The Great Archbishop Augustine W. Kandathil, D. D.

The outline of a vocation

George J. Thalian, D. D.

`Neither do men light a candle and put it under a bushel, but upon a candlestick, that it may shine to all that are in the house.'
Matt. 5:16.

`This light of the world, and city on a mountain, and candle upon a candlestick, signifieth the Clergy, and the whole Church, so built upon Christ the mountain, that it must needs be visible, and cannot be hid nor unknown. Aug. cont. Fulg. Donat. c. 18. Li. 16. cont. Faust. c. 17. And therefore, the Church being a candle nor under a bushel, but shining to all in the house (that is) in the world, what shall I say more (saith St. Augustine) than that they are blind which shut their eyes against the candle that is set on the candlestick? Tract. 2. in ep. 10.'
-- Annotation in the Douay-Rheims version of the Holy Bible, 1582.

Likeness of His Grace the Most Reverend Matropolitan Augustine W. Kandathil, D. D.
Low-resolution image of detail of Portrait by Artist Mr. P. J. Cherian, Puthanangady, Oil on canvas, c. 1923.
Central Hall, Archbishop's House, Ernakulam.
(High-resolution image available on request.)

Postscript. PDF.

Nihil obstat: Fr. A. Thomas Mootheden, M. A., D. D., Nirmala College, Muvattupuzha, 16-11-1960.
Imprimatur: Mgr. George Valliarumpeth, Vicar-General, Ernakulam, 12-12-1960.
Publisher: George J. Thalian, D. D., Assisi Mount, Neerpara, 30-6-1993; David C. Kandathil, 10-1-2006.
Printer: Bp. Louis M. Pareparambil Memorial Press, Broadway, Ernakulam.
© 1961, 1993, 2006. David C. Kandathil, Chempu, Vaikom ([email protected]). All rights reserved.


  1. Preface to the first edition
  2. Preface to the second edition
  3. Foreword

  4. Archbishop Augustine W. Kandathil
  5. His early life
  6. Extension of the Hierarchy
  7. His mortified life of virtues
  8. Shepherd of souls
  9. Lover of the poor
  10. The protector of Christian schools
  11. Reünion of the separated
  12. The spiritual renovation of the faithful
  13. The end of his life
  14. His epitaph

An essay on Archbishop Kandathil, written in the form of notes on Fr. Thalian's work

  1. Family
  2. Formation: Kandathil Thoma Achen, Mannanam, Kandy
  3. Rector of Petit Seminary, Bp. Aloysius M. Pareparambil, Coädjutor
  4. The Apostolic Hierarchy
  5. Administration and Accountancy
  6. Rome, Ireland, St. Thérèse de Lisieux
  7. Sathyadeepam {സത്യദീപം}
  8. The Malabar Mail {മലബാര്‍ മെയില്‍}, `Utharavada bharanam' {ഉത്തരവാദ ഭരണം / Responsible government}, Travancore Education Bill
  9. Bp. Louis M. Pareparambil Memorial Press, Ernakulam Missam, Ernakulam Archdiocesan Library
  10. All Kerala Catholic Congress, `Nivarthanam' {നിവര്‍ത്തനം / Abstention}, Travancore State Congress, Indian National Congress
  11. Propagation of Christianity, Social justice
  12. Foundations of Congregations {Cœnobite orders}, CST, CSN, etc.
  13. Medical apostolate
  14. Christian education
  15. Seminary education
  16. Reünion movement
  17. Jubilee of St. Thomas the Apostle
  18. Extension of the Apostolic Hierarchy
  19. Liturgy of the Apostolic Christians
  20. Appearance, residence, and health
  21. Commemoration

  22. Selected bibliography

Archbishop Augustine W. Kandathil

On the 10th of January 1956, there occurred a sad and unexpected event that plunged the people of Kerala into deep sorrow. It was the demise of the Archbishop Most Rev. Augustine W. Kandathil [Warkey], the head of the Apostolic Hierarchy in India. That long life of more than half a century for the Church of Christ in Kerala came to an end that day. It was a loss not only for the Christian Church in Kerala, but also for the whole of India. He served the Church for 55 years as a priest, 44 years as a bishop, and 32 years as an Archbishop. His achievements are written already in letters of gold in the annals of the history of the Apostolic Church in India. They bear testimony to the fruitful service he has rendered to the Church and to his country. Let us cast a glance at his long and glorious life of service to the Church and to the society at large in India.

His early life

He was born at Chempu, in Vaikom, Kerala, on the 25th of August 1874, and was brought up in the spirit of a Christian family that taught him to love God more and more as he grew older. He completed his priestly studies in the Papal Seminary, Kandy, and was ordained priest on the 21st of December 1901 at Kandy by Rt. Rev. Bp. Clemente Pagnani, O. S. B. Silv., the then Bishop of Kandy. Afterwards, he returned to his Vicariate of Ernakulam and was made the first Rector of the Petit Seminary there. He carried out his duty to the great satisfaction of his Bishop up to 1911. In between he had been vicar in two places (Vadayar and Kulasekharamangalam), and within a short time, by his ardent zeal and holiness, he proved himself an excellent parish priest after the Sacred Heart of Jesus.

He was consecrated Bishop on the 3rd of December 1911 at Kandy by Most Rev. Abp. Władysław Michał Zaleski, the then Delegate-Apostolic to India, and was appointed Coädjutor (on the 29th of August 1911) to the then Vicar-Apostolic, Rt. Rev. Bp. Louis M. Pareparambil, of the Vicariate of Ernakulam. At the death of Bishop Louis on the 9th of December 1919, he became the Vicar-Apostolic of the Vicariate. When the Apostolic Hierarchy was established and the Vicariate was raised to the status of an Archdiocese on the 21st of December 1923, he was made the Archbishop. And it was his privilege to be the first Indian Archbishop in power and administration.

The Hierarchy of the Apostolic Christians as founded on 21 Dec. 1923:
Left to right: Bp. Francis Vazhapilly (Trichur; appointed: 5 Apr. 1921), Bp. Thomas C. Kurialacherry (Changanacherry; appointed: 30 Aug. 1911), Metropolitan Abp. Augustine W. Kandathil (Ernakulam; appointed Coädjutor: 29 Aug. 1911), and Bp. Alexander J. Chulaparambil (Kottayam (Southist); appointed: 16 Jul. 1914).

In the Jubilee Year 1925 he visited the Holy father Pope Pius XI and the eternal city for the first and only time. In 1926 he celebrated his sacerdotal silver jubilee. Then in the year 1936 he celebrated the silver jubilee as a Bishop. On that jubilee day the title of the Official Assistant at the Pontifical Throne was conferred on him [30 Nov. 1936, AAS, annus 39, series II, vol. IV (2), 20 Feb. 1937, p. 40]. He was the first to receive this honour in India. Again he had the privilege to celebrate the golden jubilee of his ordination, and it was celebrated in a splendid way. The crowning function of it was the Eucharistic procession conducted with all grandeur and solemnity at Ernakulam.

Extension of the Hierarchy

29 Apr. 1955 was a red letter day in the history of the Apostolic Church in Kerala, because it was on that day that the decree of the extension of the Apostolic Hierarchy was published and granted by the Holy See mainly due to the ceaseless efforts of Abp. Augustine W. Kandathil. He refers to it in his pastoral letter thus: `Personally speaking I tried my level best for it with the help of my suffragan bishops. I am glad to see that our efforts proved fruitful and I thank God Almighty for it in a special manner. I believe that it will help the Church in India both spiritually and materially to grow and flourish more and more in her achievements.'

His mortified life of virtues

He was known for his solid piety. Love for the poor and purity of life were the two virtues shining in him most. His personal capacity was the moving force for all the achievements. His motto `In te speravi' {I trust in Thee} was the guiding principle of his life. Every action of his was a reflection of his well chosen motto for life. He was convinced that all his endeavours had to be stamped with the divine help to bring forth fruits. He firmly believed that all his strength was from God, and lived the life of a faithful soldier of Christ accordingly. The hand of God was manifest in all his undertakings throughout his life. He was a man of prayer. He found consolation and hope in prayer. Every day he drew strength for his hard work from the power-house of grace through prayer and penance. The external activities of his pastoral life were the signs of his union with the Good Shepherd Jesus Christ.

Shepherd of souls

He served the Apostolic Church in Kerala at large and the Archdiocese of Ernakulam in particular for 44 long years with the generous heart of Jesus the Good Shepherd. His service will be remembered by the future generations of Kerala with feelings of gratitude and reverence. The Archdiocese of Ernakulam is indebted to him much.

He was a man of principle, and he regulated his works of administration accordingly. He established order everywhere, whether in the accounts of the parish or of any pious institution. He had a well thought-out plan for everything. For the ruling of the diocese, he adapted a proper and accurate form of administration according to the needs of the times. Laws were laid down regarding the administration of the parish property and things connected with it. He was attentive to every detail of administration. In the beginning, he had to face a lot of difficulties in bringing order in all these matters. But with a strong and resolute mind he overcame all these difficulties. To safeguard the rights of the Church in Kerala he worked hard and achieved success. He had the happiness of seeing the fruits of his labour before his death. To a great extent the Apostolic Hierarchy owes to Abp. Augustine W. Kandathil, its head, for its success then and after.

For the good of his children entrusted to him, and others too, he was ready to do everything he could. He could overcome any obstacle on the way to his end in view, by his undying motive force which was the love of God. It was as it were in his nature to go ahead amidst troubles either from within or without in order to do good to the people. Though he was strict and exacting in his dealings, he was broad-minded and far-sighted. First and foremost he was strict to himself, and that was the sign of the sincerity of his purpose.

Lover of the poor

  • Left: St. Damien Jozef de Veuster of Molokai, SS. CC., 1888.
  • Right: St. Augustine points the way to his tomb in Pavia to the crippled and the poor with the promise of a cure, by Jacopo Robusti (Il Tintoretto) , Oil on canvas, c. 1549. 255 cm x 175 cm. Museo Civico, Vicenza, Italy.

    `പാവങ്ങള്ക്കു് വേണ്ടി ജീവിക്കുവാനല്ലേ നാം അച്ചനായതു്?'

    The poor and the down-trodden had a special place in the corner of his magnanimous heart which was aglow with the love of God. He left no stone unturned for doing good to them. They could see in him Christ going about doing good. All the hospitals in the Archdiocese, meant for the different kinds of people suffering from all sorts of diseases including leprosy, bear witness to his love of God and love of the poor. Orphanages for the young and old were dear to his heart and they had their origin from him. He was not satisfied with merely founding these institutions for the poor but also saw to it that they really proved helpful to the poor. To look after the sick and poor of different walks of life, he founded different religious congregations {Cœnobite orders} both for men and women. Well-trained sisters were mainly given the charge of the sick and old, and especially the lepers. As often as he could, he visited the hospitals and the other institutions and examined their working, giving necessary corrections and directions so that they might serve their purpose well. Thus he is rightly called the lover of the poor and the needy.

    The protector of Christian schools

    To have a lively faith in God it is necessary that children be given Christian education. He understood this fundamental principle very well and lived for it. He fought for it boldly and unceasingly against the opposing forces. He vindicated the right of the Church to give them proper education. When others were wavering about it, he proved a sure guide and powerful leader to bring them to the proper channels and make them also fight with him for the cause. To show how much he worked for Christian education, it will be helpful to know the number of colleges, schools, and other institutions meant for the cause, he had in his Archdiocese. The Nirmala College at Muvattupuzha will be a standing monument to his thirst for having a new Christian college in his Archdiocese for the better formation of the modern youth. When he died, there were 2 colleges, 31 high schools, 42 middle schools, 138 primary schools, 2 teachers' training schools, 5 industrial schools, and 25 boarding houses, in his Archdiocese for the purpose of imparting Christian education.

    Again, with a view to safeguard the faith of the people, he spread Christian literature on all topics, especially on matters of importance as the time demanded. The most widely circulated and appreciated Christian weekly `Sathyadeepam' {സത്യദീപം} bears witness to his love of Christian literature. He began it and maintained it as the apple of his eye. There was a daily, `The Malabar Mail' {മലബാര്‍ മെയില്‍}, the souvenir of his episcopal silver jubilee. This is an outstanding success of his strenuous efforts in this matter.

  • The Rt. Hon'ble Mr. V. K. Krishna Menon, Vengalil, presiding over the College day celebrations of Nirmala College, Muvattupuzha, 3 Feb. 1958.

    "The Education Bill was passed by the Kerala Assembly on 2 Sep. 1957 and forwarded to the President for his approval... Unexpectedly, in view of his general sympathy with left-wing movements, Krishna Menon, after a visit to Cochin (Dec. 1957), reported that there was a considerable deterioration in the situation in Kerala. Far more sinister trends were developing than might be inferred from the seeming quiet on the surface and he expected conditions to become worse... Clearly his evaluation, rather than the perennial complaints of the local Congress and the Governor's reports, influenced Nehru, and the new year (1958) saw the Prime Minister more critical than before of the E. M. S. Namboodiripad Government... He continued to deprecate the recourse to violent methods by the opposition in Kerala, but now suggested that the state of tension and conflict were largely due to the attitude and activities of the Communist Party. He was once more reïterating his dislike of the Communist approach, its promotion of class bitterness and hatred, the rejection of accepted standards of public behaviour, and the proneness to seek guidance abroad. It was now his view that the Communists in Kerala were adopting the Leninist tactic of pretending to accept `bourgeois' democracy as a legitimate move in the struggle to establish Communist supremacy. `I don't want Communism here.'... In Aug. 1958, for the first time Nehru spoke publicly in terms critical of the Kerala Government, and declared that he had not been convinced by their answers to the charges. He disliked the spiral of violent demonstrations leading to police firings and... sympathised with their predicament when surrounded by angry mobs. But he blamed the state Government for terrorising people, a development which had nothing to do with Communism and... was clear that the situation could not be ignored... A report by Krishna Menon on a visit to Kerala, which the state Government denounced as a `conducted tour', confirmed Nehru's attitude. Subsequent developments and information also lent support to his view that a considerable section of the people in Kerala had a feeling of `political insecurity' in the sense that some political parties were being harassed and others protected."
    -- Sarvepalli Gopal, in `Jawaharlal Nehru: A biography', Volume III, 1956-1964, Oxford University Press, 1984, pp. 57-58, 63-64.

    Reünion of the separated

    To bring the separated brethren back to the true fold of Christ, he helped Most Rev. Geevarghese T. Ivanios Panicker, O. I. C. and his followers. He could see only with great sorrow the separated churches of disorder and confusion leading the sheep astray. He did, therefore, everything possible for their long expected reünion with the true Church of Christ. He prayed for it with the heart of a good shepherd. His last pastoral letter treated of the reünion of his separated brethren. He says: `My earnest prayer and desire is that the separated brethren may come to the true fold soon. I am longing for it and I invite them all with a fatherly heart.'

    The spiritual renovation of the faithful

  • Left: Maria Gräfin Droste zu Vischering of the Divine Heart, O. L. C. (* 8 Sep. 1863 - † 8 Jun. 1899)
  • Right: Crucifix, by Donatello (Donato di Niccolò di Betto Bardi), Bronze statue, c. 1444-1447. 180 cm x 166 cm. Basilica of St. Antony Fernando Martins de Bulhões [Bouillon], O. F. M., Padua, Italy. `IESVS NAZARENVS REX IVDÆORVM'. `But we preach Christ crucified [☧], to the Jews certainly a scandal, and to the Gentiles, foolishness:' -- 1 Cor. 1:23.

    For the spiritual nourishment and growth of the people entrusted to him, he introduced many useful and timely ways and means by which they could grow in sanctity. The spreading of the devotion to the Sacred Heart was the first and best among the many.

    He exhorted the faithful that they should dedicate their homes to the Sacred Heart and make Him the Ruler of their homes. Each and every action of theirs must be governed by that Ruler. He made compulsory that there should be an annual retreat in every parish. All the parishioners were expected to take part in it deriving spiritual strength for the whole year. Devotion to the Sacred Passion of Our Lord was spread in many parishes; it produced wonderful effects on the people and they began to understand more the dignity of suffering in their lives. Feasts were celebrated with more spirit of prayer and interior reform of the participants. Sacraments were administered in more regulated and unified forms according to the importance and sanctity of each one. Children were taught catechism in the Christian schools and parishes and encouraged with prizes for distinction in it. The grown-ups were also given lessons of catechism according to their ability of understanding the sublime truths about Christ and His Church on earth. All his attempts both for the spiritual and temporal welfare of the Archdiocese of Ernakulam met with grand and unqualified success and it is noticeable in priests, parishes, religious, faithful, and in institutions of various kinds. The secret of his success lies in his well-chosen motto of life: `In te speravi'. It did not remain a dead letter. It was the lodestar of his life till he breathed his last.

    The end of his life

    Let us hear about his happy and peaceful death [AAS, annus 48, series II, vol. XXIII (2), 25 Feb. 1956, p. 112]: `He had the privilege to die a peaceful and happy death because his life was such. He lived in faith and prayer. He received all the last sacraments in perfect serenity and in his senses. Together with the Extreme unction, he himself asked for Viaticum. Before receiving the Holy Communion, he said the `confiteor' distinctly. While he was given Extreme unction after the anointing of every member, he answered clearly `Amen'. Then he breathed his last with the last words `Sacred Heart of Jesus, I trust in Thee'. Thus he sealed his life of faith and confidence; with these words he commended his soul to the Father. As he lived, so he died, fulfilling the will of God on earth. His long life of dedication to the Church and to his country gloriously came to an end here on earth.'

    `Blessed is the rich man that is found without spot: and that hath not gone after gold, nor hoped in money and treasures. Who is this, & we will praise him, for he hath done marvelous things in his life. Who is proved therein, & perfect, shall have eternal Glory. He that could transgress, and hath not transgressed: and do evils, and hath not done: therefore are his good things stablished in our Lord, & all the church of saints shall declare his alms.' (Eccles. 31:8-11.) What beautiful words! He was a man to whom the Lord gave five talents, and he gained another five. What is his reward? Entrance into the joy of the Lord. (Matt. 25:21.)

    I believe that Abp. Augustine W. Kandathil of happy memory is now in heaven interceding for the Church in India, especially in Kerala, and for his country at large. By Divine Providence, the example of his life is a lesson delivered to the present age, of self-sacrifice and over-flowing generosity towards God and man.

    His epitaph

    Loving and Respectful Memory

    His Grace the Most Reverend

    Archbishop of Ernakulam
    Assistant at the Pontifical Throne
    Roman Count

    First Metropolitan
    The Apostolic Hierarchy

    Watchful Guardian
    The Rights of St. Thomas Christians

    Resolute Defender of their Ancient Rite
    Zealous Promoter of the Reünion Movement

    Founder of
    Numerous Institutions of Charity

    Ardent devotee of
    The Most Sacred Heart of Jesus

    His was a life of Heroic toil
    Dedicated to
    The Service of Church and Country.

    Born 25-8-1874
    Ordained Priest 21-12-1901
    Consecrated Bishop 3-12-1911
    Installed Archbishop 16-11-1924
    Called to eternal rest 10-1-1956

    Preface to the first edition *

    This is not a biography, much less a history, of the illustrious and esteemed late Archbishop of Ernakulam Most Rev. Metropolitan Augustine W. Kandathil, D. D. But this is only a faint echo of the feelings of affection and admiration that well up in my heart for the incandescent personality of the Archbishop who has inspired my life, enkindled my spirits, and who still fills my mind with memories never to fade. In the fond hope that these pages will constitute a humble acknowledgement of the deep debt of gratitude I owe him, I publish this on the fifth anniversary of his departure from this world.

    George J. Thalian.
    10 Jan. 1961.

