROUGH RUSSIA, THE CAUCASIAN ALPS, AND GEORGIAN. THENCE ACROSS MOUNT ZAGROS, BY THE PASS OF XENOPHON AND THE TEN THOUSAND GREEKS, INTO KOORDISTAN. CAPTAIN R. MIGNAN. LONDON: REIHARD BENTLEY, 1839. IN TWO VOLUMES.
  38. A YEAR AMONG THE CIRCASSIANS. JOHN AUGUSTUS LONGWORTH. LONDON: HENRY COLBURN, 1840. (IN TWO VOLUMES. Vol. 2: 351 PAGES). {IN Vol. 2 THERE IS AN ACCOUNT OF THE KABARDIAN STRUGGLE AGAINST RUSSIAN DOMINATION. THE AUTHOR WAS A CORRESPONDENT OF THE TIMES. HE STAYED A YEAR WITH THE CIRCASSIANS TOGETHER WITH JAMES STANISLAUS BELL (SEE A JOURNAL OF RESIDENCE IN CIRCASSIA BELOW)}
  39. BEMERKUNGEN AUF EINER REISE IN DIE SUDLICHEN STATTHALTERSCHAFTEN DES RUSSISCHEN REICHS IN DEN JAHREN 1793 UND 1794. P. S. PALLAS. LEIPZIG, 1799-1801, 2 Vols, AND 1803 (illustrated edition). {"Vol. I gives a brief account of the Adygheis, Abazins, Nogais, Ossetians, Ingushes, Chechens and Svans. It is a compilation based on literary sources and on the testimony of well-informed persons such as Lieutenant-Colonel Steder, who was senior quartermaster on the Caucasian Line in the 1790's." - T. Trilati, p. 121 in LITERATURE ON OSSETIA AND THE OSSETIANS [CAUCASIAN REVIEW, Vol. 1, No. 6, MUNICH, 1958, PP. 107-126]}
  40. BESCHREIBUNG ALLER NATIONEN DES RUSSISCHEN REICHES ETC. JOHANN GOTTLIEB GEORGI. St. PETERSBURG, 1776-1780. 4 Vols.
  41. BESCHREIBUNG DER KAUKASISCHEN LAENDER, HRGG. VON J. KLAPROTH. I. A. GUELDENSTEDT. BERLIN, 1834.
  42. BESCHREIBUNG DES KAUKASUS. Dr. REINEGGS. {TRANSLATION OF REINEGGS' WORKS IN A GENERAL, HISTORICAL, AND TOPOGRAPHICAL DESCRIPTION OF MOUNT CAUCASUS. LONDON, 1807 BY CHARLES WILKINSON}
  43. BILDER AUS DEM KAUKASUS. C. VON HAHN. LEIPZIG.
  44. BLACK SEA: THE BIRTHPLACE OF CIVILISATION AND BARBARISM. NEAL ASCHERSON. LONDON: JONATHAN CAPE, 1995; VINTAGE, 1996, NEW YORK: HILL AND WANG, 1996. (306 PAGES). {JOINT WINNER OF THE 1995 SALTIRE SCOTTISH BOOK OF THE YEAR AWARD. "BLACK SEA IS A BOOK ABOUT A GREAT INLAND SEA, AND ABOUT EUROPEAN HISTORY FROM THE TIME OF HERODOTUS TO THE FALL OF COMMUNISM AND THE NEW WORLD ORDER. IT IS FULL OF TRAGIC DISAPPEARANCES AND UNFORGETTABLE STORIES." "HISTORY INTERSPERSED WITH PERSONAL REMINISCENCES. A MARVELLOUS BBOK." IN CHAPTER TEN THERE IS AN ACCOUNT OF THE 1992-3 ABKHAZ-GEORGIAN WAR, WHICH RESULTED IN DE FACTO INDEPENDENCE FOR ABKHAZIA. NEAL ASCHERSON WAS BORN IN EDINBURGH. HE REPORTED FROM ASIA, AFRICA AND CENTRAL EUROPE FOR THE OBSERVER, WHERE HE LATER BEGAN THE CELEBRATED WEEKLY COLUMN THAT NOW APPEARS IN THE INDEPENDENT ON SUNDAY. HE WAS JOURNALIST OF THE YEAR IN 1986. REVIEWED BY ANTHONY HYMAN IN CENTRAL ASIAN SURVEY, Vol. 15, No. 1, 1996, P. 135 ff., AND BY DIANNE E. FARRELL IN SLAVIC REVIEW, Vol. 55, No. 2, SUMMER 1996, P. 477}
  45. BRUXELLE OU LE CAUCASE? [JEUNE AFRIQUE (ISSN 0021-6089), No. 1792, 1995, P. 28 ff.], M. BUFFARD.
  46. CAPTIVITY. E. A. VERDEREVSKY, 1857.
  47. CASUALS IN THE CAUCASUS. THE DIARY OF A SPORTING HOLIDAY. AGNES HERBERT. LONDON: JOHN LANE, THE BODLEY HEAD. NEW YORK: JOHN LANE COMPANY MCMXII. 1912. (331 PAGES). {WITH 22 ILLUSTRATIONS}
  48. CAUCASE. ANDRE BEUCLER. Ed. EMILE-PAUL, PARIS, 1931.
  49. CAUCASE. ARMAND GASPARD. LAUSANNE, 1969.
  50. CAUCASIA. IN ENCYCLOPEDIA BRITANNICA.
  51. CAUCASIA. F. GILLE, 1859.
  52. CAUCASIA: A HANDBOOK. LONDON, 1920. IN THE FOREIGN OFFICE, THE HISTORICAL SECTION.
  53. CAUCASIAN JOURNEY. NEGLEY FARSON, 1951; LONDON: EVANS BROTHERS LTD, 1952; LONDON: TRAVEL BOOK CLUB, 1952. (162 PAGES. ASIN: 0140095810). / UNI. MAN. {A REPRINT OF THIS BOOK IS AVAILABLE UNDER THE TITLE THE LOST WORLD OF THE CAUCASUS}
  54. CAUCASIAN MOUNTAIN FOLK: OLD WAYS AND NEW. AKHMET PSHEMAKHOVICH MALSAGOV. MOSCOW: NOVOSTI PRESS AGENCY PUBLISHING HOUSE, 1984. (TRANSLATED BY PETER TEMPEST).
  55. CAUCASIANS ONLY. C. G. VOSE. UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA PRESS, 1969.
  56. Caucasian Territory at the End of the Eighteenth Century: A Map [CAUCASIAN REVIEW, MUNICH (CRM), No. 2, 1956, P. 156].
  57. CAUCASUS WORLD TRAVEL MAP.
  58. CERKES. C[HANTAL] QUELQUEJAY, DAVID AYALON AND H. INALCIK. IN ENCYCLOPEDIA OF ISLAM, 1971 EDITION.
  59. CHANTS X ET XI DE L'ODYSSEE. HOMERE (900 B.C.).
  60. CIRCASSIA [CENTRAL ASIAN SURVEY, Vol. 14, No. 1, (March) 1995, pp. 107-25], RIEKS SMEETS.
  61. CIRCASSIA. JOHN CHARDIN.
  62. CIRCASSIA: DESCRIPTION AND TRAVEL. GEORGE PAULETT CAMERON. LONDON: H. COLBURN, 1845.
  63. CIRCASSIAN. KADIR NATHO.
  64. CIRCASSIANS: A TOUR TO THE CAUCASUS. GEORGE LEIGHTON DITSON (1812-1894). LONDON: T. C. NEWBY, NEW YORK: STRINGER-TOWNSHEND, 1850. {THE AUTHOR, AN AMERICAN, VISITED THE CAUCASUS IN 1848. HIS SYMPATHIES WERE WHOLY WITH THE RUSSIANS. HE DEDICATED HIS PUBLISHED ACCOUNT OF HIS TRAVELS TO PRINCE MICHAEL VORONTSOV, THEN IN HIS FOURTH YEAR AS VICEROY OF THE CAUCASUS. ALTHOUGH HE HAD NO CONTACT WITH INDEPENDENT CIRCASSIANS, AND MOST OF HIS BOOK DEALS WITH THE CRIMEA, GEORGIA AND REPORTS OF SHAMIL'S STRUGGLE, DITSON'S CHOICE OF TITLE DEMONSTRATES THE EXTENT TO WHICH THE CIRCASSIANS AS A PEOPLE HAD COME TO SYMBOLISE CAUCASIAN RESISTANCE TO THE RUSSIANS. THE BOOK CONFIRMS THE EXISTENCE OF A STALEMATE IN THE WESTERN CAUCASUS AT THIS TIME. PRINCE KOCHUBEY IS CITED THUS: THESE CIRCASSIANS ARE JUST LIKE YOUR AMERICAN INDIANS -- AS UNTAMABLE AND UNCIVILIZED .. AND, OWING TO THEIR NATURAL ENERGY OF CHARACTER, EXTERMINATION ONLY WOULD KEEP THEM QUIET, OR ... IF THEY CAME UNDER RUSSIAN RULE, THE ONLY SAFE POLICY WOULD BE TO EMPLOY THEIR WILD AND WARLIKE TASTES AGAINST OTHERS}
  65. CIRCASSIANS. JOHN COLARUSSO. IN THE CULTURES OF THE SOVIET UNION. PAUL FRIEDRICH (Ed.), IN THE SERIES ENCYCLOPEDIA OF WORLD CULTURES. DAVID LEVINSON (Ed.). NEW HAVEN, CONNECTICUT: HUMAN RELATION AREA FILES, Inc.
  66. CIRCASSIANS, NORTHERN CAUCASIANS. R. TRAKHO. MUNICH, 1956. / WARDROP COLLECTION.
  67. CIRCASSIA: OR A TOUR TO THE CAUCASUS. GEORGE LEIGHTON DITSON (1812-1894). LIBRARY OF AMERICAN CIVILIZATION. LAC 11539. NEW YORK: STRINGERT AND TOWNSEND, 1850. (453 PAGES).
  68. CIRCASSIE. S. E. ROLLAND, 1862. (747 PAGES).
  69. CRIMEE, CIRCASSIE ET GEORGIE. CESAR FAMIN. {THE CRIMEA, CIRCASSIA AND GEORGIA}
  70. DAGESTAN: LAND AND PEOPLE ON THE LAND [THE VASH VIBOR, No. 3, 1994], VLADIMIR BOBROVNIKOV. {THE WRITER IS A FELLOW OF THE INSTITUTE OF ORIENTAL STUDIES AT THE RUSSIAN ACADEMY OF SCIENCES}
  71. DAS ASIATISCHE RUSSLAND. HERMANN ROSKOSCHNY. LEIPZIG. 2 Vol.
  72. DE ADMINISTRANDO IMPERIO. CONSTANTINUS PORPHYR. (952 A.D.). LUGD. BAT., ELZEVIRI, 1611.
  73. DE LA REUNION DE LA MER CASPIENNE A LA MER NOIRE PAR M. LE DOCTEUR BERGSTRAESSER, CONSEILLER D'ETAT ET DIRECTEUR DES SALINES DU GOUVERNEMENT D'ASTRAKHAN. PARIS: ARTHUS BERTRAND, 1899. In-8 AVEC GRANDE CARTE.
  74. DE MURO CAUCASICO, P. 430, DES COMMENTAIRES DE L'ACADEMIE DE SAINT-PETERSBOURG, T. I. BOYER.
  75. DE NOORD-KAUKASUS [KOLOKOLCHIK 4, 1994, pp. 13-23], RIEKS SMEETS.
  76. DER KAUKASUS. ESSAD BEY, 1930.
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  78. DER KAUKASUS, PHYSISCH-GEOGRAPHISCH, STATISTISCH, ETNOGRAPHISCH, UND STRATEGISCH. N. DANILEWSKI. LEIPZIG, 1847. {Some sources give R. Danilevsky. "A description of the peoples of the Northwest and Central Caucasus and Daghestan. Contains numerous errors, which gave rise to much criticism at the time." - T. Trilati, p. 113 in LITERATURE ON OSSETIA AND THE OSSETIANS [CAUCASIAN REVIEW, Vol. 1, No. 6, MUNICH, 1958, pp. 107-26]}
  79. DER KAUKASUS. Russlands offene Wunde. Neef, Christian. Hg. Wilhelm Sternburg. Berlin: Aufbau Taschenbuch Verlag, 1997. (127 S., 12 DM.)
  80. DER KAUKASUS UND SEINE VOLKER. R. VON ERCKERT. LEIPZIG, 1887 (1888).
  81. DER NORDFUS DES DAGESTAN UND DAS VORLAGERNDE TIEFLAND BIS ZUR KUMA: VORLAUFIGER BERICHT UBER DIE IM SOMMER 1894 AUSGEFUHRTEN REISEN. GUSTAV RADDE UND E. KOENIG. GOTHA: PERTHES, 1895. (65 S.). {ERGANZUNGSHEFT ... ZU "PETERMANNS MITTEILUNGEN"; 117. (WEITERE) EINTRAGE PERSONENNAMEN: KOENIG, E.}
  82. DESCRIPTION DU CAUCASE ET DES PAYS AVOISINANT LA MER NOIRE ET LA MER CASPIENNE, PAR MASSOUDI, TRADUIT DANS LE MAGASIN ASIATIQUE DE KLAPROTH. PARIS, 1835, P. 258. {ACCOUNT OF MASSOUDI'S TRAVELS IN THE CAUCASUS CIRCA 943 A. D.}
  83. DESCRIPTION OF MOUNT CAUCASUS. CHARLES WILKINSON. LONDON, 1807. {SEE A GENERAL, HISTORICAL, ETC. ABOVE}
  84. DE SITU ORBIS. STRABO (29 A.D.). BASIL, 1549.
  85. DES PEUPLES DU CAUCASE ET DES PAYS AU NORD DE LA MER NOIRE ET DE LA MER CASPIENNE AU X SIECLE, OU VOYAGE D'ABOU-EL-CASSIM. BARON ABRAHAM KONSTANTIN MOURADGEA D'HOSSON. PARIS, 1828. / WARDROP COLLECTION.
  86. DIE ABCHASEN [GLOBUS, LXVI, pp. 17, 54, 73. BRAUNSCHWEIG, 1894], N. VON SEIDLITZ.
  87. DIE BERGOSSEN UND IHR LAND. GEORG NIORADZE. BERLIN, 1923.
  88. DIE EISZEITLICHEN GLETSCHER OSSETIENS (ZENTRALER KAUKASUS). ANATOLY L. VON REINHARD. STUTTGART: J. ENGELHORNS NACHF., 1931.
  89. DIE KAUKASISCHEN LAENDER UND ARMENIEN IN REISESCHILDERUNGEN VON GURZEN. C. KOCH. LEIPZIG, 1855; 2nd Edition, 1865; 3rd Edition, 1867.
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  91. DIE TSCHETSCHENEN. FORSCHUNGEN ZUR VOLKERKUNDE DER NORDOSTLICHEN KAUKAZUSAUF GRUND VON REISEN IN DEN JAHREN 1918-20 UND 1927-8. BRUNO PLAETSCHKE. HAMBURG, 1929. {THE CHECHENS. WITH 68 PLATES, A MAP AND 24 PHOTOGRAPHS. AN ARABIC TRANSLATION BY Dr. AHMAD R. ZANDAQI IS AVAILABLE, PUBLISHED BY HAMEED YUNIS, AMMAN-JORDAN}
  92. DIE VOLKER DAS KAUKASUS [ASIEN-BERICHTE, V, 1944], R[OBERT] BLEICHSTEINER.
  93. DIE VOLKER DES KAUKASUS NACH DEN BERICHTEN DER REISEBESCHREIBER NEBST EIN ANHANG ZUR GESCHICHTE DES KAUKASUS, V. C. ROMMEL, AVEC UNE CARTE DES PEUPLES DU CAUCASE. WEIMAR, 1808. AUSDEM ARCHIV FUR ETHNOGRAPHIE UND LINGUISTIK BESONDERS ABGEDRUCHT (1 BANDS, St.).
  94. DIE VOLKER DES KAUKASUS UND IHRE FREIHEITSKAMPFE GEGEN DIE RUSSEN. FRIEDRICH BODENSTEDT. FRANKFURT/MAIN: VERLAG LIZIUS, 1849; PARIS, 1859.
  95. DIE VORHALLE EUROAPISCHER VOLKER-GESCHICHTEN VOR HERODOTUS, UM DEN KAUKASUS UND AN DEN GESTADEN DES PONTUS, V. CARL RITTER. BERLIN, 1820.
  96. Dr. JACOB REINEGGS, ALLGEMEINE HISTORICHE, TOPOGRAPHISCHE BESCHREIBUNG DES KAUKASUS, HERAUSG. VON FR. ENOCH SCHRODER. S.-PETERSBOURG UND GOTHA, 1796. TWO VOLUMES. {SEE A GENERAL, HISTORICAL, ETC. ABOVE FOR AN ENGLISH TRANSLATION}
  97. Dr J.-A. GULDENSTADT'S, BESCHREIBUNG DER KAUKASISCHEN LANDER, VON J. KLAPROTH, BERLIN, 1834. 1 Vol. in-8.
  98. DU CAUCASE AUX MONTS ALAI (TRANSCASPIE, BOUKHARIE, FERGANAH). JULES LECLERQ. PARIS: PLON, 1890.
  99. DU DANUBE AU CAUCASE. VOYAGES ET LITTERATURE. X. MARNIER. PARIS, 1854.
  100. DURCH DEN KAUKASUS ZUR VOLGA. FRIDTJOF NANSEN, 1932. {ENGLISH TRANSLATION THROUGH THE CAUCASUS TO THE VOLGA BELOW. THE ORIGINAL IS IN NORWEGIAN}
  101. EGYPT FOR THE EGYPTIANS. ALEXANDER SCHOLCH. / UNI MAN. {ACCOUNT OF ROLE OF CIRCASSIANS IN THE DISTURBANCES OF 1882. VERY INTERESTING}
  102. EIN OPFERFEST BEI DEN ADIGHE IM KAUKASUS [GLOBUS, BAND 2, pp. 378-80. HILDBURGSHAUSEN, 1862], THEODOR LAPINSKI.
  103. EN CAUCASE. A. E. MURCH. / UNI. MAN.
  104. ENCORE SUR LES CONTEMPORAINS, LEURS OEUVRES ET LEURS MOEURS. V. E. P CHASLES. ROLLIN Vol. V, P 601. {INTERESTING BIT ABOUT CIRCASSIA IN WAR}
  105. EN GEORGIE. BARON J. DE BAYE. EXTRAIT DE LA REVUE DE GEOGRAPHIE. LIBRAIRIE NILSSON, PARIS, 1898.
  106. ERSTER VERSUCH EINER ERKLARUNG KAUKASISCHER NAMEN. C. VON HAHN. STUTTGART, 1910.
  107. ESQUISSES CIRCASSIENNES - ESQUISSES SUR LE CAUCASE. ALEXANDER MARLINSKY. PARIS, 1854.
  108. ETRANGE CAUCASE -- RECITS ET COUTUMES. ALEXANDRE GRIGORIANTZ. FAYARD, 1978.
  109. ETUDE GEOGRAPHIQUE SUR LE CAUCASE PAR STRABON [NOUVELLES ANNALES DES VOYAGES, PARIS, Vol. 132], VIVIEN SAINT-MARTIN.
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  111. EXCURSION DANS LE CAUCASE, DE LA MER NOIRE A LA MER CASPIENNE. L'IMERETHIE,PROVINCE DU CAUCASE. CARLA SERENA. PARIS: LE TOUR DU MONDE, 1880.
  112. FIRE AND SWORD IN THE CAUCASUS. LUIGI VILLARI, 1906. (480 PAGES).
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  114. GARNERED SHEAVES. SIR J. G. FRAZER. [Essays, addresses, etc.] {RELATES HOW CIRCASSIANS USED TO TREAT THE ILL BY KEEPING HIM AWAKE}
  115. GEOGR. CL. PTOLEMEI (211 A.D.). Ed. MERCAT.
  116. GEOGRAPHIA, TABULA XVIII, EXHIBENS ARMENIAM, ARRAN ET AZEIRBEIGAN. ABULFEDAE (1200 A.D.). BUSCHING'S MAGAZ., 5ter THEIL, P. 305. {ABULFEDA'S ACCOUNT OF THE CAUCASUS}
  117. GEOGRAPHIE. ABOULFEDA. TR. FR. PAR REINAUD, PARIS, 1848-1883.
  118. GEOGRAPHIE. SCYMNUS DE CHIO (92 B.C.). Ed. HUDSON, II, P. 46.
  119. GEOGRAPHIE. STRABON. TRAD. FR. DE TARDIEU, T. II, PARIS, 1873.
  120. GEOGRAPHIE DE MOISE DE COREANE. Ps.-MOSES OF KHORENE. Ed. A. SOUKRY, VENICE, 1881.
  121. GEOGRAPHISCHE MITTHEILUNGEN (GOTHA), 26, 1880. A. PETERMANN (Ed.).
  122. GEOGRAPHY. STRABO. CAMBRIDGE, MASSACHUSETTS AND LONDON, 1983.
  123. GEOGRAPHY OF BLACK SEA COAST [SCOTTISH GEOGRAPHICAL MAGAZINE, V. 20, PP. 285-305]. / UNI. MAN.
  124. GEOGRAPHY OF THE USSR: A REGIONAL SURVEY. THEODORE SHABAD. NEW YORK: COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY PRESS, 1951.
  125. GEORGIA, ARMENIA, AND AZERBAIJAN. ELIZABETH ROBERTS. BROOKFIELD, CONNECTICT: MILLBROOK PRESS, 1992.
  126. GEORGIA: IN THE MOUNTAINS OF POETRY. PETER NASMYTH. IN THE SERIES: CAUCASUS WORLD. SERIES EDITOR: NICHOLAS AWDE. RICHMOND, SURREY, ENGLAND: CURZON PRESS, ?
  127. GEORGIE, TERRE GENEREUSE. G. DJAVAKHICHVILI. PARIS: C.D.L.P., 1960.
  128. GESCHICHTE DER ORIENTALISCHEN VOLKER RUSSLANDS BIS 1917. E. SARKISYANZ. MUNCHEN, 1961.
  129. GESCHICHTE DER STAATEN VON GEORGIEN, ENTWORFEN VON GEORG. AUG. VON BREITENBAUCH, 1788.
  130. GIORGIO INTERIANO, GENOVESE A M. ALDO MANUTIO ROMANO, DELLA VITA DE ZYCHI CHIAMATI CIRCASSI. RAMUSIO, RACCOLTA DI VIAGGI, t. II, P. 197. VENETIA, 1583.{ACCOUNT OF INTERIANO'S TRAVELS IN CIRCASSIA IN 1551 A.D.}
  131. GUEST OF THE SOVIETS. JOYCE DUNSHEATH. LONDON, 1959. {MOUNTAINEERING AND EXPLORATION OF THE CAUCASUS}
  132. HEROES: THE ARGONAUTS. KINGSLEY. {ALSO ENTERED UNDER THE ARGONAUTS BELOW. "AND AT DAY-DAWN THEY LOOKED EASTWARD, AND MIDWAY BETWEEN THE SEA AND THE SKY THEY SAW WHITE SNOW-PEAKS HANGING, GLITTERING SHARP AND BRIGHT ABOVE THE CLOUDS. AND THEY KNEW THAT THEY WERE COME TO THE CAUCASUS AT THE END OF ALL THE EARTH: CAUCASUS THE HIGHEST OF ALL MOUNTAINS, THE FATHER OF THE RIVERS OF THE EAST. ON HIS PEAK IS CHAINED THE TITAN, WHILE A VULTURE TEARS HIS HEART; AND AT HIS FEET ARE PILED DARK FORESTS ROUND THE MAGIC COLCHIAN LAND"}
  133. HIGHLANDERS; TRAVELS IN THE CAUCASUS. YO'AV KARNY. FARRAR STRAUS GIROUX, SEPTEMBER 1999. (320 pages. Hardcover, ISBN: 0374226024)
  134. HIST. NATURALIS. PLINII (74 A.D.). Ed. DALECAMPII, 1606.
  135. HISTORICAL-GEOGRAPHIC ASPECTS OF THE DEVELOPMENT AND SETTLEMENT OF THE BLACK SEA COAST OF THE CAUCASUS [SOVIET GEOGRAPHY, Vol. 15, No. 3, MARCH 1974, PP. 156-63], Iu. T. PYSHNOVA.
  136. HOPE AGAINST HOPE, A MEMOIR. NADEZHDA MANDELSTAM. LONDON: COLLINS HARVILL, 1989. (TRANSLATED BY MAX HAYWARD). {A BIT ON ABKHAZIA ON PP. 323-4}
  137. I COME FROM BEHIND KAF MOUNTAIN; THE SPIRITUAL AUTOBIOGRAPHY OF MURAT YAGAN. VERNON, BRITISH COLUMBIA, CANADA: KEBZEH PUBLICATIONS, 1997. (177 PAGES). {"I WAS FASCINATED BY MURAT YAGAN'S AUTO BIOGRAPHY, "I COME FROM BEHIND KAF MOUNTAIN," IT RELATES HIS INITIATION INTO THE WORLD OF SUFISM THROUGH EQUESTRIAN TRAINING IN A REMOTE AND MOUNTAINOUS PART OF THE CAUCASUS." LOREENA McKENNITT'S COMMENT ON NIGHT RIDE ACROSS THE CAUCASUS IN THE BOOK OF SECRETS}
  138. IM KAUKASUS (BERGBESTEIGUNGEN UND REISEERLEBNISSE IM SOMMER 1914). CARL [VON] EGGER. BASEL: FROBENIUS, 1915. (144 PAGES). {Mountaineering in the Caucasus. With 78 illustrations and two panoramic views of the Caucasus Range}
  139. IM KAUKASUS. PRINCE ALBERT DE PRUSSE, 1862. {LES PRINCES ABAZES LOOU DESCENDENT D'UN CROISE PRUSSIEN, LE BARON LOE}
  140. IMPERIUM. RYSZARD KAPUSCINSKI. NEW YORK: KNOPF, 1994. {"Kapuscinski is a Polish journalist who contrasts his former travels in the U.S.S.R. with his current travels in the same lands today, Abkhazia included," - JonArno Lawson (Canadian poet)}
  141. IMPRESSIONS DE VOYAGE, LE CAUCASE. ALEXANDRE DUMAS. PARIS: CALMANN-LEVY, EDITEURS. (290 pages).
  142. INDUSTRIE ET ECONOMIE DES ABAZES, PAR PAUL GUIBAL, COURRIER DE LA NOUVELLE-RUSSIE, 25 DECEMBRE 1831, 6 JANVIER 1832. No. 103.
  143. IN THE LAND OF THE GOLDEN FLEECE: THROUGH INDEPENDENT MENCHEVIST GEORGIA. ODETTE KEUN. LONDON: JOHN LANE, 1924. {THIS IS A TRANSLATION OF FRENCH ORIGINAL AU PAYS DE LA TOISON D'OR ABOVE}
  144. INTRODUCTION TO THE GEORGIAN REPUBLIC. ROGER ROSEN. HONG KONG: ODYSSEY, THE GUIDEBOOK COMPANY LTD, 1991.
  145. JOURNAL DU VOYAGE DE CH. J. CHARDIN, EN PERSE ET AUX INDES ORIENTALES PAR LA MER-NOIRE ET LA COLCHIDE. LONDRES, 1686, in-folio. N'A QU'UN PREMIER VOLUME. PARIS, 1883.{ACCOUNT OF CHARDIN'S VOYAGES MADE IN 1671-2 A.D.}
  146. JOURNAL OF A RESIDENCE IN CIRCASSIA DURING THE YEARS 1837, 1838 AND 1839. JAMES STANISLAUS BELL. LONDON: EDWARD MOXON, 1840. (TWO VOLUMES. Vol. 1: XXIV, 453 PAGES. Vol. 2: VIII, 488 PAGES). / UNI. MAN. {THE AUTHOR IS A BRITISH MERCHANT. HE DESCRIBES THE PEOPLE AND TRADE PROSPECTS WITH APPENDIX ON THE IMPACT OF RUSSIAN CONTROL OF THE CIRCASSIANS.  IT IS THE MOST COMPREHENSIVE FIRST-HAND ACCOUNT OF THE RUSSO-CIRCASSIAN WARS IN THE LATTER PART OF THE 1830s. "IN 1837 A CIRCASSIAN PRINCE POINTED OUT THE SACRED SPOT (AS THEY JUSTLY ESTEEM IT) WHERE DAUD BEY [DAVID URQUHART] HAD HELD (JUST THREE YEARS AGO [IN 1834]) HIS MEETING WITH THE CHIEFTAINS OF THIS NEIGHBOURHOOD, AND FIRST INSPIRED THEM WITH THE IDEA OF COMBINING THEMSELVES WITH THE OTHER INHABITANTS OF THE MOUNTAIN PROVINCES AS A NATION, UNDER ONE GOVERNMENT AND STANDARD." BELL CHARTERED A VESSEL, THE VIXEN, WHICH WAS CAPTURED LATE IN 1836 BY THE RUSSIANS WHEN IT WAS TRYING TO RUN THEIR BLOCKADE OF THE CIRCASSIAN COAST WITH A CARGO OF SALT. HE REMAINED ACTIVE IN THE CIRCASSIAN CAUSE UNTIL 1840. HE STAYED IN CIRCASSIA FOR LONG PERIODS DURING 1837-9, ACCOMPANYING THE CIRCASSIANS ON RAIDS BEHIND THE RUSSIAN LINES. THERE IS AN ABSTRACT OF TREATIES BETWEEN RUSSIA AND TURKEY RELATING TO CIRCASSIA, PP. 460-81 OF THE APPENDIX. THE FOLLOWING ENTRY IS A FRENCH TRANSLATION. THERE ARE ALSO GERMAN AND DANISH TRANSLATIONS}
  147. JOURNAL D'UNE RESIDENCE EN CIRCASSIE PENDANT LES ANNEES 1837-1839. JAMES STANISLAUS BELL. PARIS: ARTHUS BERTRAND, LIBRAIRE, 1841. TWO VOLUMES. {TRANSLATED BY LOUIS VIVIEN. TRADUIT DE L'ANGLAIS, AUGMENTE D'UNE INTRODUCTION HISTORIQUE ET GEOGRAPHIQUE, ET DE NOTES TIREES D'OUVRAGES RECENTS ET NON TRADUITS. ACCOMPAGNES DE PLUSIEURS PLANCHES ET CARTE. A BIBLIOGRAPHY IS PROVIDED IN THE PREFACE}
  148. JOURNEY. SIR HENRY NORMAN. / UNI. MAN.
  149. JOURNEY IN THE CAUCASUS, PERSIA AND TURKEY IN ASIA. MAX GUIDO FRANZ, FREIHERR VON THIELMAN. LONDON: JOHN MURRAY, 1875. TWO VOLUMES. / UNI. MAN. {This is a translation from originalSTREIFZUGE IM KAUKASUS, IN PERSIEN UND IN DER ASIATISCHEN TURKEI(see below), by Charles Heneage}
  150. ? JOURNEY. ADVENTURES IN CIRCASSIA. GEORGE POULETT CAMERON.
  151. JOURNEY IN THE CAUCASUS, THE ASCENT OF KASBEK AND ELBRUZ [ROYAL GEOGRAPHICAL SOCIETY JOURNAL, LONDON, 8. V. 39, 1869, pp. 50-77], DOUGLAS W. FRESHFIELD.
  152. JOURNEY TO ARMENIA. CRITICAL PROSE AND LETTERS. OSIP MANDELSTAM. EDITED BY JANE G. HARRIS. ANN ARBOR, MICHIGAN: ARDIS PUBLISHERS, 1990. (Translated by Jane G. Harris and Constance Link). {"In the 1930's the Russian poet Osip Mandelstam travelled to Armenia and he wrote a long essay about it. One section of it deals with Abkhazia - pp. 360-2 and 384-8" - JonArno Lawson (Canadian poet)}
  153. KAUKASIEN. I. ERHORN. BERLIN, 1942.
  154. KAUKASISCHE VOLKER. ROBERT BLEICHSTEINER. IN REALLEX. OF EBERT. {"The Circassians, Mingrelians, Svans and Gourians are Nordic Indo-Europeans who sojourned in the Caucasus during their migration"}
  155. KAUKASUS. REISEN UND FORSCHUNGEN IM KAUKASISCHEN HOCHGEBIRGE. MORIZ VON DECHY. BERLIN. 2 Volumes.
  156. KAUKAZ. SKIC GEOGRAFICZNO-OPISOWY. WALERIAN TEWZADZE. WARSAW, 1933.
  157. KHINALUG. RONALD WIXMAN. ENCYCLOPEDIA OF ISLAM, 3rd Edition. {"One of the North-Eastern (NE) Caucasian peoples. Self-designation: Kättitturdur. Russian designation: Khinalugi. According to the 1926 Russian census, there were 105 ethnic Khinalug, and 1,540 spoke the language. The Khinalug are located in the Shakhdag area, aul Khinalug on the upper right arm of the Kudialchai (rayon Konakhkend, Azerbaidzhan). Khinalug (Kättid mits) is one of the six main divisions of NE Caucasian, the others being Avar-Andi-Dido, Lak-Dargwa, Samurian, Udi, and Veinakh. It is not written, Azeri being used as the literary language. The traditional economy consists of cattle-breeding. The Khinalug are Sunni Muslims." - PEOPLES AND LANGUAGES OF THE CAUCASUS: A SYNOPSIS. BERNARD GEIGER, TIBOR HALASI-KUN, AERT H. KUIPERS AND KARL H. MENGES. JANUA LINGUARUM SERIES, V, No. 6. COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY. THE HAGUE: MOUTON & CO., 1959}
  158. KHUNZAL. RONALD WIXMAN. ENCYCLOPEDIA OF ISLAM, 3rd Edition. {"One of the North-Eastern (NE) Caucasian peoples. Self-designation: (R:) Khunzami. Russian designations: Khunzaly, Gun(d)zaly, Gunzebi, Gunzibtsy, Enzebi, Nakhada. According to the 1926 Russian census, there were 106 ethnic Khunzal, and 129 spoke the language. The Khinalug are located in auls Khunzib and Garbutl (with former Nakhada) (rayon Tliarata, Dagestan). Khunzal forms with Khvarshi, Dido, Kapucha, and Ginukh, the Dido sub-group of the Avaro-Ando-Dido group of the NE Caucasian languages. Khunzal, Kapucha and Ginukh are now regarded as dialects of the same language. It is not written, Avar being used as the literary language. The traditional economy consists of cattle-breeding, agriculture and crafts. The Khunzal are Sunni Muslims." - PEOPLES AND LANGUAGES OF THE CAUCASUS: A SYNOPSIS. BERNARD GEIGER, TIBOR HALASI-KUN, AERT H. KUIPERS AND KARL H. MENGES. JANUA LINGUARUM SERIES, V, No. 6. COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY. THE HAGUE: MOUTON & CO., 1959}
  159. KHVARSI. RONALD WIXMAN. ENCYCLOPEDIA OF ISLAM, 3rd Edition. {"One of the North-Eastern (NE) Caucasian peoples. Self-designation: Kedaes hikwa; (R:) Khuani, Khvarshal. Russian designations: Khvarshiny, Khvarshintsy. According to the 1926 Russian census, there were 1,019 ethnic Khvarshi, and 1,018 spoke the language. The Khvarshi live in rayon Vedeno, Dagestan, to which they were removed in 1944. Formerly they are located on a southern tributary of the Andiiskoe Koisu, south west of the Bagulal area (auls Khvarshi, Inkhokari, etc., Dagestan). Khvarshi (Kedaes mits, Inkhies mits, depending on village) forms with Khunzal, Dido, Kapucha, and Ginukh, the Dido sub-group of the Avaro-Ando-Dido group of the NE Caucasian languages. It is not written, Avar being used as the literary language. The traditional economy consists mainly of cattle-breeding and agriculture. The Khvarshi are Sunni Muslims." - PEOPLES AND LANGUAGES OF THE CAUCASUS: A SYNOPSIS. BERNARD GEIGER, TIBOR HALASI-KUN, AERT H. KUIPERS AND KARL H. MENGES. JANUA LINGUARUM SERIES, V, No. 6. COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY. THE HAGUE: MOUTON & CO., 1959}
  160. KRIZ. RONALD WIXMAN. ENCYCLOPEDIA OF ISLAM, 3rd Edition. {"One of the North-Eastern (NE) Caucasian peoples. Self-designation: There is no general appellation. Russian designation: Kryzy. They form one people with the Dzhek and Khaput. According to the 1926 Russian census, there were 5!? ethnic Kryz, and 4,348 spoke the generic language, Dzhek. The Kryz live in the village Kryz in the Mt. Shakhdag area, in the basin of the upper right arm of the Kudialchai (Konakhkend rayon, Azerbaidzhan). The Kryz language is a subdivision of Dzhek, which forms with Lezghian, Agul, Tsakhur, Tabasaran, Budukh, and Rutul, the Samurian subdivision of the NE Caucasian languages. It is not written, Azeri being used as the literary language. The traditional economy consists of cattle-breeding, agriculture and horticulture. The Kryz are Sunni Muslims." - PEOPLES AND LANGUAGES OF THE CAUCASUS: A SYNOPSIS. BERNARD GEIGER, TIBOR HALASI-KUN, AERT H. KUIPERS AND KARL H. MENGES. JANUA LINGUARUM SERIES, V, No. 6. COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY. THE HAGUE: MOUTON & CO., 1959}
  161. KUBACHI. RONALD WIXMAN. ENCYCLOPEDIA OF ISLAM, 3rd Edition. {"One of the North-Eastern (NE) Caucasian peoples. Self-designation: Ughbug; (R:) Ogbuk. Russian designation: Kubachintsy. According to the 1926 Russian census, there were 2,322 ethnic Kubachi, and 2,470 spoke the language. The Kubachi live in aul Kubachi in rayon Dakhadaev, Dagestan. The Kubachi language (Ughbughan hub) forms with the closely related Dargwa and Kaitak the Dargwa sub-group of the Lak-Dargwa group of the NE Caucasian languages. It is now regarded as a Dargwa dialect, Aqusha Dargwa being used as the literary language. The traditional economy consists of cattle-breeding, goldsmithing, incrustation work and weapon-making. The Kubachi are Sunni Muslims." - PEOPLES AND LANGUAGES OF THE CAUCASUS: A SYNOPSIS. BERNARD GEIGER, TIBOR HALASI-KUN, AERT H. KUIPERS AND KARL H. MENGES. JANUA LINGUARUM SERIES, V, No. 6. COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY. THE HAGUE: MOUTON & CO., 1959}
  162. LA COTE D'AZURE RUSSE (RIVIERA DU CAUCASE). VOYAGE EN RUSSIE MERIDIONALE, AU CAUCASE OCCIDENTAL ET EN TRANSCAUCASIE (MISSION DU GOUVERNEMENT RUSSE, 1903). E. A. MARTEL. PARIS: LIBRAIRIE CH. DELAGRAVE. (358 pages). {Avec 388 gravures, 34 plans et coupes et 1 carte en couleurs}
  163. LA GEORGIE. S. AND N. GOUGOUCHVILI AND D. AND O. ZOURABICHVILI. PARIS: PRESSES UNIVERSITAIRES DE FRANCE, COLLECTION "QUE SAIS-JE?", 1983.
  164. LAK. RONALD WIXMAN. ENCYCLOPEDIA OF ISLAM, 3rd Edition. {"One of the North-Eastern (NE) Caucasian peoples. Self-designation: Lak, Lakuchu. Russian designations: Laki, Laktsy, Kazikumukhtsy. Other designations: (Avar:) Tumaw, pl. Tumal; (Lezgian:) Yakholshu. According to the 1926 Russian census, there were 40,380 ethnic Lak, and 40,336 spoke the language. In 1955, the number of Lak went well over 55,000 (estimate, Zhirkov). The Lak live in the basin of the upper Tleuserakh, Khatar, and Kazikumukhskoe Koisu (rayons Lak and Kula, separate villages in rayons Tsudakhar, Akusha, Rutul, Kurakh, Charoda, and Dakhadaev). Since 1944 also in the foothills of the Andi ridge (Novo-Lak rayon, Dagestan). The Lak language (Laku maz) forms with the Dargwa group of languages the Lak-Dargwa subdivision of the NE Caucasian languages, which include also Veinakh, Avaro-Ando-Dido, Samurian, Khinalug, and Udi. Lak has the status of a literary language in Dagestan; the written language is based on the Kumukh dialect. The traditional economy consists of cattle-breeding, production of leather goods and pottery, metal-work (weapons), and agriculture. The Lak are Sunni Muslims." - PEOPLES AND LANGUAGES OF THE CAUCASUS: A SYNOPSIS. BERNARD GEIGER, TIBOR HALASI-KUN, AERT H. KUIPERS AND KARL H. MENGES. JANUA LINGUARUM SERIES, V, No. 6. COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY. THE HAGUE: MOUTON & CO., 1959}
  165. LA MINGRELIE. JULES MOURIER. PARIS, 1883.
  166. LA RUSSIE DANS L'ASIE MINEURE. F. FONTON. PARIS, 1840. {"A cursory survey of the peoples of the Caucasus, compiled from a number of other well-known publications which appeared in the 1830's." - T. Trilati, p. 113 in LITERATURE ON OSSETIA AND THE OSSETIANS [CAUCASIAN REVIEW, Vol. 1, No. 6, MUNICH, 1958, PP. 107-126]}
  167. L'ASIE RUSSE. E. RECLUS. IN GEOGRAPHIE UNIVERSELLE. SEE ASIE RUSSE.
  168. LA SVANETHIE LIBRE. R. BERNOUVILLE. PARIS, 1875.
  169. LA TRANSCAUCASIE ET LA PENINSULE D'APCHERON. CALOUSTE S. GULBENKIAN. PARIS, 1891.
  170. LA VITA ET SITO DE ZYCHI, CHIAMATI CIRCASSI, HISTORIA NOTABILE. GIORGIO INTERIANO. IN RAMUSIO, RACCOLTA DI VIAGGI, t. II, P. 197. VENETIA, 1583.
  171. LE CAUCASE ET LA PERSE. E. ORSOLLE. PARIS: PLON, 1885.
  172. LE CAUCASE GLACE - PROMENADE A TRAVERS UNE PARTIE DE LA CHAINE ET ASCENSION DU MONT ELBROUZ. PARIS, 1881. (Translated from English by Jules Leclerq).
  173. LE CAUCASE. JOURNAL DE VOYAGES ET ROMANS 19, pp. 147-50. DUMAS PERE (THE ELDER). PARIS, 1853.
  174. LE CAUCASE, LA PERSE ET LA TURQUIE D'ASIE, D'APRES LA RELATION DE M. LE BARON DE THIELMANN. BARON ERNOUF. PARIS: PLON, 1876. (in-12, (2)-367 pp., 16 gravures et 1 cart repliee, chag. noir (Rel. d'ep.)){See Thielman's work STREIFZUGE IM KAUKASUS, IN PERSIEN UND IN DER ASIATISCHEN TURKEI Below. There is an English translation JOURNEY IN THE CAUCASUS, PERSIA AND TURKEY IN ASIA above}
  175. LE CAUCASE PITTORESQUE, DESSINE D'APRES NATURE. PRINCE GRIGORI GRIGORIEVITCH GAGARINE. TEXTE PAR LE COMTE ERNEST STACKELBERG. PARIS, 1847.
  176. LE CAUCASE. TERRE DE LEGENDES ET DE RICHESSES. BORIS WARTANOFF. GENEVE: LIBRAIRIE ET EDITION J.-H. JEHEBER, S. A. (215 PAGES). / MY COLLECTION. {THE AUTHOR IS AN ARMENIAN BORN IN TIFLIS. HIS OBSERVATIONS WERE MADE ON A TRIP BACK TO HIS NATIVE COUNTRY IN 1934. IN THE PREFACE, THE EDITORS WROTE:"IL Y A TROIS MILLE ANS, CETTE CONTREE FABULEUSEMENT RICHE ETAIT LE FOYER ET LE CENTRE DU MONDE OCCIDENTAL, CEPENDANT QUE L'EUROPE, PARCOURUE PAR DES TRIBUS NOMADES, ETAIT L'OMBRE, L'ESPACE INCONNU. C'EST CETTE REGION DES ORIGINES OU LA LEGENDE PLACE LES PREMIERS HOMMES ET OU NAQUIT DU MOINS NOTRE CIVILISATION, C'EST CETTE TERRE SACREE OU, VERS L'AURORE DE L'HISTOIRE, LES POETES NOUS CONTENT LES COMBATS DES HOMMES ET DES DIEUX, QUI RETIENT AUJOURD'HUI L'ATTENTION DE L'UNIVERS ENTIER. ... LE CAUCASE, SANS CONTREDIT, EST AUSSI VIVANT PAR SON PASSE QUE PAR SON PRESENT}
  177. LE CAUCASE, UNE TRES GRANDE MONTAGNE A LA CROISEE DES PLAQUES [HERODOTE (ISSN 0038-487X), No. 81, 1996, P. 25 ff.], C. LECOEUR.
  178. LE PAYS DES COSAQUES (VOYAGE ET LITTERATURE). MARMIER.
  179. LE PEUPLEMENT ET LA COLONISATION AU CAUCASE [REVUE DE GEOGRAPHIE, AOUT 1902], P. BARRE.
  180. LES CIRCASSIENS ET LE CAUCASE [REVUE NATIONALE, T. 17, 63e], E. RAYNOULD.
  181. LES DEFILES AUX TRESORS. DIMITRI IVANOVITCH TROUNOV. MOSCOU: EDITIONS DU PROGRES, 1966. (TRANSLATED BY L. PIATIGORSKI).
  182. LES DEUX ROUTES DU CAUCASE. JEAN CAROL. PARIS, 1899.
  183. LES HERITIERS DE LA TOISON D'OR. LOUIS COQUET (COLONEL BREVETE D'ETAT-MAJOR EN RETRAITE). PARIS: MAISONNEUVE FRERE, 1931, in-16 Br. DE 256 PP. {TABLE DES MATIERES: PREFACE DE JEROME ET JEAN THARAUD; INTRODUCTION; I. LA GEORGIE DANS L'EUROPE MODERNE; II. GUERRES PERSANES; III. INVASION DES PERSES; IV. INVASIONS MUSULMANES; V. INVASION DES TURCS; VI. INVASION DES MONGOLS; VII. INVASION DOUBLE. ENTRE DEUX FEUX; VIII. LA GEORGIE SOUS LES TZARS. IX. LA GEORGIE CONTEMPORAINE; X. LE DRAME RUSSO-GEORGIEN; XI. LES MONTAGNARDS. SOULEVEMENT DE 1924; XII. LA GEORGIE SOCIALE ET RELIGIEUSE; XIII. LA GEORGIE ECONOMIQUE; XIV. LA DIPLOMATIE EUROPEENNE ET LA GEORGIE; CONCLUSION A LA QUESTION GEORGIENNE; ANNEXE - UNE FEDERATION CAUCASIENNE AUTOUR DU NOYAU GEORGIEN}
  184. LES MAHUZIER AU CAUCASE. KATIA ET ALAIN MAHUZIER. PARIS: PRESSES DE LA CITE, 1982. / SOAS. {ROMANTIC ACCOUNT OF THE CAUCASUS}
  185. LES SIX VOYAGES DE TAVERNIER. PARIS, 1676.
  186. LES STEPPES DE LA MER CASPIENNE. LE CAUCASE, LA CRIMEE ET LA RUSSIE MERIDIONALE, HISTORIQUE ET SCIENTIFIQUE. XAVIER HOMMAIRE DE HELL. PARIS, 1843-1845. {THERE IS AN ENGLISH TRANSLATION TRAVELS IN THE STEPPES OF THE CASPIAN SEA ... BELOW}
  187. LES STEPPES DE LA MER CASPIENNE, VOYAGE DANS LA RUSSIE MERIDIONALE. Mme ADELE HOMMAIRE DE HELL. PARIS: DIDIER & CIE, 1868.
  188. LES VOYAGES DE JEAN STRUYS EN MOSCOVIE, EN TATARIE, EN PERSE, ETC. AMSTERDAM, 1720. 3 Vol. in-12. {MADE IN THE PERIOD 1648-73. THE AUTHOR DIED IN 1694}
  189. LE TERRITOIRE DES TCHERNOMORTSES OU COSAQUES DE LA MER NOIRE [NOUVELLES ANNALES DES VOYAGES, T. 49, 1831], M. D'ENGELHARDT & PARROT.
  190. LETTRES SUR LA CAUCASE. ALEXANDRE DUMAS THE ELDER.
  191. LETTRES SUR LA CAUCASIE. F. GILLE.1859. / UNI. MAN.
  192. LETTRES SUR LE CAUCASE ET LA CRIMEE. GIDE, LIBRAIRE-EDITEUR, PARIS, 1859.
  193. LETTRES SUR LE CAUCASE ET LA GEORGIE, SUIVIES D'UNE RELATION D'UN VOYAGE EN PERSE, EN 1812, PAR M. ET Mme FREYGANG. HAMBOURG, 1816.1 Vol. in-8.
  194. LEZGH. RONALD WIXMAN. ENCYCLOPEDIA OF ISLAM, 3rd Edition. {"One of the North-Eastern (NE) Caucasian peoples. Self-designation: Lezgi, pl. Lezgiar. English variants: Lezg(h)i, Lezg(h)ians. Russian designations: Lezginy, Kiurintsy, for the language: Kiurinskii iazyk. The name Lezginy has often been used to refer to the Dagestan mountaineers in general. Other designations: (Georgian:) Lek'i (in a wider sense referring to the Dagestan mountaineers in general); (German:) for the language: Kürinisch. According to the 1897 Russian census, there were 159,213 Lezgians. In 1926, the number of ethnic Lezgians dropped to 134,529, and the number of Lezgian speakers was 164,763. The Lezgians live along the basins of the Giulgeri-chai, Middle and Lower Samur and Shakh-Nabad rivers, i.e. the whole south-eastern part of Dagestan and the adjoining part of north Azerbaidzhan. Lezgian (Lezgi ch'al) forms with Agul, Rutul, Tsakhur, Tabasaran, Budukh, and Dzhek (Kryz), the Samurian subdivision of the NE Caucasian languages, which include also Veinakh, Avaro-Ando-Dido, Lak-Dargwa, Khinalug and Udi. Lak has the status of a literary language in Dagestan; the written language is based on the Kiuri dialect. Lezgian is subdivided into three dialects: Kiuri, Akhty, Kuba. The traditional economy consists of cattle-breeding, agriculture, horticulture, home industry (tapestry-weaving, smith's craft. The Lezgians are Sunni Muslims." - PEOPLES AND LANGUAGES OF THE CAUCASUS: A SYNOPSIS. BERNARD GEIGER, TIBOR HALASI-KUN, AERT H. KUIPERS AND KARL H. MENGES. JANUA LINGUARUM SERIES, V, No. 6. COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY. THE HAGUE: MOUTON & CO., 1959}
  195. Map of the Caucasus [CAUCASIAN REVIEW, MUNICH (CRM), No. 2, 1956, p. 16].
  196. MEINE REISE NACH GRUSIEN IM IAHRE 1827, VON J.-CH.-W. VETTER, HOF UND LANDSGERICHTS ADVOCAT. LEIPSIG, 1829.
  197. MEMOIRE SUR LE COMMERCE DES PORTS DE LA NOUVELLE-RUSSIE, DE LA MOLDAVIE ET DE LA VALACHIE. J. DE HAGEMEISTER. ODESSA, 1835.
  198. MEMOIRE SUR UN NOUVEAU PERIPLE DU PONT-EUXIN, PAR LE COMTE JEAN POTOCKI. VIENNE, 1796.
  199. MEMOIR OF A MAP OF THE COUNTRIES COMPREHENDED BETWEEN THE BLACK SEA AND THE CASPIAN; WITH AN ACCOUNT OF THE CAUCASIAN NATIONS AND VOCABULARIES OF THEIR LANGUAGES. GEORGE ELLIS ESQ. F. R. S. (1753-1815). LONDON: J. EDWARDS, 1788.
  200. MEMOIRS OF A CAUCASIAN OFFICER. COUNT F. F. TORNAU. OF 1835, KATKOV.
  201. MEMOIRS OF THE COURT OF SOLOMON. ARABIAN MANUSCRIPT FOUND IN PALMYRA, NOW IN THE UNIVERSITY OF LEYDEN. PRESENTED BY Dr. HERMANNUS HOFFMAN. {MENTION OF A VERY BEAUTIFUL CIRCASSIAN SLAVE CAPTURED ON THE COAST OF CIRCASSIA BY A CORSAIR OF HIRAM KING OF TYRE AND BROUGHT TO JERUSALEM. TADMOR NINTH SERAGLIO. THE ROYAL POET USED TO SING AND RAPTURE ABOUT HER. IT IS CLAIMED CONTENT OF BOOK IS A DESCRIPTION OF THIS CIRCASSIAN SAPHIRA. VERY EXPLICIT LOVE TALK}
  202. MEMORIA POPULORUM OLIM AD DANUBIUM, PONTUM EUXINUM, PALI[U]DEM MEOTIDUM, CAUCASUM, MARE CASPIUM, ET INDE MAGIS AD SEPTENTRIONES INCOLENTIUM. JEAN GOTTHILF STRITTER. St. PETERSBURG, 1771-79.
  203. MEMORIA SULLE COLONIE DEL MAR NERO NEI SECOLI DI MEZZO, ACCOMPAGNATA DA CARTE GEOGRAFICHE, PAR LE Cte L. S., 26 PAGES in-8.
  204. MISSION SCIENTIFIQUE AU CAUCASE. J. DE MORGAN. PARIS, 1889. TWO VOLUMES. / UNI. MAN.
  205. MOUNT CAUCASUS AND BLACK SEA COMMERCE. CHARLES WILKINSON.
  206. MUSLIM EURASIA: CONFLICTING LEGACIES. YAACOV RO'I (Editor). CUMMINGS CENTER. FRANK CASS & Co., JUNE 1995. (Paperback, ISBN: 0714641421. Hardcover, ISBN: 0714646156).
  207. MY CLIMBS IN THE ALPS AND CAUCASUS. ALBERT FREDERICK MUMMERY. LONDON: T. F. UNWIN; NEW YORK: C. SCRIBNER'S SONS, 1895. REPRINTED BY QUATERMAN PUBLISHERS, LAWRENCE, MASSACHUSETTS, 1974. (XII, 360 PAGES). TWO EDITIONS. / UNI. MAN. {ILLUSTRATED. INCLUDES PLATES}
  208. NACHRICHTEN VON TCHIRKASSIEN ODER VON DEN KABARDINISCHEN LANDEN, AUFGESEZT VON JACOB VON STAHLIN. RUSS. KAIS. STAATSRATH, FUR DEN St-PETERB. GEOGR. KALANDER AUF DAS IAHR 1772. BUSCHING'S MAGAZIN, 6ter THEIL, 451.
  209. NARRATIVE OF DON HUAN VAN HALEN'S IMPRISONMENT IN THE DUNGEONS OF THE INQUISITION AT MADRID AND HIS ESCAPE IN 1817 AND 1818, TO WHICH ARE ADDED HIS JOURNEY TO RUSSIA, HIS CAMPAIGNS WITH THE ARMY OF THE CAUCASUS AND HIS RETURN TO SPAIN IN 1821. JUAN VAN HALEN (1788-1864). LONDON: H. COLBURN, 1827. 2 Vols. 22cm. {WITH ILLUSTRATIONS, PORTRAITS, FOLD MAP AND FACSIMILES}
  210. NATIONS OF TODAY. J. BUCHAN. / UNI. MAN.
  211. NATURAL REGIONS OF THE USSR. LEV SEMONOVICH BERG. NEW YORK, 1950.
  212. NAVIGATIONI ET VIAGGI. Vol. II. G. B. RAMUSIO. VENICE, 1574. {FIND WITHIN: IL VIAGGIO DELLA TANA, ETC. I. BARBARO, P. 92 ff., AND DELLA VITA DE ZYCHI CHIAMATI CIARCASSI. G. INTERIANO. P. 196 ff.}
  213. NEUE KAUKASISCHE REISEN UND STUDIEN. C. VON HAHN. LEIPZIG.
  214. NOORD EN OOST TARTARYE, OFTE BONDIG ONTWERP VAN EENIGE DIER LANDEN EN VOLKEN, WELKE VOORMAALS BEKENT ZIJN GEWEEST. N. C. WITSEN. AMSTERDAM, 1705. {GIVES THE OLDEST KABARDIAN WORD-LIST ON PP. 526-8}
  215. NOTES DE VOYAGE D'UN HUSSARD. UN RAID EN ASIE. AVEC UN LETTRE DE FREDERIC MISTRAL ET UNE CARTE DE L'ITINERAIRE. JEAN DE PONTEVES DE SABRAN. PARIS: CALMANN LEVY, 1890. (in-8, x-445 pp., 1 carte, demi bas. rouge, dos a n. orne (Rel. d'ep.)). {"VOYAGE A TRAVERS LA TURQUIE, LE CAUCASE, LA PERSE, L'AFGHANISTAN, LE TURKESTAN"}
  216. NOTES ON A HALF-PAY IN SEARCH OF HEALTH. W. JESSE CAPTAIN.
  217. NOTES ON THE CAUCASUS. RICHARD [E.] PIPES. CAMBRIDGE, MASSACHUSETTS: MASSACHUSETTS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY PRESS, 1958.
  218. NOTES ON THE CAUCASUS. WANDERER. LONDON: MACMILLAN AND CO., 1883. (280 PAGES). {CHAPTER II - CAUCASIAN MOUNTAINEERS: CIRCASSIANS, ABKHASIANS, SVANETIANS, OSSETTES, DAGHESTANS, ETC. PP. 19-39. "CIRCASSIA IS A COUNTRY LYING ALONG THE EASTERN SHORE OF THE BLACK SEA FOR A COUPLE OF HUNDRED MILES, BETWEEN ANAPA (CLOSE TO KERTCH AND THE SEA OF AZOV) AND GAGRA, WHERE ABKHAZIA COMMENCES. IT DIVIDES THE BLACK SEA FROM THE KOUBAN AND KABARDIAN STEPPES, AND IS IN THE SHAPE OF AN ISOSCELES TRIANGLE; THE SIERRA AND SUBJACENT MOUNTAIN RANGE, COMPARATIVELY LOW, NARROW, AND UNDULATING AT ITS NORTHERN EXTREMITY, BECOMING BROAD, LOFTY, AND PRECIPITOUS AS IT TRENDS SOUTH AND SOUTH-EAST, UNTIL TOWARDS THE ABKHASIAN BOUNDARY IT REACHES AN ALTITUDE OF 10,000 TO 12,000 FEET AND A CONTINUOUS BREADTH OF 100 MILES OR THEREABOUTS. ... CIRCASSIA, WHICH IS PERHAPS THE MOST BEAUTIFUL MOUNTAIN COUNTRY IN THE WORLD - A RICH SOIL, SPLENDID FORESTS OF OAK, ASH, CHESTNUT, WALNUT, BEECH, AND OTHER EXCLUSIVELY EUROPEAN TIMBER, FINE CLEAR MOUNTAIN STREAMS AND RIVERS FULL OF TROUT AND OTHER FISH - IS NOW UNINHABITED, WITH THE EXCEPTION OF A FEW INSIGNIFICANT STATIONS AND POSTS ALONG THE COAST, POPULATED MAINLY BY HORSE-STEALERS, LOAFERS, AND DRUNKARDS FROM VARIOUS PARTS OF THE CAUCASUS (CHIEFLY MINGRELIA), MANY OF WHOM HAVE PERMANENTLY MADE THEIR NATIVE TOWNS AND VILLAGES TOO HOT FOR THEM. ... THE CIRCASSIANS, WHO WERE ORIGINALLY A BRAVE MANLY PEOPLE, LIVING IN A SORT OF REPUBLIC, MUCH GIVEN TO RAIDING UPON THEIR NEIGHBOURS AND EACH OTHER (MORE APPARENTLY WITH THE OBJECT OF KEEPING UP WAR-LIKE HABITS AND GENERAL EFFICIENCY THAN FOR THE LOOT OBTAINED, WHICH WAS OFTEN OF TRIFLING INTRINSIC VALUE), AFTER HEROICALLY SUPPORTING NEARLY HALF A CENTURY OF INCESSANT WARFARE WITH RUSSIA, WERE FINALLY BLOCKADED AND STARVED INTO SUBMISSION. ... THEY THEN DECIDED, SOONER THAN LIVE UNDER RUSSIAN DOMINATION, TO QUIT THEIR COUNTRY AND EMIGRATE TO TURKEY, WHERE LAND, RENT FREE, AND OTHER ADVANTAGES, HAD BEEN PROMISED THEM BY THE GOVERNMENT. WHEN IT IS CONSIDERED THAT THE IMMEDIATE EFFECT OF THIS RESOLUTION WAS VIRTUALLY TO REDUCE THE WHOLE POPULATION TO BEGGARY, THE REPULSION FELT BY ASIATICS TOWARDS 'CIVILISING RUSSIAN INFLUENCE' MAY BE ADEQUATELY ESTIMATED. ... ON THEIR ARRIVAL IN ANATOLIA NO ARRANGEMENTS FOR THEIR RECEPTION HAD BEEN MADE BY THE OTTOMAN GOVERNMENT; CONSEQUENTLY THEY HAD TO ENCAMP IN INCLEMENT WEATHER IN THE OPEN (ON THE SEA-SHORE, OR WHEREVER THEY COULD GET PERMISSION), AND, BEING PENNILESS, THOUSANDS MORE DIED OF STARVATION, DISEASE, AND EXPOSURE. ... ALTOGETHER TWO-THIRDS OF THE POPULATION OF CIRCASSIA ARE COMPUTED TO HAVE PERISHED DURING THIS EXODUS. SOME OF THE CHIEFS COMMITTED SUICIDE FROM DESPAIR, RIDING INTO THE SEA MOUNTED AND ARMED AND DROWNING THEMSELVES. ... THE CIRCASSIAN 'COMMONWEALTH,' i.e. WHILE THE CIRCASSIANS WERE A NATION OR PEOPLE, WAS, LIKE THOSE OF OTHER INDEPENDENT MOUNTAIN TRIBES STILL OR LATELY EXISTING IN THE CAUCASUS, GROUNDED ON A BASIS OF COMPLETE PERSONAL EQUALITY, AND TO A CERTAIN EXTENT ON COMMUNITY OF PROPERTY. ... THE POPULATION WAS DIVIDED INTO THREE RANKS OR CASTES, viz. CHIEFS, GENTLEMEN RETAINERS, AND PEASANTS; BUT THEY HAD NO KING, AND, EXCEPT IN TIME OF WAR, NO ACCREDITED AUTHORITY OR RULERS. ... THE THREE RANKS NEVER INTERMARRIED. PEASANTS WERE NOT ALLOWED TO WEAR COATS OF MAIL, AND FOUGHT ON FOOT. PERSONAL INDEPENDENCE WAS CARRIED TO SUCH A PITCH THAT SONS WERE NOT SUPPOSED EVEN TO OBEY THEIR PARENTS. ... NATIONAL QUESTIONS WERE DELIBERATED ON AND DECIDED BY A SORT OF 'CONGRESS OR PARLIAMENT, PRESIDED OVER BY THE OLDEST CHIEF. THERE WERE TWO HOUSES OR 'CHAMBERS,' THAT OF THE CHIEFS AND THAT OF THE RETAINERS, ANSWERING TO LORDS AND COMMONS. ... THE 'PROCEEDINGS WERE CONDUCTED WITH DIGNITY. EACH 'HOUSE' HAD ITS SPOKESMEN OR ORATORS, AND DEPUTATIONS FREQUENTLY PASSED FROM THE ONE TO THE OTHER. ... THEY POSSESSED CERTAIN SACRED GROVES, AND 'DEOTAS' OR SHRINES, AND USED A SORT OF OCCASIONAL WORSHIP, SUPPOSED TO PROPITIATE LOCAL DIVINITIES, PROCURE GOOD WEATHER FOR THE HARVEST, GOOD LUCK IN EXPEDITIONS, ETC. ... THE TCHERKESS, BESIDES BEING WARRIORS, WERE CAPITAL CRAFTSMEN, EXCELLENT HUNTERS AND TRAPPERS; IN FACT, 'GOOD MEN' ALL ROUND. ... THE ARMS, SADDLERY, AND ACCOUTREMENTS FABRICATED BY THE CIRCASSIANS AND TCHETTCHENTZ WERE THE BEST OF THEIR KIND IN THE CAUCASUS, ALL OTHERS BEING INFERIOR COPIES OF THEIR PATTERNS. THEY POSSESSED A FIRST-RATE BREED OF MOUNTAIN HORSES (NOW EXTINCT), VERY CLEVER ON ROCKY AND DIFFICULT GROUND, AND, THOUGH SMALL, STOUT AND UNTIRING." THERE IS AN ACCOUNT OF THE ABKHAZIAN REVOLT OF 1866}
  219. NOTES STATISTIQUES SUR LE LITTORAL DE LA MER NOIRE, RELATIVES A LA GEOGRAPHIE, A LA POPULATION, A LA NAVIGATION, AU COMMERCE, PAR LE COMTE L. S., COLONEL D'ETAT-MAJOR EN RETRAITE. VIENNE, 1832, 22 PAGES.
  220. NOTES SUR LES PROVINCES RUSSES AU-DELA DU CAUCASE, ECRITES DANS LES ANNEES 1823 ET 1824, PAR LE COMTE SERRISTORI. ODESSA, 1829.
  221. NOTICE SUR LA GEORGIE [BEDI KARTLISA (BK), XXX, PARIS, 1972], KALISTRAT SALIA.
  222. NOTIONS SUR SOUKHOUM-KALE ET SUR LES ABAZES, DONNEES PAR R. DE SCASSI. {"Scassi's data provide a conspicuously negative and hostile description of the Abkhazian people. The document can only serve as evidence of the scanty and defective information on Abkhazia possessed by certain foreign and Russian travelers and historians." T. Abkhazian on p. 139 in Literature on Abkhazia and the Abkhazian-Abazinians, Caucasian Review, Munich (CRM), No. 7, 1958, pp. 125-43}
  223. NOUVEAUX VOYAGES DANS LES GOUVERNEMENTS DE L'EMPIRE DE RUSSIE DANS LES ANNEES 1793-1794. PETER-SIMON PALLAS. KOENIG, PARIS.
  224. ? PALLAS' TRAVELS. PETER SIMON PALLAS (1741-1811). {KABARDIAN REVOLT AGAINST NICHOLAS II IN 1912. INCLUDES PHOTOGRAPHS OF CIRCASSIANS}
  225. PATRIOTS AND FILIBUSTERS. L. OLIPHANT. / UNI. MAN.
  226. PEOPLES OF THE CAUCASUS. B[RIAN] G[EORGE] HEWITT. Pp. 366-84 in THE TIMES GUIDE TO THE PEOPLES OF EUROPE. F. FERNANDEZ-ARMESTO (Ed.). LONDON: TIMES BOOKS, 1994. PAPERBACK EDITION 1997.
  227. PERIPLUS. SCYLACIS CARYAND (522 B.C.). Ed. HUDSON, T. I.
  228. PERSONAL ADVENTURES AND EXCURSIONS IN GEORGIA, CIRCASSIA AND RUSSIA. G. P. CAMERON [G. POULLET-CAMERON] . LONDON: H. COLBURN, 1845. 2 Vols.