    * The first edition was published under the title `The First Indian Archbishop, His Grace Most Rev. Metropolitan Augustine W. Kandathil, D. D.'

    Preface to the second edition

    I published this book first on the 10th of January 1961, when I was a student in the Seminary, Trichy. Years passed, times changed, the numbers of the Bishops and the Archbishops including the Cardinals increased in the Christian Church of India, and in Kerala in particular. Still the Metropolitan Augustine W. Kandathil stands out as the Great Archbishop, especially in Kerala, even now in my mind. He was a man of strong decision and action, with strong mind and heart looking ahead of the times. Moreover he was a leader in the Christian Church, concerned more about the people of God and priests in the Church, with discipline, more than anything else.

    With the memories of all these of the past, I think that at present a Patriarch must be the Great one with all these qualities of mind and heart of action for the unity in the Apostolic Church, especially in the liturgy, and the discipline among the priests and the religious more than anything else. The high title with authority and power is not enough. It has to be exercised for the good of the whole Church at large in the way acceptable to all as far as possible.

    This is the reason why I publish this very short life history of that great man, the Archbishop, Metropolitan Augustine W. Kandathil, as an outstanding model to the people and priests, and even to the Bishops and Archbishops of Kerala Christian Church at present.

    Let me thank all those who have helped me to publish this booklet and read this with a spirit of sharing.

    George J. Thalian, D. D.
    Assisi Mount, Neerpara,


    This booklet is the outline of the biography of the illustrious ecclesiastical dignitary, Metropolitan Augustine W. Kandathil, the first Archbishop of the Apostolic Church. It is a reprint of what the author had published in 1961 as a humble token of his appreciation, love, and gratitude, to his Archbishop.

    At this juncture of the history of the Apostolic Church, it is relevant to recall the memory of this great Archbishop. One wishes he were alive today. He would have provided the much needed strong and enlightened leadership during these troubled times. While he was alive he fearlessly and tirelessly fought for defending the rights and privileges of the Church he loved, of which he was the undisputed leader. It was he who laid the foundations for the progress the Apostolic Church has made in recent times, against great odds. As early as in 1955, Archbishop Kandathil had the vision and courage to declare that we should have a liturgy that is progressive and dynamic and suited to the culture of our great nation and changing times. He would surely have been the obvious choice to be the first Patriarch of the Apostolic Church. His death leaves a void that may take long to fill adequately.

    Let us hope that his unique qualities of leadership will inspire future generations to emulate him to restore unity and prosperity in the Apostolic Church.

    Fr. Thomas Mulavarickal, B. A., L. Ph., L. D. (* 1922 - 1952 - † 29 Jul. 2000)
    Professor of Latin at the Archdiocesan college, Ernakulam, 1967-1976.
    Poor Institutions, Green Gardens, Shertallay,

    An essay on Archbishop Kandathil, written in the form of notes on Fr. Thalian's work

    David C. Kandathil ([email protected]), 10 Jan. 2006. All rights reserved.


    1. Family
    2. Formation: Kandathil Thoma Achen, Mannanam, Kandy
    3. Rector of Petit Seminary, Bp. Aloysius M. Pareparambil, Coädjutor
    4. The Apostolic Hierarchy
    5. Administration and Accountancy
    6. Rome, Ireland, St. Thérèse de Lisieux
    7. Sathyadeepam {സത്യദീപം}
    8. The Malabar Mail {മലബാര്‍ മെയില്‍}, `Utharavada bharanam' {ഉത്തരവാദ ഭരണം / Responsible government}, Travancore Education Bill
    9. Bp. Louis M. Pareparambil Memorial Press, Ernakulam Missam, Ernakulam Archdiocesan Library
    10. All Kerala Catholic Congress, `Nivarthanam' {നിവര്‍ത്തനം / Abstention}, Travancore State Congress, Indian National Congress
    11. Propagation of Christianity, Social justice
    12. Foundations of Congregations {Cœnobite orders}, CST, CSN, etc.
    13. Medical apostolate
    14. Christian education
    15. Seminary education
    16. Reünion movement
    17. Jubilee of St. Thomas the Apostle
    18. Extension of the Apostolic Hierarchy
    19. Liturgy of the Apostolic Christians
    20. Appearance, residence, and health
    21. Commemoration

    22. Selected bibliography

    The Most Reverend Archbishop Augustine W. Kandathil, D. D. {മഹാവന്ദ്യ ദിവ്യശ്രീ കണ്ടത്തില്‍ ആഗുസ്തീനോസ് മെത്രാപ്പോലീത്താച്ചന്‍, ഡി. ഡി.} (b. at Chempu {ചെമ്പു്}, near Vaikom {വൈക്കം}, in Kingdom of Vadakkumcore/Travancore {വടക്കുംകൂര്‍/തിരുവിതാംകൂര്‍ രാജ്യം}, * 25th August 1874; d. at the Metropolitan city of Ernakulam {എറണാകുളം}, Travancore-Cochin {തിരുവിതാംകൂര്‍-കൊച്ചി}, India, † 10th January 1956) was the first and longest-serving Metropolitan and Head of the Apostolic Church {Syro-Malabar Church}, the Indian Church of the Apostolic {St. Thomas} Christians {അപ്പസ്തോലിക {തോമ്മാസ് അപ്പസ്തോലന്‍} ക്രിസ്ത്യാനികള്‍}. He was the religious head of Apostolic Christianity. He was the first Indian to assume powers and reign as an Archbishop of the Christian Church [a].


    He was the second son of Mr. Kandathil Thommen Warkey {ശ്രീ കണ്ടത്തില്‍ തൊമ്മന്‍ വര്‍ക്കി} (* 1844 - † 4 Nov. 1920) of the Church of St. Thomas, Chempu [Founded: 1307; oldest Church in the Archdiocese of Ernakulam with St. Thomas as patron; carved out from the Forane Church of St. Mary, Kaduthuruthy {കടുത്തുരുത്തി / Carturte} [Founded: (c. 400 [Valiyapally] / 15 Aug. 1009 [Thazhathupally])]], and Mrs. Thresia Warkey {ശ്രീമതി ത്രേസ്യാ വര്‍ക്കി} née Noorokkary of Thaverparambil {തേവര്‍പറമ്പിലായ നൂറോക്കരി} (* 1846 - † 9 Aug. 1939) of the Church of St. George, Manvettom {മാന്‍വെട്ടം} [Founder: Chavara Kuriakose Kathanar (3 Oct. 1843)]; carved out from the Forane Church of the Holy Ghost, Muttuchira {മുട്ടുചിറ} [Founded: 25 May 550 (Pentecost)]; which in turn had been carved out from Kaduthuruthy]. During his childhood, he grew up under the tutelage of his paternal uncle Kandathil Thoma Achen {കണ്ടത്തില്‍ തോമ്മാ അച്ചന്‍} (* 2 Mar. 1855 - 6 May 1878 - † 5 Jul. 1912), Vicar of Chempu (without accepting salary) for three decades. His parents lay buried within the vaults of the Church at Chempu, and his uncle at the main altar (these tombs together with the Church were pulled down/destroyed in 1975).

    He was named in honour of the patron of the Church of St. Augustine, Ramapuram {രാമപുരം} [Founder: Dom Aleixo de Menezes, O. S. A. (1599)], to whom his mother most solemnly dedicated him. He was baptised in the Church at Manvettom. Inscriptions at Ramapuram and Manvettom commemorated these events.

    The vision of St. Augustine [<><] (* 13 Nov. 354 - † 28 Aug. 430; Feast: 28 Aug.) on the Trinity, by Sandro Botticelli, Tempera on panel, c. 1488. 20 cm x 38 cm. Uffizi Gallery, Florence, Italy.

    The House of Kandathil adopted its name when it settled in Chempu coïncident to the founding of the Church at Chempu in 1307; prior to this, it was part of the Kanjirathumkal {കാഞ്ഞിരത്തുങ്കല്‍} House of the Church of St. George, Karingachira {കരിങ്ങാച്ചിറ}, Tripunithura {തൃപ്പൂണിത്തുറ} [Founded: 13th മകരം 722; carved out from the Forane Church of St. George, Edapally {ഇടപ്പള്ളി} [Founded: 593; carved out from Kottakkavu/Kottakkayal / കോട്ടയ്ക്കാവു്/കോട്ടക്കായല്‍ {North Parur/North Paravoor / വടക്കന്‍ പറവൂര്‍}]]; those who remained there seceded to the Jacobite (Oriental Heterodox) sect. The tradition of the House of Kandathil (common to Kanjirathumkal as well) states that, prior to Karingachira, they had settled at Pallikkara {പള്ളിക്കര} (part of Edapally), Mattakkara {മറ്റക്കര}, and Palayur/Palayoor/Palur {പാലയൂര്‍/പാലൂര്‍}.

    Formation: Kandathil Thoma Achen, Mannanam, Kandy

    His formation began under the direction of his paternal uncle Kandathil Thoma Achen. He attended Village School {പ്രവൃത്തി പള്ളിക്കൂടം}, Kulasekharamangalam {കുലശേഖരമംഗലം / Collegeyra {Colligeira} Mangalão}, Chempu, and Government English School, Vaikom.

  • Left: Stamp issued in 1993; Centenary of the Papal Seminary, Kandy [Pune]. Sc# 1465.

    He joined Carmel Seminary, Vazhakulam, Muvattupuzha [Founder: Jacob Kanatt of St. Mary, T. O. C. D. (* 12 Feb. 1826 [Konthuruthy] - 21 Sep. 1850 - 1 Nov. 1858 - † 10 Jun. 1885 [Vazhakulam]) (1866); Closed: Jan. 1890] on 4 Nov. 1887; the professor of Latin there was Jacob Callarackal (then a seminarian). Bp. Charles L. Lavigne, S. J. [b] ordered that the seminarians at Vazhakulam join St. Joseph's Seminary, Mannanam [Founder: Palackal Thoma Malpan Achen (1833); Rectors: Geevarghese Parappuram of St. John the Baptist, T. O. C. D. {ക. നി. മൂ. സ. പാറപ്പുറം ഗീവര്‍ഗീസ് യോഹന്നാന്‍ മാംദാനാ അച്ചന്‍} (* 18 Feb. 1835 [S. Amballoor] - 18 Jun. 1858 - 1 Jul. 1859 - † 28 May 1908 [Koonammavu]) (1889-1894), Peter Andumalil of St. Thomas, T. O. C. D. (* 3 Oct. 1850 [Kudamaloor] - 16 Jul. 1879 - † 6 May 1917 [Mannanam]) (1885-1889); Closed: 1894], which he did on 24 Jul. 1888; during this period, he attended the newly founded High School of St. John Berchmans, S. J., Changanacherry (then located at the Rectory of the Church of Changanacherry) [Founder: Bp. Charles L. Lavigne [Louis], S. J. (* 6 Nov. 1840 [Marvejols] - 17 Dec. 1864 - 27 Dec. 1866 - † 11 Jul. 1913 [Toulouse]) (3 Feb. 1891); Headmaster: Louis Ricard, S. J. (Secretary to Bishop Lavigne, S. J.) (1891-1895)] to read more English.

    He then left in Jul. 1893 according to the direction of Bp. Charles L. Lavigne, S. J. to join the newly founded Papal Seminary {Leonianum}, Ampitiya, Kandy, Ceylon [Founder: Pope Leo XIII, Abp. Władysław Michał Zaleski (18 May 1893); Rector: Sylvain Grosjean, S. J. (* 1846 - † 1915) [Leo PP. XIII 1893]] run by Belgian members of the Society of Jesus; one of the professors there was the historian Henri Hosten, S. J.

    Rector of Petit Seminary, Bp. Aloysius M. Pareparambil, Coädjutor

    Fr. Augustine W. Kandathil {കണ്ടത്തില്‍ ആഗുസ്തീനോസ് അച്ചന്‍} was ordained priest on 21 Dec. 1901 and appointed the first rector (1902-1911) of the Sacred Heart Petit Seminary at Ernakulam, with Jacob V. Naduvathucherry as the first student; he continued to take an important part in the spiritual formation of priests and professed brothers and nuns throughout his life. He also served as the private secretary to the Vicar-Apostolic.

    During this time he was a parish priest at Church of the Infant Jesus, Vadayar {വടയാര്‍}, Vaikom [Founded: 1360] (1905-1907) (founding the School of St. Louis (1905) under the church) and at the filial Church of St. Joseph, Kulasekharamangalam {കുലശേഖരമംഗലം / Collegeyra {Colligeira} Mangalão} (later called Udayanapuram {ഉദയനാപുരം}) [Founder: Fr. Matthachan Palackal (1877)] (1903) under Kandathil Thoma Achen in Chempu.

    After being appointed Coädjutor {പിന്തുടര്‍ച്ചാവകാശമുള്ള സഹായ മെത്രാനച്ചന്‍} on 29 Aug. 1911 to the Vicar-Apostolic of Ernakulam, Bp. Aloysius M. Pareparambil {Louis M. Pazheparambil} [Mammen] {പഴേപറമ്പില്‍ അലോയ്ഷ്യസ് മെത്രാനച്ചന്‍ / പഴേപറമ്പില്‍ ളൂയീസ് മെത്രാനച്ചന്‍} (11 Aug. 1896 - 9 Dec. 1919 †) [b], he was consecrated Bishop on 3 Dec. 1911 (cf. AAS, III(16), 30 Nov. 1911, p. 610, [Kattakayam 1911]).

    During his tenure as Coädjutor, Bishop Kandathil {കണ്ടത്തില്‍ ആഗുസ്തീനോസ് മെത്രാനച്ചന്‍} diverged from Bishop Pareparambil on the question of certain expenditures of money, and consequently, he, on his own volition, left Ernakulam in 1917 and moved to the Forane Church of St. Mary, Koratty {കൊരട്ടി മുത്തി} [Founded: 1381]; in solidarity, a priest of the Vicariate, Fr. Jacob V. Naduvathucherry {ജേക്കബ് നടുവത്തുശ്ശേരി അച്ചന്‍}, went with him. Later in 1919, the Bishop and the Coädjutor reconciled, and the latter resumed residence at Ernakulam.

    Bishop Kandathil succeeded Bishop Pareparambil as Vicar-Apostolic at the latter's death on † 9 Dec. 1919. The epitaph which he composed of his predecessor has been widely admired; a biography [Illiparambil 1937] of the latter chooses to conclude with the same: `A Prelate specially devoted to the Blessed Virgin, simple in ways, frugal in habits, ever devoted to the interests of his Rite and Nation, steadfast of purpose, yet tactful in action, a scholar, a linguist, a historian, and a diplomat, he was a great Indian.' cf. also [Pareparambil Kandathil 1982].

    The Apostolic Hierarchy

    The Hierarchy of the Apostolic Christians {Syro-Malabar Hierarchy} was founded by Pope Pius XI on 21 Dec. 1923 [Pius PP. XI 1924] with the Archdiocese of Ernakulam {എറണാകുളം അതിരൂപത} as its capital See and Archbishop Augustine W. Kandathil as its first Metropolitan and Head, with suffragan Dioceses of Changanacherry, Kottayam (Southist), and Trichur, respectively under Bp. Thomas C. Kurialacherry [Chacko] [S. A. B. S.; S. B. {S. J. B. S. J.} (19 Jun. 1922)] (1911-1925), Bp. Alexander J. Chulaparambil [Joseph] [O. S. H.; B. C. M.; Kottayam Pathrika, Apna Des] (1914-1951), and Bp. Francis Vazhapilly [S. T.; Navajeevika] (1921-1942); this was the culmination of the centuries-old struggle for sovereignty in the Apostolic Church [b].

    The designated Metropolitan Augustine W. Kandathil was installed Archbishop and invested with the sacred pallium on 16 Nov. 1924 (by the Visitor-Apostolic Abp. Alexis-Henri-Marie Lépicier, O. S. M. [AAS, XVI (10), 15 Oct. 1924, p. 409], [Kattakayam 1924]) and led the Church from its helm as Metropolitan for three and a half decades, until his demise at the age of 81. Other suffragan bishops who served under him include Bishops James C. Kalacherry [Chacko] [M. C. B. S.; A.] (Changanacherry, 1927-1949), George C. Alapatt [Chackoru] [H.] (Trichur, 1944-1970), Thomas J. Tharayil [Jacob] [B. C. M.; C.] (Kottayam (Southist), 1945-1974), Matthew C. Kavukatt [Chummar] [S. T.; S. A.] (Changanacherry, 1950-1969), Sebastian M. Vayalilkalapura {Vayalil} [Mani] [M. S. T.; S. T. [Plans]; A.; S. M. C.] (Palai, 1950-1981), Joseph Parecattil (Ernakulam (auxiliary), 1953-1984), and Sebastian Valloppilly [N.] (Tellicherry, 1955-1989).

    Mgr. Jacob Kallarackal {Callarackal} (* 23 Jun. 1863 [Kanjirapally] - † 4 Mar. 1956) served as Administrator-Apostolic of the Diocese of Changanacherry during two interregna (1925-1927, 1949-1950) following the untimely deaths of Bishops Thomas C. Kurialacherry [Chacko] (* 14 Jan. 1873 [Kalloorkad, Champakulam] - 27 May 1899 - † 2 Jun. 1925) and James C. Kalacherry [Chacko] (* 20 Apr. 1892 [Kainakary] - 19 Apr. 1919 - † 27 Oct. 1949) [AAS, a. XXXXI, s. II, XVI (13), 21 Nov. 1949, p. 576]; Mgr. Matthew Edakkolathur (* 1887 - 1915 - † 20 May 1947), respectively, of the Diocese of Trichur (1942-1944), following the untimely death of Bp. Francis Vazhapilly (* 18 May 1878 [Puthenvelikara] - 22 Dec. 1906 - † 12 May 1942) [AAS, a. XXXIV, s. II, IX (9), 20 Oct. 1942, p. 312]. At the death of Bp. Alexander J. Chulaparambil [Joseph] (* 14 Oct. 1877 [Kumarakom] - 22 Dec. 1906 - † 8 Jan. 1951) [AAS, a. XXXXIII, s. II, XVIII (4), 31 Mar. 1951, p. 192], his Coädjutor succeeded him. Fr. Sebastian Valloppilly served as Administrator-Apostolic of the fledgeling Diocese of Tellicherry (1953-1955) prior to being appointed Bishop.

    Administration and Accountancy

  • Stamps issued in 1994 by Italy (Left) and Ceylon (Right); Fifth centenary of the first book on the double entry system of accountancy {the Venetian method}, Distinctio IX, Tractatus XI, `Particularis de Computis et Scripturis' {Particulars of computation and writing}, of `Summa de arithmetica, geometria, proportioni et proportionalita' {Summary of arithmetic, geometry, and proportions} (in Latin), Venice, 1494, by Luca Bartolomeo de Pacioli, O. F. M. [Luca di Borgo Santo Sepolcro {Lucæ de Burgo}, disciple of Piero della Francesca]; cf. also Bp. Cuthbert Tunstall: `De arte supputandi libri quattuor' {Book on the Art of Computation} (in Latin), Richard Pynson, London, England, 1522, and Arthur Cayley, Sc. D., F. R. S.: `The principles of book-keeping by double entry', Cambridge, England, 1894. Image adapted from the painting (centre) of Pacioli and his pupil Guidobaldo da Montefeltro, Duke of Urbino, by Jacopo de Barbari, Oil on panel, c. 1495. 120 cm x 99 cm. National Museum of Capodimonte, Naples, Italy. A crystal polyhedron (with 8 triangles and 18 squares) half-full of water is suspended on the left; the slate on the left marked `EVCLIDES' shows an equilateral triangle and its circumcircle and the book to the right (`Elements') is open at Book XIII; the closed book on the right below the wooden dodecahedron has the inscription `Li. R. Luc. Bur.'; on the table lie a sponge, a triangle, an inkwell, a roll, and a pair of compasses. Signature (on the scrap of paper on the table): `IACO. BAR. VIGENNIS. P. 1495'.
  • As an administrator, Archbishop Kandathil was noted for his eye for detail; he established systematic methods and practices of administration, accountancy, and surveying in the Church. The Maharaja {High King} of Cochin adopted his innovations in accountancy to the administration of the Kingdom of Cochin. In the tasks of administration, he was assisted successively by the Vicars-General: Mgr. Bernard Madambhagath {മോണ്‍. ബര്ണാര്‍ഡ് മാടംഭാഗത്തു് അച്ചന്‍} (* 10 Oct. 1865 [Valamangalam] - 11 Dec. 1892 [Panavally] - 1912 - † 23 Aug. 1923 [Muttom]), Mgr. Thomas Nedumkallel, Sr. {മോണ്‍. തോമസ് നെടുംകല്ലേല്‍ അച്ചന്‍} [V. C.] (1923 - 1936), Mgr. George Valliarumpeth {മോണ്‍. ജോര്‍ജ്ജ് വല്ല്യാറമ്പത്തു് അച്ചന്‍} [S. D.] (1936-1945), and Mgr. Matthew Pothanamuzhi {മോണ്‍. മാത്യൂ പോത്തനാമൂഴി അച്ചന്‍} [N.] (1945-1954).