  229. PETROFKA: ZWEI JUNGE SCHWEIZERINNEN IM KAUKASUS. TRUDI HILTBRUNNER. BERN: BLAUKREUZ-VERLAG, 1992.
  230. PLEASE DON'T CALL IT SOVIET GEORGIA. MARY RUSSEL, 1991. {"THE AUTHOR HAD THOUGHT OF HER TRIP TO GEORGIA AS A 'JAUNT' SINCE SHE WAS USED TO VISITING PLACES OF CONFLICT. IRONICALLY BY THE TIME SHE HAD PLANNED HER JOURNEY, GEORGIA WAS ALSO SUFFERING FROM CONFLICT AND WHEN SHE CAME TO WRITE THE BOOK MANY CHANGES HAD OCCURRED IN GEORGIA. SHE TRAVELLED ALL OVER THE AREA MEETING AND STAYING WITH LOCAL PEOPLE."}
  231. PONTI EUXINI ET MARIS ERYTHRAEI PERIPLUS, AD ADRIANUM CAESAREM. ARRIANI. GENEV., 1577. {VOYAGE MADE IN 110 A.D.}
  232. PORTULAN DE LA MER NOIRE ET DE LA MER D'AZOF, PAR E. TAITBOUT DE MARIGNY (1793-1852). ODESSA, 1830. {WITH ATLAS}
  233. RACOLTA DI VIAGGI. RAMUSIO. VENEZIA, 1559.
  234. REGION CAUCASIENNE (CIRCASSIE ET GEORGIE). STANISLAS MARIE CESAR FAMIN. 1838. / WARDROP COLLECTION.
  235. REISE AUF DEM KASPISCHEN MEERE UND IN DEM KAUKASUS INTERNOMMEN IN DEN JAHREN 1825-1826. EDUARD I. EICHWALD. STUTTGART AND TUBINGEN, 1834-37. (2 vols.). {"Mostly about natural history, but also contains a great deal of archeological and ethnographical information." - T. Trilati, p. 114 in LITERATURE ON OSSETIA AND THE OSSETIANS [CAUCASIAN REVIEW, Vol. 1, No. 6, MUNICH, 1958, PP. 107-126]}
  236. REISE DURCH RUSSLAND NACH DEM KAUKASISCHEN ISTHMUS IM JAHRE 1836-38. C. KOCH. STUTTGART UND TUEBINGEN, 1842, NOUVELLES ANNALES DES VOYAGES, t. 4, 1849, t. 2, 1850.
  237. REISE IN DEN KAUKASUS UND NACH GEORGIEN, UNTERNOMMEN IN DEN JAHREN 1807 UND 1808. JULES VON KLAPROTH (1783-1835). HALLE UND BERLIN, Bd. I, 1812, Bd. II, 1814. (TWO VOLUMES). {THERE IS A FRENCH TRANSLATION VOYAGE AU MONT CAUCASE ET EN GEORGIE BY CH. GOSSELIN, BELOW}
  238. REISE IN DIE KRYMM UND DEN KAUKASUS. VON MORITZ VON ENGELHARDT UND FRIEDRICH PARROT. BERLIN, 1815. {JOURNEY MADE IN 1815}
  239. REISE NACH PERSIEN, IM IAHR 1817. MORITZ V. KOTZEBUE.
  240. REISEN DURCH RUSSLAND UND IM CAUCASISCHEN GEBURGE. J. A. GULDENSTAEDT. St. PETERSBURG, 1787.
  241. REISEN NACH GEORGIEN UND IMERETHI. JOHANN-ANTON GOLDENSTEDT. BERLIN, 1815. {TRAVELLS IN GEORGIA AND IMERITIA}
  242. REISEN UND FORSCHUNGEN IM KAUKASISCHEN HOCHGEBIRGE. M. VON DECHY. 3 Bde., BERLIN, 1905-1907.
  243. REISE VON St. PETERSBURG IN DIE KRIM UND DIE LANDER DES KAUKASUS IM JAHRE 1825. VON B. JAGER. LEIPZIG, 1830.
  244. RELATION DE LA COLCHIDE ET DE LA MINGRELIE, PAR LE PERE DOM JOSEPH-MARIE ZAMPI, MISSIONNAIRE EN COLCHIDE. RECUEIL DE VOYAGES AU NORD, T. VII, P. 198. {ACCOUNT OF A MISSIONARY IN COLCHIS (ROUGHLY MODERN DAY ABKHAZIA) IN 1620 A.D. THE ITALIAN ORIGINAL IS TITLED RELAZIONE DELLA COLCHIDA BELOW}
  245. RELATION DE LA COLCHIDE, OU MINGRELIE, PAR LE PERE ARCHANGE LAMBERTI, MISSIONNAIRE DE LA CONGREGATION DE LA PROPAGATION DE LA FOI. RECUEIL DE VOYAGES AU NORD, T. VII, P. 136. {ACCOUNT OF FATHER LAMBERTI IN COLCHIS (1620-30A.D.). FOR ORIGINAL WORK IN ITALIAN SEE NEXT ENTRY}
  246. RELATIONE DELLA COLCHIDA, POGGI DELLA MENGRELIA NELLA QUALE SI TRATE DELL'ORIGINE, COSTUMI E COSI NATURALI DI QUEI PAESI. ARCH. LAMBERTI. NAPOLI, 1654.
  247. RELAZIONE DELLA COLCHIDA. G. ZAMPI. ROME, 1920. {FRENCH VERSION RELATION DE LA COLCHIDE ... ABOVE}
  248. Review of Cerkesy (The Circassians) by R. Traho [CAUCASIAN REVIEW, MUNICH (CRM), No. 4, 1957, P. 128 ff.], M. LASHAURI.
  249. Review of Kavkazskie zapiski (Caucasian Notes) by V. Zakrutkin [CAUCASIAN REVIEW, MUNICH (CRM), No. 1, 1955, p. 165 ff.], B. B.
  250. Review of Sovetskaya Kuban (Soviet Kuban), January 20, 1957 [CAUCASIAN REVIEW, MUNICH (CRM), No. 4, 1957, p. 129 ff.], B. BARASBI.
  251. RUSSIA AND ASIA: ESSAYS … . W. S. VUCINICH.
  252. RUSSIA AND CIRCASSIA. W. JESSE, CAPTAIN.
  253. RUSSIA IN DIVISION. ?. / UNI. MAN.
  254. RUTUL. RONALD WIXMAN. ENCYCLOPEDIA OF ISLAM, 3rd Edition. {"One of the North-Eastern (NE) Caucasian peoples. Self-designation: There is no general appellation; the inhabitants of the aul Rutul (Mykhad) call themselves Mykhashura. Russian designations: Rutuly, Rutul'tsy. According to the 1926 Russian census, there were 10,495 ethnic Rutul, and 10,356 spoke the language. The Rutul live in the area of confluence of Samur and Kara-Samur (18 villages) (Rutul rayon; village Khnov in Akhty rayon, Dagestan; village Shin and Kainar in Nukha rayon, Azerbaidzhan. Rutul (Mykhanidy ch'äl) forms with Lezghian, Agul, Tsakhur, Tabasaran, Budukh, and Dzhek, the Samurian subdivision of the NE Caucasian language-group. It is not written, Russian (formerly Lezghian) being used as the literary language. The traditional economy consists of cattle-breeding and home industry (production of cloth, tapestries, felt cloaks). The Rutul are Sunni Muslims." - PEOPLES AND LANGUAGES OF THE CAUCASUS: A SYNOPSIS. BERNARD GEIGER, TIBOR HALASI-KUN, AERT H. KUIPERS AND KARL H. MENGES. JANUA LINGUARUM SERIES, V, No. 6. COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY. THE HAGUE: MOUTON & CO., 1959}
  255. SAVAGE SQUADRONS. SERGEI KOURNAKOFF. LONDON-BOMBAY-SYDNEY: GEORGE G. HARRAP & CO. LTD. (359 pages). {Illustrated}
  256. SAVAGE SVANETIA. CLIVE PHILLIPS-WOLLEY. LONDON: R. BENTLEY, 1883.
  257. SCHWARTZES MEER. JOSEPH VON HAMMER. VIENNE, 183...
  258. SIX VOYAGES EN TURQUIE, EN PERSE ET AUX INDES. J.-B. TAVERNIER (1605-1689). ROUEN, 1724. 6 Vol. in-8. {MADE IN THE YEARS 1663-69}
  259. SOUVENIRS DE VOYAGE AU CAUCASE [REVUE DE GEOGRAPHIE, AVRIL-MAI ET AOUT-OCTOBRE 1901], BARON J. DE BAYE.
  260. SOUVENIRS INTIMES D'UNE CAMPAGNE AU CAUCASE PENDANT L'ETE DE 1845. CONSTANTINE BENCKENDORFF. PARIS, 1858.
  261. SOVIET JOURNEY. LOUIS FISCHER.
  262. SPORT IN THE CRIMEA AND CAUCASUS. CLIVE PHILLIPS-WOLLEY (1854-1918). LONDON: R. BENTLEY, 1881. (ISBN 0665158890 POSITIVE COPY). {FOWLING AND HUNTING IN THE CAUCASUS AND CRIMEA}
  263. SPRINGTIME IN SAKEN. GEORGII GULIA. MOSCOW: FOREIGN LANGUAGES PUBLISHING HOUSE, 1952.
  264. STORM OVER THE CAUCASUS. BARBARA ? BARTOS-HOPPNER. NEW YORK, 1968. (TRANSLATED FROM GERMAN BY ANTHEA BELL).
  265. STRATIGRAPHIE COMPAREE … . C. SHAEFFER. / UNI. MAN.
  266. STREIFZUGE IM KAUKASUS, IN PERSIEN UND IN DER ASIATISCHEN TURKEI. MAX GUIDO FRANZ, FREIHERR VON THIELMAN. {FOR AN ENGLISH TRANSLATION REFER TO JOURNEY IN THE CAUCASUS, PERSIA AND TURKEY IN ASIA ABOVE}
  267. TABLEAU DES PROVINCES SITUEES SUR LA COTE OCCIDENTALE DE LA MER-CASPIENNE, ENTRE LES FLEUVES TEREK ET KOUR. MARSCHAL DE BI(E)BERSTEIN. SAINT-PETERSBOURG, 1798. 1 Vol. in-4.
  268. TABLEAU HISTORIQUE, GEOGRAPHIQUE ET ETHNOGRAPHIQUE DES PEUPLES DU CAUCASE. JULES VON KLAPROTH (1783-1835). PARIS, 1827. {See next entry}
  269. TABLEAU HISTORIQUE, GEOGRAPHIQUE, ETHNOGRAPHIQUE ET POLITIQUE DU CAUCASE ET DES PROVINCES LIMITROPHES ENTRE LA RUSSIE ET LA PERSE. JULES VON KLAPROTH (1783-1835). PARIS AND LEIPZIG, 1827. {See also preceding entry. "A compilation based on Klaproth's own account of the Caucasus and on descriptions made by travelers in the Caucasus in the eighteenth century (the works of Steder in the case of the Ossetians). Contains ethnographical data on various Adyghei tribes such as the Abazins, Kabardians and others, and also on the Karachay, Balkars, Ingushes, Ossetians and mountain Georgians." - T. Trilati, p. 113 in LITERATURE ON OSSETIA AND THE OSSETIANS [CAUCASIAN REVIEW, Vol. 1, No. 6, MUNICH, 1958, PP. 107-126]. Please note that the Abazins are not one of the Adyghei tribes, although they are closely related to them. They form an ethnic group with the Abkhazians, who call themselves Apswa}
  270. TAGEBUCH EINER REISE, DIE IM JAHR 1781 VON DER GRENZFESTUNG MOZDOK NACH DEM INNERN CAUCASUS UNTERNOMMEN WURDE. NEUE NORDISCHE BEITRAGE, Vol. VII, 1796, AND St. PETERSBURG, 1791. {"Its ethnographical sections are concerned chiefly with the Ossetians." - T. Trilati, p. 125 in LITERATURE ON OSSETIA AND THE OSSETIANS [CAUCASIAN REVIEW, Vol. 1, No. 6, MUNICH, 1958, PP. 107-126]}
  271. TEXTS AND STUDIES ON THE HISTORICAL GEOGRAPHY AND TOPOGRAPHY OF THE CAUCASUS AND ADJACENT REGIONS. COLLECTED AND REPRINTED BY FUAT SEZGIN, IN COLLABORATION WITH MAZEN AMAWI, CARL EHRIG-EGGERT AND ECKHARD NEUBAUER. FRANKFURT AM MAIN: INSTITUTE FOR THE HISTORY OF ARABIC-ISLAMIC SCIENCE, JOHANN WOLFGANG GOETHE UNIVERSITY, 1993.
  272. THE ABKHAZIANS: A HANDBOOK. [Brian] GEORGE HEWITT (Ed.). IN THE SERIES CAUCASUS WORLD: PEOPLES OF THE CAUCASUS & THE BLACK SEA. SERIES EDITOR NICHOLAS AWDE. RICHMOND, SURREY, ENGLAND: CURZON PRESS, 1999. (288 pages. ISBN 0-7007-0643-7. £30-35). {Contents: Preface 9; Introduction George Hewitt 13; 1. Geography and the environment Roman Dbar 23; 2. Origin of the Abkhazian people Vjacheslav Chirikba 37; 3. On the track of Abkhazia's antiquity Giorgij Shamba 48; 4. History: first-18th centuries Oleg Bgazhba 59; 5. History: 18th century-1917 Stanislav Lak'oba 67; 6. History: 1917-1989 Stanislav Lak'oba 89; 7. Soviet Abkhazia 1989: a personal account Viktor Popkov 102; 8. History: the modern period Jurij Anchabadze 132; 9. Military aspects of the war: the battle for Gagra Dodge Billingsley 147; 10. The economy: traditional & modern Daur Bargandzhia 157; 11. Language George Hewitt 167; 12. Literature & linguistic politics Vasilij Avidzba 176; 13. Art, handicrafts & architecture Oleg Bgazhba 189; 14. Religion Rachel Clogg 205; 15. Demography Daniel Muller 218; 16. Ethnic culture Jurij Anchabadze 241; Further Reading: References & general bibliography 251, Appendix 1: Constitution of the Abkhazian People's Soviet 263, Appendix 2: Draft Treaty 264, Appendix 3: Moscow agreement 266, Appendix 4: Quadripartite Agreement on Refugees 267, Appendix 5: Abkhaz proverbs 271; Contributors 274; Notes 275, Index 287. George Hewitt is Professor of Caucasian Languages at the School of Oriental & African Studies, the University of London. "The Abkhazians are an ancient Caucasian people living mainly on the eastern shores of the Black Sea in the shadow of the Great Caucasus Mountains. Across the centuries, cultures as diverse as the ancient Greeks, Byzantine Christianity and Ottoman Islam have all left their mark without affecting the unique individuality of the Abkhazians. Aside from their Caucasian homeland of Abkhazia, there are significant numbers of Abkhazians and their descendants settled throughout Russia and the Middle East - Turkey in particular. ... Their history, like other peoples and nations of the region, has been closely linked with the expansion of the Russians - under Tsar and Commissar alike. The collapse of the Soviet Union, however, resulted in further attempted domination, this time by the Georgian Republic, leading to the catastrophe of the War of 1992-3 and the further scattering of peoples that followed. ... With the publication of this book, which includes an entirely new interpretation of Abkhazia's union with Russia over the period from the 18th century to 1917, the relevant facts about Abkhazia have finally become accessible to the English-speaking world, who will thus be better placed to understand Abkhazian aspirations." This is an invaluable, and might prove to be a definitive, account of Abkhazia and its proud and ancient people. This work is an example of how a single Western intellectual can shed light on, rectify preconceptions, misinformation and stereotypical ideas, and further the cause of a relatively obscure, and for long wronged, people. The lessons must be learnt by all North Caucasians. Spread the word and do it properly and fairly. Reach out to the good peoples of the world. This book must be read. Includes many maps, photos and illustrations}
  273. THE ARGONAUTICA. APOLLONIUS RHODIUS. TRANSLATED BY T. C. SEATON. LONDON, 1912.
  274. THE ARGONAUTS. KINGSLEY. / UNI. MAN. {INCLUDES A ROMANTIC ACCOUNT OF THE CAUCASUS}
  275. THE BLACK SEA. NEAL ASCHERSON. JONATHAN CAPE, RANDOM HOUSE. {CHAPTER 10 ON ABKHAZIA}
  276. THE CAUCASIAN BORDERLAND. BEING A LECTURE GIVEN BY W. E. D. ALLEN IN THE MEETING OF THE ROYAL GEOGRAPHICAL SOCIETY ON 4th OF MAY 1942 [THE GEOGRAPHICAL JOURNAL, XCIX, 1942, PP. 225-37. MAP]. {"CHERKESS PLACE-NAMES ARE FOUND IN MANY PARTS OF THE UKRAINE IN SUCH FORMS AS PSIOL AND KREMENCHUG. THE CHERKESS REMAINED AN IMPORTANT ELEMENT IN THE POPULATION OF THE CRIMEA UNTIL THE EIGHTEENTH CENTURY, AND THEY OCCUPIED MOST OF THE NORTH-WEST CAUCASUS AND THE BASIN OF THE KUBAN UNTIL THE RUSSIAN CONQUEST IN THE MIDDLE OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY. ... THERE WAS OBVIOUSLY A SUBSTANTIAL SUBSTRATUM OF CHERKESS BLOOD IN THE VERY MIXED POPULATION OF THE NORTHERN CAUCASUS AND THE BLACK SEA COAST LANDS AS FAR WEST AS THE DNEPR. ... BUT THAT IS ONLY ONE ASPECT OF THE REMARKABLE DISPERSION OF THESE PEOPLE. PROFESSOR ZAKHAROV AND PROFESSOR H. R. HALL HAVE PRODUCED EVIDENCE FOR THE BELIEF THAT CAUCASIAN ELEMENTS WERE REPRESENTED AMONG THE 'PEOPLES OF THE SEA' WHO SWARMED INTO THE MEDITERRANEAN BASIN AT THE END OF THE TWELFTH CENTURY B.C. AND THREATENED EGYPT," SEE CAUCASIAN RELATIONS OF THE PEOPLES OF THE SEA AND SEEVOLKER NAMEN IN ALTORIENTALISCHEN QUELLEN IN ANTHROPOLGY SECTION BELOW}
  277. THE CAUCASIAN VAGABOND. STEPHEN GRAHAM. {SEE A VAGABOND IN THE CAUCASUS ABOVE}
  278. THE CAUCASUS. AMERICAN GEOGRAPHICAL SOCIETY OF NEW YORK. NEW YORK: AMERICAN GEOGRAPHICAL SOCIETY, ? 1918. {SCALE 1 : 3,000,000 (E 31 -- E 55 / N 47 -- N 37). I MAP: 39X64 cm. RELIEF SHOWN BY HACHURES}
  279. THE CAUCASUS [CAUCASIAN REVIEW, MUNICH (CRM), No. 1, 1955, PP. 5-11], AYTEK NAMITOK.
  280. THE CAUCASUS. IVAN GOLOVIN. LONDON, 1854. (194 PAGES).
  281. THE CAUCASUS. J. LOTZ AND OTHERS. HUMAN RELATIONS AREA FILES Inc., 1956.
  282. THE CAUCASUS AND ITS PEOPLE. LOUIS MOSER. LONDON, n.p., 1856.
  283. THE CAUCASUS AND CENTRAL ASIA. UNITED STATES CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY. ? WASHINGTON, D.C.: CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY, 1993. {SCALE 1 : 19,000,000; LAMBERT CONFORMAL CONIC PROJ., STANDARD PARALLELS 47 N AND 62 N (E 40 -- E 87 / N 56 -- N 35). 1 COLOUR MAP: 17X23 cm. SHIPPING LIST No. 93-0703-P. INCLUDES NOTE "802198 (R00455) 10-93." GPO ITEM No. 0856-A-01}
  284. THE CAUCASUS AND CENTRAL ASIA. UNITED STATES CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY. ? WASHINGTON, D.C.: CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY, 1995. {SCALE 1 : 19,000,000; LAMBERT CONFORMAL CONIC PROJ., STANDARD PARALLELS 47 N AND 62 N (E 30 -- E 90 / N 60 -- N 35). 1 COLOUR MAP: 17X23 cm. SHIPPING LIST No. 96-0050-P. INCLUDES NOTE "802410 (R00455) 8-95." GPO ITEM No. 0856-A-01}
  285. THE CAUCASUS AND ITS PEOPLES. R. VON ERKERT. LEIPZIG, 1888.
  286. THE CAUCASUS IN DIASPORA: A HANDBOOK. IN THE SERIES: CAUCASUS WORLD. SERIES EDITOR: NICHOLAS AWDE. RICHMOND, SURREY, ENGLAND: CURZON PRESS, 1997. (Hardback. ISBN 0-7007-0655-0. Price: £30).
  287. THE CAUCASUS, ITS PEOPLE, HISTORY, ECONOMY, ETC. D. GHAMBASHIDZE. / UNI. MAN.
  288. THE CHECHENS: A HANDBOOK. ANNA ZELKINA (Ed.). IN THE SERIES: CAUCASUS WORLD. SERIES EDITOR: NICHOLAS AWDE. RICHMOND, SURREY, ENGLAND: CURZON PRESS, ?. (256 pages. Hardback. ISBN 0 7007 0642 9. Price: £30).
  289. THE CIRCASSIANS. MOHAMMAD KHEIR HAGHANDOQA. AMMAN: RAFIDI PRINT, JAN. 1985. 1st Ed. (229 PAGES). {ORIGIN, HISTORY, CUSTOMS, TRADITIONS, IMMIGRATION TO JORDAN}
  290. THE CIRCASSIANS: A HANDBOOK. IN THE SERIES: CAUCASUS WORLD. SERIES EDITOR: NICHOLAS AWDE. RICHMOND, SURREY, ENGLAND: CURZON PRESS, 1997. (Hardback. ISBN 0 7007 0644 5. Price: £30).
  291. THE COSSACKS: A HANDBOOK. IN THE SERIES: CAUCASUS WORLD. SERIES EDITOR: NICHOLAS AWDE. RICHMOND, SURREY, ENGLAND: CURZON PRESS, 1997. (Hardback. ISBN 0 7007 0658 5. Price: £30).
  292. THE CRIMEA AND TRANSCAUCASUS: BEING A NARRATIVE OF A JOURNEY IN THE KOUBAN, IN GOURIA, GEORGIA, ARMENIA, OSSETY, IMERITIA, SWANNETY, AND MINGRELIA, AND IN THE TAURIC RANGE. J. BUCHAN TELFER. LONDON: HENRY S. KING, 1876. TWO VOLUMES.
  293. THE CRIMEAN TATARS: A HANDBOOK. IN THE SERIES: CAUCASUS WORLD. SERIES EDITOR: NICHOLAS AWDE. RICHMOND, SURREY, ENGLAND: CURZON PRESS, ?
  294. THE DELUGED CIVILIZATION OF THE CAUCASUS (ISTHMUS). REGINALD AUBREY FESSENDEN (1866-1932).
  295. THE DISPLACED PEOPLES OF THE CAUCASUS IN SOVIET TIMES. IN THE SERIES: CAUCASUS WORLD. SERIES EDITOR: NICHOLAS AWDE. RICHMOND, SURREY, ENGLAND: CURZON PRESS, ?
  296. THE EXPLORATION OF THE CAUCASUS. DOUGLAS W. H. FRESHFIELD. LONDON AND NEW YORK: EDWARD ARNOLD, 1896. 2 Vols., 2 Editions. 2nd Edition: LONDON, 1902. (Vol. 2: 295 pages). {"What is to be the future of this Earthly Paradise? Its ancient and primaeval inhabitants are gone. They have been exiled for a quarter of a century; their dwellings and their tombs are alike lost in the glorious vegetation that feeds nothing but bears and mosquitoes and fevers. A people that had lived the same life in the same place since the beginning of history has been dispersed and destroyed. The Abkhazians have vanished, leaving behind them no records, and hardly sufficient material for the ethnologist who desires to ascertain to what branch of the world's 'families' they belonged." This quote from Freshfield's work was taken from the book The Abkhazians: a handbook. [Brian] George Hewitt (Ed.). Curzon Press, 1999. Freshfield was president of the Alpine Club at the time of publication and was formerly Honorary Secretary of the Royal Royal Geographical Society of London}
  297. THE FROSTY CAUCASUS, ASCENT OF ELBRUZ. F. C. GROVE. LONDON: LONGMAN'S, GREEN AND CO, 1875. (362 PAGES).
  298. THE GAGAUZ: A HANDBOOK. IN THE SERIES: CAUCASUS WORLD. SERIES EDITOR: NICHOLAS AWDE. RICHMOND, SURREY, ENGLAND: CURZON PRESS, ?
  299. THE GEORGIAN JEWS: A HANDBOOK. IN THE SERIES: CAUCASUS WORLD. SERIES EDITOR: NICHOLAS AWDE. RICHMOND, SURREY, ENGLAND: CURZON PRESS, ?
  300. THE GEORGIANS. DAVID MARSHALL LANG. ANCIENT PEOPLES AND PLACES, 51. LONDON: THAMES AND HUDSON, 1966.
  301. THE GEORGIANS: A HANDBOOK. JOHN WRIGHT (Ed.). IN THE SERIES: CAUCASUS WORLD. SERIES EDITOR: NICHOLAS AWDE. RICHMOND, SURREY, ENGLAND: CURZON PRESS, 1997. (256 pages. Hardback. ISBN 0 7007 0640 2. Price: £30).
  302. THE GREY WOLF. CAPTAIN H. S. ARMSTRONG.
  303. THE HEMSHIN: A HANDBOOK. IN THE SERIES: CAUCASUS WORLD. SERIES EDITOR: NICHOLAS AWDE. RICHMOND, SURREY, ENGLAND: CURZON PRESS, ?
  304. THE INGUSH: A HANDBOOK. IN THE SERIES: CAUCASUS WORLD. SERIES EDITOR: NICHOLAS AWDE. RICHMOND, SURREY, ENGLAND: CURZON PRESS, 1997. (Hardback. ISBN 0 7007 0647 X. Price: £30).
  305. THE IRANIAN PEOPLES OF THE CAUCASUS: A HANDBOOK. IN THE SERIES: CAUCASUS WORLD. SERIES EDITOR: NICHOLAS AWDE. RICHMOND, SURREY, ENGLAND: CURZON PRESS, 1997. (Hardback. ISBN 0 7007 0649 6. Price: £30).
  306. THE JASON VOYAGE. TIM SEVERIN, 1985. REPRINTED 1986. {"THE LEGEND IS THAT JASON AND HIS BAND OF HEROES SET SAIL FROM GREECE IN SEARCH OF THE GOLDEN FLEECE. THEIR JOURNEY TOOK THEM ACROSS THE AEGEAN SEA, THROUGH THE BOSPHOROUS AND INTO THE BLACK SEA. IN COLCHIS, PROVEN TO BE FAMOUS IN CLASSICAL TIMES FOR ITS GOLD PRODUCTION, JASON FOUND THE GOLDEN FLEECE AND HIS FUTURE WIFE, MEDEA. AT VANI, UP THE RHIONI RIVER, IN GEORGIA MANY GOLD OBJECTS HAVE BEEN FOUND. TIM SEVERIN RECONSTRUCTED JASON'S JOURNEY ON A BOAT CALLED THE ARGO."}
  307. THE JAULAN. G. SCHUMACHER, 1889. (314 pages). / UNI. MAN.
  308. THE KALMYKS: A HANDBOOK. IN THE SERIES: CAUCASUS WORLD. SERIES EDITOR: NICHOLAS AWDE. RICHMOND, SURREY, ENGLAND: CURZON PRESS, 1997. (Hardback. ISBN 0 7007 0657 7. Price: £30).
  309. THE KARAIM: A HANDBOOK. IN THE SERIES: CAUCASUS WORLD. SERIES EDITOR: NICHOLAS AWDE. RICHMOND, SURREY, ENGLAND: CURZON PRESS, ?
  310. THE LAND OF GILEAD WITH EXCURSIONS IN THE LEBANON. LAURENCE OLIPHANT. NEW YORK, 1881. {Account of Circassian settlement in Jordan on p. 218}
  311. THE LAZ, MINGRELIANS & SVANS: A HANDBOOK. IN THE SERIES: CAUCASUS WORLD. SERIES EDITOR: NICHOLAS AWDE. RICHMOND, SURREY, ENGLAND: CURZON PRESS, ?
  312. THE LOST WORLD OF THE CAUCASUS. NEGLEY FARSON. GARDEN CITY, NEW YORK: DOUBLEDAY AND COMPANY, 1958; LONDON: PENGUIN TRAVEL LIBRARY, 1988. (154 Pages). {This is a reprint of Farson's CAUCASIAN JOURNEY above}
  313. THE MOUNTAIN JEWS: A HANDBOOK. IN THE SERIES: CAUCASUS WORLD. SERIES EDITOR: NICHOLAS AWDE. RICHMOND, SURREY, ENGLAND: CURZON PRESS, 1997. (Hardback. ISBN 0 7007 0650 X. Price: £30).
  314. THE OSSET(E)S: A HANDBOOK. IN THE SERIES: CAUCASUS WORLD. SERIES EDITOR: NICHOLAS AWDE. RICHMOND, SURREY, ENGLAND: CURZON PRESS, 1997. (Hardback. ISBN 0 7007 0646 1. Price: £30).
  315. THE PEOPLES OF DAGHESTAN: A HANDBOOK. IN THE SERIES: CAUCASUS WORLD. SERIES EDITOR: NICHOLAS AWDE. RICHMOND, SURREY, ENGLAND: CURZON PRESS, 1997. (Hardback. ISBN 0 7007 0645 3. Price: £30).
  316. THE PEOPLES OF THE HILLS: ANCIENT ARARAT AND CAUCASUS. DAVID MARSHALL LANG AND CHARLES ALLEN BURNEY. LONDON: WEIDENFELD & NICOLSON, EBENEZER BAYLIS AND SON, LTD, THE TRINITY PRESS, 1971; NEW YORK: PRAEGER, 1972. (404 pages. ASIN 0297004956).
  317. THE PEOPLES OF THE USSR: AN ETHNOGRAPHIC HANDBOOK. RONALD WIXMAN. ARMONK, NEW YORK: M. E. SHARPE, Inc., 1984, 1988; LONDON: MacMILLAN, 1984.
  318. THE PEOPLES OF THE USSR: AN ETHNOGRAPHIC HANDBOOK. RONALD WIXMAN. LONDON: McMILLAN PRESS, 1984.
  319. THE RED SNOWS - AN ACCOUNT OF THE BRITISH CAUCASUS EXPEDITION, 1958. SIR JOHN HUNT AND CHRISTOPHER BRASHER. LONDON: TRAVEL BOOK CLUB, 1960.
  320. THE RUGGED FLANKS OF THE CAUCASUS. JOHN F. BADDELEY. LONDON: HUMPHREY MILFORD, 1940. REPRINTED BY AYER Co. PUBLISHERS, JUNE 1973 (ISBN: 0405053215). (Two volumes. Vol. 1: 272 pages. Vol. 2: 318 pages).
  321. THE RUSSIAN SHORES OF THE BLACK SEA IN THE AUTUMN OF 1853. LAURENCE OLIPHANT. LONDON, 1853.
  322. THE RUSSIAN EMPIRE. BARON VON HAXTHAUSEN. LONDON, 1956. Two volumes.
  323. THE SEVEN PILLARS OF WISDOM. T. E. LAWRENCE, 1966. {"Down this debatable land [Jordan] the Ottoman Government had planted a line of Circassian immigrants from the Russian Caucasus. These held their ground only by the sword and the favour of the Turks, to whom they were, of necessity, devoted."}
  324. THE SOVIET CAUCASUS. DAVID TUTAEFF. LONDON-TORONTO-BOMBAY-SYDNEY: GEORGE G. HARRAP & CO. LTD., 1942. (208 pages).
  325. THE SOVIET UNION: THE LAND AND ITS PEOPLE. GEORGES JORRE. LONDON, 1961, 2nd Ed.
  326. THE SPIRIT-WRESTLERS: A RUSSIAN JOURNEY. PHILIP MARSDEN-SMEDLEY. LONDON: HARPER COLLINS, 1998. (ISBN 0002558521 m). {Social life and customs in the Caucasus. Description of, and travel in, the Caucasus}
  327. THE TIMES GUIDE TO THE PEOPLES OF EUROPE. F. FERNANDEZ-ARMESTO (Ed.). LONDON: TIMES BOOKS, 1994. PAPERBACK EDITION 1997. {Includes The Caucasus and Peoples of the Caucasus by Brian George Hewitt}
  328. THE TRAGEDY OF A NATION: THE STORY OF THE CHERKESS. RASIM RUSHDI. JERUSALEM: THE COMMERCIAL PRESS, 1939. (66 pages). / MY COLLECTION. {With an introduction to the history and researches in the Caucasus, into early Caucasian civilisation}
  329. THE TRIBES OF THE CAUCASUS WITH AN ACCOUNT OF SCHAMYL AND THE MURIDS. BARON AUGUST FRANZ VON HAXTHAUSEN-ABBENBURG. LONDON: CHAPMAN AND HALL, 1855. (Translated by J. E. Taylor).
  330. THE TURKIC PEOPLES OF THE CAUCASUS: A HANDBOOK. IN THE SERIES: CAUCASUS WORLD. SERIES EDITOR: NICHOLAS AWDE. RICHMOND, SURREY, ENGLAND: CURZON PRESS, 1997. (Hardback. ISBN 0 7007 0648 8. Price: £30).
  331. THE UBYKH: A HANDBOOK. PEOPLES OF THE CAUCASUS HANDBOOKS, Vol. 15. IN THE SERIES: CAUCASUS WORLD. SERIES EDITOR: NICHOLAS AWDE. RICHMOND, SURREY, ENGLAND: CURZON PRESS, OCTOBER 1997. (Hardback. ISBN 0 7007 0653 4. Price: £30).
  332. THE UBYKHS [CAUCASIAN REVIEW, MUNICH (CRM), 7, 1958, pp. 100-109], T. TATLOK.
  333. THREE VOYAGES IN THE BLACK SEA TO THE COAST OF CIRCASSIA: INCLUDING DESCRIPTION OF THE PORTS, AND THE IMPORTANCE OF THEIR TRADE: WITH SKETCHES OF THE MANNERS, CUSTOMS, RELIGION, &c. &c., OF THE CIRCASSIANS. CHEVALIER [EDOUARD] TAITBOUT DE MARIGNY. LONDON: J. MURRAY, 1837. (8vo. XV, [1], 303 PAGES). {THE JOURNEYS WERE MADE IN 1818-24. THE AUTHOR WAS DUTCH CONSUL AT ODESSA. PART OF HIS ACCOUNT APPEARED IN 1829 IN COUNT POTOCKI'S VOYAGE DANS LES STEPS D'ASTRAKHAN ET DU CAUCASE. AN UNAUTHORIZED AND HEAVILY CENSORED VERSION WAS ISSUED BY THE RUSSIAN PRESS IN 1836.  THERE IS A TURKISH TRANSLATION BY AYDIN OSMAN ERKAN, ISTANBUL: NART YAYINCILIK, 1996}
  334. THROUGH THE CAUCASUS TO THE VOLGA. FRIDTJOF NANSEN. GEORGES ALLEN & LTD, 1931; NEW YORK: W. W. NORTON, 1931. (276 PAGES). {NORWEGIAN TITLE: "GJENNEM KAUKASUS TIL VOLGA," 1929. AN ACCOUNT OF A TRIP TO THE CAUCASUS AND DAGHESTAN TO HELP IN THE RELIEF OF ARMENIANS AND CAUCASIANS. MENTION OF SHAMYL. FAIRLY INTERESTING. GERMAN VERSION DURCH DEN KAUKASUS ZUR VOLGA ABOVE}
  335. TIFLIS. NAPOLEON NEY. BIBLIOTHEQUE ILLUSTREE DES VOYAGES AUTOUR DU MONDE PAR TERRE & PAR MER, PLON, PARIS, 1899.
  336. TO CAUCASUS. THE END OF ALL THE EARTH: AN ILLUSTRATED COMPANION TO THE CAUCASUS AND TRANSCAUCASIA. SIR FITZROY MACLEAN (1911-). LONDON: JONATHAN CAPE, 1930. REPRINTED BY LITTLE IN 1976. (210 PAGES. 26cm.). {WITH ILLUSTRATIONS (SOME COLOURED). 49 LEAVES OF PLATES. CONTINUES AUTHOR'S TO THE BACK OF BEYOND. EXTRACTS}
  337. TRAITE SUR LE COMMERCE DE LA MER-NOIRE, PAR M. DE PEYSSON(N)EL, ANCIEN CONSUL-GENERAL. PARIS, 1784-1787. 2 Vol. in-8. {THE AUTHOR WAS BORN IN 1727 AND DIED IN 1790}
  338. TRANSCAUCASIA. B. VON HAXTHAUSEN, 1854. (476 PAGES). {ACCOUNT OF MONGOL CONQUEST}
  339. TRANSCAUCASIA AND ARARAT. BEING NOTES OF A VACATION TOUR IN THE AUTUMN OF 1876. JAMES BRYCE. LONDON: MACMILLAN AND CO., LTD. NEW YORK: THE MACMILLAN CO., 1896. REPRINTED BY ARNO PRESS, NEW YORK, 1970. {WITH ENGRAVING AND COLOURED MAP. CHAPTER II, PP. 43-90 THE CAUCASUS. THERE IS A FRENCH TRANSLATION TRANSCAUCASIE ET ARARAT BELOW}
  340. TRANSCAUCASIE ET ARARAT. JAMES BRYCE. LONDON: MACMILLAN & CIE, 1877. {FRENCH VERSION OF PRECEDING ENTRY}
  341. TRANS-JORDAN, AN ECONOMIC SURVEY. A. KONIKOFF. JERUSALEM, 1943. {Account of Circassian settlement on p. 18. Circassian settlements at Amman, Wadi Sir, Jarash and Na'ur are mentioned. Also listed are Chechen settlements at Suwaylih, Zarqa, Rusayfa and Sukhna}
  342. ? TRAVEL DIARIES OF JOHANNES DE GALONIFONTIBUS. {According to Hewitt, pp. 198-9 Abkhazia: A Problem of Identity and Ownership, in Politics Section below, Galonifontibus passed through the Caucasus in 1404 and wrote: Beyond these [Circassians] is Abkhazia, a small hilly country... They have their own language.. To the east of them, in the direction of Georgia, lies the country called Mingrelia... They have their own language... Georgia is to the east of this country. Georgia is not an integral whole... They have their own language}
  343. TRAVELS IN CIRCASSIA. E. TAITBOUT DE MARIGNY (1793-1852). {SEE VOYAGES EN CIRCASSIE BELOW}
  344. TRAVELS IN CIRCASSIA. L. OLIPHANT. PP. 314-401 IN TRAVEL, ADVENTURE AND SPORT, V. 6, 1890/91.
  345. TRAVELS IN CIRCASSIA, KRIM TARTARY, & C. INCLUDING A STEAM VOYAGE DOWN THE DANUBE, FROM VIENNA TO CONSTANTINOPLE AND ROUND THE BLACK SEA, IN 1836. EDMUND SPENCER. LONDON: HENRY COLBURN, 1837. (IN TWO VOLUMES. 8 vo. Vol. 1: XXXVII, 355 PAGES. Vol. 2: XIII, 425 PAGES). {THERE IS AN ENGLISH-TARTAR-CIRCASSIAN VOCABULARY  OF ABOUT 110 ENTRIES APPENDED TO VOLUME 1, PP. 352-5. THE CIRCASSIAN IS OF THE WESTERN BRANCH. THERE IS A MAP OF THE BLACK SEA, AND NUMEROUS ILLUSTRATIONS}
  346. TRAVELS IN GEORGIA. SIR ROBERT KER-PORTER. LONDON, 1820.
  347. TRAVELS IN PERSIA, GEORGIA AND KOORDISTAN WITH SKETCHES OF THE COSSACKS AND THE CAUCASUS. MORITZ (MAURICE) WAGNER (1813-1887). LONDON: HURST AND BLACKETT, 1856. (In three volumes). REPRINTED: WESTMEAD, FARNBOROUGH, HANTS.: GREGG INTERNATIONAL PUBLISHERS, 1971. (18cm.). {"THE CIRCASSIAN WARRIOR IS SELDOM SEEN IN THE STREETS OF TIFLIS, AND IS IMMEDIATELY DISTINGUISHED IN THE CROWD BY HIS KNIGHTLY FORM, THE NOBLE PROFILE OF HIS COUNTENANCE, WHOSE EXPRESSION BESPEAKS MANLY BOLDNESS AND ENERGY.... WITH FIRM AND HAUGHTY STEP, THE CIRCASSIAN STALKS THROUGH THE CROWD, AND ALL, INCLUDING THE DRUNKEN COSSACK, MAKE WAY FOR HIM.... THE MAJORITY OF CIRCASSIANS WHOM I SAW AT TIFLIS CONSISTED OF CHIEFTAINS, OR OF INFLUENTIAL USDENS, OF CONFEDERATE OR SUBDUED TRIBES, WHO HAD COME DOWN TO PAY THEIR RESPECTS TO, AND OBTAIN, PERHAPS, SOME PRESENTS FROM THE COMMANDER-IN-CHIEF OF THE RUSSIAN ARMY." -- COMMENTS MADE IN 1843}
  348. TRAVELS IN RUSSIA, THE CRIMEA, THE CAUCASUS AND GEORGIA. ROBERT LYALL. LONDON: T. CADELL, 1825 (In two vols. in-8); NEW YORK: ARNO PRESS, 1970.
  349. TRAVELS IN THE CAUCASUS. FREDERIC SCHOBERL.
  350. TRAVELS IN THE CAUCASUS AND GEORGIA, PERFORMED IN THE YEARS 1807 AND 1808, BY COMMAND OF THE RUSSIAN GOVERNMENT, BY JULIUS VON KLAPROTH, AULIC COUNSELLOR OF HIS MAJESTY THE EMPEROR OF RUSSIA, MEMBER OF THE ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF St. PETERSBURGH, ETC. LONDON: HENRY COLBURN, 1814. (421 pages).
  351. TRAVELS IN THE CENTRAL CAUCASUS AND BASHAN. DOUGLAS W. H. FRESHFIELD. LONDON, 1869.
  352. TRAVELS IN THE EASTERN CAUCASUS ON THE CASPIAN AND BLACK SEAS, ESPECIALLY IN DAGESTAN, AND ON THE FRONTIERS OF PERSIA AND TURKEY DURING THE SUMMER OF 1871. SIR ARTHUR THURLOW CUNYNGHAME. LONDON: JOHN MURRAY, 1872.
  353. TRAVELS IN THE WESTERN CAUCASUS, INCLUDING A TOUR THROUGH IMERITIA, MINGRELIA, TURKEY, MOLDOVIA, GALICIA, SILESIA, AND MORAVIA IN 1836. EDMUND SPENCER. LONDON: HENRY COLBURN,1838. (In two volumes. Vol. 1: 358 pages. Vol. 2: 374 pages). {Also author of TRAVELS IN CIRCASSIA... above}
  354. TRAVELS IN THE STEPPES OF THE CASPIAN SEA, THE CRIMEA, THE CAUCASUS. XAVIER HOMMAIRE DE HELL. LONDON: CHAPMAN & HALL, 1847. {Translation of original French LES STEPPES DE LA MER CASPIENNE, LA CRIMEE... above}
  355. TRAVELS IN THE TRANS-CAUCASIAN PROVINCES OF RUSSIA, AND ALONG THE SOUTHERN SHORE OF THE LAKES OF VAN AND URUMIAH, IN THE AUTUMN AND WINTER OF 1837. CAPTAIN RICHARD WILBRAHAM. LONDON: J. MURRAY, 1839.
  356. TRAVELS THROUGH THE SOUTHERN PROVINCES OF THE RUSSIAN EMPIRE, IN THE YEARS 1793 AND 1794 BY P. S. PALLAS, COUNSELLOR OF STATE TO HIS IMPERIAL MAJESTY OF ALL THE RUSSIAS, KNIGHT, & C. LONDON, 1812. IN TWO VOLUMES. 2nd Ed. ILLUSTRATED WITH ONE HUNDRED AND TWENTY-ONE PLATES. (Vol. 1: 552 pages. Vol. 2: 523 pages) / MY COLLECTION. {ACCOUNT OF SOCIAL AND TRIBAL STRUCTURE OF THE CIRCASSIANS IN THE 18th CENTURY. THERE ARE SOME FACTUAL MISTAKES. THE AUTHOR WAS OBVIOUSLY BIASED AGAINST THE CIRCASSIANS. THIS IS AN ENGLISH TRANSLATION OF THE ORIGINAL GERMAN. THERE IS ALSO A TRANSLATION INTO ARABIC ( AMMAN, 1982) / MY COLLECTION}
  357. TRAVELS TO TANA AND PERSIA. JOSAFA (GIOSAFAT) BARBARO AND AMBROGIO CONTARINI. TRANSLATED BY WILLIAM THOMAS. LONDON, 1873.
  358. TROIS MOIS EN KAKHETIE (1877-1881). CARLA SERENA. PARIS: LE TOUR DU MONDE, 1885.
  359. TURKEY, RUSSIA, BLACK SEA AND CIRCASSIA. EDMUND SPENCER. LONDON: ROUTLEDGE, 1854. (412 PAGES).
  360. TURKISH HAREMS AND CIRCASSIAN HOMES. ANNIE JANE TENNANT HARVEY (of Ickwell Bury). LONDON: HURST AND BLACKETT, 1871. {"Were the land properly cultivated, Abasia (as this part of Circassia is called) would be a paradise. The soil is so fertile, and the climate so temperate, that nearly every description of grain, fruit, and vegetable might be grown with very little trouble ... Loving their wild country with passionate devotion, no reverses dishearten them. War is both their duty and their happiness ... A soft breeze just filled the sails, and with really sad hearts we watched landmark after landmark disappear, until, on rounding the headland of the bay, the last light of the little town was shut out, and we said farewell, probably for ever, to the loveliest spot we have ever seen." This quote from Mrs. Harvey's work was taken from the book The Abkhazians: a handbook. [Brian] George Hewitt (Ed.). Curzon Press, 1999}
  361. TWELVE SECRETS OF THE CAUCASUS. ESSAD-BEY (1905-1942). NEW YORK: THE VIKING PRESS, 1931. REPRINTED 1981. (X, 323 PAGES. 22 cm.). {TRANSLATED FROM THE GERMAN ORIGINAL ZWOLF GEHEIMNISSE IM KAUKASUS BY G. CHYCHELE WATERSTON. CONTENTS: INTRODUCTION, PP. VII-X; INTO THE MOUNTAINS, PP. 3-8; THE IDYLLIC ROBBERS' DEN, PP. 9-13; THE LAND OF MOUNTAINS, 14-25; INACCESSIBLE TREASURES, PP. 26-37; THE NAKED CITY, PP. 38- 48; THE CAUCASIAN SCIMITAR, PP. 49-55; LOVE, PP. 61-77; THE SLAVE TRADE, PP. 78-89; HOW TO BECOME A PRINCE, PP. 90-96; THE BLOOD FEUD, PP. 97-111; ALAMUT--THE GARDEN OF HEAVEN, PP. 112-115; CHRISTIANS WHO DO NOT KNOW THE NAME OF CHRIST, PP. 116-126; GERMANY IN THE MOUNTAINS, 127-138; CIVIS ROMANUS SUM, PP. 139-147; THE HERO OF THE MOUNTAINS, PP. 148-160; LAMAROI, PP. 161-178; THE VILLAGE OF POETS, PP. 179-191; THE EMPIRE OF THE JEWS, PP. 192-210; HOW THE CAUCASUS WAS CONQUERED, PP. 211-232; NARSAN--THE BLOOD OF THE GIANT, PP. 233-250; THE CASTLE OF LOVE AND BETRAYAL, 251-261; THE ART OF HEALING IN THE MOUNTAINS, PP. 262-272; TRUE STORIESFROM DAGHESTAN, PP. 273-283; PLEASE COME AND VISIT ME, PP. 284-296; RUINS, DEAD CITIES, AND CHURCHES, PP. 297-308; THE CRADLE OF HUMANITY, PP. 309-316; A MORE OR LESS EXTRAVAGANT CONCLUSION, PP. 317-323}
  362. UNDISCOVERED RUSSIA. ?. / UNI. MAN.
  363. UN TOURISTE AU CAUCASE. VOLGA - CASPIENNE - CAUCASE PAR A. KOECHLIN-SCHWARTZ. PARIS: J. HETZEL ET Cie, EDITEURS, ? 1880. (351 PAGES). {WITH A MAP SHOWING TRAVEL ROUTE}
  364. URGESCHICHTE KAUKASIENS. FRANZ HANCAR. WIEN: ANTON SCHROLL & CO., 1937; LEIPZIG: HEINRICH KELLER, 1937.
  365. VALLEY OF FORGOTTEN PEOPLE. GEORGE SAVA. LONDON: FABER & FABER, 1941. / UNI. MAN. {VERY INTERESTING}
  366. VIAGGIO DI JOSAFAT BARBARO, ALLA TANA ET NELLA PERSIA. RAMUSIO, RACCOLTA DI VIAGGI, T. II, P. 92. VENETIA, 1583. {VOYAGE MADE IN 1436 A.D. BY JOSEPH BARBARO. FOR AN ENGLISH TRANSLATION REFER TO TRAVELS TO TANA AND PERSIA ABOVE}
  367. VIER VORTRAGE UBER DEN KAUKASUS. GUSTAV RADDE. PETERMANNS [PATTERMANS] MITTEILUNGEN, FASC. SUPPL. ERGAENZUNG, No. 36, GOTHA, 1874.
  368. VOLKER, SPRACHEN UND KULTUREN DES SUDLICHEN KAUKASUS. ?.
  369. VOLKSTUM UND GLAUBENSBEKENNTNIS IM KAUKASUS [DER NEUE ORIENT, III, P. 193], ALFRED COSACK.
  370. VOYAGE. JAN HRABIA POTOCKI (COUNT). / UNI. MAN.
  371. VOYAGE A CONSTANTINOGORSK, LE LONG DE LA LIGNE DU CAUCASE [NOUVELLES ANNALES DES VOYAGES, T. 49, 1831], M. D'ENGELHARDT & PARROT.
  372. VOYAGE A LA VALLEE DU TEREK [NOUVELLES ANNALES DES VOYAGES, T. 51, 1831], M. D'ENGELHARDT & PARROT.
  373. VOYAGE AU MONT CAUCASE ET EN GEORGIE. JULES VON KLAPROTH (1783-1835). PARIS: LIBRAIRIE DE C. GOSSELIN; LIBRAIRIE CLASSIQUE-ELEMENTAIRE, 1823. (2 Vol. in-8. 22cm.). {FOLD MAP. THE VOYAGE WAS MADE IN THE YEARS 1807-08. THIS IS A FRENCH TRANSLATION OF THE ORIGINAL GERMAN REISE IN DEN KAUKASUS UND NACH GEORGIEN ... ABOVE. 'LANGUES DU CAUCASE" T. 2, PP. 289-577. GRAESSE IV, 27}
  374. VOYAGE AUTOUR DU CAUCASE, CHEZ LES TCHERKESSES ET LES ABKHASES, EN COLCHIDE, EN GEORGIE, EN ARMENIE ET EN CRIMEE. FREDERIC DUBOIS DE MONTPEREUX. 6 Vols. ET UN ATLAS in-folio. PARIS, 1839-1843. {THE AUTHOR DRAWS PARALLELS BETWEEN CIRCASSIAN CULTURE ON THE ONE HAND AND LITHUANIAN AND LATVIAN CULTURES ON THE OTHER. "LA MANIERE DE BATIR, LA DISPOSITION DES MAISONS ET DES HABITATIONS, LE COSTUME, LES IDEES RELIGIEUSES, L'ADORATION DES ARBRES ET DU TONNERRE, LES GOUTS POUR CERTAINS METS, LE RESPECT DE L'HOSPITALITE, L'ANCIEN FEODALISME, ETC., SONT AUTANT DE POINTS DE RATTACHE ENTRE CES PEUPLES ELOIGNES. LES PEUPLADES DU CAUCASE, EN GENERAL, SONT UN EXAMPLE RARE DE LA CONSTANCE QUE METTENT CERTAINES NATIONS A CONSERVER LEURS ANCIENNES MOEURS; CE QUI SE FAISAIT MILLE ANS AVANT J.-C, CE QUI SE FAISAIT DU TEMPS DE STRABON SE FAIT ENCORE AUJOURD'HUI. PLUS ON PENETRE DANS L'INTERIEUR DES VALLEES, MOINS EXPOSEES A L'INFLUENCE DES REVOLUTIONS ETRANGERES, PLUS ON Y RENCONTRE LES USAGES ANTIQUES, LES VIEILLES COUTUMES; SOUVENT ON SE CROIT AUX TEMPS HOMERIQUES EN VISITANT LES DESCENDANTS DES COLCHES GEORGIENS AUX SOURCES DU PHASE ET DE L'ENGOUR. MAIS AUCUNE DE CES RACES PRIMITIVES N'EST RESTEE PLUS FIDELE A CES ANTIQUES MOEURS QUE CELLE DES TCHERKESSES. ON SE REPRESENTE ORDINAIREMENT LES TCHERKESSES COMME UN RAMASSIS DE BRIGANDS ET D'HOMMES SAUVAGES SANS FOI NI LOI; ON SE TROMPE. L'ETAT ACTUEL DE LA CIRCASSIE NOUS DONNE UNE IDEE DE LA CIVILISATION DE LA GERMANIE ET DE LA FRANCE SOUS SES PREMIERS ROIS. C'EST UN MODELE DE L'ARISTOCRATIE FEODALE, CHEVALERESQUE DU MOYEN-AGE, C'EST L'ARISTOCRATIE HEROIQUE DE LA GRECE ANTIQUE. LA CONSTITUTION EST PUREMENT FEODALE; L'ESPRIT DE CASTE EST AUSSI SEVERE QUE NAGUERE EN FRANCE, EN ALLEMAGNE. LES PRINCES, LES ANCIENS NOBLES, LES AFFRANCHIS, LES SERFS, LES ESCLAVES FORMENT CINQ CLASSES TRES DISTINCTES. LE SYSTEME FEODALE EST AUSSI ANTIQUE QUE L'HISTOIRE DANS LES REGIONS CAUCASIENNES, ET DANS L'ARMENIE ON LE RETROUVE A TOUTES LES EPOQUES; IL FAISAIT AUSSI PARTIE DE LA CONSTITUTION DES NATIONS SARMATES"}
  375. VOYAGE DANS LA PAYS DES TCHERKESSES. E. TAITBOUT DE MARIGNY. pp. 249-356 IN LE COMTE J. POTOCKY'S 'VOYAGE DANS LES STEPPES D' ASTRAKHAN ET DU CAUCASE', PARIS. 2 Vols. PUBLISHED BY J. KLAPROTH.
  376. VOYAGE DANS LA RUSSIE MERIDIONALE ET DANS LES PROVINCES AU-DELA DU CAUCASE, FAIT DEPUIS 1820 JUSQU'EN 1824. CHEVALIER DE GAMBA. PARIS, 1825-1826, 2 Vols.
  377. VOYAGE DANS LES ENVIRONS DU MONT-ELBROUS. KUPFFER. RAPPORT FAIT A L'ACADEMIE DES SCIENCES DE SAINT-PETERSBOURG, 1830.
  378. VOYAGE DANS LES STEPPES D'ASTRAKHAN ET DU CAUCASE. COMTE JEAN POTOCKI (1761-1815). PUBLIE PAR KLAPROTH, PARIS, 1829. REPRINTED BY FAYARD, 1980. {THE VOYAGE WAS MADE IN 1797}
  379. VOYAGE DANS LES STEPPES DE LA MER CASPIENNE ET DANS LA RUSSIE MERIDIONALE. M-me HOMMAIRE DE HELL. PARIS, 1868. {SEE LES STEPPES DE LA MER CASPIENNE ... ABOVE}
  380. VOYAGE DANS LES STEPPES DU MIDI DE LA RUSSIE. XAVIER HOMMAIRE DE HELL. PARIS, 1844. 3 Vols.
  381. VOYAGE DANS LES VALLEES CENTRALES DU CAUCASE, POUR L'ETUDE APPROFONDIE DE LA LANGUE, DES MOEURS ET DES TRADITIONS POPULAIRES DES MONTAGNARDS DE L'OSSETIE, FAIT EN 1836 ET 1837. A. M. SJOGREN. NOUVELLES ANNALES DES VOYAGES ET DES SCIENCES GEOGRAPHIQUES, Vol. I-II, 1848. {Translated from German. Introduction and commentary by the editor, Vivien de Saint-Martin. Deals with the languages and ethnography of the Ossetians and the Georgians}
  382. VOYAGE DE HOLSTEIN EN PERSE. ADAM OLEARIUS (1600-1671). TRANSLATED BY WICQUEFORT. AMSTERDAM, 1727, 2 Vol. in-4. {THE VOYAGE WAS MADE IN THE PERIOD 1636-38}
  383. VOYAGE DE MOZDOK A VLADI-KAVKAS [NOUVELLES ANNALES DES VOYAGES, T. 51, 1831], M. D'ENGELHARDT & PARROT.
  384. VOYAGE DE PERSE, PAR AMBROISE CONTARINI. COLLECTION BERGERON, 1735. {VOYAGE MADE IN 1473 A.D.}
  385. VOYAGE EN MINGRELIE. AD. BERGE. PARIS, 1864.
  386. VOYAGE REMARQUABLE DE GUILLAUME RUBRUQUIS, COLLECTION BERGERON. LA HAYE, 1735. {VOYAGE WAS MADE IN 1253 A.D.}
  387. VOYAGES AU CAUCASE ET EN ASIE CENTRALE. LA DESCRIPTION DES COLLECTIONS PAR LES Drs. JEAN JANKO ET BELA DE POSTA. COMTE EUGENE DE ZICHY. BUDAPEST, 1897.
  388. VOYAGES DANS LA RUSSIE MERIDIONALE ET PARTICULIEREMENT DANS LES PROVINCES AU DELA DU CAUCASE, FAITS DEPUIS 1820 JUSQ'EN 1824. JEAN FRANCOIS GAMBA. PARIS, 1826, 2 Vol. 2nd Ed. {WITH ATLAS}
  389. VOYAGES DANS LES GOUVERNEMENTS MERIDIONAUX DE L'EMPIRE DE RUSSIE. PETER SIMON PALLAS (1741-1811). PARIS, 1805. 2 Vol. in-4. {MADE IN THE PERIOD 1793-94. WITH ATLAS}
  390. VOYAGES DE CORNEILLE LE BRUN, PAR LA MOSCOVIE ET LA PERSE. AMSTERDAM, 1718. 2 Vol. in-folio. {WITH PLATES AND MAPS. VOYAGE WAS MADE IN 1701}
  391. VOYAGES DE M. P. S. PALLAS … . PETER SIMON PALLAS (1741-1811). / UNI. MAN.
  392. VOYAGES DE Mr. LE CHEVALIER CHARDIN EN PERSE ET AUTRES LIEUX DE L'ORIENT. AMSTERDAM, 1706. {SEE JOURNAL DU VOYAGE DE CH. CHARDIN, EN PERSE ..., ABOVE}
  393. VOYAGES DE SIR ROBERT KER-PORTER, EN GEORGIE, EN PERSE, EN ARMENIE. {MADE IN THE PERIOD 1817-20. THE ENGLISH EDITION INCLUDES PLATES}
  394. VOYAGES DE TIFLIS A STAVROPOL, PAR LE DEFILE DU DARIAL (1858). BLANCHARD. LE TOUR DU MONDE, PARIS, 1861.
  395. VOYAGES DU SIEUR ABRI DE LA MOTRAYE  EN EUROPE, ASIE ET AFRIQUE. A LA HAYE, 1727. 3 Vol. petit in-folio. {THE AUTHOR WAS BORN IN 1674 AND DIED IN 1743}
  396. VOYAGES EN CIRCASSIE EN 1818. BRUXELLES, 1821. ODESSA, 1836. E. TAITBOUT DE MARIGNY (1793-1852). {VOYAGES FAITS SUR LA COTE DE CIRCASSIE EN 1818 PAR TAITBOUT DE MARIGNY, CAPITAINE DE LA COILETTE "LA CIRCASSIENNE". L'EDITION DE BRUXELLES A UN ATLAS}
  397. VOYAGES EN RUSSIE, EN TARTARIE ET EN TURQUIE. E.-D. CLARKE. PARIS, 1812. 2 Vol. in-4. {TRANSLATED FROM ENGLISH}
  398. VOYAGES EN TURQUIE ET EN EGYPTE. JAN HRABIA POTOCKI. 1980.
  399. VOYAGES HISTORIQUES ET GEOGRAPHIQUES DANS LES PAYS SITUE ENTRE LA MER-NOIRE ET LA MER-CASPIENNE. PARIS, 1798. 1 Vol. gr. in-4. {AVEC UNE CARTE}
  400. WANDERUNGEN IM ORIENT WAEHREND DER JAHRE 1843 UND 1844. C. KOCH. WEIMAR, 1846-7. 3 Vols.
  401. ZWEYTE REISE NACH PERSIEN, VON 1745 A 1747; AUSGEFERTIGT 1765. JOHAN JACOB LERCH. BUSCHING'S MAGAZIN, 10ter THEIL, 1776, P. 365.
  402. ZWOLF GEHEIMNISSE IM KAUKASUS. ASSAD-BEY. BERLIN-ZURICH: DEUTSCH-SCHWEIZERISCHE VERLAGSANSTALT (EIGENBRODLER-VERLAG, A.-G.), 1930. (271 PAGES. 20 cm.). {TRANSLATED INTO ENGLISH BY G. CHYCHELE WATERSTON. ENGLISH TITLE: TWELVE SECRETS OF THE CAUCASUS, (SEE ABOVE)}

5
LANGUAGES, LINGUISTICS AND EDUCATION
  1. ? ABAZA [FOUNDATION OF LANGUAGE (FL) - INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF LANGUAGE AND PHILOSOPHY, 2, 1968 (1969), PP. 275-278]. / UNI. MAN.
  2. ABAZA. K. LOMTATIDZE AND R. KLYCHEV. PP. 89-154 IN THE INDIGENOUS LANGUAGES OF THE CAUCASUS 2: NORTH WEST CAUCASUS. BRIAN GEORGE HEWITT (Ed.). DELMAR, NEW YORK: CARAVAN BOOKS, 1989.
  3. ? ABAZA IN ANATOLIA [FOLIA LINGUISTICA (FoL), 2, 1968 (1969), PP. 275-278], GEORGES DUMEZIL.
  4. ABKHAZ. B[RIAN] G[EORGE] HEWITT AND Z[AIRA] K. KHIBA. LINGUA DESCRIPTIVE STUDIES V. 2. AMSTERDAM: NORTH-HOLLAND PUBLISHING COMPANY, 1979. (V, 283 pages. 24cm. ISBN 0-7099-3743-1). {Bibliography on pp. 282-3}
  5. ABKHAZ. B[RIAN] G[EORGE] HEWITT AND Z[AIRA] K. KHIBA. CROOM HELM DESCRIPTIVE GRAMMARS SERIES. LONDON - NEW YORK: ROUTLEDGE, 1989. (282 pages. 24cm. ISBN 0415038839). {First published in 1979 by North-Holland Publishing Company (preceding entry). Includes bibliographical references}
  6. ? ABKHAZ [JOURNAL OF LINGUISTICS, 15, 1979, pp. 87-92].
  7. ? ABKHAZ [BEDI KARTLISA (BK), 37, 1979, pp. 298-308], BRIAN GEORGE HEWITT.
  8. ABKHAZ. BRIAN GEORGE HEWITT. Pp. 37-88 in THE INDIGENOUS LANGUAGES OF THE CAUCASUS (SERIES EDITOR JOHN GREPPIN), Vol. 2 (Ed. BRIAN GEORGE HEWITT): "NORTH WEST CAUCASUS". NEW YORK: CARAVAN BOOKS, 1989.
  9. ? ABKHAZ [LINGUA 47, 1979, pp. 151-188].
  10. ABKHAZ-ENGLISH DICTIONARY. WIM LUCASSEN AND ALBERT STERREVELD. NEW YORK, DELMAR.
  11. ? ABKHAZ KINSHIP TERMS [BEDI KARTLISA, XXXIX, pp. 256-67], BRIAN GEORGE HEWITT. {Also includes Georgian and Mingrelian entries}
  12. ABKHAZIAN PROVERBS. A. ARCH'ELIA. SUKHUM, ABKHAZIA, 1986. {In the Abkhaz language}
  13. ABKHAZIAN TEXTS IN GERMAN. ROBERT LACH. WIEN, LEIPZIG, 1928, 1930. Pp. 254, 63. / BRIT. MUS.
  14. ABKHAZ NEWSPAPER READER. BRIAN GEORGE HEWITT AND ZAIRA K. KHIBA. KENSINGTON: DUNWOODY PRESS, 1997.
  15. ABKHAZ-RUSSIAN DICTIONARY. {Professor Hewitt has mentioned in the book The abkhazians: a handbook (Curzon Press, 1999) that Bernard Outtier has discovered a manuscript of an early 19th century Abkhaz-Russian dictionary in a Tbilisi archive, which will be published. Details will be documented as they become available.}
  16. ABKHAZ STRESS SHIFT. L. TRIGO. Pp. 191-235 in CAUCASIAN PERSPECTIVES. [BRIAN] GEORGE HEWITT (Ed.). MUNCHEN: LINCOM EUROPA, UNTERSCHLEISSHEIM 1992.
  17. ABKHAZ STUDIES. A. SPRUIT. DOCTORAL PUBLICATION, HOLLAND, 1986.
  18. ABKHAZ-TURKISH DICTIONARY. F. AGRBA. ISTANBUL, TURKEY, 1990.
  19. ABOUT SOME ENGLISH-KABARDIAN-RUSSIAN PHRASEOLOGICAL PARALLELS. A. [G.] EMOUZOV. SCIENTIFIC WRITINGS OF KBNII, Vol. 20, PHILOLOGICAL SERIES. NALCHIK, KABARDINO-BALKAR REPUBLIC, 1964. {See ENGLISH-KABARDIAN-RUSSIAN PHRASE DICTIONARY. A. G. EMOUZOV. NALCHIK, 1992}
  20. ABSTRACT AND CONCRETE IN CHUVASH MORPHOPHONEMICS [FOLIA SLAVICA, Vol. 7, Nos. 1-2 (in one cover), 1984], MICHAEL DOBROVOLSKY. {Vol. TITLE: PAPERS FROM THE THIRD CONFERENCE ON THE NON-SLAVIC LANGUAGES OF THE USSR, UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO, MARCH 23-25, 1983. HOWARD I. ARONSON (Ed.). COLUMBIA, OHIO: SLAVICA PUBLISHERS}
  21. A CIRCASSIAN MEVLID [STUDIES IN SLAVIC AND GENERAL LINGUISTICS, 1, AMSTERDAM: RODOPI, 1980, pp. 323-35], RIEKS SMEETS. {STUDY OF A CELEBRATION OF THE BIRTH OF PROPHET MUHAMMAD, MAWLID, IN THE SHAPSUGH DIALECT OF CIRCASSIAN IN TURKEY.  THE HYMN, WHICH WAS WRITTEN, EDITED AND PRINTED BY CIRCASSIANS IN THE EARLY PART OF THE TWENTIETH CENTURY, IS ABOUT 1000 LINES LONG. I INCLUDE SMEETS' TRANSLATION OF A SMALL PART THEREOF. (1) DAY AND NIGHT SHE KEPT CRYING, (2) CRYING, SHE MADE HEAVEN AND EARTH CRY, (3) REACHING FOR NEITHER FOOD NOR DRINK, SHE STAYED THERE, (4) SHE BECAME LIKE DRUNK, NOT KNOWING HERSELF ANYMORE. (5) AND SHE SAID "WA HASRETA, WA FIRQETA, (6) WHAT WILL I DO WITH MYSELF, OH, MY FATHER, WA FIRQETA?" (7) SHE SAID "WHEREVER HE WENT, OH, MELANCHOLY, (8) WHEREVER HE DWELLED, MY BEAUTIFUL FATHER, OUR PROPHET, (9) HE ALWAYS TOOK MERCY UPON US, (10) HE ALWAYS GUIDED US TO THE STRAIGHT PATH. (11) IN MY HEART, NOW, A GREAT FIRE HAS LEAPT UP, (12) I HAVE MET WITH GREAT GRIEF WHICH WILL CAUSE ME TO DIE". (13) SAYING THIS ALL THE TIME, WEEPING AND SIGHING, SHE WAS THERE. (14) SHE WEPT TILL BLOOD CAME FORTH OUT OF HER EYES. (15) ONE DAY, MANY FRIENDS CAME TOGETHER, (16) "SAY, ALI, TELL HER NOT TO CRY", THAT IS WHAT THEY TOLD HIM. (17) "IF HE WOULD RETURN BECAUSE OF OUR CRYING, (18) WE WOULD CRY DAY AND NIGHT, KILLING OURSELVES"}
  22. A COMPARATIVE GRAMMAR OF THE HITTITE LANGUAGE. E. H. STURTEVANT. NEW HAVEN, 1951.
  23. A COMPARISON WITH KABARDIAN [WORD XXI, 1965, pp. 86-101], E. G. ? PULLEYBLANK. {Technical material. There is a mention of Kuipers' work}
  24. A CONTRIBUTION TO ABKHAZ LEXICOGRAPHY: THE SECRET LANGUAGE OF THE HUNTERS [BEDI KARTLISA (BK), 38, 180, pp. 269-77], Z[AIRA] K. KHIBA.{An extract}
  25. A CONTRIBUTION TO THE ANALYSIS OF THE QABARDIAN LANGUAGE. AERT H. KUIPERS. A DOCTORAL DISSERTATION, COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY, 1951. {For an enlarged version of this work, refer to PHONEME AND MORPHEME IN KABARDIAN (EASTERN CIRCASSIAN), by same author, below}
  26. ACOUSTIC FEATURES OF CERTAIN CONSONANTS AND CONSONANT CLUSTERS IN KABARDIAN [BULLETIN OF THE SCHOOL OF ORIENTAL AND AFRICAN STUDIES (BSOAS), 33, UNIVERSITY OF LONDON, 1970, pp. 92-106], E. J. A. HENDERSON.