    Rome, Ireland, St. Thérèse de Lisieux

    During the Holy Year 1925, Archbishop Kandathil, together with Bishop Kurialacherry, went on pilgrimage to Rome, the only time he left the Indian subcontinent, to thank the Pope for establishing the Apostolic Hierarchy; they also participated in the canonisation of St. Marie-Françoise-Thérèse Martin of the Infant Jesus and the Holy Face, O. C. D. {St. Thérèse de Lisieux / The little flower} on 17 May 1925 [Pius PP. XI 1925]; while at Rome, both prelates fell gravely ill, and Bishop Kurialacherry died on † 2 Jun. 1925 [AAS, XVII (9), 1 Jul. 1925, p. 336] and was buried there (his remains were transferred to Changanacherry later and reïnterred on 25 Jul. 1935).

    During his return, Archbishop Kandathil, together with Fr. Joseph C. Panjikaran {ജോസഫ് സി. പഞ്ഞിക്കാരന്‍ അച്ചന്‍}, visited the newly independent Republic of Ireland and was received by the Irish President and freedom fighter the Rt. Hon'ble Mr. William T. Cosgrave {Liam Tomás Mac Cosgair}.

  • Left: The Rt. Hon'ble Mr. William T. Cosgrave {Liam Tomás Mac Cosgair} (* 5 Jun. 1880 - † 16 Nov. 1965). Stamp issued in 1988. Sc# 711.

    Archbishop Kandathil took an important part in spreading the devotion to St. Thérèse de Lisieux; this devotion has taken root in India and continues to flourish (cf. e. g., `Kaathodu kaathoram' [Bharathan 1985]). Sr. Alphonsa Anna Muttathupadam of the Immaculate Conception, F. C. C. {നിര്‍മ്മലോത്ഭവത്തിന്റെ വിശുദ്ധ അല്‍ഫോണ്‍സാ അന്ന മുട്ടത്തുപാടം, എഫ്. സി. സി.}, an ardent devotee of the Most Sacred Heart of Jesus wrote: `In my early days I made more progress in my spiritual life than at present. I loved God more ardently. I took great care to avoid all faults. I had nothing special to mention in my first confession. I zealously aspired to become a saint. I felt that desire while I was reading the biography [Martin 1898] of St. Thérèse de Lisieux.' [Kadankavil 1948, p. 32]

    Sathyadeepam {സത്യദീപം}

    Archbishop Kandathil began the Christian weekly in Malayalam, the `Sathyadeepam' {സത്യദീപം / Lamp of truth}, on 3 Jul. 1927, with his disciple, the eminent theologian and man of letters Fr. Jacob V. Naduvathucherry {ജേക്കബ് നടുവത്തുശ്ശേരി അച്ചന്‍} as the editor, to disseminate the tenets of Christianity and its social teaching; the erudition of Fr. Naduvathucherry in the theology of Origen Adamantius, St. Augustinus Aurelius {St. Augustine of Hippo}, St. Anselm Candiæ Genavæ of Aosta, O. S. B., and St. Thomas Aquinas, O. P., was harnessed in defence of Christianity against atheism, (strong) rationalism, empiricism, materialism, positivism, communism [☭], anarchism [Ⓐ ⓐ], syndicalism, nihilism, liberalism, freemasonry, usury, scientism, and moral relativism / subjectivism. The weekly had since flourished as the organ of the Christian Church in Kerala.

    The Malabar Mail {മലബാര്‍ മെയില്‍}, `Utharavada bharanam' {ഉത്തരവാദ ഭരണം} , Travancore Education Bill

    The daily newspaper in Malayalam, `The Malabar Mail' {മലബാര്‍ മെയില്‍}, which he began on 9 Dec. 1936 with the journalist Fr. Thomas Veluthedath {തോമസ് വെളുത്തേടത്തു് അച്ചന്‍} (1936-1956) as the editor proved decisive in fostering various political struggles in the Kingdom of Travancore during the rule of Dewan C. P. Ramaswami Aiyar in the decade prior to Indian independence, such as the `Utharavada bharanam' {ഉത്തരവാദ ഭരണം / Responsible government} struggle under the Travancore State Congress {തിരുവിതാംകൂര്‍ സ്റ്റേറ്റ് കോണ്‍ഗ്രസ്സ്} and the struggles against the Education Bills on nationalising of primary schools piloted by Dewan Aiyar [വിദ്യാഭ്യാസ പ്രക്ഷോഭണം] (12 Sep. 1945) and later by the Minister for Education of Travancore-Cochin, Mr. Panampilly Govinda Menon [പനമ്പിള്ളി വിദ്യാഭ്യാസ പദ്ധതി] (1950). The paper was banned in Travancore (22 Dec. 1945), but continued to be published from Cochin and to be read in Travancore, and remained the principal daily of Ernakulam until his death. The first daily in the Kingdom of Cochin, a chief aim of the daily was the unification of Kerala from the three regions of English Malabar, Cochin, and Travancore.

    Bp. Louis M. Pareparambil Memorial Press, Ernakulam Missam, Ernakulam Archdiocesan Library

    The Bp. Louis M. Pareparambil Memorial Press was begun in 1921 with Fr. Matthai Payapilly, V. C. (* 18 Sep. 1883 - 21 Dec. 1909 - † 6 Nov. 1939 [Thottakom]) as the first Director, to support these and other publications, such as the `Ernakulam Missam', the official organ of the Archdiocese of Ernakulam, begun on 1 Oct. 1921, and the `Amma' {അമ്മ} magazine (1950). He also founded the Ernakulam Archdiocesan Library in 1924.

    All Kerala Catholic Congress {AKCC}, `Nivarthanam' {നിവര്‍ത്തനം}, Travancore State Congress, Indian National Congress

  • Left: The Rt. Hon'ble Mr. A. J. John, Anaparambil

    Archbishop Kandathil encouraged the expansion of the AKCC (fully under lay leaders during 1905-1918 and again from 1929 till the end of his life). He ordered the clergy to extend all help and support to its organisers for recruiting lay members.

    Maharaja {High King} Sree Moolam Thirunal Rama Varma, High King of Travancore (1885-1924), founded the Sree Moolam Popular Assembly {ശ്രീ മൂലം പ്രജാ സഭ / Sree Moolam Praja sabha / SMPA / SMPS} on 1 Oct. 1904. This gave the impulse for the genesis of the AKCC in 1905.

    The All Kerala Catholic Congress {അഖില കേരള കത്തോലിക്കാ കോണ്‍ഗ്രസ്സ് / AKCC}, the tribunate of the Christians of Kerala (Catholic action / Christian political (non-party) movement / സമുദായ സംഘടന in Kerala), was founded on 30 Nov. 1905 at Ernakulam under the Presidency (1905-1906) of Ezhupunna Parayil Avira Varkey Tharakan, Esq. {എഴുപുന്ന പാറായില്‍ അവിരാ വര്‍ക്കി തരകന്‍ അവര്‍കള്‍} (* 1836 - † 1 May 1906; elected to the SMPA/SMPS from Shertallay in 1904), with the patronage and approval of Bp. Louis M. Pareparambil and the participation of the Latin Christians (notably, Mr. Mayyanatt Joseph {ശ്രീ മയ്യനാട്ടു് ജോസഫ്}). Ezhupunna Parayil Varkey Avira Tharakan, Esq. {Kunjavira} {എഴുപുന്ന പാറായില്‍ വര്‍ക്കി അവിരാ തരകന്‍ അവര്‍കള്‍} (* 1880 - † 1937) and Mr. K. W. John, Kandathil {ശ്രീ കെ. ഡബ്ല്യു. ജോണ്‍, കണ്ടത്തില്‍} (* 1880 - † 22 Dec. 1920), the future Archbishop's brother, were the General Secretaries; and Mr. Perumalil Varkey Korah {ശ്രീ പെരുമാലില്‍ വര്‍ക്കി കോര} (* 1850) was the Vice-President (1905 - c. 1918). Mr. Avira Tharakan, the only son of Mr. Varkey Tharakan, was the President (1906-1918) after his father's death, with Mr. K. W. John, Kandathil, as General Secretary (1905-1918); other prominent leaders were Messrs. {സര്‍വ്വശ്രീ} Thaliath Ouseph Matthai {തളിയത്തു് ഔസേപ്പ് മത്തായി / Thaliyath} (Treasurer, 1905 - c. 1918), Kochikunnel Ittyavira {കൊച്ചീക്കുന്നേല്‍ ഇട്ടിയവിരാ} (Vice-President), Kurien Panjikaran {കുര്യ്യന്‍ പഞ്ഞിക്കാരന്‍} (General Secretary), etc.; there were c. 400 members, and a working committee of 12.

    Bishop Pareparambil, Patron of the AKCC, 1905-1918, took over as the President (1918-1919) of the AKCC from Mr. Avira Tharakan in 1918; after his death the following year, Bishop (from 1923, Archbishop) Kandathil (who had no part in the decision of Bp. Pareparambil to take over the AKCC) succeeded him and was the President (1919-1929) of the AKCC for a decade; Archbishop Kandathil desired that laymen stand on their own feet, and, while providing advice and guidance, never presided over any conferences of the AKCC; he relinquished the Presidency in 1929. cf. also [Kattakayam 1927].

    Archbishop Kandathil granted an office in 1936 (as part of the Malabar Mail building in Broadway, Ernakulam) to serve as its head-quarters. Until 1918, the head-quarters had been a portion of the Rectory of the Church of St. Raphael, Ezhupunna, Shertallay [Founded: 1859].

    The growth of the AKCC, to which the Archbishop was ever solicitous and attentive from its earliest years, helped the Christians to play a principal part in the popular struggles in Travancore and Cochin (under the leadership of Messrs. {സര്‍വ്വശ്രീ} Professor Joseph Pettah {പ്രൊഫസര്‍ ജോസഫ് പെട്ട} (President, 1932-1943); Thomas Chandy Mukkadan {തോമസ് ചാണ്ടി മുക്കാടന്‍} (General Secretary, 1932-1943); C. J. Varghese, Cunnil (General Secretary, 1925-1929; President, 1944-1945); Elanjickal Thariyath Kunjithommen {ഇലഞ്ഞിക്കല്‍ തരിയതു് കുഞ്ഞിത്തൊമ്മന്‍} (* 28 Jul. 1882 - † 8 Oct. 1955; President, 1945-1947 (resigned)), leader of the struggle for equal civic rights {പൌരസമത്വവാദ പ്രക്ഷോഭണം} and Revenue-Devaswam separation {റെവന്യൂ-ദേവസ്വം വിഭജനം} (1918-1922), MLC for Muvattupuzha (1911-1951), and Chevalier of the Order of St. Gregory the Great, Civil class, 26 Jan. 1952 {AAS, XXXXV [ser. II, vol. XIX] (17), 23 Dec. 1952, p. 895}; P. C. Varkey, Palackal {പി. സി. വര്‍ക്കി, പാലയ്ക്കല്‍} (helped in organising of AKCC in 1930s; Vice-President, 1948-1949; Chief editor for half a century of Sathyanadakahalam {സത്യനാദകാഹളം / Kerala Times}; Latin); and K. T. Cyriac, Kandathil {കെ. റ്റി. സിറിയക്ക്, കണ്ടത്തില്‍} (Organising Secretary, 1929-1945; General Secretary, 1945-1948 (resigned))) beginning with the `Nivarthanam' {നിവര്‍ത്തനം / Abstention} struggle for proportionate representation in 1932 (under the All Travancore Joint Political Congress {അഖില തിരുവിതാംകൂര്‍ സംയുക്ത രാഷ്ട്രീയ സമ്മേളനം}), and at length, for the rise, under the ægis of the Travancore State Congress / Indian National Congress, of Christians like Messrs. Professor C. J. Varkey, Chunkath [Joseph] {പ്രൊഫസര്‍ സി. ജെ. വര്‍ക്കി, ചുങ്കത്തു് [ജോസഫ്]}; A. J. John, Anaparambil [Joseph] {എ. ജെ. ജോണ്‍, ആനാപ്പറമ്പില്‍ [ജോസഫ്]}; N. V. Joseph, Naduvathucherry {എന്‍. വി. ജോസഫ്, നടുവത്തുശ്ശേരി}; K. M. Korah, Karuvelithara; C. A. Ouseph, Chalakkal [Anthony] (* 5 Mar. 1890 - † 2 Jul. 1970; President, 1943-1944, 1947-1948) [S. I. B.]; E. P. Varghese, Eracheril {Eresseril} [Pathros] {ഇ. പി. വര്‍ഗീസ്, ഈരേശ്ശേരില്‍} (President, 1949-1951; Latin); Joseph Chazhicatt (General Secretary, 1943-1945; Vice-President, 1945-1947 (requested to resign); Southist); Matthew C. Maniyangadan [Chandy] (Moozhoor); M. M. Varkey, Mookkenchery; P. J. Sebastian, Pullamkalam; R. V. Thomas, Ramapuram; Cherian J. Kappen; P. T. Chacko, Pullolil {Puthiyaparambil}; and K. M. Chandy, Kizhakkayil; to eminence in public life; the last six proved to be apostates from Christianity.

    Notable leaders who strongly supported and appreciated the AKCC despite not being members and/or holding offices in the organisation include Miss Annie Mascarene {ശ്രീമതി ആനി മസ്കറീന്‍ / മസ്ക്രീന്‍} (Latin).

    Maharani Pooradam Thirunal Setu Lakshmi Bayi {മഹാറാണി പൂരാടം തിരുനാള്‍ സേതു ലക്ഷ്മി ബായി} (1924-1931) appointed Barrister Mr. Joseph Thaliath {Thaliyath} (* 30 Jun. 1883 - † 13 Jan. 1959; President, 1948-1949) (later, Chief Justice of the High Court of Travancore (1933-1936, 1943)) as Judge of the High Court of Travancore in 1926 (for which the Archbishop wrote her a letter of appreciation [Raghunandan 1995, p. 247]).

    Propagation of Christianity, Social justice

    Archbishop Kandathil founded a missionary congregation of priests and laymen, the `Vedapracharasabha' {വേദപ്രചാരസഭ / Congregation for the propagation of Christianity} in 1921, with Fr. Joseph C. Panjikaran {ജോസഫ് സി. പഞ്ഞിക്കാരന്‍ അച്ചന്‍} as director, to work for bringing people outside the fold to Christianity; the works were aimed at pagans as well as heretics, and led to considerable increase in numbers for the Apostolic Church. According to Fr. Panjikaran: "Alone perhaps among the Eastern Christians {Catholics}, the Apostolic {St. Thomas} Christians are doing mission work among non-Christians on a large scale. In the Vatican Exhibition the pavilion marked `Riti Orientali' contains the exhibits of these Christians only, and gives a good account of the work done. The system of caste so prevalent in India made its influence felt among them as well. The high-caste Hindus were hard to convert, and as for the lower, the Christians, as descendants of the high caste, thought that by admitting the low caste converts to their community their social position and the esteem in which they were held by the high caste Hindus would suffer. But these ideas are fast changing. ... It was only within the last few years that a new impetus has been given to the propaganda and work on an organised scale carried on. The credit of this is due to the Most Rev. Metropolitan Augustine W. Kandathil, Archbishop of Ernakulam. His famous pastoral on the subject has been a trumpet-call to the Christians to march to the conquest of their non-Christian {non-Catholic} neighbours. A `Society for the Conversion of Pagans' has been started and its branches are established in nearly all the parishes. The problem of caste too has, in a way, been solved. The only church in the Archdiocese meant exclusively for the new converts was pulled down, and they were admitted to the parish churches. In some places there was opposition from the old Christians, but the Archbishop was adamant. Priests and educated lay opinion rallied to the help of the Archbishop, and the battle was won. Laymen too are showing great interest in the work, the members of the noble House of Parayil being specially worthy of mention. The result of all this has been that in 1923, the Archdiocese alone had 4089 conversions of pagans and took second rank in the list of adult conversions among all the dioceses of India, Burmah, and Ceylon. In four years over ten thousand have been fed, instructed, clothed, and baptised." [Panjikaran 1926, pp. 121-122].

    Several priests from the Archdiocese of Ernakulam, such as Fr. Jacob V. Naduvathucherry {ജേക്കബ് നടുവത്തുശ്ശേരി അച്ചന്‍} and Fr. Kuriakose Vettickapally, MLC for Thodupuzha-Kunnathunad, took part in the Vaikom struggle (along with Barrister Mr. George Joseph Oorayil). One consequence of the struggle was the founding of the Church of St. Thérèse de Lisieux, at Nadel {നടേല്‍}, Vaikom [Founder: Abp. Augustine W. Kandathil, Fr. Thomas Palackal (1 Jan. 1930)].

    Consequent to the malefic and discriminatory Presidential order (10 Aug. 1950) of Rajendra Prasad wherein the weaker sections of Christians were barred from the benefits granted to weaker sections of Hindus, an organisation for them was begun by the Archbishop in 1952 with Fr. George Kochuparambil (* 1906 [Thottakom] - 1933 - † 24 Apr. 1982) [C. P. S., Kalady] as Director. The Catholic Congress for Weaker Sections of Catholics {അവശ കത്തോലിക്കാ മഹാജന സഭ} was founded on 16 Jul. 1955 at Vijayapuram, Kottayam, with P. M. Markose (1955-1959, who had earlier led a struggle in 1937 against C. P. Ramaswami Aiyar when he issued a similar order and been a member of the working committee of the All Kerala Catholic Congress {AKCC} and M. L. A. of Vijayapuram (1954-1956)) as its first President, P. C. Paul (d. 7 May 1977; of Vechur in the Archdiocese of Ernakulam) as General Secretary, and Fr. Joseph Kochuparambil (1955-1988, of Diocese of Vijayapuram (Latin)) as the spiritual adviser.

    Foundations of Congregations {Cœnobite orders}, CST, CSN. etc.

  • St. Thérèse de Lisieux as St. Jehanne d'Arc, in play composed by her, adapting from [Wallon 1877], 21 Jan. 1895.

    During his visit to Ireland, Archbishop Kandathil perceived the works of the Congregation of Christian Brothers and was thus animated to found a monastic {Cœnobite} order for Brothers, the Congregation of Saint Thérèse of Lisieux (CST Brothers), at Mookkannur {മൂക്കന്നൂര്‍} on 19 Mar. 1931; Mr. Kulangara Gervasis Ittirah {ശ്രീ കുളങ്ങര ഗര്‍വാസീസ് ഇട്ടിര} (* 1848 - † 1935) of Mookkannur endowed the order with extensive lands; the Sacred Heart Orphanage for Boys {Balanagaram}, Mookkannur [Founder: Bp. Louis M. Pareparambil (13 Jun. 1913; Feast of the Sacred Heart)], was the first duty entrusted to the order; Benedict Joseph Kachira, C. S. T. (* 4 Apr. 1910 - † 14 Oct. 2002) of Meenkunnam, Arakuzha, and Arsenius Joseph Nedumpuram, C. S. T. (* 11 Jan. 1909 - † 3 Nov. 1990) of Nellimattam, Kothamangalam, were the charter members (vestition: 23 Jun. 1933, first vows: 2 Feb. 1938, final vows: 18 May 1955). A constitution for the order was issued by Archbishop Kandathil on 8 Oct. 1947, and a Petit Seminary was opened at Mookkannur on 1 Jun. 1948. On 27 Dec. 1945, the Archbishop ordered that the order also admit candidates to priesthood for the better realisation of its aims as an order for brothers [Ernakulam Missam, Jan. 1946], thus founding the priestly wing of the order (CST Fathers); Christopher Joseph Puthumana, C. S. T. (* 1924) of Tabore, Angamaly, was the first priestly member (first vows: 17 May 1950, final vows: 21 Nov. 1952); Basilius Thomas Panat, C. S. T. (15 Feb. 1891 - 4 Oct. 1976) of Chalil, the then vicar of Mookkannur, was appointed spiritual director of the congregation in 1931, and later became a priestly member (ordination: 26 Dec. 1918, request for admission to C. S. T.: 1946, novitiate: 17 May 1949, first vows: 17 May 1950, final vows: 21 Nov. 1952); Bp. Dominic Joseph Kokkat, C. S. T. [L. S. T.] (* 23 Feb. 1932) of Vaikom was the first bishop (Diocese of Gorakhpur (1984), suffragan of Agra, first vows: 17 May 1953, final vows: 4 Oct. 1960, consecrated bishop: 4 Oct. 1984).

    Archbishop Kandathil also founded the Congregation of the Sisters of Nazareth (CSN) at Paduapuram {പാദുവാപുരം}, near Edakkunnu {എടക്കുന്നു്}, Karukutty {കറുകുറ്റി}, on 19 Mar. 1948. Sisu Bhavanam and St. Antony's Home of Refuge {Magdalenes's home}, Paduapuram, founded the same day, were the first duties entrusted to them. The charter members were SS. Magdalene Menachery of Njarackal, Baptist Alukkal of Kanjoor, Margaret Anna Elamkuttuchira of Vaikom, Euphrasia Thaliath of Kottamam, Grace Puthenparambil of Kainady, Celine Valothil of Neyyacherry, Kochuthresia Tharayil of Chunangamvely, and Josephina Ookken of Edakulam, who took their final vows on 20 Mar. 1950. Fr. Matthew J. Mankuzhikary {മാത്യൂ ജെ. മങ്കുഴിക്കരി അച്ചന്‍} (* 7 Mar. 1909 - 22 Dec. 1934 - † 2 Jan. 2003) was later appointed as spiritual director of the order and Fr. John Pinakkatt (6 Oct. 1906 - 22 Dec. 1934 - 2 Oct. 2005) as director of the institutions.

  • V. C.: Bp. Louis M. Pareparambil, Abp. Augustine W. Kandathil [Founded: 20 Nov. 1904 (Chapel of Thottakom, Vaikom) / 19 Jul. 1927 (Charter house of the order, Thottakom, Vaikom)]
  • S. D.: Fr. Varghese Payapilly [Founded: 19 Mar. 1927 (St. Joseph's mount, Chunangamvely, Alwaye); Samaritan hospital, Pazhanganad (1969)]
  • M. S. J.: Mgr. Joseph C. Panjikaran [Founded: 31 Oct. 1944 (Dharmagiri, Kothamangalam)]
  • A. S. M. I.: Fr. Joseph K. W. Thomas, Kandathil [Founded: 2 Apr. 1949 (Poor Institutions, Green Gardens, Shertallay)]
  • Clarists / Poor Clares: Bp. Charles L. Lavigne, S. J.; Abp. Augustine W. Kandathil (Ernakulam Province) [Founded: 14 Dec. 1888 (Changanacherry); 29 Apr. 1928 (Angamaly)]
  • S. A. B. S.: Bp. Thomas C. Kurialacherry; Abp. Augustine W. Kandathil (Ernakulam Province) [Founded: 8 Dec. 1908 (Champakulam); 6 May 1930 (Koratty)]
  • S. H.: Fr. Matthew Kadalikkattil; Abp. Augustine W. Kandathil, Mgr. Francis Thekkekara (Ernakulam {Kothamangalam} Province) [Founded: 1 Jan. 1911 (Palai); 24 Jun. 1938 (Mylacompu)]

    Medical apostolate

    Archbishop Kandathil founded the Little Flower Hospital, Angamaly on 9 Feb. 1936 and appointed Fr. Joseph C. Panjikaran as Director.

    The Archbishop also founded the Hospital at Kaloor, Ernakulam (initially at Ernakulam North), in 1954 and appointed Fr. Antony Parackal as Director (1954-1994). Subsequent to his demise in 1956, it was named in his memory. Other hospitals he founded were St. Joseph's Hospital, Vechur, Vaikom (1939) and the St. Thomas Hospital, Vadayar, Vaikom (1955), and also the three hospitals he founded at Edapally, Mookkannur, and Chempu in 1951 on the occasion of the Golden Jubilee of his ordination.

    Important hospitals begun during his times include St. Joseph's Hospital, Dharmagiri [Founder: Fr. Joseph C. Panjikaran (19 Mar. 1930); the first Christian hospital in Malabar/Kerala, with the exception of St. Joseph's Hospital, Manjummel {Magnumel} [Founded: 1887 (Nicholas Veroven, O. C. D.)] of the Archdiocese of Verapoly (Latin)] and Poor Leprosy Hospital [Founded: 2 Feb. 1942 / 20. 6. 1117], Sacred Heart General Hospital [Founded: 1943], and other Poor Institutions, Green Gardens, Mathilakom, Shertallay [Founder: Fr. Joseph K. W. Thomas, Kandathil]. cf. [Panjikaran 1929]

    Christian education

    The Archbishop founded the Nirmala {നിര്‍മ്മല / Immaculate} College, Muvattupuzha, a Christian college for men and women, dedicated to the Immaculate Heart of the Blessed Virgin Mary, on 29 Jun. 1953 (affiliated to the University of Travancore-Cochin [later, Kerala] (as requested by the Archbishop in writing on 1 Nov. 1949) until 1983 and to the University at Athirampuzha, Kottayam, thenceforth) with Mgr. Matthew Pothanamuzhi {മോണ്‍. മാത്യൂ പോത്തനാമൂഴി അച്ചന്‍} [N.] as the first Director (1953-1954) and Fr. Thomas Nedumkallel, Jr., as the first Principal (1953-1970) [Minister for Education: Mr. A. J. John, Anaparambil]. The first college in the eastern marches of Ernakulam, it proved decisive to the history of the region, and nurtured a host of distinguished alumni.

    Seminary education

    Fr. Augustine W. Kandathil was the first rector (1902-1911) of the Sacred Heart Petit Seminary at Ernakulam.

    In 1920s, the Archbishop, dissatisfied with the curriculum for Apostolic Christians of the Central seminary, Puthenpally, ceased sending Apostolic Christian students there and ordered the formation of a Seminary at the Archbishop's house, to be continued until the Seminary at Puthenpally complied with his demands (which they did).

    When the Central Seminary at Puthenpally {പുത്തന്‍പള്ളി / Puttenpally} (1866-1932), conducted for both the Apostolic and Latin Christians, on behalf of the Propaganda Fide Congregation, by the Carmelites {O. C. D.} of Verapoly/Manjummel {Magnumel} and Vicariate of Malabar/Verapoly [b] (who had earlier conducted the Seminary at Verapoly {വരാപ്പുഴ / Verapolis / City of truth}, 1682-1766-1866), was translated in 1932 to Mangalapuzha, Alwaye, at the location of the Padroado {patronage} seminary (1867-1886) that had been conducted for the Apostolic Christians by the priests of the Archdiocese of Cranganore under the direction and care of the Archbishop of Goa; the rights of the Apostolic Christians were asserted with success by Archbishop Kandathil, invoking the truth that they had solely endowed the latter seminary, contributing the money for the purchase of the estate (Jul. 1866), with a principal portion of the sum coming from the House of Parayil.

    The Academy of Theology was translated on 1 Jun. 1932, and the Academy of Philosophy followed suit at the end of the year; the Seminary of St. Joseph, Mangalapuzha {മംഗലപ്പുഴ}, Alwaye, was inaugurated, 28 Jan. 1933. A new edifice was raised at neighbouring Carmelgiri (a campus newly purchased), and the Academy of Philosophy, Carmelgiri campus, begun 24 Nov. 1955; the older edifice then became the Academy of Theology, Mangalapuzha campus.

    The rectors of the Seminary of St. Joseph, Alwaye, (and earlier of the Seminary at Puthenpally) during these times were: Marcelline Antony Berardi of St. Teresa, O. C. D. (1866-1877) [b]; Boniface of the Sacred Heart of Jesus, O. C. D. (1884-1912); Juan Jose Bilbao Imaz {John Joseph}, O. C. D. [Navarre] (1912-1944); and Aurelian Pedro Landeta y Azcueta of the Blessed Sacrament, O. C. D. [Navarre] (1944-1956); with Camillus, O. C. D. (1877-1879), Eliseus of the Sacred Heart of Jesus, O. C. D. (1880-1881), Polycarp of Jesus and Mary, O. C. D. (1880-1881), and Philip, O. C. D. (1881-1884), serving for brief periods.

    The Metropolitan of the Apostolic Christians during these times was Archbishop Kandathil (1923-1956); and the Metropolitans of the Kerala Latin Christians (under the Archdiocese of Verapoly (Latin); Archdiocese from 1886) during these times were Archbishops Bernardine Joseph Baccinelli of St. Teresa, O. C. D. (1859-1868 †; Vicar-Apostolic and Bishop; founder of the Central Seminary, Puthenpally), Leonard Mellano of St. Louis, O. C. D. (1868-1897 †; Archbishop from 1886), Bernard Felipe Arguinzonis y Astorbiza of Jesus, O. C. D. (1897-1918), Ángel María Pérez y Cecilia, O. C. D. (1918-1934), and Joseph Attipetty (1934-1970 †).

    Apostolic Christian professors at the Seminary of St. Joseph, Alwaye (and earlier at the Seminary at Puthenpally) during these times were: FF. Andreas Kalapura (Syriac), Thomas Nedumkallel, Sr. (Syriac), Thomas Kochayanganal (Sanskrit), Matthew Vadakel (Syriac), John Kunnapally (Malayalam and Sanskrit), and Geevarghese Puthenpura (Syriac).

    The Padroado {patronage} [b] seminary (1867-1886) at Mangalapuzha, Alwaye, had been the successor to the Seminary of the Holy Cross, Vaipicotta {വൈപ്പിക്കോട്ട}, Kottayil Kovilakom {കോട്ടയില്‍ കോവിലകം}, Chennamangalam {ചേന്നമംഗലം / Chendamangalam}, N. Parur {വടക്കന്‍ പറവൂര്‍} [Founded: 1581; destroyed by the Protestant Dutch East India Company {Vereenigde Oost-Indische Compagnie / V. O. C.} (whose interests in Kerala were later taken over by the English East India Company [Founded: 31 Dec. 1600, London]) in 1662] run by the Society of Jesus {S. J.} for the Apostolic Christians; and continued under the Archbishops of Cranganore (with seat and Pro-Cathedral at Puthenchira {പുത്തന്‍ചിറ / Puttencherra} during 1701-1777) as the Seminary of St. Paul /Collegium Maximum of Sanctus Paulus/São Paulo/San Paolo, Sampalur {സമ്പാളൂര്‍ / St. Paul Village}, Maramkuzhy {മാരാംകുഴി}, Ambazhacad {അമ്പഴക്കാടു് / Ambazhakkad / അമ്പലക്കാടു് / Ambalacad / Ambalakad / Ambalacat / Ambalacatæ}, from 1662 until the suppression of the Society of Jesus in 1773 and the destruction and devastations by Fateh Ali Khan Tipu Sultan in 1790.

    The Seminary of St. Joseph, Alwaye {ആലുവ}, is the successor of both the Central Seminary, Puthenpally {പുത്തന്‍പള്ളി / Puttenpally} (1866-1932), and the Padroado {patronage} seminary, Mangalapuzha {മംഗലപ്പുഴ}, Alwaye (1867-1886).

    Reünion movement

    Archbishop Kandathil was an earnest supporter of the endeavours of Geevarghese T. Mar Ivanios Panicker [Thomas], O. I. C. {ഗീവര്‍ഗീസ് ഇവാനിയോസ് പണിക്കര്‍, ഒ. ഐ. സി.}, the head of Bethany, and his followers in the Jacobite (Oriental Heterodox) sect to reünite with the Christian Church [c]; this led, at length, to the creation of the Church for Reünited Jacobites in the Antiochene rite on 11 Jun. 1932 [a] [Pius PP. XI 1932] with the Archdiocese of Trivandrum as its capital See and Abp. Ivanios Panicker (1932-1953) as its head, with the suffragan Diocese of Tiruvalla under Jacob A. Bp. Theophilos Kalapurackal [Abraham], O. I. C. (1932-1950); others who reünited include Joseph Bp. Severios Valakuzhiyil (1937; head of Niranam, 1933-1937), Thomas Bp. Dioscoros Ottathaickal-Thervaladi (1939; Southist Jacobite head, 1926-1939), Pulikottil Ouseph Ramban (1930), Chepat Vanchiyil Philipose Ramban (1930), the Indian Nationalist leader Barrister Mr. George Joseph Oorayil {ബാരിസ്റര്‍ ശ്രീ ജോര്‍ജ്ജ് ജോസഫ് ഊരയില്‍} (* 5 Jun. 1887 [Chengannur] - † 5 Mar. 1938 [Madurai]) (1931), Justice Mr. A. Philipose, Maret (1931), and Mr. M. M. Varkey, Mookkenchery (1921). Abp. Ivanios Panicker was installed Archbishop on 12 Mar. 1933 in the presence of Archbishop Kandathil. After the death of Abp. Ivanios Panicker, his auxiliary became the Archbishop in 1955, Benedict G. Abp. Gregorios Thangalathil [Geevarghese], O. I. C. (1952-1994).

    Jubilee of St. Thomas the Apostle

    Archbishop Kandathil presided over the nineteenth centennial celebrations of the arrival of St. Thomas the Apostle at Cranganore {കൊടുങ്ങല്ലൂര്‍ / Kodungallur / Muziris, mouth of the River Periyar/Choorni {പെരിയാര്‍/ചൂര്‍ണ്ണി}} in 52. The Jubilee celebrations were held at Christ Nagaram, Ernakulam, 28-31 Dec. 1952, with about 100,000 people (including the Chief minister Mr. A. J. John, Anaparambil) attending. This was the first time that the St. Thomas tradition became generally known throughout India and the world (cf. e. g., [Parekunnel 1952], `St. Thomas in India', Time, 12 Jan. 1953).

    The Jubilee was, respecting chiefly the interests of the Latin Christians, conjoined with the four-hundredth anniversary of the death of St. Francis de Xavier, S. J. [Chunkath 1952]. When the Vatican issued the bull appointing Abp. Sir Norman T. Card. Gilroy as the Papal Legate to the celebrations, however, reference was made only to the anniversary of St. Francis de Xavier. Archbishop Kandathil, contrary to the counsel offered by some of the suffragan bishops, called off the planned celebrations and ordered the Spanish priest Zacharías Salteráin Vizcarra of St. Teresa, O. C. D. [Navarre], Professor (1912-1956) and Vice-Rector at the Seminary of St. Joseph, Mangalapuzha, Alwaye, to proceed to the Vatican and get the bull revised. [Pius PP. XII Nov. 1952]

    `You come from Peter; and we are the sons of another Apostle Thomas', Archbishop Kandathil said addressing the Papal Legate. In a spontaneous Vatican radio broadcast on 31 Dec. 1952, Pope Pius XII said, `Not without reason are you proud of the fact that the Lord assigned to you that Apostle who was to place his finger in the wounds of the sacred hands and his hand in the side of Jesus, so that he might bring you the divine truth about God and the redemption and with it the whole treasury of His immeasurable love and grace. Nineteen hundred years have passed since the Apostle came to India and in word and deed and utter self-sacrifice bore witness to Christ in your land. Mighty was the power of God working in him. During the centuries that India was cut off from the West and despite many trying vicissitudes, the Christian communities formed by the Apostle conserved intact the legacy he left them, and as soon as the sea-passage-- at the close of the fifteenth century-- offered a link with their fellow Christians of the West, their union with them was spontaneous. This Apostolic lineage, beloved sons and daughters, is the proud privilege of many among you who glory in the name of St. Thomas Christians, and We are happy on this occasion to acknowledge and bear witness to it' [Pius PP. XII Dec. 1952]; this was the first acknowledgement by the Vatican of the apostolate of St. Thomas in South India among the Apostolic Christians.

    A few days later, on 12 Jan. 1953, Abp. Valerian Gracias (Bombay (Latin), 1950-1978) was created the first Cardinal from India (cf. e. g., `First Indian Cardinal', The Hindu, 13 Jan. 1953); the telegram arrived while he was camped at Ernakulam as a participant. In his address of gratitude, the Cardinal said, `This day is historic for the Church in India-- a privileged region sanctified by the labours of one of the chosen twelve, St. Thomas, and of another great apostle, St. Francis Xavier, watered by the blood of martyrs, fertilised by the zealous apostolate of religious men and women of every nationality, and by its own indigenous clergy.'

    Later in the year, on 11 Nov. 1953, Abp. Eugène Card. Tisserant, the Dean of the College of Cardinals (1951-1972), arrived at Ernakulam from Ortona with the remains of the right arm with which the doubting Apostle had touched the wounds of Jesus Christ to clear his doubts. The relic, after being exposed at Ernakulam, was installed on 6 Dec. 1953 in the Apostle Thomas Pontifical Shrine that was raised at Kodungallur; the shrine was conferred Pontifical status by Pope Pius XII.

    Extension of the Apostolic Hierarchy

    Due chiefly to the endeavours of Archbishop Kandathil, the dominion of the Apostolic Church was extended beyond its traditional boundaries (River Bharathapuzha in the North and River Pampa in the South) on 29 Apr. 1955 [Pius PP. XII 1955]. The Apostolic Church thus gained the territories of the Dioceses of Changanacherry south of the River Pampa (Pathanamthitta, Quilon, Trivandrum), Tellicherry (1953; Cannanore, Kasaragode), Mananthavady {Manantoddy} (1973; Wayanad, Nilgiris), Palghat (1974; Palghat), Thamaracherry (1986; Calicut, Malappuram), Thuckalay (1996; Kanyakumari {Cape Comorin}, Tirunelveli {Tinnevelly} [W. of Tuticorin, S. of Madura]), Belthangady (1999; Coorg, South Kanara {Mangalore} & Udupi {Tulunadu}), Bhadravathi (2007; Chikmagalur, Shimoga [S. of Gokarnam, N. Canara, Bellary]), Mandya (2010; Mysore, Hassan, Mandya, Chamarajanagaram [W. of Bangalore, S. of Tumkur]), and Ramanathapuram {Ramnad} (2010; Coimbatore, Tirupur, Erode, Karur [W. of Madura, Trichinopoly, Salem]); the Dioceses of Kothamangalam (1956), Kanjirapally (1977), Iringalakuda (1978), and Idukki (2003) were carved out later from the original territory.