  27. ACTANCE ERGATIVE … VERBAL DE L'OUBYKH [LINGUA 56, 1982, pp. 201-234], GEORG BOSSONG. {Ubykh linguistics}
  28. ADAPTIVE SIGNIFICANCE OF GRAMMATICAL STRUCTURE. JOHN COLARUSSO. ?. (68 pages).
  29. A DICTIONARY OF PROTO-CIRCASSIAN ROOTS. A[ERT] H[ENDRIK] KUIPERS. THE PETER DE RIDDER PRESS PUBLICATIONS ON NORTH CAUCASIAN LANGUAGES, 1. LISSE / NETHERLANDS, 1975. (93 pages. 30cm.). {"THIS DICTIONARY OF PROTO-CIRCASSIAN ELEMENTS IS MEANT TO BE A CONTRIBUTION TOWARDS ESTABLISHING STRICT SOUND-CORRESPONDENCES BETWEEN THE NORTH-WEST CAUCASIAN LANGUAGES: CIRCASSIAN, UBYKH AND ABKHAZ. A RECONSTRUCTION OF THE PROTO-CIRCASSIAN SOUND SYSTEM WAS CARRIED OUT BY THE AUTHOR IN PROTO CIRCASSIAN PHONOLOGY: AN ESSAY IN RECONSTRUCTION, 1963  (SEE BELOW). THE NEXT STEP, TAKEN HERE, IS TO PRESENT A LARGE NUMBER OF ELEMENTS FOR WHICH THE PROTO-CIRCASSIAN FORM CAN BE ESTABLISHED. THESE WILL ALLOW COMPARISON WITH UBYKH AND ABKHAZ." THE CIRCASSIAN LANGUAGES USED ARE KABARDIAN, BZHADUGH AND TEMIRGOI. BIBLIOGRAPHY ON P. 8. Reviewed by Catherine Paris in BULLETIN DE LA SOCIETE DE LINGUISTIQUE DE PARIS, COMPTES RENDUS, 1978, pp. 333-42}
  30. A DICTIONARY OF THE CIRCASSIAN LANGUAGE: CONTAINING ALL THE MOST NECESSARYWORDS FOR THE TRAVELLER, THE SOLDIER, AND THE SAILOR: WITH THE EXACT PRONUNCIATION OF EACH WORD IN THE ENGLISH CHARACTER. LOUIS LOEWE. BOUND WITH THE PHILOLOGICAL SOCIETY'S PROCEEDINGS, Vol. VI, 8 Vo., LONDON: G. BELL, 1854. / UNI. MAN. {English-Circassian-Turkish dictionary}
  31. ADIGHEAN (WESTERN CIRCASSIAN) VOCABULARY. ADEL ABDULSALAM. TOKYO: INSTITUTE FOR THE STUDY OF LANGUAGES AND CULTURES OF ASIA AND AFRICA, 1984. {An English-Adyghe-Arabic dictionary of 1,000 entries}
  32. ADIGHEY EXPLANATORY DICTIONARY. A. A. HAT'ANA AND Z. K'ARASHA. MAIKOP, THE ADIGHEY REPUBLIC: CIRCASSIAN BOOK PRESS, 1960. (696 pages). {Gives meanings of entry in both Adighey and Russian. Illustrative examples are given in Adighey}
  33. ADVANCES IN THE STUDY OF SOCIETAL MULTILINGUALISM. J. FISHMAN (Ed.). THE HAGUE: MOUTON, 1978.
  34. ADYGEJISCH FUR FREMDE. BATIRAY OZBEK. HEIDELBERG, 1996. {Circassian for foreigners}
  35. ADYGHEY-TURKISH DICTIONARY. TLESHU MEHMET YASIN CELIKKIRAN. MAYKOP: ADIGE PUBLISHING HOUSE, 1992. {195 pages}
  36. A FORTRESS OF LANGUAGES: THE CAUCASUS. NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC SOCIETY, CARTOGRAPHIC DIVISION. WASHINGTON D.C.: NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC SOCIETY, 1996.
  37. AGENTIVITY AND ERGATIVITY IN CIRCASSIAN. RIEKS SMEETS. ?
  38. A GRAMMAR OF HUNZIB (WITH TEXTS AND LEXICON). HELMA VAN DEN BERG. MUNICH: LINCOM EUROPA; LEIDEN, 1995. {"HUNZIB IS A NORTH EAST CAUCASIAN LANGUAGE SPOKEN BY ABOUT 2,000 PEOPLE LIVING IN TWO DISTINCT AREAS IN DAGHESTAN. TOGETHER WITH TSEZ (DIDO), KHVARSHI, HINUKH AND BEZHTA, IT BELONGS TO THE TSEZIC SUBDIVISION OF THE AVARO-ANDO-TSEZIC GROUP OF NORTH EAST CAUCASIAN, THE OTHER GROUP BEING LAKO-DARGIC. HUNZIB IS A NON-WRITTEN LANGUAGE. AVAR, ANOTHER NORTH-EAST CAUCASIAN LANGUAGE, AND RUSSIAN ARE THE MEDIA OF INSTRUCTION AND OF CONTACTS WITH THE OUTSIDE WORLD. THE WRITER HAS CONDUCTED ON-SITE FIELDWORK FOUR TIMES, BOTH IN MOUNTAIN VILLAGES IN SOUTHERN DAGHESTAN AND IN THE VILLAGES IN THE PLAINS NOT FAR FROM DAGHESTAN'S CAPITAL MAKHACHKALA. INITIALLY, THE WRITER SPENT TWO MONTHS IN MOSCOW TO CONSULT RUSSIAN SPECIALISTS IN NORTH-CAUCASIAN LANGUAGES. ... THE WORK CONSISTS OF THREE PARTS. THE FIRST IS A GRAMMATICAL SKETCH OF ABOUT 160 PAGES WHICH COVERS PHONOLOGY, MORPHOLOGY AND SYNTAX OF THE LANGUAGE. THE SECOND PART CONSISTS OF A CORPUS OF TEXTS WITH ANALYSIS AND TRANSLATION. THE MAJORITY OF THE TEXTS HAVE A FOLKLORIC CHARACTER. PART THREE IS A HUNZIB-ENGLISH LEXICON. ALL MATERIAL WAS GATHERED AND ANALYSED BETWEEN THE SUMMER OF 1990 AND THE SUMMER OF 1994. ... HUNZIB IS A TYPICAL REPRESENTATIVE OF THE NORTH-EAST CAUCASIAN LANGUAGE TYPE. IT HAS, FOR INSTANCE, NOUN CLASSES, WHICH SERVE AS THE BASIS FOR AGREEMENT BETWEEN NOUNS (AND PRONOUNS) AND COREFERRING ELEMENTS SUCH AS ADJECTIVES AND VERBS. HUNZIB IS HIGHLY ERGATIVE. VERBS HARDLY SHOW ANY PERSON-MAKING; MANY VERBS, HOWEVER, HAVE IN INITIAL POSITION A CLASS PREFIX INDICATING THE CLASS OF THE SUBJECT IF THE VERB IS INTRANSITIVE OR, IF THE VERB IS TRANSITIVE, THAT OF THE OBJECT. ONE OF THE MORE TRICKY PROBLEMS WAS THE ANALYSIS OF THE VOWEL SYSTEM. I SAW NO REASON FOR INTRODUCING LEXICAL TONE ON A PHONOLOGICAL LEVEL, AS WAS SUGGESTED BY RUSSIAN INVESTIGATORS OF THE SOUND SYSTEMS OF DAGHESTANIAN LANGUAGES."}
  39. A GRAMMAR OF LEZGIAN. MARTIN HASPELMATH. NEW YORK - BERLIN: MOUTON DE GRUYTER (MOUTON GRAMMAR LIBRARY, No. 9), 1993. {LEZGIAN IS ONE OF THE MAIN LANGUAGES SPOKEN IN DAGHESTAN. THERE ARE ALSO A CONSIDERABLE LEZGIAN COMMUNITY IN AZERBAIJAN. THIS WORK IS REVIEWED BY ANDREW CARSTAIRS-McCARTHY IN LANGUAGE 70, 1994, PP. 388-9. Dr. HASPELMATH IS A GERMAN CAUCASOLOGIST}
  40. A GRAMMAR OF THE KABARDIAN LANGUAGE. JOHN COLARUSSO. CALGARY: UNIVERSITY OF CALGARY PRESS, 1992. (XXIII+231 pages. ISBN 0919813968 m; 0919813992 v cased). {Go to 'A Grammar of the Kabardian Language' page for details on the work and how to order. Reviewed by Bernard Comrie in Canadian Journal of Linguistics (0008-4131), Vol. 40, No. 3, September 1995, p. 351 ff.}
  41. A GRAMMATICAL SKETCH OF OSSETIC. V. I. ABAEV. BLOOMINGTON, 1964.
  42. ALPHA BET: SEFER LELIMUD HASAFA HACHERKESSIT. R. HATUKAY AND R. GUSH. JERUSALEM: ISRAELI MINISTRY OF EDUCATION, 1982. {AN ISRAELI CIRCASSIAN PRIMER}
  43. AN ABAZA TEXT [BEDI KARTLISA, REVUE DE KARTVELOLOGIE, 19-20, 1965, pp. 160-72], W. S. ALLEN.
  44. ANALYSE DE MOTS OUBYKHS [WORD, 25, 1969, pp. 104-113], GEORGES DUMEZIL.
  45. AN INTRODUCTION TO SECOND LANGUAGE ACQUISITION RESEARCH. D. LARSEN-FREEMAN AND M. LONG. NEW YORK AND LONDON: LONGMAN, 1991.
  46. ANOMALIES IN THE USE OF THE ERGATIVE CASE IN TSOVA-TUSH (BATSBI) [FOLIA SLAVICA, Vol. 7, Nos. 1-2 (in one cover), 1984], DEE ANN HOLISKY. {Vol. TITLE: PAPERS FROM THE THIRD CONFERENCE ON THE NON-SLAVIC LANGUAGES OF THE USSR, UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO, MARCH 23-25, 1983. HOWARD I. ARONSON (Ed.). COLUMBUS, OHIO: SLAVICA PUBLISHERS}
  47. A NORTH CAUCASIAN ETYMOLOGICAL DICTIONARY. S. L. NIKOLAEV AND S. A. STAROSTIN. MOSCOW, 1994. {Critiqued by Johanna Nichols in her paper NIKOLAEV & STAROSTIN'S NORTH CAUCASIAN ETYMOLOGICAL DICTIONARY AND THE METHODOLOGY OF LONG-RANGE COMPARISON: AN ASSESSMENT, presented at THE TENTH BIENNIAL NON-SLAVIC LANGUAGES (NSL) CONFERENCEheld at the University of Chicago, 8-10 May 1997. Starostin countered in his paper RECONSTRUCTION OF PROTO-NORTH-CAUCASIAN: RESPONSE TO J. NICHOLS, presented at the same conference. The Dictionary is in Russian}
  48. ANOTHER CASE OF THE INFLUENCE OF ABKHAZ ON MINGRELIAN SYNTAX? B[RIAN] G[EORGE] HEWITT. Pp. 405-9 in CAUCASOLOGIE ET MYTHOLOGIE COMPAREE: ACTES DU COLLOQUE INTERNATIONAL DU CNRS, IVe COLLOQUE DE CAUCASOLOGIE, SEVRES, 27-29 JUIN 1988. CATHERINE PARIS (Ed.). NUMERO SPECIAL (SOCIETE D'ETUDES LINGUISTIQUES ET ANTHROPOLOGIQUES DE FRANCE 23). SOCIETE D'ETUDES LINGUISTIQUES ET ANTHROPOLOGIQUES DE FRANCE (SERIES) 332. PARIS: PEETERS, 1992.
  49. ANTHROPOLOGICAL LINGUISTICS, Vol. 6, No. 8, PP. 1-71.
  50. ARMENISCH UND KAUKASISCHE SPRACHEN. GERHARD DEETERS.
  51. ASHKHAR TEXTS I [STUDIA CAUCASICA, 5, LEUVEN: PEETERS, 1983, PP. 76-97], A. STARREVELD.
  52. A SPECTROGRAPHIC ANALYSIS OF VOWEL ALLOPHONES IN KABARDIAN [WORKING PAPERS 42, DEPARTMENT OF LINGUISTICS, UNIVERSITY OF LUND, 1994, PP. 241-250], SIDNEY WOOD.
  53. ASPECTS OF LANGUAGE PLANNING IN GEORGIA (GEORGIAN AND ABKHAZ). BRIAN GEORGE HEWITT. Pp. 123-44 in LANGUAGE PLANNING IN THE SOVIET UNION. MICHAEL KIRKWOOD (Ed.). LONDON: MACMILLAN/SSEES, 1989.
  54. ASPECTS OF VERBAL AFFIXATION IN ABKHAZ (ABZUI DIALECT) [TRANSACTIONS OF THE PHILOLOGICAL SOCIETY (TPHS), OXFORD, 1979, pp. 211-38], B[RIAN] G[EORGE] HEWITT. {"OF THE N(ORTH) W(EST) C(AUCASIAN) LANGUAGES UBYKH IS, PARADOXICALLY, PERHAPS THE BEST DOCUMENTED IN WESTERN LINGUISTIC LITERATURE THANKS MAINLY TO THE ENORMOUS EFFORTS OVER THE LAST HALF CENTURY BY THE DISTINGUISHED CAUCASOLOGIST, GEORGES DUMEZIL - PARADOXICALLY, BECAUSE UBYKH IS SPOKEN BY NO MORE THAN A HANDFUL OF THE DESCENDANTS OF THE UBYKH PEOPLE WHO MIGRATED EN MASSE TO TURKEY FOLLOWING THE FINAL SUBJUGATION OF THE NORTH CAUCASUS BY RUSSIA IN 1864. OF THE NWC LANGUAGES STILL SPOKEN IN THE CAUCASUS ITSELF, CIRCASSIAN, REPRESENTED BY ITS TWO CHIEF DIALECTAL GROUPS -W. CIRCASSIAN (OR ADYGHE) AND E. CIRCASSIAN (OR KABARDIAN), IS EASILY THE MORE WIDESPREAD. THE FINAL LANGUAGE OF THE GROUP, AND THE ONE TO BE DISCUSSED BELOW, IS ABKHAZ. THE ABKHAZ LITERARY LANGUAGE IS BASED ON THE SOUTHERN DIALECT, ABZUI, AND IT IS THIS FORM OF THE LANGUAGE THAT IS REFLECTED IN THE FOLLOWING DISCUSSION. THE MOST DIVERGENT DIALECT OF THE ABKHAZ SUB-GROUP IS T'AP'ANTA ABAZA, WHICH ALSO HAS THE STATUS OF A LITERARY LANGUAGE IN THE USSR. AS WILL BE SEEN LATER, THERE ARE GROUNDS FOR SUPPOSING THAT T'AP'ANTA REQUIRES SEPARATE TREATMENT WITH REGARD TO THE CENTRAL POINT AT ISSUE IN THIS PAPER, WHICH REDUCES TO THIS SIMPLE QUESTION - IN THE PRESENCE OF THE RECIPROCAL AFFIX -aiba- WHERE IS THE SUBJECT-AFFIX? ... IN ORDER TO RENDER THE NATURE OF THE PROBLEM MORE READILY APPARENT, IT IS NECESSARY TO BEGIN WITH A PRESENTATION OF THE BASIC STRUCTURE OF THE ABKHAZ 'VERBAL COMPLEX' (FOR THE TERM SEE ALLEN, STRUCTURE AND SYSTEM IN THE ABAZA VERBAL COMPLEX IN TRANSACTIONS OF THE PHILOLOGICAL SOCIETY , 1956: 128-9). ABKHAZ HAS NO CASE-INFLECTIONS TO DIFFERENTIATE BETWEEN SUBJECTS (S), DIRECT OBJECTS (DO) AND INDIRECT OBJECTS (IO). NOR IS WORD-ORDER A RELIABLE GUIDE TO THE ROLES PLAYED BY THE VARIOUS NPs FORMING THE ARGUMENTS OF THE VERB, FOR WHILST THE PREFERRED ORDER WILL BE S-IO-DO-V, STYLISTIC VARIATIONS MAY ALTER THIS. THE REQUIRED INFORMATION IS RECOVERABLE ONLY FROM THE AFFIXAL STRUCTURE OF THE VERBAL COMPLEX. IT FOLLOWS, THEREFORE, THAT THERE WILL BE THREE SETS OF AFFIXES CORRESPONDING TO THE NP-ROLES TO BE DISTINGUISHED. ..."  THE AUTHOR WAS AT St. JOHN'S COLLEGE, CAMBRIDGE, AT THE TIME OF WRITING THE ARTICLE. PRESENTLY HE IS PROFESSOR OF CAUCASIAN LANGUAGES AT THE SCHOOL OF ORIENTAL AND AFRICAN STUDIES (SOAS), UNIVERSITY OF LONDON}
  55. ASSERTIVE VERB FORMS IN LAK. VICTOR FRIEDMAN. IN NON-SLAVIC LANGUAGES OF THE USSR: PAPERS FROM THE FOURTH CONFERENCE. HOWARD I. ARONSON (Ed.). SLAVICA PUBLISHERS, INC., 1994.
  56. A SUGGESTION FOR ROMANIZING THE ABKHAZ ALPHABET (BASED ON MONIKA HOEHLIG'S ADIGHE ALFABET). [BULLETIN OF THE SCHOOL OF ORIENTAL AND AFRICAN STUDIES (BSOAS) (ISSN 0041-977X), Vol. LVIII, No. 5, 1995, pp. 334-40], BRIAN GEORGE HEWITT.
  57. A TYPOLOGY OF BILINGUAL EDUCATION. WILLIAM F. MACKEY. PP. 413-432 OF Vol. 2 OF ADVANCES IN THE SOCIOLOGY OF LANGUAGE. JOSHUA FISHMAN (Ed.). THE HAGUE: MOUTON AND CO., 1972.
  58. AUSFUHRLICHER BERICHT UBER DES GENERALS BARON PETER VON USLAR ABCHASISCHE STUDIEN [MEMOIRE DE L'ACADEMIE IMPERIALE DES SCIENCES DE St.-PETERSBOURG, VIIe SERIE, T. VI, No. 12, 1863], A. SCHIEFNER
  59. AWARISCH X, TSCHERKESSISCH L UND DER BASKISCHE RHOTAZISMUS [ZEITSCHRIFT FUR PHONETIK UND ALLGEMEINE SPRACHWISSENSCHAFT, IV, BERLIN, 1952, P. 252 ff.], KARL BOUDA.
  60. BASKISCH-KAUKASISCHE ETYMOLOGIEN. KARL BOUDA. HEIDELBERG, 1949. {Reviewed in NTS 17, 1959}
  61. BASKISCH UND KAUKASISCH [ZEITSCHRIFT FUR PHONETIC UND ALLGEMEINE SPRACHWISSENSCHAFT, II, BERLIN, 1948, p. 182 ff. and 336 ff.], KARL BOUDA.
  62. ? BASQUE ET TCHERKESS [BEDI KARTLISA (BK), 37, 1979, pp. 33-55], CATHERINE PARIS.
  63. BASQUE ET CAUCASIQUE DU NORD-OUEST. EXAMEN DE RAPPROCHEMENTS LEXICAUX RECEMMENT PROPOSES [JOURNAL ASIATIQUE (JA), 259, 1971, pp. 139-161], GEORGES DUMEZIL. {Basque and North-West Caucasian}
  64. BASQUE LANGUAGE HISTORY: SOME FACTS AND SUGGESTIONS FOR PRIVATE STUDY. MANFRED OWSTROWSKI. EUSKAL HERRIA JOURNAL.
  65. BEGINNING HITTITE. WARREN H. HELD, Jr., WILLIAM R. SCHMALSTIEG, AND JANET E. GERTZ. SLAVICA PUBLISHERS, INC., 1988. (IX, 218 pages. ISBN 0-89357-184-9. Price: $19.95). {"This elementary textbook is an introduction to the Hittite language and writing system for self instruction and for beginning students, especially students who cannot work easily with the existing German grammars but who want a more up-to-date source than Sturtevant's 1933 Comparative Grammar of the Hittite Language. ... Beginning Hittite contains a grammar, reader, glossary, and cuneiform sign list. The grammar is descriptive, not historical, although features of Old Hittite which differ significantly from the younger language are noted. Copious examples are provided, especially in the syntax section. The selections for reading include portions of the Apology of Hattusilis, the Treaty with Alaksandus, the Hittite Laws, and the Letter of King Tut's Widow to Suppiluliumas. Each is presented in cuneiform with interlinear transliteration and verbatim translation. Free translations are also given. All words occurring in both the reader and the grammar section are included in the glossary, where definitions, grammatical identification, and location in the book are provided. ... "...In short, the text-book is a well-written, easy to understand text-book that covers all essential aspects of the language of interest to the student and professional non-specialist alike.... Beginning Hittite is therefore not only an ideal text-book for the first-year student of Hittite and Indo-European, but also an essential reference book for the general linguist and in particular for those working in the fields of comparative linguistics and language typology." (GL)"}
  66. BEITRAGE ZUR ERFORSCHUNG DES BASKISCHEN WORTSCHATZES [PUBLIC. DE LA SOCIEDAD VASCONGADA DE AMIGOS DEL PAIS, I, SAINT SEBASTIEN, 1954], KARL BOUDA.
  67. BEITRAGE ZUR ETYMOLOGISCHEN ERFORSCHUNG DES GEORGISCHEN [LINGUA II, 1949, PP. 291-307], KARL BOUDA.
  68. BEITRAGE ZUR KAUKASISCHEN UND SIBIRISCHEN SPRACHWISSENSCHAFT. KARL BOUDA (1901-). ABHANDLUNGEN FUR DIE KUNDE DES MORGENLANDES Bd. XXII, 4, etc. LEIPZIG: F. A. BROCKHAUS, 1937-. (24 cm.).
  69. BEITRAGE ZUR SYNTAX DES OSSETISCHEN. R. VON STACKELBERG. STRASSBURG, 1886.
  70. BESLANAY-FRENCH DICTIONARY. CATHERINE PARIS. APPENDED TO CONTE POPULAIRE EN DIALECTE BESNEY (TCHERKESSE ORIENTAL). (SUITE) [BEDI KARTLISA (BK), pp. 255-309]. {Contains about 900 words}
  71. CAUCASIAN. A. H. KUIPERS. PP. 315-44 in CURRENT TRENDS IN LINGUISTICS. T. SEBEOK (Ed.). 1963.{Reviewed by Pittman in LANGUAGE 1963, pp. 346-50}
  72. CAUCASIAN LANGUAGES. BRIAN GEORGE HEWITT. CHAPTER 5, pp. 196-237 in THE LANGUAGES OF THE SOVIET UNION. BERNARD COMRIE (Ed.). CAMBRIDGE: CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY PRESS, 1981.
  73. CAUCASIAN LANGUAGES. TH. V. GAMKRELIDZE AND T. E. GUDAVA. PAGES 1011-15 IN ENCYCLOPAEDIA BRITANNICA, MACROPEDIA, Vol. 3,1979.
  74. CAUCASIAN PERSPECTIVES. [BRIAN] GEORGE HEWITT (Ed.). MUNCHEN: LINCOM EUROPA, UNTERSCHLEISSHEIM 1992. (IV, 406 pages. 21 cm. 3929075016). {Articles in English, French, German and Russian. Includes bibliographical references}
  75. CAUCASIAN TYPOLOGY AS AN AID TO THE RECONSTRUCTION OF PROTO-INDO-EUROPEAN [FOLIA SLAVICA, Vol. 5, Nos. 1-3 (in one cover), 1982], KARL HORST SCHMIDT. {Vol. TITLE: PAPERS FROM THE SECOND CONFERENCE ON THE NON-SLAVIC LANGUAGES OF THE USSR, UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO, APRIL 28-29, 1981. HOWARD I. ARONSON AND BILL J. DARDEN (Eds.). COLUMBUS, OHIO: SLAVICA PUBLISHERS}
  76. CAUCASIEN DU NORD ET CAUCASIEN DU SUD. GEORGES DUMEZIL. CONFERENCE DE L'INSTITUT DE LINGUISTIQUE DE L'UNIVERSITE DE PARIS, II, 1934.
  77. CAUCASIQUE DU NORD-OUEST ET PARLERS SCYTHIQUES [ANNALI DE L'ISTITUTO ORIENTALE DI NAPOLI (AION), (SEZIONE LINGUISTICA), V, 1963, PP. 5-18], GEORGES DUMEZIL. {NORTH-WEST CAUCASIAN AND THE SCYTHIAN LANGUAGES}
  78. CERKESSISCH-OSSETISCHE LEHNBEZICHUNGEN [ZEITSCHRIFT FUR VERGLEICHENDE SPRACHFORSCHUNG AUF DEM GEBIETE DER INDOGERMANISCHEN SPRACHEN, NEUE FOLGE, 65 BAND, 3/4 HAFT., 1938, P. 177 ff.], KARL BOUDA. {COMPARISON OF CIRCASSIAN AND OSSETIAN WORDS}
  79. CHAH-MEYMUN. TEXTE OUBYKH [ORIENTALIA SUECANA 10, 1961, PP. 41-80], GEORGES DUMEZIL. {UBYKH TALE: SHAH-MEYMUN}
  80. CHATTSKIJ I ABCHAZO-ADYGSKIJ [ROCZNIK ORIENTALISTYCZNY, Vol. 49, No. 1, 1994, pp. 15-23], JAN BRAUN.
  81. CHECHEN DICTIONARY AND PHRASEBOOK. NICHOLAS AWDE AND MUHAMMAD GALAEV. IN THE SERIES: CAUCASUS WORLD. SERIES EDITOR: NICHOLAS AWDE. RICHMOND, SURREY, ENGLAND: CURZON PRESS, 1997. (188 pages. Paperback. ISBN 0 7007 0660 7. Price: £12.99). {"THIS GUIDE IS A SIMPLE MEANS OF SHARING THE CHECHEN LANGUAGE AND CULTURE WITH SPEAKERS OF ENGLISH. IT MAKES NO CLAIM TO BE A LINGUISTIC RESEARCH TOOL, BUT IS PROVIDED AS A PRACTICAL AID FOR THE FIRST STEPS IN COMMUNICATION WITH AN INTENTIONALLY EASY-TO-USE PRONUNCIATION SYSTEM. THIS IS THE FIRST TIME CHECHEN HAS BEEN PRESENTED IN SUCH A WAY, A VENTURE NOT WITHOUT OBSTACLES SINCE THE LANGUAGE IS STILL SADLY WITHOUT A TRULY DEVELOPED ANALYSIS OF ITS STRUCTURE. AN ATTEMPT HAS BEEN MADE TO PROVIDE PHRASES AND SCENES FROM EVERYDAY LIFE, AS WELL AS ITEMS OF PRACTICAL BACKGROUND INFORMATION, ALTHOUGH THEIR RELEVANCE CLEARLY WILL DEPEND ON THE ACTUAL SITUATION IN CHECHNYA, AND WHETHER THE WAR IS IN FACT OVER OR JUST POSTPONED."}
  82. CHECHEN GRAMMAR. AKHMET GETHAEVICH MATSIEV. KENSINGTON: DUNWOODY PRESS, 1995.
  83. CHECHEN, INGUSH. JOHANNA NICHOLS. Pages 1-77 (CHECHEN) and 79-145 (INGUSH) in THE INDIGENOUS LANGUAGES OF THE CAUCASUS, Vol 4. RIEKS SMEETS (Ed.). DELMAR, NEW YORK: CARAVAN BOOKS, 1994. {The author is Professor of Slavic Languages and Literatures at the University of California, Berkeley. A specialist on Slavic and Caucasian linguistics, she has written extensively about the languages of the Caucasus. Her works on the Caucasus include the forthcoming "Chechen Phonology". Her article "Who are the Chechen?" is posted on the Chechnya web site of the Program in Soviet and Post-Soviet Studies}
  84. CHECHEN PHONOLOGY. JOHANNA NICHOLS. PP. 689-719 in PHONOLOGIES OF ASIA AND AFRICA: INCLUDING THE CAUCASUS. ALAN S. KAYE (Ed.). WIESBADEN: HARRASSOWITZ, 1997.
  85. CIRCASSIAN ISRAELIS: MULTILINGUALISM AS A WAY OF LIFE [LANGUAGE, CULTURE AND CURRICULUM (ISSN 0790-8318), Vol. 8, No. 2, 1995, pp. 149-62], ISABELLE KREINDLER, MARSHA BENSOUSSAN, ELEANOR AVINOR AND CHEN BRAM. / MY COLLECTION. {"THE CIRCASSIAN COMMUNITY IN ISRAEL, THOUGH ONE OF THE SMALLEST IN THE DIASPORA (ABOUT 3,000), IS ONE OF THE MOST SUCCESSFUL IN PRESERVING ITS NATIONAL IDENTITY AND LANGUAGE, WHILE AT THE SAME TIME INTEGRATING INTO ISRAELI LIFE. ... WE HAVE RECENTLY LAUNCHED A MULTI-DISCIPLINARY STUDY OF THIS UNIQUE COMMUNITY IN ISRAEL, WHICH WE HOPE WILL BECOME PART OF A BROADER STUDY OF CIRCASSIAN COMMUNITIES BOTH IN THE DIASPORA (TURKEY, SYRIA, JORDAN, GERMANY AND OTHER COUNTRIES) AND IN THE CAUCASIAN HOMELAND. OUR TEAM CONSISTS OF AN ANTHROPOLOGIST, APPLIED LINGUIST, SOCIOLINGUIST, AND A HISTORIAN. ... THIS WORK, THE FIRST IN A PLANNED SERIES, PRESENTS GENERAL BACKGROUND ON THE ISRAELI CIRCASSIANS AND THEN FOCUSES ON OUR RECENTLY COMPLETED STUDY OF CIRCASSIAN PUPILS IN KFAR KAMA, THE LARGER OF THE TWO CIRCASSIAN VILLAGES IN ISRAEL. ... THE CIRCASSIANS CAME TO ISRAEL IN SERVICE TO THE SULTAN IN THE LATE 19th CENTURY. THEIR TWO SURVIVING VILLAGES, REIKHANIA AND KFAR KAMA WERE FOUNDED IN THE 1870s. ... TODAY (1995), THE MAJORITY -- ABOUT 2,000 -- LIVE IN KFAR KAMA; FEWER THAN 800 LIVE IN REIKHANIA AND A SCORE OF FAMILIES LIVE IN VARIOUS ISRAELI CITIES AND TOWNS NEAR THEIR JOBS." HAS MORE THAN 30 REFERENCES. REFER TO THE RELATED ARTICLE MULTILINGUAL EDUCATION OF ISRAELI CIRCASSIANS BELOW}
  86. CIRCASSIAN MORPHOLOGY: ON (FOUR MORE) STATIVE VERBS. RIEKS SMEETS. ?
  87. CIRCASSIAN MORPHOLOGY: PERSONAL AND DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS. RIEKS SMEETS. ?
  88. CIRCASSIAN /-qa-/ MEETS SEMANTIC ALGEBRA AND ERGATIVITY [FOLIA SLAVICA, Vol. 7, Nos. 1-2 (in one cover),1984, PP. 49-90], JOHN COLARUSSO. {Vol. title: Papers from the Third Conference on the Non-Slavic Languages of the USSR, University of Chicago, March 23-25, 1983. Howard Aronson (Ed.). Columbus, Ohio: Slavica Publishers}
  89. CLASS CATEGORY IN TSEZIC LANGUAGES (DAGESTAN). RAMAZAN RAJABOV. PAPER PRESENTED AT THE TENTH BIENNIAL NON-SLAVIC LANGUAGES (NSL) CONFERENCE HELD AT THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO THURSDAY-SATURDAY, 8-10 MAY 1997. {"The paper examines principles of class categorization operating in Tsezic languages. Nominal vocabulary in these languages is distributed into four or five dictinct classes. Animate nouns are assigned to classes based on transparent semantic principles. In all Tsezic languages, nouns referring to males are assigned to class I. Nouns referring to females are assigned to class II. Nouns referring to animate non-human beings are assigned to class III. Distribution of inanimate nouns into classes seems to be arbitrary. Synchronically, a class of inanimate nouns into classes is not in general predictable from the form or meaning of the noun. How could such a system have arisen? Descriptions of Tsez as well as other Dagestanian languages have usually identified core elements of each class giving the rest of the nominal lexicon (in fact all inanimate nouns) as a list. In the analysis adopted here class assignment of inanimate nouns in Tsezic languages represents radial categories with numerous instantiations and extensions of the prototype. We will argue that the extensions are determined by the semantic principles. For instance, inanimate mobile objects (plane, car, train) are assigned to the same class as animals and birds. The claim has been made that in some cases the class of inanimate nouns is assigned by phonological rules. The basis for that claim is the fact that some nouns with word initial consonants which match the class markers on agreeing elements are assigned to the corresponding classes. We will show that the phonetic shape of the word does not assign its class. For instance, the majority (57 per cent) of the borrowed words with initial r- go into class III, though r- is a class marker of class IV. The following experiment was also conducted. Tsez speakers were asked to classify meaningless words with word initial consonants which match class markers. Native speakers refuse to assign those words into classes. They try to get more information about the referent asking what these words mean, how the objects they denote look like, etc. This suggests that the phonetic shape of the word without its meaning is not sufficient. In contrast, non-existent words accompanied by the meaning are distributed into classes with a high degree of consistency." THE AUTHOR IS AT THE RUSSIAN ACADEMY OF SCIENCES}
  90. CLASSIFICATION OF THE LEZGIAN VERB [FOLIA SLAVICA, Vol. 7, Nos. 1-2 (in one cover), 1984], MARIANNE MOOR. {Vol. TITLE: PAPERS FROM THE THIRD CONFERENCE ON THE NON-SLAVIC LANGUAGES OF THE USSR, UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO, MARCH 23-25, 1983. HOWARD I. ARONSON (Ed.). COLUMBUS, OHIO: SLAVICA PUBLISHERS}
  91. CLASS INFLECTION AND RELATED CATEGORIES IN THE CAUCASUS. K. H. SCHMIDT. IN NON-SLAVIC LANGUAGES OF THE USSR: PAPERS FROM THE FOURTH CONFERENCE. HOWARD I. ARONSON (Ed.). SLAVICA PUBLISHERS, INC., 1994.
  92. COLLECTION LINGUISTIQUE, XVI, 1924, PP. 327-342. {INCLUDES MAP}
  93. COMMENTS ON THE LAW ON EDUCATION OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION. G. VAN DEN BERG (Ed.). LEUVEN, BELGIUM: ACCO (ACADEMISCHE COOPERATIEF c.v.), 1993. {CONTAINS ARTICLE: CONSTITUTIONAL ASPECTS OF THE LAW ON EDUCATION OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION, BY G. VAN DEN BERG}
  94. COMMON WEST CAUCASIAN. THE RECONSTRUCTION OF ITS PHONOLOGICAL SYSTEM AND PARTS OF ITS LEXICON AND MORPHOLOGY. VIACHESLAV CHIRIKBA. LEIDEN, THE NETHERLANDS: RESEARCH SCHOOL CNWS, 1996.
  95. COMPARAISON DES SYSTEMES PHONOLOGIQUES DES LANGUES CAUCASIENNES ET AMERICAINES [LINGUA POSNANIENSIS, V, 1955, P. 136 ff.], T. MILEWSKI.
  96. COMPARATIVE GRAMMAR OF THE HITTITE LANGUAGE. STURTEVANT, 1933. ?
  97. ? COMPARISON OF CIRCASSIAN, ABKHAZ AND OUBYKH [BULLETIN DE LA SOCIETE LINGUISTIQUE DE PARIS (BSL), 64, 1969/1 (1970), pp. 104-83], CATHERINE PARIS. {In French. Very informative}
  98. ? COMPARISON OF TIBETAN AND CAUCASIAN WORDS [LINGUA II, 1949, pp. 140-169], KARL BOUDA.
  99. COMPLEMENTATION IN THE NORTHWEST CAUCASIAN LANGUAGES. K. VAMLING AND M. KUMAKHOV. IN COMPLEMENTATION IN THE LANGUAGES OF EUROPE. N. VINCENT AND K. ?BARJARS (Eds.). BERLIN: MOUTON DE GRUYTER, 1998.
  100. COMPLEMENT TYPES IN KABARDIAN. M. KUMAKHOV & K. VAMLING. WORKING PAPERS 40, LUND UNIVERSITY, DEPARTMENT OF LINGUISTICS, 1993, PP. 115-131.
  101. COMPUTER SUPPORTED MORPHOLOGICAL DATABASE FOR CHECHEN. JOHANNES HEINECKE. IN PROCEEDINGS OF THE 8th CAUCASIAN COLLOQUIUM. HELMA VAN DEN (Ed.). RIJKSUNIVERSITEIT, LEIDEN, 1996. {THE COLLOQUIUM WAS HELD BETWEEN 6-8 JUNE, 1996}
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  104. CONSTITUTIONAL ASPECTS OF THE LAW ON EDUCATION OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION. G. VAN DEN BERG. IN COMMENTS ON THE LAW ON EDUCATION OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION. G. VAN DEN BERG (Ed.). LEUVEN, BELGIUM: ACCO (ACADEMISCHE COOPERATIEF c.v.), 1993.
  105. CONTE POPULAIRE EN DIALECTE BESNEY (TCHERKESSE ORIENTAL). [BEDI KARTLISA (BK), XXXIV, PARIS, 1976, pp. 24-32], CATHERINE PARIS. / MY COLLECTION. {"Avec traduction, notes grammaticales et vocabulaire. Ce texte fut recueilli dans le village de Sogut Yolu Koyu (ou Zennun ou, de son nom Tcherkesse, Danun) de la region de Corum en Anatolie, au mois de Juillet 1969. Il fut raconte par Mme Rabiye Aslanbek agee alors de 42 ans, et revu, en 1970, par M. Orhan Alparslan."}
  106. CONTE POPULAIRE EN DIALECTE BESNEY (TCHERKESSE ORIENTAL). (SUITE) [idem., pp. 255-309], CATHERINE PARIS. / MY COLLECTION. {With Beslanay-French Dictionary of about 900 words}
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  110. CORRESPONDENCES BASQUES-CAUCASIQUES [EUSKO-JAKINTZA, II, 1948, p. 359 ff.], RENE LAFON.
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  112. DAS ABASINISCHE, EINE UNBEKANNTE ABCHASISCHE MUNDART [ZEITSCHRIFT DER DEUTSCHEN MORGENLANDISCHEN GESELLSCHAFT, N. F., XIX, LEIPZIG, 1940, P. 234-50], KARL BOUDA.
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  115. DE OUDERE LAGEN VAN DEN BASKISCHEN WOORDENSCHAT [MEDEDELINGEN DER KONINKLIJKE NEDERLANDSCHE AKADEMIE VAN WETENSCHAPPEN, AFD. LETTERKUNDE, N.R., V, No. 7, AMSTERDAM, 1942], C. C. UHLENBECK.
  116. DER ABCHASISCHE SPRACHBAU [NACHRICHTEN VON DER GESELLSCHAFT DER WISSENSCHAFTEN ZU GOTTINGEN, PHIL.-HIST. Kl., 1931, pp. 289-303], GERHARD DEETERS. {Other references give Gottinger gelehrte Nachrichten, Fach-gruppe III, No. 2, Berlin, 1931}
  117. DERIVATION OF CIRCASSIAN WORDSTOCK. VACLAV A. CERNY. ASIAN AND AFRICAN LANGUAGES {300}, PP. 78-106. DISSERTATIONES ORIENTALES 34, 1974, p. 209.
  118. DEUX HISTOIRES TCHERKESSES (DIALECTE ABZAKH) [BEDI KARTLISA (BK), 36, 1978, pp. 17-24], CATHERINE PARIS ET IBRAHIM TSEY.
  119. DICTIONARIUM KABARDICO-HUNGARO-LATINUM. G. BALINT, KOLOSZVAR, 1904.
  120. DICTIONARY OF INVERTED (KABARDIAN) WORDS. H. SIQUN. AMMAN, JORDAN, 1988.
  121. DICTIONARY OF KABARDIAN ANTONYMS. HASAN SIQUN AND HASHEM TALOSTAN. AMMAN, 1988. {CAN BE ORDERED THROUGH THE CIRCASSIAN CHARITY ASSOCIATION IN JORDAN}
  122. DICTIONARY OF INVERTED KABARDIAN WORDS. HASAN SIQUN. AMMAN, 1988. {CAN BE ORDERED THROUGH THE CIRCASSIAN CHARITY ASSOCIATION IN JORDAN}
  123. DICTIONARY OF LINGUISTIC TERMS. T. KHALBAD. SUKHUM, ABKHAZIA, 1977. {Abkhaz dictionary}
  124. DICTIONARY OF THE HOMOGRAPHS OF THE ABKHAZ LANGUAGE. S. ? NACH'QEBIA-PHA. SUKHUM, ABKHAZIA, 1988.
  125. DICTIONARY OF THE HOMONYMS OF THE ABKHAZ LANGUAGE. L. SAMANDZHIA. SUKHUM, ABKHAZIA, 1987.
  126. DICTIONNAIRE ABZAKH (TCHERKESSE OCCIDENTAL) I. CATHERINE PARIS ET NIAZ BATOUKA. L'EUROPE DE TRADITION ORALE 6. SOCIETE D'ETUDES LINGUISTIQUES ET ANTHROPOLOGIQUES DE FRANCE (SERIES) 275, etc. PUBLIE AVEC LE CONCOURS DU CENTRE NATIONAL DE LA RECHERCHE SCIENTIFIQUE (SELAF). PARIS: SELAF: DIFFUSION, J. VRIN, 1987. (24cm. ISBN 285297200X).
  127. DICTIONNAIRE ABZAKH (TCHERKESSE OCCIDENTAL) II. PHRASES ET TEXTES ILLUSTRATIFS. CATHERINE PARIS ET NIAZ BATOUKA. L'EUROPE DE TRADITION ORALE 6, Vol. 1. PUBLIE AVEC LE CONCOURS DU CENTRE NATIONAL DE LA RECHERCHE SCIENTIFIQUE (SELAF). PARIS: SELAF: DIFFUSION, J. VRIN, 1987. (228 pages). {Abzakh dictionary. Illustrative texts and phrases}
  128. DICTIONNAIRE DE LA LANGUE OUBYKH (AVEC INTRODUCTION PHONOLOGIQUE). HANS VOGT. OSLO: INSTITUTTET FOR SAMMENLIGNENDE KULTURFORSKNING, UNIVERSITETSFORLAGET, 1963. (265 pages). {Dictionary of the Ubykh language with an introduction to phonology. Reviewed by Georges Dumezil in BULLETIN DE LA SOCIETE DE LINGUISTIQUE DE PARIS, 59, 1964, pp. 185-9}
  129. DICTIONNAIRE DU DIALECTE ABZAKH. CATHERINE PARIS. PARIS. {Dictionary of the Abzakh dialect of Western Circassian}
  130. DICTIONNAIRE DU DIALECTE CHAPSOUGH (TCHERKESSE OCCIDENTALE). CATHERINE PARIS. In LA PRINCESSE KAHRAMAN, CONTES D'ANATOLIE EN DIALECTE CHAPSOUGH (TCHERKESSE OCCIDENTALE). PARIS, 1974. {Shapsugh-French dictionary. The Lexicon is 69-pages long}
  131. DIE ACHT SPRACHEN DER BOGHAZKOY-INSCHRIFTEN [SITZUNGSBERICHTE DER PREUSSISCHEN AKADEMIE DER WISSENSCHAFTEN, Phil.-hist. Klasse, Nr. LIII, 1919, pp. 1029-41], E. FORRER. {"The very first investigator of Hattic. He established its non-Indo-European character and suggested its relationship with Abkhazo-Adyghean languages... The main reasons were striking structural similarities (particularly, extensive use of prefixation) between this ancient language of Asia Minor, extinct since the early second millennium BC, and the languages of the West Caucasian group. The same view was proposed at roughly the same time by Bleichsteiner [in his work ZUM PROTOHATTISCHEN below]" - Vjacheslav Chirikba}
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  201. HITTITE LANGUAGE. HARRY A. HOFFNER, Jr. IN ENCYCLOPEDIA OF NEAR EASTERN ARCHAEOLOGY. E. M. MEYERS (Ed.). NEW YORK: OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS, 1996.
  202. HOMMAGE A GEORGES DUMEZIL. ASSOCIATION DE LA REVUE DES ETUDES GEORGIENNES ET CAUCASIENNES. Vol. 3, 1987.
  203. HOW MANY CONSONANTS DOES UBYKH HAVE? JOHN COLARUSSO. PP. 145-55 in CAUCASIAN PERSPECTIVES. GEORGE HEWITT (Ed.). UNTTERSCHLEISSHEIM/MUENCHEN: LINCOM EUROPA, 1992.
  204. HOW TO DESCRIBE THE SOUNDS OF THE NORTHWEST CAUCASIAN LANGUAGES [FOLIA SLAVICA 9], JOHN COLARUSSO.
  205. id. JOHN COLARUSSO. In NON-SLAVIC LANGUAGES OF THE USSR: PAPERS FROM THE FOURTH CONFERENCE. HOWARD I. ARONSON (Ed.). SLAVICA PUBLISHERS, INC., 1994.
  206. HOW TO WRITE YOUR OWN LANGUAGE. RIEKS SMEETS. 1979. MIMEOGRAPH, 10 pp.
  207. HURRO-URARTIAN AS AN EASTERN CAUCASIAN LANGUAGE. I. DIAKONOFF [DIAKONOV] AND S. STAROSTIN. MUNICH, 1986.
  208. INCIPIENT BILINGUALISM [LANGUAGE, Vol. 37, No. 1, 1961, pp. 97-112], A. RICHARD DIEBOLD.
  209. INDICES PERSONNELS INTRAVERBAUX ET SYNTAXE DE LA PHRASE MINIMALE DANS LES LANGUES DU CAUCASEDU NORD-OUEST [BULLETIN DE LA SOCIETE DE LINGUISTIQUE DE PARIS (BSL), 64, 1969/I (1970), pp. 104-83], CATHERINE PARIS. / MY COLLECTION. {COMPARES THE INTERVERBAL PERSONAL INDICES AND THE SYNTAX OF THE MINIMAL PHRASE IN THE LANGUAGES OF THE NORTHWEST CAUCASUS: ADYGHE, ABKHAZ AND UBYKH. "LE PRESENT ESSAI SE PROPOSE D'ETUDIER CE QUI CONSTITUTE L'UNE DES PRINCIPALES CARACTERISTIQUES DU VERBE DES LANGUES DU CAUCASE DU NORD-OUEST (TCHERKESSE, OUBYKH, ABKHAZE), A SAVOIR: LA MARQUE OBLIGATOIRE, SOUS FORME D'"INDICES PERSONNELS", DE TOUTES LES PERSONNES PARTICIPANT A L'ACTION SIGNIFIEE PAR LA RACINE VERBALE. LA "FORME VERBALE" (RACINE, INDICES PERSONNELS ET, EVENTUELLEMENT, PREVERBES ET SUFFIXES) PEUT AINSI FONCTIONNER A ELLE SEULE COMME UNE PHRASE MINIMALE. MAIS LES INDICES PERSONNELS SONT, EN MEME TEMPS, DES SORTES D'ECHOS DE RELATIONS EXPRIMEES EGALEMENT A L'EXTERIEUR DE LA FORME VERBALE PAR DES MOTS AUTONOMES, SUJET ET COMPLEMENTS, DOTES, SELON L'INDICES PERSONNEL AUQUEL ILS SE REFERENT, D'UNE MARQUE FORMELLE (DE CAS EN TCHERKESSE ET EN OUBYKH, DE CLASSE EN ABKHAZE. ..." VERY IMPORTANT AND INTERESTING}
  210. INGUSH PHONOLOGY AND ORTHOGRAPHY. JOHANNA NICHOLS. SLAVIC DEPARTMENT, THE UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, BERKELEY. PUBLISHED ON THE NET.
  211. INTEREST FACTORS IN SECOND LANGUAGE ACQUISITION [INDIAN JOURNAL OF APPLIED LINGUISTICS, 9, 1983], G. HENNING.
  212. INTERPRETING CASE HIERARCHY: AN RRG-OT TYPOLOGY OF CASE SYSTEMS. WATARU NAKAMURA. UNIVERSITY OF ELECTRO-COMMUNICATIONS. PUBLISHED ON THE NET.
  213. INTRODUCCION A LA LINGUISTICA CAUCASICA [ACTA SALMATICENSIA FILOS. LET. 15 (1), 1960, PP. 5-90], KARL BOUDA.
  214. INTRODUCTION A LA GRAMMAIRE COMPAREE DES LANGUES CAUCASIENNES DU NORD. GEORGES DUMEZIL. BIBLIOTHEQUE DE L'INSTITUT FRANCAIS DE LENINGRAD, T. 14. PARIS, 1933. (XVI, 132 PAGES).
  215. IS KABARDIAN A VOWEL-LESS LANGUAGE? [FOUNDATION OF LANGUAGE (FL) - INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF LANGUAGE AND PHILLOSOPHY, Vol. 6, No. 1, 1970, PP. 95-103], MORRIS HALLE, MASSACHUSETTS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY. / MY COLLECTION. {AUTHOR CONTESTS KUIPERS' CLAIM IN HIS WORK PHONEME AND MORPHEME IN KABARDIAN THAT KABARDIAN IS A VOWEL-LESS LANGUAGE. HE ALSO CONTESTS ALLEN'S CLAIM IN HIS ARTICLE ON ONE-VOWEL SYSTEMS THAT THE NUMBER OF VOWELS IN THE ABAZA LANGUAGE CAN BE REDUCED TO ONE}
  216. JAPHETIC THEORY [L'ETHNOGRAPHIE, PARIS, 1931, N. S. No. 23, PP. 5-15].
  217. ? KABARDIAN [INTERNATIONAL CONGRESS OF ANTHROPOLOGICAL AND ETHNIC SCIENCES, 3rd, BRUSSELS, 1948: TERVUREN, 1960, P.43], JOHN C. CATFORD.
  218. KABARDIAN [BULLETIN OF THE SCHOOL OF ORIENTAL AND AFRICAN STUDIES (BSOAS), THE UNIVERSITY OF LONDON, 33, 1970, PP. 92-106], EUGENIE HENDERSON. {VERY SPECIALISED. 10 PLATES SHOW FREQUENCY SPECTRA OF SOME SOUNDS OF KABARDIAN}
  219. KABARDIAN AND CHERKESS ORTHOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY. H. Sch. URISS AND L. H. ZAKHUOKH. NALCHIK, THE KABARDINO-BALKAR REPUBLIC: ELBRUS PRESS, 1982. (1134 PAGES). {HAS ABOUT 90,000 ENTRIES. SHOWS THE STRESS PATTERN OF ALL ENTRIES. VERY ESSENTIAL FOR STUDENTS, TEACHERS AND WRITERS}
  220. KABARDIAN AND CHERKESS ORTHOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY FOR STUDENTS. L[EEWAN] [H] ZAKHUOKH. NALCHIK, THE KABARDINO-BALKAR REPUBLIC: ELBRUS PRESS, 1967, 1970.
  221. KABARDIAN AND VOWELLESS LANGUAGES. KEVIN TUITE, MONTREAL. PUBLISHED ON THE NET. {"The idea that languages without vowels exist is an enduring urban myth, the linguistic equivalent of the crocodile in the sewer or the poodle in the microwave. Those who have made a careful study of allegedly vowelless languages now maintain that there simply isn't any such thing. One of the most actively discussed cases was the phonological system of Kabardian, one of the Northwest Caucasian (NWC) or Abxaz-Adyghean languages. After a lively exchange of articles between Aert Kuipers, Morris Halle and others, over the possibility of an adequate phonologization of NWC languages which made no use of vowel phonemes, more recent analyses (e.g. those of John Colarusso in Canada, Catherine Paris in Paris, and of the majority of indigenous specialists in the Caucasus itself) require at least two, sometimes three vowel phonemes -- or more accurately, clusters of vocalic features, to generate a surprisingly rich inventory of phonetic vowels. (Interested readers should consult Colarusso's recently-published Grammar of the Kabardian Language). By the way, I have heard several NWC languages spoken, including a bit of Kabardian, and none of them would give a naive listener the impression of vowellessness. They have nothing to compare to those celebrated Bella Coola or Wishram jawbreakers, which sound a bit as though the speaker was trying to whisper and eat granola at the same time. ... At the same time, as I read through some of the contributions to the Great Kabardian Debate, I was struck by just how close people like Kuipers got to their goal of eliminating vowels from the phonology. The arguments often hinged on the analysis of a handful of minimal pairs, which required an opposition of height or length. Were these lexical items -- some of them borrowings from Turkish or Arabic -- to be magically erased from the vocabulary, would we have to admit Kuiper's phonologization as adequate, and therefore a (phonemically) vowelless language as compatible with universal constraints on human phonological systems? I honestly don't know the answer, nor do I know enough NWC to attempt a thought-experiment along these lines (My field experience is to the southwest of NWC territory, in the Kartvelian-speaking highlands of Georgia). As some of you may know, Winfried Lehmann maintains in all seriousness that an anterior stage of Proto-Indo-European was phonemically vowelless, though equipped with a feature of sonority which triggered a vocalic realization of sonant phonemes. To sum up, I for one would prefer that we not rule out the POSSIBILITY of vowellessness, despite the absence of an attested example. A cautionary tale: A well-known syntactician once gave a paper demonstrating that languages with OSV and OVS word order were excluded by universal grammar. A missionary linguist, recently returned from South America, raised his hand and politely explained that such languages did indeed exist, but that all known examples were spoken by small indigenous communities in a little-explored region of northern Amazonia. One can only speculate on what linguistic diversity might have vanished without a trace in the Americas, Oceania -- or Europe, for that matter."}
  222. KABARDIAN-ARABIC DICTIONARY. HASAN H. SIQUN, NADIA H. KHUNAG AND FAHID M. QUSH-HA. AMMAN, JORDAN, 1988. {BASED ON BUBA KARDAN'S KABARDIAN-RUSSIAN DICTIONARY, MOSCOW, 1957. HAS SOME 3,000 ENTRIES, 155 PAGES}
  223. KABARDIAN-ENGLISH DICTIONARY. AMJAD MAHMOUD JAIMOUKHA. AMMAN, JORDAN: SANJALAY PRESS, 1997. {BASED ON KABARDIAN-RUSSIAN DICTIONARY, AND OTHER LEXICAL MATERIAL. HAS 21,000 ENTRIES. GO TO KABARDIAN-ENGLISH DICTIONARY PAGE FOR DETAILS}
  224. KABARDIAN NON-FINITE FORMS WITH ARBITRARY SUBJECT REFERENCE. M. KUMAKHOV & K. VAMLING. WORKING PAPERS, LUND UNIVERSITY, DEPARTMENT OF LINGUISTICS, 1994, PP. 75-83.
  225. KABARDIAN ORTHOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY. H. Sch. URISS AND L[EEWAN] H. ZAKHOUKH. NALCHIK, THE KABARDINO-BALKAR REPUBLIC: ELBRUS PRESS, 1982. {HAS MORE THAN 90,000 ENTRIES. THE STRESS PATTERNS ARE SHOWN FOR ALL ENTRIES}
  226. KABARDIAN PROVERBS. COLLECTED AND EDITED BY AMJAD JAIMOUKHA. PUBLISHED ON THE NET. {About 1000 entries. A new latinized Kabardian transcription is used}
  227. KABARD NYELVTAN. G. BALINT, KOLOSZVAR, 1900.
  228. KAUKASISCHER EINFLUSS IN DEN FINNISCH-MAGYARISCHEN SPRACHEN [KELETI SZEMLE (BUDAPEST), I, 1900, PP. 39-49, 114-32, 205-18], B. MUNKACSI. {AIMS TO ESTABLISH PARALLELS BETWEEN THE FINNO-UGRIAN  AND CAUCASIAN LANGUAGES}
  229. KAUKASISCHE SPRACHEN UND LITERATUREN, LEXIKON. JOHANN KNOBLOCH. DIE WELTLITERATUR, HRGG. VON E. FRAUWALLNER, H. GIEBISCH UND E. HEINZEL, 3 Bde., WIEN, 1951 ff. HOLLINEK, S. 912-916.
  230. KONTAKTBEDINGTER SPRACHWANDEL IN DER ADYGEISCHEN UMGANGSSPRACHE IN KAUKASUS UND IN DER TURKEI. MONIKA HOEHLIG. MUNCHEN: LINCOM EUROPA.
  231. KURZE UBERSICHT UBER DIE TSCHERKESSISCHEN (ADYGHEISCHEN) DIALEKTE UND SPRACHEN [CAUCASICA VI, No. 1, LEIPZIG, 1930, pp. 1-19], N. F. YAKOVLEV.
  232. LABIALIZATION IN CAUCASIAN LANGUAGES, WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO ABKHAZ. JOHN C. CATFORD. PP. 679-82 IN PROCEEDINGS OF THE VIIth INTERNATIONAL CONGRESS OF PHONETIC SCIENCES. RIGAULT & CHARBONNEAU (Eds.). THE HAGUE-PARIS: MOUTON, 1972.
  233. LA CATEGORIE DE POSSESSION, I: DESCRIPTION DE LA CATEGORIE EN CHAPSOUG DE DUZCE [BEDI KARTLISA, 1984], RIEKS SMEETS.
  234. LA DERNIER DICTIONNAIRE DE LA LANGUE OUBYKH. GEORGES CHARACHIDZE. PROCEEDINGS OF THE CONFERENCE ON NORTHWEST CAUCASIAN LINGUISTICS: 10-12 OCTOBER 1994, BOGAZICI UNIVERSITY. A. SUMRU OZSOY (Ed.). OSLO: NOVUS: INSTITUTT FOR SAMMENLIGNENDE KULTURFORSKNING, 1997. {FOR MORE INFORMATION ON PROCEEDINGS, SEE THE TITLE BELOW}
  235. LA JEUNE FILLE INTELLIGENTE, RECIT OUBYKH [TRANSACTIONS OF THE PHILOLOGICAL SOCIETY, 1961, PP. 56-67], GEORGES DUMEZIL. / MY COLLECTION. {THE TALE WAS RELATED BY TEVFIK ESENC IN THE VILLAGE OF HACI OSMAN KOY, TURKEY, THE ONLY VILLAGE WHERE THE UBYKH WAS STILL THE LANGUAGE OF COMMUNICATION AMONG ABOUT TWENTY OLD PEOPLE. THERE IS A KEMIRGOY VERSION OF THE STORY WITH A FRENCH TRANSLATION}
  236. LA LANGUE DES OUBYKHS. GEORGES DUMEZIL. COLLECTION LINGUISTIQUE 35. PARIS: HONORE CHAMPION, 1931. 8 Vol., PP. XVI, 216.
  237. LA LINGUISTIQUE. HOVELACQUE. {"ON A SOUVENT TENTE D'IDENTIFIER LES LANGUES DU CAUCASE AVEC LES LANGUES EUROPEENNES OU LES LANGUES SEMITIQUES, MAIS CELA A TOUJOURS ETE SANS SUCCES. NOUS PENSONS QU'IL FAUT LES REGARDER COMME COMLETEMENT DISTINCTES DES AUTRES GROUPES SEMITIQUES, MEME DU GROUPE OURALO-ALTAIQUE"}
  238. LANGUAGE AND ETHNIC RELATIONS IN CANADA. S. LIEBERSON. {VERY INTERESTING WORK ON ASSIMILATIVE FORCES AND COUNTER-FORCES OPERATING IN CANADA WITH REGARDS TO THE FRENCH LANGUAGE. PARALLELS WITH CIRCASSIAN MAY BE DRAWN}
  239. LANGUAGE AND NATIONALISM IN GEORGIA, AND THE WEST'S RESPONSE. BRIAN GEORGE HEWITT. In PAPERS FROM THE 75th ANNIVERSARY CONFERENCE OF SSEES, Vol. I, 1995.
  240. LANGUAGE AND SOCIETY: ANTHROPOLOGICAL ISSUES. WILLIAM McCORMACK AND STEPHEN A. WURM (Eds.). NEW YORK: MOUTON, 1979. {CONTAINS ARTICLE: UNIVERSAL LITERACY OF THE FORMERLY BACKWARD PEOPLES OF THE SOVIET UNION: A FACTOR OF THEIR SOCIAL SELF-AWARENESS, BY V. A. KUMANEV}
  241. LANGUAGE ASPECTS OF ETHNIC PATTERNS AND PROCESSES IN THE NORTH CAUCASUS. RONALD WIXMAN (1947-). UNIVERSITY OF OREGON. THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO, DEPARTMENT OF GEOGRAPHY, RESEARCH PAPER No. 191, 1980. (VIII, 243 pages. 23 cm. ISBN 0890650985). {Extremely crucial work for research and stock-taking. Has a large bibliography on pp. 225-43}
  242. LANGUAGE ATTITUDE STUDIES [ANTHROPOLOGICAL LINGUISTICS, Vol. 12, No. 5, 1970, pp. 137-57], REBECCA AGHEYISI AND JOSHUA A. FISHMAN.
  243. Language Boundaries in the Caucasus: A Map [CAUCASIAN REVIEW, MUNICH (CRM), No. 1, 1955, p. 126].
  244. LANGUAGE CHOICE AND LANGUAGE USE IN TWO BILINGUAL ADYGE RUSSIAN COMMUNITIES [GENGO KENKYU (JOURNAL OF THE LINGUISTIC SOCIETY OF JAPAN), 101, 1992, pp. 84-106], OLGA BRIDGES (LALOR). {Describes pressure on Circassian language and culture in the Adyghey Republic}
  245. LANGUAGE CONTACT IN THE USSR: SOME PROSPECTS FOR LANGUAGE MAINTENANCE AMONG SOVIET MINORITY LANGUAGE GROUPS. PAUL RONDALL HALL. Ph.D. DISSERTATION, GEORGETOWN UNIVERSITY, 1973.
  246. LANGUAGE OF DISSENT: LANGUAGE, ETHNIC IDENTITY, AND BILINGUAL EDUCATION POLICY IN THE NORTH CAUCASUS. EVE RACHEL GREENFIELD. DISSERTATION IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT FOR THE REQUIREMENTS OF THE MASTER OF ARTS DEGREE, RUSSIAN AND EAST EUROPEAN INSTITUTE, INDIANA UNIVERSITY, MAY 1996.
  247. LANGUAGE PLANNING AND THE DEVELOPMENT OF WRITTEN AVAR SYNTAX. SIMON CRISP. THESIS, OXFORD UNIVERSITY, 1982.
  248. LANGUAGE PLANNING AND THE ORTHOGRAPHY OF AVAR [FOLIA SLAVICA, Vol. 7, Nos. 1-2 (in one cover), 1984], SIMON CRISP. {Vol.  TITLE: PAPERS FROM THE THIRD CONFERENCE ON THE NON-SLAVIC LANGUAGES OF THE USSR, UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO, MARCH 23-25, 1983. HOWARD I. ARONSON (Ed.). COLUMBUS, OHIO: SLAVICA PUBLISHERS}
  249. LANGUAGE PLANNING IN THE SOVIET UNION. MICHAEL KIRKWOOD (Ed.). LONDON: MACMILLAN, 1989.
  250. LANGUAGE POLICY AND THE LINGUISTIC RUSSIFICATION OF SOVIET NATIONALITIES. BRIAN D. SILVER. PP. 250-306 IN SOVIET NATIONALITY POLICIES AND PRACTICES. JEREMY R. AZRAEL (Ed.). NEW YORK: PRAEGER, 1978.
  251. LANGUAGE PROBLEMS IN THE CAUCASUS [CAUCASIAN REVIEW, MUNICH (CRM), Vol. 1, 1955, PP. 122-7], KARL BOUDA.
  252. LANGUAGES AND PEOPLES OF THE USSR. VLADIMIR ROGOV. MOSCOW: NOVOSTI PRESS AGENCY PUBLISHING HOUSE, 1966.
  253. LANGUAGES IN CONTACT: A TRANSCAUCASIAN EXAMPLE [ZEITSCHRIFT FUR SPRACHWISSENSCHAFT UND KOMMUNIKATIONSFORSCHUNG (ZPSK), Vol. 44, No. 3, 1991, pp. 295-300], B[RIAN G[EORGE] HEWITT.
  254. LANGUAGES IN CONTACT IN N. W. GEORGIA: FACT OR FICTION? BRIAN GEORGE HEWITT. Pp. 244-58 in CAUCASIAN PERSPECTIVES. BRIAN GEORGE HEWITT (Ed.). MUNCHEN: LINCOM EUROPA, 1992.
  255. LANGUAGES OF THE CAUCASUS [CLASSICAL WEEKLY (CW), XXXVI, 1943, PP. 219-223], H. P. HOUGHTON.
  256. LANGUAGES OF THE NORTHWEST CAUCASUS. JOHN COLARUSSO. In THE LANGUAGES AND LITERATURES OF THE NON-RUSSIAN PEOPLES OF THE SOVIET UNION. HAMILTON, 1977.
  257. LANGUAGES OF THE U.S.S.R. WILLIAM KLEESMAN MATTHEWS. CAMBRIDGE: CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY PRESS, 1951. {CAUCASIAN BIBLIOGRAPHY ON PP. 142-151}
  258. LANGUAGE USE IN A BILINGUAL ADYGE-RUSSIAN COMMUNITY [JOURNAL OF MULTICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT, 9, 5: 1988], OLGA LALOR AND M. BLANC. {The Adyghey Autonomous Region was established in 1922 as a constituent oblast in the Russian Federation. According to the 1979 census, there were about 100,000 Circassians living in the Region, whereas the Russians numbered about 285,000. Other nationalities accounted for 30,000. In 1984 Russian was declared as the official language, which meant that the status of Circassian was reduced. The conclusion of the researchers was that Russian was becoming the dominant language even within the Circassian family, the last refuge of Circassian}
  259. LANGUES CAUCASIENNES. GEORGES DUMEZIL. P. 227 ff. IN LES LANGUES DU MONDE. A. MEILLET ET M. COHEN (Eds.). PARIS, 1952.
  260. LA PARENTE DES LANGUES DU CAUCASE [NORSK TIDSSKRIFT FOR SPROGVIDENSKAP, XII, OSLO, 1942, P. 243 ff.], H. VOGT.
  261. LA POSITION LINGUISTIQUE DES LANGUES CAUCASIENNES [STUDIA LINGUISTICA (SL) IV, 1950, PP. 94-107], VACLAV POLAK.
  262. ? LA POSITION LINGUISTIQUE DES LANGUES CAUCASIENNES [BULLETIN DE LA SOCIETE DE LINGUISTIQUE, 1938, PP. 75-77, 67-87].
  263. LA PRINCESSE KAHRAMAN. CONTES D'ANATOLIE EN DIALECTE CHAPSOUGH (TCHERKESSE OCCIDENTAL). CATHERINE PARIS.  PARIS: SOCIETE D'ETUDES LINGUISTIQUES ET ANTHROPOLOGIQUES DE FRANCE (SELAF), LANGUES ET CIVILISATIONS A TRADITION ORALE, 8, 1974. {To which there is a 69-page Shapsugh-French lexicon attached. Very important for research. Reviewed by Rieks Smeets in STUDIA CAUCASICA, 4, 1978, pp. 104-19}
  264. LARYNGEAL-SUFFIXED INFIX VERBS IN HITTITE [LINGUISTICA BALTICA (KURYLOVICZ CENTENNIAL VOLUME)], JAAN PUHVEL.
  265. LA SOURIS, LE GRAIN DE SEL ET LA FEUILLE SECHE. TEXTE TCHERKESSE EN DIALECTE ABZAKH. [BEDI KARTLISA (BK), 35-36, 1977/78, pp. 28-45], CATHERINE PARIS. {Text in the Abzakh dialect of Western Circassian}
  266. LATINIZED CIRCASSIAN ALPHABET. AMJAD JAIMOUKHA. PUBLISHED ON THE NET.
  267. LAW ON EDUCATION OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION. TRANSLATED FROM RUSSIAN IN COMMENTS ON THE LAW ON EDUCATION OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION. JAN DE GROOF (Ed.). LEUVEN, BELGIUM: ACCO (ACADEMISCHE COOPERATIEF c.v.), 1993.
  268. LE BASQUE ET LES LANGUES CAUCASIQUES [BULLETIN DE LA SOCIETE DE LINGUISTIQUE DE PARIS, 51, 1955], HANS VOGT.
  269. LE BASQUE ET LES LANGUES CAUCASIQUES [WORD, 8, 1952], RENE LAFON.
  270. LE DIALECTE BESNEY. JOURNAL ASIATIQUE, 1965.
  271. LE GARCON ADOPTIF [BEDI KARTLISA (BK), 38, 1980, pp.198-232], CATHERINE PARIS.
  272. Lek'waswe et la Vache D'Axin [JOURNAL ASIATIQUE (JA), 243, 1955, pp. 39-47], GEORGES DUMEZIL  ET AYTEK NAMITOK. {Seventh tale of Recits Oubykh, I below}
  273. LE PAIN MINCE: TEXTE BESNEY (TCHERKESSE ORIENTAL) [BEDI KARTLISA, XXIX-XXX, 1972, pp. 64-74], CATHERINE PARIS.
  274. LE PARLER BESNEY (TCHERKESSE ORIENTAL) DE ZENNUN KOYU (CORUM, TURQUIE). I. ESQUISSE GRAMMATICALE [JOURNAL ASIATIQUE (JA), CCLI, 1963, PP. 337-382], ORHAN ALPARSLAN ET GEORGES DUMEZIL. {The Beslanay dialect of Eastern Circassian in Turkey}
  275. LE PARLER BESNEY (TCHERKESSE ORIENTAL) DE ZENNUN KOYU (CORUM, TURQUIE). II. TEXTES FOLKLORIQUES. [JOURNAL ASIATIQUE (JA), CCLII, 1964, PP. 327-364], ORHAN ALPARSLAN ET GEORGES DUMEZIL. / MY COLLECTION. {CES TROIS RECITS ONT ETE DICTES A M. DUMEZIL PAR MEMDUH SAHIN A ZENNUN KOYU, EN JUIN ET JUILLET 1958. THREE BES(LA)NEY TEXTS. VERSIONS IN OTHER CIRCASSIAN DIALECTS ARE INCLUDED}
  276. LE PARLER BESNEY (TCHERKESSE ORIENTAL) DE ZENNUN KOYU (CORUM, TURQUIE). III. L'ISOLE, RECIT. [JOURNAL ASIATIQUE (JA), CCLIII, 1965, PP. 223-249], ORHAN ALPARSLAN ET GEORGES DUMEZIL. {THIS IS AN IMAGINARY TALE COMPOSED BY ORHAN ALPARSLAN IN ZENNUN KOYU, TURKEY. THERE IS A FRENCH TRANSLATION}
  277. LE PARLER BESNEY (TCHERKESSE ORIENTAL) DE ZENNUN KOYU (CORUM, TURQUIE). IV. L'ISOLE, RECIT (DEUXIEME PARTIE). [JOURNAL ASIATIQUE (JA), 259, 1971 (1972), PP. 163-213], ORHAN ALPARSLAN. / MY COLLECTION. {SECOND PART OF THE TALE}
  278. LE PROBLEME LINGUISTIQUE ET L'EVOLUTION DES NATIONALITES MUSULMANES EN U.R.S.S. [CAHIERS DU MONDE RUSSE ET SOVIETIQUE, Vol. 1, No. 3, 1960, PP. 418-465], ALEXANDRE BENNIGSEN.
  279. LES CONSONNES LATERALES DES LANGUES CAUCASIQUES (CAUCASIENNES) SEPTENTRIONALES [BULLETIN DE LA SOCIETE DE LINGUISTIQUE DE PARIS, XXIII, Fasc. 3 (No. 72), 1922, PP. 184-204], N. S. TR(O)UBETZKOY.
  280. LES FILS D'AVEUGLE [REVUE DE L'IHISTOIRE DES RELIGIONS (RHR), PARIS, CXVI, 1938, PP. 50-74; CXXIII, 1941, pp. 63-70; CXXVIII, PP. 42-43].
  281. LES OCCLUSIVES "FORTES" DANS LE PARLER CHAPSOUGH DE CEMILBEY (TCHERKESSEOCCIDENTAL) [BULLETIN DE LA SOCIETE LINGUISTIQUE DE PARIS (BSL), 67, 1972, pp. 267-99], CATHERINE PARIS. {Reviewed by Rieks Smeets in STUDIA CAUCASICA, 4, 1978, pp. 104-19}
  282. LES ORIGINES DE LA LANGUE BASQUE [CONFERENCES DE L'INSTITUT DE LINGUISTIQUE DE L'UNIVERSITE DE PARIS, X, 1950-1951], RENE LAFON.
  283. LE ORIGINI DELLA LINGUA BASCA. A. TROMBETTI, 1926.
  284. LES PREVERBES ABZAKH (DIALECTE TCHERKESSE OCCIDENTAL). NIAZ BATOUKA. THESE POUR L'OBTENTION DU DOCTORAT DE 3e CYCLE EN LINGUISTIQUE GENERALE. UNIVERSITE DE LA SORBONNE NOUVELLE, PARIS III. U. E. R. D'ETUDES LINGUISTIQUES ET PHONETIQUES. (499 pages). {Ph.D. thesis on the Abzakh dialect of Western Circassian}
  285. LE SYSTEME DES SONS DE L'OUBYKH [BULLETIN DE LA SOCIETE LINGUISTIQUE DE PARIS (BSL), L, 1, 1954], GEORGES DUMEZIL.
  286. LE SYSTEME DU TCHERKESSE A TRAVERS SES DIALECTES: PHONOLOGIE, SYNTAXE, LEXIQUE. CATHERINE PARIS. UNIVERSITE DE LA SORBONNE NOUVELLE, PARIS III (THESE D'ETAT), PARIS, 1984.
  287. L'ETAT ACTUEL DES ETUDES LINGUISTIQUES CAUCASIENNES [ARCHIV ORIENTALNI (AO), XVIII, 1/2, PRAGUE, 1950, pp. 383-407], VACLAV POLAK. {CONTAINS MANY REFERENCES}
  288. L'ETAT ACTUEL DU PROBLEME DES ORIGINES DE LA LANGUE BASQUE [EUSKO-JAKINTZA, I, 1947, p. 35 ff., 151 ff., and 505 ff.], RENE LAFON.
  289. Letter from John Colarusso to James P. Mallory on the Caucasus and PIE (Proto-Indo-European) (6/21/93), in MOTHER TONGUE (Newsletter of the Association for the Study of Language In Prehistory), Issue 21 (January 1994), pp. 20-22.
  290. L'EUSKARO-CAUCASIQUE. KARL BOUDA. IN HOMENAJE A DON JULIO DE URQUIJO, Vol. III, SAINT-SEBASTIEN, 1950.
  291. LE VERBE OUBYKH, ETUDES DESCRIPTIVES ET COMPARATIVES. GEORGES DUMEZIL. PARIS: IMPRIMERIE NATIONALE/LIBRAIRIE KLINCKSIECK, 1975. {The Ubykh Verb, Descriptive and Comparative Studies}
  292. LEXICOGRAPHY OF THE CAUCASIAN LANGUAGES II: NORTHWEST CAUCASIAN LANGUAGES. BRIAN GEORGE HEWITT. In DICTIONARIES. AN INTERNATIONAL ENCYCLOPEFIA OF LEXICOGRAPHY. FRANZ JOSEF HAUSMANN, OSKAR REICHMANN, HERBERT ERNST WIEGAND AND LADISLAV ZGUSTA (Eds.). BERLIN, NEW YORK. WALTER DE GRUYTER, 1991. THIRD VOLUME, pp. 2418-21. {MOST ENLIGHTENING ARTICLE ON THE DICTIONARIES OF KABARDIAN, ADIGHE, ABKHAZ AND  OTHER DIALECTS. THERE IS A LIST OF 14 NORTHWEST CAUCASIAN DICTIONARIES. "ABKHAZ-ABAZA, CIRCASSIAN AND UBYKH [=UBYX] ARE CHARACTERISED BY LARGE CONSONANTAL INVENTORIES (COUPLED WITH MINIMAL VOWEL-SYSTEMS), BY MAINLY MONOSYLLABIC ROOT-MORPHEMES, AND BY AN EXTREME POLYPERSONALISM WITHIN THE VERBAL SYSTEM, WHEREBY VIRTUALLY THE ENTIRE SYNTACTIC STRUCTURE OF THE CLAUSE IS RECAPITULATED IN THE VERBAL COMPLEX. THIS MAKES IT IMPOSSIBLE FOR ANY DICTIONARY OF MANAGEABLE PROPORTIONS TO LIST ALL POTENTIALLY OCCURRING VERB-FORMS (EVEN IF RESTRICTED UNIQUELY TO 3rd PERSON ILLUSTRATIONS, AS IN SOME SOVIET LEXICONS). BUT, SINCE MORPHOLOGICAL IRREGULARITY IS NOT TYPICAL OF THESE LANGUAGES, ONE CAN QUESTION WHETHER THERE IS ANY NEED TO INCLUDE SUCH ENTIRELY PREDICTABLE FORMATIONS AS REFLEXIVE, RECIPROCAL, BENEFACTIVE, POTENTIAL, CAUSATIVE, 'PARTICIPIAL' AND TENSE-MODAL FORMS FOR THE VERBS, AND (IN)DEFINITE AND/OR PLURAL FORMS FOR THE NOUNS. ... WITHIN THE USSR THE WEST CIRCASSIAN AND EAST CIRCASSIAN LITERARY LANGUAGES (BASED ON THE TEMIRGOI AND KABARDIAN DIALECTS RESPECTIVELY) HAVE, TOGETHER WITH ABAZA, BEEN WRITTEN WITH A CYRILLIC-BASED SCRIPT SINCE 1938 (1936 FOR KABARDIAN), THOUGH THERE IS OFTEN NO UNIFORM REPRESENTATION OF IDENTICAL SOUNDS. IN EACH CASE THE ONE ADDITIONAL LETTER IS THE OLD CYRILLIC CAPITAL I, WHICH MARKS ALL EJECTIVES IN TEMIRGOI, SOME EJECTIVES IN KABARDIAN AND EITHER EJECTIVITY OR PHARYNGAL ARTICULATION IN ABAZA: CYRILLIC ORDERING IS FOLLOWED. THE RICH CONSONANTISM OF THESE LANGUAGES CAN ONLY BE HANDLED IN THIS WAY BY THE USE OF DI- AND TRIGRAPHS, AND KABARDIAN EVEN HAS ONE TETRAGRAPH"}
  293. LEXICOGRAPHY OF THE CAUCASIAN LANGUAGES III: NORTHEAST CAUCASIAN LANGUAGES. id. P. 2421 ff. {LISTS DICTIONARIES OF NORTHEAST CAUCASIAN LANGUAGE GROUP: CHECHEN, INGUSH, AVAR, LAK, DARGI, LEZGHI, BUDUKH, BATSBI, ETC. "THE NORTHEAST CAUCASIAN (NEC), OR NAKH-DAGHESTANIAN, FAMILY COMPRISES SOME 30 LANGUAGES DIVIDED AMONG FOUR OR FIVE BRANCHES. SOME LANGUAGES ARE SPOKEN IN A SINGLE VILLAGE; OTHERS HAVE SEVERAL HUNDRED THOUSAND SPEAKERS. SERIOUS DESCRIPTION BEGAN IN THE 19th CENTURY, WHEN USLAR PROVIDED EXTENSIVE GRAMMARS WITH TEXTS AND GLOSSARIES. THERE WAS LIMITED AND LOCAL EARLY WRITING IN THE ARABIC ALPHABET FOR A FEW LANGUAGES (AVAR, LAK, DARGI), BUT OFFICIAL LITERARY STATUS - ORTHOGRAPHY, PUBLISHING, SOME SCHOOLING - DATES FROM THE 1920'S. THERE ARE NOW SEVEN WRITTEN LANGUAGES: CHECHEN, INGUSH, AVAR, LAK, DARGI, TABASSARAN, LEZGHI. THE FIRST ORTHOGRAPHIES USED THE LATIN ALPHABET, BUT ALL WERE CONVERTED TO THE RUSSIAN ALPHABET (SUPPLEMENTD, TYPICALLY BY "I" FOR PHARYNGEALS AND/OR LARYNGEALS) IN 1938. THE DESCRIPTIVE, GRAMMATICAL, AND LEXICOLOGICAL TRADITIONS ARE NOT INDIGENOUS IN ORIGIN, ALTHOUGH NATIVE CONTRIBUTIONS HAVE BEEN ESSENTIAL TO THEM. ... NEC LANGUAGES HAVE STRUCTURAL FEATURES WHICH CHALLENGE LEXICOGRAPHY. MOST HAVE GENDER CLASSES, WITH WHICH (SOME BUT USUALLY NOT ALL) VERBS AGREE BY MUTATING THEIR INITIAL CONSONANTS; THIS COMPLICATES ALPHABETIZATION. THEY ARE ERGATIVE OR STATIVE-ACTIVE, i.e. HAVE MORE THAN ONE CASE FOR SUBJECT; SO THE RECEIVED SOVIET PRACTICE OF GIVING ILLUSTRATIVE EXAMPLES IN THE INFINITIVE, HENCE WITHOUT THE SUBJECT, REMOVES ESSENTIAL INFORMATION ABOUT CASE GOVERNMENT. THE CONSONANT INVENTORIES ARE COMPLEX. MULTILINGUALISM, FUNCTIONAL RESTRICTION OF INDIGENOUS LANGUAGES, AND RECOURSE TO RUSSIAN (AND, EARLIER, ARABIC AND TURKIC LANGUAGES) AS THE LANGUAGE OF INTER-GROUP COMMUNICATION, HIGHER EDUCATION, AND TECHNOLOGY COMPLICATES THE TREATMENT OF TECHNICAL VOCABULARY. ON THE OTHER HAND, THE FOLLOWING SIMPLIFY LEXICOGRAPHY: THE LANGUAGES ARE AGGLUTINATING, THERE ARE FEW OR NO PREFIXES, AN INFINITIVE IS REGULARLY DERIVED AND RETRIEVABLE FOR EVERY VERB, AND THERE IS GENERALLY A CLEAR DEFAULT GENDER - SO CITATION FORMS ARE NATURAL, TRANSPARENT, AND INFORMATIVE. ... THE GENDER PROBLEM WAS SOLVED INTELLIGENTLY BY USLAR: WITH EACH NOUN, CITE THE GENDER MARKERS IT REQUIRES (RATHER THAN NAMING OR NUMBERING THE GENDERS); CITE THE VERB WITHOUT THE MUTATING CONSONANT AND WITH AN INITIAL HYPHEN, OR IN THE DEFAULT GENDER WITH AN ASTERISK (TO DISTINGUISH IT FROM VERBS WHICH BEGIN WITH THE SAME CONSONANT BUT DO NOT TAKE GENDER AGREEMENT). ... USLAR'S GLOSSARIES (1888 ff.) SET HIGH STANDARDS: THEY CONTAIN UPWARDS OF A THOUSAND WORDS, WITH USEFUL CITATION FORMS, PRINCIPAL PARTS SHOWN, GENDER INDICATED, IRREGULARITIES LISTED, AND PHONEMIC WRITING. 20th-CENTURY DICTIONARIES ARE MOSTLY BILINGUAL DEFINING DICTIONARIES. CAUCASIAN-RUSSIAN ONES GIVE MORPHOLOGICAL INFORMATION (GENDER, PRINCIPAL PARTS), SALIENT IDIOMS AND FIXED PHRASES, USUALLY AN ILLUSTRATIVE EXAMPLE PHRASE (WITH VERBS IN THE INFINITIVE), AND OFTEN A GAZETTEER AND GRAMMATICAL SKETCH (THE LATTER GENERALLY EXCELLENT ON MORPHOLOGICAL PARADIGMS). RUSSIAN-CAUCASIAN DICTIONARIES GIVE LITTLE INFORMATION ABOUT EITHER LANGUAGE. THERE ARE NO MONOLINGUAL DICTIONARIES OF ANY KIND, NO BILINGUAL DICTIONARIES INVOLVING ANY LANGUAGE OTHER THAN RUSSIAN, NO TECHNICAL OR TERMINOLOGICAL DICTIONARIES. ALL OF THIS IS CONSISTENT WITH THE OFFICIAL AND QUASI-OFFICIAL FUNCTIONAL RESTRICTION OF THESE LANGUAGES: THERE IS LITTLE SCHOOLING IN THE LANGUAGES, ALTHOUGH SOME ARE TAUGHT AS SUBJECTS; RUSSIAN IS THE LANGUAGE OF RESEARCH AND TECHNICAL COMMUNICATION; RUSSIAN IS THE ONLY LANGUAGE OF INTER-GROUP AND INTERNATIONAL COMMUNICATION; TRANSLATION IS DONE ONLY FROM AND INTO RUSSIAN."}
  294. LEXICOGRAPHY OF THE NORTHWEST CAUCASIAN LANGUAGES. COLLECTED AND PREPARED BY AMJAD JAIMOUKHA. PUBLISHED ON THE NET.
  295. L'HOTE ENJOUE, TEXTE BES(LE)NEY DE ZENNUN KOYU [STUDIA CAUCASICA 2, 1966, pp. 1-8], ORHAN ALPARSLAN ET GEORGES DUMEZIL.
  296. LINCOM STUDIES IN CAUCASIAN LINGUISTICS 02. ALEXANDR E. KIBRIK (Ed.). MUNCHEN/NEWCASTLE: LINCOM EUROPA, 1996.
  297. LINGUA DESCRIPTIVE STUDIES 2: ABKHAZ. B[RIAN] GEORGE HEWITT (in collaboration with Z. K. Khiba). AMSTERDAM: NORTH HOLLAND (NOW CROOM HELM), 1979. REPRINTED BY ROUTLEDGE, 1989.
  298. LINGUISTIC OVERVIEW. JOHANNA NICHOLS. PAPER PRESENTED AT THE CAUCASUS CONFERENCE 1996: THE PAST AS PRELUDE: CULTURAL, HISTORICAL, AND POLITICAL ROOTS OF IDENTITY IN THE CAUCASUS HELD AT THE UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA AT BERKELEY ON MAY 17th, 1996.
  299. LINGUISTICS AND THE SOVIET WRITER [ANGLO-SOVIET JOURNAL, Vol. 12, No. 2, 1951, pp. 50-54], HENRY GIFFORD.
  300. LINGUISTIQUE CAUCASIENNE ET ARMENIENNE. HANS VOGT (1903 - ). SERIE B--SKRIFTER 76. STUDIA CAUCASOLOGICA 2. OSLO, NORWAY: NORWEGIAN UNIVERSITY PRESS: INSTITUTE FOR COMPARATIVE RESEARCH IN HUMAN CULTURE, c1988. (536 pages. 23cm.). {Includes bibliographical references}
  301. L'INTEGRATION DES IMMIGRANTS DU CAUCASE DU NORD-OUEST DANS L'EMPIRE OTTOMAN (DE LA FIN DU XIXeme SIECLE AU DEBUT DU XXeme SIECLE). ALEXANDRE TOURMARKINE. PROCEEDINGS OF THE CONFERENCE ON NORTHWEST CAUCASIAN LINGUISTICS: 10-12 OCTOBER 1994, BOGAZICI UNIVERSITY. A. SUMRU OZSOY (Ed.). OSLO: NOVUS: INSTITUTT FOR SAMMENLIGNENDE KULTURFORSKNING, 1997. {For more details on the Proceedings, see the title below}
  302. LITERACY AND THE PLACE OF RUSSIAN IN THE NON-SLAV REPUBLICS OF THE USSR [SOVIET STUDIES, 3, No. 2, 1951, pp. 113-30], E. KOUTAISSOFF.
  303. LOANS IN ABKHAZ [STUDIES IN SLAVIC AND GENERAL LINGUISTICS (SSGL), AMSTERDAM, 1, 1980, pp. 253-63], WIM LUCASSEN.
  304. Many Languages, Many Nationalities. Lecture delivered by Professor John Colarusso at the Middle East Institute, Washington, D.C., on October 21st, 1995. ("The inseparable issues of linguistics and ethnicity are explored by John Colarusso, who has recorded many Caucasian languages and has visited the region regularly").
  305. MATERIALS FOR THE KABARDY DICTIONARY. N. F. YAKOVLEV. MOSCOW, 1927. {"Kabardian is one of the most remarkable languages that have ever been the object of linguistic investigation"}
  306. METHODOLOGICAL CONSIDERATIONS IN HISTORICAL RECONSTRUCTION: THE CASE OF PROTO-NORTHWEST CAUCASIAN. JOHN COLARUSSO. IN INTERNATIONAL REVIEW OF SLAVIC LINGUISTICS (SPECIAL VOLUME ON THE NON-SLAVIC LANGUAGES OF THE U.S.S.R.). BERNARD COMRIE (Ed.).
  307. MIGRATION AND LANGUAGES IN THE USSR. E. GLYN. LEWIS. PP. 310-341 OF Vol. 2 OF ADVANCES IN THE SOCIOLOGY OF LANGUAGE. JOSHUA A. FISHMAN (Ed.). THE HAGUE: MOUTON AND CO., 1972.
  308. MODERNISATION IN THE MUSLIM EAST: THE ROLE OF SCRIPT AND LANGUAGE REFORM [ASIAN AFFAIRS, JOURNAL OF THE ROYAL ASIAN SOCIETY, 61, Part II, JUNE 1974], G. WHEELER.
  309. MORPHOLOGIE COMPAREE ET PHONETIQUE COMPAREE. A PROPOS DES LANGUESCAUCASIENNES DU NORD [BULLETIN DE LA SOCIETE DE LINGUISTIQUE DE PARIS XXXVIII, 1937, P. 122 ff.], GEORGES DUMEZIL.
  310. MORPHOLOGIE TCHERKESSE: LA CATEGORIE DE POSSESSION II: LES DIALECTES, LES ORIGINES. RIEKS SMEETS.
  311. MOUNTAIN OF TONGUES: THE LANGUAGES OF THE CAUCASUS [ANNUAL REVIEW OF ANTHROPOLOGY, Vol. 6, 1977, PP. 283-314. DEPARTMENT OF LINGUISTICS, UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN, ANN ARBOR, MICHIGAN 48104], JOHN C. CATFORD.
  312. MULTILINGUAL EDUCATION OF ISRAELI CIRCASSIANS. E. AVINOR, M. BENSOUSSAN, I. KREINDLER, A. PURISMAN AND F. FURMAN. THE UNIVERSITY OF HAIFA. / MY COLLECTION. {PUBLICATION INFORMATION NOT AVAILABLE TO ME. PAPER SENT TO ME BY Dr. BENSOUSSAN. "THE CIRCASSIAN COMMUNITY IN ISRAEL IS A UNIQUE ETHNOLINGUISTIC GROUP - MUSLIM BUT NOT ARAB, WITH ITS OWN LANGUAGE AND CUSTOMS. THOUGH ONE OF THE SMALLEST DIASPORA COMMUNITIES IN THE WORLD (SLIGHTLY OVER 3,000), IT IS ONE OF THE MOST SUCCESSFUL IN PRESERVING ITS MOTHER TONGUE AND NATIONAL IDENTITY WHILE AT THE SAME TIME FULLY INTEGRATING INTO ISRAELI LIFE. ... FOUR LANGUAGES ARE TAUGHT IN THE TWO ISRAELI CIRCASSIAN VILLAGE SCHOOLS: 1- HEBREW AS THE LANGUAGE OF STATE , 2- ARABIC AS THE LANGUAGE OF RELIGION AND STATE, 3- ENGLISH AS THE LANGUAGE OF WIDER COMMUNICATION, AND 4- CIRCASSIAN AS THE MOTHER TONGUE. ... THE RATIONALE AND GOALS FOR EACH LANGUAGE, THE NUMBER OF HOURS ASSIGNED, THE ORDER OF INTRODUCTION INTO THE CURRICULUM VARY NOT ONLY FOR EACH OF THE LANGUAGES, BUT ALSO IN EACH OF THE TWO SCHOOLS. ... IT IS THE PURPOSE OF THIS REPORT TO BRIEFLY OUTLINE THE HISTORICAL AND SOCIOLINGUISTIC BACKGROUND OF THE ISRAELI CIRCASSIANS AND THEN, IN MORE DETAIL, DESCRIBE AND ANALYZE THEIR PRESENT QUADRALINGUAL EDUCATION, INCLUDING QUESTIONS OF LANGUAGE ATTITUDE AND MOTIVATION. FINALLY, THOUGH THERE IS MUCH THAT IS POSITIVE IN THE MULTILINGUAL CIRCASSIAN SYSTEM OF EDUCATION, IT IS NOT WITHOUT ITS SPECIAL PROBLEMS, AND THESE WILL BE DISCUSSED." REFER TO THE RELATED ARTICLE CIRCASSIAN ISRAELIS: MULTILINGUALISM AS A WAY OF LIFE ABOVE}
  313. MULTILINGUALISM IN THE SOVIET UNION. E. GLYN. LEWIS. THE HAGUE: MOUTON AND CO., 1972.
  314. NATIONAL LANGUAGES IN THE USSR - PROBLEMS AND SOLUTIONS. M. I. ISAYEV. MOSCOW: PROGRESS PUBLISHERS, 1977.
  315. NIKOLAEV & STAROSTIN'S NORTH CAUCASIAN ETYMOLOGICAL DICTIONARY AND THE METHODOLOGY OF LONG-RANGE COMPARISON: AN ASSESSMENT. JOHANNA NICHOLS. PAPER PRESENTED AT THE TENTH BIENNIAL NON-SLAVIC LANGUAGES (NSL) CONFERENCE HELD AT THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO THURSDAY-SATURDAY, 8-10 MAY 1997. {"This ambitious and exhaustively researched etymological dictionary and comparative grammar purports to demonstrate genetic unity of Northeast Caucasian (Nakh-Daghestanian) and Northwest Caucasian (Abkhaz-Circassian) and offers a reconstructed protolanguage. It assumes relatedness between these two families, assembles cognate sets accordingly, and finds regular correspondences within the cognate sets. However, its method has four flaws: (1) failure to demonstrate genetic relatedness before proceeding to correspondences; (2) proposing cognate sets and correspondences for Nakh-Daghestanian that are not what is demanded by purely internal comparison of this family; (3) non-verisimilitudinous protolanguage and protoforms; (4) phonologization of what are rather clearly morphological alternations. (There are also some minor problems with the Proto-Nakh reconstruction due to use of imperfect sources.) The consequence is that there is no evidence for North Caucasian genetic unity (an important issue, since Proto-North-Caucasian is the cornerstone of the far-reaching Dene-Caucasian mega-group). This shows that flawless application of Neogrammarian method, with demonstration of regular correspondences, does not prove genetic relatedness. [The exact content and conclusions are subject to change as I work through more of the Nikolaev-Starostin monograph.]" Starostin countered in his paper RECONSTRUCTION OF PROTO-NORTH-CAUCASIAN: RESPONSE TO J. NICHOLS, presented at the same conference. The author is at the University of California, Berkeley}
  316. NON-SLAVIC LANGUAGES OF THE USSR: PAPERS FROM THE FOURTH CONFERENCE. HOWARD I. ARONSON (Ed.). COLUMBUS, OHIO: SLAVICA PUBLISHERS, INC., 1994. (309 PAGES. ISBN 0-89357-250-0. PRICE: $24.95). {CONTAINS STUDIES IN THE LINGUISTICS OF CAUCASIA IN MEMORY OF AKAKI SHANIDZE: 1887-1987. ARTICLES ON NORTH CAUCASIAN LANGUAGES: VOWEL SYSTEMS OF CAUCASIAN LANGUAGES, J.C. CATFORD; HOW TO DESCRIBE THE SOUNDS OF THE NORTHWEST CAUCASIAN LANGUAGES, JOHN COLARUSSO; ASSERTIVE VERB FORMS IN LAK, VICTOR FRIEDMAN; NOTES ON AUXILIARY VERBS IN TSOVA-TUSH (BATSBI), DEE ANN HOLINSKY; THE STRUCTURE OF THE NAKH-DAGHESTANIAN VERB ROOT AND VERB STEM, JOHANNA NICHOLS; CLASS INFLECTION AND RELATED CATEGORIES IN THE CAUCASUS, K. H. SCHMIDT; TRACING ASPECT CODING TECHNIQUES IN THE LEZGIAN LANGUAGES, WOLFGANG SCHULZE-FUERHOFF. OTHER ARTICLES OF INTEREST: PREHISTORIC CONTACTS BETWEEN OSSETIC AND SLAVIC, ZBIGNIEW GOB; THE CORRESPONDENCE: SCYTHIAN BASTAKAW = OSSETIAN BASTA, DAVID TESTEN}
  317. NORDKAUKASISCHE WORTGLEICHUNGEN [WIENER ZEITSCHRIFT FUR DIE KUNDE DES MORGENLANDES (WZKM), XXXVII, BAND 1, 2. 1930, PP. 76-92], N. S. TR(O)UBETZKOY.
  318. NORTH CAUCASIAN ETYMOLOGICAL DICTIONARY. S. L. NIKOLAEV AND SERGEI A. STAROSTIN. MOSCOW, 1994. {Critiqued by Johanna Nichols in her paper NIKOLAEV & STAROSTIN'S NORTH CAUCASIAN ETYMOLOGICAL DICTIONARY AND THE METHODOLOGY OF LONG-RANGE COMPARISON: AN ASSESSMENT, presented at THE TENTH BIENNIAL NON-SLAVIC LANGUAGES (NSL) CONFERENCEheld at the University of Chicago, 8-10 May 1997. Starostin countered in his paper RECONSTRUCTION OF PROTO-NORTH-CAUCASIAN: RESPONSE TO J. NICHOLS, presented at the same conference. The Dictionary is in Russian}
  319. ? NORTH WEST CAUCASIAN LANGUAGES [ANALECTA SLAVICA, PP. 193-206], A. H. KUIPERS.
  320. NOTE SUR LE PARLER DES ABAZAS D'ANATOLIE [FOLIA LIGUISTICA (FoL), Vol. 2, 1968 (1969), PP. 275-8], GEORGES DUMEZIL. {"LA GRANDE IMMIGRATION CAUCASIENNE D'IL Y A CENT ANS A CONDUIT PEU D'ABAZA DANS L'EMPIRE OTTOMAN. IL N'EN SUBSISTE AUJOURD'HUI QU'UNE DIZAINE DE VILLAGES (JE DONNE LES NOMS ABAZAS ENTRE PARENTHESES QUAND JE LES CONNAIS): (1) QUATRE DANS LE VILAYET DE YOZGAT: OSMANIYE DANS LE KAZA DE SORGUN; FUADIYE (QWIZHWN?), CAYIROZU (SHARIWAZ?) ET AGLI (A'ALE) DANS LE KAZA DE CEKEREK; (2) DEUX DANS LE VILAYET DU SAKARYA: ORMANKOYU (BNAKET) DANS LE KAZA D'AKYAZI; ISMALIYE DANS LE KAZA DE DUZCE; (3) DEUX DANS LE VILAYET D'ADANA: IYIDEBEL ET AKPINAR DANS LE KAZA DE TUFANBEYLI; EN OUTRE, DANS LE MEME KAZA, UNE TRENTAINE DE FOYERS (CONTRE 70 FOYERS TURCS) AU VILLAGE DE BOLATPINAR, JADIS ENTIEREMENT ABAZA; (4) UN DANS LE VILAYET DE KAYSERI: ALTIKESEK DANS LE KAZA DE PINARBASI. QUELQUES FOYERS SUBSISTENT A BAKIR (VILAYET DE CORUM, ANCIENNEMENT DE YOZGAT; KAZA D'ALACA); QUELQUES AUTRES VILLAGES ABAZAS DU DERNIER SIECLE SONT AUJOURD'HUI ENTIEREMENT DISPERSES (VILAYETS DE BURSA ET D'ESKISEHIR). TOUS CES VILLAGES SONT NOMMES PAR LEURS HABITANTS LOOKET, C'EST-A-DIRE QU'ILS ONT ETE FONDES PAR DES MEMBRES D'UNE MEME FAMILLE, CELLE DES LOO (TELLE EST LA PRONONCIATION, QUE JE N'ESSAIE PAS D'INTERPRETER). IL FAUT PRENDRE GARDE QUE, PARMI LES TURCS ET MEME PARMI LES IMMIGRES CAUCASIENS, 'ABAZA' A UN EMPLOI, IMPROPRE, BEAUCOUP PLUS LARGE - IL DESGNE USUELLEMENT TOUS LES ABKHAZ.}
  321. NOTES D'ETYMOLOGIE ET DE VOCABULAIRE SUR LE CAUCASIQUE DU NORD-OUEST. 1, 2, 3. [JOURNAL ASIATIQUE (JA), 260, 1972, PP. 7-14], GEORGES DUMEZIL.
  322. NOTES D'ETYMOLOGIE ET DE VOCABULAIRE SUR LE CAUCASIQUE DU NORD-OUEST. 4, 5, 6. [BEDI KARTLISA (BK), 31, 1973, pp. 24-35], GEORGES DUMEZIL.
  323. NOTE D'ETYMOLOGIE ET DE VOCABULAIRE SUR LE CAUCASIQUE DU NORD-OUEST. 7. [MELANGES BENVENISTE], GEORGES DUMEZIL.
  324. NOTES D'ETYMOLOGIE ET DE VOCABULAIRE SUR LE CAUCASIQUE DU NORD-OUEST. 8, 9, 10. [JOURNAL ASIATIQUE (JA), 262, 1974, PP. 19-29], GEORGES DUMEZIL. / MY COLLECTION. {NOTE 10, PP. 26-9, IS ON THE NAMES OF THE WEEKDAYS IN NORTH-WEST CAUCASIAN LANGUAGES, CIRCASSIAN INCLUDED}
  325. NOTE D'ETYMOLOGIE ET DE VOCABULAIRE SUR LE CAUCASIQUE DU NORD-OUEST. 11. [BEDI KARTLISA (BK), 32, 1974], GEORGES DUMEZIL.
  326. ? NOTES ETYMOLOGIQUES [EUSKO-JAKINTZA, IV, 1950, p. 303 ff.], RENE LAFON.
  327. NOTES ON AUXILIARY VERBS IN TSOVA-TUSH (BATSBI). DEE ANN HOLISKY. IN NON-SLAVIC LANGUAGES OF THE USSR: PAPERS FROM THE FOURTH CONFERENCE. HOWARD I. ARONSON (Ed.). SLAVICA PUBLISHERS, INC., 1994.
  328. NOTES SUR LE VERBE DU TCHERKESSE OCCIDENTAL [REVUE DES ETUDES ISLAMIQUE (REI), 1940, PP. 79-85], GEORGES DUMEZIL. / UNI. MAN. / MY COLLECTION. {I. LES SUFFIXES DE TEMPS EN ABZAKH. II. VALEURS DE L'AFFIXE VERBAL -(a)te- EN TCHERKESSE OCCIDENTAL}
  329. OBJECTIVE CONJUGATION IN NORTH AND SOUTH CAUCASIAN. L. FOX. PP. 35-46 IN STUDIES IN HONOUR OF J. ALEXANDER KERNS. R. C. LUGTON AND M. SALTZER (Eds.). THE HAGUE - PARIS: MOUTON.
  330. OLLI SALMI'S TRANSCRIPTION OF THE TRADITIONAL NORTH CAUCASIAN TALE THE NORTH WIND AND THE SUN. PUBLISHED ON THE NET.
  331. ON LOCATION AND DIRECTION IN CIRCASSIAN; FIVE DIRECTIONAL SUFFIXES [FOLIA SLAVICA, Vol. 5, Nos. 1-3 (in one cover), 1982, pp. 384-94], RIEKS SMEETS. {Vol. TITLE: PAPERS FROM THE SECOND CONFERENCE ON THE NON-SLAVIC LANGUAGES OF THE USSR, UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO, APRIL 28-29, 1981. HOWARD I. ARONSON AND BILL J. DARDEN (Eds.). COLUMBUS, OHIO: SLAVICA PUBLISHERS}
  332. ON ONE-VOWEL SYSTEMS [LINGUA, Vol 13, No. 2, 1965, PP. 111-24], W. S[IDNEY] ALLEN. {IT IS ARGUED THAT THE ABAZA LANGUAGE HAS ONLY ONE VOWEL. IN HIS ARTICLE IS KABARDIAN A VOWEL-LESS LANGUAGE MORRIS HALLE ARGUES AGAINST THIS}
  333. ON ROOT AND SUBORDINATE CLAUSE STRUCTURE IN KABARDIAN. M. KUMAKHOV & K. VAMLING. WORKING PAPERS 44, LUND UNIVERSITY, DEPARTMENT OF LINGUISTICS (ISSN 0280-526X), 1995, PP. 91-110.
  334. ON THE ETYMOLOGY OF THE ETHNONYM apswa "ABKHAZ" [THE ANNUAL OF THE SOCIETY FOR THE STUDY OF CAUCASIA, CHICAGO, 3, 1991, pp. 13-18], V[IACHESLAV] A. CHIRIKBA.
  335. ON THE MORPHOLOGY AND SYNTAX OF LAK CONVERBS. JOHANNES HELMBRECHT. PAPER PRESENTED AT THE TENTH BIENNIAL NON-SLAVIC LANGUAGES (NSL) CONFERENCE HELD AT THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO THURSDAY-SATURDAY, 8-10 MAY 1997. {"Lak, an East Caucasian language spoken in the Russian Republic of Dagestan, has four types of non-finite verb forms, participles, infinitives, verbal nouns ("masdar") and converbs (also called "gerund" or "deeprichastija" in the literature). Converbs play a central role in the grammar of Lak. Morphologically, converbs are the basis of a variety of different finite verbal forms (so-called "synthetic" verbs). In addition, converbs are used in anlytical verb forms consisting of a converb plus one or more auxiliaries, and they are used as the main verb of subordinate clauses. Subordination in Lak is indicated by the use of one of the four non-finite verbal forms which are all associated with specific syntactic constructions and functions. One of the major functions of converbs in a subordinate clause is to express a temporal, causal, or logical relation between the proposition designated by the subordinate clause and the proposition of the main clause. There is a variety of suffixes which can be attached to a subordinated converb in order to specify the exact nature of this relation. Subordinate clauses with a converb are often translated in English by an adverbial clause. Converbs are also used in complement clauses (that-clauses in English), and in coordinated clauses with or without a coreferential deletion of an argument. In the intended paper, I would like to present an investigation of the main structural and functional properties of converbs in analytical verb constructions as well as in subordinate clauses. On the basis of my own fieldnotes and on narrative texts, I shall examine word order, case marking, agreement patterns, coreferential deletion etc. in subordinate clauses with a converb. It turns out, e.g., that there are certain restrictions on coreferential deletion which are controlled by the case and semantic role of the coreferential NP. Lak, an East Caucasian language spoken in the Russian Republik of Dagestan, has four types of non-finite verb forms, participles, infinitives, verbal nouns ("masdar") and converbs (also called "gerund" or "deeprichastija" in the literature). Converbs play a central role in the grammar of Lak. Morphologically, converbs are the basis of a variety of different finite verbal forms (so-called "synthetic" verbs). In addition, converbs are used in anlytical verb forms consisting of a converb plus one or more auxiliaries, and they are used as the main verb of subordinate clauses. Subordination in Lak is indicated by the use of one of the four non-finite verbal forms which are all associated with specific syntactic constructions and functions. One of the major functions of converbs in a subordinate clause is to express a temporal, causal, or logical relation between the proposition designated by the subordinate clause and the proposition of the main clause. There is a variety of suffixes which can be attached to a subordinated converb in order to specify the exact nature of this relation. Subordinate clauses with a converb are often translated in English by an adverbial clause. Converbs are also used in complement clauses (that-clauses in English), and in coordinated clauses with or without a coreferential deletion of an argument. In the intended paper, I would like to present an investigation of the main structural and functional properties of converbs in analytical verb constructions as well as in subordinate clauses. On the basis of my own fieldnotes and on narrative texts, I shall examine word order, case marking, agreement patterns, coreferential deletion etc. in subordinate clauses with a converb. It turns out, e.g., that there are certain restrictions on coreferential deletion which are controlled by the case and semantic role of the coreferential NP." The author is at the University of Cologne}
  336. ON THE OBSTRUENTS OF GENCELI SHAPSUG [STUDIA CAUCASICA, 5, 1983, pp. 45-54], RIEKS SMEETS.
  337. ORIGINAL VOCABULARIES OF FIVE WEST CAUCASIAN LANGUAGES [JOURNAL OF THE ROYAL ASIATIC SOCIETY, Vol. XIX, 1887], PEACOCK. / UNI. MAN.
  338. OSSETIC. F. THORDARSON. IN COMPENDIUM LINGUARUM IRANICARUM. R. SCHMITT (Ed.). WIESBADEN, 1989. {SEE ALSO DIGOR, BY THE SAME AUTHOR, ABOVE}
  339. OUBYKH [JOURNAL ASIATIQUE (JA), 1963, pp. 1-19], GEORGES DUMEZIL.
  340. OUBYKH [JOURNAL ASIATIQUE (JA), 1963, pp. 386-92], RENE LAFON.
  341. PARLONS TCHETCHENE-INGOUCHE: LANGUE ET CULTURE. PARA PARTCHIEVA ET FRANCOISE GUERIN. PARIS: L'HARMATTAN, 1997.
  342. PEDAGOGICAL DICTIONARY OF THE ABKHAZ LANGUAGE. DZH. MIKAIA. SUKHUM, ABKHAZIA, 1985.
  343. PEOPLES AND LANGUAGES OF THE CAUCASUS: A SYNOPSIS. BERNARD GEIGER, TIBOR HALASI-KUN, AERT H. KUIPERS AND KARL H. MENGES. JANUA LINGUARUM SERIES, V, No. 6. COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY. THE HAGUE: MOUTON & CO., 1959. (77 pages. 23cm.). {GIVES BRIEF INFORMATION ON NAMES, NUMBERS, LOCATIONS, LANGUAGES, SUBDIVISIONS, TRADITIONAL ECONOMIES AND RELIGIONS OF THE NATIONS OF THE CAUCASUS (ROUGHLY ONE PAGE FOR EACH GROUP).  CONTAINS BIBLIOGRAPHICAL SOURCES ON THE CAUCASUS, JOURNALS AND SERIALS DEVOTED TO THE CAUCASUS AND ENCYCLOPEDIAS OF PARTICULAR IMPORTANCE FOR CAUCASIAN STUDIES, PP. 71-77. ALSO INCLUDES A MAP}
  344. PEOPLES AND LANGUAGES OF THE CAUCASUS. JOHN LOTZ. NEW YORK: COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY PRESS, 1956.
  345. PEOPLES AND LANGUAGES OF THE CAUCASUS [AMERICAN ANTHROPOLOGIST, LIX, 1957, 364]. / UNI. MAN. {REVIEW OF PREVIOUS ENTRY}
  346. PEOPLES AND LANGUAGES OF THE SOVIET UNION: NATIVISATION AND RUSSIFICATION. RIEKS SMEETS. In MINORITIES IN THE FORMER SOVIET UNION. R. BOESCHOTEN AND SJ. KROON (Eds.). (32 pages).
  347. PHONEME AND MORPHEME IN KABARDIAN (EASTERN ADYGHE). AERT H. KUIPERS, DEPARTMENT OF NEAR AND MIDDLE EAST LANGUAGES, COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY. JANUA LINGUARUM (SERIES MINOR), NR. VIII, 'S-GRAVENHAGE: MOUTON & CO., 1960. (124 pages). / MY COLLECTION. {"THE KABARDIAN LANGUAGE CONSTITUTES THE EASTERN BRANCH OF THE CIRCASSIAN OR ADYGHE LANGUAGE-GROUP, THE WESTERN SUBDIVISION OF WHICH IS KNOWN AS KYAKH. THESE TWO LANGUAGES ARE CLOSELY RELATED; THEIR RESPECTIVE SPEAKERS SOON LEARN TO COMMUNICATE WITH EACH OTHER WITHOUT MUCH DIFFICULTY. ... THE KABARDIANS OCCUPY THE AREA OF THE RIVERS MALKA, BAK(H)SAN AND CHEREK ("GREAT KABARDA") AND A STRIP OF LAND EAST OF THE TEREK ("LITTLE KABARDA"). ... CULTURALLY, THE KABARDIANS DIFFERED FROM THEIR WESTERN RELATIVES IN THAT THEY FORMED A WELL-DEVELOPED FEUDAL COMMUNITY, WHEREAS THE WESTERN CIRCASSIANS PRESERVED TRIBAL DIVISIONS AND A PATRIARCHAL STRUCTURE OF SOCIETY. THIS STATE OF AFFAIRS IS REFLECTED IN THE LANGUAGES: WESTERN CIRCASSIAN SHOWS MORE MARKED DIALECT-DIVISIONS THAN KABARDIAN, WHICH IS ON THE WHOLE COMPARATIVELY HOMOGENEOUS. ... DUE TO THEIR GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION NEAR THE DARIAL PASS AND TO THE DOMINATING POLITICAL ROLE THEY PLAYED IN THE CENTRAL CAUCASUS, THE KABARDIANS WERE THE FIRST OF THE CIRCASSIANS TO COME UNDER RUSSIAN CONTROL (BEGINNING OF THE 19th CENTURY). A NUMBER OF KABARDIANS LEFT THEIR HOMELAND AT THIS TIME AND SETTLED BETWEEN THE UPPER KUBAN AND ZELENCHUK RIVERS (THE SO-CALLED "FUGITIVE KABARDIANS"). ... THE PRESENT STUDY IS AN ENLARGED VERSION OF MY DOCTORAL DISSERTATION A CONTRIBUTION TO THE ANALYSIS OF THE QABARDIAN LANGUAGE. COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY, 1951. IT AIMS AT DEFINING AND CHARACTERIZING THE PHONEMIC AND MORPHEMIC UNITS OF THE KABARDIAN LANGUAGE"}
  348. PHONEMIC CONTRASTS AND DISTINCTIVE FEATURES: CAUCASIAN EXAMPLES. JOHN COLARUSSO. PP. 307-21 in THE ELEMENTS: A PARASESSION ON LINGUISTIC UNITS AND LEVELS, INCLUDING PAPERS FROM THE CONFERENCE ON NON-SLAVIC LANGUAGES OF THE USSR. PAUL R. CLYNE, WILLIAM F. HANKS, AND CAROL L. HOFBAUER (Eds.). UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO: CHICAGO LINGUISTIC SOCIETY, 1979. {Papers from the Conference on Non-Slavic Languages of the USSR are found on pp. 297-481}
  349. PHONOLOGIES OF ASIA AND AFRICA: INCLUDING THE CAUCASUS. ALAN S. KAYE (Ed.). WIESBADEN: HARRASSOWITZ, SEPTEMBER 1997. (Vol. 1&2 Eisenbrauns; Hardcover, ISBN: 1575060191)
  350. PHRASEOLOGICAL DICTIONARY OF THE ABKHAZ LANGUAGE - FIRST PART: A-F. V. K'ASLANDZIA. SUKHUM, ABKHAZIA, 1989.
  351. PHYLETIC LINKS BETWEEN PROTO-INDO-EUROPEAN AND PROTO-NORTHWEST CAUCASIAN LANGUAGES. JOHN COLARUSSO. In PAPERS FROM THE SEVENTH CONFERENCE ON THE NON-SLAVIC LANGUAGES OF THE USSR. HOWARD ARONSON AND BILL J. DARDEN (Eds.). CHICAGO: CHICAGO LINGUISTIC CIRCLE, 1991.
  352. PLANS TO REFORM RUSSIAN HIGHER EDUCATION. HARLEY T. BALZER. IN EDUCATION AND SOCIETY IN THE NEW RUSSIA. ANTHONY JONES (Ed.). ARMONK, NEW YORK, AND LONDON: M. E. SHARPE, 1994.
  353. POLITICS AND LINGUISTICS IN DAGHESTAN. ALEXANDRE BENNIGSEN AND CHANTAL LEMERCIER-QUELQUEJAY. In SOCIO-LINGUISTIC PERSPECTIVES ON SOVIET NATIONAL LANGUAGES. BERLIN - NEW YORK - AMSTERDAM: MOUTON, 1985.
  354. POSITION STRUCTURELLE DU GEORGIEN PARMI LES LANGUES CAUCASIQUES [REVUE DE L'ECOLE NATIONALE DES LANGUES ORIENTALES, 4, 1967, PP. 29-63], G. CHARACHIDZE.
  355. POUR LA COMPARAISON DU BASQUE ET DES LANGUES CAUCASIQUE [BEDI KART (BK), XXV, 1968, pp. 13-26], RENE LAFON.
  356. PROBLEMS IN SOCIOLINGUISTICS IN THE SOVIET UNION. RADO LENCEK. WASHINGTON UNIVERSITY, D.C., GEORGETOWN UNIVERSITY MONOGRAPH SERIES ON LANGUAGES AND LINGUISTICS, No. 24, 1971, pp. 269-301.
  357. PROBLEMS IN THE DESCRIPTION OF LAK GRAMMAR. VICTOR A. FRIEDMAN. PAPER PRESENTED AT THE TENTH BIENNIAL NON-SLAVIC LANGUAGES (NSL) CONFERENCE HELD AT THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO THURSDAY-SATURDAY, 8-10 MAY 1997. {"THE DESCRIPTION OF LAK GRAMMAR PRESENTS A VARIETY OF OPEN QUESTIONS FOR THE LINGUIST AT ALL LEVELS, FROM PHONOLOGY THROUGH SYNTAX. THIS PAPER WILL SURVEY SOME OF THE MOST PRESSING PROBLEM AREAS IN BASIC LAK GRAMMATICAL DESCRIPTION." THE AUTHOR IS AT THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO}
  358. PROCEEDINGS OF THE CONFERENCE ON NORTHWEST CAUCASIAN LINGUISTICS: 10-12 OCTOBER 1994, BOGAZICI UNIVERSITY. A. SUMRU OZSOY (Ed.). SERIE B -- SKRIFTER 100. SERIE B -- SJRUFTER. STUDIA CAUCASOLOGICA, 3. OSLO: NOVUS: INSTITUTT FOR SAMMENLIGNENDE KULTURFORSKNING, 1997. (140 PAGES. 25 cm. ISBN 8270992879). {CONTENTS: LA DERNIER DICTIONNAIRE DE LA LANGUE OUBYKH / GEORGES CHARACHIDZE; THE CIRCASSIAN ORTHOGRAPHY OF HARUN BATEQU / J. C. CATFORD; SUFFIXAL MARKING OF PLURAL IN OUBYKH VERB FORMS / RIEKS SMEETS; DISTRIBUTION OF ABKHAZ DIALECTS INTURKEY / VIACHESLAV A. CHIRIKBA; UBYKH'S POSITION IN NORTHWEST CAUCASIAN / WIM J. M. LUCASSEN; SOME QUESTIONS OF N.W. CAUCASIAN PHONETICS AND PHONOLOGY / J. C. CATFORD; THE OBLIGATIVE CONSTRUCTION INKABARDIAN / MUKHADIN KUMAKHOV AND KARINA VAMLING; CONTRIBUTION TO THE LEXICOGRAPHY OF ABKHAZ / [BRIAN] GEORGE HEWITT; L'INTEGRATION DES IMMIGRANTS DU CAUCASE DU NORD-OUEST DANS L'EMPIRE OTTOMAN (DE LA FIN DU XIXeme SIECLE AU DEBUT DU XXeme SIECLE / ALEXANDRE TOURMARKINE. ILLUSTRATED. INCLUDES BIBLIOGRAPHICAL REFERENCES}
  359. PROTO-CIRCASSIAN PHONOLOGY: AN ESSAY IN RECONSTRUCTION[STUDIA CAUCASICA I, THE HAGUE, 1963, PP. 56-92], AERT H. KUIPERS. {A RECONSTRUCTION OF THE PROTO-CIRCASSIAN SOUND SYSTEM. THIS WORK IS THE FIRST STEP IN ESTABLISHING STRICT SOUND-CORRESPONDENCES BETWEEN THE NORTH-WEST CAUCASIAN LANGUAGES: CIRCASSIAN, UBYKH AND ABKHAZ. FOR THE SECOND STEP, REFER TO A DICTIONARY OF PROTO-CIRCASSIAN ROOTS BY THE SAME AUTHOR ABOVE}
  360. QUELQUES REMARQUES SUR LE LIVRE DE M. DUMEZIL 'ETUDES COMPARATIVES SUR LES LANGUES CAUCASIENNES DU NORD-OUEST [? LE MAITRE PHONETIQUE (MAITRE PHON), ORGANE DE L'ASSOCIATION PHONETIQUE INTERNATIONALE, LONDON, (3me SERIE), 78, 1942], N. S. TRUBETZKOY. {REFER TO DUMEZIL'S REPONSES A DES REMARQUES DU PRINCE TRUBETZKOY. ?.}
  361. QUELQUES TERMES RELIGIEUX DES LANGUES CAUCASIENNES DU NORD-OUEST [REVUE DE L'HISTOIRE DES RELIGIONS (RHR), PARIS, 123, 1941, PP. 63-70], GEORGES DUMEZIL. / UNI. MAN. {SOME RELIGIOUS TERMS OF THE LANGUAGES OF THE NORTH-WEST CAUCASUS}
  362. RACINES OUBYKHS ET TCHERKESSES A u-PREFIXE [BULLETIN DE LA SOCIETE DE LINGUISTIQUE DE PARIS, XXXIX, 1939, PP. 67-87], GEORGES DUMEZIL (1898-1986), ET AYTEK NAMITOK. {"ANALYSE D'UN GROUPE DE RACINES COMPLEXES, OU L'ELEMENT u- EST A LUI SEUL UNE RACINE AUXILIAIRE, CELLE QUI A L'ETAT LIBRE SIGNIFIE EN OUBYKH 'ENTRER' (INTRANS.) OU 'FAIRE ENTRER' (PSEUDO-TRANSIT.); D'OU LES DEUX VALEURS DES RACINES COMPLEXES DONT u- EST PREMIER ELEMENT: TANTOT EXPRIMANT LE MOUVEMENT PAR OPPOSITION A L'ACTION; TANTOT CAUSATIVES. CERTAINS DES 'AFFIXES VERBAUX' DES LANGUES CAUCASIENNES DU N.-O. SONT AUSSI DES RACINES AUXILIAIRES (EXEMPLE: TCHERKESSE -he-). - SUIVENT TROIS NOTES SUR DES POINTS DE METHHODE}
  363. RAPPORT SUR UN OUVRAGE MANUSCRIT INTITULE: "SLOVAR RUSSKO-TCHERKESSKII". St. PETERSBOURG, 1848. PP. 165-76. [BULLETIN HISTORICO-PHILOLOGIQUE DE L'ACADEMIE DES SCIENCES, TOME 4], ANDREAS JOHAN SJOEGREN. / BRIT. MUS.
  364. RECHERCHES COMPARATIVES SUR LE VERBE CAUCASIEN. GEORGES DUMEZIL. BIBLIOTHEQUE DE L'INSTITUT FRANCAIS DE LENINGRAD, TOM 15. PARIS, 1933. (93 PAGES).
  365. RECITS OUBYKH, I. [JOURNAL ASIATIQUE (JA), CCXLIII, 1955, PP. 1-47, 439-59], GEORGES DUMEZIL ET AYTEK NAMITOK. {7 UBYKH TALES TOLD BY TEVFIK ESENC IN HACI OSMAN KOY, IN TURKEY. THE STORIES ARE TRANSLATED INTO FRENCH. THE FIRST ONE IS ALSO TRANSLATED INTO WESTERN CIRCASSIAN}
  366. RECITS OUBYKH, II. [JOURNAL ASIATIQUE (JA), CCXLIV, 1955, PP. 441-55], GEORGES DUMEZIL.
  367. RECITS OUBYKH. III. [JOURNAL ASIATIQUE (JA), CCXLVII, 1959, PP. 149-70], GEORGES DUMEZIL.
  368. RECITS OUBYKH, IV. TEXTES SUR SAWSRYQUA. [JOURNAL ASIATIQUE (JA), CCXLVIII, 1960, PP. 431-62], GEORGES DUMEZIL. {UBYKH NART TALES. THERE ARE ALSO VERSIONS FROM OTHER CIRCASSIAN GROUPS. "CES TEXTES CONTINUENT L'ENQUETE SUR LE HEROS NARTE SAWSRYQUA CHEZ LES TCHERKESSES D'ANATOLIE, DONT LES PREMIERS RESULTATS ONT ETE PUBLIES DANS LA REVUE DE L'HISTOIRE DES RELIGIONS (RHR), CXXV, 1942-3, PP. 109-19 (ARTICLE ON NARTS PP. 97-128), ET D'AUTRES DANS DOCUMENTS ANATOLIENS SUR LES LANGUES ET LES TRADITIONS DU CAUCASE, I, PP. 91-115 (SEE ABOVE)}
  369. RECITS OUBYKH, V. [JOURNAL ASIATIQUE (JA), CCXLIX, 1961, PP. 269-96], GEORGES DUMEZIL. {THREE UBYKH TALES, THE FIRST TOLD IN THE VILLAGE OF HACI YAKUP KOY, THE OTHERS IN HACI OSMAN KOY IN TURKEY. THERE IS ALSO A TEXT IN KABARDIAN}
  370. RECONSTRUCTION OF PROTO-NORTH-CAUCASIAN: RESPONSE TO J[OHANNA] NICHOLS. SERGEI STAROSTIN. PAPER PRESENTED AT THE TENTH BIENNIAL NON-SLAVIC LANGUAGES (NSL) CONFERENCE HELD AT THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO THURSDAY-SATURDAY, 8-10 MAY 1997. {"Prof. Nichols has raised four objections to the method employed in the North Caucasian Etymological Dictionary by S. Nikolayev and me. It is rather difficult to respond to those objections before they are explicitly stated, so my response and conclusions are subject to change as I hear more of Prof. Nichols¹ arguments. By now I can only state that: (1) genetic relatedness of North Caucasian languages was demonstrated already in the classic works of Trubetzkoy, who used exactly the right method to do that, namely, establishing regular phonetic correspondences; as far as I know, no other method can be used for that purpose; (2) all cognate sets and correspondences for Nakh-Daghestanian in NCED are proposed exclusively on the basis of internal comparison of the languages of this family; (3) the proposed protolanguage has exactly the same typological features as most modern North Caucasian languages, so I would like to know what is so non-verisimilitudinous about it; (4) morphological alternations (usually called morphonological or morphophonemic) are known to usually reflect original phonological changes, and certainly were employed for reconstruction, as it is common in all known language families. ... Finally, I must state that the North Caucasian reconstruction itself has nothing to do with the Sino-Caucasian or Dene-Caucasian hypothesis. Only internal Caucasian evidence was used to achieve this reconstruction, and no other method was used except the classical Neogrammarian method - which so far stays the absolutely primary tool of comparative linguistics." Johanna Nichols paper is entitled NIKOLAEV & STAROSTIN'S NORTH CAUCASIAN ETYMOLOGICAL DICTIONARY AND THE METHODOLOGY OF LONG-RANGE COMPARISON: AN ASSESSMENT, presented at the same conference}
  371. REDISCOVERING CULTURE: EDUCATIONAL ISSUES FOR ETHNIC MINORITIES IN RUSSIA. RUSLAN HAIRULLIN. INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH & EXCHANGES BOARD (IREX) ONLINE ALUMNI JOURNAL. {THE WRITER IS DEPUTY DIRECTOR OF THE INSTITUTE FOR REGIONAL EDUCATION DEVELOPMENT, RUSSIAN FEDERATION}
  372. REFLEXIVES AND RECIPROCALS IN CIRCASSIAN, AND OTHER PROBLEMS FOR GOVERNMENT AND BINDING THEORY. JOHN COLARUSSO. In HOWARD I. ARONSON (Ed.), NON-SLAVIC LANGUAGES OF THE COMMONWEALTH OF INDEPENDENT STATES AND THE BALTIC REPUBLICS: LINGUISTIC STUDIES. VOL. 3, UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO: CHICAGO LINGUISTIC SOCIETY. 18 pp.
  373. REFLEXIVIZATION IN TSEZ. BERNARD COMRIE AND MARIA POLINSKY. PAPER PRESENTED AT THE TENTH BIENNIAL NON-SLAVIC LANGUAGES (NSL) CONFERENCE HELD AT THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO THURSDAY-SATURDAY, 8-10 MAY 1997. {"THE PAPER WILL ANALYSE THE REFLEXIVE PRONOMINAL SYSTEM IN THE NAKH-DAGHESTANIAN LANGUAGE TSEZ. WE START BY PRESENTING THE OVERALL SET OF REFLEXIVE AND RECIPROCAL PRONOUNS AND DESCRIBING THE MAJOR MORPHOPHONEMIC CHANGES THAT OCCUR IN THE CASE PARADIGMS OF THESE PRONOUNS. ... IN THE TSEZ NOMINAL LEXICON, FOUR GRAMMATICAL CLASSES ARE DISTINGUISHED. THIS DISTINCTION IS SOMEWHAT REDUCED IN THE PRONOMINAL SYSTEM, AND REFLEXIVE/RECIPROCAL PRONOMINALS GROUP WITH OTHER PRONOUNS. THE MARKING OF GRAMMATICAL CLASS ON REFLEXIVES AND RECIPROCALS MAY PRESENT PROBLEMS FOR SOME CURRENT THEORIES OF REFLEXIVIZATION (E.G., T. REINHART AND E. REULAND. 1993. 'REFLEXIVITY." LINGUISTIC INQUIRY 24: 657-720), AND THE PAPER WILL EXAMINE SOME POSSIBLE SOLUTIONS OF THIS THEORETICAL CONFLICT. ... THE PAPER SHOWS THAT REFLEXIVES AND RECIPROCALS CAN BE ANTECEDED BY NPs OCCURRING IN SEVERAL STRUCTURAL POSITIONS. IN AMBIGUOUS CONTEXTS, A SEMANTIC-BASED ROLE HIERARCHY OF POTENTIAL ANTECEDENTS ALLOWS ONE TO MAKE CORRECT PREDICTIONS REGARDING FELICITOUS INTERPRETATIONS. REFLEXIVE AND RECIPROCAL PRONOUNS CAN OCCUR IN SEVERAL LINEAR POSITIONS WITHIN A CLAUSE; WE DEMONSTRATE THAT THERE IS A RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE CHOICE OF LINEAR POSITION AND THE INFORMATION STRUCTURE OF THE CLAUSE." BERNARD COMRIE IS AT THE UNIVERSITY OF SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA. MARIA POLINSKY IS AT THE UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA SAN DIEGO}
  374. REMARKS ON THE CASE SYSTEM OF THE LEZGIAN LANGUAGES [FOLIA SLAVICA, Vol. 7, Nos. 1-2 (in one cover), 1984], WOLFGANG SCHULZE. {Vol. TITLE: PAPERS FROM THE THIRD CONFERENCE ON THE NON-SLAVIC LANGUAGES OF THE USSR, UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO, MARCH 23-25, 1983. HOWARD I. ARONSON (Ed.). COLUMBUS, OHIO: SLAVICA PUBLISHERS}
  375. REMARQUES SUR QUELQUES MOTS IRANIENS EMPRUNTES PAR LES LANGUES DU CAUCASESEPTENTRIONAL [MEMOIRES DE LA SOCIETE DE LINGUISTIQUE DE PARIS, XXII, 1922, PP. 247-52], PRINCE NIKOLAI S. TRUBETZKOY.
  376. REPONSES A DES REMARQUES DU PRINCE TRUBETZKOY. GEORGES DUMEZIL. ?
  377. REPORT ON FIELDTRIP TO THE U.S.S.R. (MIMEOGRAPHED). ANN ARBOR.
  378. RESEARCH ON THE ACCULTURATION MODEL FOR SECOND LANGUAGE ACQUISITION [JOURNAL OF MULTILINGUAL AND MULTICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT, 7, 1986, PP. 379-392], J. H. SCHUMANN.
  379. REVIEW OF BOUDA'S BASKISCH-KAUKASISCHE ETYMOLOGIE [NTS 17, 1959].
  380. REVIEW OF DUMEZIL'S ETUDES COMPARATIVES SUR LES LANGUES CAUCASIENNES DU NORD-OUEST [ORIENTALISCHE LITERATURZEITUNG, LEIPZIG, 1935, No. 8-9, Col. 539], GERHARD DEETERS.
  381. ? REVIEW OF KUIPERS [LANGUAGE 1963, pp. 346-50], PITTMAN. {Kuipers is best known for his work on Kabardian}
  382. REVIEW OF GERHARD DEETERS' DIE KAUKASISCHEN SPRACHEN. LEIDEN-KOLN, 1963. [STUDIA CAUCASICA 2, 1963, pp. 101-3], HANS VOGT.
  383. REVIEW OF HANS VOGT -- DICTIONNAIRE DE LA LANGUE OUBYKH. OSLO, 1963. [BULLETIN DE LA SOCIETE DE LINGUISTIQUE DE PARIS, 59, 1964, pp. 185-9], GEORGES DUMEZIL.
  384. REVIEW OF KUIPERS' A DICTIONARY OF PROTO-CIRCASSIAN ROOTS, 1975 [BULLETIN DE LA SOCIETE DE LINGUISTIQUE DE PARIS, COMPTES RENDUS, 1978, pp. 333-42], CATHERINE PARIS.