    This immediately enabled the suffragan Diocese of Tellicherry to minister to the substantial number of migrant {കുടിയേറ്റ} Christians in Northern Kerala (erstwhile English Malabar). The Diocese of Tellicherry had been erected earlier on 31 Dec. 1953 [Pius PP. XII 1953] with initial territory the same as the Latin Diocese of Calicut [S. J.], and Bp. Sebastian Valloppilly (1955-1989) serving as Administrator-Apostolic (1953-1955).

    The suffragan Diocese of Palai was erected (from territory of the Diocese of Changanacherry) under Bishop Bp. Sebastian M. Vayalilkalapura {Vayalil} [Mani] (1950-1981) on 25 Jul. 1950 [Pius PP. XII Jul 1950].

    Steps were begun to obtain missionary loci outside the dominions in 1952 following an overture by Bp. Oskar Sevrin, S. J., of Raigarh-Ambikapur (Latin); the first priests (Cassius Chamakalayil, T. O. C. D., Diego Kodankandath, T. O. C. D., and John Vianney Kadankavil, T. O. C. D.) were despatched on 27 Jan. 1955; the first locus, the Ordinariate of Chanda {Chandrapur}, was erected (from territory of the Archdiocese of Nagpur (Latin; Archbishop: Abp. Eugene L. D'Souza, M. S. F. S.)) under Bp. Januarius Palathuruthy, T. O. C. D. (1962-1990) on 15 Aug. 1962.

    Liturgy of the Apostolic Christians

  • Right: St. Augustine in his study, by Sandro Botticelli , Tempera on panel, c. 1490-92. 21 cm x 269 cm. Uffizi Gallery, Florence, Italy.

    When some Vatican offices sought to establish a completely Chaldæan liturgy for the Apostolic Church in 1955, Archbishop Kandathil declined his consent: `We are pure Indians, born and brought-up in India. We are racially Indians, a good part of our forefathers having been converted from high-caste Hindus of Malabar by St. Thomas; hence we are known as Apostolic Christians. From the time of St. Thomas, our people were having their liturgy in their own national language, except perhaps some essential parts in Syriac, introduced by St. Thomas. When the Apostolic Christians had no priests to perform their liturgical functions due to persecution and such other adverse circumstances, our people were only participating in the liturgical functions, performed by the Syrian priests who came to Malabar towards the middle of the fourth century. Still our people remained pure Indians saying their prayers in their own tongue. ... The Apostolic rite, as distinct from the pure Chaldæan rite, is about three and a half centuries old, and has been established and recognised by the Roman Pontiffs as an independent and unique rite. Through the letter to your Eminence on 6 Dec. 1938, all our bishops had expressed our idea that we do not wish to have recourse to pure Chaldæan rites. Therefore we want to keep up the independence and the specific character of our rite by all means. The Latin liturgy has not failed to make convenient adaptations and modifications throughout the centuries. We want a reformation in our liturgy that will help it to be living, dynamic, and progressive; that will help the conversion of Indians all over. They like Oriental songs. We who are in daily contact with our people and know their sentiments and aspirations know what would serve their spiritual progress and what would not.'

  • Left: St. Augustine writing in his cell, by Sandro Botticelli , Tempera on panel, c. 1490-94. 41 cm x 27 cm. Uffizi Gallery, Florence, Italy.

    Archbishop Kandathil began the steps for establishing the use of the mother tongue Malayalam in the liturgy instead of the Syriac that was then in use (this was implemented in 1962). [Kandathil 1955] (cf. also [Kandathil 1926], [Nedumkunnam 1975, p. 71], [Thaliyath 1952])

    He also pointed out the dire need to shorten the prayers of the mass, the canonical hours, and other liturgical services.

    Appearance, residence, and health

    In appearance, he was of modest stature and slight build, and of a somewhat darker complexion. His voice was markedly deep, powerful, and resonant. A portrait in oil paint by Artist Mr. P. J. Cherian, Puthanangady {ആര്‍ട്ടിസ്റ്റു് ശ്രീ പി. ജെ. ചെറിയാന്‍, പുത്തനങ്ങാടി} is installed at Central Hall, Archbishop's House, Ernakulam. A bust is installed at the charter house of the CST in Mookkannur.

    During his time as a prelate, he lived at the Archbishop's House, Ernakulam, for most of the year. He used to spend the summer at one of two archdiocesan bungalows at Chengal {ചെങ്ങല്‍} (near Kalady {കാലടി}, on the bank of the River Periyar/Choorni {പെരിയാര്‍/ചൂര്‍ണ്ണി}, raised in 1906) and Devicolam {ദേവികുളം}.

    Mr. Kunjipailo Veliyath {V. K. Paul / ശ്രീ കുഞ്ഞിപ്പൈലോ വെളിയത്തു്} served as his valet for four decades (from his time in Koratty until his death).

    He kept excellent health until his visit to Rome in 1925. The debilitating effects of the illness continued to be felt throughout his life. He continued, however, to be in full possession of his vigour until the day of his sudden illness and unforeseen death.


    Archbishop Kandathil lies buried at the main altar (funeral: 12 Jan. 1956) in the Metropolitan Cathedral of St. Mary, Ernakulam [Founded: 1112] (though he had wished to be buried at the steps). A portrait in oil paint by Artist Mr. P. J. Cherian, Puthanangady {ആര്‍ട്ടിസ്റ്റു് ശ്രീ പി. ജെ. ചെറിയാന്‍, പുത്തനങ്ങാടി} is installed at Central Hall, Archbishop's House, Ernakulam. A bust is installed at the charter house of the CST in Mookkannur. The Shrine of St. Thomas (in front of the Metropolitan Cathedral of St. Mary), the monument of his episcopal silver jubilee (1936), was pulled down/destroyed in 1995 after having stood for six decades.

  • Left: St. Thérèse de Lisieux as a child, 1881.
  • Right: St. Stephen the Protomartyr {വിശുദ്ധ എസ്തപ്പാനോസ് രക്തസാക്ഷി} (Feast: 26 Dec.), by Sir Pieter Pauwel Rubens, Oil on canvas, 1616-17. 437 cm x 278 cm. Musée des Beaux-Arts, Valenciennes, France.

    Some institutions devoted to his memory are: Abp. Augustine W. Kandathil memorial high school, Koratty (1945); Abp. Augustine W. Kandathil Golden Jubilee Memorial Hospital (Edapally, Mookkannur, Chempu; 1951); Abp. Augustine W. Kandathil High School, N. Thuravoor (1982); Abp. Augustine W. Kandathil Silver Jubilee Memorial Home for the Destitute, Perumanoor (1936); and College of Mar Augusthinose, Ramapuram (1993).

    Some important works on him are those by Fr. Joseph Mavumkal {ജോസഫ് മാവുങ്കല്‍ അച്ചന്‍} [Mavumkal 1936], Fr. George J. Thalian {ജോര്‍ജ്ജ് തളിയന്‍ അച്ചന്‍} [Thalian 1961], Fr. A. Thomas Mootheden {തോമസ് മൂത്തേടന്‍ അച്ചന്‍} [Mootheden 1972], and his own unpublished chronicle [Kandathil].

    His patrimonial estate in Chempu was bequeathed by him in 1942 to the Congregation of Saint Thérèse of Lisieux (CST) for endowing the Monastery {ആശ്രമം / Ashramam} (28 Sep. 1942) and Boys's Orphanage {ബാലസദനം / Balasadanam} (26 Dec. 1956; closed: 2016) of St. Stephen the Protomartyr {വിശുദ്ധ എസ്തപ്പാനോസ് രക്തസാക്ഷി}, Mathumkal {മത്തുങ്കല്‍}, Chempu; Arsenius Joseph Nedumpuram, C. S. T., began the work. A Chapel in honour of the Protomartyr had been founded by him on 26 Dec. 1926 as desired by his father Mr. Kandathil Thommen Warkey. A Primary School named after the Protomartyr was begun in 1929, but had to be closed; A Coir Factory was begun in 1942 but had to be closed in 1952; distributing of free rations was then begun but fared likewise; a Trade School for Industrial Crafts was begun afterwards.

    The Abp. Augustine W. Kandathil memorial Lisie hospital, Kaloor, Ernakulam, was begun in 1954 in accordance with his vision and plans. A fund amounting to the sum of Rs. 50,000/- was collected by the laity from amongst themselves and donated for this purpose on 8 Aug. 1958. The hospital was officially inaugurated in his memory on the first anniversary of his death, according to the wishes of clergy and laity, bore witness to his devotion to St. Thérèse de Lisieux, and continued to provide succour to the destitute of Ernakulam.

    End notes

    [a] Abp. Joseph Kariattil {Kariattil Ouseph Malpan Achen} was consecrated Bishop (17 Feb. 1783) and appointed Archbishop of Cranganore by Queen Maria I at Lisbon under the rights of padroado {patronage} granted to the Portuguese Crown by the Pope; however, on his way back to Kerala, he fell ill at Goa and died there on † 10 Sep. 1786 before he could set foot in or take possession of his Archdiocese or be installed Archbishop.

    A version of these events is related in the travelogue [Paremmakkal 1936] concerning the eight-year long voyage of the Malpan Achen from Kerala to Rome and back (1778-1786); cf. also [Parekunnel 1935, Chapter XII]; the voyage had been undertaken for the purpose of removing obstacles to receiving Iype Mar Thoma VI (Iype Mar Dionysius I), Jacobite (Oriental Heterodox) head (10 Jul. 1761/1770 - 8 Apr. 1808) and lineal heir to Archdeacon Thomas Parambil (Pakalomattam / Palliveettil / Panamkuzhackal / Kudukkasseril) {Thomas de Campo}, and his followers, into the Christian Church; the Malpan Achen also submitted a petition to the Vatican for the cause of the canonisation of Martyr Devasahayam.

  • Right: Thachil Lona Variyath, Kanjirakattu, Esq., Chevalier of the Order of St. Gregory the Great, Civil class, 26 Jan. 1952 [AAS, XXXXV [ser. II, vol. XIX] (17), 23 Dec. 1952, p. 895].

    The finances for the voyage were from Thachil Thariyath Matthoo Tharakan, Esq. {തച്ചില്‍ തരിയതു് മാത്തു തരകന്‍ അവര്‍കള്‍} (* 1736 [Edakulam] - † 26 മേടം [Apr.] 1814) of Eastern Church, North Kuthiathode, near Alengad; collaborator of General Eustache Benoît de Lannoy {വലിയ കപ്പിത്താന്‍ / Great Captain} (* 1715 - † 1 Jun. 1777) in building the Travancore lines {നെടുംകോട്ട}; maritime trader at the port of Purakkad {Barace / Porca / Poracad / Porakad / പുറക്കാടു്}; a founder (with Dewan Mr. Kesava Pillai (1789-1798)) of the town and port of Alleppey {ആലപ്പുഴ} (and a resident of Thathampally with his private chapel of St. John Nepomucene at Korthacherry {കോര്‍ത്തശ്ശേരി}); exporter of timber to the English Admiralty during the Napoleonic wars; the financier to the Kingdom of Travancore under Maharaja {High King} Karthika Thirunal Rama Varma (1758-1798) (who built him the Forane Church of St. Anne, Pettah, Trivandrum (Latin)); the counsellor {ഉപദേഷ്ടാവു്} and finance minister {മുളകുമടിശീല കാര്യക്കാര്‍} (26 Apr. - 20 Jun., 1799) of the Kingdom of Travancore under Maharaja {High King} Avittam Thirunal Balarama Varma (18 Feb. 1798 - 7 Nov. 1810); the deviser of progressive taxation in Travancore (in contrast to the previous regressive one); and the founder of a Lazar house {Lazaretto} at North Pallipuram {Palliport / വടക്കന്‍ പള്ളിപ്പുറം}, south of Cranganore harbour {കൊടുങ്ങല്ലൂര്‍ അഴിമുഖം} (the remnants of a section of the Holy Cross Seminary for the Apostolic Christians, Vaipicotta [Founded: 1581] run by the Society of Jesus, which the Dutch converted to a leprosarium in 1663 and later fell into disuse. cf. [Ookken 1966] [Nedumkunnam 1961]. cf. also [Kattakayam 1924], [Parekunnel 1935, Chapter XII].

    The death of Abp. Joseph Kariattil was to stall by more than a century both the achievement of sovereignty for the Apostolic Christians (attained in 1923) and the reünion of St. Thomas Jacobite (Oriental Heterodox) sect with the Christian Church (partially attained in 1932).

    [b] Particulars of the early episcopal lineage of the Apostolic Christians are lost to history. In later centuries, East-Syriac/Edessan {Uraha / Haran {Carrhæ} / Osroene / Ur of the Chaldees} Chaldæan {Kasdim/Kaldu/Chaldæaic/Chaldee/Bit-Yakin} {Babylon / Babylonia {Lower {Southern} Mesopotamia}/Babel} {Assyrian {Upper Mesopotamian} {Assur / Ninive/Nineveh/Ninum / Mossul} / Akkadian {Akkad/Achad} / Mesopotamian / Persian {Fars} / Elamite/Elamyt / Mede {Ecbatana} / Achæmenid {Persepolis} / Seleucid {Seleucia-Ctesiphon} / Parthian / Sassanian} bishops from the Near East subjugated and governed the Apostolic Christians from Cranganore {കൊടുങ്ങല്ലൂര്‍ / Kodungallur / Muziris}; Mar Yohannan moved his seat (1490) to Diamper {Udayamperoor / Udiamperur / ഉദയമ്പേരൂര്‍ / ഉതിയന്‍പെരൂര്‍} and the last such bishop, Mar Abraham {മാര്‍ അവുറാഹാം / മാറൌറാഹം} (1569-1597), moved his seat to Angamaly {അങ്കമാലി} and died in 1597 after appointing Pakalomattam Geevarghese of the Cross {പാലമറ്റത്തു് കുരിയതു് / കുരിശിന്റെ ഗീവര്ഗീസ് പകലോമറ്റം} († 25 കര്‍ക്കടകം [Jul.] 1637), his Archdeacon {അര്‍ക്കദയാക്കൊ} (1593-1637), as Administrator-Apostolic of the Archdiocese (1597-1599).

    The Synod convoked (1599) at Diamper (cf. [de Gouvea 1606 a, b, c], [Ros 1587], [Ros 1599]) by the Archbishop of Goa, Dom Aleixo de Menezes, O. S. A. (1595-1612), subjugated the Archdiocese of Cranganore to the Padroado Archdiocese of Goa; thenceforth, European (mostly Portuguese) Companions of Jesus, beginning with Abp. Francisco Ros, S. J. (1599-1624) (who governed from Kottakkavu/Kottakkayal / കോട്ടയ്ക്കാവു്/കോട്ടക്കായല്‍ {North Parur/North Paravoor / വടക്കന്‍ പറവൂര്‍}), were Archbishops of Cranganore (governing in later times (1701-1777) from Puthenchira {പുത്തന്‍ചിറ / Puttencherra} / Pookkad {പൂക്കാടു്}, with jurisdiction limited to territories in English Malabar (Zamorin) and Travancore, outside the Dutch influence); the only exceptions were Abp. Paul of Thomas of Aquinum and Almeida, O. P. (1821-1823), and Abp. Joseph Kariattil {കരിയാറ്റില്‍ ഔസേപ്പ് മെത്രാപ്പോലീത്താ} (1783-1786) who, dying before his installation, appointed Paremmakkal Thoma Kathanar {പാറേമ്മാക്കല്‍ തോമ്മാ കത്തനാര്‍} as Administrator-Apostolic (Governador) of the Archdiocese of Cranganore (1787-1799); the latter governed first from Angamaly, later from Vadayar {വടയാര്‍}, and finally from Ramapuram {രാമപുരം}; Sankoorikal Geevarghese Malpan Achen {ശങ്കൂരിക്കല്‍ ഗീവര്‍ഗീസ് മല്‍പാന്‍ അച്ചന്‍} served briefly as Administrator-Apostolic after him (1800-1801) before the See fell into disuse and was finally suppressed in 1886.

    With the Coonan {കൂനന്‍} Cross Oath at Mattanchery {മട്ടാഞ്ചേരി} (1653), in the background of the struggle between the Protestant Dutch East India Company {Vereenigde Oost-Indische Compagnie / V. O. C.} (whose interests in Kerala were later taken over by the English East India Company [Founded: 31 Dec. 1600, London]) and the Christian Portuguese for control of Kerala, the Archdeacon Thomas Parambil (Pakalomattam / Palliveettil / Panamkuzhackal / Kudukkasseril) {Thomas de Campo} (1637-1670) and his followers rejected the authority of the Archbishops of Cranganore from the Society of Jesus (then, Abp. Francisco Garcia, S. J. (1641-1659)) and, at length, a minor portion of the dissenters (called the `Puthencoottukar' {പുത്തന്‍കൂറ്റുകാര്‍ / people of the new allegiance {Puthencoor/പുത്തന്‍കൂര്‍}} in contrast to the `Pazhayacoottukaar' {പഴയകൂറ്റുകാര്‍ / people of the old allegiance {Pazhayacoor/പഴയകൂര്‍}}) seceded to the West-Syriac/Antiochene Aramæan {Oriental Heterodox/Monophysite} Jacobite sect; in this extremity, the Propaganda Fide Congregation in Rome erected the Vicariate of Malabar in 1659 (later renamed as the Vicariate of Verapoly {വരാപ്പുഴ / Verapolis / City of truth} in 1709); thenceforth, European Carmelites, beginning with Bp. Joseph de Sebastiani of St. Mary, O. C. D. (1659-1663), were Vicars-Apostolic of Verapoly; the only exceptions were Bp. Raphael de Figueredo Salgado (1688-1695), and Bp. Chandy Parambil (Pakalomattam / Palliveettil / Panamkuzhackal / Kudukkasseril) {പറമ്പില്‍ ചാണ്ടി മെത്രാന്‍ / Alexander de Campo} (1663-1688), one of the four councillors to Archdeacon Thomas Parambil, who governed from Vechur {വെച്ചൂര്‍} and was so appointed when the Dutch expelled the European priests from Kerala; the latter appointed Parambil (Pakalomattam / Palliveettil / Panamkuzhackal / Kudukkasseril) Matthoo Kathanar {Matthew de Campo} as Archdeacon (1678-1706); Palackal Thoma Malpan Achen {പാലയ്ക്കല്‍ തോമ്മാ മല്‍പാന്‍ അച്ചന്‍} (1808-1816), Porukara Thoma Kathanar {പോരൂക്കര തോമ്മാ കത്തനാര്‍} (1828-1831), and Mangalath Chandy Kathanar {മംഗലത്തു് ചാണ്ടി കത്തനാര്‍} (1831-1844), served as Secretaries-in-charge of the Apostolic Christians to the Vicar-Apostolic of Verapoly; Chavara Kuriakose Kathanar {ചാവറ കുരിയാക്കോസ് കത്തനാര്‍} served as Vicar-General of Verapoly for the Apostolic Christians (1861-1871); Bp. Marcelline Antony Berardi of St. Teresa, O. C. D., served as Coädjutor of Verapoly for the Apostolic Christians (1877-1887).

    After the times of the Apostle Thomas, the only period the Indian Christians (either Apostolic or otherwise) had sovereignty before 1896/1923 was under Bp. Chandy Parambil {പറമ്പില്‍ ചാണ്ടി മെത്രാന്‍} (1663-1688); Abp. Joseph Kariattil died before being installed.