  385. REVIEW OF (CATHERINE) PARIS' LES OCCLUSIVES "FORTES" DANS LE PARLER CHAPSOUGH DE CEMILBEY, 1972 AND LA PRINCESSE KAHRAMAN, 1974. [STUDIA CAUCASICA, 4, 1978, pp. 104-19], RIEKS SMEETS.
  386. REVIEW OF YAKOVLEV'S TABLITSY FONETIKI KABARDINSKOGO IAZYKA. [BULLETIN DE LA SOCIETE DE LINGUISTIQUE DE PARIS, XXVI, 1925, pp. 277-81], N. S. TRUBETZKOY.
  387. RIGHTWARD MOVEMENT, QUESTION FORMATION, AND THE NATURE OF TRANSFORMATIONALPROCESSES: THE CIRCASSIAN CASE [PAPIERE ZUR LINGUISTIK 21, 1979, pp. 27-73], JOHN COLARUSSO.
  388. ROMAN-BASED ALPHABETS AS A LIFE-LINE FOR ENDANGERED LANGUAGES, FESTSCHRIFT FOR ALEXANDR E. KIBRIK. BRIAN GEORGE HEWITT. MOSCOW, 1998.
  389. RUSSIAN-ABKHAZ DICTIONARY. KH. BGAZHBA. SUKHUM, ABKHAZIA, 1964a.
  390. RUSSIAN-KABARDIAN-CHERKESS DICTIONARY. COMPILED BY B[UBA] M. QARDEN AND A. T. BIESCH'EW. EDITOR-IN-CHIEF A. O. SCHOJENTS'IKW. THE KABARDIAN RESEARCH AND SCIENCE INSTITUTE. MOSCOW: THE STATE PRESS OF FOREIGN AND NATIONAL DICTIONARIES, 1955. {Includes about 30,000 entries. There is a short grammatical description of the Kabardian-Cherkess language by Qarden in Russian. Reviewed by G. Deeters in CAUCASIAN REVIEW, MUNICH (CRM), No. 3, 1956, P. 113 ff.}
  391. SAMPLE TEXT IN A PROPOSED ROMANISED ALPHABET FOR ABKHAZ. BRIAN GEORGE HEWITT. / MY COLLECTION. {An attempt at romanising the Abkhaz alphabet. The short folk-tale "What Rabbits Feared" is taken from the collection published by S. Zuxba in Tbilisi in 1979 and entitled "Abkhazian Stories". Potentially an historic effort by a Western scholar}
  392. SCHALLNACHAHMUNG IM ABCHASISCHEN [ARCHIV FUER VERGLEICHENDE PHONETIC, Bd. 3, 1939, pp. 129-46], KARL BOUDA.
  393. SEPT HISTOIRES EN CHAPSOUG [STUDIA CAUCASICA, 3, 1976, LISSE, THE PETER DE RIDDER PRESS, 127 pages, pp. 27-90], RIEKS SMEETS. {Seven stories in the Shapsugh dialect of Circassian}
  394. SHAPSUGH DICTIONARY. CATHERINE PARIS. APPENDED TO LA PRINCESSE KAHRAMAN, CONTES D'ANATOLIE EN DIALECTE CHAPSOUGH (TCHERKESSE OCCIDENTAL). PARIS, 1974. {Dictionary is in French and is 69-pages long}
  395. SHAPSUG TEXTS WITH DICTIONARY. RIEKS SMEETS.
  396. SHORT DICTIONARY OF THE SYNONYMS OF THE ABKHAZ LANGUAGE. V. K'ASLANDZIA. SUKHUM, ABKHAZIA, 1981.
  397. SOCIOLINGUISTIC PERSPECTIVES OF SOVIET NATIONAL LANGUAGES. ISABELLE KREINDLER (Ed.). BERLIN: MOUTON DE GRUYTER, 1985.
  398. SOME FACTORS IN THE LINGUISTIC AND ETHNIC RUSSIFICATION OF SOVIET NATIONALITIES: IS EVERYONE BECOMING RUSSIAN? BARBARA A. ANDERSON AND BRIAN D. SILVER. IN THE NATIONALITIES FACTOR IN SOVIET POLITICS AND SOCIETY. LUBOMYR HAJDA AND MARK BEISSINGER (Eds.). BOULDER, SAN FRANCISCO, AND OXFORD: WESTVIEW PRESS, 1990.
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  403. SOVIET LANGUAGE PLANNING SINCE 1953. ISABELLE KREINDLER. IN LANGUAGE PLANNING IN THE SOVIET UNION. M. KIRKWOOD (Ed.). LONDON: MACMILLAN, 1987.
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  411. STATUS IN THE LAK VERBAL SYSTEM AND ITS TYPOLOGICAL SIGNIFICANCE {FOLIA SLAVICA, Vol. 7, Nos. 1-2 (in one cover), 1984], VICTOR A. FRIEDMAN. {Vol. TITLE: PAPERS FROM THE THIRD CONFERENCE ON THE NON-SLAVIC LANGUAGES OF THE USSR, UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO, MARCH 23-25, 1983. HOWARD I. ARONSON (Ed.). COLUMBUS, OHIO: SLAVICA PUBLISHERS}
  412. STRUCTURE AND SYSTEM IN THE ABAZA VERBAL COMPLEX [TRANSACTIONS OF THE PHILOLOGICAL SOCIETY, OXFORD, 1956, P. 127-76], W. S[IDNEY] ALLEN. {"THE ABAZA (T'AP'ANTA) LANGUAGE IS SPOKEN ON THE NORTHERN SIDE OF THE CAUCASUS IN THE DISTRICT OF CHERKESSK (FORMERLY YEZHOV, FORMERLY SULIMOV, FORMERLY BATALPASHINSK), AND BY EXILED COMMUNITIES IN TURKEY. IT BELONGS TO A CLOSELY RELATED GROUP WITH ABKHAZ (APSWE) AND OTHER DIALECTS, INCLUDING ASHQAREWE; THIS GROUP, WHICH IS SOMETIMES ALSO REFERRED TO AS ABKHAZ, IS RELATED IN TURN TO CIRCASSIAN OR ADYGHE (INCLUDING KABARDIAN) AND UBYKH, TO FORM THE WESTERN BRANCH OF THE NORTH CAUCASIAN FAMILY. ... THE ANALYSIS HERE PRESENTED IS BASED ON THE SPEECH OF A SINGLE INFORMANT, MAJ. HUSEIN KUMUZ (QIMIZ), AND IN PARTICULAR UPON A CORPUS OF MATERIAL, OF WHICH A LARGE PROPORTION WAS NARRATIVE, DERIVED FROM APPROXIMATELY 100 HOURS OF LISTENING. THE ABAZA LANGUAGE HAS EXPERIENCED A SUCCESSION OF ORTHOGRAPHIES, BASED ON ARABIC, ROMAN, AND CYRILLIC LETTERS (FOR ABKHAZ THE GEORGIAN ALPHABET HAS ALSO BEEN EMPLOYED). ... FOR THE SUBJECT OF THIS PAPER THE TERM 'VERBAL COMPLEX' HAS BEEN CHOSEN IN PREFERENCE TO OTHER ALTERNATIVES SUCH AS 'VERB' OR 'VERBAL PIECE'; IT IS TRUE THAT A TERM THEORETICALLY IMPLIES NO MORE THAN IT IS STATED TO IMPLY, BUT IT MAY IN PRACTICE CARRY ASSOCIATIONS DERIVED FROM MORE FAMILIAR LANGUAGES. 'VERB' IS APT TO SUGGEST A MORE LIMITED AND 'VERBAL PIECE' A MORE LOOSELY ARTICULATED STRUCTURE THAN THAT WITH WHICH WE ARE HERE CONCERNED. ... THE TERMS 'STRUCTURE' AND 'SYSTEM' ARE USED COMPLEMENTARILY; THE PRINCIPLE TO BE STRESSED IS THAT SYSTEMS ARE ESTABLISHED AT SPECIFIC PLACES IN STRUCTURE, AND THAT THIS IS THE SOLE GUARANTEE OF THEIR RELEVANCE. SUCH A PRINCIPLE CONTRASTS WITH THOSE VARIETIES OF 'STRUCTURAL' LINGUISTICS WHICH OPERATE WITH OVERALL, COMPENDIUS SYSTEMS DIVORCED FROM PLACE IN STRUCTURE."}
  413. STRUCTURE DES RACINES VERBALES DE L'OUBYKH [BEDI KARTLISA (BK), XXVIII, 1971, pp. 24-52], GEORGES DUMEZIL.
  414. STUDIA CAUCASOLOGICA, II. HANS VOGT: LINGUISTIQUE CAUCASIENNE ET ARMENIENNE. E. HOVDHAUGEN AND F. THORDARSON (Eds.). OSLO: NORWEGIAN UNIVERSITY PRESS, 1988.
  415. STUDIES IN WEST CIRCASSIAN PHONOLOGY AND MORPHOLOGY. RIEKS (HENRICUS JOANNES) SMEETS. DOCTORAL THESIS, RIJKSUNIVERSITEIT TE LEIDEN, 1984. LEIDEN: HAKUCHI PRESS, 1984. (490 pages. 24cm. ISBN 9071176010 (pbk.)). {The dialect is that of the Shapsugh of Duzce, Turkey. Illustrated. Bibliography on pp. 480-90}
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  417. SUFFIXAL MARKING OF PLURAL IN UBYKH VERB FORMS. RIEKS SMEETS. PROCEEDINGS OF THE CONFERENCE ON NORTHWEST CAUCASIAN LINGUISTICS: 10-12 OCTOBER 1994, BOGAZICI UNIVERSITY. A. SUMRU OZSOY (Ed.). OSLO: NOVUS: INSTITUTT FOR SAMMENLIGNENDE KULTURFORSKNING, 1997. {For more details on proceedings, see the title above}
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  435. THE ADAPTIVE SIGNIFICANCE OF GRAMMATICAL STRUCTURE. JOHN COLARUSSO. UNIVERSITY OF TEXAS AT ARLINGTON, 11 APRIL 1894. (33 pages).
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  438. THE CHANGING STATUS OF RUSSIAN IN THE SOVIET UNION [INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF THE SOCIOLOGY OF LANGUAGE, 33, 1982, PP. 7-39], ISABELLE KREINDLER (BOTH AUTHOR OF ARTICLE AND EDITOR OF JOURNAL).
  439. THE CIRCASSIAN NOMINALPARADIGM: A CONTRIBUTION TO CASE-THEORY [LINGUA, XI, 1962, PP. 231-248], A. H. KUIPERS. {"THE CIRCASSIAN LANGUAGE COMPRISES A WESTERN AND AN EASTERN (KABARDIAN) DIALECT GROUP. ALL THE MATERIAL QUOTED IN THIS ARTICLE BELONGS TO A DIALECT OF KABARDIAN, BUT THE DIFFERENCES BETWEEN THE CIRCASSIAN DIALECTS ARE PHONETIC AND, TO A LESSER EXTENT, LEXICAL, RATHER THAN GRAMMATICAL." VERY IMPORTANT WORK}
  440. THE CIRCASSIAN ORTHOGRAPHY OF HARUN BATEQU. J[OHN] C. CATFORD. PP. 20-36 IN STUDIA CAUCASOLOGICA III. PROCEEDINGS OF THE CONFERENCE ON NORTHWEST CAUCASIAN LINGUISTICS, 10-12 OCTOBER 1994, BOGAZICI UNIVERSITY. A. SUMRU OZSOY (ED.). OSLO: NOVUS: INSTITUTT FOR SAMMENLIGNENDE KULTURFORSKNING, 1997. {FOR MORE DETAILS ON THE PROCEEDINGS, SEE THE TITLE ABOVE}
  441. THE CLASSIFICATION OF CAUCASIAN LANGUAGES. J. C. CATFORD. PP. 232-68 IN SPRUNG FROM COMMON SOURCE. S. M. LAMB AND E. D. MITCHELL (Eds.). STANFORD, 1991.
  442. THE CLASSIFICATION OF LABIALIZED SIBILANTS IN NORTHWEST CAUCASIAN [FOLIA SLAVICA, Vol. 7, Nos. 1-2 (in one cover), 1984], WIM LUCASSEN. {Vol. TITLE: PAPERS FROM THE THIRD CONFERENCE ON THE NON-SLAVIC LANGUAGES OF THE USSR, UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO, MARCH 23-25, 1983. HOWARD I. ARONSON (Ed.). COLUMBUS, OHIO: SLAVICA PUBLISHERS}
  443. THE CRISIS IN SOVIET LINGUISTICS [SOVIET STUDIES, Vol. 2, No. 3, 1951, PP. 209-264], JEFFREY ELLIS AND ROBERT W. DAVIES.
  444. THE DEVELOPMENT OF LITERARY LANGUAGES IN THE SOVIET UNION; THE CASE OF CIRCASSIAN. RIEKS SMEETS. PP. 513-40 IN LANGUAGE REFORM VI. I. FODOR AND C. HAGGE. HAMBURG: HELMUT BUSKE VERLAG, 1994.
  445. THE EDUCATIONAL LEGACY OF THE SOVIET PERIOD. ANTHONY JONES. IN EDUCATION AND SOCIETY IN THE NEW RUSSIA. ANTHONY JONES (Ed.). ARMONK, NEW YORK, AND LONDON: M. E. SHARPE, 1994.
  446. THE ERADICATION OF ILLITERACY AND THE CREATION OF NEW WRITTEN LANGUAGES IN THE USSR [INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ADULT AND YOUTH EDUCATION, 14, No. 1, 1962, PP. 23-29], G. P. SERDYUCHENKO.
  447. THE EVOLUTION OF THE MUSLIM NATIONALITIES OF THE USSR AND THEIR LINGUISTIC PROBLEMS. ALEXANDRE BENNIGSEN AND CHANTAL QUELQUEJAY. OXFORD: CENTRAL ASIAN RESEARCH CENTRE, 1961.
  448. THE EXPRESSION OF 'INFERENTIALITY' IN ABKHAZ [JOURNAL OF LINGUISTICS, Vol. 15, 1979, pp. 87-92], B[RIAN] G[EORGE] HEWITT.
  449. THE FORMATION AND DEVELOPMENT OF LITERARY AVAR. S. CRISP. CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE SOCIOLOGY OF LANGUAGE, 40, MOUTON DE GRUYTER, 1985.
  450. THE GENITIVE IN ZERQ' CHECHEN: THE EFFECT OF PHONOLOGY ON MORPHOLOGICAL CHANGE. PAUL FALLON. PAPER PRESENTED AT THE TENTH BIENNIAL NON-SLAVIC LANGUAGES (NSL) CONFERENCE HELD AT THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO THURSDAY-SATURDAY, 8-10 MAY 1997. {"In Literary Chechen (LC) (Maciev 1961; Nichols 1994, in press), ablaut (morphologically conditioned vowel alternation) occurs in the nominal paradigm. For example, /buolx/ 'work' is /belxan/ (with final nasalized vowel) in the genitive and /balxana/ in the dative. In addition, there is a type of umlaut in the genitive, where the case suffix {-in} (> /an/) often causes fronting and raising, e.g. 'price' /ma:x, me:xan/. Using data gathered from fieldwork, this study will delineate some of the major morphological changes which have taken place in the Zerq' Chechen (ZC) dialect spoken in Jordan, and will examine how phonological changes have influenced the nominal morphology. ... There are several phonological changes in Zerq' including apocope, phonologization of front rounded vowels as well as their unrounding, new ablaut patterns, and the development of length as a cue to the genitive. One of the major changes in ZC has been the loss of nasalized vowels, the formal marker of the genitive in LC, as the result of apocope. For example, LC 'boy-GEN' /k'entan/ is ZC /k'ent/. In the few cases in which the suffix was retained, it induced other, innovative changes. With the general loss of suffixal case-marking in the genitive, vowel quality changes have become an important morphological cue, and various such alternations will be examined. For example, 'knee' in LC is /go:la, goelan/, but in ZC it is /go:l, goe:l/, with phonemicization of the front rounded vowels. However, the front rounded vowels are unstable, so that the umlauting effect in LC is often realized as a ZC front unrounded vowel, thereby creating new ablaut patterns. However, there are instances of apparent hypercorrection or analogy in which ZC front rounded vowels appear where they do not in LC. In addition, vowel length plays a distinctive role. Whereas length in LC was largely predictable based on syllable structure, the loss of final vowels but subsequent retention of length has acquired morphological use in ZC. Compare ZC /neq', ne:q'/ 'road' with LC /neq', ne:q'an/. Finally, a new genitive marker is being introduced, based on the plural genitive suffix /-i/, which is being regularized on many singular forms. For example, 'baby-GEN' in LC is /be:ran/, but is /be:ri/ in ZC. ...The contributions of this paper include (1) providing documentation of the morphology of a previously undescribed dialect of Chechen and comparing it to the literary dialect; (2) examining the influence of phonology on morphology; and (3) illustrating morphological change in progress." THE AUTHOR IS AT OHIO STATE UNIVERSITY AND MARY WASHINGTON COLLEGE}
  451. THE GRAMMAR OF LITERARY AVAR [STUDIA CAUCASICA 2, 1966], C. L. EBELING. {REVIEW ARTICLE ON CIKOBAVA/CERCVADZE, XUNDZURI ENA}
  452. THE GRAMMAR OF SIMPLE SENTENCES IN EAST CAUCASIAN. WOLFGANG SCHULZE. PAPER PRESENTED AT THE TENTH BIENNIAL NON-SLAVIC LANGUAGES (NSL) CONFERENCE HELD AT THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO THURSDAY-SATURDAY, 8-10 MAY 1997. {"In the overall 29 (autochthonous) East Caucasian languages "simple sentences" (the linguistic mapping of mentally represented "States of Affairs" (SoA)) are often thought to be construed on the basis of "canonical ergativity:" They use zero-marked absolutives, often mapped by class markers on the verb, and a (mostly syncretistic) ergative case. The verb itself is often unmarked with respect to "person" and sometimes "labile" regarding aspects of (in)transitivity. Though the basic morphosyntactic principles of this "operating system" seem to be very much clarified, significant deviations from this etalon as well as many aspects of its semantic and functional properties remain unexplained or even undescribed. ... In this paper I want to dwell upon a selection of these problems assuming that ergativity in East Caucasian not only is a merely formal synchronic reflex of older coding strategies but (at least partly) represents a specific type of knowledge processing based on communicational conventions and principles of human cognition. Strategies of viewpoint shift (like antipassives and "pseudo-passives" (binominatives)), aspects of attention flow (e.g. word order), and aberrant structures within simple sentences (e.g. ergative marking of intransitive agents, agreement splits, ergative marking of (some) personal pronouns) not only call for a systematic explanation but can help to understand the ergative prototype in East Caucasian itself together with its diachronic background. ... It will be claimed that in Proto-East Caucasian as well as in some of its decendents (e.g. Tabasaran, ArTaui (?), Andi, Lak) the degree of  (natural) agentivity represents one of the most basic parameters to map the communicative and cognitive interpretation of a given "State of Affairs" linguistically. Agentivity in East Caucasian not only is a lexically based parameter, but shows up as a morphosemantic procedure that correlates strongly with pragmatic and classificational strategies. The analysis is based on the tradition of functional-cognitive grammar theory, extended towards a "Grammar of Scenes and Scenarios" (GSS)." THE AUTHOR IS AT THE UNIVERSITY OF MUNICH (UNIVERSITAET MUENCHEN)}
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  454. THE GREAT DAGHESTAN CASE COAX [TYPOLOGICAL STUDIES IN LANGUAGE (ISSN 0167-7373), Vol. 38, 1998, P. 95 ff.], M. POLINSKY.
  455. THE INDIGENOUS LANGUAGES OF THE CAUCASUS. RIEKS SMEETS (Ed.). ANATOLIAN & CAUCASIAN STUDIES. SERIES EDITOR JOHN A. C. GREPPIN. DELMAR, NEW YORK: CARAVAN BOOKS, 1989-1994. (24 cm.). {Vol. 1: THE KARTVELIAN LANGUAGES. Vol. 2: THE NORTH-WEST CAUCASIAN LANGUAGES. BRIAN GEORGE HEWITT (Ed.), 1994. (ISBN 0882060694). Vol. 3: THE NORTH-EAST CAUCASIAN LANGUAGES (PART 1): THE LITERARY LANGUAGES, ANDI AND THE TSEZ LANGUAGES. D. M. JOB AND RIEKS SMEETS (Eds.), 1994. Vol. 4: THE NORTH-EAST CAUCASIAN LANGUAGES. PART 2, PRESENTING THE THREE NAKH LANGUAGES AND SIX MINOR LEZGIAN LANGUAGES. RIEKS SMEETS (Ed.), 1994. THIS LATTER PART IS REVIEWED BY THE GERMAN CAUCASOLOGIST, Dr. MARTIN HASPELMATH IN LANGUAGE -BALTIMORE- LINGUISTIC SOCIETY OF AMERICA- ((ISSN 0097-8507), Vol. 72, No. 1, 1996, P. 126 ff. RIEKS SMEETS IS A LECTURER IN CAUCASIAN LANGUAGES AT THE UNIVERSITY OF LEIDEN. ILLUSTRATED}
  456. THE KABARDIAN LANGUAGE. JOHN COLARUSSO. CALGARY, CANADA: UNIVERSITY OF CALGARY PRESS, 1992.
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  458. THE LABIALISED SIBILANTS OF UBYKH (NORTH WEST CAUCASIAN) [REVUE DES ETUDES GEORGIENNES ET CAUCASIENNES, 2, 1986, pp. 21-30], BRIAN GEORGES HEWITT.
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  461. THE LANGUAGES OF THE CAUCASUS [JOURNAL OF THE ROYAL ASIATIC SOCIETY, LONDON, N. S. V. 17, P. 145-162], R. N. CUST. / UNI. MAN.
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  463. THE LANGUAGES OF THE CAUCASUS: SCOPE FOR STUDY AND SURVIVAL. BRIAN GEORGE HEWITT. OPEN INAUGURAL LECTURE AT THE SCHOOL OF ORIENTAL AND AFRICAN STUDIES (SOAS), UNIVERSITY OF LONDON, JANUARY 13th, 1998.
  464. THE LANGUAGES OF THE NORTH WEST CAUCASUS. JOHN COLARUSSO. PP. 62-153 in THE LANGUAGES AND LITERATURES OF THE NON-RUSSIAN PEOPLES OF THE SOVIET UNION. G. THOMAS (Ed.). HAMILTON, ONTARIO, 1977.
  465. THE LANGUAGES OF THE SOVIET UNION. BERNARD COMRIE. CAMBRIDGE: CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY PRESS, 1981. {DISCUSSES ASSIMILATION, LITERARY LANGUAGE STATUS, ETC.}
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  468. THE NORTH-EAST CAUCASIAN LANGUAGES (PART 1). RIEKS SMEETS AND D. M. JOB (Eds.). Vol. 3 In THE INDIGENOUS LANGUAGES OF THE CAUCASUS. {See above}
  469. THE NORTH-EAST CAUCASIAN LANGUAGES (PART 2). RIEKS SMEETS (Ed.). Vol. 4 in THE INDIGENOUS LANGUAGES OF THE CAUCASUS. {See above}
  470. THE NORTH-WEST CAUCASIAN LANGUAGES. BRIAN GEORGE HEWITT (Ed.). Vol. 2 in THE INDIGENOUS LANGUAGES OF THE CAUCASUS. ANATOLIAN & CAUCASIAN STUDIES. JOHN A. C. GREPPIN (GENERAL Ed.). DELMAR, NEW YORK: CARAVAN BOOKS, 1994.
  471. THE NORTHWEST CAUCASIAN LANGUAGES: A PHONOLOGICAL SURVEY. JOHN JOSEPH COLARUSSO, Jr. A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE DEPARTMENT OF LINGUISTICS IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY IN THE SUBJECT OF LINGUISTICS. HARVARD UNIVERSITY. CAMBRIDGE, MASSACHUSETTS. AUGUST, 1975. (454 pages).
  472. THE NORTHWEST CAUCASIAN LANGUAGES: A PHONOLOGICAL SURVEY. JOHN COLARUSSO. In OUTSTANDING DISSERTATIONS IN LINGUISTICS. JORGE HANKAMER. NEW YORK: GARLAND PUBLISHING, 1988.
  473. THE NORTH-WEST CAUCASIAN LANGUAGES [ANALECTA SLAVICA I (FESTSCHRIFT BRUNO BECKER. A SLAVONIC MISCELLANY PRESENTED FOR HIS SEVENTIETH BIRTHDAY), AMSTERDAM, 1955, PP. 193-206], A. H. KUIPERS.
  474. THE NORTH WIND AND THE SUN ? IN ABKHAZ [BEDI KARTLISA (BK), 36, 1978, pp. 266-74], BRIAN GEORGE HEWITT. {This is a study of the Abkhaz version of the short folkloric tale. Professor Hewitt is the Head of the Department of Caucasian Languages at the School of Oriental & African Studies, the University of London}
  475. "THE NORTH WIND AND THE SUN" IN LITERARY ADYGHE [BEDI KARTLISA (BK), PARIS, 36, 1978, pp. 338-47], BRIAN GEORGE HEWITT. / MY COLLECTION. {The Adyghe version of the short folkloric tale. See preceeding entry}
  476. THE OBLIGATIVE CONSTRUCTION IN KABARDIAN. MUKHADIN KUMAKHOV AND KARINA VAMLING. PP. 114-27 IN PROCEEDINGS OF THE CONFERENCE ON NORTHWEST CAUCASIAN LINGUISTICS: 10-12 OCTOBER 1994, BOGAZICI UNIVERSITY. STUDIA CAUCASOLOGICA III. A. SUMRU OZSOY (Ed.). OSLO: NOVUS: INSTITUTT FOR SAMMENLIGNENDE KULTURFORSKNING, 1997. {FOR MORE DETAILS ON THE PROCEEDINGS, SEE THE TITLE ABOVE}
  477. THE ORIGIN AND DIVERSIFICATION OF LANGUAGE. M. SWADESH. CHICAGO: ALDINE, ATHERTON, 1971.
  478. THE PARTICIPLE IN AVAR: JACK-OF-ALL-TRADES (SOME INSTANCES OF RELATIVIZATION) [FOLIA SLAVICA, Vol. 5, Nos. 1-3 (in one cover), 1982], CLAUDE TCHEKHOFF. {Vol. TITLE: PAPERS FROM THE SECOND CONFERENCE ON THE NON-SLAVIC LANGUAGES OF THE USSR, UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO, APRIL 28-29, 1981. HOWARD I. ARONSON AND BILL J. DARDEN (Eds.). COLUMBUS, OHIO: SLAVICA PUBLISHERS}
  479. THE PHONETICS AND PHONOLOGY OF SECONDARY ARTICULATIONS IN ABKHAZ. BERT VAUX. PAPER PRESENTED AT THE TENTH BIENNIAL NON-SLAVIC LANGUAGES (NSL) CONFERENCE HELD AT THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO THURSDAY-SATURDAY, 8-10 MAY 1997. {"Abkhaz employs as part of its rich consonantal inventory two secondary articulations, palatalization and labialization. Each of these secondary articulations behaves as a natural class with respect to rules and constraints of Abkhaz phonology, yet each also has a number of different phonetic and phonological manifestations. The purpose of this article is to develop a theory of representations for these articulations that captures their underlying unity and surface diversity. The data are drawn from my fieldwork with one of the last speakers of the Cwyzhy dialect, currently spoken in only two villages in western Turkey. A number of phonological processes and constraints clearly indicate that the labialized consonants form a phonological class. Let us say that this is the class of segments characterized by a [+round] secondary articulation. However, this unitary phonological class has four distinct phonetic manifestations:

  480. (1) surface form segments affected
    i. [+round, +back] dorsals
    ii. [+round, -back] pharyngeals, certain coronals
    iii. [+round, +dist] s, z, sh, zh, c, j
    iv. [-round, +back, +cons] dental stops (the result is a coarticulated dental-labial stop with a [+back] secondary articulation)
  481. The central problem raised by the phonetic variations in (1) is how to account for the four distinct manifestations of the underlying [+round] secondary articulation. The analysis I develop suggests that since surface representations must be fully specified for all relevant features, the secondary articulation, which is underlyingly specified only as [+round], receives its other feature specifications from the primary articulation with which it is associated. This process is analogous to Kuipers' (1960) interpretation of vowel coloring in Kabardian and Abkhaz, and straightforwardly accounts for the behavior of most of the consonants in (1); labialized dorsals, for example, will surface as [+back] because the plain dorsal consonants are [+back] in Abkhaz. However, the behavior of pharyngeals in (1ii) raises two problems: we do not necessarily expect pharyngeals to be [-back], and we do not expect labialized consonants to surface as [-back], since the secondary labial and palatal articulations are phonologically incompatible in Abkhaz. I account for the former problem by drawing parallels with other languages wherein pharyngeals trigger fronting, and I then consider the possibility that the features responsible for pharyngeal activity and fronting ([RTR] and [-back] respectively) share some common muscular basis. The latter problem requires an ordering of the constraint on combining secondary articulations relative to the rule that spreads the features of the primary articulation to the secondary articulation. With palatalization we again confront a unitary phonological class with diverse phonetic manifestations. The palatalized consonants are generally [-back], but the palatalized uvular stop is [+back]. The basic problem with this particular segment is that the [+back] specification of the uvular primary articulation is incompatible with the [-back] specification of the secondary articulation. Colarusso (1975) suggests that this segment is actually [+ATR, +back], but this analysis loses the unifying definition of palatalized segments as being [-back], and fails to account for the fact that the palatalized uvular stop appears to spread [-back] to a following vowel. I suggest instead that the palatalized uvular stop is underlyingly dorsal, [-ATR, -high, +back], with a [-back] secondary articulation; the [-back] specification subsequently delinks, due to its incompatibility with the primary articulation; it is then free to attach to a following vowel if one is present, thereby accounting for the fronting mentioned above." THE AUTHOR IS AT HARVARD UNIVERSITY}
  482. THE POSITION OF SUBJECT AGREEMENT IN UDI. ALICE C. HARRIS. PAPER PRESENTED AT THE TENTH BIENNIAL NON-SLAVIC LANGUAGES (NSL) CONFERENCE HELD AT THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO THURSDAY-SATURDAY, 8-10 MAY 1997. {"Subject agreement in Udi has never been fully described. Jeiranishvili (1971:83-84) notes, among other things, that the marker of agreement may occur in various places within the verb form or it may be found between a noun or adverb and the verb form. Panchvidze (74:148-150) provides a similar description of its position, and Schulze (1982:168-169) formalizes this as a list of environments in which the agreement markers (PZ) may occur in relation to the verb (V), tense marker (T), nominal incorporated into the verb (Vn), and auxiliary (HV). Table 1 (Patterns of Morpheme Order in Udi), provides Schulze's formulae and his example of each: 1. V-T-PZ  p-i-ne  'he said'; 2. V-T1-PZ-T2  p-i-ne-i  'he said'; 3. V1-PZ-V2-T  ba-ne-k-i  'he was'; 4. Vn-PZ-(H)V-T  as^-ne-biq'-e  'he took a job'; 5. Vn-(H)V-T-PZ  laq'o-bak-a-nan  'you should marry'; 6. ...X-PZ-V-T  g^ar-re-bak-i  'he was a boy'. ... Additional examples I have elicited and collected in texts require us to recognize two additional patterns, the first apparently a variant of Schulze's pattern 6. Supplement to Table 1. 6' ...X-PZ V-T  k'uc^'an-ne buq'-sa  (puppy-3sg  love-pres) 's/he loves [the] PUPPY'; 7. ...X-PZ Vn-(H)V-T  s^el-le  ma'g^-ex-a  (well-3sg  song-say-pres) 's/he sings WELL'. ... None of the standard grammars, including Schulze 1982, describes the circumstances under which the agreement marker occurs in the various patterns. Harris (1996) shows that agreement is enclitic to focused constituents, and this fact accounts for patterns 6' and 7. Harris (1992) establishes some rules for the placement of the agreement marker, but those rules account only for patterns 5 and 6, and (because they overlap in part with focus) patterns 6' and 7." THE AUTHOR IS AT VANDERBILT UNIVERSITY}
  483. THE PROBLEM OF BILINGUALISM AND ASSIMILATION IN THE NORTH CAUCASUS [CENTRAL ASIAN REVIEW, Vol. 15, No. 3, 1967, PP. 205-211], ALEXANDRE BENNIGSEN.
  484. THE REBIRTH OF THE NATIONAL SCHOOL IN RUSSIA. MIKHAIL KUZMIN. UNPUBLISHED ENGLISH TRANSLATION OF MANUSCRIPT, ORIGINALLY PUBLISHED IN RUSSIAN IN VESTNIK OBRAZOVANIYA, circa 1992. {THE FOLLOWING INFORMATION WAS PROVIDED BY EVE RACHEL GREENFIELD (SEE HER THESIS LANGUAGE OF DISSENT: LANGUAGE, ETHNIC IDENTITY, AND BILINGUAL EDUCATION POLICY IN THE NORTH CAUCASUS, ABOVE): PUBLICATION INFORMATION PROVIDED BY PROFESSOR BEN EKLOF AT THE INSTITUTE FOR THE STUDY OF RUSSIAN EDUCATION, INDIANA UNIVERSITY. INQUIRY FOR PRECISE INFORMATION IN PROCESS WITH THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION MINISTRY OF EDUCATION}
  485. THE RECONSTRUCTION OF THE PHONEMIC SYSTEM OF PROTO-NORTH-WEST CAUCASIAN (PRELIMINARY TITLE). V. A. CHIRIKBA. DISSERTATION SUBMITTED AT LEIDEN UNIVERSITY. {"THE INDIGENOUS LANGUAGES OF THE CAUCASUS CAN BE DIVIDED INTO THREE GROUPS: WEST CAUCASIAN, EAST CAUCASIAN AND KARTVELIAN, OR SOUTH CAUCASIAN. THE LANGUAGES OF THE (NORTH-)WEST CAUCASIAN GROUP ARE ABKHAZ, CIRCASSIAN AND THE NOW EXTINCT UBYKH. THE WEST AND EAST CAUCASIAN GROUPS BELONG TO THE NORTH CAUCASIAN LINGUISTIC FAMILY, WHILE THE KARTVELIAN LANGUAGES FORM AN INDEPENDENT, UNRELATED FAMILY. ... THE WEST CAUCASIAN LANGUAGES CONSIST OF CLOSELY RELATED DIALECTS: CIRCASSIAN OF ADYGHE AND KABARDIAN, ABKHAZ OF ABKHAZ PROPER AND ABAZA. NOTHING IS KNOWN ABOUT PAST DIALECTICAL DIVISIONS OF UBYKH. BY 1850 THE NUMBER OF PEOPLE SPEAKING WEST CAUCASIAN LANGUAGES AMOUNTED TO ABOUT ONE MILLION, THE MAJORITY OF WHICH WERE CIRCASSIAN. THE RUSSIAN COLONISATION DRAMATICALLY CHANGED THE ETHNOLINGUISTIC SITUATION, AS MANY ABKHAZIANS AND CIRCASSIANS HAD TO FLEE TO THE OTTOMAN EMPIRE. THE UBYKH AND THE SADZIAN ABKHAZIANS EMIGRATED COMPLETELY. IN TURKEY, THE UBYKH LOST THEIR LANGUAGE. ... AT PRESENT, THE TOTAL NUMBER OF ABKHAZO-ADYGHEANS LIVING IN THE CAUCASUS IS ABOUT 800,000. CIRCASSIANS LIVE IN THE ADYGHE, KABARDINO-BALKAR AND KARACHAY-CHERKESS REPUBLICS OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION. THE ABKHAZIANS LIVE IN THE REPUBLIC OF ABKHAZIA, WHICH RECENTLY SECEDED FROM GEORGIA. THE ABAZAS LIVE IN KARACHAY-CHERKESSIA. IN ADDITION, MORE THAN A MILLION ABKHAZO-ADYGHEANS, LIVE IN THE DIASPORA, MAINLY IN TURKEY AND OTHER MIDDLE EASTERN COUNTRIES. ... MY PROJECT INCLUDES THE PHONOLOGICAL DESCRIPTION OF ALL DIALECTS OF WEST CAUCASIAN LANGUAGES, THE RECONSTRUCTION OF THE PHONEMIC SYSTEMS OF PROTO-ABKHAZ AND PROTO-CIRCASSIAN AND, FINALLY, THE RECONSTRUCTION OF THE PHONEMIC SYSTEM OF PROTO-WEST CAUCASIAN. I HAVE CONDUCTED FIELDWORK IN TURKEY AND IN THE CAUCASUS. IN TURKEY, I ALSO COLLECTED HITHERTO UNKNOWN LINGUISTIC AND FOLKLORIC MATERIALS AMONG THE SADZ AND OTHER ABKHAZIANS. ... THE LEXICAL DIFFERENCES BETWEEN ABKHAZ, CIRCASSIAN AND UBYKH ARE QUITE SUBSTANTIAL, WHICH MAKES THE RECONSTRUCTION OF PROTO-WEST CAUCASIAN A TRYING TASK. THE PROBLEM IS FURTHER COMPLICATED BY THE FACT THAT THERE ARE MANY UNIQUE SOUND CORRESPONDENCES WHICH DO NOT SEEM TO FIT INTO A PATTERN. TO FACILITATE THE COMPARISON OF ABKHAZ WITH THE OTHER TWO LANGUAGES, I COMPILED A DICTIONARY OF PROTO-ABKHAZ ROOTS. THE RECONSTRUCTION OF THE PHONEMIC SYSTEM OF PROTO-WEST CAUCASIAN ACTUALLY PRESENTS A NECESSARY STEP TOWARDS A COMPREHENSIVE RECONSTRUCTION OF PROTO-NORTH CAUCASIAN. ONCE A PROTO-NORTH CAUCASIAN IS ACHIEVED, IT WILL BE POSSIBLE TO CONCENTRATE ON THE PROBLEM OF THE EXTERNAL RELATIONS OF THAT LANGUAGE. NORTH CAUCASIAN, WHICH MAY BE RECONSTRUCTED ON THE BASIS OF THE COMPARISON OF THE PRESENT-DAY LANGUAGES THAT DERIVE FROM IT, IS ONE OF THE ANCIENT LANGUAGES THAT WERE SPOKEN IN EUROPE PRIOR TO ITS COLONISATION BY INDO-EUROPEANS."}
  486. THE RELATIVE CLAUSE IN ABKHAZ (ABZUI DIALECT) [LINGUA 47, 1979, pp. 151-88], B[RIAN] G[EORGE] HEWITT. {ABSTRACT: THIS ARTICLE IS DESIGNED TO PRESENT AN EXHAUSTIVE TREATMENT OF THE RELATIVE-CLAUSE FORMING STRATEGY OF ABKHAZ, A NORTH WEST CAUCASIAN LANGUAGE. AFTER A SKETCH OF THE RELEVANT VERBAL MORPHOLOGY, EXAMPLES ARE ADDUCED TO DISCOVER IF THIS LANGUAGE PROVIDES ANY SUPPORT FOR THE SO-CALLED ACCESSIBILITY HIERARCHY (KEENAN AND COMRIE 1977: NOUN PHRASE ACCESSIBILITY AND UNIVERSAL GRAMMAR IN LINGUISTIC ENQUIRY 8, PP. 63-99). AS IT TRANSPIRES THAT THERE ARE NO RESTRICTIONS AS TO WHICH NP MAY STAND AS HEAD NOUN OF A RELATIVE CLAUSE, ABKHAZ PROVIDES NO IMMEDIATE SUPPORT FOR THE HIERARCHY. IN AN ATTEMPT TO DISCOVER WHAT RESTRICTIONS, IF ANY, MANIFEST THEMSELVES IN THE FORMATION OF RELATIVE CLAUSES, MORE COMPLEX STRUCTURES ARE INVESTIGATED, WHERE THE RELATIVE CLAUSE CONTAINS BOTH A SUPERORDINATE AND DEPENDENT VERB. IT IS FOUND THAT, DEPENDING UPON THE FORM OF THE DEPENDENT VERB, THE SUPERORDINATE VERB MUST ALSO IN SOME CASES CONTAIN A MARK OF ITS OWN 'RELATIVE' STATUS. AN EXPLANATION IS OFFERED AS TO WHY A RELATIVE AFFIX SHOULD APPEAR IN THE SUPERORDIANTE VERB IN SOME CIRCUMSTANCES BUT NOT IN OTHERS. "ABKHAZ, CIRCASSIAN AND UBYKH FORM THE NORTH WEST CAUCASIAN LANGUAGE-GROUP. EACH LANGUAGE ALLOWS ONLY ONE FINITE VERB TO APPEAR IN EACH SENTENCE. IN OTHER WORDS, THESE LANGUAGES DO NOT POSSESS SUBORDINATE CLAUSES, FOR IT IS PART OF THE DEFINITION OF A CLAUSE THAT IT SHOULD CONTAIN A FINITE VERB. WHERE, IN A LANGUAGE OF THE FAMILIAR INDO-EUROPEAN MODEL WE SHOULD EXPECT AN ADJECTIVAL OR ADVERBIAL LIMITING CLAUSE, A PARTICIPIAL FORM OF THE VERB WILL BE EMPLOYED IN THE LANGUAGES OF THE N.W. CAUCASUS. BEFORE DESCRIBING THE SPECIAL FEATURES OF THE ABKHAZ 'RELATIVE PARTICIPLE', IT WILL BE NECESSARY TO GIVE SOME IDEA OF THE ESSENTIAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE ABKHAZ VERB INSOFAR AS THEY ARE RELEVANT TO THE PROBLEM AT HAND. ..." THE AUTHOR WAS AT St. JOHN'S COLLEGE, CAMBRIDGE, AT THE TIME OF WRITING THE ARTICLE. NOW HE IS PROFESSOR OF CAUCASIAN LANGUAGES AT THE SCHOOL OF ORIENTAL AND AFRICAN STUDIES (SOAS), UNIVERSITY OF LONDON}
  487. THE RELATIVE CLAUSE IN ADYGHE (TEMIRGOI DIALECT) [IBERIUL K'AV'ASIUR ENATMECNIEREBA (IBERO-CAUCASIAN LINGUISTICS), 6, 1977, pp. 134-62. TBILISI, GEORGIAN SSR: MECNIEREBA], BRIAN GEORGE HEWITT.
  488. THE ROLE OF ABLAUT IN THE INGUSH VERBAL SYSTEM. ZEV HANDEL. PAPER PRESENTED AT THE TENTH BIENNIAL NON-SLAVIC LANGUAGES (NSL) CONFERENCE HELD AT THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO THURSDAY-SATURDAY, 8-10 MAY 1997. {"This paper presents an analysis of several aspects of inflectional and derivational morphology in the vowel system of Ingush. First, it is demonstrated that, from a synchronic viewpoint, patterns of stem vowel alternation found in verbal inflectional paradigms are best described as ablaut rather than umlaut. ('Ablaut versus umlaut' has been a perennial question in studies of the Chechen and Ingush verb systems.) According to this analysis, regular verbs may be classed into eleven verb paradigms, each of which has a distinct three-way vowel alternation pattern. Despite the fact that the infinitive stem historically represents the basic verb root, in a synchronic analysis it is the present stem which takes this role. ... Second, the stem vowel alternations which characterize the derived iterative verb forms are described. Iterative forms are fully inflectable themselves, but are only found in two of the eleven verb paradigms. Moreover, only four of the eleven verb paradigms permit an iterative derivation. The discussion of the iterative forms includes a semantic analysis of the simulfactive/iterative contrast and its relationship to the overall tense/aspect system of Ingush. The Ingush aspectual system reflects a three-level conception of the temporal space that actions occupy, labeled here the event level, the session level, and the iteration level; this new analysis of event/time structure is used to explain and illustrate the complex four-way distinction in meaning between the simulfactive perfect, iterative perfect, simulfactive imperfect, and iterative imperfect. In addition to these analyses, the semantics and morphology of the basic tenses/aspects of Ingush are sketched, and some morphophonemic alternations are explained. A set of adverb-frame tests is proposed for eliciting and distinguishing the different tense/aspect forms. ... Finally, an appendix explores the historical origins of the system of verbal morphology through comparison with the Chechen verbal system." THE AUTHOR IS AT THE UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA AT BERKELEY}
  489. THE RUSSIFICATION OF SOVIET MINORITY LANGUAGES [PROBLEMS OF COMMUNISM, Vol. 2, No. 6, 1953, PP. 46-57], URIEL WEINREICH.
  490. THE SOVIET EDUCATION LAWS OF 1958-1959 AND SOVIET NATIONALITY POLICY [SOVIET STUDIES, Vol. 14, No. 2, 1962, PP 138-157], YAROSLAV BILINSKY.
  491. THE STATUS OF NATIONAL MINORITY LANGUAGES IN SOVIET EDUCATION [SOVIET STUDIES, Vol. 19, No. 2, OCTOBER 1967], HARRY LIPSET.
  492. THE STATUS OF NATIONAL MINORITY LANGUAGES IN SOVIET EDUCATION: AN ASSESSMENT OF RECENT CHANGES [SOVIET STUDIES, 26, No. 1, 1974, PP. 28-40], BRIAN D. SILVER.
  493. THE STATUS OF POPULAR EDUCATION IN THE NORTHERN CAUCASUS [CAUCASIAN REVIEW, MUNICH (CRM), Vol. 7, AUG-NOV 1959, PP. 110-24], R[AMAZAN] KARCHA.
  494. THE STRUCTURE OF THE NAKH-DAGHESTANIAN VERB ROOT AND VERB STEM. JOHANNA NICHOLS. In NON-SLAVIC LANGUAGES OF THE USSR: PAPERS FROM THE FOURTH CONFERENCE. HOWARD I. ARONSON (Ed.). COLUMBUS, OHIO: SLAVICA PUBLISHERS, INC., 1994.
  495. THE SYSTEM OF DECLENSION IN THE DAGHESTANIAN LANGUAGES (MODEL FOR A COMPUTER ANALYSER). VLADIMIR KIKILASHVILI. PAPER PRESENTED AT THE TENTH BIENNIAL NON-SLAVIC LANGUAGES (NSL) CONFERENCE HELD AT THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO THURSDAY-SATURDAY, 8-10 MAY 1997. {"The declension system of Daghestanian languages presents a complex and varied picture. This is due to the two-stem principle of declension - the multiplicity of the main (4) and locative (42) cases. ... The unit of declension comprises: the root (4, characterized by suppletivism in pronouns), prefixal (Pr- intensifying particle; Kl - class formant, sometimes petrified, V- vowel dividing the affixes) and suffixal (Kl, V, Dtr- determinant, Pl - plural marker, Cf - case marker: A- genetive, B- dative, loc 1: A- active, B- additive, C- ablative directional cases). The listed elements have various morphological and phonological realizations. ... On the basis of the elements participating in the system of declension, the author has developed a general model of declension, which is realized variously with different parts of speech.
  496. THE TRUTH ABOUT STRAHLENBERG'S CLASSIFICATION OF THE LANGUAGES OF NORTHEASTERNEURASIA [JOURNAL DE LA SOCIETE FINNO-OUGRIENNE 87:139-160, 1997], ALEXIS MANASTER RAMER AND PAUL SIDWELL. {SEE STRAHLENBERG'S WORK DAS NORD- UND OSTLICHE THEIL VON EUROPA UND ASIA ABOVE}
  497. THE TYPOLOGY OF PHARYNGEALS AND PHARYNGEALIZATION: CAUCASIAN EXAMPLES. JOHN COLARUSSO. PAPER PRESENTED AT THE 6th NORTH AMERICAN CONFERENCE ON AFRO-ASIATIC LINGUISTICS, APRIL 9-10, 1978, TORONTO.
  498. THE TYPOLOGY OF SUBORDINATION IN GEORGIAN AND ABKHAZ. BRIAN G[EORGE] HEWITT. EMPIRICAL APPROACHES TO LANGUAGE TYPOLOGY SERIES, 5. NEW YORK - BERLIN: MOUTON DE GRUYTER, 1987. (288 pages. 24 cm. ISBN 0899251137 (alk. paper). ISBN 3-11-010709-0 Pp.). {Modified version of the author's Ph.D. thesis Contrastive Study of the Subordinate-Clause Syntax of Georgian and Abkhaz. University of Cambridge, 1981. Bibliography on pp. 271-80. Illustrated. Map included}
  499. THE VALID AND NON-VALID APPLICATION OF PHILOLOGY TO HISTORY [REVUE DES ETUDES GEORGIENNES ET CAUCASIENNES, 6-7, 1990-1991, pp. 247-63, 1993], B[RIAN] G[EORGE] HEWITT.
  500. THE VOCABULARY OF ANIMAL-HUSBANDRY (SHEPHERDING) IN THE ABKHAZ LANGUAGE. V. KVARCHIJA. SUKHUM, ABKHAZIA, 1981.
  501. THREE SHORT KABARDIAN (EAST CIRCASSIAN) TEXTS [ANNALS OF THE ORIENTAL INSTITUTE OF NAPOLI, 42, 1982, PP. 169-194], ELIO PROVASI. / MY COLLECTION. {ANALYSIS OF THREE SHORT POEMS IN KABARDIAN (TWO QUATRAINS AND ONE LONGER POEM IN STROPHIC FORM). THE TEXTS WERE COLLECTED IN APRIL 1974 IN ISTANBUL FROM Mr. FIKRI DUMAN, A NATIVE SPEAKER OF BOTH KABARDIAN AND TURKISH FROM PINARBASI, A TOWN SITUATED NORTHEAST OF KAYSERI IN ANATOLIA ON THE EDGE OF THE UZUN YAYLA PLATEAU, WHERE ONE OF THE GREATEST CONCENTRATIONS OF CIRCASSIAN SPEAKERS IN TURKEY IS FOUND. HIS DIALECT IS ONLY SLIGHTLY DIFFERENT FROM THE LITERARY LANGUAGE DEVELOPED IN THE CAUCASUS. VERY INFORMATIVE. HAS 44 REFERENCES}
  502. TRACING ASPECT CODING TECHNIQUES IN THE LEZGIAN LANGUAGES. WOLFGANG SCHULZE-FUERHOFF. IN NON-SLAVIC LANGUAGES OF THE USSR: PAPERS FROM THE FOURTH CONFERENCE. HOWARD I. ARONSON (Ed.). SLAVICA PUBLISHERS, INC., 1994.
  503. TRANSITIVITY AND POSSESSION [LANGUAGE, 40, 1964], W. S. ALLEN.
  504. TRANSITIVITY AND VALENCE IN CHECHEN-INGUSH [FOLIA SLAVICA, Vol. 7, Nos. 1-2 (in one cover), 1984], JOHANNA NICHOLS. {Vol. title: Papers from the Third Conference on the Non-Slavic Languages of the USSR, University of Chicago, March 23-25, 1983. Howard I. Aronson (Ed.). Columbus, Ohio: Slavica Publishers}
  505. TRILINGUAL EDUCATION IN THE CAUCASUS: LANGUAGE POLICIES IN THE NEW REPUBLIC OF ADYGHE [LANGUAGE, CULTURE AND CURRICULUM, 8.2, 1995, pp. 141-48], OLGA BRIDGES.
  506. TROIS RECITS OUBYKH (AVEC TRADUCTION CHAPSOUGH) [ANTHROPOS LIV, 1959, pp. 99-128], GEORGES DUMEZIL. {Three Ubykh tales with Shapsugh translations}
  507. TSCHETSCHENISCH-DEUTSCHES UND DEUTSCH-TSCHETSCHENISCHES WORTERBUCH. JOHANNES HEINECKE, 1996. {ON-LINE CHECHEN-GERMAN AND GERMAN-CHECHEN DICTIONARY. WILL BE PUBLISHED}
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  510. TYPOLOGICAL PARALLELS BETWEEN PROTO-INDO-EUROPEAN AND THE NORTHWEST CAUCASIAN LANGUAGES. JOHN COLARUSSO. PP. 475-557 in BONO HOMINI DONUM: ESSAYS IN HISTORICAL LINGUISTICS IN MEMORY OF J. ALEXANDER KERNS, VOL. 2, YOEL L. ARBEITMAN AND ALAN R. BOMBARD (Eds.). AMSTERDAM: JOHN BENJAMINS, 1981.
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  512. TYPOLOGICAL STUDIES AND THEIR CONTRIBUTION TO HISTORICAL COMPARATIVE LINGUISTICS. R. JACOBSON. IN PROCEEDINGS OF THE EIGHTH INTERNATIONAL CONGRESS OF LINGUISTS. OSLO, 1958.
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  515. UNE INTERPRETATION EXISTENTIELLE DE LA CONSTRUCTION ERGATIVE DE LA PHRASE EN TCHERKESSE. CATHERINE PARIS. In CAHIERS DU CENTRE INTERDISCIPLINAIRE DES SCIENCES DU LANGAGE, SOCIETE DE LINGUISTIQUE GENERALE ET APPLIQUEE, UNIVERSITE DE TOULOUSE-LE MIRAIL, 1979, No. I.
  516. UNIQUE TYPES AND TYPOLOGICAL UNIVERSALS. AERT H. KUIPERS. PP. 68-88 IN PRATIDANAM: INDIAN, IRANIAN AND INDO-EUROPEAN STUDIES PRESENTED TO F. B. J. KUIPERS. J. C. HEESTERMAN et al. (Eds.). THE HAGUE: MOUTON, 1968.
  517. UNIVERSAL LITERACY OF THE FORMERLY BACKWARD PEOPLES OF THE SOVIET UNION: A FACTOR OF THEIR SOCIAL SELF-AWARENESS. V. A. KUMANEV. IN LANGUAGE AND SOCIETY: ANTHROPOLOGICAL ISSUES. WILLIAN McCORMACK AND STEPHEN A. WURM (Eds.). NEW YORK: MOUTON, 1979.
  518. VARIETIES OF ETHNICITY AND LANGUAGE CONSCIOUSNESS [MONOGRAPH SERIES ON LANGUAGES AND LINGUISTICS. WASHINGTON, D.C., GEORGETOWN UNIVERSITY, Vol. 18, 1965, PP. 69-79], JOSHUA A. FISHMAN.
  519. VERB CLASS SYSTEM IN CIRCASSIAN. AN ATTEMPT OF CLASSIFICATION OF CIRCASSIAN VERBAL FORMS. [ARCHIV ORIENTALNI (AO), 36, 1968, PP. 200-212], VACLAV CERNY, PRAHA. {"THIS PAPER IS A SUMMARY OF MORPHOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF THE VERB IN LITERARY WEST-CIRCASSIAN. THE MODERN WEST-CIRCASSIAN NATIONAL LANGUAGE IS AN ADVANCED FORM OF THE TEMIRGOIAN DIALECT, COMPLETED WITH A LARGE SECTION OF WORDS AND FORMS FROM OTHER WESTERN DIALECTS, PRIMARILY BZHEDUGH AND SHAPSUGH. ALL THESE INNOVATIONS ARE ADAPTED ACCORDING TO THE PHONOLOGICAL AND MORPHOLOGICAL NORMS OF THE BASIC DIALECT, SO THAT, ALTHOUGH IN PARTICULAR CASES OSCILLATION MAY OFTEN BE OBSERVED, FOR OUR PURPOSES WE MAY CONSIDER THE LANGUAGE AS HOMOGENEOUS AND UNIFORM." HAS 30 REFERENCES}
  520. VERBS THAT INFLECT FOR KINSHIP [PAPIERE ZUR LINGUISTIK 20, 1979, pp. 37-66], JOHN COLARUSSO .
  521. VERSUCH EINER CHARAKTERISTIK DES AWARISCHEN: MIT EXKURSEN ZUR SPRACHTHEORIE [Sb. d. Deut. Ak. d. W. zu Berlin, Kl. f. Spr., Lit. u. Kunst, 1952, 3], E. LEWY.
  522. VERTICAL, MONOVOCALIC AND OTHER IMPOSSIBLE VOWEL SYSTEMS: A REVIEW OF THE ARTICULATION OF THE KABARDIAN VOWELS [STUDIA LINGUISTICA 45, 1991, PP. 49-70], SIDNEY WOOD.
  523. "VIEUX-KABARDE" ET PARLER BESLENEY [JOURNAL ASIATIQUE (JA), 253,1965, PP. 217-222], GEORGES CHARACHIDZE. {THE KABARDIAN DIALECT USED BY SHURA NOGMOV IS CONCLUDED TO BE AN INTERMEDIATE ONE BETWEEN KABARDIAN AND BESLANAY AND NOT THE OLD FORM OF KABARDIAN PROPER. NOGMOV IS A KABARDIAN HISTORIAN AND FOLKLORIST. HE AUTHORED HISTORY OF THE CIRCASSIANS, WHICH APPEARED IN 1861. HE ALSO COLLECTED MATERIALS ON KABARDIAN GRAMMAR, BUT THE WORK NEVER MATERIALIZED}
  524. VOWEL SYSTEMS OF CAUCASIAN LANGUAGES. J. C. CATFORD. IN NON-SLAVIC LANGUAGES OF THE USSR: PAPERS FROM THE FOURTH CONFERENCE. HOWARD I. ARONSON (Ed.). SLAVICA PUBLISHERS, INC., 1994.
  525. WESTERN CIRCASSIAN VOCALISM [FOLIA SLAVICA Vol. 5, Nos. 1-3 (in one cover), 1982, pp. 89-114], JOHN COLARUSSO. {Vol. title: Papers from the Second Conference on the Non-Slavic Languages of the USSR, University of Chicago, April 28-29, 1981. Howard Aronson and Bill J. Darden (Eds.). Columbus, Ohio: Slavica Publishers}
  526. YIDDISH IN ISRAEL: A CASE STUDY OF EFFORTS TO REVIVE A MONOCENTRIC LANGUAGE POLICY. JOSHUA A. FISHMAN AND DAVID E. FISHMAN. IN ADVANCES IN THE STUDY OF SOCIETAL MULTILINGUALISM. J. FISHMAN (Ed.). THE HAGUE: MOUTON.
  527. ZUM PROTOHATTISCHEN [BERICHTE DES FORSCHUNGS-INSTITUTES FUR OSTEN UND ORIENT, Bd.III, 1923, pp. 102-6], ROBERT BLEICHSTEINER. {"Confirms Forrer's view [in DIE ACHT SPRACHEN DER BOGHAZKOY-INSCHRIFTEN [SITZUNGSBERICHTE DER PREUSSISCHEN AKADEMIE DER WISSENSCHAFTEN, Phil.-hist. Klasse, Nr. LIII, 1919] that Hattic was not an Indo-European language and suggested its relationship with Abkhazo-Adyghean languages... The main reasons were striking structural similarities (particularly, extensive use of prefixation) between this ancient language of Asia Minor, extinct since the early second millennium BC, and the languages of the West Caucasian group." - Vjacheslav Chirikba}
  528. ZUM KONJUGATIONSSYSTEM DES ABCHASISCHEN [STUDIA ORIENTALIA, I, 1925, pp. 242-52], G. SCHMIDT.
  529. ZUR GEOGRAPHIE UND STATISTIK DER KHARTHWELISCHEN (SUDKAUKASISCHEN) SPRACHEN [GEOGRAPHISCHE MITTHEILUNGEN (GOTHA), 43, 1897. A. PETERMANN (Ed.)], H. SCHUCHARDT.

6
LITERATURE
  1. ABKHAZSKAJA PROZA 20-60-x GODOV [ABKHAZIAN PROSE IN THE YEARS 1920-60]. V. DARSALIA, TBILISI, THE GEORGIAN SSR, 1980. {In Russian}
  2. A CAPTIVE OF THE CAUCASUS. ANDREI BITOV (1937- ). LONDON: WEIDENFELD & NICOLSON, 1992; NEW YORK: FARRAR, STRAUS & GIROUX, 1992. (323 PAGES,  24 cm. ISBN 0297840541). (TRANSLATED FROM RUSSIAN BY SUSAN BROWNSBERGER. JOURNEY).
  3. ALEXANDER BESTUZHEV-MARLINSKY. LAUREN G. LEIGHTON. NEW YORK: TWAYNE PUBLISHERS, 1975.
  4. ALI AND NINO. KURBAN SAID, 1937, REPRINTED 1990. {"ALI, A YOUNG AND NOBLE MUSLIM AND NINO, A GEORGIAN PRINCESS, LIVE IN BAKU ON THE CASPIAN SEA AROUND THE OUTBREAK OF THE FIRST WORLD WAR." A VERY SWEET LOVE STORY}
  5. ALMORAN AND HAMET: AN ORIENTAL TALE. JOHN LL. D. HAWKESWORTH. LONDON, 1780. 2 Vol. in 1. {DEPICTS LOVE STORY OF HAMET AND ALMEIDA. P. 14, THERE IS A MENTION OF A NATIVE OF CIRCASSIA CALLED ABDULLA}
  6. AMMALAT BEK. N. BESTUJEV 'MARLINSKY'. {ORIGINAL IN RUSSIAN. TRANSLATED BY THOMAS SHAW}
  7. A RUSSIAN REVERIE: CHECHNYA'S LITERARY LEGACY. SUSAN LAYTON. PUBLISHED ON THE NET.
  8. CAUCASIAN FOLK-TALES. ADOLF DIRR. LONDON, TORONTO, 1925, 8, PP. XIII 306. / SOAS.  / WARDROP COLLECTION.
  9. CHANTS POPULAIRES DE LA TRIBU CIRCASSIENNE DES ADIGHE DE BOUZADOUK. RECUEILLIS ET PUBLIES PAR L. M. ENFRY (LATTAKIEH, ETAT DES ALAOUITES, SYRIE). [REVUE D'ETHNOGRAPHIE ET DES TRADITIONS POPULAIRES, PARIS, Nos. 27-28, ANNEE 7, 1926. pp. 245-68].
  10. CIRCASSIAN TALE. SAUNDERS.
  11. CONTES ET LEGENDES DU CAUCASE. JULES MOURIER. PARIS, 1888. PP. 112, 3. COLLECTION ORIENTALE No. I. / WARDROP COLLECTION. / BRIT. MUS.
  12. DIE SAGEN UND LIEDER DES TSCHERKESSEN-VOLKS … . SHORA BEKMURSIN NOGMOV. LEIPZIG, 1866. PP. XXXI,144. / WARDROP COLLECTION. / BRIT. MUS. {A WORK ON CIRCASSIAN SAGAS AND SONGS BY THE 19th CENTURY KABARDIAN SCHOLAR. TRANSLATED BY A. BERGE}
  13. DIVAN-I QANSUH AL-GURI: A CRITICAL EDITION OF TURKISH POETRY COMMISSIONED BY SULTAN QANSUH AL-GURI, 1501-1516. MEHMET YALCIN. PhD DISSERTATION, HARVARD UNIVERSITY, CAMBRIDGE, MASSACHUSETTS, 1993.
  14. EASTERN APPROACHES. FITZROY MACLEAN, 1949. REPRINTED 1991. {"A HEADY TALE OF HIGH ADVENTURE AND POLITICS, SUPERBLY TOLD, SET IN THE CAUCASUS, CENTRAL ASIA, PERSIA AND YUGOSLAVIA. IT HAD A POWERFUL EFFECT ON ME AS A YOUNG SUBALTERN OF 19 (AND DOUBTLESS MANY OTHERS OF MY GENERATION) AND FIRST SET MY FEET IN THE DIRECTION OF TASHKENT AND TBILISI, KASHGAR AND KABUL. I MUST HAVE GIVEN AWAY MORE COPIES OF THIS MAGICAL BOOK THAN OF ANY OTHER I HAVE READ." - PETER HOPKIRK}
  15. FROM CAUCASUS TO PITTSBURGH: THE PROMETHEUS THEME IN BRITISH AND AMERICAN POETRY. MARIOS BYRON RAIZIS. ATHENS: GNOSIS PUB. CO., ? 1983. (XVI, 290 PAGES. 21 cm.). {REVISION OF THE AUTHOR'S DOCTORAL THESIS, NEW YORK UNIVERSITY, 1966, UNDER THE TITLE: THE PROMETHEUS THEME IN BRITISH AND AMERICAN POETRY. BIBLIOGRAPHY ON PP. 260-75}
  16. HISTOIRE DE RUSPIA, OU LA BELLE CIRCASSIENNE. BARTHELEMI MARMONT DUHAUTCHAMP. AMSTERDAM: MARTEAU, [1754]. (283 PAGES. ISBN 3-628-55251-6). {ILLUSTRATED}
  17. INCURSION DANS LE SUD (L'HISTOIRE D'UNE VIE. V). KONSTANTIN GEORGIYEVICH PAUSTOVSKY. PARIS: GALLIMARD, 1966.
  18. LA CIRCASSIENNE. ALEX. MARIE ANNE DE LA VAISSIER DE LAVERGNE.
  19. LA COLCHIDE. SUIVI DE ROMAN DU NORD. KONSTANTIN GEORGIYEVICH PAUSTOVSKY. PARIS: GALLIMARD, 1972. (TRANSLATED FROM RUSSIAN BY LYDIA DELT AND VERA VARZI).
  20. LA TOISON D'OR. ROBERT GRAVES. PARIS: GALLIMARD, 1964. (TRANSLATED BY A. DER NERSESSIAN).
  21. LE CHEVALIER A LA PEAU DE TIGRE. CHOTA ROUSTAVELI. COLLECTION UNESCO D'OEUVRES REPRESENTATIVES: SERIE GEORGIENNE. PARIS: GALLIMARD, 1964. (272 PAGES). {TRAD. DU GEORGIEN AVEC UNE INTRODUCTION ET DES NOTES PAR SERGE TSOULADZE}
  22. LE RAVISSEMENT. ILIAZD. PARIS, 1930. (TRANSLATED FROM RUSSIAN BY REGIS GAYRAUD. AIX-EN-PROVENCE: ALINEA, 1987).
  23. LE RETOUR DE L'INDIEN. NIAZ BATOUKA. PARIS, 1977.
  24. LES CONTES DU CAUCASE. / WARDROP COLLECTION.
  25. LES EXILES DU CAUCASE. ALEXANDRE NAJJAR. PARIS: GRASSET, 1995. (380 PP., 135 ff.). {ARABIC EDITION: DOUROUB EL HIJRA, DAR AN NAHAR (424 PP.). "TERRE DE LEGENDE ET MEMOIRE DES HOMMES, LE CAUCASE NE CONNAITRA-T-IL DONC JAMAIS LA PAIX? AUJOURD'HUI COMME HIER, AU TEMPS DE LA FEDERATION RUSSE COMME AU TEMPS DU TSAR, EN CIRCASSIE COMME EN TCHETCHENIE, DES CAUCASIENS MEURENT POUR LA LIBERTE. ... LES EXILES DU CAUCASE RACONTE LE COMBAT DE CES MONTAGNARDS, RETRACE LA FORMIDABLE ET TRAGIQUE EPOPEE DE CHEIKH MANSOUR ET DES SES DESCENDANTS TCHERKESSES, CHASSES DU CAUCASE DANS LA SECONDE MOITIE DU XIXe SIECLE, PUIS RECUEILLIS PAR LE SULTAN AVANT DE S'ETABLIR DANS LES BALKANS, A L'EST DU JOURDAIN, AU LIBAN ET EN SYRIE OU ILS SE METTENT AU SERVICE DE L'ARMEE FRANCAISE DU LEVANT ET PARTICIPENT AUX COMBATS OPPOSANT LES ALLIES AUX VICHYSTES. ... OU S'ARRETERA LA SOURNOISE MALEDICTION QUI POURCHASSE CE PEUPLE CONNU POUR LA BEAUTE DE SES FEMMES? LES FILS DE CHEIKH MANSOUR, DESUNIS PAR LE DESTIN, REUSSIRONT-ILS A RECOLLER LES FRAGMENTS DE LEUR FAMILLE EMIETTEE? LE COURAGE DE SETENEY, EPOUSE ET MERE EXEMPLAIRE, GUERRIERE A L'HEURE DU DANGER, SUFFIRA-T-IL A EXORCISER LE SPECTRE DE L'EXIL? SAGA HISTORIQUE BRULANTE D'ACTUALITE, LES EXILES DU CAUCASE SURVOLE DEUX SIECLE ET SIX PAYS, MET EN SCENE DES PERSONNAGES EPIQUES QUI ONT POUR NOM L'IMAM CHAMIL, LE TSAR ALEXANDRE II, LAWRENCE D'ARABIE, LE GENERAL DE GAULLE, MUSTAFA KEMAL "ATATURK", JOSEPH KESSEL, MOSHE DAYAN ... ET REND HOMMAGE AUX RESISTANTS, HEROS ANONYMES DE COMBATS AUQUELS LE MONDE ASSISTE AVEC UNE "IMBECILE INDIFFERENCE"... . THE FOLLOWING ARE EXTRACTS: "- QUE VOUS RESTE-T-IL DE CE PASSE, FINALEMENT? - ICI, AU LIBAN, IL NE RESTE DES TCHERKESSES QU'UN VAGUE SOUVENIR: ON N'IGNORE PAS QUE HOSN JIHAN, LA FEMME DE L'EMIR BACHIR II CHEHAB, FIGURE DE PROUE DE L'HISTOIRE DU LIBAN, ETAIT TCHERKESSE. ET PUIS... CERTAINS NE SONT PAS SANS SAVOIR QUE WALID JOUMBLAT - LE CHEF DES DRUZES - A DES ANCETRES TCHERKKESSES: SA GRAND-MERE, L'EPOUSE DU PRINCE CHALIB ARSLAN, ETAIT UNE TCHERKESSE DU CAUCASE, TOUT COMME D'AILLEURS LA MERE DU PRINCE CHAKIB. WALID JOUMBLAT LUI-MEME A ETE MARIE A UNE TCHERKESSE DE JORDANIE... - JE VOULAIS DIRE: QUE VOUS RESTE-T-IL DE CE PASSE? L'ETRANGER LACHA UN LONG SOUPIR. - DES TAS DE SOUVENIRS, DES IMAGES FOLLES, DES HISTOIRES QUE ME RACONTAIT MON PERE: MES ANCETRES GALOPANT DANS LES PLAINES DU CAUCASE, DEFENDANT FAROUCHEMENT LEURS TERRES CONVOITEES PAR LE TSAR, TROUVANT REFUGE DANS L'EMPIRE OTTOMAN, AFFRONTANT LA MORT DANS LES BALKANS, LUTTANT CONTRE LES FLOTS A CHYPRE, RESSUSCITANT UNE CITE DEFUNTE A L'EST DU JOURDAIN, COMBATTANT LAWRENCE D'ARABIE, CHEVAUCHANT DERRIERE UN EMIR FRANCAIS, SUBJUUANT LES DRUZES EN SYRIE, ESCORTANT LE GENERAL DE GAULLE A BEYROUTH, FUYANT L'ARMEE ISRAELIENNE DANS LE GOLAN... L'ARMEE RUSSE S'EST EMPAREE DE GROZNY, SYMBOLE DE L'INDEPENDANCE TCHETCHENE. LES COMBATS S'ETENDENT AU RESTE DU PAYS. CE N'EST PAS D'UNE DEPECHE ADRESSEE PAR LE PRINCE BARIATINSKI AU TSAR ALEXANDRE II QU'IL S'AGIT, MAIS DU TITRE D'UN JOURNAL DU SOIR QUE JE PARCOURS, CE JEUDI 19 JANVIER 1995. DES PHOTOS ILLUSTRENT L'ARTICLE: UNE COLONNE DE TANKS, IMMOBILISEE AU MILIEU D'UN DESERT DE NEIGE. DES SOLDATS RUSSES, IMBERBES, ASSIS SUR LES TOURELLES, SCRUTENT L'HORIZON AVEC DES YEUX INQUIETS. DES AMBULANCIERS RAMENENT DU FRONT DES DIZAINES DE CADAVRES. DROLE DE VICTOIRE... UN CLICHE, PRIS DANS L'AUTRE CAMP, REPRESENTE UN GUERRIER TCHETCHENE AFFUBLE DE SA TCHERKESSKA, COIFFE DE SON KALPAK, ARME D'UN KINDJAL, AGENOUILLE PRES DE SON CHEVAL, AU CENTRE D'UNE PLACE JONCHEE DE GRAVATS, ECLABOUSSEE DE SANG. RIEN N'A CHANGE. LE CAUCASE N'A PAS PRIS UNE RIDE. L'OMBRE DE CHEIKH MANSOUR PLANE TOUJOURS SUR SES ENFANTS. 'LA DERNIERE FOIS, CA A DURE UN SIECLE', CONFIE UNE VIEILLE TCHERKESSE A L'AUTEUR DU REPORTAGE. RIEN N'A CHANGE. HIER, LE TSAR, STALINE, HITLER. AUJOURD'HUI, ELTSINE. HIER, LA ROUTE DES INDES, L'ACCES A LA MER NOIRE; AUJOURD'HUI, LE PETROLE. LE MONDE ASSISTE AU SPECTACLE. 'IMBECILE INDIFFERENCE', AVAIT ECRIT MARX A ENGELS DANS UNE LETTRE DATEE DU 7 JUIN 1864. 'IMBECILE INDIFFERENCE', AURAIT-IL ECRIT A LA FIN DU XXIe.'"}
  26. LES PRISONNIERS DU CAUCASE. XAVIER DE MAISTRE. DANS OEUVRES COMPLETES DU COMTE XAVIER DE MAISTRE. LIMOGES: E. ARDANT, 1884.
  27. LEWTI; OR THE CIRCASSIAN LOVE CHANT. A LYRICAL BALLAD BY WILLIAM WORDSWORTH (1780-1850). IN LYRICAL BALLADS WITH A FEW OTHER POEMS. LONDON, 1798.
  28. MARLINSKY'S 'AMMALAT-BEK' AND THE ORIENTALISATION OF THE CAUCASUS IN RUSSIAN LITERATURE. SUSAN LAYTON. PAPER No. 3 IN THE GOLDEN AGE OF RUSSIAN LITERATURE AND THOUGHT: SELECTED PAPERS FROM THE FOURTH WORLD CONGRSS FOR SOVIET AND EAST EUROPEAN STUDIES, HAROGATE, 1990. DEREK OFFORD (Ed.). NEW YORK: St. MARTIN'S PRESS IN ASSOCIATION WITH THE INTERNATIONAL COUNCIL FOR SOVIET AND EAST EUROPEAN STUDIES, 1992. (ISBN 0312080433).
  29. MISSION TO CIRCASSIA. KATHLEEN ODELL. LONDON: HEINEMANN, 1977.
  30. MY DAGHESTAN. RASUL GAMZATOVICH GAMZATOV. MOSCOW: PROGRESS PUBLISHERS, 1970. (TRANSLATED FROM RUSSIAN BY J. KATZER AND D. ROTTENBERG).
  31. NICHOLAS AND NADIUSHA. KADIR I. NATHO. NEW YORK: G. A. PRESS, 1976. (396 PAGES). {A CIRCASSIAN NOVEL IN ENGLISH}
  32. NOUVELLES ASIATIQUES: LA DANSEUSE DE SHAMAKHA. A. DE GOBINEAU. PARIS, 1876. REPRINTED BY J. J. PAUVERT, PARIS, 1960.
  33. OLD AND NEW TALES OF THE CAUCASUS. KADIR I. NATHO. NEW YORK: G. A. PRESS, 1969. (64 PAGES). {CIRCASSIAN HISTORY FROM ANCIENT TIMES TO WWII IN SHORT STORY FORM}
  34. OSSETISCHE LITERATURE. JOHANN KNOBLOCH. DIE WELTLITERATUR, HOLLINEK, VIENNA, 1951 ff., 3 Vols, PP. 1281-2.
  35. OUR GAME. JOHN LE CARRE. NEW YORK: ALFRED A. KNOPF, 1995. (302 PAGES). {A SPY NOVEL BY THE MASTER. "JOHN LE CARRE WAS BORN IN 1931. AFTER ATTENDING THE UNIVERSITIES OF BERNE AND OXFORD, HE TAUGHT AT ETON AND SPENT FIVE YEARS IN THE BRITISH FOREIGN SERVICE. THE SPY WHO CAME IN FROM THE COLD, HIS THIRD BOOK, SECURED HIM A WORLDWIDE REPUTATION. HE LIVES IN CORNWALL, ENGLAND"}
  36. POEMS BY RASUL GAMZATOV. TRANSLATED BY PETER TEMPEST. MOSCOW: CENTRAL DEPARTMENT OF SOVIET LITERATURE, ?. (202 PAGES). {ILLUSTRATED}
  37. POEMS FROM CHECHNYA [INDEX ON CENSORSHIP (ISSN 0306-4220), Vol. 25, No. 3, 1996, P. 82 ff.], R. AKHMATOVA.
  38. PRIMITIVE DESPOT AND NOBLE SAVAGE: THE TWO FACES OF SHAMIL IN RUSSIAN LITERATURE [CENTRAL ASIAN SURVEY, Vol. 10, No. 4, 1991, PP. 31-45], SUSAN LAYTON.
  39. REISETEXTE DER RUSSISCHEN MODERNE: ANDREJ BELYJ UND OSIP MANDELSTAM IM KAUKASUS. CARMEN SIPPL. MUNCHEN: VERLAG OTTO SAGNER, 1997.
  40. Review of Bgyryskher (The Mountaineers), by Shorten Askerbi [CAUCASIAN REVIEW, MUNICH (CRM), No. 2, 1956, PP. 110 ff.], G. DEETERS.
  41. Review of SOVIET KABARDINIAN DRAMATURGY. MOSCOW, 1957, 214 PAGES [CAUCASIAN REVIEW, MUNICH (CRM), No. 9, 1959, PP. 139-44], MARIA MENAPECE. {THE FOLLOWING WORKS ARE DISCUSSED: 1. THE SONG OF DAKHANAGO. Z. AKSIROV; 2. THE TESTING. KHACHIM TEUNOV; 3. WHEN THE LIGHT COMES ON. A. SHARTANOV}
  42. RUSSIAN LITERATURE AND EMPIRE: THE CONQUEST OF THE CAUCASUS FROM PUSHKIN TO TOLSTOY. SUSAN LAYTON. CAMBRIDGE STUDIES IN RUSSIAN LITERATURE. CAMBRIDGE - NEW YORK: CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY PRESS, 1995. (XI, 354 pages. 23cm. ISBN 0-521-44443-8 hardback. Price: £35, $64.95). {"THIS IS THE FIRST SYNTHESIZING STUDY OF RUSSIAN WRITING ABOUT THE CAUCASUS DURING THE NINETEENTH-CENTURY AGE OF EMPIRE-BUILDING. IT COVERS MAJOR WRITERS INCLUDING PUSHKIN, TOLSTOY AND LERMONTOV, BUT ALSO INTRODUCES MATERIAL FROM TRAVELOGUES, ORIENTAL STUDIES, ETHNOGRAPHY, MEMOIRS, AND THE UTTERANCES OF TSARIST OFFICIALS AND MILITARY COMMANDERS. SETTING THESE WRITINGS AND THE RESPONSES OF THE RUSSIAN READERSHIP IN HISTORICAL AND CULTURAL CONTEXT, SUSAN LAYTON EXAMINES WAYS THAT LITERATURE UNDERWROTE IMPERIALISM. BUT HER STUDY ALSO REVEALS THE TENSIONS BETWEEN THE RUSSIAN STATE'S IDEOLOGY OF A EUROPEAN MISSION TO CIVILIZE THE CAUCASIAN MUSLIM MOUNTAINEERS, AND ROMANTIC PERCEPTIONS OF THOSE PEOPLES AS NOBLE PRIMITIVES WHOSE EXTERMINATION WAS NO CAUSE FOR CELEBRATION." REVIEWED BY RONALD G. SUNY IN SLAVIC REVIEW (ISSN 0037-6779), Vol. 54, No. 4, 1995, P. 1041 ff. HAS BIBLIOGRAPHICAL REFERENCES ON PP. 339-47. INCLUDES MAPS}
  43. SOME PARALLELS IN SLAVIC AND NORTHEAST CAUCASIAN FOLKLORE. JOHANNA NICHOLS. In AMERICAN CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE TENTH INTERNATIONAL CONGRESS OF SLAVISTS: LITERATURE. COLUMBUS, OHIO: SLAVICA PUBLISHERS, 1988. {The author is Professor at the University of California, Berkeley}
  44. SPOILERS OF A LITERARY HERITAGE [CAUCASIAN REVIEW, 9, 1959, MUNICH, PP. 91-97], V. ASTEMIROV.
  45. STARLIT HOURS. SELECTED POEMS BY ALIM KESHOKOV. MOSCOW: PROGRESS PUBLISHERS, 1981. (288 pages)
  46. TEXTES POPULAIRE INGUS. RECUEILLIS PAR M. JABAGI, TRADUITS PAR GEORGES DUMEZIL. PARIS, 1935. / BRIT. MUS. / WARDROP COLLECTION. {POPULAR INGUSH TEXTS}
  47. THE CAUCASIAN CHALK CIRCLE. A PLAY BY B. BRECHT.
  48. THE CAUCASUS IN RUSSIAN POETRY: AN ANTHOLOGY. A. K. LOJKINE. "MODERN LANGUAGES", UNIVERSITY OF CANTERBURY, 1985.
  49. THE CIRCASSIAN. MORLEY ROBERTS AND MAX MONTESOLE. LONDON: DOWNEY & CO. LIMITED, 1896. PRINTED BY GILBERT AND RIVINGTON, LD. (XII, 279 PAGES). {AUTHORS' PREFACE: V-X. CONTENTS: CHAPTER I: THE ALARM, PP. 1-12; CHAPTER II: PETROVSKA, PP. 13-41; CHAPTER III: THE ASSAULT ON THE FORT, PP. 42-55; CHAPTER IV: TALIDJ THE ARABIAN, PP. 56-88; CHAPTER V: THE FATE OF MIRSAN, PP. 89-106; CHAPTER VI: THE BATTLE OF THE PASS, PP. 107-123; CHAPTER VII: MYNDELL POLONOFF, PP. 124-152; CHAPTER VIII: SARIF AT SEA, PP. 153-176; CHAPTER IX: THE FEAST OF SCHAMYL, PP. 177-200; CHAPTER X: THE VALLEY OF DEATH, PP. 201-224; CHAPTER XI: THE EYRY OF THE EAGLE, PP. 225-255; CHAPTER XII: THE SURRENDER OF SCHAMYL, PP. 256-279}
  50. THE FAIR CIRCASSIAN. A PLAY BY SAMUEL JACKSON PRATT. LONDON: R. BALDWIN, 1781. / SPECIAL COLLECTION, DEANSGATE LIBRARY, MANCHESTER, ENGLAND. {VERY INTERESTING. EPILOGUE IS VERY IMPORTANT}
  51. THE FAIR CIRCASSIAN. A POEM BY SAMUEL D. CROXALL (DIED IN 1752). LONDON, 1743.
  52. THE FAIR CIRCASSIAN. A TRAGEDY BY COURTNEY MELMOTH. LONDON, 1781.
  53. THE GOLDEN FLEECE. ROBERT GRAVES. LONDON, 1944. {THERE IS A FRENCH TRANSLATION LA TOISON D'OR ABOVE}
  54. THE GULAG ARCHIPELAGO. ALEKSANDR SOLZHENITSYN. LONDON: COLLINS, 1978.
  55. VANKILEIRIEN SAARISTO [ARKHIPELAG GULAG]. ALEKSANDR SOLZHENITSYN. TAMPERE: KUSTANNUSPISTE OY, 1978. {Finnish version of preceding entry}
  56. THE HERMIT OF THE CAUCASUS. JOSEPH MOSER.
  57. THE INSEPARABLE TWINS. ANATOLY PRISTAVKIN. LONDON: PICADOR, 1991. (Translated by Michael Glenny). {"The fate of the Chechens, the Ingush and indeed of other North Caucasian peoples deported at the same time is movingly portrayed." - Ben Fowkes}
  58. THE LAST OF THE DEPARTED. BAGRAT SHINKUBA. 1977. (330 PAGES). {ON THE UBYKH AFTER THEIR EMIGRATION TO TURKET IN 1864}
  59. id. MOSCOW: RADUGA PUBLISHERS, 1986. (325 PAGES. TRANSLATED BY PAULA GARB. ILLUSTRATIONS BY VLADIMIR MESKHI).
  60. THE MAMLUK: A POEM. ELEANOR DICKINSON. LONDON: WILSON, 1830. (224 PAGES. ISBN 3-628-54423-8).
  61. CHIK AND HIS FRIENDS. FAZIL ISKANDER. MOSCOW: RADUGA PUBLISHERS, 1983. (TRANSLATED BY J. C. BUTLER).
  62. FORBIDDEN FRUIT AND OTHER STORIES. FAZIL ISKANDER. MOSCOW: PROGRESS PUBLISHERS, 1972. (TRANSLATED BY ROBERT DAGLISH).
  63. RABBITS AND BOA CONSTRICTORS. FAZIL ISKANDER. ANN ARBOR, MICHIGAN, 1975. (TRANSLATED BY HELEN BURLINGSGAME).
  64. SANDRO OF CHEGEM. FAZIL ISKANDER. LONDON AND NEW YORK: FABER & FABER, 1993. (TRANSLATED BY SUSAN BROWNSBERGER). {ISKANDER, WHO WAS BORN IN 1929, IS ONE OF THE MOST FAMOUS TWENTIETH-CENTURY ABKHAZ POETS AND FICTION WRITERS. HIS BOOKS HAVE BEEN TRANSLATED INTO MANY LANGUAGES. HE IS ONE OF THE GREAT MASTERS OF IRONY. READ HIS WORKS}
  65. THE GOSPEL OF CHEGEM: BEING THE FURTHER ADVENTURES OF SANDRO OF CHEGEM. FAZIL ISKANDER. NEW YORK: VINTAGE BOOKS, 1984. (TRANSLATED BY SUSAN BROWNSBERGER).
  66. THE GOATIBEX CONSTELLATION. FAZIL ISKANDER. {SEE PREVIOUS ENTRY BUT ONE FOR COMMENTS ON AUTHOR}
  67. THE OLD HOUSE UNDER THE CYPRESS TREE. FAZIL ISKANDER. LONDON - BOSTON: FABER AND FABER, 1996. (TRANSLATED BY JAN BUTLER).
  68. THE THIRTEENTH LABOUR OF HERCULES: STORIES. FAZIL ISKANDER. RADUGA PUBLISHERS, 1989. (TRANSLATED BY ROBERT DAGLISH AND K. M. COOK-HARUJY).
  69. THE STRONGEST ONE OF ALL: BASED ON A CAUCASIAN FOLKTALE. MIRRA GINSBURG. WILLIAM MORROW & CO., 1977.
  70. A CAPTIVE IN THE CAUCASUS. LEO TOLSTOY. OXFORD: CLARENDON PRESS, 1917. REPRINTED BY PRIDEAUX, LETCHWORTH, 1982.
  71. A PRISONER IN THE CAUCASUS AND OTHER STORIES. LEO TOLSTOI (1828-1910). MOSCOW: RADUGA PUBLISHERS, 1983. (172 PAGES. 21 cm.). {CONTENTS: THE RAID - TRANSLATED BY ANGUS ROXBURGH; THE WOOD-FELLING - TRANSLATED BY ANGUS ROXBURGH; A PRISONEER IN THE CAUCASUS - TRANSLATED BY ANGUS ROXBURGH; YARDSTICK - TRANSLATED BY MARGARET WETTLIN. ILLUSTRATED}
  72. FABLES, TALES AND STORIES; A CAPTIVE IN THE CAUCASUS. L[EO] N. TOLSTOI (1828-1910). COMPILED AND ADAPTED WITH NOTES AND VOCABULARY BY E. VLADIMIRSKY AND V. ZAITSEV. MOSCOW: PROGRESS PUBLISHERS, 1973. 3rd EDITION. (121 PAGES. 17 cm.). {"INTRODUCTION, NOTES AND VOCABULARY TRANSLATED FROM THE RUSSIAN BY V. KOROTKY}
  73. HADJI-MOURAT. LEV NIKOLAEVICH TOLSTOY. CASTELNAU-LE-LEZ: CLIMATS, 1995.
  74. HADJI MURAD. L. TOLSTOY, 1895. (292 PAGES).
  75. HADJI MURAD. L. TOLSTOY. LONDON: THOMAS NELSON AND SONS, 1912. (TRANSLATED BY AYLMER MAUDE). {"THIS BOOK IS BASED ON TOLSTOY'S EXPERIENCES IN THE LAST CENTURY AS A SOLDIER IN THE CAUCASIAN WARS."}
  76. HADJI MURAT: A TALE OF THE CAUCASUS. LEO TOLSTOY. LONDON: HEINEMAN, 1962.
  77. IVAN ILYCH AND HADJI MURAT. LEO TOLSTOY. OXFORD: OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS, 1935.
  78. LES COSAQUES. LEV NIKOLAEVICH TOLSTOY.
  79. MASTER AND MAN AND OTHER STORIES (FOR HADJI MURAT). LEO TOLSTOY. LONDON: PENGUIN, 1977.
  80. THE COSSACKS. LEO TOLSTOY, 1862; HARMONDSWORTH, UK: PENGUIN, 1960; 1994. {"TOLSTOY, INFLUENCED BY ROUSSEAU, DESCRIBES THE ATTEMPT OF A YOUNG RUSSIAN DISENCHANTED WITH CIVILISATION TO 'RETURN TO NATURE'. THE EXPERIMENT FAILS, BUT HE (OLENIN) FINDS A CERTAIN PEACE WITH HIMSELF. TURGENEV REGARDED THE COSSACKS AS "THE FINEST AND MOST PERFECT PRODUCTION OF RUSSIAN LITERATURE.""}
  81. THE DEATH OF IVAN ILYICH AND OTHER STORIES (FOR THE COSSACKS). LEO TOLSTOY. LONDON: PENGUIN, 1960.
  82. THE WORKS OF LEO TOLSTOY. TRANSLATED BY AYLMER MODE. OXFORD AND LONDON, 1934.
  83. A JOURNEY TO ARZ(U)RUM. ALEXANDER PUSHKIN (1799-1837). ANN ARBOR: ARDIS, 1974. (TRANSLATED BY BIRGITTA INGERMANSON). (111 PAGES. 23 cm. ISBN 0882330675; 0882330683). {PORTRAITS}
  84. VOYAGE A ERZURUM. A. PUSHKIN.
  85. AUL BASTUNDZHI. A. PUSHKIN, 1831.
  86. PUSHKIN. HENRI TROYAT. LONDON: ALLEN AND UNWIN, 1974. {This is a translation of next entry}
  87. POUCHKINE. HENRI TROYAT. PARIS, 1953. {Translated to English. See preceding entry}
  88. TAZIT. A. PUSHKIN.
  89. THE PRISONER OF THE CAUCASUS. A. PUSHKIN.
  90. LITERARY IMPERIALISM, NARODNOST', AND PUSHKIN'S INVENTION OF THE CAUCASUS [RUSSIAN REVIEW, 336 (17), 53, 1994], KATYA HOKANSON.
  91. THE ROMANTIC MOVEMENT IN RUSSIA. L. SEGAL.
  92. LERMONTOV: TRAGEDY IN THE CAUCASUS. LAURENCE KELLY. LONDON: CONSTABLE, 1977 (ISBN 0-09-461710-4); NEW YORK: G. BRAZILLER, 1978. (259 PAGES. 22 cm. ISBN 0807608742). {9 LEAVES OF PLATES. ILLUSTRATED. POEMS ON PP. 194-219. BIBLIOGRAPHY ON PP. 243-50}
  93. A HERO OF OUR TIME. MIKHAIL LERMONTOV (1814-1841). PUBLISHED ON THE NET. COPYRIGHT 1998 ERIC ELDRED. {BASED ON A TRANSLATION BY MARTIN PARKER. SEE NEXT ENTRY}
  94. A HERO OF OUR TIME. MIKHAIL LERMONTOV (1814-1841). MOSCOW: PROGRESS PUBLISHERS, 1947, 1951. {Translated by Martin Parker. "In five linked episodes, Lermontov builds up the portrait of a man caught up in and expressing the sickness of his times. A marvelous novel and an early landmark in Russian literature, A Hero of Our Time served as an inspiration for many later Russian authors, including Tolstoy and Dostoyevsky."}
  95. A HERO OF OUR TIME. MIKHAIL LERMONTOV (1814-1841). EVERYMAN LIBRARY, 1995. (ISBN 0-660-87566-3). {REVISED AND EDITED BY NEIL CORNWELL, UNIVERSITY OF BRISTOL}
  96. A HERO OF OUR TIME. MICHAEL YUREVICH LERMONTOV (1814-1841). PUBLISHED IN 1854. (TRANSLATED BY J. H. WISDOM AND MARR MURRAY. SEE SKETCHES OF RUSSIAN LIFE, ETC., BELOW).
  97. A HERO OF OUR TIME. MICHAEL YUREVICH LERMONTOV (1814 - 1841). LONDON: GEORGE ALLEN & UNWIN, 1940. REPRINTED BY ALFRED A. KNOPF, NEW YORK, 1992. (TRANSLATED BY EDEN AND CEDAR PAUL). {A HERO OF OUR TIME WRITTEN BETWEEN 1838-40 WAS LERMONTOV'S ONLY NOVEL; IT CONSISTS OF FIVE STORIES, EACH COMPLETE IN ITSELF. IT WAS A LANDMARK IN RUSSIAN LITERATURE, BEING THE FIRST PSYCHOLOGICAL NOVEL TO BE PUBLISHED AND WAS THE INSPIRATION FOR TOLSTOY, DOSTOYEVSKY AND CHEKHOV." - LAURENCE KELLY}
  98. A HERO OF OUR TIMES. LERMONTOV (1814 - 1841). LONDON AND NEW YORK: EVERYMAN'S LIBRARY. ALFRED A. KNOPF, JULY 1992. (Reprint edition. Hardcover, ISBN: 0679413278; Dimensions (in inches): 0.81 x 8.31 x 5.28. Translated by Vladimir and Dmitri Nabokov. Introduction by Timothy Binyon). {The Merriam-Webster Encyclopedia of Literature, April 1, 1995 Novel by Mikhail Lermontov, published in Russian in 1840 as Geroy nashego vremeni. Its psychologically probing portrait of a disillusioned 19th-century aristocrat and its use of a nonchronological and multifaceted narrative structure influenced such later Russian authors as Fyodor Dostoyevsky and Leo Tolstoy and presaged the antiheroes and antinovels of 20th-century fiction. The novel is set in the Russian Caucasus in the 1830s. Grigory Pechorin is a bored, self-centered, and cynical young army officer who believes in nothing. With impunity he toys with the love of women and the goodwill of men. He is brave, determined, and willful, but his energies and potential are wasted, and he dies in a duel.}
  99. A HERO OF OUR TIME. MIKHAIL LERMONTOV (1814 - 1841). LONDON: PENGUIN, 1966. (Translated by P. Foote).
  100. A HERO OF OUR TIME. MIKHAIL LERMONTOV (1814 - 1841). LONDON, 1940.
  101. HERO OF OUR TIME. MIKHAIL LERMONTOV. ARDIS PUBLISHERS, JUNE 1988. (ISBN: 019281401X). {"Against the romantic illumination of the Caucasian mountains in the 1830's, a traveling reporter unveils the colorful wartime history and ironic confessions of Pechorin, a deliberate rake and disarming existentialist. This work by Mikhail Yurevich Lermontov (1814-41), strongly influencedy Byron, is at once a playful study of cynicism and a tribute to rebellion. A Hero of Our Time (translated 1854), has justly been termed the first great Russian novel."}
  102. "BEFORE I'VE MADE MY NORTHERN ENTRY". LERMONTOV, 1837.
  103. CAUCASIAN PRISONER. LERMONTOV.
  104. IZMAIL-BEY. LERMONTOV.
  105. LERMONTOV'S READING OF PUSHKIN: THE TALES OF BELKIN AND A HERO OF OUR TIME. PRISCILLA MEYER. PAPER 4 IN THE GOLDEN AGE OF RUSSIAN LITERATURE AND THOUGHT: SELECTED PAPERS FROM THE FOURTH WORLD CONGRESS FOR SOVIET AND EAST EUROPEAN STUDIES, HAROGATE, 1990. DEREK OFFORD (Ed.). NEW YORK: St. MARTIN'S PRESS IN ASSOCIATION WITH THE INTERNATIONAL COUNCIL FOR SOVIET AND EAST EUROPEAN STUDIES, 1992. (ISBN 0312080433).
  106. LERMONTOV. TRAGEDY IN THE CAUCASUS. LAURENCE KELLY. LONDON: ROBIN CLARK, 1983, c1977. {BIOGRAPHY OF THE POET}
  107. MAJOR POETICAL WORKS. MICHAEL YUREVICH LERMONTOV. LONDON, 1983. (TRANSLATED BY ANATOLY LIBERMAN).
  108. NOVICE (MTSYRI). LERMONTOV. LETCHWORTH: PRIDEAUX PRESS, 1980.
  109. SKETCHES OF RUSSIAN LIFE IN THE CAUCASUS. BY A RUSSE, MANY YEARS RESIDENT AMONGST THE VARIOUS MOUNTAIN TRIBES ... MIKHAIL IUR'EVICH LERMONTOV (1814-1841). ILLUSTRATED FAMILY NOVELIST SERIES. LONDON: INGRAM, COOKE, & CO., 1853. (315 PAGES. 20 cm.). {RUNNING TITLE: CAUCASIAN TALES. TRANSLATED FROM RUSSIAN. OTHER TRANSLATIONS WERE PUBLISHED WITH OTHER TITLES: A HERO OF OUR TIME, 1854 (TRANSLATED BY J. H. WISDOM AND MARR MURRAY), AND THE HEART OF A RUSSIAN, 1912}
  110. TAMARA. LERMONTOV, 1841.
  111. THE CAUCASUS. LERMONTOV, 1830.
  112. THE DEBATE. LERMONTOV, 1841.
  113. THE DESERTER. LERMONTOV.
  114. THE HEART OF A RUSSIAN. LERMONTOV, 1912. {ANOTHER TRANSLATION OF SKETCHES OF RUSSIAN LIFE IN THE CAUCASUS, ETC.,ABOVE
  115. THE PACT. LERMONTOV, 1841.
  116. THE TEREK'S GIFTS. LERMONTOV, 1839.
  117. UN HEROS DE NOTRE TEMPS. MICHAEL YUREVICH LERMONTOV. PARIS: ROBERT LAFFONT, 1959. (TRANSLATED BY ALAIN GUILLERMOU).
  118. THE CAUCASUS. IVAN GOLOVIN, 1854.
  119. THE CAUCASUS IN RUSSIAN POETRY: AN ANTHOLOGY. COMPILED BY A. K. LOJKINE. CANTERBURY READERS IN RUSSIAN POETRY, No. 19. CHRISTCHURCH: UNIVERSITY OF CANTERBURY, "MODERN LANGUAGES", 1985. (VII, 107 PAGES. 30 cm.). {ILLUSTRATED. BIBLIOGRAPHY ON PP. 104-5}
  120. THE ARGONAUTS. KINGSLEY. {THERE IS A ROMANTIC BIT ON THE CAUCASUS}
  121. TALES OF THE CAUCASUS: THE BALL OF SNOW, AND SULTANETTA. ALEXANDRE DUMAS. BOSTON: LITTLE, BROWN, AND COMPANY, 1895.
  122. THE CAUCASUS. JOURNEYS OF ALEXANDER DUMAS.
  123. THE COUNT OF MONTE CRISTO. ALEXANDRE DUMAS.
  124. THE COSSACK HERO IN RUSSIAN LITERATURE: A STUDY IN CULTURAL MYTHOLOGY. JUDITH D. KORNBLATT. ?. {REVIEWED BY STEPHEN M.-SALLY IN SLAVIC REVIEW, Vol. 53, No. 4, WINTER 1994, P. 1189}
  125. THE LITERATURE OF GEORGIA -- A HISTORY. DONALD RAYFIELD. OXFORD: OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS, 1994. 2nd edition: RICHMOND, SURREY, ENGLAND: CURZON PRESS, ?. IN THE SERIES: CAUCASUS WORLD. SERIES EDITOR: NICHOLAS AWDE.
  126. THE MOUNTAINS OF ALLAH. PAUL CHAVCHAVADZE. LONDON, 1953. {"... the Georgian émigré novelist [gives] an interesting contemporary treatment of the Shamil theme in a manner which is both typical of the nineteenth-century Russian approach and highly reminiscent of the American 'Western.'" - Paul B. Henze, p. 7, note 2, in 'UN-REWRITING' HISTORY - THE SHAMIL PROBLEM [CAUCASIAN REVIEW, MUNIICH (CRM), Vol. 1, No. 6, 1958, pp. 7-29]}
  127. THE SABRES OF PARADISE. L. BLANCH. LONDON: JOHN MURRAY; NEW YORK: CARROLL & GRAF,1960. (510 pages).
  128. KAVKAS. A HISTORICAL SAGA OF THE CAUCASUS. M. I. QUANDOUR AND THE COLLABORATION OF FRANCES KENNETT. MOSCOW: LADA M PUBLISHING, 1994. (815 pages). {The Kavkas Trilogy. Dr. Quandour is one of the most prolific Circassian Diaspora intellectuals of recent times. His contribution to the culture of the Adyga is nonpareil}
  129. THE TRIPLE CONSPIRACY. M. I. QUANDOUR. KANDINAL PUBLISHING, JERSEY, THE CHANNEL ISLANDS, 1995. (286 pages).
  130. KAZBEK OF KABARDA. M. I. QUANDOUR. KANDINAL PUBLISHING, JERSEY, THE CHANNEL ISLANDS, 1995. (268 pages).
  131. CHERKESS. THE BALKAN STORY. M. I. QUANDOUR. KANDINAL PUBLISHING, JERSEY, THE CHANNEL ISLANDS, 1995. (354 pages).
  132. THE SABRES OF CHECHNIA. M. I. QUANDOUR. KANDINAL PUBLISHING, JERSEY, THE CHANNEL ISLANDS, 1995. (281 pages). {"A historical novel by the author of The Balkan Story."}

7
HISTORY
  1. A CAMPAIGN WITH THE TURKS IN ASIA. CHARLES DUNCAN. LONDON, 1855.
  2. AGYPTEN NACH DEN MAMLUKISCHEN LEHENSREGISTERN. HEINZ HALM. WIESBADEN, Vol. I: OBERAGYPTEN DAS FAYYUM, 1979; Vol. II: 1982.
  3. A HISTORY OF EGYPT IN THE MIDDLE AGES. STANLEY LANE-POOLE. CASS, 1968.
  4. A HISTORY OF GEORGIA. LOMOURI NODAR. TBILISSI: RUSTAVELI SOCIETY, 1993. (40 pages).
  5. A HISTORY OF JORDAN AND ITS TRIBES. F. G. PEAKE. CORAL GABLES, FLORIDA, 1958. {Account of Circassian settlement in Jordan on p. 222. Settlements at Amman (1878), Wadi Sir (1880), Jarash (1885), Na'ur (1900), Suwaylih (1905) and Rusayfah (1909) are mentioned}
  6. A HISTORY OF RUSSIA. BERNARD PARES. NEW YORK: DORSET PRESS, 1953.
  7. A HISTORY OF RUSSIA. GEORGE VERNADSKY. NEW HAVEN: YALE UNIVERSITY PRESS, 1943. {IN Vol. V, PART 1, 'THE TSARDOM OF MOSCOW 1547-1682', THERE IS AN ACCOUNT OF THE BETROTHAL OF KUCHENEY, LATER MARIA, DAUGHTER OF TEMRIUK, TO TSAR IVAN. "IN 1561, TSAR IVAN, ... , MARRIED A KABARDIAN PRINCESS. HER BROTHERS AND SOME OTHER RELATIVES ENTERED THE TSAR'S SERVICE. THEY WERE CALLED THE PRINCES CHERKASSKY, (CHERKEAS IS THE OLD RUSSIAN NAME FOR THE CIRCASSIANS), AND SEVERAL OF THEM BECAME OUTSTANDING MUSCOVITE GENERALS AND STATESMEN." ONE OF MARIA'S BROTHERS, PRINCE MIKHAIL TEMRIUKOVICH, BECAME ONE OF THE MOST INFLUENTIAL MEN IN THE OPRICH(N)INA (SPECIAL ADMINISTRATIVE ELITE UNDER TSAR IVAN THE TERRIBLE). G. S. CHERKASSKY WAS THE VOEVODA, OR PROVINCIAL GOVERNOR, OF ASTRAKHAN}
  8. A HISTORY OF RUSSIA. JOHN LAWRENCE. MERIDIAN, 1993.
  9. A HISTORY OF RUSSIA. NICHOLAS V. RIAZANOVSKY. NEW YORK - OXFORD: OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS, 1984. FOURTH EDITION.
  10. A HISTORY OF RUSSIA. V. O. KLUCHEVSKY. LONDON: DENT, 1931. (Translated by C. J. Hogarth).
  11. A HISTORY OF THE GEORGIAN PEOPLE FROM THE BEGINNING (DOWN) TO THE RUSSIAN CONQUEST IN THE NINETEENTH CENTURY. W. E. D. ALLEN. LONDON: ROUTLEDGE & KEGAN PAUL, 1932. Reprinted by BARNES & NOBLE, 1971. NEW YORK: ROUTLEDGE & KEGAN PAUL, 1971). {Bibliographical references on pp. 359-93}
  12. ALLGEMEINE HISTORISCH-TOPOGRAPHISCHE BESCHREIBUNG DES KAUKASUS. REINEGG. St. PETERSBOURG UND GOTHA, 1796-7. (Two volumes)
  13. AL-QUDS AL- MAMLUKIYYA. A HISTORY OF MAMLUK JERUSALEM BASED ON THE HARAM DOCUMENTS [ISLAMKUNDLICHE UNTERSUCHUNGEN (BERLIN), Vol. CXIII, 1985], HUDA LUTFI.
  14. AL-SAFADI AS BIOGRAPHER OF HIS CONTEMPORARIES. PP. 190-210 IN ESSAYS ON ISLAMIC CIVILIZATION PRESENTED TO NIYAZI BERKES. DONALD P. LITTLE (Ed.). LEIDEN: E. J. BRILL, 1976. {Biographical literature written under the Mamluks}
  15. A MODERN HISTORY OF GEORGIA. DAVID MARSHALL LANG. LONDON: WEIDENFELD & NICOLSON, 1962.
  16. A MODERN HISTORY OF SOVIET GEORGIA. DAVID MARSHALL LANG. LONDON: GROVE PRESS,1962.
  17. AN ATLAS OF RUSSIAN AND EUROPEAN HISTORY. ARTHUR E. ADAMS.
  18. A NEW INTERPRETATION TO THE CAUCASIAN WARS AND THE ROLE OF SHAMIL. S. CROW. RADIO LIBERTY REPORT ON THE USSR, I, 35, 1 SEPTEMBER 1989.
  19. AN HISTORICAL ATLAS OF MODERN EUROPE, C. G. ROBERTSON. {Ethnic and linguistic composition of the Circassian political entities in the former Soviet Union}
  20. AN ILLUSTRATED MANUSCRIPT ON CHIVALRY FROM THE LATE CIRCASSIAN MAMLUK PERIOD (A PRELIMINARY REPORT) [BULLETIN DE L'INSTITUT D'EGYPTE, Vol. 51, 1969-1970, PP. 1-14], MUHAMMAD MUSTAFA. {SeeUN MANUSCRIT ILLUSTRE below}
  21. AN INTRODUCTION TO MAMLUK HISTORIOGRAPHY. DONALD PRESGRAVE LITTLE. WIESBADEN: FRANZ STEINER VERLAG, 1970. {Biographical literature written under the Mamluks}
  22. AN INTRODUCTION TO THE HISTORY OF KHAZARIA. KEVIN ALAN BROOK, 1996. PUBLISHED ON THE NET.
  23. ANOTHER CHAPTER IN THE REWRITE OF HISTORY: "THE VOLUNTARY INCORPORATION" OF CHECHENO-INGUSHETIA. ANNE SHEEHY. RADIO LIBERTY RESEARCH BULLETIN, No. RL 396/82, 30 SEPTEMBER 1982.
  24. A PARADOX OF PATRONAGE DURING THE LATER MAMLUK PERIOD [MUSLIM WORLD, 73, 1983, PP. 183-207], CARL F. PETRY.
  25. APERCU GENERAL DE L'EVOLUTION DES IMMIGRATIONS EN TURQUIE, DANS INTEGRATION, BULLETIN INTERNATIONAL No. 3, VADUZ, 1959, PP. 220-240. H. Z. ULKEN.
  26. A SHORT HISTORY OF THE MIDDLE EAST. GEORGE E. KIRK. WASHINGTON: PUBLIC AFFAIRS PRESS, 1949.
  27. A SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC HISTORY OF THE NEAR EAST IN THE MIDDLE AGES. ELIYAHU ASHTOR. BERKELEY: UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA PRESS, 1976. {ON PP. 280-331, DISCUSSION OF THE MAMLUK ECONOMY}
  28. A SWITZER IN THE CAUCASUS: FAE(C)SY'S CAMPAIGNS IN CHECHNIA AND DAGHESTAN [MIDDLE EASTERN STUDIES (ISSN 0026-3206), Vol. 30, No. 3, 1994, PP. 668-82], MOSHE GAMMER.
  29. ATLAS OF RUSSIAN HISTORY. FROM 800 BC TO THE PRESENT DAY. MARTIN GILBERT. LONDON: ORION PUBLISHING GROUP, 1993; NEW YORK: OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS, 1993. (2nd edition). {REVIEWED BY JONATHAN W. DALY AND SERGEI MAKSUDOV IN SLAVIC REVIEW, Vol. 54, No. 1, SPRING 1995, P. 173}
  30. AUL YULAN: AN EPISODE OF THE CAUCASIAN WAR [CENTRAL ASIAN SURVEY (SPECIAL ISSUE ON THE NORTH CAUCASUS), Vol. 4, No. 4, 1985], MOHAMMED BEG HADJELACHE.
  31. AVENTURIERS MAMELUKS D'EGYPTE. GABRIEL GUEMARD. ALEXANDRIA, 1929. {"AUTHOR CLAIMS THAT GHAZI HASAN PASHA HIMSELF CLOSED THE ISTANBUL SLAVE MARKET TO THE BEYS, SO THAT THEY HAD TO PURCHASE GREEKS AND BLACKS."}
  32. A VISIT TO SCHAMYL. LONDON, 1857. {TRANSLATED FROM THE ORIGINAL GERMAN "EIN BESUCH BEI SCHAMYL. BRIEF EINES PREUSSEN. BUNTING. BERLIN, 1855"}
  33. BAHRI MAMLUKS, BURJI MAMLUKS: INADEQUATE NAMES FOR THE TWO REIGNS OF THE MAMLUK SULTANATE [COLLECTED STUDIES SERIES CS, ISSN 0961-7582, No. 456, 1994, P. 3 ff.].
  34. BATTLE FOR THE CAUCASUS. ANDREI ANTONOVICH GRECHKO, MARSHAL OF THE SOVIET UNION. MOSCOW: PROGRESS PUBLISHERS 1971. (TRANSLATED BY DAVID FIDLON). {WWII IN THE CAUCASUS}
  35. BEITRAGE ZUR GESCHICHTE DER MAMLUKENSULTANE. K. V. ZETTERSTEEN (Ed.). LEIDEN, 1919.
  36. BELED-ES-SIBA; SKETCHES AND ESSAYS OF TRAVEL AND HISTORY. W[ILLIAM] E[DWARD] D[AVID] ALLEN. LONDON: McMILLAN AND CO., LIMITED, 1925. (XI, 244 PAGES. 20 cm.). {FOREWORD BY MAJOR-GENERAL LORD EDWARD GLEICHEN.  SELECTED CONTENTS: 4. THE OLDEST WAR. -- THE OPERATIONS OF THE ALLIES IN THE CAUCASUS, 1853-5 (WITH"REFERENCES"). -- THE SERBO-TURKISH CAMPAIGN OF 1876. -- THE GEOGRAPHY OF THE TREATY OF TRIANON. -- THE MOUNTAIN OF LANGUAGES (WITH "REFERENCES"). -- THE MAN IN THE PANTHER'S SKIN (WITH "REFERENCES"). ILLUSTRATED. WITH MAPS}
  37. BULGARIN UND OSTRUMELIEN. S. GOPCEVIC. LEIPZIG, 1886.
  38. CAUCASIAN BATTLEFIELDS: A HISTORY OF THE WARS ON THE TURCO-CAUCASIAN BORDER, 1828-1921. WILLIAM EDWARD DAVID ALLEN AND PAUL MURATOFF. CAMBRIDGE: CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY PRESS, 1953. (614 pages). {A comprehensive work}
  39. CAUCASIAN CONFEDERATION. LEE VILLE PRINTON. PARIS, 1937.
  40. CHECHNYA - FROM PAST TO PRESENT. EMIL A. PAYIIN & ARKADY A. POPOV. PUBLISHED ON THE NET.
  41. CHRISTIAN MARTYRDOM IN RUSSIA: AN ACCOUNT OF THE MEMBERS OF THE UNIVERSAL BROTHERHOOD OR DOUKHOBORTSI, NOW MIGRATING FROM THE CAUCASUS TO CANADA. VLADIMIR TCHERTKOFF (Ed.). TORONTO: G. N. MORANG, 1899. (ISBN 0665269188 POSITIVE COPY). {ON THE HISTORY OF THE DUKHOBORS. CONTAINING A CONCLUDING CHAPTER AND LETTER BY LEO TOLSTOY. INTRODUCTION BY JAMES MAVOR}
  42. CHRISTIAN MARTYRDOM IN RUSSIA: PERSECUTION OF THE SPIRIT-WRESTLERS (OR DOUKHOBORTSI) IN THE CAUCASUS. VLADIMIR TCHERTKOFF (Ed.). LONDON: BROTHERHOOD PUB. CO, 1897. (0665006004). {ON THE HISTORY OF THE DUKHOBORS. CONTAINING A CONCLUDING CHAPTER AND LETTER BY LEO TOLSTOY}
  43. CHRONIQUE GEORGIENNE, TRADUITE PAR MARIE-FELICITE BROSSET JEUNE.PARIS,1830. {TRANSLATED FROM GEORGIAN "KARTLIS TSKHOVREBA"}
  44. CHRONIQUE GEORGIENNE EN ARMENIEN, ENVOYEE A M. SAINT-MARTIN, PAR M. SCHULTZ, MANUSCR.
  45. CHRONOLOGY OF THE KINGS OF ABASGIA AND OTHER PROBLEMS [LE MUSEON (1,4 N.E.C.) T. 69, 1956, ? PP. 73-90], C. TOUMANOFF. {WORK ON KINGS OF ABKHAZIA}
  46. CIRCASSIA IN THE NINETEENTH CENTURY: THE FUTILE FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. PAUL B. HENZE. Pp. 243-73 in PASSE TURCO-TATAR PRESENT SOVIETIQUE, ETUDES OFFERTES A ALEXANDRE BENNIGSEN. CHANTAL LEMERCIER-QUELQUEJAY, G. VEINSTEIN ET S. ENDERS WIMBUSH (Eds.). LOUVAIN-PARIS: EDITIONS PEETERS ET EDITIONS DE L'ECOLE DES HAUTES ETUDES EN SCIENCES SOCIALES, 1986. {This work puts the North Caucasus in the international context of Great Power rivalry and deals with the resistance of the Circassians to the Russian conquest of the North-West Caucasus}
  47. CIRCASSIAN MAMLUK HISTORIANS AND THEIR QUANTITATIVE DATA [JARCE, Vol. 12, 1975, PP. 75-87], JERE L. BACHARACH.
  48. CIRCASSIAN MONETARY POLICY: COPPER [JOURNAL OF THE ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL HISTORY OF THE ORIENT (JESHO), Vol. 19, 1976, PP. 32-47], JERE L. BACHARACH.
  49. CIRCASSIAN MONETARY POLICY: SILVER [THE NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE, Vol. 11, 7th Ser., 1971, PP. 267-81], JERE L. BACHARACH. {CIRCASSIAN SULTANATE IN EGYPT}
  50. CIRCASSIAN RESISTANCE TO RUSSIA. PAUL B. HENZE. PP. 62-111 in THE NORTH CAUCASUS BARRIER: THE RUSSIAN ADVANCE TOWARDS THE MUSLIM WORLD. MARIE BENNIGSEN-BROXUP (Ed.). LONDON: HURST & CO., 1992. {"WHY HAS THE CIRCASSIANS' LONG AND STUBBORN RESISTANCE TO THE RUSSIANS ATTRACTED SO LITTLE ATTENTION? TWO REASONS CAN BE ADVANCED. ONE IS THAT LEADERSHIP AMONG THEM WAS DIFFUSE. THEY PRODUCED BRAVE, INTELLIGENT AND COLOURFUL LEADERS, BUT NO SINGLE PERSONALITY DOMINATED THEIR STRUGGLE. MORE IMPORTANT, PROBABLY, IS THE FACT THAT WHEN THE CIRCASSIANS WERE DEFEATED AFTER A HALF-CENTURY OF HARD FIGHTING, THE MAJORITY OF THEM EMIGRATED TO THE OTTOMAN EMPIRE. THE LANDS WHERE THEY ONCE LIVED WERE COLONISED BY SLAVS. THE SMALL GROUPS OF CIRCASSIANS WHO REMAINED IN THEIR TRADITIONAL HOMELAND WERE SEPARATED FROM EACH OTHER AND WERE LESS ABLE TO MAINTAIN THEIR TRADITIONS AND SENSE OF COHESIVENESS THAN THE TRIBES THAT HAD SUPPORTED SHAMIL. THEIR DISPERSAL HAS REDUCED AWARENESS OF THEM BOTH IN THE RUSSIAN/SOVIET EMPIRE AND IN THE WEST. ... AFTER THE GEORGIANS AND ARMENIANS, THE CIRCASSIANS CAME CLOSEST OF ALL THE CAUCASIAN PEOPLES TO DEVELOPING THE PREREQUISITES FOR NATIONHOOD. THEY HAD TRADITIONS OF ROOTS EXTENDING BACK TO THE DAWN OF RECORDED HISTORY. THEIR ANCESTORS MAY WELL HAVE GREETED THE FIRST GREEKS WHO CAME TO COLCHIS IN SEARCH OF THE GOLDEN FLEECE. ARCHAEOLOGICAL AND LINGUISTIC EVIDENCE SUPPORTS THE HYPOTHESIS THAT PEOPLE SPEAKING DIALECTS ANCESTRAL TO CIRCASSIAN MAY HAVE EXTENDED DEEP INTO THE PRESENT AREA OF THE UKRAINE IN PREHISTORIC TIMES. THEY APPEAR TO HAVE BEEN THE DOMINANT INHABITANTS ALONG THE NORTHERN AND EASTERN BLACK SEA LITTORAL FROM THE CRIMEA TO THE MOUTH OF THE RIONI (THE ANCIENT PHASIS) IN HELLENISTIC TIMES. ... THERE WAS LITTLE DIFFERENTIATION OF PROFESSION AMONG CIRCASSIANS. ALL FARMED AND MOST KEPT LIVESTOCK. THOSE WHO ACQUIRED WEALTH KEPT LARGE HERDS OF CATTLE AND MANY HORSES. FORESTS WERE RICH IN GAME AND SUPPLIED MORE THAN ENOUGH WOOD FOR FUEL AND CONSTRUCTION. ... FOR THOSE TIMES, HEALTH CONDITIONS WERE GOOD AND THERE WAS USUALLY SURPLUS POPULATION. FOR HUNDREDS OF YEARS, IN FACT, THE MAIN EXPORT OF THE CIRCASSIAN LANDS WAS PEOPLE; DEDICATED AS THEY WERE TO THEIR OWN TRADITIONS, CIRCASSIAN MEN WERE ALWAYS READY TO VENTURE INTO THE WIDER WORLD AS SOLDIERS. THE MAMLUKS OF EGYPT WERE LARGELY CIRCASSIANS AND GEORGIANS. ... THE CIRCASSIANS SEEM TO PRESENT AN ANOMALY -- A PEOPLE WITH A COMMON LANGUAGE, COMMON PRIDE IN THEIR HISTORY, AND FIERCE ADHERENCE TO TRADITIONS, BUT WITHOUT A WRITTEN LANGUAGE OR RECORDED LAWS, AND WITH AN ABSENCE OF ADMINISTRATIVE STRUCTURE AND OF ORGANISATION TO PROVIDE FOR THEIR OWN DEFENCE. IT WAS NOT ONLY THEIR CLASSICAL EDUCATION THAT CAUSED MANY EUROPEANS WHO VISITED THE CIRCASSIANS IN THE NINETEENTH CENTURY TO COMPARE THEM TO THE ANCIENT GREEKS AND SEE AMONG THEM SURVIVALS OF CLASSICAL GREEK CUSTOMS AND HABITS. CLASSICAL GREEKS WERE NEVER UNITED POLITICALLY, EVEN THOUGH THEY HAD DEVELOPED URBAN CULTURE TO A MUCH HIGHER DEGREE. INDIVIDUAL CITY-STATES FOUGHT BITTER WARS AGAINST EACH OTHER. STILL, GREEKS WERE ALL CONSCIOUS OF BELONGING TO A GREEK NATION WHICH WAS SHARPLY DIFFERENTIATED FROM THE BARBARIANS AROUND THEM. LIKE THE ANCIENT GREEKS, CIRCASSIAN TRIBES RAIDED EACH OTHER AND TOOK PRISONERS AND HOSTAGES AND THEN MET IN COUNCILS ON NEUTRAL GROUND TO REGULATE RELATIONS BETWEEN TRIBES AND CLANS, DEBATE POLITICAL ISSUES, AND THEN HOLD GAMES AND FESTIVALS, BUT THEIR FEELING OF COMMON NATIONALITY WAS NOT INSTITUTIONALISED BEYOND THIS LEVEL. ... COSSACKS ADOPTED CIRCASSIAN CUSTOMS AND STYLE OF LIFE WHICH WAS IN MANY RESPECTS OF A HIGHER QUALITY THAN THE RUSSIANS HAD ATTAINED AT THE TIME. ... IN THE EIGHTEENTH CENTURY THE BASIC RUSSIAN APPROACH WAS TO DEVELOP ALLIANCE RELATIONSHIPS WITH AS MANY OF THE KABARDIAN ARISTOCRACY AS POSSIBLE, GAIN THEIR ACQUIESCENCE IN A PERMANENT RUSSIAN PRESENCE IN THE REGION, AND CONSTRUCT CHAINS OF FORTIFIED SETTLEMENTS. OVER TIME, THEY ACHIEVED CONSIDERABLE SUCCESS, BUT THERE WERE REPEATED REBELLIONS, FOR, LIKE ALL CIRCASSIANS, THE KABARDIAN FREEMEN DID NOT ACKNOWLEDGE THE DOMINANCE OF ANY SINGLE PRINCE, AND SOME PRINCES RESENTED FAVORITISM SHOWN TO RIVALS. THE BULK OF THE PEOPLE SELDOM SAW MUCH GAIN FOR THEMSELVES IN RUSSIAN DOMINATION. THESE EPISODES WERE PARTICULARLY DIFFICULT FOR SOVIET HISTORIANS TO DEAL WITH AND RESULTED IN MUCH CONTROVERSY AND SOPHISTRY ABOUT THE 'VOLUNTARY' INCORPORATION OF KABARDA INTO THE RUSSIAN EMPIRE AND ABOUT WHICH GROUPS AMONG KABARDIANS ACTUALLY FAVOURED IT". PAUL HENZE HAS SERVED ON THE US NATIONAL SECURITY COUNCIL FROM 1976 TO 1980. HE IS CONSULTANT TO THE RAND CORPORATION AND AUTHOR OF SOVIET STRATEGY AND ISLAM}
  51. CIRCASSIANS [CENTRAL ASIAN SURVEY, Vol. 10, No. 1/2, 1991, PP. 1-64], RAMAZAN TRAHO. {CIRCASSIAN HISTORY FROM ANTIQUITY TO THE SOVIET PERIOD}
  52. CIRCASSIANS. DONALD P. LITTLE. IN DICTIONARY OF THE MIDDLE AGES. NEW YORK: SCRIBNER'S, 1983.
  53. CIRCASSIAN WAR. DAVID URQUHART. {THE AUTHOR, A REMARKABLE SCOT, WAS BORN IN 1805. HE WAS THE FIRST BRITON TO ESPOUSE THE CAUSE OF THE CIRCASSIANS. HE VISITED CIRCASSIA IN JULY AND AUGUST 1834. HE WAS APPOINTED SECRETARY TO THE BRITISH AMBASSADOR IN TURKEY IN 1836. HE BECAME A FOCAL POINT FOR THE CIRCASSIAN EXILE COMMUNITY IN CONSTANTINOPLE. HE SUFFERED A SETBACK WHEN A SMALL BRITISH VESSEL, THE VIXEN, WAS CAPTURED LATE IN 1836 BY THE RUSSIANS WHEN IT WAS TRYING TO RUN THEIR BLOCKADE OF THE CIRCASSIAN COAST WITH A CARGO OF SALT. THE DIPLOMATIC INCIDENT WAS EMBARRASSING TO ALL THE POWERS INVOLVED. URQUHART HAD PERSUADED ANOTHER BRITON, JAMES STANISLAUS BELL, WHO HAD CHARTERED THE VESSEL AS A MERCHANT, TO DISPATCH IT CONTRARY TO THE ADVICE OF PONSONBY, THE AMBASSADOR. URQUHART WAS EXPELLED FROM THE EMBASSY AND THEN RECALLED TO LONDON IN 1837}
  54. CIRCASSIAN WAR. JOHN MILTON MACKIE.
  55. COMPANION TO RUSSIAN HISTORY. JOHN PAXTON. LONDON: BATSFORD Ltd., 1983.
  56. CO-OPT(AT)ION OF THE ELITES OF KABARDA AND DAGHESTAN IN THE SIXTEENTH CENTURY. CHANTAL LEMERCIER-QUELQUEJAY. PP. 18-44 in THE NORTH CAUCASUS BARRIER: THE RUSSIAN ADVANCE TOWARDS THE MUSLIM WORLD. MARIE BENNIGSEN-BROXUP (Ed.). LONDON: HURST & CO., 1992. {Chantal Lemercier-Quelquejay is Maitre Assistant at the Ecole des Hautes Etudes en Sciences Sociales. She is the co-author with Alexandre Bennigsen of Islam in the Soviet Union, Les Mouvements Nationaux chez les Musulmans de Russie, and La Presse et le Mouvement National chez les Musulmans de Russie avant 1920}
  57. COUNT TODTLEBEN'S EXPEDITION TO GEORGIA 1769-1771, ACCORDING TO A FRENCH EYEWITNESS [BULLETIN OF THE SCHOOL OF ORIENTAL AND AFRICAN STUDIES, Vol. XIII, PART 4, 1951, PP. 878-901], DAVID MARSHALL LANG.
  58. CRUCIFYING THE ORIENT: RUSSIAN ORIENTALISM AND THE COLONIZATION OF CAUCASUS AND CENTRAL ASIA. KALPANA SAHNI. ORCHID PRESS, JUNE 1997. (Hardcover - 300 pages 1 edition; ISBN: 9748299503). {"This major work lays bare the wilful destruction of peoples, cultures and the environment by a centralised state. It is about the dehumanization of society, of human dignity and human values. The nightmare goes back to czarist times, when colonization of the ancestral lands of the peoples of Caucasus and Central Asia commenced. It was then that the orientalist attitudes surfaced, so admirably diagnosed by Edward Said in his major work "Orientalism", resulting in the denigration of the conquered peoples, portraying them as savage barbarians. The soviet leaders and system largely continued the basic policies, and perpetuated the basic attitudes, of the czars towards the indigenous peoples of the conquered lands."}
  59. CURRENT SOVIET INTERPRETATIONS OF NINETEENTH AND TWENTIETH CENTURY GEORGIAN HISTORY [CAUCASIAN REVIEW, MUNICH (CRM), No. 3, 1956, P. 77 ff.], M. LASHAURI.
  60. DAGHESTAN. NAJMUDDIN SAMURSKII-EFENDIEV. MOSCOW AND LENINGRAD: 1925. {"A detailed and relatively objective account of the 1920-1 rebellion. Samurskii was one of the leading communists in Daghestan at the time of the uprising. He was purged by Stalin and executed in 1937}
  61. DAVID URQUHART AND THE EASTERN QUESTION, 1833-37: A STUDY IN PUBLICITY AND DIPLOMACY [JOURNAL OF MODERN HISTORY, 1936, PP. 444-67], G. H. BOLSOVER.
  62. DAVID URQUHART: SOME CHAPTERS IN THE LIFE OF A VICTORIAN KNIGHT-ERRANT OF JUSTICE AND LIBERTY. GERTRUDE ROBINSON. OXFORD, 1920. {BIOGRAPHY}
  63. DECADES ET DECENNIES. In PASSE TURCO-TATAR PRESENT SOVIETIQUE, ETUDES OFFERTES A ALEXANDRE BENNIGSEN. CHANTAL LEMERCIER-QUELQUEJAY (Ed.). LOUVAIN-PARIS: PEETERS, 1986.
  64. DER FREIHEITSKAMPF DER BERGVOELKER DES KAUKASUS. THEOPHIL LAPINSKI, 18.
  65. DEUTSCHLAND UND DIE ENTWICKLUNG NORDKAUKASIENS IM JAHRE 1918 [JAHRBUCHER FUR DIE GESCHICHTE OSTEUROPAS, NEUE FOLGE, Vol. 26, 1978], W. ZURRER. {"This is a useful guide to the kaleidoscopic changes [in the North Caucasus] of 1918." - Ben Fowkes}
  66. DEUTSCH-TURKISCHES BUNDNIS UND TRANSKAUKASIEN IM ERSTEN WELTKRIEG. FIKRET ADANIR. IM DEUTSCHLAND UND KAUKASUS IM 19. UND 20. JAHRHUNDERT. SYMPOSIUM IM RAHMEN DER KULTURWOCHEN DER BUNDESREPUBLIK DEUTSCHLAND IM KAUKASUS, JEREVAN, 1994. (IM DRUCK). {PROFESSOR ADANIR IS AT RUHR-UNIVERSITÄT BOCHUM}
  67. DIE BEDEUTUNG DES FLUCHTLINGSPROBLEMS IN DER TURKEI, DANS INTEGRATION, BULLETIN INTERNATIONAL No. 3, VADUZ, 1959. A. C. EREN.
  68. DIE BERGVOLKER DES KAUKASUS UND IHR FREIHEITSKAMPF GEGEN DI RUSSEN: NACH EIGENER ANSCHAUUNG GESCHILDERT. THEOPHIL LAPINSKI. HAMBURG: HOFFMAN UND CAMPE, 1863.
  69. DIE TSCHERKESSEN-EMIGRATION NACH DER DONAU [OSTERREICHISCHE REVUE III/1, WIEN, 1865, PP. 227-43], F. KANITZ.
  70. DONAUBULGARIEN UND DER BALKAN. F. PHILIPP KANITZ. LEIPZIG, 1875.
  71. DZHAR-BELAKAN IN THE FIRST PART OF XIX CENTURY. L. PETRUSHEVSKY. MOSCOW, REPRINT, 1995.
  72. EGYPT AND SYRIA UNDER THE CIRCASSIAN SULTANS, 1382-1468 A. D.: SYSTEMATIC NOTES TO IBN TAGHRI BIRDI'S CHRONICLES OF EGYPT. WILLIAM POPPER (1874-1963). UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA PUBLICATIONS IN SEMITIC PHILOLOGY, Vols. 15, 16, 24. BERKELEY: UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA PRESS, 1955, 1957, 1963. NEW YORK: AMS PRESS, 1977. {REVIEWED BY J. F. P. HOPKINS IN BULLETIN OF THE SCHOOL OF ORIENTAL AND AFRICAN STUDIES (BSOAS), Vol. 19, 1957, P. 411; AND Vol. 22, 1959, PP. 402-3. ALSO REVIEWED BY SUBHI LABIB IN DER ISLAM, Vol. 35, 1960, PP. 167-69. FINALLY BY ANDREW S. EHRENKREUTZ IN ARS ORIENTALIS, Vol. 4, 1961, PP. 428-430 (AMONGST OTHER POPPER WORKS REVIEWED)}
  73. EGYPT AND THE FERTILE CRESCENT, 1516-1922: A POLITICAL HISTORY. P. M. HOLT. ITHACA, NEW YORK; LONDON, 1966.
  74. EGYPT ON THE THRESHOLD OF THE MODERN ERA (18th AND 19th CENTURIES): A NEW INTERPRETATION. TEL-AVIV, 1996. {in Hebrew}
  75. EIN BESUCH BEI SCHAMYL. BRIEF EINES PREUSSEN. BUNTING. BERLIN, 1855. {ENGLISH VERSION: A VISIT TO SCHAMYL. LONDON, 1857}
  76. EMIGRATION OF MUSLIMS FROM THE RUSSIAN EMPIRE IN THE YEARS AFTER THE CRIMEAN WAR [JAHRBUCHER FUR GESCHICHTE OSTEUROPAS. NEUE FOLGE, Vol. 35, 3, 1987, PP. 356-71], ALAN W. FISHER.
  77. ENGLAND AND RUSSIA IN THE EAST. MAJOR-GENERAL SIR HENRY RAWLINSON. LONDON: JOHN MURRAY, 1875. {THE AUTHOR WAS A BRITISH OFFICIAL AND ORIENTALIST. "MODERATE SUPPORT OF SHAMIL MIGHT STILL, PERHAPS, SAVE THE DANUBIAN PRINCIPALITIES, AND AS LONG AS HIS BANNER FLOATS FROM THE SUMMITS OF THE CAUCASUS, SO LONG IS PERSIA SAFE FROM THE HOSTILE INVASION OF A RUSSIAN ARMY."}
  78. ENGLAND TO EGYPT, 1350-1500: LONG-TERM TRENDS AND LONG-DISTANCE TRADE. ROBERT LOPEZ, HARRY MISKIMIN, AND ABRAHAM UDOVITCH. PP. 93-128 IN STUDIES IN THE ECONOMIC HISTORY OF THE MIDDLE EAST FROM THE RISE OF ISLAM TO THE PRESENT DAY. M. A. COOK (Ed.). LONDON: OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS, 1970.
  79. ERMOLOV - PROCONSUL OF THE CAUCASUS [SLAVIC REVIEW 18, No. 1, JAN. 1959, PP. 53-60], MICHAEL WHITTOCK.
  80. ESSAYS ON EASTERN QUESTIONS. WILLIAM GIFFORD PALGRAVE. LONDON, 1872. {"Of the early history of the Abkhasian race little is known, and little was probably to be known. More than two thousand years since we find them, in Greek records, inhabiting the narrow strip between the mountains and the sea, along the eastern coast of the Euxine, precisely where later records and the maps of our own day place them ... The remnant of the old Abkhasian nation ... have at last, in time of full peace and quiet, been driven from the mountains and coast where Greek, Roman, Persian, and Turkish domination had left them unmolested for more than two thousand years ... and nothing remains but the fast crumbling memorials of a sad history of national folly rewarded by oppression, oppression by violence, violence by desolation." This quote from Palgrave's work was taken from the book The Abkhazians: a handbook. [Brian] George Hewitt (Ed.). Curzon Press, 1999}
  81. EUROPEAN EMPIRES FROM CONQUEST TO COLLAPSE, 1815-1960. VICTOR G. KIERNAN. LONDON, 1982.
  82. FIN DE LA REVOLTE DRUZO-SYRIENNE [ALTERNATIVE, OCTOBER 1996], P. LEFRANC. {ALTERNATIVE EST UN MENSUEL LIBANAIS D'INFORMATION. SEE ALSO ARTICLE LA REVOLTE DRUZE}
  83. FIRE AND SWORD IN THE CAUCASUS: THE 19th CENTURY RESISTANCE OF THE NORTH CAUCASIAN MOUNTAINEERS [CENTRAL ASIAN SURVEY, Vol. 2, No. 1, JULY 1983, pp. 5-44], PAUL B. HENZE. {On the Russo-Circassian Wars of the 19th century}
  84. FOREIGN OFFICE ARCHIVES. LONDON. F. O. 424/61-85, CONFIDENTIAL 3399-3602, 3625-3752.
  85. FORMATION OF THE USSR. E. GENKINA. MOSCOW, 1943.
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  89. GEORGIA IN ANTIQUITY: A HISTORY OF COLCHIS AND TRANSCAUCASIAN IBERIA 550 BC-AD 562. D. BRAUND. OXFORD: OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS, 1994; NEW YORK: OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS, ? 1996.