  • Right: Bp. Marcelline Antony Berardi of St. Teresa, O. C. D. (* 1829 - † 21 Mar. 1892); Coädjutor of Verapoly for the Apostolic Christians (1877-1887); first rector (1866-1877) of the Central Seminary, Puthenpally; preceptor to FF. Matthew T. Makil and John Menachery; author of `കേരളരാജ്യത്തിലെ സത്യവേദചരിത്രം' {The history of the true faith in Kerala} [Berardi 1872] and about 50 books in Malayalam; founder of Santa Cruz English School, (Fort) Cochin, the oldest surviving Christian high school in Kerala (28 Apr. 1880); and ardent devotee of the Most Sacred Heart of Jesus. cf. also [Parekunnel 1935, Chapter XVII].

    Separate Vicariates were erected for the Apostolic Christians on 20 May 1887 (under Bp. Charles L. Lavigne [Louis], S. J. [F. C. C.; S. B.] and Bp. Adolph E. Medlycott [S. T.] appointed on 13 Sep. 1887), and three Indian Vicars-Apostolic were appointed on 11 Aug. 1896; one of them, Bp. Louis M. Pareparambil, Vicar-Apostolic of Ernakulam (1896-1919), known in the cœnobite order as Aloysius Pareparambil of St. Matthew, T. O. C. D., had been among the monks expelled (1875) from the Carmelite Order of the Apostolic Christians (T. O. C. D.) by the then Vicar-Apostolic of Verapoly, Bp. Leonard Mellano of St. Louis, O. C. D. (1868-1897 †), for writing to the Pope asking for an Indian bishop to rule their church [e]; later he repeatedly petitioned the Vatican for the founding of the Apostolic Hierarchy.

    The Vicars-Apostolic appointed for the Apostolic Christians on 11 Aug. 1896 (consecrated bishops on 25 Oct. 1896) for the Vicariates as reörganised on 28 Jul. 1896:
    Left to right: Bp. Louis M. Pareparambil (* 25 Mar. 1847 [Pulincunnoo] - 4 Dec. 1870 - † 9 Dec. 1919) [V. C.; T. O. C. D. for women] (Ernakulam), Bp. Matthew T. Makil [Thommen] (* 27 Mar. 1851 [Manjoor] - 30 May 1874 - † 26 Jan. 1914) [S. V. M.] (Changanacherry), and Bp. John Menachery (* 12 Jul. 1857 [Njarackal] - 11 Aug. 1883 - † 19 Dec. 1919) [S. T. (Aug. 1919)] (Trichur).
  • IN
    Loving and Grateful Memory of
    The Rt. Rev. Bp. Aloysius M. Pareparambil, D. D.
    Appointed Bishop of Tio
    H. H. Pope Leo XIII
    A Prelate Specially Devoted to the Blessed
    Virgin, Simple in ways, Frugal in habits,
    Ever devoted to the interests
    His Rite and Nation
    Steadfast of purpose, Yet tactful in action,
    A Scholar, a Linguist,
    A Historian, and a Diplomat
    Born at Pulincunnoo 25 - 3 - 1847
    Ordained Priest 4 - 12 - 1870
    Consecrated Bishop 25 - 10 - 1896
    Slept in the Lord 9 - 12 - 1919
    R. I. P.
    BORN 27 MARCH 1851
    PRIEST 30 MAY 1874
    BISHOP 25 OCTOBER 1896
    KOTTAYAM 1911 - 1914
    DIED 26 JAN. 1914
    R. I. P.
    R. I. P.

  • Left: Memorial of Southist immigration at Forane Church of St. Mary, Kaduthuruthy {Carturte}, the head church {തലപ്പള്ളി} of the Southists {endogamous Chaldæan {Lower Mesopotamian} immigrants}, consecrated by Bp. Alexander J. Chulaparambil, 24 Jan. 1945. Inscription: `സുറിയാനി ക്രിസ്ത്യാനികള്‍ മലയാളക്കരയില്‍ കുടിയേറിയതിന്റെ ൧൬-ാം ശതാബ്ദ സ്മാരകം ൩൪൫-൧൯൪൫ കോട്ടയം രൂപതയുടെ മെത്രാന്‍ മാര്‍ അലക്സാണ്ഡര്‍ ചൂളപ്പറമ്പില്‍ തിരുമനസ്സുകൊണ്ടു് ന. ക. പ്ര. ൨൪. ൧. ൧൯൪൫ -ല്‍ വെഞ്ചരിച്ചു.'
  • Right: Portrait of Kinayi Mar Thoma {Thommen} in the possession of Fr. Cyriac J. Mattathil, Vicar-General, Kottayam, at Chaplain's home, Little Lourdes Hospital, S. Kidangoor, drawn by Artist Mr. K. K. Thomas; identical portraits were kept in old Southist families. Published: Joseph Chazhicatt: `സുറിയാനിക്കാരുടെ കേരളപ്രവേശനം അഥവാ തെക്കുംഭാഗസമുദായചരിത്രം' / `The Syrian colonisation of Malabar' (in Malayalam), 1940, 1961.

    Another vicariate, Kottayam, was founded by Pope St. Pius X for the Southist {തെക്കുംഭാഗര്‍ / Suddist / endogamous Chaldæan {Lower Mesopotamian} immigrant / Knanaya} Christians on 29 Aug. 1911 [St. Pius PP. X 1911] with Bp. Matthew T. Makil [Thommen] {മാക്കീല്‍ മത്തായി മെത്രാന്‍} (1896-1914) as its first Vicar-Apostolic. The Southist Christians are the endogamous descendants of the 400 people in 72 (LXX) families and 7 clans [Puthenpurackal 1910] who immigrated under Kinayi Mar Thoma {Thommen / കിനായി മാര് തോമ്മാ {തൊമ്മന്}‍ / Knai {Knayi} Mar Thoma {Thommen} / ക്നായി മാര് തോമ്മാ {തൊമ്മന്} / Mar Thommen Kinan / മാര് തൊമ്മന്‍ കിനാന്‍ / Thomas of Cana} and Bishop Uraha Mar Ouseph {ഉരഹ മാര്‍ ഔസേപ്പ് / Mar Ouseph of Edessa} from the Near East (Chaldæa / Babylonia / Lower {Southern} Mesopotamia / Lower {Southern} Iraq {Eyraca Arabica}) to Cranganore in 345; this immigration is recorded in the copper plate {ചേപ്പേട്} (cf. [Ros 1604] [Medlycott 1913]) awarded to Kinayi Mar Thoma by the King Cocurangon, now lost. The remainder of the Ancient Christians, the Apostolic Christians, are known in contradistinction as Northists {വടക്കുംഭാഗര്‍ / Nordists}. According to the testimony of Bp. Alexander J. Chulaparambil to Henri Hosten, S. J., the 7 clans were named Baji {ബാജി}, Belkouth {ബെല്‍കൌത്ത്}, Hadai {ഹഡായ്}, Kujelic {കുജെലിക്}, Khoja {ഖോജ}, Majmouth {മജ്മൌത്ത്}, and Tejmouth {ടെജ്മൌത്ത്} [Joseph, T. K. 1927/1928]. The Southists {endogamous Chaldæan {Lower Mesopotamian} immigrants} were accommodated within the Apostolic Christians {Northists}, while maintaining boundaries, from 345 to 1911.

    [c] Shortly after Mar Ivanios professed the Christian faith at Quilon on 20 Sep. 1930 [Panjikaran 1930] and visited him at Ernakulam, Archbishop Kandathil wrote to Paul Wattson, S. A., editor of `The Lamp': `The monks led a very regular life. They completely abstained from meat and fish and lived only on vegetables. They dressed in Hindu sanyasi (kavi) robes {the saffron garb of the Hindu holy man}. They were self-sacrificing, pious, and learned, and devoted themselves to infusing some spiritual life in the Jacobite sect, which for centuries has been torn by all sorts of dissension and litigations. They were greatly esteemed by the people. Mar Ivanios was telling me the other day that when he was a simple priest he sometimes spent the whole night hearing confessions. To raise the standard of female education, Mar Ivanios took some Jacobite girls to Barisol, Calcutta, and put them up with the High Church Protestant sisters. In due course they returned to Malabar and started the Order of Bethany sisters. Some of these are highly educated and hold university degrees. They conduct schools, maintain orphanages, and have a press of their own, the Bethany printing house at Tiruvalla. Mar Ivanios has been their chaplain all through.'

    The visit of the bishops of the Reünion movement to Ernakulam in 1930.
    Left to right: Geevarghese T. Mar Ivanios Panicker, O. I. C. (* 21 Sep. 1882 [Puthiyacavu] - 15 Aug. 1908 - † 15 Jul. 1953) [O. I. C.; M. I. C.] (Trivandrum), Abp. Augustine W. Kandathil (Ernakulam), and Jacob Mar Theophilos Kalapurackal, O. I. C. (* 21 Feb. 1891 [Kottayam] - 1924 - † 27 Jun. 1956) (Tiruvalla).

  • Right: Jacob Mangalath of St. Joseph, T. O. C. D. {ക. നി. മൂ. സ. മംഗലത്തു് യാക്കോബ് ഔസേപ്പ് അച്ചന്‍} (* 1828 - c. 1850 - 1 Jul. 1859 - † 16 Jul. 1876; formerly Vicar at Vechur)

    [d] Ten monks were ordered to be expelled during Dec. 1875 - Jan. 1876 from the Carmelite Order of the Apostolic Christians (T. O. C. D.) by the then Vicar-Apostolic of Verapoly, Bp. Leonard Mellano of St. Louis, O. C. D. (1868-1897), for writing to the Pope asking for an Indian bishop to rule their church: FF. Jacob Mangalath of St. Joseph, T. O. C. D. {ക. നി. മൂ. സ. മംഗലത്തു് യാക്കോബ് ഔസേപ്പ് അച്ചന്‍} (* 1828 - c. 1850 - 1 Jul. 1859 - † 16 Jul. 1876; formerly Vicar at Vechur), Chavara-Thottamattath Ouseph of St. Teresa {ചാവറ-തോട്ടമറ്റത്തു് ഔസേപ്പ് ത്രേസ്യാ അച്ചന്‍} (c. 1835-1886), Geevarghese Parappuram of St. John the Baptist, T. O. C. D. {ക. നി. മൂ. സ. പാറപ്പുറം ഗീവര്‍ഗീസ് യോഹന്നാന്‍ മാംദാനാ അച്ചന്‍} (* 18 Feb. 1835 - 18 Jun. 1858 - 1 Jul. 1859 - † 28 May 1908), Keeri Irimpen Geevarghese {കീരി ഇരിമ്പന്‍ ഗീവര്‍ഗീസ് അച്ചന്‍} (1839 [Poovathucherry [Iringalakuda]] - 1917), Meenattur Mani {മീനാട്ടൂര്‍ മാണി അച്ചന്‍} (1844/7-1897), Matheckal Matthai {മാതേയ്ക്കല്‍ മത്തായി അച്ചന്‍} (1845-1921), Tharavattathil Hilarius {തറവട്ടത്തില്‍ ഹിലാരിയോസ് അച്ചന്‍} (c. 1845 - 1870 - 1900), Pareparambil {Pazheparambil} Aloysius {Louis} Matthew {പഴേപറമ്പില്‍ അലോയ്ഷ്യസ് മാത്തന്‍ അച്ചന്‍} (* 25 Mar. 1847 [Pulincunnoo] - 4 Dec. 1870 - † 9 Dec. 1919), Sankoorikal Poulose {ശങ്കൂരിക്കല്‍ പൌലോസ് അച്ചന്‍} (1848-1902), and Moonjely Thomas, T. O. C. D. {ക. നി. മൂ. സ. മൂഞ്ഞേലി തോമ്മാസ് അച്ചന്‍} (* 4 Sep. 1849 - 25 Jul. 1872 - † 18 Feb. 1893). Bp. Johann Gabriel Léon Louis Meurin, S. J., Vicar-Apostolic of Bombay, was appointed the Visitor-Apostolic to Malabar consequent to the letters to the Pope; Bp. Mellano was ordered by the Pope not to issue the order of expulsion, though this became known too late; the orders to expel FF. Parappuram and Moonjely were withdrawn by Bp. Mellano at the intervention of the Delegate to the Monasteries, Philip, O. C. D., citing the orders from the Pope; Bp. Meurin rescinded the order of expulsion of Fr. Jacob Mangalath and later referred to the remaining seven expelled monks the seven dolours {ഏഴു് വ്യാകുലങ്ങള്‍ / Ezhu vyakulangal}; their expulsions were withdrawn, but they decided to continue as secular priests. Jacob Mangalath of St. Joseph, T. O. C. D., a sufferer of diabetes, on being expelled and ordered to leave his monastery at Pulincunnoo and to proceed to Vazhakulam, had had to be carried thither prostrate on his bed; he decided to return to Pulincunnoo, but exhaustion forced him to camp en route at his native parish, South Pallipuram {തെക്കന്‍ പള്ളിപ്പുറം / Palliporão}, where he died, † 16 Jul. 1876.

    Selected bibliography

    1. Konrad Adenauer (* 5 Jan. 1876 - † 19 Apr. 1967): `Memoirs: 1945-1953', translated to English by Beate Ruhm von Oppen, Weidenfeld & Nicholson, London, England, 1966. cf. also Paul Weymar: `Konrad Adenauer', authorised biography in English on the years up to 1945, Andre Deutsch, London, England, 1957; Hans-Peter Schwarz: `Konrad Adenauer', 2 volumes, translated by Louise Willmot, Stuttgart, Germany, 1991. [Konrad Adenauer Stiftung; Köln {Cologne}]

    2. Afonzo de Albuquerque: `The commentaries of the great Afonso Dalboquerque, second viceroy of India', translated to English by Walter de Gray Birch, The Hakluyt Society, London, England, 1863: vol. I, vol. II, vol. III, vol. IV.

    3. St. Anselm Candiæ Genavæ of Aosta, O. S. B.: `Proslogium; Monologium; An appendix on behalf of the fool by Gaunilon; and Cur deus homo'; translated from the Latin by Sidney Norton Deane, with an introduction, bibliography, and reprints of the opinions of leading philosophers and writers on the Ontological argument; Open Court publishing company, Chicago, USA, 1903. cf. also [Gödel 1970]; St. Pius PP. X (Giuseppe Sarto): `Communium rerum', 21 Apr. 1909.

    4. St. Thomas Aquinas, O. P.: `Summa theologica', c. 1265-1274. `Compendium theologiæ' {Compendium of theology/Shorter summa}, 1272-1274. Reginald Garrigou-Lagrange, O. P.: Commentaries on the `Summa theologica': `Grace': Ia IIae, q. 109-114; `The Trinity and God the creator': I, q. 27-119; `Christ the saviour': III, q. 1-26, 31-59; `Reality: a synthesis of Thomistic thought'. cf. also [Leo PP. XIII 1879], [Pius PP. X 1914], [Garrigou-Lagrange 1938], Pius PP. XI (Achille Ratti): `Studiorum ducem' [Encyclical on St. Thomas Aquinas], 29 Jun. 1923.

    5. St. Francis of Assisi [Giovanni Francesco di Bernardone], O. F. M.: Works [Latin]. cf. also Honorius PP. III (Cencio Aimerico Savelli): `Solet annuere' [Bull approving the Rule of the Friars Minor], 29 Nov. 1226; Gregory PP. IX (Ugolino di Conti): `Mira circa nos' [Bull canonising St. Francis of Assisi], 16 Jul. 1228; Alexander IV (Rinaldo di Jenne): `Clara claris præclara' [Bull canonising St. Clara of Assisi], 26 Sep. 1255; Leo PP. XIII (Gioacchino Pecci): `Auspicato concessum', 17 Sep. 1882; Pius PP. XI (Achille Ratti): `Rite expiatis', 30 Apr. 1926; Candide Chalippe, O. F. M.: `The life and legends of St. Francis of Assisi'.

      `I have been mistaken. It was, I suppose, necessary to liberate a multitude of oppressed people; but our method has provoked other oppressions, frightful massacres. You know that my most awful nightmare is to feel myself drowning in an ocean of blood of countless victims. To save our Russia, what we needed-- but it is too late now-- were ten men like Francis of Assisi. Ten men like Francis of Assisi and we could have saved Russia.' Vladimir Lenin to Fr. Vittorio Bodo, c. 1923; Published: L'Osservatore Romano, Jun. 1926.

    6. St. Augustinus Aurelius [St. Augustine of Hippo]: `The Confessions'; `The City of God'; `On Christian doctrine'; `Enchiridion or the handbook on faith, morals, and love'; `On the Trinity'; `On the catechising of the uninstructed'; `Letters'; `Expositions on the Psalms'; `Sermons on the New Testament'; `Harmony of the Gospels'; `On the Sermon on the Mount'. Other works. Rule. cf. also Pius PP. XI (Achille Ratti): `Ad salutem humani' [Encyclical on the fifteenth centenary of the death of St. Augustine], 30 Apr. 1930.

    7. `അയനിപ്പാട്ടു്', cf. [Parekunnel 1935, Chapter III].

    8. Duarte Barbosa: `Livro em que dá relação do que viu e ouviu no Oriente', c. 1518. Translated to English as `A description of the coasts of East Africa and Malabar in the beginning of the sixteenth century' by Henry E. J. Stanley, London, England, 1866.

    9. Mgr. Cesare Card. Baronius, C. O.: `Annales ecclesiastici a Christo nato ad annum 1198' [Ecclesiastical annals from the nativity of Christ to the year 1198] (in Latin), Rome, 1588-1607.

    10. Leopold Maria Beccaro of St. Joseph, O. C. D.: `Manuale di Memorial' [Chronicle], MS. Unpublished.

    11. Idem: `A short biography of Fr. Chavara', Mary Immaculate Press, Koonammavu, Kingdom of Travancore, 1872. Reprinted: Mannanam, India, 2003.

    12. Bp. Marcelline Antony Berardi of St. Teresa, O. C. D.: `കേരളരാജ്യത്തിലെ സത്യവേദചരിത്രം' [The history of the true faith in Kerala] (in Malayalam), Mary Immaculate Press, Koonammavu, Kingdom of Travancore, 1872.

    13. Bharathan: `Kaathodu kaathoram' [Whispering / കാതോടു് കാതോരം] (in Malayalam); Screenplay: John Paul; Story: Bharathan; Music: Ouseppachan Mechery, Bharathan; Lyrics: O. N. V. Kurup; Saritha as Mary, Mammootty as Louis alias Maash, Janardhanan as Lazar, Innocent as Rappai (Kapyaaru), Master Prashobh as Joy alias Kuttan alias Maash, Nedumudi Venu as Achan, Bahadur as Pyleechettan, Lizy as Sr. Theresa, Philomena as Chettaththi; Location: Manchadikunnu; Songs: `Nee en sarga soundaryamaey' [നീ എന്‍ സര്‍ഗ സൌന്ദര്യമേ], `Devadoothar paadi... snehadoothar paadi...' [ദേവദൂതര്‍ പാടി... സ്നേഹദൂതര്‍ പാടി...] (song on the occasion of the feast of St. Thérèse de Lisieux on 1 Oct.), `Kaathodu kaathoram' [Whispering / കാതോടു് കാതോരം]; film, 15 Nov. 1985.

    14. `The Holy Bible', Latin Vulgate compiled by St. Jerome of Stridon (382-405) at Rome and Bethlehem, under the direction of St. Damasus PP. I, as printed by Johannes Gutenberg, Mainz, Germany, c. 1455; Editio princeps; copy at Niedersächsische Staats-und Universitätsbibliothek [Lower Saxony State and University Library], Göttingen, Lower Saxony, Germany.

      `The Holy Bible', Douay-Rheims version; translated faithfully into English out of the authentical Latin [Vulgate], according to the best corrected copies of the same, diligently conferred with the [Hebrew,] Greek, and other editions in diverse languages: with arguments of books and chapters, annotations, tables, and other necessary helps, for the better understanding of the text, and specially for the discovery of the corruptions of diverse late translations, and for clearing the controversies in religion, of these days: by Fr. Gregory Martin (1578-1582), with the assistance of Mgr. William Card. Allen, Thomas Worthington, C. O., S. J., Fr. Richard Bristow, and Fr. William Reynolds; the New Testament first published by the English College of Rheims, France, 1582; the Old Testament (including the Deuterocanonical books [Sixtus of Siena, O. P.]) first published by the English College of Douay, France, 1609 (I, II) & 1610. Reprinted with modern transliteration: William Glen von Peters, 715 C Signal Mountain Road, Chattanooga, Tennessee, USA, 2005. {Unless otherwise stated, all biblical quotations are from this version.}

      Bp. Richard Challoner: `The Holy Bible', revised from the Douay-Rheims version and diligently compared with the Sixto-Clementine edition (Mgr. Francisco Card. de Toledo Herrera, S. J., Fr. Augustinus Valerius, Abp. Federico Card. Borromeo, St. Roberto Card. Bellarmine, S. J., Bp. Antonio Agellius, C. R., and Fr. Petrus Morinus, Rome, 1592; Reprinted: Michael Hetzenauer, O. F. M. Cap., Rome, 1906) of the Latin Vulgate (1749-1752). Internet archive. Project Gutenberg. Commentary (1811, 1814) by Fr. George L. Haydock.

      Abp. Francis P. Kenrick: `The New Testament' (1849, 1851; 1862); `The Pentateuch' (1860); `The Psalms, Books of Wisdom, and Canticle of Canticles' (1857); `The Book of Job and the Prophets' (1859); `The Historical Books of the Old Testament' (1860); translated from the Latin Vulgate, and diligently compared with the original text, being a revised edition of the Douay-Rheims version, with notes, critical and explanatory; Kelly, Hedian, and Piet, Baltimore, Maryland, USA.

      Sir Lancelot C. L. Brenton: `The Septuagint version of the Old Testament', parts I, II. Translated into English from the Septuagint, Samuel Bagster and Sons, London, England, 1844.

      Fr. John Lingard: `A new version of the four Gospels'; with notes, critical and explanatory; translated from the Koine Greek; Joseph Booker, London, England, 1836; Second edition: 1851.

      Henry Cotton: `Rhemes and Doway: an attempt to shew what has been done by Christians {Roman Catholics} for the diffusion of the Holy Scriptures in English', Oxford University Press, England, 1855.
      Mgr. John H. Card. Newman, C. O.: `The history of the text of the Rheims and Douay version of Holy Scripture', Jul. 1859.
      John Chapman, O. S. B.: `Notes on the early history of the Vulgate Gospels', Clarendon press, Oxford, England, 1908.

      Gregory PP. XVI (Mauro Bartolomeo Cappellari, O. S. B.): `Inter præcipuas' [Encyclical on Biblical societies], 8 May 1844.
      Leo PP. XIII (Gioacchino Pecci): `Providentissimus deus' [Encyclical on the study of Holy Scripture], 18 Nov. 1893.
      St. Pius PP. X (Giuseppe Sarto): `Præstantia scripturæ' [On studying the Bible], 18 Nov. 1907.
      Benedict PP. XV (Giacomo della Chiesa): `Spiritus paraclitus' [Encyclical on St. Jerome of Stridon], 15 Sep. 1920.
      Pius PP. XII (Eugenio Pacelli): `Divino afflante spiritu' [Encyclical on promoting biblical studies], 30 Sep. 1943.

      For the Bible in Malayalam cf. [Kattakayam 1926], [Naduvathucherry 1962], [Mootheden 1963], [Vyppicherry 1905], [Muttathupadam 1938], [Vadakel 1939], [Mayyanatt 1948].

    15. Fernando [Fernão] Pereira de Brito (brother): `Historia do nascimento, vida, e martyrio, do Beato João de Brito da Companhia de Jesus, Martyr da Asia, e Protomartyr da Missão do Maduré' [History of the nativity, life, and martyrdom, of Blessed John de Brito of the Society of Jesus, Martyr of Asia, and Protomartyr of the Madura Mission] (in Portuguese), Fernando de la Cueva, Coimbra, Portugal, 1722; Second edition: Lisbon, Portugal, 1852.

    16. Jacques-Victor-Albert, 3rd Reichsfürst {Prince of the Holy Roman Empire} de Broglie (* 13 Jun. 1821 – † 19 Jan. 1901): `L'Église et l'Empire romain au IVe siècle' [The Church and the Roman empire in the Fourth Century], III parts in 6 volumes [I: `Reign of Constantine'; II: `Constans and Julian the Apostate'; III: `Valentinian and Theodosius the Great'], Paris, France, 1856. [Académie française]

    17. Louis-Victor-Pierre-Raymond, 6th Reichsfürst {Prince of the Holy Roman Empire} de Broglie (* 15 Aug. 1892 – † 19 Mar. 1987): `Recherches sur la théorie des quanta' [Researches on the theory of quanta], Dissertation, Faculty of Sciences, University of Paris, France, 25 Nov. 1924; Published: Annales de Physique, 10th series, III, Jan. - Feb. 1925, pp. 22-128; Second edition, Masson & Cie, Paris, France, 1963; Reprinted: Fondation Louis de Broglie, Paris, France, 1992. `Radiations-- Ondes at quanta', 10 Sep. 1923; Published: Comptes rendus de l'Académie des sciences, CLXXVII, 1923, pp. 507-510; English translation. `Waves and quanta', Nature, CXII, Oct. 1923, p. 512. `A tentative theory of light quanta', Philosophical magazine, XXXXVII (7), Feb. 1924, pp. 446-458. `Une tentative d'interprétation causale et non linéaire de la mécanique ondulatoire: la théorie de la double solution', Gauthier-Villars, Paris, France, 1956; translated to English: `Non-linear wave mechanics: a causal interpretation', Elsevier, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 1960. `Interpretation of quantum mechanics by the double solution theory', Annales de la Fondation Louis de Broglie, XII (4), 1987, pp. 399-421. [Académie française; Académie des sciences] [David Joseph Bohm: `Causality and chance in modern physics', Harper, New York, USA, 1961; `The undivided universe: an ontological interpretation of quantum theory' (with Basil J. Hiley), Routledge, London, England, 1992; Interview, 1989; Jean-Pierre Vigier]

    18. Claudius Buchanan: `Christian researches in Asia: with notices of the translation of the Scriptures into the oriental languages', Fifth edition, T. Cadell & W. Davies, The Strand, London, England, 1812.

    19. St. John Chrysostom: `Against the Jews' [Adversus Judæos], Autumn 386.

    20. Arthur C. Burnell [Coke]: `On some Pahlavi inscriptions in South India', Stolz and Hirner, Basel Mission Press, Mangalore, English India, 1873.

    21. Idem: `Elements of South-Indian Palæography from the Fourth to the Seventeenth Century A. D.: being an introduction to the study of South-Indian inscriptions and MSS', London, England, 1878.

    22. Georg Ferdinand Ludwig Philipp Cantor (* 3 Mar. 1845 – † 6 Jan. 1918): `Contributions to the founding of the theory of transfinite numbers', Dover publications, Mineola, New York, USA, 1915.

    23. Jordanus Catalani of Séverac, O. P.: `Mirabilia descripta' (in Latin), English Library Additional MSS, 19513, dated c. 1330. Translated to English by Col. Henry Yule, `Mirabilia descripta: the wonders of the East', The Hakluyt Society, London, England, 1863.

    24. `The Christian {Catholic} Encyclopædia: an international work of reference on the constitution, doctrine, discipline, and history of the Christian {Catholic} Church'; edited by Charles G. Herbermann, Mgr. Edward A. Pace, Condé B. Pallen, Bp. Thomas J. Shahan, John J. Wynne, S. J., assisted by numerous collaborators; in fifteen volumes, together with an index (vol. XVI, 1914) and a supplement (vol. XVII, 1922); The Encyclopædia press, New York, USA, 1913. Internet archive.

    25. Louis Chasle: `Sr. Maria of the Divine Heart, Gräfin Droste zu Vischering, religious of the Good Shepherd, 1863-1899', Burns & Oates, London, England, 1906.

    26. Chavara Kuriakose Kathanar: `നാളാഗമങ്ങള്‍' [Chronicles] (in Malayalam), Prior General, Carmelite order of the Apostolic Christians, Karikkamury, Ernakulam, India, 1981. Original MSS c. 1841-1871 mostly at St. Joseph's Monastery, Mannanam, India. Bound in the present form by Jerome Poothottam of St. Mary, T. O. C. D., and analysed for authorship by Anselm Perumalil, T. O. C. D. An analysis of the provenance, chronology, and historical integrity of the MSS appears in the preface (unattributed), pp. xi-xxxii. Reprinted: 1985.

    27. Idem; Porukara Kuriakose Eliseus, T. O. C. D.: `മലയാളത്തിലെ കര്‍മ്മലീത്ത നിഷ്പാദുക മൂന്നാം സഭയുടെ സ്ഥാപകപിതാക്കന്മാര്‍' [The founding fathers of the Third Order of Carmelites Discalced of Malayalam] (in Malayalam), St. Joseph's Press, Mannanam, Kingdom of Travancore, 1905. Original MSS written by Fr. Chavara (titled `നമ്മുടെ കൊംവെന്തയ്ക്കു അടിസ്ഥാനക്കാരനായ പെ. ബ. പള്ളിപ്പുറത്ത് പാലയ്ക്കല്‍ തോമ്മാ മല്‍പാനച്ചന്റെ വര്‍ത്തമാനങ്ങള്‍' [The Chronicle of the Founder of Our Monastery, V. Rev. Fr. Palackal Thoma Malpan Achen of Pallipuram], ff. 81-128, Book IV of Vol. I of the Chronicles of Mannanam Monastery. Describes the period c. 1785-1841.) and Fr. Porukara, Jr. (titled `പെ. ബ. പോരൂക്കര തോമ്മാ മല്‍പാനച്ചന്‍' [V. Rev. Fr. Porukara Thoma Malpan Achen] and `പെ. ബ. ക. നി. മൂ. സ. ആഹാ കുരിയാക്കോസ് ഏലിയാ ദ് തുഹമ്മാ കന്തീശാ പട്ടക്കാരന്‍' [V. Rev. Fr. Kuriakose Elias of the Holy Family, T. O. C. D.], c. 1880) at St. Joseph's Monastery, Mannanam, India. Reprinted: Karikkamury, Ernakulam, India, 1989. The original language has been modified in both printings.

    28. `ചെമ്പില്‍ പള്ളി നാളാഗമം' [Chronicle of the Church of Chempu] (in Malayalam). MS. Unpublished.

    29. C. J. Varkey, Chunkath: `The Travancore question', in `Education question in Travancore: A symposium of the various pronouncements of the Government of Travancore and Sir C. P. on the subject and the criticism directed against certain details of policy by leading men in the state and outside', V. M. Marangoly (ed.), Little Flower Press, Ernakulam, 1946.

    30. Idem: `Correspondence between the Popes and the Rajas of Travancore in the eighteenth century', Magazine of College of St. Joseph, Trichinopoly, Feb. 1921.

    31. Idem: `The Wardha scheme of education: exposition and examination', Humphrey Milford, Oxford University Press, England, 1939. With a foreword by Zakir Hussain and an introduction by P. Subbarayan, Kumaramangalam.

    32. Idem: `St. Francis Xavier: A souvenir of the fourth century of the death of St. Francis Xavier (1552-1952)', Ernakulam, India, 1952. cf. also [Parekunnel 1952]

    33. Clement PP. XII (Lorenzo Corsini): `In eminenti apostolatus' [Encyclical on Freemasonry], 28 Apr. 1738.

    34. Stephen Collins: `The Cosgrave legacy' [Biographies of William T. Cosgrave [Liam Tomás Mac Cosgair] (* 5 Jun. 1880 - † 16 Nov. 1965) and his son Liam Cosgrave], Blackwater press, Dublin, Ireland, 1996.

    35. Amador Correa, S. J.: `Letter', dated 20 Jan. 1564; Published: `Documenta Indica', Joseph Wicki, S. J. (ed.), vol. 6, p. 179.

    36. Jean Croiset, S. J.: `La devotion au Sacré-Coeur de Jesus' [Devotion to the Sacred Heart of Jesus], France, 1698.

    37. St. John of the Cross, O. C. D. [San Juan de Yepes Alvarez de la Cruz]: `La noche oscura del alma' [Dark night of the soul], Spain, 1586. cf. also [Garrigou-Lagrange 1938].

    38. Francis Day: `The land of the Perumauls: or Cochin, its past and its present', Madras, English India, 1863.

    39. F. A. D'Cruz: `St. Thomas, the Apostle, in India: an investigation based on the latest researches in connection with the time-honoured tradition regarding the martyrdom of St. Thomas in southern India', Hoe and Company, Madras, English India, 1922.

      `When some people are raising up doubts as to the authenticity of the place of our Apostle, the publication of this book is very welcome.' -- Abp. Augustine W. Kandathil.

    40. Charles S. Devas: `Political economy', Third edition, Longmans, Green, and Co., London, England, 1907.

    41. Idem: `The key to the world's progress: being an essay on historical logic', Longmans, Green, and Co., London, England, 1912.

    42. Idem: `Studies of family life: a contribution to social science', Burns & Oates, London, England, 1886.

    43. Francisco Dionysio, S. J.: `Informação de Christiandade de São Thomé que estaen no Malavar, Reino fo India Oriental' [Information on the Christians of St. Thomas in Malabar, Kingdom of the Oriental India], (in Portuguese), MSS dated 4 Jan. 1578 at Archivum Romanum Societatis Iesu, Goa, India, I2-II, ff. 439-441/442-443 and at Arquivo Nacional da Torre do Tombo, Lisbon, Portugal, Armario Jesuitico, 28, ff. 34-38. Published: [Silva Rego, vol. 12, pp. 394-403]; `Documenta Indica', Joseph Wicki, S. J. (ed.), vol. 12, pp. 131-143.

    44. Fr. Jean Antoine Dubois: `Letters on the state of Christianity in India', 1823.

    45. Edamarathu Sebastian (* 16 Makaram 1060 [1885] - 18 Jul. 1891 - † 6 Apr. 1968): `കാണാമാണിക്യം' [Kaanaamaanikyam/The hidden pearl] (in Malayalam), novel on the Apostolate of St. Thomas in South India.

    46. Edamarathu Victor (* 1860 - 1891 - † 1909): `തോമ്മാ പര്‍വം' [Canto of St. Thomas] (in Malayalam), കിളിപ്പാട്ടു്.

    47. Idem: `പഴയ പാന' [The Old song] (Poem in Malayalam).

    48. Idem: `മിശിഹാചരിത്രം' [Life of the Messias] (Poem in Malayalam).

    49. Idem: `ചതുരന്ത്യം' [The four ends of man / `നാലുപര്‍വം' [Four cantos]]: `മരണപര്‍വം' [Death], `വിധിപര്‍വം' [Judgement], `നരകപര്‍വം' [Inferno], `മോക്ഷപര്‍വം' [Paradise], (Poems in Malayalam).

    50. `Vicariate-Apostolic of Ernakulam', The Christian {Catholic} Encyclopædia: an international work of reference on the constitution, doctrine, discipline, and history of the Christian {Catholic} Church. Volume XVI [Supplement] and Supplement I, Volume XVII, The Encyclopædia press, New York, USA, 1914 and 1922, pp. 38 and 288-289.

    51. `The Periplus of the Erythræn Sea: travel and trade in the Indian Ocean by a Merchant of the first century'; Wilfred H. Schoff (ed.); Longman, Green, and Co.; New York, USA, 1912.

    52. St. Jean Eudes, C. O.: `Le Cœur Admirable de la Très Sainte Mère de Dieu' [Admirable Heart of the Most Holy Mother of God], France, 1681.

    53. Eugene PP. IV [Gabriello Condulmaro, O. S. A.]: `Carissimo in Christo filio Thomæ' [Letter to Thomas, the illustrious Emperor of the Indians], entrusted to Alberto de Sartiano, O. F. M., 5 Sep. 1439. Published: Luke Wadding, O. F. M., `Annales Minorum', vol. XI, pp. 71-72.

    54. Idem: Cantate Domino [Bull of union with the Coptic Church condemning the practice of circumcision], Council of Florence, Session 11, 4 Feb. 1442.

    55. Eusebius Pamphili of Cæsarea: `Church history' cf. Book I, 13; Book II, 1; Book III, 1; Book V, 10; `Life of Constantine the Great'.

    56. Fr. Peter A. Fernandez (* 1864): `The Life of St. Gonsalo Garcia', Bombay, English India.

    57. Domenico Ferroli, S. J. (* 13 Nov. 1887 - † 4 Oct. 1970): `The Jesuits in Malabar', King and Co., The National Press, 36 Dickenson Road, Bangalore Cantonment, India, 2 Volumes, 1939, 1951.

    58. Idem: `Madras university lectures on the Theory of Restricted Relativity', Basel Mission Press and Book Depot, Mangalore, India, 1929; adapted from lectures delivered at Madras Christian College, Mar. 1927.

    59. Fr. Constant Fouard: `La vie de N. S. Jésus-Christ', 1880. Translated to English by George F. X. Griffith, `Christ, the son of God: a life of our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ', parts I, II, with an introduction by Abp. Henry E. Card. Manning, Longmans Green & Co., London, England, 1891. Translated to Malayalam by Mayyanatt A. John, Kodiyil, `ശ്രീയേശുക്രിസ്തു: ഒരു് ജീവചരിത്രം', with an introduction by C. V. Kunhuraman, St. Joseph's Press, Mannanam, Kingdom of Travancore, 1935; Reprinted: Department of Cultural Publications, Government of Kerala, May 1995.

      `മാര്‍ഗ്ഗവും സത്യവും ജീവനുമായ നമ്മുടെ കര്‍ത്താവിനെ കേരളമൊട്ടുക്കു് സുവിദിതനാക്കുന്നതിനായുള്ള നിങ്ങളുടെ പരിശ്രമത്തില്‍ അത്യന്തം സന്തോഷിക്കുന്നു. നിങ്ങളെയും നിങ്ങളുടെ പുസ്തകത്തെയും ആശീര്‍വദിക്കുന്നു.' -- Abp. Augustine W. Kandathil.

    60. Idem: `Saint Pierre et les premières années du Christianisme', 1886. Translated to English by George F. X. Griffith, `Saint Peter and the first years of Christianity', with an introduction by Abp. James Card. Gibbons, Longmans Green & Co., London, England, 1892.

    61. Idem: `Saint Paul, ses missions', 1892. Translated to English by George F. X. Griffith, `Saint Paul and his missions', Longmans Green & Co., London, England, 1894.

    62. Idem: `Saint Paul, ses dernières annees', 1897. Translated to English by George F. X. Griffith, `The last years of Saint Paul', Longmans Green & Co., London, England, 1900.

    63. Idem: `Saint Jean et la fin de age apostolique', 1904. Translated to English by George F. X. Griffith, `Saint John and the close of the Apostolic age', Longmans Green & Co., London, England, 1905.

    64. Galileo Galilei (* 15 Feb. 1564 - † 8 Jan. 1642): `Discorsi e dimostrazioni matematiche, intorno a due nuove scienze' [Discourses and mathematical demonstrations relating to two new sciences], Louis Elsevier, Leiden, The Netherlands, 1638. [Patavina; Pierre Duhem: `History of Physics'; Maria Celeste Virginia Galilei, O. S. C.: `Letters', 1623-1634, translated to English by Dava Sobel; Eugene Lafont, S. J. [Vigyan prasar]: `The truth about Galileo’s condemnation', lecture delivered on 23 Jun. 1881 at the Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science]

    65. Joseph de Gallifet, S. J.: `The adorable Heart of Jesus' [De cultu sacrosancti Cordis Dei ac Domini nostri Jesu Christi], France, 1726.