  90. GEORGIA IN THE XI-XII CENTURIES. MARIAM [DAVYDOVNA] LORDKIPANIDZE. B. GEORGE HEWITT (Ed.). TBILISI, GEORGIAN S.S.R.: GANATLEBA PUBLISHERS, 1987. (184 pages. 21cm. Translated from Russian by David Skvirsky). {8 pages of plates. Colour illustrations}
  91. GEORGIANS AND CIRCASSIANS IN IRAN [STUDIA CAUCASICA, ? 1, 1963, PP. 127-143], P. OBERLING.
  92. GEORGIANS IN 16th CENTURY IRAN [THE MUSLIM WORLD 65, 1975]. {THEIR ENGAGEMENT IN SILK AND WINE PRODUCTION AND THE DEPENDENCE OF THE KING ON THEIR PROWESS. ALSO MENSION IS MADE OF CIRCASSIANS}
  93. GEORGIA UNDER BOLSHEVIK RULE [CAUCASIAN REVIEW, MUNICH (CRM), No. 1, 1955, P. 112 ff.], D. SAGIRASHVILI.
  94. GEORGIEN ODER HISTORISCHES GEMALDE VON GRUSIEN, IN POLITISCHER, KIRCHLICHER UND GELEHRTER HINSICHT, VON FRIED. SCHMIDT. RIGA, 1804.
  95. GESCHICHTE DES ABBASIDEN CHALIFATS IN EGYPTEN. GUSTAVE WEIL. STUTTGART: J. B. METZLER'SCHE BUCHHANDLUNG, 1860. 2 VOLUMES. {ACCOUNT OF THE MAMLUKS}
  96. GHAZAN, ISLAM, AND MONGOL TRADITION: A VIEW FROM THE MAMLUK SULTANATE [BULLETIN OF THE SCHOOL OF ORIENTAL AND AFRICAN STUDIES (BSOAS), UNIVERSITY OF LONDON, ISSN 0041-977X, Vol. 59, No. 1, 1995, P. 1 ff.], REUVEN AMITAI-PREISS.
  97. GIOVAN BATTISTA BOETTI: REALTO O MISTIFICAZIONE? CONTRIBUTO AD UNA QUESTIONE IRRISOLTE 'STUDI PIEMONTESI'. TORINO, FASE, 15 NOWEMBRE 1981. S. 312-28.
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  100. HANDELSGESCHICHTE AGYPTENS IM SPATMITTELALTER (1171-1517). SUBHI LABIB. WEISBADEN: FRANZ STEINER VERLAG, 1965.
  101. HEROES AND EMPERORS IN CIRCASSIAN HISTORY. SHAUKAT MUFTI (HABJOKA) M.D.  BEIRUT: LIBRAIRIE DU LIBAN, 1972. (XI, 351 PAGES).
  102. HISTOIRE DE GEORGIE. ALEXANDRE MANVELICHVILI. PARIS: NOUVELLES EDITIONS DE LA TOISON D'OR, 1951. {VERY INTERESTING. EXTENSIVE DISCUSSION OF ABKHAZIAN HISTORY}
  103. HISTOIRE DE GEORGIE, PARVAKHTANG V, ROI DE GEORGIE, TRADUITE DU GEORGIEN EN ALLEMAN, PAR LES SOINS DE J. KLAPROTH, t. II DE SON VOYAGE, EDITION ALLEMAND. {HISTORY OF GEORGIA WRITTEN IN 1719 BY KING VAKHTANG V}
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  106. HISTOIRE DE LA NATION GEORGIENNE. KALISTRAT SALIA. Ed. NINO SALIA, PARIS, 1980. {THERE IS AN ENGLISH TRANSLATION HISTORY OF THE GEORGIAN NATION BELOW}
  107. HISTOIRE DE LA TAURIDE. SCIESTRZENCEWICZ BOHUSZ. PARIS, 1800. TWO VOLUMES.
  108. HISTOIRE DES GUERRES ET DE LA CONQUETE DU CAUCASE. DOUBROVINE.
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  113. HISTORY OF THE ARABS AND ISLAM. PHILIP HITTI. BEIRUT: AL-KASHAFF PRESS, 1961.
  114. HISTORY OF THE GEORGIAN NATION. KALISTRAT SALIA. PARIS: NINO SALIA, 1983, ACADEMIE FRANCAISE. {THIS IS A TRANSLATION FROM THE ORIGINAL HISTOIRE DE LA NATION GEORGIENNE (ABOVE), BY KATHARINE VIVIAN}
  115. HISTORY OF THE GEORGIAN PEOPLE. W. E. D. ALLEN.
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  119. IMPERIAL RUSSIA'S AFRICAN COLONY [SLAVIC REVIEW 27, JAN. 1968, PP 432-451], P. J. ROLLINS. {PORTRAYS ROLE OF CIRCASSIAN EMIGRES IN CONVINCING THE COSSACKS TO COLONIZE ETHIOPIA. THE ACCOUNT IS COMIC, ESPECIALLY THE FACT THAT IT WAS THE BRITISH WHO SUBSIDISED THE ADVENTURE}
  120. IN DENIKIN'S RUSSIA AND THE CAUCASUS, 1919-1920. C. E. BECHHOFER. LONDON: AYER CO., MAY 1971. First published: 1921. (ISBN: 0405030770)
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  123. KARS AND OUR CAPTIVITY IN RUSSIA. ATWEL LAKE. LONDON, 1856.
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  125. KHAZARIA AND JUDAISM [ARCHIVUM EURASIAE MEDII AEVI, Vol. 3, 1983, PP. 128-56], PETER B. GOLDEN.
  126. KHAZAR STUDIES: AN HISTORICO-PHILOLOGICAL INQUIRY INTO THE ORIGINS OF THE KHAZARS. PETER B. GOLDEN, 1980.
  127. KING ABDULLAH, BRITAIN AND THE MAKING OF JORDAN. MARY C. WILSON. CAMBRIDGE - NEW YORK - MELBOURNE: CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY PRESS, 1987. (289 pages. ISBN 0 521 324211 hardcover). {"In the 1880s the Balqa' underwent a demographic change with the arrival of Circassian immigrants fleeing Russian rule, which had been gradually extended southward through the Caucasus in the nineteenth century. The immigrants, who had appealed to the sultan for asylum, began to arrive in the qada' in 1878. An estimated 500 settled first among the Roman ruins at Amman (uninhabited since Roman times) and then spread to several nearby sites. Granted land and tax concessions by the sultan to facilitate their settlement, these hardy and self-sufficient peasants held their own against the beduin and even introduced large-wheeled carts and a system of dirt roads into the area. The expansion of settlement and cultivation was not, however, exclusive to the Circassians: ... The [Hijaz] railway brought increased employment, trade and security, along with greater contact with the central [Ottoman] government. Circassians at Amman were employed as laborers on the line and in positions of lower management. Goods bought in Damascus for resale in Transjordan were sent south by train and transported in Circassian carts from the station to their point of sale. ... The main non-Arab ethnic group was the Circassians, who constituted less than five percent of the population. Their ethnic difference, however, was mitigated by their religion, Sunni Islam, which they shared with the vast majority of Arabs in Transjordan. ... Circassians lived in exclusively Circassian settlements, except for Amman which had begun to attract a more diverse population. ... Relations between Muslims and Christians and between Circassians and Arabs were generally good. When these groups came into conflict it was, at base, less a matter of religion or ethnicity than a facet of the competition between pastoralists and peasants for control of land. The Amman that Abdullah returned to after his meeting with Churchill was a village of between 2,500 and 5,000 inhabitants. Its population had been enlarged by the recent influx of Arab nationalists following Faysal's ouster from Damascus, but its core was the group of Circassian settlers that had been there since the 1880s. A small minority in the region, they welcomed Abdullah and came under his protection. He set up temporary headquarters in the home of Sa'id al-Mufti, a prominent Circassian." The author received her BA from Oberlin College and her D.Phil. from St Antony's College, Oxford. She has lived and travelled extensively in the Middle East. Now a resident of Boston, she teaches modern Middle Eastern history at New York University}
  128. KURZE BIOGRAPHIE DER FURSTEN MICHAIL SIMEONOWITSCH WORONSZOW. ALEXANDER WALD. ODESSA, 1863. {BIOGRAPHY OF VORONTSOV}
  129. L'ADMINISTRATION D'ALEP SOUS LES MAMLUKS CIRCASSIENS (IXe-XVe SIECLE: LE CAS DES BANU SAFFA) [REVUE DU MONDE MUSULMAN ET DE LA MEDITERRANEE, Vol. 62, 1991, PP. 72-80. VOLUME TITLE: ALEP ET LA SYRIE DU NORD], BERNADETTE MARTEL-THOUMIAN.
  130. LA FIN DES MAMLOUKS [BULLETIN DE L'INSTITUT D'EGYPTE, 25, 1933], PRINCE OMAR TOUSSOUN.
  131. LA FORMATION DE L'EMPIRE RUSSE. NOLDE. {CHAPTER 13, LES APPROCHES IN PART 4 L'EXPANSION VERS LE CAUCASE, IS AN HISTORICAL ACCOUNT OF THE RUSSIAN RELATIONS WITH KABARDA AND THE BEGINNING OF THE RUSSIAN INVASION OF THE CAUCASUS. CHAPTER 15, CONSOLIDATION DES RESULTATS ACQUIS PAR LES PREDECESSEURS DE PIERRE LE GRAND , IS AN ACCOUNT OF THE RUSSIAN ANNEXATION OF KABARDA.  MANY OLD KABARDIAN NAMES ARE QUOTED: BOUGATCHIK, TANACHOUK, SIBOK, ATSYMTCHOUK, TOUTARYK, EZGBOLD, KOUDADIK KAVKLYTCH KANOUKOV, TEMRIOUK, TAZRIOUT TCHIOURAK, BAACHIK, MACHIK, BOULGAIROUK NAMSTRIOUK, CHOPCHOUK, TAZRIOUT, MAIT KANBOULAT, KOUDENET, KHOUDENET, OTCHIKAN, DAMANIOUK, DOMANIOUK, ISBOULDOUG, ANZAROUK, CHIMGALEI, KANGLYTCHEV, BITEMRIOUK, FAMILLE DE TOILOSTAN, CHOLOKH TACHBSAROUKOV, PAPCHOUK, OSLONBEK IANSOKH, KAITOUK, NASTRIOUK, NARTCHOV, PCHIMAKHA, IANSOKH, ADEMIR KAZANALP, BOUDATCHEIS, SOUNTCHELEI, OLEGOUK, KHOTOKIOUKI, ILDAR, TCHAPOLOV, SALTANKOUL, SAOUSLAN, TAZRYT, OKHLOV, MOUDAR, KOUNMOURZA, KANCHOV, SLANBEK INARMAS, KLYTCH, SATALTANMAGNOUT, KAZY. TWO DISTRICTS IN KABARDA ARE MENTIONED: ABESLIN AND DJANK}
  132. LA FRANCE ET LE CAUCASE A L'EPOQUE DE CHAMIL [CAHIERS DU MONDE RUSSE ET SOVIETIQUE, 1978, PP. 5-65]. {VERY IMPORTANT FOR RESEARCH INTO THE RELATIONS BETWEEN FRANCE AND THE CAUCASUS IN THE YEARS OF SHAMIL'S WAR WITH RUSSIA}
  133. LA POLOGNE ET L'ISLAM. NOTES HISTORIQUES. THADEE GASZTOWTT. PARIS: SOCIETE FRANCAISE D'IMPRIMERIE ET DE LIBRAIRIE, 1907.
  134. LA POUSSEE VERS LES MERS CHAUDES ET LA BARRIERE DU CAUCASE. ALEXANDRE BENNIGSEN AND CHANTAL LEMERCIER-QUELQUEJAY. PP. 15-46 in RAIYYET RUSUMU: ESSAYS PRESENTED TO HALIL INALCIK ... JOURNAL OF TURKISH STUDIES, Vol. 10, 1986.
  135. LA PRESSE ET LE MOUVEMENT NATIONAL CHEZ LES MUSULMANS DE RUSSIE AVANT 1920. ALEXANDRE BENNIGSEN ET CHANTAL LEMERCIER-QUELQUEJAY. SOCIETE, MOUVEMENTS SOCIAUX ET IDEOLOGIES. IIe SERIE, DOCUMENTS ET TEMOIGNAGES, 4. BENNIGSEN, ALEXANDRE: MOUVEMENTS NATIONAUX CHEZ LES MUSULMANS DE RUSSIE, 2. PARIS: MOUTON, 1964. (386 pages. 25cm.). {Bibliographie selective pp. 291-300. Collections de Periodiques Musulmans de Russie (hors de l'Union Sovietique). Illustre}
  136. LA REVOLTE DRUZE (SUITE). ANDREW TARNOWSKI. PUBLISHED BY REUTERS ON JULY 23rd, 1996. REPUBLISHED BY ALTERNATIVE IN ITS AUGUST 1996 ISSUE. {THE DRUZE REVOLT OF 1925 AND THE ROLE OF THE CIRCASSIANS THEREIN. SEE ALSO FIN DE LA REVOLTE DRUZO-SYRIENNE ABOVE. ALTERNATIVE IS A MONTHLY BULLETIN ON LEBANON}
  137. LAST OF THE EMPIRES: A HISTORY OF THE SOVIET UNION, 1945-1991. JOHN KEEP. ?. {REVIEWED BY ROY D. LAIRD IN SLAVIC REVIEW, Vol. 55, No. 1, 1996, P. 188}
  138. LA STRUCTURE SOCIALE, POLITIQUE ET RELIGIEUSE DU CAUCASE DU NORD AU XVIe SIECLE [CAHIERS DU MONDE RUSSE ET SOVIETIQUE, XXV (2-3), Avr.-Sept. 1984, pp. 125-48], CHANTAL LEMERCIER-QUELQUEJAY.
  139. LA TCHETCHENIE ET LA GUERRE DU CAUCASE AU XIX^e SIECLE [HERODOTE (ISSN 0038-487X), No. 81, 1996, P. 98 ff.], M. VATCHAGAEV.
  140. L'ATHOS, L'ORIENT ET LE CAUCASE AU XIe SIECLE [PUBLICATIONS OF THE SOCIETY FOR THE PROMOTION OF BYZANTINE STUDIES, No. 4, 1996, P. 239 ff.], B. MARTIN-HISARD.
  141. L'AVENEMENT DES CIRCASSIENS. ?. {" LE MASSACRE DES DISSIDENTS MUSULMAN DU LIBAN PAR LES MAMLOUKS, FAVORISERENT SINGULIEREMENT L'EXPANSION DES MARONITES. ... LES MAMLOUKS BORDJITES D'ORIGINE CIRCASSIENNE, COMPOSES D'ESCLAVES. BARKOUK, LEUR CHEF, FUT NOMME SULTAN D'EGYPTE. ... KANSO-EL-GORI, SULTAN DES MAMLOUKS. ... KANSO FUT TUE A LA BATAILLE DE MERDJ DABIQ. ... LE REGNE DES MAMLOUKS BORDJITE AVAIT DURE 135 ANS (1381-1516/17). ... IBN TAGHRI-BIRDI - LE PLUS-CONNAIS HISTORIEN DE L'EPOQUE."}
  142. LA VIE DE MARIE BROSSET. GASTON BOUACHIDZE. NANTES: EDITIONS DU PETIT VEHICULE, 1996.
  143. LE CAUCASE ENTRE 1760-1864. AZIZ MEKER. PARIS.
  144. LE CAUCASE ET LA REVOLUTION RUSSE, ASPECT POLITIQUE. HAIDAR BAMMATE. PARIS: L'UNION NATIONALE DES EMIGRES DE LA REPUBLIQUE DU CAUCASE DU NORD, 1929. (71 PAGES. 19 cm. ). {THE CAUCASUS AND THE RUSSIAN REVOLUTION. STILL OF RELEVANCE TODAY. BAMMATE USED TO BE SECRETARY OF STATE FOR FOREIGN AFFAIRS DURING THE SHORT-LIVED NORTH CAUCASIAN MOUNTAIN REPUBLIC}
  145. L'ESCLAVAGE DU MAMELOUK. DAVID AYALON. ORIENTAL NOTES AND STUDIES, 1. THE ISRAEL ORIENTAL SOCIETY, JERUSALEM, 1951. {REPRINTED AS ARTICLE No. 1, PP. 22-4 IN THE MAMLUK MILITARY SOCIETY. DAVID AYALON. COLLECTED STUDIES SERIES 104. LONDON, 1979.}
  146. LES HITTITES. L. DELAPORTE. DANS LA COLLECTION L'EVOLUTION DE L'HUMANITE. {HAS A BIBLIOGRAPHY}
  147. LES LIMITES DE LA DESTALINISATION DANS L'ISLAM SOVIETIQUE [L'AFRIQUE ET L'ASIE, No. 39, 1957, PP. 31-40], ALEXANDRE BENNIGSEN.
  148. LES MAMLOUKS CIRCASSIENS. HASSAN MOHAMMAED EL-HAWARY. PP. 191-202 IN MATERIAUX POUR UN CORPUS INSCRIPTIONUM ARABICARUM, QUATRIEME PARTIE: ARABIE: INSCRIPTIONS ET MONUMENTS DE LA MECQUE, HARAM ET KA'BA. NIKITA ELISSEEFF (Ed.). Vol. 1 (FASC. 1). MIFAO; 109. CAIRO: INSTITUT FRANCIAS D'ARCHEOLOGIE ORIENTALE, 1985. {REVIEWED BY G. R. HAWTING IN BULLETIN OF THE SCHOOL OF ORIENTAL AND AFRICAN STUDIES (BSOAS), Vol. 52, 1989, PP. 547-8}
  149. LES MEMOIRES (1837-65). MUSA KUNDUKHOV. PARIS, 1939. (139 pages). {See The Memoirs of General Moussa Pasha Koundoukhoff (1837-65). The Caucasian Quarterly, Paris, April-May-June-July-August-September, 1938, pp. 103-24}
  150. LE SOUFI ET LE COMMISSAIRE - LES CONFRERIES MUSULMANES EN URSS. ALEXANDRE BENNIGSEN AND CHANTAL LEMERCIER-QUELQUEJAY. PARIS: EDITIONS DU SEUIL, TEXT No. 3 OF ANNEXE PART 2. {"This book is an expanded and updated version of the earlier work by Bennigsen and Enders Wimbush MYSTICS AND COMMISSARS. SUFISM IN THE SOVIET UNION. LONDON: C. HURST & CO., 1985; BERKELEY AND LOS ANGELES: UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA PRESS, 1985." It deals with Sufism in the Northeast Caucasus and Central Asia, and includes archival material and letters from Shamil}
  151. LES PEUPLES DU CAUCASE ET LEUR GUERRE D'INDEPENDANCE CONTRE LA RUSSIE. FREDERIC BODENSLADT. PARIS, 1859.
  152. LES RELATIONS ENTRE LES MAMLUKS ET LES BEDOUINS D'EGYPTE [ANNALI DE L'ISTITUTO ORIENTALE DI NAPOLI, Vol. 40 (NUOVA SERIE XXX), 1980, PP. 365-95], ABDEL HAMID SALEH. {THE PROUD ARAB DID NOT TOLERATE THE RULE OF THE CIRCASSIAN AND TURKISH SLAVES!}
  153. LES RESOURCES DES NOTICES DU PATRIARCHE DE JERUSALEM DOSITHEE SUR LES ROIS D'APHKHAZIE (LISTE DES ROIS D'APHKHAZIE JUSQU'A L'UNION DE L'APHKHAZIE ET DE LA GEORGIE EN UN SEUL ROYAUME) [JOURNAL ASIATIQUE (JA), CCX, 1927, pp. 357-68]. {LIST OF THE KINGS OF ABKHAZIA UNTIL ITS UNION WITH GEORGIA. VERY INFORMATIVE. THE ABKHAZ MANAGED TO ESTABLISH A CENTRAL GOVERNMENT AND THE BASES OF CIVIL SOCIETY IN CONTRAST WITH THE ADYGHA WHO NEVER GOT BEYOND FEUDALISM}
  154. LES RUSSES EN CIRCASSIE (1760-1864). AZIZ MEKER. BERNE, FEVRIER 1919. (129 PAGES). {THERE IS A MAP SHOWING THE ROUTES OF CIRCASSIAN EXODUS FROM THEIR LANDS AFTER THE END OF THE RUSSO-CIRCASSIAN WARS. TABLE DES MATIERES: SITUATION INTERNATIONALE DE LA CIRCASSIE - RUSE DIPLOMATIQUES DE LA RUSSIE - SITUATION INTERIEURE - CONSTITUTION SOCIALE - ETAT ECONOMIQUE DU PAYS. METHODES DE GUERRRE RUSSES - DERNIERES BATAILLES - EDIT DE PROSCRIPTION. JUIN 1864. EXODE EN MASSE - CONDUITE DU GOUVERNEMENT RUSSE DURANT L'EXODE - POURSUITE IMPLACABLE DES CIRCASSIENS PAR LA RUSSIE MEME EN DEHORS DE L'EMPIRE RUSSE - CONCLUSION}
  155. LES SABRES DU PARADIS. LESLEY BLANCH. PARIS: LE CERCLE DU NOUVEAU LIVRE, 1963. REPRINTED BY J.-C. LATTES, 1990.  (589 PAGES). {FRENCH TRANSLATION OF THE SABRES OF PARADISE BY JEAN LAMBERT}
  156. LES SECRETAIRES DE LA CHANCELLERIE (KUTTAB-EL-SIRR) EN EGYPTE SOUS LES MAMLOUKS CIRCASSIENS (784-922/1382-1517). GASTON WIET. MELANGES RENE BASSET, Vol.  1. PARIS: EDITIONS ERNEST LEROUX, 1923. PP. 271-314.
  157. LES SLAVES. N. DVORNIK.
  158. LES TCHERKESSES DANS LES TERRITOIRES YOUGOSLAVES [BULLETIN D'ETUDES ORIENTALES (BEO), XXX, 1978 (1980), PP. 159-171], ALEXANDRE POPOVIC. {VERY INTERESTING ARTICLE}
  159. LETTERS FROM THE CAUCASUS AND GEORGIA. W. F. VON FREYGAN. LONDON, 1823.
  160. LIFE OF SCHAMYL AND NARRATIVE OF THE CIRCASSIAN WAR OF INDEPENDENCE AGAINST RUSSIA. JOHN MILTON MACKIE. BOSTON: JOHN P. JEWETT AND COMPANY, 1856. (300 pages).
  161. MAGGIORE SCIAMYL, IL PROFETA DEL CAUCASO, FIRENZE PELIRE LE MONNIER 1855. WARNER.
  162. MAMELOUK MONETARY SYSTEM [ISRAEL ORIENTAL STUDIES, 6], DAVID AYALON.
  163. MAMLUK ECONOMICS: A STUDY AND TRANSLATION OF AL-MAQRIZI'S IGHATHAH. ADEL ALLOUCHE. ?. {Reviewed by P. M. Holt inJOURNAL OF SEMITIC STUDIES (ISSN 0022-4480), Vol. 41, No. 1, 1996, P. 185 ff.}
  164. MAMLUK EGYPT AND TAKRUR (WEST AFRICA) [COLLECTED STUDIES SERIES CS, ISSN 0961-7582, No. 462, 1994, P. 183 ff.].
  165. MAMLUKIYYAT [JERUSALEM STUDIES IN ARABIC AND ISLAM, II, 1980, 321-40], DAVID AYALON. {REPRINTED AS ARTICLE 1 IN OUTSIDERS IN THE LAND OF ISLAM. MAMLUKS, MONGOLS AND EUNUCHS. DAVID AYALON. COLLECTED STUDIES SERIES 269. LONDON, 1988. "EVEN THE MOST STURDY SONS OF THE MAMLUKS WERE USUALLY INFERIOR AS MILITARY STUFF TO THOSE WHO WERE BORN IN THE STEPPE. ... IN THEIR {i.e. THE MAMLUKS'} CASE NO CLASH COULD TAKE PLACE BETWEEN THE REAL FAMILY AND THE SLAVE FAMILY. ... ONLY THE VERY BEST {i.e. MAMLUKS} WERE PICKED - THE TOUGHEST AMONG THOSE TOUGH ONES WHO MANAGED TO SURVIVE."}
  166. MAMLUK MILITARY ARISTOCRACY: A NON-HEREDITARY NOBILITY [COLLECTED STUDIES SERIES CS, ISSN 0961-7582, No. 456, 1994, P. 205 ff.].
  167. MAMLUK MILITARY ARISTOCRACY DURING THE FIRST YEARS OF THE OTTOMAN OCCUPATION OF EGYPT [COLLECTED STUDIES SERIES CS, ISSN 0961-7582, No. 456, 1994, P. 413 ff.].
  168. MAMLUK: MILITARY SLAVERY IN EGYPT AND SYRIA [COLLECTED STUDIES SERIES CS, ISSN 0961-7582, No. 456, 1994, P. 1 ff. {Also published in Islam and the Abode of War. Aldershot: Variorum, 1994. II: 1-21. Abridged version originally published in The Encyclopaedia of Islam (2nd ed.), vol. VI}
  169. MARX ON RUSSIANS AND MUSLIMS [CENTRAL ASIAN SURVEY, Vol. 6, No. 4, 1987, pp. 33-45], PAUL B. HENZE. {On Karl Marx's letters and articles on the "Eastern Question"}
  170. MEMOIRS OF MAJOR-GENERAL MUSA KUNDUKHOV [CAUCASUS, No. 5, MAY 1936]. {See also Musa-pasha Kundukhov. A. Kantemir. Kavkaz, Munich, No. 28, 1936, pp. 13-9}
  171. MEMORIAL RELATING TO THE SLAVE TRADE IN EGYPT. GEORGE BALDWIN. IN POLITICAL RECOLLECTIONS RELATIVE TO EGYPT. GEORGE BALDWIN. LONDON, 1802. {THE AUTHOR LIVED IN EGYPT AT DIFFERENT TIMES FROM THE 1770s TO THE 1790s. HE ATTRIBUTED THE DECLINE OF THE NUMBERS OF THE MAMLUKS TOWARDS THE END OF THE EIGHTEENTH CENTURY, AMONGST OTHER CAUSES, TO THE RUSSIAN ADVANCE INTO THE CAUCASUS. HE NOTES THAT SINCE RUSSIA GAINED CONTROL OF THEIR RECRUITING GROUND, ONLY ABOUT 100 MAMLUKS A YEAR WERE BEING BROUGHT FOR SERVICE IN EGYPT}
  172. MIGRATION AND ITS EFFECTS UPON THE TRANSFORMATION OF THE OTTOMAN STATE IN THE NINETEENTH CENTURY. KEMAL H. KARPAT. PAPER PREPARED FOR THE CONFERENCE ON THE ECONOMIC HISTORY OF THE NEAR EAST, PRINCETON, 16-20 JUNE 1974.
  173. MILITAR UND GESELLSCHAFT IN VORREVOLUTIONARE RUSSLAND. DIETRICH BEYRAU. KOLN, 1984.
  174. MISCELLANIA: NATURAL DISASTERS AND PEASANTRY IN MAMLUK EGYPT [JOURNAL OF THE ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL HISTORY OF THE ORIENT, 1981, PP. 215-24], W. F. TUCKER.
  175. MONEY, PRICES, AND POPULATION IN MAMLUK EGYPT, 1382-1517. BOAZ SHOSHAN. DISSERTATION, PRINCETON UNIVERSITY, 1978. PUBLISHED ON DEMAND: ANN ARBOR, MICHIGAN: UNIVERSITY MICROFILMS INTERNATIONAL, 1984. (XIII, 281 PAGES).
  176. MURIDISM: A STUDY OF THE CAUCASIAN WARS OF INDEPENDENCE, 1819-1859. MOHYIEDDIN IZZAT QUANDOUR. UNPUBLISHED Ph.D. THESIS, CLAREMONT GRADUATE SCHOOL, 1964.
  177. MUSLIM GUERRILLA WARFARE IN THE CAUCASUS (1918-28) [CENTRAL ASIAN SURVEY, Vol. 2, No. 1, 1983, PP. 45-56], ALEXANDRE BENNIGSEN.
  178. MUSLIM RESISTANCE TO THE TSAR: SHAMIL AND THE CONQUEST OF CHECHNIA AND DAGHESTAN. MOSHE GAMMER. LONDON: FRANK CASS, 1994; PORTLAND, OREGON: FRANK CASS & CO., LTD c/o INTERNATIONAL SPECIALIZED BOOK SERVICES, Inc. (PP. XXIII, 452. NOTES, PP. 296-433. ISBN 071463431X). {"MUCH HAS BEEN WRITTEN OVER THE YEARS ABOUT THE MUSLIM 'MURID' MOVEMENT AND ITS LEADER SHAMIL (1798?-1871), WHO RESISTED THE TSARIST RUSSIAN EXPANSION INTO CHECHAN AND DAGHESTAN FOR MORE THAN A QUARTER OF A CENTURY. THIS NEW STUDY, BASED ON PAINSTAKING RESEARCH IN MULTILINGUAL ARCHIVES, OFFERS A FRESH INSIGHT INTO A SUBJECT THAT GENERATES CONSTANT CONTROVERSY IN RUSSIAN HISTORIOGRAPHY AND HAS OFTEN BEEN MISINTERPRETED BY WESTERN SCHOLARS. ... A BORN LEADER WITHOUT BEING AN EXTREMIST, SHAMIL UNITED MANY TRIBES INTO A UNIFIED STATE AND, DESPITE THE IMBALANCE OF POWER, PROVED ADEPT AT OUTMANOEUVRING THE RUSSIANS AND TURNING THEIR MISTAKES TO HIS OWN ADVANTAGE. ... IN THE END, HOWEVER, SHAMIL HAD TO SUBMIT TO THE OVERWHELMING MIGHT OF THE RUSSIAN EMPIRE. YET HIS MOUNTAINEERS WERE NOT RECONCILED TO RUSSIAN RULE, AND REBELLIONS CONTINUED TO BREAK OUT FOR MANY YEARS AFTER SHAMIL'S FINAL SURRENDER IN 1859. HE IS STILL REGARDED AS A HERO BY MUSLIMS IN AND FAR AWAY FROM RUSSIA TODAY." REVIEWED BY A. RHINELANDER IN INTERNATIONAL HISTORY REVIEW (ISSN 0707-5332), Vol. 17, No. 4, 1995, P. 795 ff., BY P. B. GOLDEN IN INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MIDDLE EAST STUDIES (ISSN 0020-7438), Vol. 27, No. 4, S1995, P 520 ff.,  BY E. J. LAZZERINI IN RUSSIAN REVIEW (STANFORD THEN COLUMBUS, ISSN 0036-0341), Vol. 54, No. 4, 1995, P. 630 ff., BY THOMAS M. BARRETT IN SLAVIC REVIEW (ISSN 0037-6779), Vol. 54, No. 3, 1995, P. 725 ff., AND BY C. P. SIDORKO IN JAHRBUCHER FUR GESCHICHTE OSTEUROPAS (ISSN 0021-4019), Vol. 43, No. 2, 1995, P. 278 ff. MOSHE GAMMER IS A LECTURER IN HISTORY AT TEL AVIV AND BAR ILAN UNIVERSITIES. BETWEEN 1977 AND 1983 HE WAS A MEMBER OF THE SHILOAH CENTER FOR MIDDLE EASTERN AND AFRICAN STUDIES AND PUBLISHED A NUMBER OF DIFFERENT STUDIES. HE TOOK HIS Ph.D. AT THE LONDON SCHOOL OF ECONOMICS, UNIVERSITY OF LONDON. HIS RESEARCH FOR THIS BOOK TOOK HIM TO HELSINKI, PARIS AND ISTANBUL, WHERE HE CO-OPERATED WITH LOCAL SCHOLARS. THERE ARE 12 ILLUSTRATIONS AND 22 MAPS. A CHRONOLOGY IS GIVEN ON XVII-XXIII}
  179. MYSTICS AND COMMISSARS: SUFISM IN THE SOVIET UNION. ALEXANDRE BENNIGSEN AND S. ENDERS WIMBUSH. LONDON: C. HURST & CO.,1985; BERKELEY: UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA PRESS, 1985. (VIII, 195 PAGES. 23 cm. ISBN 0520055764). {ILLUSTRATED. EXCERPTS. FOR AN EXPANDED AND UPDATED WORK REFER TO LE SOUFI ET LE COMMISSAIRE - LES CONFRERIES MUSULMANES EN URSS , CIITED ABOVE}
  180. NAMES, TITLES AND 'NISBAS' OF THE MAMLUKS [ISRAEL ORIENTAL STUDIES, 5, 1975,], DAVID AYALON.
  181. id. DAVID AYALON. ARTICLE 4, PP. 189-232 IN THE MAMLUK MILITARY SOCIETY. DAVID AYALON. COLLECTED STUDIES SERIES 104. LONDON, 1979.
  182. NEW INFORMATION ABOUT THE DEPORTATION OF ETHNIC GROUPS IN THE USSR DURING WORLD WAR TWO [REPORT ON THE USSR, 16 APRIL 1991, PP. 16-20], VERA TOLZ.
  183. NEW INFORMATION ABOUT THE DEPORTATION OF ETHNIC GROUPS IN THE USSR DURING WORLD WAR TWO. VERA TOLZ. IN WORLD WAR 2 AND THE SOVIET PEOPLE. J. AND C. GARRARD (Eds.). LONDON: MACMILLAN, 1993.
  184. NINETEENTH-CENTURY CIRCASSIAN SETTLEMENTS IN JORDAN [STUDIES IN THE HISTORY AND ARCHEOLOGY OF JORDAN, 4, 1992, PP. 417-421], SETENEY SHAMI.
  185. NOMADS AND SETTLERS IN SYRIA AND JORDAN, 1800-1980. NORMAN. N. LEWIS. CAMBRIDGE, 1987.
  186. NOTES ON THE HISTORY OF COLLECTIVIZATION IN GEORGIA [CAUCASIAN REVIEW, MUNICH (CRM), No. 6, 1958, PP. 97-106], GRIGORY URATADZE. {"The writer was born in Georgia in 1880. He was a journalist. He authored several monographs and numerous articles on the Revolutionary movement in Georgia and the Soviet nationalities policy. He was an associate of the Institute for the Study of the USSR."}
  187. OMBRES DU PASSE. SOUVENIRS D'UN OFFICIER DU CAUCASE PAR GEORGES WLASTOFF (GEORGII VLASTOV), ANCIEN COMMANDANT D'UN BATAILLON AU CAUCASE. PARIS: ARTHUS BERTRAND, EDITEUR, 1899. (252 PAGES). {"LA TRIBU LA PLUS NOMBREUSE, LA PLUS CONSIDEREE, ET QUI EST DEPUIS LONGTEMPS FIDELE A LA RUSSIE, EST LA TRIBU DES KABARDIENS, DONT LA TRADITION NOUS APPREND QUELQUES FAITS CURIEUX, INCONNUS A L'HISTOIRE: UN KABARDIEN REMARQUABLE PAR SON ESPRIT, ELEVE EN RUSSIE, ET AYANT FAIT SES ETUDES DANS UN DE NOS COLLEGES, EMPLOYA DIX ANS A RASSEMBLER LES TRADITIONS DES KABARDIENS, LES COMPARA AVEC LES FAITS HISTORIQUES ET EN TIRA DES CONCLUSIONS INCONNUES JUSQUE-LA. CE KABARDIEN SE NOMMAIT SHORA BECK MOURSIN. PAR UN MALHEUR SANS EGAL, UNE MORT SUBITE L'ENLEVA, ET TOUS SES MANUSCRITS DISPARURENT, SANS QU'ON AIT PU LES RETROUVER. NOUS NE POUVONS DONNER ICI QUE QUELQUES RECITS RECUEILLIS PAR M. GOLOWINSKI, QUI AVAIT CONNU SHORA BECK MOURSIN. ... LA SOURCE CELEBRE DE KISSLOVODSK, QUI CONTIENT DE L'ACIDE CARBONIQUE ET EST EMPLOYEE COMME UN TOXIQUE VIOLENT, ETAIT DE TOUS TEMPS CONNU SOUS LE NOM DE NARSANT. LA TRADITION DES KABARDIENS RACONTE QUE CHAQUE PRINTEMPS LEURS ANCETRES SE RASSEMBLAIENT PRES DE CETTE SOURCE POUR CELEBRER UNE FETE NATIONALE, OU ON GLORIFIAIT LES HAUTS FAITS DES PREUX. MAIS LE NOM NARSANT EST UN MOT CORROMPU, SA VERITABLE PRONONCIATION EST: NART-SANA-ANT; SANA VEUT DIRE SOURCE, EAU, ET TOUT LE MOT SE TRADUIT LITTERALEMENT PAR: SOURCE DES CHEVALIERS DES ANTES. BOULGARINE PRETEND QUE LES ANTES DEMEURAIENT AU CAUCASE DU TEMPS DES GOTHS, QUI SE DIRIGERENT AVEC LEUR CHEF ODIN, VERS LE NORD DE L'EUROPE, ET QUE PLUSIEURS NARTES OU CHEVALIERS ANTES FURENT RECUS PARMI LA HAUTE ARISTOCRATIE DES GOTHS, CONNUE SOUS LE NOM D'ASSES. ... LES KABARDIENS AVAIENT GARDE LE SOUVENIR D'ATTILA, ET SHORA BECK MOURSIN CROIT QUE LES ANTES DU BERGOUSSAN FURENT BATTUS PAR ATTILA. LA TRADITION KABARDIENNE RACONTE QU'ATTILA, OUI-VIJE (FOUET OU LANIERE DE DIEU) [c. f.  FLAGELLUM DEI] , ATTAQUA DEUX FOIS LES KABARDIENS. A LA PREMIERE ATTAQUE, IL LES DEFIT COMPLETEMENT ET LEUR FIT BEAUCOUP DE PRISONNIERS. LE RESTE DES ATTIHE (KABARDIENS) SE RETIRA DANS LES GORGES IMPENETRABLES DE L'ELBROUSS, OU ILS ELEVERENT DES FORTIFICATIONS POUR RESISTER A CE FOUET DE DIEU. ATTILA RESOLUT NEANMOINS DE S'EMPARER DE CES GORGES, ET DE FORCER LA RETRAITE DES ANTES; MAIS REPOUSSE AVEC PERTE, IL DUT SE RETIRER, ET PERDIT BEAUCOUP DE MONDE PENDANT SA RETRAITE, CAR LES NARTES OU PREUX, CONNAISSANT PARFAITEMENT LE TERRAIN, HARCELAIENT ET DETRUISAIENT LES HUNS QUI FUYAIENT A TRAVERS CE PAYS BOISE ET MONTAGNEUX. DEPUIS CE TEMPS JUSQU'A NOS JOURS, CES MONTAGNES SONT NOMMES OSHHAMAHA, C'EST-A-DIRE MONTAGNES HEUREUSES. ATTILA REPOUSSE, EMMENA AVEC LUI SES ATTIHE PRISONNIERS; QUANT A CEUX QUI SE SAUVERENT PRES DE L'ELBROUSS, ILS GARDERENT LEUR NOM DE RACE, QUOIQU'ILS SE MELERENT A D'AUTRES TRIBUS VOISINES. ... AMEDEE THIERRY RACONTE QUE DEUX FORTES TRIBUS DES HUNS, LES KOUTRIGOURES ET LES OUITIGOURES ... FIRENT ALLIANCE PENDANT LEUR MARCHE VERS LE DANUBE POUR ENGAGER LES BULGARES AVEC UNE NOMBREUSE ET PAUVRE TRIBU DES ANTES RENOMMEE POUR SA FEROCITE. CES ANTES ETAIENT LES ANCETRES DES RUSSES, ET SI LES KABARDIENS SONT DE LA MEME SOUCHE, IL EST PROBABLE QUE LEUR LANGUE (DU RESTE PEU CONNUE) DOIT GARDER DES MOTS DONT LA RACINE POURRA ETRE RETROUVEE DANS LES IDIOMES SLAVES. ... EN 562 LES AVARES RENCONTRERENT SUR LE DNIEPER LES ANTES, TUERENT, EN DEPIT DU DROIT DES GENS, L'ENVOYE DES ANTES MESEMIRE, ET BATTIRENT LES ANTES. BIENTOT APRES L'EMPEREUR JUSTINIEN ETANT MORT, LE KHAN-KHAN DES AVARES, BAIAN, FIT TREMBLER SES VOISINS, ET BYZANCE MEME, QU'UN EMPEREUR COMME JUSTIN II NE SUT FAIRE RESPECTER. ... IL EST CURIEUX QUE LA TRADITION KABARDIENNE NOUS DEPEIGNE BAIAN SOUS LES MEMES TRAITS QUE L'HISTOIRE: FEROCE, CRUEL, MANQUANT A SA PAROLE ET A LA FOI JUREE. LA TRADITION ADIGUE NOUS RACONTE QUE LE FEROCE BAIKAN OU BAIAN DEFIT PLUSIEURS FOIS LES ATTIHE CAUCASIENS, MAIS NE PUT PARVENIR A LES SOUMETTRE. ALORS BAIAN EUT RECOURS A LA RUSE; IL ATTIRA CHEZ LUI LES NARTES LES PLUS ANCIENS ET LES PLUS CELEBRES, SOUS PRETEXTE DE DEBATTRE AVEC EUX LES CONDITIONS DE LA PAIX, QU'IL OFFRAIT AUX ANTES, ET LES FIT TOUS MASSACRER PENDANT LES POURPARLERS. LE PEUPLE ATTIHE, TERRIFIE PAR CE MANQUE DE FOI, DEMANDA VENGEANCE A GRANDS CRIS. VOICI UNE PRIERE QUE LA MEMOIRE DU PEUPLE CONSERVE JUSQU'A NOS JOURS: SAINT ELIE, TUE DE TES FOUDRES, LE KHAN AVARE BAIHAN, SUR SON CHEVAL BLANC. CETTE PRIERE PROUVE QUE LES ANTES CAUCASIENS ETAIENT CHRETIENS: ILS DURENT EMBRASSER LE CHRISTIANISME PAR SUITE DE L'INFLUENCE DES ALAINS LEURS VOISINS, QUI FURENT CHRETIENS DEPUIS LE IVe SIECLE. ... EN 1020, MSTISLAFF LE BRAVE (OUDALY), FILS DU GRAND-DUC WLADIMIR, S'ETANT EMPARE DE TMOUTARAKAN (LA TAMAN D'AUJOURD'HUI), GUERROYA CONTRE LES KOSSOGUES (CIRCASSIENS), ET AYANT TUE LEUR CHEF REDEDIA EN COMBAT PARTICULIER, LES DEFIT COMPLETEMENT. CE FAIT, CONSIGNE DANS L'HISTOIRE, SE CONSERVE JUSQU'A NOS JOURS DANS LES TRADITIONS KABARDIENNES. LA LEGENDE DIT QUE LE PUISSANT NARTE DES ATTIHE (KABARDIENS) REDAD, AYANT FORCE MSTISLAFF A SE REFUGIER DANS UN MARAIS, CE DERNIER VENDIT SON AME AU DEMON AU PRIX D'UNE VICTOIRE. LE DEMON LUI CONSEILLA D'APPELER REDAD EN COMBAT PARTICULIER: REDAD N'AYANT JAMAIS ETE VAINCU, ACCEPTA LE DEFI, ET FUT TERRASSE PAR MSTISLAFF QUE LE DEMON AIDAIT. ALORS MSTISLAFF, APRES AVOIR VAINCU LES KOSSOGUES, BATTIT LES OSSES OU ASSES ET FONDA LA PRINCIPAUTE DE TMOUTARAKAN, QUI EXISTE COMME ETAT INDEPENDANT DANS LA FAMILLE DE MSTISLAFF JUSQU'A L'INVASION DES MONGOLS. CE FURENT LES KOSSOGUES OU ATTIHE QUI DETRUISIRENT CETTE PRINCIPAUTE, VENGEANT AINSI LEUR PUISSANT NARTE REDAD. ... MAIS LA PUISSANCE DES ATTIHE TOUCHAIT A SA FIN, BIENTOT MEME CE NOM NATIONAL FUT CHANGE, ET NE SURVECUT QUE COMME CELUI D'UNE RACE HUMAINE ET D'UNE IDIOME PARTICULIER. AU COMMENCEMENT DU XIIIe SIECLE LES TARTARES S'ETABLIRENT EN CRIMEE; ILS FURENT LES ENNEMIS REDOUTABLES DES KOSSOGUES. CES DERNIERS, BATTUS PLUSIEURS FOIS PAR LEUR VOISINS, DURENT SE RETIRER DANS LES DEFILES IMPENETRABLES DU VERSANT SEPTENTRIONAL DE LA CHAINE CAUCASIENNE, LEUR REFUGE ORDINAIRE EN CAS DE MALHEUR. LES KOSSOGUES OU ATTIHE S'ETANT EMPARES DES DEFILES OU ILS SE DEFENDAIENT AVEC SUCCES, ET FIERS DE LEURS POSITIONS INEXPUGNABLES, PRIRENT, DIT SHORA BECK MOURSIN, LE SURNOM DE KOBBERDIENS (D'OU L'ON A FAIT KABARDIENS), CE QUI SIGNIFIE HABITANTS DES DEFILES. CE SURNOM DEVINT UN NOM DE PEUPLE. ... APRES TIMOUR LES KABARDIENS, PROFITANT DE LA DEFAITE DE TOHTAMISH, ETENDENT LEUR POUVOIR JUSQU'A LA MER CASPIENNE, S'ALLIENT AUX SHAMHALS, REMPORTENT DE GRANDES VICTOIRES SUR LES TARTARES DE LA CRIMEE, ET ENFIN SONT A LEUR TOUR COMRIMES PAR LA PUISSANCE ENVAHISSANTE DE LA TURQUIE. EN 1554, APRES LA PRISE D'ASTRAKAN PAR JEAN IV, LES KABARDIENS, COMME CORELIGIONNAIRES DES RUSSES, DEMANDENT A JEAN DES SECOURS CONTRE LES TURCS, ET CELUI-CI ENVOYA L'OKOLNITSHY DANIEL ADASHEFF, POUR FAIRE EN CRIMEE UNE DESCENTE, QUE FAVORISERAIENT LES KABARDIENS EN ATTIRANT AILLEURS LES TROUPES TARTARES. EN 1560, JEAN IV SE MARIA A UNE KABARDIENNE, MARIE, FILLE D'UNE PRINCE TEMRUK. DEPUIS JEAN JUSQU'A PIERRE LE GRAND, LES KABARDIENS N'EURENT AUCUN RAPPORT AVEC LA RUSSIE, MAIS SOUS CATHERINE II, APRES LA CHUTE DU POUVOIR DES TARTARES DE LA CRIMEE, TOUT LE NORD-OUEST DU CAUCASE, LA KABARDIE COMPRISE, FUT ANNEXE A LA RUSSIE."}
  188. OPERATION REWRITE: THE AGONY OF SOVIET HISTORIANS [FOREIGN AFFAIRS, Vol. XXXI, No. 1, OCTOBER 1951, PP. 39-57], BERTRAM D. WOLFE.
  189. ORIGINES DES CIRCASSIENS. AYTEK NAMITOK.  PARIS: P. GEUTHNER, 1939. / SOAS. {PROFESSOR NAMITOK (1892-1963) WAS BORN IN THE NORTH CAUCASUS. HE PUBLISHED MANY BOOKS AND ARTICLES ON CIRCASSIAN LANGUAGE AND HISTORY. THIS BOOK HAS MANY REFERENCES}
  190. OTTOMAN COLONIZATION OF THE CIRCASSIANS IN RUMILI AFTER THE CRIMEAN WAR [ETUDES BALKANIQUES (SOFIA), Vol. 8, 8e ANNEE, No. 3, 1972, PP. 71-85}, MARC PINSON.
  191. OTTOMAN IMMIGRATION POLITICS AND SETTLEMENT IN PALESTINE. KAMAL H. KARPAT. IN SETTLER REGIMES IN AFRICA AND THE ARAB WORLD. I. ABU-LUGHOD, B. ABU-LABAN (Eds.). THE MEDINA UNIVERSITY PRESS INTERNATIONAL, 1974.
  192. OTTOMAN IMPERIALISM DURING THE REFORMATION: EUROPE AND THE CAUCASUS. CARL MAX KORTEPETER. NEW YORK UNIVERSITY STUDIES IN NEAR EASTERN CIVILIZATION / NEW YORK UNIVERSITY; 5. NEW YORK: NEW YORK UNIVERSITY PRESS, 1972. (XIX, 278 PAGES. ISBN 0-8147-4552-0)
  193. OU VIVAIENT LES SULTANS MAMELOUKS? [AUJOURD'HUI L'EGYPTE 9, AUTOMNE 1989, PP. 34-9], NASSER RABBAT.
  194. PAPERS RESPECTING THE SETTLEMENT OF CIRCASSIAN EMIGRANTS IN TURKEY. GREAT BRITAIN. SESSIONAL PAPERS 1864, Vol. 63, P. 579, 1864.
  195. PEOPLES AND SETTLEMENT IN ANATOLIA AND THE CAUCASUS, 800-1900. ANTHONY BRYER. VARIORUM COLLECTED STUDIES SERIES CS274. LONDON: VARIORUM REPRINTS, ASHGATE PUBLISHERS CO., 1988. (1 V., 23 cm. ISBN 0860782220). {INCLUDES BIBLIOGRAPHICAL REFERENCES}
  196. PIONEERS OVER JORDAN. R. ABUJABER. LONDON: I. B. TAURIS, 1989.
  197. POLAND AND CIRCASSIA. COUNT L. ZAMOYSKI, 1763.
  198. POPULATION MOVEMENT IN THE OTTOMAN STATE AND MODERNIZATION: THE BULGARIAN AND CIRCASSIAN MIGRATIONS 1857-1880. KEMAL H. KARPAT. PAPER PRESENTED TO THE 5th NATIONAL CONVENTION OF THE AMERICAN ASSOCIATION FOR THE ADVANCEMENT OF SLAVIC STUDIES, DALLAS, 15-18 MARCH, 1972.
  199. PRINCE BARIATINSKII - CONQUEROR OF THE EASTERN CAUCASUS [CENTRAL ASIAN SURVEY 13, 1994, PP. 237-47], MOSHE GAMMER.
  200. PRINCESSES RUSSES, PRISONNIERES AU CAUCASE. LES OTAGES DE L'IMAM: RECIT D'UN TEMOIN, IL Y A UN SIECLE DE CELA SUR LES CONFINS DE L'IRAN. PRESENTATION PAR RENE KHAWAM. ANNA DRANCEY. PARIS: ALBIN MICHEL, 1980
  201. PROBING PARITY BETWEEN HISTORY AND ORAL TRADITION: PUTTING SHORA NOGMOV'S HISTORY OF THE ADYGEI PEOPLE IN ITS PLACE [CENTRAL ASIAN SURVEY, Vol. 17, No. 2, JUNE 1998, pp. 319-36], BRIAN J. BOECK.
  202. PROGRESS AND PRESENT POSITION OF RUSSIA IN THE EAST. DAVID URQUHART. LONDON, 1838. {The author was a staunch supporter of the cause of the North Caucasians}
  203. PROMETHEUS AND THE BOLSHEVIKS. JOHN LEHMANN. NEW YORK: ALFRED A. KNOPF. (256 PAGES).
  204. PROTECTORS OR PRAETORIANS?: THE LAST MAMLUK SULTANS AND EGYPT'S WANING AS A GREAT POWER. CARL F. PETRY. A VOLUME IN THE SUNY SERIES IN MEDIEVAL MIDDLE EAST STUDIES, SERIES EDITOR: JERE L. BACHARACH. ALBANY, NEW YORK: STATE UNIVERSITY OF NEW YORK PRESS, NOVEMBER 1994. {280 PAGES. PAPERBACK: ISBN 0 7914 2140 6. PRICE: $19.95. HARDBACK: ISBN 0 7914 2139 2. PRICE: $59.50). {"THIS ANALYSIS OF STATE POLICY UNDER THE LAST TWO MAMLUK RULERS ENABLES MODERN READERS TO OBSERVE A PIVOTAL ERA IN THE HISTORY OF EGYPT AND SOUTHWEST ASIA. BESET WITH EXTERNAL THREATS AND INTERNAL DISSENT, THE MAMLUK SULTANATE CONFRONTED PROFOUND CHALLENGES IN ITS WANING YEARS. ... THE AUTHOR DEPICTS HOW EACH MONARCH DIFFERED IN HIS RESPONSES TO THE BUREAUCRATIC AND MILITARY DILEMMAS HE FACED. AL-ASHRAF QAYTBAY REMAINED A STALWART CONSERVATOR OF TRADITIONAL SOLDIERLY VALUES. HE WOULD BE REVERED BY LATER GENERATIONS AS AN EXEMPLARY OFFICER AND PIOUS BELIEVER. QANSUH AL-GHAWRI, HOWEVER, EXHIBITED LITTLE REGARD FOR HALLOWED TRADITIONS, MILITARY OR RELIGIOUS. BURDENED BY IRREMEDIAL BANKRUPTCY AND ENDEMIC SEDITION, HE INITIATED THE FIRST STEPS TOWARD INNOVATION  SINCE THE ARCHITECTS OF THE MAMLUK SYSTEM FOUNDED THE REGIME DURING THE THIRTEENTH CENTURY. ... THE CONTRASTING STYLES OF THESE TWO SULTANS IS EXAMINED IN THE CONTEXT OF THE FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC EVENTS THAT SHAPED THEIR REIGNS. THE STRATEGIES THAT THEY DEVISED TO DEAL WITH ENDEMIC CRISES DECISIVELY INFLUENCED THE NATURE OF BUREAUCRATIC PROCEDURES IN EGYPT, INFLUENCE THAT IS STILL EVIDENT IN ITS GOVERNMENT TODAY." REVIEWED BY W. F. COOK IN MIDDLE EAST JOURNAL (ISSN 0026-3141), Vol. 49, No. 4, 1995, P. 691 ff.; BY DONALD P. LITTLE IN INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MIDDLE EAST STUDIES (ISSN 0020-7438), Vol. 28, No. 2, 1996, P. 268 ff.; BY U. HAARMANN IN BRITISH JOURNAL OF MIDDLE EAST STUDIES (ISSN 1353-0194), Vol. 24, No. 2, 1997, P. 269 ff.; AND J. P. BERKEY IN MIDDLE EAST STUDIES ASSOCIATION BULLETIN, Vol. 31, No. 1, 1997, P. 86 ff. THE AUTHOR IS PROFESSOR OF HISTORY AT NORTHWESTERN UNIVERSITY}
  205. PUNISHED PEOPLES: THE MASS DEPORTATIONS OF THE 1940s. UNHCR (UNITED NATIONS HIGH COMMISSIONER FOR REFUGEES) PUBLICATION FOR "REGIONAL CONFERENCE TO ADDRESS THE PROBLEMS OF REFUGEES, DISPLACED PERSONS, OTHER FORMS OF INVOLUNTARY DISPLACEMENT AND RETURNEES IN THE COUNTRIES OF THE COMMONWEALTH OF INDEPENDENT STATES AND RELEVANT NEIBHORING STATES", HELD IN GENEVA ON 30-31 MAY 1996.
  206. RECHERCHES SUR LE COMMERCE GENOIS DANS LA MER NOIRE AU XIII SIECLE. GHEORGHE IOAN BRATIANU. PARIS, 1929. / WARDROP COLLECTION. {MOST INTERESTING DEPICTION OF THE RELATION BETWEEN THE GENOESE AND CIRCASSIANS}
  207. RECOLLECTIONS OF A COLLECTIVE FARM WORKER [THE CAUCASUS, MUNICH, No. 10, 1952, PP. 9-13], S. MEDOITI.
  208. REFORM IN THE RUSSIAN ARMY, 1856-1861 [SLAVIC REVIEW 43, 1984, PP 63-82], E. WILLIS BROOKS. {DISCUSSES EFFECT OF CRIMEAN WAR ON RUSSIAN ARMY REFORM POLICY AND SUBSEQUENT ADVANCE INTO THE CAUCASUS}
  209. REINTERPRETING RUSSIAN HISTORY: READINGS, 860-1860s. DANIEL H. KAISER AND GARY MARKER (COMPILERS). ?. {REVIEWED BY JAMES CRACRAFT IN SLAVIC REVIEW, Vol. 54, No. 2, SUMMER 1995, P. 470}
  210. REINVENTION OF THE CAUCASUS, RUSSIAN 19th CENTURY LITERATURE. HARSHA RAM. PAPER PRESENTED AT THE CAUCASUS CONFERENCE 1996: THE PAST AS PRELUDE: CULTURAL, HISTORICAL, AND POLITICAL ROOTS OF IDENTITY IN THE CAUCASUS HELD AT THE UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA AT BERKELEY ON MAY 17th, 1996. {THE AUTHOR IS AT THE UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA AT BERKELEY}
  211. Review of O dvizhenii gortsev pod rukovodstvom Shamilya (The Mountain People's Movement under Shamil's Leadership) by A. D. Daniyalov [CAUCASIAN REVIEW, MUNICH (CRM), No. 3, 1956, P. 108 ff.], B. BAYTUGAN.
  212. REVOLUTION AND CIVIL WAR IN THE NORTH CAUCASUS: END OF THE 19th - BEGINNING OF THE 20th CENTURY [CENTRAL ASIAN SURVEY (SPECIAL ISSUE ON THE NORTH CAUCASUS), Vol. 10, No. 1/2, 1991, PP. 119-32], VASSAN-GIRAY CABAGI. {CABAGI WAS MINISTER OF FINANCE OF THE NORTH CAUCASIAN MOUNTAIN REPUBLIC. SOME REFERENCES GIVE JABAGI. ALSO WRITTEN DJABAGUI}
  213. REVOLUTION AND SOVIETIZATION IN THE NORTHERN CAUCASUS, Part 1 [CAUCASIAN REVIEW, MUNICH (CRM), No. 1, 1955, P. 47 ff.], P. KOSOK (KOTSEV).
  214. REVOLUTION AND SOVIETIZATION IN THE NORTHERN CAUCASUS, Part 2 [CAUCASIAN REVIEW, MUNICH (CRM), No. 3, 1956, PP. 45-53], P. KOSOK (KOTSEV).
  215. REWRITING CAUCASIAN HISTORY: THE MEDIEVAL ARMENIAN ADAPTATION OF THE GEORGIAN CHRONICLES (KARTLIS TSKHOVREBA): THE ORIGINAL GEORGIAN TEXTS AND THE ARMENIAN ADAPTATION. ROBERT W. THOMSON. OXFORD: CLARENDON PRESS; NEW YORK: OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS, 1996. ISBN 0-19-826373-2. {REVIEWED BY STEPHEN H. RAPP, Jr., ON THE NET, AUGUST 8th, 1996}
  216. REWRITING RUSSIAN HISTORY. C. E. BLACK (Ed.). NEW YORK: PRAEGER, 1956, 1962. {Includes The 'Lesser Evil' Formula by K. F. Shteppa on pp. 107-20}
  217. RUSSIA, A HISTORY & AN INTERPRETATION. MICHAEL FLORINSKI. NEW YORK. TWO VOLUMES.
  218. RUSSIA AND ENGLAND. J. R. MORELL.
  219. RUSSIA AND THE CAUCASUS THROUGH THE BEGINNING OF THE 19th CENTURY. MICHAEL KHODARKOVSKY. PAPER PRESENTED AT THE CAUCASUS CONFERENCE 1996: THE PAST AS PRELUDE: CULTURAL, HISTORICAL, AND POLITICAL ROOTS OF IDENTITY IN THE CAUCASUS HELD AT THE UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA AT BERKELEY ON MAY 17th, 1996. {THE AUTHOR IS AT LOYOLA UNIVERSITY}
  220. RUSSIA - A SOCIAL HISTORY. D. S. MIRSKY. {"... NOT THE LEAST CURIOUS FEATURE OF THE RUSSIAN CONQUEST OF THE CAUCASUS WAS THAT IT LED TO THE ADOPTION OF A NUMBER OF CAUCASIAN, MAINLY QABARDI, CULTURAL TRAITS - DRESS, ARMS AND DANCES - BY THE RUSSIAN COSSACKS AND GEORGIANS."}
  221. RUSSIA IN THE AGE OF REACTION AND REFORM, 1801-1881. DAVID SAUNDERS (1951 - ).
  222. RUSSIAN COLONIAL EXPANSION TO 1917. MICHAEL RYWKIN (Ed.). INSTITUTE OF MUSLIM MINORITY AFFAIRS MONOGRAPH SERIES No. 1. LONDON - NEW YORK: MANSELL, 1988. (XVI, 274 PAGES. 23 cm. ISBN 0720118670). {SELECTED CONTENTS: AN OVERVIEW OF THE GROWTH OF THE RUSSIAN EMPIRE, BY REIN TAAGEPERA; RUSSIAN CENTRAL COLONIAL ADMINISTRATION, BY MICHAEL RYWKIN; MUSCOVY'S CONQUEST OF MUSLIM KAZAN AND ASTRAKHAN, 1552-1556, BY HENRY R. HUTTENBACH; RUSSIAN EXPANSION IN THE CAUCASUS TO 1813, BY MURIEL ATKIN. ILLUSTRATED. WITH MAPS. INCLUDES BIBLIOGRAPHIES}
  223. RUSSIAN EXPANSION INTO THE CAUCASUS AND THE BRITISH RELATIONSHIP THERETO. NORMAN LUXEMBURG. UNPUBLISHED Ph.D. THESIS, UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN, 1956.
  224. RUSSIAN EXPULSION OF MOUNTAINEERS FROM THE CAUCASUS, 1856-66, AND ITS HISTORICAL BACKGROUND - DEMOGRAPHIC WARFARE - AN ASPECT OF OTTOMAN AND RUSSIAN POLICIES, 1854-66. MARC PINSON. UNPUBLISHED Ph.D. THESIS, HARVARD UNIVERSITY, 1970.
  225. RUSSIAN IMPERIAL ADMINISTRATION AND THE GEORGIAN NOBILITY: THE GEORGIAN CONSPIRACY OF 1832 [SLAVONIC AND EAST EUROPEAN REVIEW, Vol. LXV, No. 1, JANUARY 1987, PP. 53-76], STEPHEN F. JONES.
  226. RUSSIAN IMPERIALISM. HUNCZAC.
  227. RUSSIAN IMPERIALISM IN THE PAST AND PRESENT. IN RUSSIA IN WORLD POLITICS. ANN ARBOR, 1970.
  228. RUSSIAN MOSLEMS BEFORE AND AFTER THE REVOLUTION AND SOVIET IMPERIALISM. R[ICHARD] E. PIPES. INDIANA: UNIVERSITY OF NOTRE DAME, 1953.
  229. RUSSIAN PENETRATION OF THE CAUCASUS. FIRUZ KAZEMZADEH.IN RUSSIAN IMPERIALISM: FROM IVAN THE GREAT TO THE REVOLUTION. TARAS HUNCZAK (Ed.). NEW BRUNSWICK, NEW JERSEY: RUTGERS UNIVERSITY PRESS, 1974.
  230. RUSSIAN RULE IN THE CAUCASUS [WORLD'S WORK, LONDON, 8, Vol. 23, 1914, PP. 175-186], HAROLD BUXTON.
  231. RUSSIAN REVOLUTION AND CIVIL WAR IN THE CAUCASUS [SLAVIC REVIEW 27, OCT. 1968, PP. 452-460], ROBERT H. McDOWELL. {INTERESTING}
  232. RUSSIAN SETTLEMENTS IN TRANSCAUCASUS FROM 1830s TO 1880s [SOVIET SOCIOLOGY, Vol. XVI, No. 2, AUTUMN 1977, PP. 51-77].
  233. RUSSIAN STRATEGIES IN THE CONQUEST OF CHECHNIA AND DAGHESTAN, 1825-59. MOSHE GAMMER. PP. 45-61 IN THE NORTH CAUCASUS BARRIER. MARIE BENNIGSEN-BROXUP (Ed.). LONDON: HURST & CO., 1992.
  234. RUSSIA: PEOPLE AND EMPIRE, 1552-1917. GEOFFREY HOSKING. ?. {REVIEWED BY W. BRUCE LINCOLN IN SLAVIC REVIEW, Vol. 57, No. 1, SPRING 1998}
  235. RUSSIA'S CONQUEST AND PACIFICATION OF THE CAUCASUS: RELOCATION BECOMES A POGROM IN THE POST-CRIMEAN WAR PERIOD [NATIONALITIES PAPERS (ISSN 0090-5992), Vol. 23, No. 4, 1995, PP. 675-86], WILLIS BROOKS.
  236. RUSSIA THROUGH THE CENTURIES. ? . / UNI. MAN. { A MAP SHOWING CIRCASSIAN DOMINATION IN 17th CENTURY A.D. IS INCLUDED}
  237. RUSSIA UNDER THE OLD REGIME. R[ICHARD] [E.] PIPES. HARMONDSWORTH: PENGUIN, 1977. {A "PATRIMONIAL SYSTEM OF GOVERNMENT" IN WHICH SOVEREIGNTY IS CONFUSED WITH OWNERSHIP, HAS BEEN A DISTINCTIVE FEATURE OF RUSSIA SINCE THE FIFTEENTH CENTURY. THIS EXPLAINS THE TENACITY WITH WHICH RUSSIAN GOVERNMENTS, WHATEVER THEIR PROFESSED IDEOLOGY, HAVE HELD ON TO EVERY SQUARE INCH OF LAND THAT HAS EVER BELONGED TO ANY OF THEM}
  238. SCHAMYL AND CIRCASSIA. FRIEDRICH WAGNER. TRANSLATED AND EDITED BY KENNETH R. H. MACKENZIE. LONDON: G. ROUTLEDGE AND CO., 1854.
  239. SERGEI KIROV AND THE STRUGGLE FOR SOVIET POWER IN THE TEREK REGION, 1917-1918. RICHARD DOUGLAS KING (1950-). MODERN EUROPEAN HISTORY SERIES. NEW YORK: GARLAND, 1987. (V, 415 PAGES. 24 cm. ISBN 0824080564). {Detailed treatment of the establishment of Bolshevik rule in the North Caucasus. Map. Bibliography on pp. 401-15. Revision of Ph.D. thesis, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1983}
  240. SHAMIL AND MURIDISM IN RECENT SOVIET HISTORIOGRAPHY [AMERICAN SLAVIC AND EAST EUROPEAN REVIEW 20, 1961, PP 253-69], LOWELL R. TILLET. {ON THE CONFLICT OVER INTERPRETATION OF THE MOVEMENT. SEE ALSO THE GREAT FRIENDSHIP BELOW}
  241. SHAMIL AND THE MURID MOVEMENT, 1830-1859: AN ATTEMPT AT A COMPREHENSIVE BIBLIOGRAPHY [CENTRAL ASIAN SURVEY (SPECIAL NORTH CAUCASUS ISSUE), Vol. 10, No. 1/2, 1991, PP. 189-247], MOSHE GAMMER.
  242. SHAMIL HA-HISTORYOGRAFIYA HA-SOVYETIT. MOSHE GAMMER. BA THESIS, TEL-AVIV UNIVERSITY, 1976. {NEXT ARTICLE IS A VERSION IN ENGLISH}
  243. SHAMIL IN SOVIET HISTORIOGRAPHY [MIDDLE EASTERN STUDIES, 729(49), 28, 1992], MOSHE GAMMER. {ENGLISH VERSION OF PRECEDING ENTRY}
  244. SHAMIL: NEW DOCUMENTS AND CORRESPONDENCE [CENTRAL ASIAN SURVEY (SPECIAL ISSUE ON THE NORTH CAUCASUS), Vol. 4, No. 4, 1985]. {A WHOLE SECTION OF VOLUME}
  245. SHAMYL, LE PROPHETE DU CAUCASE. G. DEPPING. PARIS, 1854.
  246. SHEMSIGUL: A CIRCASSIAN SLAVE IN MID-NINETEENTH-CENTURY CAIRO. EHUD R. TOLEDANO. Pt. I, 4, PP. 59-74 IN STRUGGLE AND SURVIVAL IN THE MODERN MIDDLE EAST. EDMUND BURKE, III (Ed.). BERKELEY & LOS ANGELES: UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA PRESS, 1993. {ARTICLE IS THE ONLY RELEVANT ITEM IN THE VOLUME. ISBN 0520075668; 0520079884 (PAPERBACK)}
  247. ? SHUB -KAMO- THE LEGENDARY OLD BOLSHEVIC OF THE CAUCASUS [SLAVIC REVIEW 19, JULY 1960, PP. 227-47], DAVID.
  248. SLAVE DEALERS, WOMEN, PREGNANCY, AND ABORTION: THE STORY OF A CIRCASSIAN SLAVE-GIRL IN MID-NINETEENTH-CENTURY CAIRO [SLAVERY AND ABORTION, 2/1 (1981): PP. 53-68], EHUD R. TOLEDANO.
  249. SLAVERY AND ABOLITION IN THE OTTOMAN MIDDLE EAST. EHUD R. TOLEDANO. SEATTLE: UNIVERSITY OF WASHINGTON PRESS, 1997. {in press}
  250. SLAVE SOLDIERS AND ISLAM: THE GENESIS OF A MILITARY SYSTEM. DANIEL PIPES. NEW HAVEN-LONDON: YALE UNIVERSITY PRESS, 1981.
  251. SOLDIERS OF FORTUNE: THE STORY OF THE MAMLUKS. JOHN GLUBB. NEW YORK: STEIN AND DAY, 1973.
  252. SOLDIERS OF THE TSAR: ARMY AND SOCIETY IN RUSSIA, 1462-1874. JOHN L. H. KEEP. OXFORD, 1985.
  253. SOME ACCOUNT OF DAVID URQUHART. GERTRUDE ROBINSON. OXFORD, 1921.
  254. SOME LATE ABBASID AND MAMLUK BOOKS ABOUT WOMEN: A LITERARY HISTORICAL APPROACH [ARABICA (ISSN 0003-7508), Vol. 42, No. 1, 1995, P. 56 ff.], H. KILPATRICK.
  255. SOME NOTES ON THE FEUDAL SYSTEM OF THE MAMLUKS [JOURNAL OF THE ROYAL ASIATIC SOCIETY, 1937, PP. 97-107], A. N. POLIAK.
  256. SOME REMARKS ON THE ECONOMIC DECLINE OF THE MAMLUK SULTANATE [COLLECTED STUDIES SERIES CS, ISSN 0961-7582, No. 456, 1994, P. 108 ff.].
  257. SOUVENIRS D'UNE FRANCAIS CAPTIVE DE SHAMYL. EDOUARD MERLIEUX. PARIS, 1857.
  258. SOUVENIRS INTIMES D'UNE CAMPAGNE AU CAUCASE EN 1854. COMTE CONSTANTIN DE BENCKENDORFF. PARIS, 1858.
  259. SOVIET DAGHESTAN IN FOREIGN HISTORIOGRAPHY. M[AKHACH] A[BDURAKHMANOVICH] DANIYALOV. MOSCOW: NAUKA, CENTRAL DEPARTMENT OF ORIENTAL LITERATURE, 1982. (TRANSLATED FROM RUSSIAN BY B. M. MEEROVICH. ISBN 1.30rub (pbk.))
  260. STATE AND SOCIETY IN MID-NINETEENTH-CENTURY EGYPT. EHUD R. TOLEDANO. CAMBRIDGE: CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY PRESS, 1990.
  261. STUDIES IN AL-JABARTI I: NOTES ON THE TRANSFORMATION OF MAMLUK SOCIETY IN EGYPT UNDER THE OTTOMANS, PARTS 1-2 [JOURNAL OF THE ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL HISTORY OF THE ORIENT (JESHO), Vol. 3, No. 2, 1960, pp. 148-74, AND Vol. 3, No. 3, 1960, PP. 275-325], DAVID AYALON. {"THE MILITARY SOCIETY IN OTTOMAN EGYPT, PARTICULARLY IN THE EIGHTEENTH CENTURY, SHOWED THE CHARACTERISTICS OF A FULLY FLEDGED MAMLUK ORGANIZATION AND CULTURE, STRIKINGLY SIMILAR TO THAT OF THE LATE MEDIEVAL MAMLUK SULTANATE, DESPITE SOME VERY IMPORTANT DIFFERENCES. MAMLUK MILITARY SOCIETY UNDERWENT A DEEP TRANSFORMATION DURING THE OTTOMAN RULE OF EGYPT. ... WHAT IS MORE SIGNIFICANT IS THE RESILIENCE OF MAMLUK TRADITIONS AND MENTALITY DESPITE THAT TRANSFORMATION."}
  262. STUDIES IN CAUCASIAN HISTORY. VLADIMIR F. MINORSKY. CAMBRIDGE: CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY PRESS. / UNI. MAN.
  263. STUDIES IN CAUCASIAN HISTORY. VLADIMIR F. MINORSKY. LONDON: TAYLOR'S FOREIGN PRESS, 1953. {I. New light on the Shaddadids of Ganja. II. The Shaddadids of Ani. III. Prehistory of Saladin}
  264. STUDIES IN CHRISTIAN CAUCASUS HISTORY. CYRILLE TOUMANOFF. GEORGETOWN: GEORGETOWN UNIVERSITY PRESS, 1963. (599 PAGES. 25 cm.). {BIBLIOGRAPHICAL REFERENCES ON PP. 501-23}
  265. STUDIES IN SOCIAL HISTORY OF MODERN EGYPT. BAER. / UNI. MAN. {MENTION OF CIRCASSIAN FEMALE SLAVES}
  266. STUDIES IN THE HISTORY OF TRANSJORDAN, 1920-1949: THE MAKING OF A STATE. URIEL DAAN. BOULDER, COLORADO, 1984.
  267. STUDIES ON THE MAMLUKS OF EGYPT (1250-1517). DAVID AYALON. COLLECTED STUDIES SERIES, 62. LONDON, 1977.
  268. STUDIES ON THE STRUCTURE OF THE MAMLUK ARMY, PARTS 1 AND 2. [BULLETIN OF THE SCHOOL OF ORIENTAL AND AFRICAN STUDIES (BSOAS), Vol. XV, Nos. 2 and 3, 1953, PP. 448-76. Vol. XVI, No. 1, 1954], DAVID AYALON. {REPRINTED AS ARTCLE No. 1 IN PRECEDING ENTRY}
  269. TEE UUDE ELLU EESTI ASUNDUSTE AJALOOST KAUKAASIA MUSTA MERE RANNIKUL XIX SAJ. TEISEST POOLEST KUNI 1929. LEMBIT VOIME. TALLINN: EESTI RAAMAT, 1980. {HISTORY OF ESTONIANS IN THE CAUCASUS}
  270. THE AGE OF THE VICKINGS. A. SAWYER, 1962.
  271. THE ARMIES OF ASIA AND EUROPE: EMBRACING OFFICIAL REPORTS ON THE ARMIES OF JAPAN, CHINA, INDIA, PERSIA, ITALY, RUSSIA, AUSTRIA, GERMANY, FRANCE AND ENGLAND. ACCOMPANIED BY LETTERS DESCRIPTIVE OF A JOURNEY FROM JAPAN TO THE CAUCASUS. EMORY UPTON (1839-1881). NEW YORK: D. APPLETON AND COMPANY, 1878. (IX, 446 PAGES. 23 cm.). {ENGLISH EDITION THE ARMIES OF EUROPE & ASIA. PORTSMOUTH: GRIFFIN & CO. INCLUDES DIAGRAMS}
  272. THE ATTITUDE TOWARDS KNOWLEDGE IN MAMLUK EGYPT: ORGANISATION AND STRUCTURE OF THE SUBH AL-A'SHA BY AL-QALQASHANDI (1355-1418) [BRILLS STUDIES IN INTELLECTUAL HISTORY (ISSN 0920-8607), Vol. 79, 1997, P. 159 ff.], M. VAN BERKEL.
  273. THE AUXILIARY FORCES OF THE MAMLUK SULTANATE [COLLECTED STUDIES SERIES CS, ISSN 0961-7582, No. 456, 1994, P. 13 ff.].
  274. THE BATTLE OF THE CAUCASUS. VICTOR MURATOV. MOSCOW: NOVOSTY PRESS AGENCY PUBLISHING HOUSE, 1973.
  275. THE BEGINNINGS OF THE NAQSHBANDIYYA IN DAGHESTAN AND THE RUSSIAN CONQUEST OF THE CAUCASUS [DIE WELT DES ISLAMS 34, 2, 1994, PP. 204-17], MOSHE GAMMER.
  276. THE BEYLICATE IN OTTOMAN EGYPT DURING THE SEVENTEENTH CENTURY [BULLETIN OF THE SCHOOL OF ORIENTAL AND AFRICAN STUDIES (BSOAS), Vol. 3, 1961], P. M. HOLT. {REPUBLISHED AS THE FOLLOWING}
  277. id. P. M. HOLT. PP. 177-219 IN STUDIES IN THE HISTORY OF THE NEAR EAST. P. M. HOLT (Ed.). LONDON, 1973. {"THE BEYLICATE, WHICH BECAME THE LEADING POLITICAL AND MILITARY FORCE IN SEVENTEENTH-CENTURY EGYPT, WAS IN MANY RESPECTS A CONTINUATION (OR REVIVAL) OF THE HIGH EMIRATE OF THE MAMLUK SULTANATE. THE INSTITUTION OF THE BEYLICATE SAW UPS AND DOWNS, BUT THROUGH IT MAMLUK TRADITIONS WERE PRESERVED. BY THE EIGHTEENTH CENTURY, THE MAMLUK BEYS WERE VIRTUALLY IN CONTROL OF EGYPTIAN POLITICS, ALTHOUGH THEY RECOGNIZED THE OTTOMAN SULTAN IN ISTANBUL AS THEIR SUPREME SOVEREIGN."}
  278. THE BOLSHEVIK REVOLUTION, 1917-23. E. H. CARR. HARMONDSWORTH: PENGUIN, 1966.
  279. THE CAIRENE MAKTABS OF THE CIRCASSIAN MAMLUK PERIOD. SHERIF MAHMOUD WAHDAN. MASTER'S THESIS, UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN, 1988.
  280. THE CAIRO NILOMETER: EGYPT AND SYRIA UNDER THE CIRCASSIAN SULTANS, 1382-1468 A. D. WILLIAM POPPER. {REVIEWED BY D. S. RICE IN BULLETIN OF THE SCHOOL OF ORIENTAL AND AFRICAN STUDIES (BSOAS), Vol. 17, 1955, P. 185. ALSO REVIEWED BY HANS ROBERT ROEMER IN DIE WELT DES ISLAMS, Vol. (n.s.) 7, 1961, PP. 201-3 (TOGETHER WITH ANOTHER WORK BY POPPER)}
  281. THE CAUCASIAN PEOPLES AND THEIR NEIGHBOURS IN 1404 [ACTA ORIENTALIA ACADEMIAE SCIENTIARUM HUNG. TOMUS XXXII(1), PP. 83-111], L. TARDY.
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  284. THE CAUCASUS AND THE RUSSIAN REVOLUTION (FROM A HISTORICAL [POLITICAL] VIEWPOINT) [CENTRAL ASIAN SURVEY, Vol. 10, No. 4, 1991, PP. 1-29], HAIDAR BAMMATE.
  285. THE CAUCASUS: ARCHIVES OF THE CENTRAL ADMINISTRATION 1802-1862. G. L. BONDAREVSKY. NORMAN ROSS, 1996.
  286. THE CENTENNIAL OF THE CAPTURE OF SHAMIL: A SHAMIL BIBLIOGRAPHY [CAUCASIAN REVIEW, MUNICH (CRM), No. 8, 1959, PP. 83-91, 101-2], T. TATLOK.
  287. THE CHECHENS AND THE INGUSH DURING THE SOVIET PERIOD AND ITS ANTECEDENTS. ABDURAHMAN AVTORKHANOV. PP. 146-94 IN THE NORTH CAUCASUS BARRIER. MARIE BENNIGSEN-BROXUP. LONDON: HURST & CO., 1992. {AVTORKHANOV IS A CHECHEN BY BIRTH. ONE OF HIS FIRST BOOKS, REVOLUTION AND COUNTER REVOLUTION IN CHECHNIA, WAS PUBLISHED IN GROZNYI IN 1933. HE WAS ARRESTED IN 1937 DURING THE STALINIST PURGES AND ACCUSED OF BEING 'AN ENEMY OF THE PEOPLES'. HE WAS RELEASED IN 1942 AND EMIGRATED TO THE WEST IN 1943. HIS BOOKS, LONG FORBIDDEN IN THE SOVIET UNION, WERE READ ASSIDUOUSLY BY SOVIET DISSIDENTS. AMONG THE MOST RECENT ARE STRENGTH AND WEAKNESS OF BREZHNEV: POLITICAL STUDIES (1980), THE ENIGMA OF STALIN'S DEATH: BERIA'S CONSPIRACY (1981), THE ORIGINS OF THE PARTOCRACY AND TECHNOLOGY OF POWER (1983) AND THE EMPIRE OF THE KREMLIN (1986). A HERO IN HIS NATIVE CHECHNIA, HE HAS RECENTLY BEEN REHABILITATED. "IN SPITE OF THE EXISTENCE OF DISTINCT LANGUAGES AND DIALECTS, THE NORTH CAUCASIAN MOUNTAINEERS ARE ESSENTIALLY ONE PEOPLE CONSISTING OF KINDERED TRIBES SHARING A COMMON HISTORY AND CULTURE."  PP. 146-154 CAN BE VIEWED ON-LINE. FOR FURTHER ANALYSIS, REFER TO THE AUTHORS CONTRIBUTION IN LE MONDE DIPLOMATIQUE, JANVIER 1995, PAGE 4}
  288. THE CIRCASSIAN HISTORY. RAMAZAN TRAHO.
  289. THE CIRCASSIANS IN THE MAMLUK KINGDOM. DAVID AYALON. IN THE MAMLUK RACES, A CHAPTER FROM A WORK ON THE MAMLUK ARMY. {EXTRACTS FROM THIS PAPER CAN BE FOUND IN THE HISTORY SECTION OF THIS SITE UNDER THE SAME TITLE} GO TO 'CIRCASSIANS IN THE MAMLUK KINGDOM' ARTICLE. {REPRINT OF FOLLOWING ARTICLE}
  290. id. [JAOS, Vol. 69, 1949, PP. 135-47], DAVID AYALON.
  291. THE CIRCASSIANS' PART IN THE CIVIL WAR [CAUCASIAN REVIEW, MUNICH (CRM), No. 1, 1955, P. 138 ff.], I. NATIRBOFF.
  292. THE CRIMEAN WAR: A REAPPRAISAL. PHILIP WARNER. LONDON, 1972.
  293. THE DIPLOMATIC REVIEW, VOLUMES 3-6, AUGUST 16, 1856 - DECEMBER 22, 1858. WESTPORT, CONNECTICUT: GREENWOOD REPRINT CORPORATION, 1970.
  294. THE DEPORTATION OF THE CHECHEN AND INGUSH PEOPLES: A CRITICAL EXAMINATION. WILLIAM FLEMMING. PP. 65-86 IN RUSSIA AND CHECHNIA: THE PERMANENT CRISIS. ESSAYS ON RUSSO-CHECHEN RELATIONS. BEN FOWKES (Ed.). HOUNDMILLS, BASINGSTOKE, HAMPSHIRE, ENGLAND: MACMILLAN PRESS LTD, 1998 (ISBN 0-333-69204-7); NEW YORK: St. MARTIN'S PRESS, INC., 1998.
  295. THE EASTERN QUESTION, A REPRINT OF LETTERS WRITTEN 1853-56 DEALING WITH THE EVENTS OF THE CRIMEAN WAR. LONDON: SWAN, SONNENSCHEIN & Co. Ltd. Republished: NEW YORK: AUGUSTUS M. KELLEY PUBLISHERS, 1969. {"This work is the result of collecting, collating and editing all of Marx's correspondence for the New York Tribune from the Crimean War period by his daughter Eleanor Marx Aveling and her husband Edward Aveling in the 1880s" - Bulent Gokay}
  296. THE EMERGENCE OF THE MAMLUK ARMY [STUDIA ISLAMICA, 1977, PP. 67-99], S. HUMPHREYS.
  297. THE END OF THE CAUCASIAN FRONT [SLAVIC REVIEW 27, JAN. 1968, PP 17-26], VICKTOR SHKLOVSKY. (TRANSLATED BY R. SHELDON). {THIS IS A ROMANTIC ACCOUNT OF THE CONFLICT OF THE CAUCASIANS WITH THE COLONIALS, i.e., THE COSSACKS}
  298. THE END OF THE MAMLUK SULTANATE: WHY DID THE OTTOMANS SPARE THE MAMLUKS OF EGYPT AND WIPE OUT THE MAMLUKS OF SYRIA? [STUDIA ISLAMICA, Vol. 65, 1987, PP. 125-48], DAVID AYALON. {Reprinted in his Islam and the Abode of War. Aldershot: Variorum, 1994}
  299. id. [COLLECTED STUDIES SERIES CS, ISSN 0961-7582, No. 456, 1994, P. 125 ff.], DAVID AYALON.
  300. THE EXALTED LINEAGE OF RIDWAN BEY: SOME OBSERVATIONS ON A SEVENTEENTH- CENTURY MAMLUK GENEALOGY [BULLETIN OF THE SCHOOL OF ORIENTAL AND AFRICAN STUDIES (BSOAS), Vol. 12, 1959
  301. id. P. M. HOLT. PP. 220-30 IN STUDIES IN THE HISTORY OF THE NEAR EAST. P. M. HOLT (Ed.). LONDON, 1973. {ON THE GENEALOGY OF RIDWAN BEY AL-FAQARI, AMIR AL-HAJJ FOR ALMOST A QUARTER OF A CENTURY. "THE AUTHOR OF RIDWAN'S SPURIOUS PEDIGREE CLAIMS THAT THE GREAT AMIR AL-HAJJ WAS DESCENDED BOTH FROM THE CIRCASSIAN MAMLUK SULTANS AND FROM QURAYSH, THE PROPHET'S TRIBE, THUS MAKING HIM OF A NOBLER ORIGIN THAN THE OTTOMAN DYNASTY ITSELF.". "THE GENEALOGY TRACES RIDWAN'S LINEAGE TO THE MAMLUK SULTAN BARQUQ (1382-99) AND THENCE TO THE QURAYSH. HOLT CONSTRUES THE GENEALOGY AS RIDWAN BEY'S ATTEMPT TO FORGE A MORE LEGITIMATE PEDIGREE THAN THAT OF THE OTTOMAN SULTAN AND PERHAPS TO JUSTIFY A BID FOR AUTONOMY."}
  302. THE EXPANSION OF RUSSIA, 1815-1900. F. H. SKRINE. CAMBRIDGE, 1904.
  303. THE EXPEDITION OF THE CHESAPEAK TO CIRCASSIA. LONDON: FREE PRESS OFFICE, 1864.
  304. THE FALL OF CIRCASSIA: A STUDY IN PRIVATE DIPLOMACY [ENGLISH HISTORICAL REVIEW, LXXI, JULY, 1956, PP. 401-27], PETER BROCK.
  305. THE FATE OF THE MUSLIMS. JUSTIN McCARTHY. {THIS WORK FILLS A SERIOUS GAP IN MODERN HISTORIOGRAPHY, WHICH HAS LARGELY IGNORED THE CIRCASSIAN FREEDOM STRUGGLE AND GIVEN LESS ATTENTION TO THE MASS MIGRATION WHICH CAME IN THE WAKE OF THE RUSSIAN OCCUPATION OF CIRCASSIAN LANDS. THIS GREAT EXODUS WAS THE FIRST OF THE VIOLENT MASS TRANSFERS OF POPULATION WHICH THIS PART OF THE WORLD HAS SUFFERED IN MODERN TIMES}
  306. THE FINANCIAL SYSTEM OF EGYPT. HASSANEIN RABIE. OXFORD: OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS, 1972.
  307. THE FLAG OF CIRCASSIA: SPEECH OF Mr. (DAVID) URQUHART, GLASGOW, MAY 23, 1838. LONDON: THE CIRCASSIAN COMMITTEE, 1863.
  308. THE FORMATION OF THE SOVIET NORTH CAUCASUS 1918-1924 [CENTRAL ASIAN SURVEY, Vol. 12, No. 1, 1993, PP. 13-32], STEPHEN J. BLANK. {Summary coverage of the establishment of Bolshevik rule in the North Caucasus}
  309. THE FORMATION OF THE SOVIET UNION: COMMUNISM AND NATIONALISM, 1917-1923. RICHARD PIPES. NEW YORK: ATHENIUM, 1968.
  310. THE FORMATION OF THE SOVIET UNION - COMMUNISM AND NATIONALISM, 1917-23. RICHARD PIPES. CAMBRIDGE, MASSACHUSETTS: HARVARD UNIVERSITY PRESS, 1957; Revised Edition 1964. (365 pages). {Some references give 1954}
  311. THE GEORGIAN CHRONICLE (JUANSHER'S CONCISE HISTORY OF THE GEORGIANS). TRANSLATED FROM THE ARMENIAN MANUSCRIPTS BY ROBERT BEDROSIAN. NEW YORK, 1991.
  312. THE GEORGIAN PURGES (1951-53) [CAUCASIAN REVIEW, MUNICH (CRM), Vol. 1, No. 6, 1958, PP. 54-61], JOHN DUCOLI. {"The writer was born in 1922. He studied at the University of California. He has published a number of articles on the USSR. At the time of publishing he was a junior college teacher."}
  313. THE GREAT FRIENDSHIP: SOVIET HISTORIANS ON THE NON-RUSSIAN NATIONALITIES. LOWELL R. TILLET. CHAPEL HILL, NORTH CAROLINA: UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA PRESS, 1969. {ON THE CONFLICT OVER THE INTERPRETATION OF THE MURID MOVEMENT IN THE NORTHEAST CAUCASUS. SEE ALSO SHAMIL AND MURIDISM IN RECENT SOVIET HISTORIOGRAPHY ABOVE}
  314. THE HISTORY OF EGYPT, 1382-1468 A. D. WILLIAM POPPER. {REVIEWED BY D. S. RICE IN BULLETIN OF THE SCHOOL OF ORIENTAL AND AFRICAN STUDIES (BSOAS), Vol. 17, 1955, P. 185. ALSO REVIEWED BY HANS ROBERT ROEMER IN DIE WELT DES ISLAMS, Vol. (n.s.) 7, 1961, PP. 201-3 (TOGETHER WITH ANOTHER WORK BY POPPER). PART III, 1412-1422, IS REVIEWED BY ANDREW S. EHRENKREUTZ IN ARS ORIENTALIS, Vol. 4, 1961, PP. 428-430 (TOGETHER WITH ANOTHER WORK BY POPPER)}
  315. THE HISTORY OF THE JEWISH KHAZARS. DOUGLAS M. DUNLOP. PRINCETON UNIVERSITY, 1954, 1967. {SEE ALSO THE THIRTEENTH TRIBE ... BELOW}
  316. THE HITTITES. O. R. GURNEY, 1952. / UNI. MAN.
  317. THE HITTITES AND THEIR HISTORY [JOURNAL OF ANCIENT CIVILIZATIONS, Vol. 9, 1994, PP. 104-14], JOHAN DE ROOS.
  318. THE INCORPORATION OF THE CAUCASUS INTO THE RUSSIAN EMPIRE: THE CASE OF GEORGIA, 1801-1854. LAWRENCE HAMILTON RHINELANDER. UNPUBLISHED Ph.D. THESIS, COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY, 1972.
  319. THE JEWS OF KHAZARIA. KEVIN ALAN BROOK. NORTHVALE, NEW JERSEY: JASON

  320. ARONSON INC., 1999. (360 pages, 24 cm. Cloth/Hardcover. ISBN: 0-7657-6032-0; Dimensions (in inches): 1.35 x 9.32 x 6.36). {"The Jews of Khazaria recounts the eventful history of the Turkic kingdom of Khazaria, which was located in eastern Europe and flourished as an independent state from about 650 A.D. to 1016 A.D. In the ninth century, the Khazarian royalty and nobility as well as a significant portion of the Khazarian population embraced the Jewish religion." Bibliography on pp. 325-41. Amazon Books Info}
  321. THE JIHAD OF IMAM SHAMYL. KERIM FENARI. PUBLISHED ON THE NET. {First published in Q-News}
  322. THE JIHAD OF SAID SHAMIL AND SULTAN MURAD FOR THE LIBERATION OF THE CAUCASUS [CENTRAL ASIAN SURVEY, Vol. 10, No. 1/2, 1991, pp. 119-32], SULTAN MURAD.
  323. THE KINGDOM OF GEORGIA. OLIVER WARDROP. LONDON, 1888. REPRINTED BY A. C. WARDROP, 1976.
  324. THE LAST GHAZAWAT: THE 1920-1921 UPRISING. MARIE BENNIGSEN BROXUP. Pp. 112-45 in THE NORTH CAUCASUS BARRIER: THE RUSSIAN ADVANCE TOWARDS THE MUSLIM WORLD. MARIE BENNIGSEN-BROXUP (Ed.). LONDON: C. HURST & COMPANY, 1992. {The author is the editor of the Journal CENTRAL ASIAN SURVEY}
  325. THE LAST YEARS OF THE GEORGIAN MONARCHY, 1658-1832. DAVID MARSHALL LANG. NEW YORK: COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY PRESS, 1957. {Pp. 289-315 Bibliography; Pp. 289-90 Bibliographical Guides}
  326. THE LEGEND OF BOETTI SHEIKH MANSUR [CENTRAL ASIAN SURVEY, Vol. 10, No. 1/2, 1991, pp. 93-102], FRANCO VENTURI. {On Italian legends concerning Sheikh Mansur}
  327. THE LIFE OF MANSUR. GREAT INDEPENDENCE FIGHTER OF THE CAUCASIAN MOUNTAIN PEOPLE [CENTRAL ASIAN SURVEY, Vol. 10, No. 1/2, 1991, pp. 81-92], NART.
  328. THE LONGSTANDING RUSSIAN AND SOVIET DEBATE OVER SHEIKH SHAMIL: ANTI-IMPERIALIST HERO OR COUNTER-REVOLUTIONARY CLERIC? BULENT GOKAY. Pp. 25-64 in RUSSIA AND CHECHNIA: THE PERMANENT CRISIS. ESSAYS ON RUSSO-CHECHEN RELATIONS. BEN FOWKES (Ed.). HOUNDMILLS, BASINGSTOKE, HAMPSHIRE, ENGLAND: MACMILLAN PRESS LTD, 1998 (ISBN 0-333-69204-7); NEW YORK: St. MARTIN'S PRESS, INC., 1998.
  329. THE MAMELUKE OR SLAVE DYNASTY OF EGYPT (1260-1517). SIR W. MUIR, 1896. (300 PAGES). / UNI. MAN.
  330. THE MAMLUK BEYLICATE OF EGYPT IN THE LAST DECADES BEFORE ITS DESTRUCTION BY MUHAMMAD 'ALI PASHA IN 1811. DANIEL CRECELIUS. CHAPTER 8, PP. 128-49 IN THE MAMLUKS IN EGYPTIAN POLITICS AND SOCIETY. THOMAS PHILIPP AND ULRICH HAARMANN (Eds.). CAMBRIDGE STUDIES IN ISLAMIC CIVILIZATION. CAMBRIDGE: CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY PRESS, 1998. {THE AUTHOR IS AT THE CALIFORNIA STATE UNIVERSITY, LOS ANGELES}
  331. THE MAMLUK MILITARY SOCIETY. DAVID AYALON. COLLECTED STUDIES SERIES 104. LONDON, 1979.
  332. THE MAMLUK NOVICE: ON HIS YOUTHFULNESS AND ON HIS ORIGINAL RELIGION [COLLECTED STUDIES SERIES CS, ISSN 0961-7582, No. 456, 1994, P. 1 ff.].
  333. THE MAMLUKS AND IBN XALDUN. A LECTURE GIVEN BY DAVID AYALON. / MY COLLECTION.
  334. THE MAMLUKS IN EGYPTIAN POLITICS AND SOCIETY. THOMAS PHILIPP AND ULRICH HAARMANN (Eds). CAMBRIDGE STUDIES IN ISLAMIC CIVILIZATION. CAMBRIDGE: CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY PRESS, 1998. (XIV, 289 Pages. Index: 290-306. ISBN 0 521 59115 5 (hb). Price: £35). {CONTENTS: I MAMLUK RULE AND SUCCESSION: 1-  LITERARY OFFERINGS: A GENRE OF COURTLY LITERATURE, P. M. HOLT (EMERITUS SCHOOL OF ORIENTAL AND AFRICAN STUDIES, UNIVERSITY OF LONDON); 2- RANK-AND-FILE MAMLUKS VERSUS AMIRS: NEW NORMS IN THE MAMLUK MILITARY INSTITUTION, AMALIA LEVANONI (UNIVERSITY OF HAIFA); 3- MAMLUK AMIRS AND THEIR FAMILIES AND HOUSEHOLDS, DONALD S. RICHARDS (OXFORD UNIVERSITY); 4- JOSEPH'S LAW - THE CAREERS AND ACTIVITIES OF MAMLUK DESCENDANTS BEFORE THE OTTOMAN CONQUEST OF EGYPT, ULRICH HAARMANN (CHRISTIAN-ALBRECHTS-UNIVERSITAT ZU KIEL); II MAMLUK HOUSEHOLDS: COHERENCE AND DISINTEGRATION: 5- THE RE-EMERGENCE OF THE MAMLUKS FOLLOWING THE OTTOMAN CONQUEST, MICHAEL WINTER (TEL AVIV UNIVERSITY); 6- 'MAMLUK HOUSEHOLDS' AND 'MAMLUK FACTIONS' IN OTTOMAN EGYPT: A RECONSIDERATION, JANE HATHAWAY (OHIO STATE UNIVERSITY); 7- PERSONAL LOYALTY AND POLITICAL POWER OF THE MAMLUKS IN THE EIGHTEENTH CENTURY, THOMAS PHILIPP (FRIEDRICH-ALEXANDER-UNIVERSITAT ERLANGEN NURNBERG); 8- THE MAMLUK BEYLICATE OF EGYPT IN THE LAST DECADES BEFORE ITS DESTRUCTION BY MUHAMMAD 'ALI PASHA IN 1811, DANIEL CRECELIUS (CALIFORNIA STATE UNIVERSITY, LOS ANGELES; III MAMLUK CULTURE, SCIENCE AND EDUCATION: 9- MAMLUK ASTRONOMY AND THE INSTITUTION OF THE MUWAQQIT, DAVID A. KING (JOHANN-WOLFGANG-GOETHE-UNIVERSITAT); 10- THE MAMLUKS AS MUSLIMS: THE MILITARY ELITE AND THE CONSTRUCTION OF ISLAM IN MEDIEVAL EGYPT, JONATHAN P. BERKEY (DAVIDSON COLLEGE, NORTH CAROLINA); 11- THE LATE TRIUMPH OF THE PERSIAN BOW: CRITICAL VOICES ON THE MAMLUK MONOPOLY ON WEAPONRY, ULRICH HAARMANN (CHRISTIAN-ALBRECHTS-UNIVERSITAT ZU KIEL); 12- CONCEPTS OF HISTORY AS REFLECTED IN ARABIC HISTORIOGRAPHICAL WRITING IN OTTOMAN SYRIA AND EGYPT (1517-1700), OTFRIED WEINTRITT (UNIVERSITAT FREIBURG); 13- CULTURAL LIFE IN MAMLUK HOUSEHOLDS (LATE OTTOMAN PERIOD), NELLY HANNA (AMERICAN UNIVERSITY IN CAIRO); IV MAMLUK PROPERTY, GEOGRAPHY AND URBAN SOCIETY: 14- THE RESIDENTIAL DISTRICTS OF CAIRO'S ELITE IN THE MAMLUK AND OTTOMAN PERIODS (FOURTEENTH TO EIGHTEENTH CENTURIES), ANDRE RAYMOND (EMERITUS UNIVERSITE DE PROVENCE, AIX-EN-PROVENCE); 15- PATTERNS OF URBAN PATRONAGE IN CAIRO: A COMPARISON BETWEEN THE MAMLUK AND THE OTTOMAN PERIODS, DORIS BEHRENS-ABOUSEIF (UNIVERSITAT MUNCHEN); 16- NOTES ON THE EARLY NAZAR AL-KHASS, DONALD P. LITTLE (McGILL UNIVERSITY, MONTREAL); 17- COPTIC FESTIVALS OF THE NILE: ABERRATIONS OF THE PAST?, HUDA LUTFI (AMERICAN UNIVERSITY IN CAIRO; 18- MARRIAGE IN LATE EIGHTEENTH-CENTURY EGYPT, AFAF LUTFI AL-SAYYID MARSOT (UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, LOS ANGELES). "FOR MORE THAN HALF A MILLENIUM THE MAMLUKS - MILITARY SLAVES EMANATING FROM THE STEPPES OF SOUTHERN RUSSIA AND LATER FROM THE CAUCASUS AND THE BALKANS - WIELDED POWER OVER EGYPT. DURING THIS TIME THEY FORMED A REMARKABLE POLITICAL, MILITARY AND ECONOMIC ELITE, RULING AS SOVEREIGNS FROM 1250 TO 1517 AND, AFTER THE OTTOMAN CONQUEST OF EGYPT, REGAINING MUCH OF THEIR FORMER PARAMOUNTCY UNDER TURKISH SUPREMACY. IN THIS COLLECTION OF ESSAYS, THOMAS PHILIPP AND ULRICH HAARMAAN HAVE BROUGHT TOGETHER THE RESEARCH OF SOME OF THE MOST DISTINGUISHED SCHOLARS IN THE FIELD TO PROVIDE AN ACCESSIBLE AND COHERENT INTRODUCTION TO THE STRUCTURE OF POLITICAL POWER UNDER THE MAMLUKS AND ITS ECONOMIC FOUNDATIONS. THE ESSAYS ALSO OFFER A UNIQUE INSIGHT INTO THE MAMLUK HOUSEHOLDS AND THEIR RELATIONSHIP WITH THE INDIGENOUS EGYPTIAN POPULATION." THOMAS PHILIPP IS PROFESSOR AT THE INSTITUT FUR POLITISCHE WISSENSCHAFT IN ERLANGEN. HIS PUBLICATIONS INCLUDE THE SYRIANS IN EGYPT, 1725-1975 (1985) AND, WITH G. SCHWALD, AL-JABARTI'S HISTORY OF EGYPT: A GUIDE (1994). ULRICH HAARMAAN IS PROFESSOR IN THE UNIVERSITAT KIEL. HE IS THE EDITOR OF GESCHICHTE DER ARABISCHEN WELT}
  335. THE MEDIEVAL NEAR EAST: SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC HISTORY. ELIYAHU ASHTOR. LONDON: VARIORUM, 1978. {REVIEWED BY P. M. HOLT IN BULLETIN OF THE SCOOL OF ORIENTAL AND AFRICAN STUDIES (BSOAS), Vol. 42, 1979, P. 414}
  336. THE MEMOIRS OF GENERAL MOUSSA PASHA KOUNDOUKHOFF (1837-65) [THE CAUCASIAN QUARTERLY, PARIS, APRIL-MAY-JUNE-JULY-AUGUST-SEPTEMBER, 1938, PP. 103-24], MUSA KUNDUKHOV. {See also Les memoires (1837-65). Musa Kundukhov. Paris, 1939}
  337. THE MIDDLE EAST: A HISTORY. SYDNEY NETTLETON FISHER. NEW YORK: ALFRED A. KNOPF, 1960.
  338. THE MIDDLE EAST AND NORTH AFRICA IN WORLD POLITICS: A DOCUMENTARY RECORD, Vol. I, EUROPEAN EXPANSION, 1533-1914. J. C. HUREWITZ (Ed.). NEW HAVEN, 1975, 2nd Ed. {DOCUMENT No. 32, PP. 92-101 IS THE TEXT OF THE PEACE TREATY OF KUCUK KAYNARCA}
  339. THE MIDDLE EAST IN THE MIDDLE AGES: THE EARLY MAMLUK SULTANATE 1250-1382. ROBERT IRWIN. CARBONDALE: SOUTHERN ILLINOIS UNIVERSITY PRESS, 1986. (180 PAGES. ISBN 0-8093-1286-7). {THIS IS THE BAHRI PERIOD PRIOR TO THE ESTABLISHMENT OF THE CIRCASSIAN BURJI SULTANATE BY BARQUQ}
  340. THE MODERN HISTORY OF JORDAN. KAMAL SALIBI. LONDON-NEW YORK: I. B. TAURIS & Co Ltd Publishers, 1993. (298 pages. ISBN 1-85043-610-X). {"The principal support on which the Ottomans could safely rely in the area, as they sought to pacify it, were the Circassian farming communities settled in and around Amman. A stalwart Muslim people from the Caucasus region, the Circassians were subjected to persecution when the Russians took over their land in the latter decades of the nineteenth century. They began to arrive in Transjordan as refugees in 1878, and continued to do so until 1909, with the encouragement of the Ottoman government. Before long, they were provided with arms to defend themselves against their bedouin neighbours and became loyal subjects of the sultan. ... The Circassian farmers of Amman and its vicinity, for example, had long been weary of living, year after year, under the threat of bedouin raids." Includes a map. The author is Professor of History at the American University of Beirut. He has authored many books on the history of the Middle East}
  341. THE MUSLIM CITY AND THE MAMLUK MILITARY ARISTOCRACY. DAVID AYALON. PROCEEDINGS OF THE ISRAEL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES, 2, 1968, PP. 311-29. {REPRINTED AS ARTICLE 7 IN STUDIES ON THE MAMLUKS OF EGYPT. DAVID AYALON.COLLECTED STUDIES SERIES 62. LONDON 1977}
  342. THE NATIONAL LIBERATION MOVEMENT IN THE EAST. LENIN. MOSCOW: FOREIGN LANGUAGES PUBLISHING HOUSE, 1962.
  343. THE NATION KILLERS: THE SOVIET DEPORTATION OF NATIONALITIES. ROBERT CONQUEST. LONDON -  NEW YORK: MACMILLAN AND CO. LTD, 1970. (Two editions. 222 pages). {On Stalin's deportation of Chechens and Ingushes during WWII}
  344. THE NORTH CAUCASUS BARRIER: THE RUSSIAN ADVANCE TOWARDS THE MUSLIM WORLD. MARIE BENNIGSEN-BROXUP (Ed.). LONDON: C. HURST & CO.; NEW YORK: St. MARTIN'S PRESS, 1992. 2nd IMPRESSION 1996. (XVII, 252 pages. 23 cm. ISBN 1850650691. Available from ZORA BOOKS . Price: £14.94). {CONTENTS: PREFACE; INTRODUCTION: RUSSIA AND THE NORTH CAUCASUS; COOPTATION OF THE ELITES OF KABARDA AND DAGHESTAN IN THE SIXTEENTH CENTURY; RUSSIAN STRATEGIES IN THE CONQUEST OF CHECHNIA AND DAGHESTAN, 1825-1859; CIRCASSIAN RESISTANCE TO RUSSIA, PAUL B. HENZE (62-112); THE LAST GHAZAWAT: THE 1920-1921 UPRISING; THE CHECHENS AND THE INGUSH DURING THE SOVIET PERIOD AND ITS ANTECEDENTS; INTERNATIONALISM, NATIONALISM AND ISLAM BEFORE 1990; AFTER THE PUTSCH, 1991, MARIE BENNIGSEN BROXUP. "IN THE TWENTIETH CENTURY THE RUSSIAN EMPIRE SUFFERED TWO MILITARY AND POLITICAL DEFEATS IN THE EAST: IN MANCHURIA IN 1905, INFLICTED BY THE JAPANESE, AND IN AFGHANISTAN IN 1989, AT THE HANDS OF THE AFGHAN MUJAHIDIN. BOTH DEBACLES PRECEDED MAJOR INTERNAL UPHEAVALS AND REVOLUTIONS WHICH MARKED THE END OF AN IMPERIAL TRADITION AND OF AN ERA - THE TSARIST EMPIRE OF THE ROMANOVS IN THE FIRST CASE, THE UNION OF SOVIET SOCIALIST REPUBLICS IN THE SECOND. HOWEVER, ONE MULTINATIONAL EMPIRE REMAINS, ALBEIT A MUCH REDUCED ONE - THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION LED BY PRESIDENT BORIS YELTSIN. ... THIS BOOK DEALS WITH THE HISTORY OF THE MUSLIM NORTH CAUCASUS, ONE OF THE REMAINING AND MOST REBELLIOUS COLONIAL DOMINIONS LEFT TO RUSSIA. THE WRITINGS PRESENTED HERE COVER A SPAN OF FOUR CENTURIES, INCLUDING IVAN THE TERRIBLE'S STRATEGIC ALLIANCE WITH CIRCASSIAN NOBLEMEN, THE HOLY WARS AND CONQUEST OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY, THE 1917 OCTOBER REVOLUTION, THROUGH TO THE PRESENT CRISIS TO CHECHNIA AND INGUSHETIA WHICH MAY WELL PRESAGE THE DISINTEGRATION OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION AS WE KNOW IT. IT IS ARGUED THAT THE NORTH CAUCASUS, REPEATEDLY CONQUERED BUT NEVER SUBDUED, HAS PLAYED A KEY ROLE IN SHAPING RUSSIAN COLONIAL POLICY AND MISTRUST OF ISLAM, WHICH HAS BEEN A POWERFUL INSPIRATION TO THE RESISTANCE OF THE NORTH CAUCASIAN MOUNTAINEERS TO RUSSIAN RULE. THE BOOK WILL BE INDISPENSABLE FOR UNDERSTANDING THE FUTURE OF ETHNIC RELATIONS AND NATIONAL POLITICS IN RUSSIA." THERE ARE MAPS, A BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTE ON SELECTED WORKS PUBLISHED IN RECENT DECADES IN WESTERN EUROPEAN LANGUAGES, AND BIBLIOGRAPHICAL REFERENCES. MARIE BENNIGSEN-BROXUP IS EDITOR OF CENTRAL ASIAN SURVEY AND DIRECTOR OF THE SOCIETY FOR CENTRAL ASIAN STUDIES, LONDON. CLICK HERE FOR REVIEWS: "AN INTELLIGENT, WELL EDITED AND MUCH NEDED VOLUME" - D. RAYFIELD, EUROPE ASIA STUDIES; "SHOULD QUICKLY BECOME OBLIGATORY READING FOR ALL WESTERN FOREIGN MINISTRY AND MEDIA EMPLOYEES INVOLVED IN FORMING OR WRITING ABOUT POLICY TOWARDS THE FORMER SOVIET REPUBLICS" - BRIAN GEORGE HEWITT, CENTRAL ASIAN SURVEY. REFER TO D[ANIEL] MULLER'S PIECE IN ZEITSCHRIFT FUR TURKEISTUDIEN, Vol. 7, 1994, PP. 149-51}
  345. THE NORTH CAUCASUS: RUSSIA'S LONG STRUGGLE TO SUBDUE THE CIRCASSIANS. PAUL B. HENZE. A RAND REPORT (DOCUMENT NUMBER P-7666), 1990. (V, 57 pages. ISBN 0833017993. Price: $7.50). {Abstract: "All ethnic groups in the fragmenting Soviet Empire, including the Russians themselves, are re-examining their history and drawing conclusions from it that contrast sharply with views that have been imposed upon them by communist dogma. Few areas have as rich a history as the North Caucasus, where Russian armies fought from the 1830s into the 1860s to subdue the indigenous peoples. This paper explores a neglected aspect of Russia's prolonged Caucasian Wars: The effort to conquer the Circassians and their stubborn resistance which culminated in emigration en masse when they were finally defeated. The long struggle of the North Caucasian mountaineers against Russia in the mid-19th century attracted broad European sympathy and admiration. Historians describe the struggle primarily in terms of the leadership and personality of the Imam Shamil. The recent resurgence of Islam as a dynamic political force in many parts of the world has generated new interest in Shamil's religious motivation and leadership techniques." The author was born in Minnesota in 1924. He is an American student of Russian affairs who has specialized, inter alia, in the Caucasus and Central Asia. He was Educated in the Middle West and at Harvard. Currently, he is Resident Consultant in the Washington office of RAND. He headed the Nationality Working Group in the National Security Council, 1977-1980. He spent 30 years in U.S. Government and government-related positions including Radio Free Europe, and American embassies in Turkey and Ethiopia. He is author of SOVIET STRATEGY AND ISLAM. URL: http://www.rand.org/cgi-bin/Abstracts/getab.pl?10999853-11001226}
  346. THE OTTOMAN EMPIRE AND ITS SUCCESSORS, 1801-1927. WILLIAM MILLER. CAMBRIDGE: CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY PRESS, 1927.
  347. THE OTTOMAN SLAVE TRADE AND ITS SUPPRESSION, 1840-1890. EHUD R. TOLEDANO. PRINCETON, NEW JERSEY: PRINCETON UNIVERSITY PRESS, 1982. (307 PAGES). {CHAPTER 5: CIRCASSIAN SLAVERY AND SLAVE TRADE - AN OTTOMAN SOLUTION,  PP. 148-91. Translated into Turkish as (capital letters represent special characters in Turkish): OsmanlI kOle ticareti, 1840-1890, Istanbul: Tarih VakfI Yurt YayInlarI, 1994}
  348. THE PENGUIN HISTORICAL ATLAS OF RUSSIA. JOHN CHANNON. LONDON: PENGUIN BOOKS, 1995.
  349. THE PERSECUTION OF THE NATIONAL-RELIGIOUS TRADITIONS OF THE MOSLEMS IN THE USSR [CAUCASIAN REVIEW, MUNICH (CRM), No. 3, 1956, P. 69 ff.], G. FEIZULIN.
  350. THE POLITICS OF AUTOCRACY: LETTERS OF ALEXANDER II TO PRINCE A. I. BARIATINSKII, 1857-1864. ALFRED J. RIEBER. PARIS, 1966.
  351. THE PRIMACY OF DOMESTIC POLITICS: IBN BINT AL-A'AZZ AND THE ESTABLISHMENT OF FOUR CHIEF JUDGESHIPS IN MAMLUK EGYPT [JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN ORIENTAL SOCIETY (ISSN 0003-0279), Vol. 115, No. 1, 1995, P. 52 ff.], S. A. JACKSON.
  352. THE PUNISHED PEOPLES. THE DEPORTATION AND FATE OF SOVIET MINORITIES AT THE END OF THE SECOND WORLD WAR. ALEKSANDR M. NEKRICH. LONDON - NEW YORK: W. W. NORTON, 1978. {In other works the author's name is written Nekritch}
  353. THE QADIRIYYA (KUNTA HAJI) TARIQAH IN THE NORTH-EAST CAUCASUS, 1850-1987 [ISLAMIC CULTURE, Vol. LXII, Nos. 2-3, APRIL-JULY 1988, PP. 63-78], ALEXANDRE BENNIGSEN.
  354. THE RE-EMERGENCE OF THE MAMLUKS FOLLOWING THE OTTOMAN CONQUEST. MICHAEL WINTER. CHAPTER 5, PP. 87-106 IN THE MAMLUKS IN EGYPTIAN POLITICS AND SOCIETY. THOMAS PHILIPP AND ULRICH HAARMANN (Eds.). CAMBRIDGE STUDIES IN ISLAMIC CIVILIZATION. CAMBRIDGE: CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY PRESS, 1998. {THE AUTHOR IS AT TEL AVIV UNIVERSITY}
  355. THE 'REHABILITATION' OF IMAM SHAMIL [CAUCASIAN REVIEW, MUNICH (CRM), No. 3, 1956, PP. 54 ff.], R[AMAZAN] TRAHO.
  356. THE RESTORATION OF THE LIQUIDATED REPUBLICS AND THE REHABILITATION OF THE DEPORTED PEOPLES [CAUCASIAN REVIEW, MUNICH (CRM), No. 5, 1957, P. 34 ff.], R[AMAZAN] KARCHA.
  357. THE ROYAL HORDES: NOMAD PEOPLES OF THE STEPPES. E. D. PHILLIPS. NEW YORK: McGRAW-HILL, 1965.
  358. THE ROYAL HORDES OF THE STEPPES. E. D. PHILLIPS, 1963.
  359. THE RUGGED FLANKS OF THE CAUCASUS. JOHN F. BADDELEY. LONDON: OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS, HUMPHREY MILFORD, 1940. OXFORD, 1941. REPRINTED, NEW YORK: ARNO PRESS, 1973.  REPRINT Ed. AYER. TWO VOLUMES. {MOST ESSENTIAL FOR HISTORIC RESEARCH ON RUSSO-CAUCASIAN WARS OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY. THERE IS A BIBLIOGRAPHY THAT INCLUDES HISTORICAL MATERIAL FROM CLASSICAL ANTIQUITY}
  360. THE RUSSIAN ANNEXATION OF THE CRIMEA, 1771-1783. ALAN W. FISHER. CAMBRIDGE: CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY PRESS, 1970.
  361. THE RUSSIAN ARMY UNDER NICHOLAS I, 1825-1855. JOHN SHELTON CURTISS. DURHAM, N.C., 1965.{DETAILED ACCOUNT OF RUSSIAN-CAUCASIAN WAR}
  362. THE RUSSIAN CONQUEST OF THE CAUCASUS. JOHN FREDERICK BADDELEY. LONDON: LONGMANS, GREEN & CO., 1908. NEW YORK: RUSSELL & RUSSELL, 1969. REPRINTED BY CURZON PRESS, PAUL & CO. PUBLISHERS, 1997, WITH A NEW PREFACE BY MOSHE GAMMER. (518 pages. New reprint: 660 pages. Hardback. ISBN 0 7007 0634 8. Price: £65). {Covers only to 1859. This has become the standard work on (the eastern front of) the Russian-Caucasian War. Illustrated}
  363. THE RUSSIAN EMPIRE. HUGH SETON-WATSON. OXFORD, UK: CLARENDON PRESS, 1962; OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS, 1967. {The Caucasus represented to Russia what the Indian frontier was to the British Army in the nineteenth century. In the Russian case, the Caucasus inspired some of the greatest nineteenth-century literature}
  364. THE RUSSIAN EMPIRE, 1801-1917. HUGH SETON-WATSON. OXFORD PRESS, 1967.
  365. THE SABRES OF PARADISE. LESLEY BLANCH. LONDON: JOHN MURRAY; NEW YORK: CARROLL & GRAF, THE VIKING PRESS,  Inc., 1960. REPRINTED: QUARTET BOOKS, LONDON, 1978. (Pp. XII, 495). {"ALTHOUGH OCCASIONALLY EMBROIDERED WITH ROMANTICISM, THIS WORK CONVEYS VERY WELL THE DRAMATIC NATURE OF THE CONFRONTATION AND THE WAYS IN WHICH THE CONFLICT WAS PERCEIVED BOTH FROM THE RUSSIAN AND DAGHESTANI/CHECHEN POINTS OF VIEW." "SHAMYL, IMAM OF DAGHESTAN LIVED BETWEEN 1796-1871. ALTHOUGH HE IS NOT MUCH REMEMBERED IN THE WEST TODAY, IN HIS TIME HE CAPTURED THE WEST'S IMAGINATION; HIS BRAVERY WAS INFECTIOUS AND WHILE ENGLISH LADIES SEWED BUNTING FOR HIS FLAG, QUESTIONS ABOUT BRITAIN'S COMMITMENTS IN THE CAUCASUS WERE ASKED IN THE HOUSE OF COMMONS. LESLEY BLANCH'S VERY LIVELY BIOGRAPHY OF SHAMYL IS EXTREMELY READABLE." THERE IS A FRENCH TRANSLATION LES SABRES DU PARADIS}
  366. THE SALE OF SLAVES IN THE OTTOMAN EMPIRE: MARKETS AND STATE TAXES ON SLAVE SALES [BOGAZICI UNIVERSITESI DERGISI, Vol. VI, 1978, pp. 149-74], ALAN FISHER.
  367. THE SARMATIANS. T. SULIMIRSKI. NEW YORK: PRAEGER, 1970.
  368. THE SCYTHIANS. TAMARA TALBOT RICE. LONDON: THAMES AND HUDSON, 1957.
  369. THE SECRET OF RUSSIA IN THE CASPIAN AND EUXINE. DAVID URQUHART. R. HARDWEIKE, 1863.
  370. THE SHAMIL PROBLEM. PAUL B. HENZE. Pp. 415-43 in THE MIDDLE EAST IN TRANSITION: STUDIES IN CONTEMPORARY HISTORY. WALTER Z. LAQUEUR (Ed.). LONDON: ROUTLEDGE AND PAUL, 1958; NEW YORK: PRAEGER, 1958. {See also 'UN-REWRITING' HISTORY - THE SHAMIL PROBLEM [CAUCASIAN REVIEW, MUNICH (CRM), Vol. 1, No. 6, 1958, pp. 7-29], PAUL B. HENZE. "The writer was born in Minnesota in 1924. An American student of Russian affairs who has specialized, inter alia, in the Caucasus and Central Asia. Educated in the Middle West and at Harvard." - Caucasian Review}
  371. THE SLAVE TRADE OF EASTERN AFRICA. R. W. BEACHY. NEW YORK, 1976. / UNI. MAN. {Detailed account of Circassian slave trade in Turkey and Egypt}
  372. THE SLAVE TRADE OF EASTERN AFRICA. A COLLECTION OF DOCUMENTS. R. W. BEACHY. / UNI. MAN. {Pp. 77-79: Account of the glut of Circassian female slaves in Turkey on the eve of the Russian conquest of the Caucasus}
  373. THE SOCIAL STRUCTURE OF CAUCASIAN MOUNTAIN PEOPLES OF 18-19 CENTURIES IN NEW PUBLICATIONS OF SOVIET HISTORIANS [THE PROBLEMS OF HISTORY, No. 5, 1958], A. B. FADEEV.
  374. THE SONS OF MAMLUKS AS FIEF-HOLDERS IN LATE MEDIEVAL EGYPT. ULRICH HAARMANN. Pp. 141-68 in LAND TENURE AND SOCIAL TRANSFORMATION IN THE MIDDLE EAST. TARIF KHALIDI (Ed.). BEIRUT, 1984.
  375. THE SOVIET CONQUEST OF GEORGIA [CENTRAL ASIAN SURVEY, Vol. 12, No. 1, 1993, pp. 33-46], STEPHEN J.  BLANK.
  376. THE SOVIET PEOPLE AND THE MUSLIM WORLD, 1917-1958. IVAN SPECTOR. SEATTLE: UNIVERSITY OF WASHINGTON PRESS, 1959.
  377. THE SOVIET UNION: FROM TOTALITARIAN DICTATORSHIP TO POST-STALINIST SOCIETY. BOULDER, SAN FRANCISCO, AND OXFORD: WESTVIEW PRESS, 1991. {CONTAINS ARTICLE: NATIONALISM AND POLICY TOWARD THE NATIONALITIES, BY GERHARD SIMON}
  378. THE STATE OF HISTORICAL SCIENCES IN THE GEORGIAN SSR [CAUCASIAN REVIEW, MUNICH (CRM), No. 1, 1955, p. 93 ff.], M. LASHAURI.
  379. THE STATUS OF THE MUSLIM UNDER EUROPEAN RULE: THE EVICTION AND SETTLEMENT OF THE CERKES [JOURNAL OF THE INSTITUTE OF MUSLIM MINORITY AFFAIRS (JIMMA), JEDDAH, 1.2 - 2.1, 1979-1980, pp. 7-27], KEMAL H. KARPAT.
  380. THE STORY OF MANKIND. HANDRICK VAN LOON, 1938.
  381. THE STRUGGLE FOR TRANSCAUCASIA, 1917-1921. FIRUZ KAZEMZADEH. NEW YORK: PHILOSOPHICAL LIBRARY, 1951; OXFORD: G. RONALD (OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS), 1951. (356 pages). {THIS IS ALSO THE TITLE OF THE AUTHOR'S PhD DISSERTATION, HARVARD UNIVERSITY, CAMBRIDGE, MASSACHUSETTS, 1950}
  382. THE STUDY OF THE ISLAMIC MIDDLE EAST IN THE SOVIET UNION, 1940-56. MOSHE PERLMANN. REPORT ON CURRENT RESEARCH ON THE MIDDLE EAST, SPRING 1957, MIDDLE EAST INSTITUTE, WASHINGTON, D. C.
  383. THE SUPPRESSION OF GEORGIAN INDEPENDENCE [CAUCASIAN REVIEW, MUNICH (CRM), No. 1, 1955, P. 55 ff.], GRIGORY URATADZE. {"The writer was born in Georgia in 1880. He was a journalist. He authored several monographs and numerous articles on the Revolutionary movement in Georgia and the Soviet nationalities policy. He was an associate of the Institute for the Study of the USSR."}
  384. THE SYSTEM OF PAYMENT IN MAMLUK MILITARY SOCIETY [JOURNAL OF ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL HISTORY OF THE ORIENT, Vol. I, No. 1, 1958], DAVID AYALON.
  385. THE THIRTEENTH TRIBE. THE KHAZAR EMPIRE AND ITS HERITAGE. ARTHUR KOESTLER. NEW YORK: RANDOM HOUSE, 1976.(255 PAGES). {SEE ALSO THE HISTORY OF THE JEWISH KHAZARS ABOVE}
  386. THE TRAINING OF THE MAMLUK FARIS. HASSANEIN RABIE. PP. 153-63 IN WAR, TECHNOLOGY AND SOCIETY IN THE MIDDLE EAST. V. J. PARRY AND M. E. YAPP (Eds.). LONDON: OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS, 1975. {Faris is an Arabic word which means knight}
  387. THE TRUTH ABOUT THE DEPORTATION OF THE CHECHEN AND INGUSH PEOPLES [SOVIET STUDIES IN HISTORY, AUTUMN (FALL) 1991], NIKOLAI FEDOROVICH BUGAI. {The original Russian version of this article was published in Voprosy istorii, 7, 1990, pp. 32-44}
  388. THE TURKS, IRAN AND THE CAUCASUS IN THE MIDDLE AGES. VLADIMIR MINORSKY (1877-1966). COLLECTED STUDIES SERIES; CS83. LONDON: VARIORUM REPRINTS, 1978. (368 PAGES. 23 cm. ISBN 0860780287). {PREFACE BY J. A. BOYLE. INCLUDES BIBLIOGRAPHICAL REFERENCES}
  389. THE "VOLUNTARY" ADHERENCE OF KABARDA (EASTERN CIRCASSIA) TO RUSSIA [CAUCASIAN REVIEW, MUNICH (CRM), No. 2, 1956, P. 17 ff.], AYTEK NAMITOK. {See also "Voluntary" Union of Kabarda with Russia in CAUCASIAN REVIEW, MUNICH (CRM), No. 1, 1955, P. 173}
  390. THE WAFIDIYA IN THE MAMLUK KINGDOM [ISLAMIC CULTURE, XXV, JUBILEE NUMBER, PP. 89-104], DAVID AYALON.
  391. THE WHITE ARMY. A. I. DENIKIN. LONDON: JONATHAN CAPE, 1930.
  392. THIRTY COWS FOR AN EYE: THE TRADITIONAL ECONOMY OF THE CENTRAL CAUCASUS: AN ANALYSIS FROM 19th CENTURY TRAVELLERS' ACCOUNTS [CENTRAL ASIAN SURVEY, Vol. 4, No. 3, 1985, PP. 115-29], MARY L. HENZE.
  393. TREATY ON THE CONFEDERATIVE UNION OF THE MOUNTAIN PEOPLES OF THE CAUCASUS. APPENDIX 4, PP. 304-9 IN ABKHAZIA: A PROBLEM OF IDENTITY AND OWNERSHIP [CENTRAL ASIAN SURVEY, Vol. 12, No. 3, 1993
  394. ? TROIS FONDATIONS FEM. DANS L'EGYPTE MAMLOUKE.
  395. TURKEY FROM EMPIRE TO REPUBLIC. PRICE MORGAN PHILIPS. / UNI. MAN.
  396. TURKISH RULE EAST OF THE JORDAN [THE NINETEENTH CENTURY AND AFTER 52, 1902, PP. 226-38], GERTRUDE BELL. {Account of Circassian settlement on p. 229}
  397. TWILIGHT ON THE CAUCASUS: TRIUMPH AND TRAGEDY OF IMAM SHAMYL, LION OF DAGHESTAN. S. Z. AHMAD. PROFESSIONAL PRESS, CHAPEL HILL, NC, 1997.
  398. UNA SINGOLARE FIGURA MONFERRINA G. B. BOETTI DETTO IL PROFETA MANSUR. STORIE DIE ALTRI TEMPI. LA GRAFICA MONFERRINA CASALE, 1950. GABOTTO LUIGI.
  399. UN AWENTURIERE MONFERRINO DEL SECOLO XVIII. PADRE G. B. BOETTI DELTO IL PROFETA MANSUR CON RITRATTO. FRANCESCO PICCO. ALESSANDRIA, 1901, 85 s.
  400. UNITE ET DIVERSITE DE LA CAUCASIE MEDIEVALE (IV^e-XI^es.) [SETTIMANE DI STUDIO- CENTRO ITALIANO DI STUDI ALTO MEDIOEVO (ISSN 0528-5666), Vol. 43, No. 1, 1995, P. 275 ff.], B. MARTIN-HISARD.
  401. UNITE ET DIVERSITE DE LA CAUCASIE MEDIEVALE (IV^e-XI^es.): DISCUSSIONE [SETTIMANE DI STUDIO- CENTRO ITALIANO DI STUDI ALTO MEDIOEVO (ISSN 0528-5666), Vol. 43, No. 1, 1995, P. 349 ff.]
  402. UN MANUSCRIT ILLUSTRE SUR LA CHEVALRIE VERS LA FIN DU REGNE DE MAMLUKS CIRCASSIENS (RESUME). MUHAMMAD MUSTAFA. PP. 333-4 IN COLLOQUE INTERNATIONAL SUR L'HISTOIRE DU CAIRE. CAIRO, 27 MARCH - 5 APRIL 1969. ANDRE RAYMOND et al. (Eds.). CAIRO: WIZARAT AL-THAQAFA n.d. (MINISTRY OF CULTURE).
  403. UN MOUVEMENT POPULAIRE AU CAUCASE AU XVIIIe SIECLE. LA "GUERRE SAINTE" DU SHEIKH MANSUR (1785-1791), PAGE MAL CONNUE ET CONTROVERSEE DES RELATIONS RUSSO-TURQUES [CAHIERS DU MONDE RUSSE ET SOVIETIQUE (CMRS), PARIS, LA HAYE, Vol. V, No. 2, APRIL-JUNE 1964, PP. 159-97], ALEXANDRE BENNIGSEN. {REASSESSMENT OF THE FIRST NORTH CAUCASIAN JIHAD AND THE PERSONALITY AND ROLE OF SHEIKH MANSUR, BASED ON PREVIOUSLY UNKNOWN DOCUMENTS FOUND IN THE OTTOMAN ARCHIVES BY PROFESSOR BENNIGSEN -- COMMENTS FROM BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTE IN THE NORTH CAUCASUS BARRIER.. MARIE BENNIGSEN-BROXUP (Ed.). LONDON: HURST & COMPANY, 1996. 2nd IMPRESSION.}
  404. 'UN-REWRITING' HISTORY - THE SHAMIL PROBLEM [CAUCASIAN REVIEW, MUNICH (CRM), Vol. 1, No. 6, 1958, pp. 7-29], PAUL B. HENZE. {See also THE SHAMIL PROBLEM. PAUL B. HENZE. PP. 415-43 in THE MIDDLE EAST IN TRANSITION: STUDIES IN CONTEMPORARY HISTORY. WALTER Z. LAQUEUR (Ed.). LONDON, NEW YORK: PRAEGER, 1958. "The writer was born in Minnesota in 1924. An American student of Russian affairs who has specialized, inter alia, in the Caucasus and Central Asia. Educated in the Middle West and at Harvard." - Caucasian Review}
  405. UNSER KAUKASUS UND DESSER SISTEMATISCH PACIEFIRUNG. MARKUS VON CZERLIEU. VIENNA, 1882. {THE AUSTRIANS WERE INTERESTED IN THE RUSSIAN  SUBJUGATION OF  OTHER NATIONALITIES IN ORDER TO TAKE A LEAF FROM THEIR BOOK}
  406. UN TEMOIGNAGE FRANCAIS SUR CHAMIL ET LES GUERRES DE CAUCASE [CAHIERS DU MONDE RUSSE ET SOVIETIQUE, VII, No. 4, OCTOBER-DECEMBER 1965, PP. 311-22], ALEXANDRE BENNIGSEN.
  407. UTOPIA IN POWER: A HISTORY OF THE USSR. M. HELLER AND ALEKSANDR M. NEKRICH. LONDON: HUTCHINSON, 1986. {In other works the author's name is written Nekrich}
  408. VENICE AND FLORENCE IN THE MAMLUK COMMERCIAL PRIVILEGES [BULLETIN OF THE SCHOOL OF ORIENTAL AND AFRICAN STUDIES, 1965, PP. 483-523], J. WANSBROUGH.
  409. VICEROY VORONTSOV'S ADMINISTRATION OF THE CAUCASUS. L. H. RHINELANDER. PP. 87-104 IN TRANSCAUCASIA, NATIONALISM AND SOCIAL CHANGE. RONALD GRIGOR SUNY (Ed.). ANN ARBOR: UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN PRESS, 1983.
  410. VORONTSOV'S 1845 EXPEDITION AGAINST SHAMIL: A BRITISH REPORT [CENTRAL ASIAN SURVEY, Vol. IV, No. 4, AUTUMN 1985, PP. 13-33], MOSHE GAMMER.
  411. WAR AND REVOLUTION IN ASIATIC RUSSIA, 1914/1917. M. P. PRICE. / UNI. MAN.
  412. WHO WAS SHAMIL?: RUSSIAN COLONIAL RULE AND SUFI ISLAM IN THE NORTH CAUCASUS 1859-1917 [CENTRAL ASIAN SURVEY (ISSN 0263-4937), Vol. 14, No. 2, 1995, P. 205 ff.], A. L. JERSILD.
  413. YET ANOTHER REWRITE OF THE HISTORY OF THE CAUCASIAN WAR? ANNE SHEEHY. RADIO LIBERTY RESEARCH BULLETIN, No. RL 39/84, 30 JANUARY 1984.
  414. YET ANOTHER REWRITE OF THE HISTORY OF THE CAUCASIAN WAR? ANNE SHEEHY. RADIO LIBERTY RESEARCH, No. RL 271/88, 28 JUNE 1988.

Part Two of Bibliography

LINKS TO NORTH CAUCASIAN SITES

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