    66. Reginald Garrigou-Lagrange, O. P.: `The three ages of the interior life: prelude of eternal life', synthesised from `Christian perfection and contemplation according to St. Thomas Aquinas and St. John of the Cross' (1923) and `The love of God and the cross of Jesus', Rome, 1938.

    67. Idem: `La nouvelle théologie où va-t-elle?' [Where is the new theology leading us?], Angelicum, XXIII, Jul.-Dec. 1946, pp. 126-145.

    68. Kurt Friedrich Gödel [കുര്‍ട് ഫ്രീഡ്രിഹ് ഗേഡല്‍ / குர்ட் ஃப்ரீட்ரிஹ் கேடல் / कुर्ट् फ्रीड्रिह् गेडल्]: `The modern development of the foundations of mathematics in the light of philosophy', MS (Archive item 040411.5), 1961. Translated by Eckehart Köhler and Hao Wang and revised by John Dawson, Charles Parsons, and William Craig. Published: `Kurt Gödel, Collected Works, Volume III: Unpublished Essays and Lectures', Oxford University Press, New York, USA, 1995, pp. 374-387.

    69. Idem: `My philosophical viewpoint', MS, c. 1960. Published: Hao Wang: Section 9.4: `The meaning of the world: monadology and rationalistic optimism' in Chapter IX: `Gödel's approach to philosophy' of `A logical journey: from Gödel to philosophy', The MIT Press, Cambridge, USA, 1996, p. 316.

    70. Idem: `Ontological proof', MS (Archive item 060566), 10 Feb. 1970. Published: `Kurt Gödel, Collected Works, Volume III: Unpublished Essays and Lectures', Oxford University Press, New York, USA, 1995, pp. 403-404.

    71. Sarvepalli Gopal: `Jawaharlal Nehru: a biography', 3 volumes, Oxford University Press, 1984.

    72. Mgr. Antonio de Gouvea, O. S. A.: `IORNADA DO ARCEBISPO DE GOA DOM FREY ALEIXO DE MENEZES PRIMAZ DA INDIA ORIENTAL, RELIGIOSO da Ordem de S. Agoſtinho. Quando foy as Serras do Malauar, & lugares em que morão os antigos Chriſtãos de S. Thome, & os tirou de muytos erros & heregias em que eſtauão, & reduzio à noſſa Sancta Fè Catholica, & obediencia da Santa Igreja Romana, da qual paſſaua de mil annos que eſtauão apartados. Recopilada de diuerſos tratados de peſſoas de autoridade, que a tudo forão preſentes, Por Frey Antonio de Gouuea Religioſo da meſma Ordem de Santo Agostinho, lente de Theologia, & Prior do Conuento de Goa. Dase noticia de muytas couſas notaueis da India, de que a náo auia tão clara. Dirigada ao Reuerendiſsimo Senhor Dom Frey Agoſtinho de IESV Arcebiſpo, & Senhor de Braga, Primaz das Heſpanhos Religioſo da meſma Ordem.' [The Journey of the Archbishop of Goa, Dom Frey Aleixo de Menezes, Primate of East India, Religious of the Order of St. Augustine. When he went to the Mountains of Malabar, & to places where inhabit the ancient Christians of St. Thomas, he brought them back from many errors & heresies in which they were found, & reduced them to our Holy Christian {Catholic} Faith, & to the obedience of the Holy Roman Church, from which they had remained separated for a thousand years. Compiled from diverse treatises of people in authority, who were all present, by Frey Antonio de Gouvea Religious of the same Order of St. Augustine, Theologian & Prior of the Convent of Goa. The notices of many things notable about India, which are not so clear. Directed to the Most Rev. Dom Frey Augustine of Jesus Archbishop and Lord of Braga, Primate of Spain, Religious of the same Order.] (in Portuguese), ff. 1-152 (numbered only on the recto side), Shop of Diogo Gomez Loureyro, Impreſſor da Vniuerſidade [Printer to the University], Coimbra, Portugal, 1606. Written: 1603. Translated to English by Pius Malekandathil, Liturgical Research Centre, Mount St. Thomas, Ernakulam, India, 2003.

    73. Idem: `SYNODO DIOCESANO DA IGREIA E BISPADO DE ANGAMALE DOS ANTIGOS CHRISTAÕS DE SAM THOME DAS SERRAS DO MA-lauar das partes da India Oriental. CELEBRADO PELLO REVERENDISSIMO Senhor Dom Frey Aleixo de Menezes Arcebiſpo Metropolitano de Goa, Primaz da India, & partes Orientaes Sede Vagante do dito Biſpado por authoridade de dous Breues do Santiſsimo Padre Clemente Papa VIII. Noſſo Senhor, no terceyro Domingo depois de Pentecoſte aos 20 dias do mes de Iunho da era de 1599. Na Igreja de todos os Santos, nolugar, & Reyno do Diamper ſogeito a el Rey de Cochim infiel, no qual ſe deu obediencia ao Sũmo Pontifice Romano, & ſe ſogietou o dito Biſpado com todos os Chriſtãos delle à Santa Igreja Romana.' [A Diocesan SYNOD of the Church and Bishoprick of ANGAMALE Belonging to the Ancient Christians of St. Thomas in the Serra or Mountains of MALABAR. Celebrated by the most Reverend Lord Dom Frey Aleixo de Menezes, Archbishop, Metropolitan of Goa, Primate of the Indies, and the See being vacant, of the above-mentioned Bishoprick, by virtue of two Briefs of the most Holy Father Pope Clement 8th. on the third Sunday after Pentecost, being the 20th day of June, in the Year of our Lord 1599. in the Church of All-Saints, in the Town and Kingdom of Diamper, Subject to the King of Cochin, an Infidel; in which the said Bishoprick, with all the Christians thereunto belonging, submitted itself to the Pope and the Holy Roman Church.] (in Portuguese), ff. 1-62 (numbered only on the recto side), Shop of Diogo Gomez Loureyro, Impreſſor da Vniuerſidade [Printer to the University], Coimbra, Portugal, 1606. Published as an appendix to the preceding. Translated to English by Michael Geddes: `The Acts and Decrees of the Synod of Diamper', in "The History of the Church of Malabar, from the time of its being first discovered by the `Portuguezes' in the year 1501. Giving an account of the persecutions and violent methods of the Roman Prelates to reduce them to the subjection of the Church of Rome. Together with the Synod of Diamper celebrated in the year of Our Lord 1599. With some remarks upon the faith and doctrine of the Christians of St. Thomas in the Indies agreeing with the Church of England in opposition to that of Rome", Smith and Waldorf, London, England, 1694.

    74. Idem: `MISSA DE QVE VSAM OS ANTIGOS CHRISTAOS de São Thome do Bispado de Angamalle das Serras do Malauar da India Oriental, purgada dos erros, & blasfemias Nestorianas de que estaua chea, pello Illustrissimo & Reuerendissimo Senhor Dom Frey Aleyxo de Menezes Arcebispo de Goa Primàz da India, quando foy reduzir esta Christandade à obediencia da Santa Igreja Romana, tresladada de Siriaco, ou Suriano de Verbo ad Verbum em lingoa Latina.' `TITVLO DA MISSA. SACRVM BEATORVM Apostolorum.' [The Mass that is henceforth to be used by the ancient Christians of St. Thomas of the Bishoprick of Angamale in the Serra of Malabar, in the East-Indies, purged of the Nestorian Errors and Blasphemies it abounded with, by the most Illustrious and Reverend Dom Frey Aleixo De Menezes, Arch-Bishop of Goa, and Primate of the Indies, at the time when he reduced them to the Obedience of the Holy Roman Church. Translated word for word out of Syriack or Syrian, into Latin.] (in Latin), ff. 1-9 (unnumbered), Shop of Diogo Gomez Loureyro, Impreſſor da Vniuerſidade [Printer to the University], Coimbra, Portugal, 1606. Published as an appendix to the preceding. `As cousas em que esta Missa Suriana foy emendada, se poderão ver nos Decretos primeyro, segundo, & terceyro da Acção quinta do Synodo de Diamper.' The English translation of the Preface to the Missal can be found in the last 4 pages of the work of Geddes.

    75. St. Gregory PP. I the Great: `Pastoral rule'; `Epistles'; `The life of our Most Holy Father St. Benedict'. cf. also St. Pius PP. X (Giuseppe Sarto): `Iucunda sane', 12 Mar. 1904.

    76. Gregory PP. XVI (Mauro Bartolomeo Cappellari, O. S. B.): `Mirari vos' [Encyclical on Liberalism and Religious indifferentism], 15 Aug. 1832.

    77. Hermann Gundert: `Translation and analysis of the ancient documents engraved on Copper in possession of the Syrian Christians and Jews of Malabar' / `Hebrew version of the Jewish Sasanam with translation into English', Madras Journal of Literature and Science, vol. XIII, n. 30/31, Madras, English India, Jun. / Dec. 1844, pp. 115-146 / 11-14. [cf. also F. W. Ellis: `Analysis of the Copper Grant in the possession of the Jews of Cochin', n. 31, Dec. 1844, pp. 1-11; Kookel Kelu Nair: `Memorandum on the Syrian and Jewish Copper plates of Malabar', vol. XXI, n. 48, Apr.-Sep. 1859, pp. 30-55.] Concerns (1) the copper plate from Perumal Vira Raghava to Iravi Corttan of Mahadevarpattanam granting him the principality of Manigramam and elevating him as the sovereign merchant of the Cheraman kingdom (double sided in old Tamil and Grantham); (2) the five copper plates from Maruwan Sapir [Sapor / Xabro / Shapur] Iso, in the time of Perumal Sthanu Ravi Gupta, with the concurrence of the Palace major Vyaraka Devar and the Venadu king Ayyan Atikal, to the Tarisapalli church (raised by Isodata Virai of Curakkeni Kollam) granting them a tract of land near the sea shore together with families from certain heathen castes, and appointing the Anjuwannam (Jewish) and Manigramam (Syriac) dynasties as joint trustees (double sided in Tamil, Malayalam, and Kufic); (3) the two copper plates from Perumal Bhaskara Ravi Varma to Joseph Rabban granting him the principality of Anjuwannam and 72 (LXX) privileges, attested by the rulers of Venadu, Venavali, Erala, Valluwa, Nedumpurayur, the Eastern army, and Tellicherry (in Tamil and Malayalam). A Karson copy of (2) is found at Bibliotheque National, Paris, France, MS Syr. 186, ff. 127-130. cf. also the account of the viewing of (2) at the Church of St. Mary, Thevalacara {Teualecare} (Jacobite [Oriental Heterodox]) by Dom Aleixo de Menezes [de Gouvea 1606a, Chapter IX].

    78. Johann Ernst Hanxleden, S. J. {അര്‍ണ്ണോസ് അച്ചന്‍}: `ARTE MALAVAR OR GRAMMAR OF THE MALABAR LANGUAGE (GRANTHAM) IN PORTUGUESE' [Grammaticæ Lingua Malabaricæ], MS at the English Library. Discovered by P. V. Ulahannan Mappillai; Published in facsimile with translation to English by Miss Pinto: `Arte Malabar', St. Joseph's orphanage book shop, Changanacherry, India, Jul. 1993.

    79. Idem: `Grammatica grandonica' [Grammar for grantham (Sanskrit)] (in Latin), MS at Carmelite Monastery of St. Sylvester, Monte Compatri, Italy. Discovered by Toon van Hal, Christian {Catholic} University of Louvain, Belgium, May 2010; cf. "À la recherche d'une grammaire perdue: Johann Ernst Hanxleden's `Grammatica Grandonica' retrieved", Historiographia Linguistica, XXXVII(3), Oct. 2010, pp. 445-457.

    80. Idem: `Vocabulario Malavarico' [Portuguese-Malayalam Dictionary], MS at Biblioteca Geral, University of Coimbra, Portugal, 1730.

    81. Idem: `പുത്തന്‍ പാന' [The New song / മിശിഹായുടെ പാന [The Messias's song] / കൂതാശ പാന [Devotional song]] (Poem in Malayalam), Vita Jesu Christi D. N. versibus Malabaricis composita a P. F. E. Hanxleden, capita XIV, dicita Mishihade Pan, c. 1721-1732; MS at Oriental Manuscript Library, University of Kerala, Trivandrum, India.

    82. Idem: `ചതുരന്ത്യം' [The four ends of man / `നാലുപര്‍വം' [Four cantos]]: `മരണപര്‍വം' [Death], `വിധിപര്‍വം' [Judgement], `നരകപര്‍വം' [Inferno], `മോക്ഷപര്‍വം' [Paradise], (Poems in Malayalam).

    83. Idem: `ദേവമാതാവിന്റെ വ്യാകുലപ്രലാപം' {Mater dolorosa} (Poem in Malayalam).

    84. Idem: `ദേവമാതാവിന്റെ വ്യാകുലബന്ധം' {Mater dolorosa} (Poem in Malayalam).

    85. Idem: `ദേവസുകന്യകാ ചരിത്രഗാനം' (Poem in Malayalam).

    86. Idem: `ജെനെവീവാ പുണ്യചരിതം' [The epic of St. Genevieve] (Poem in Malayalam).

    87. Idem: `Ave Maris Stella' (not extant).

    88. Idem: `യുധിഷ്ഠിരവിജയം' [The victory of Yudhishtira [युधिष्ठिर]] (Poem in Sanskrit), Liber excellens scriptus lingua Sanscrit charactere Granthamico, continet poema insigne Brahmanneum Indicum (Yudhishtira Vigaya) inscriptum cum explicatione versuum in lingua; MS at the Biblioteca nazionale Vittorio Emanuele III, Palazzo Reale, Naples, Italy.

    89. Idem: `Letter from Veilur [Velur]' (in Latin), MS 323d dated 4 Oct. 1713 at Assumption Church, Cologne, Germany; Translated to English: [Ferroli 1951, vol. II, Chapter IV, pp. 323-328; date at p. 316].

    90. Idem: `Letters from Ambalacatæ [Ambazhacad]' (in Latin), MSS dated 7 Jan. 1715 and 3 Aug. 1715 at Archives of the Society of Jesus of the Province of Paris, Les Fontains, Centre Culture, 60500 Chantilly, ASJP, Fonds Brotier, Vol. 86, ff. 35--37 (often stated to be at Ecole St. Genevieve, Paris). Translated to English by Abraham Adappur, S. J. in `Unpublished letters of Fr. J. E. Hanxleden', pp. 199-202, 205-206; and to Malayalam by P. V. Ulahannan Mappillai [Hanxleden 1993, pp. 34-43]

    91. Henri Hosten, S. J.: `Antiquities from San Thomé and Mylapore, the traditional site of martyrdom and tomb of the Apostle Thomas', Madras, English India, 1936.

    92. Idem: `The St. Thomas Christians of Malabar (1490-1504)', Kerala society papers, I(5), 1931.

    93. Fr. Thomas Inchackalody (* 21 Aug. 1908 - † 16 Apr. 1973): `ആര്‍ച്ച്ബിഷപ്പ് ഇവാനിയോസ്' {Archbishop Ivanios} (in Malayalam), 2 Volumes, Trivandrum, India, Jul. 1957, Aug. 1971; reprinted together: Fifth edition, Sophia books, Calicut, Sep. 2015.

    94. I. C. Chacko, Illiparambil: `ളൂയീസ് പഴേപറമ്പില്‍ മെത്രാനച്ചന്‍: ജീവിതവും കാലവും' [Bp. Louis Pareparambil: life and times] (in Malayalam), M. M. Varkey, Mookkenchery, Trivandrum, Kingdom of Travancore, 1937.

    95. Idem: `क्रिस्तुसहस्रनामं' [The thousand-fold names of Christ] (in Sanskrit), 1914. PDF.

    96. Idem: `കൃഷിവിഷയങ്ങള്‍' [Farming matters], 1940.

    97. Idem: `പാണിനീയപ്രദ്യോതം' [पाणिनीयप्रद्योतं / Light on Panini's grammar], commentary in Malayalam on Panini [पाणिनि / പാണിനി]'s grammar of Sanskrit Ashtadhyayi [अष्टाध्यायी] [पाणिनीयं]; Award in Malayalam of the Indian National Academy of Letters {Kendra Sahithya Academy}, 1956; Ernakulam, India, 1955.

    98. Cosmas Indicopleustes: `The Christian topography', E. O. Winstedt (ed.), Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, England, 1909.

    99. A. Padmanabha Iyer: `Souvenir of the Sashtiabdapurthi of Sachivothama Sir C. P. Ramaswami Aiyar, K. C. I. E., LL. D., Dewan of Travancore', A. R. V. press, Trivandrum, Kingdom of Travancore, 1940.

    100. P. de Jabrun: `Vie de Mgr. Charles Lavigne' [Life of Bp. Charles L. Lavigne, S. J.] (in French), Paris, France, 1919.

    101. Mar Jacob Abuna: `Three letters of Mar Jacob, Bishop of Malabar, 1503-1550', MSS Vat. Syr. 204; Arquivo Nacional da Torre do Tombo, Lisbon, Portugal, CVR 99. Translated to English by Georg O. Schurhammer, S. J., Gregorianum, XIV, 1933, pp. 62-86.

    102. Idem: `Testimony at a judicial enquiry in 1533', MS at Archivum Romanum Societatis Iesu, Goa, 31, ff. 18-19. Unpublished.

    103. St. Jerome of Stridon: `Letter LIX: To Marcella'; `Letter LXX: To Magnus an Orator of Rome'; `Chapter XXXVI of `De viris illustribus' on St. Pantænus of Alexandria; `Letters'; `De viris illustribus'. cf. also Benedict PP. XV (Giacomo della Chiesa): `Spiritus paraclitus' [Encyclical on St. Jerome of Stridon], 15 Sep. 1920.

    104. John PP. XXII [Jacques D'euse]: `Romanus Pontifex' [Apostolic constitution erecting the Latin Diocese of Quilon], 9 Aug. 1329.

    105. Idem: `Venerabili Fratri Jordano' [Bull appointing Jordanus Catalani of Séverac, O. P. as the Latin Bishop of Quilon], 21 Aug. 1329.

    106. Idem: `Nobili viro domino Nascarinorum' [Bull addressing the Nazarenes of Quilon and entrusted to Jordanus Catalani of Séverac, O. P.], 5 Apr. 1330.

    107. Joseph the Indian (* 1461): `Paesi nouamente retrovati & Novo Mondo da Alberico Vesputio Florentino intitulato', Venice, Italy, 1508. Written: c. 1501. Translated to English: `India in 1500 A. D.: The narratives of Joseph the Indian', Antony Vallavanthara, T. O. C. D. (ed.), Research Institute for Studies in History, Mannanam, India, 1984.

    108. T. K. Joseph [Thomas Kana]: `Thomas Cana'; Indian Antiquary, with observations by Henri Hosten, S. J.; vol. LVI, 1927, pp. 165-166; vol. LVII, 1928, pp. 103-106, 117-124, 160-165, 209-214.

    109. Henri Josson, S. J.: `Le Père Sylvain Grosjean de la Compagnie de Jésus: un chef de mission aux Indes' (in French), Museum Lessianum, Louvain, Belgium, 1935.

    110. K. C. Chacko, Kadankavil: `Sr. Alphonsa', Trivandrum, Travancore, India, May 1948.

    111. Bp. James C. Kalacherry [Chacko]: `Pastoral letter no. 123 on the beginning of state socialism in Travancore', 15 Aug. 1945; Vedaprachara madhyasthan, Sep. - Oct. 1945; reprinted: Bp. Louis M. Pareparambil Memorial Press, 1945. [Hiroshima]

    112. K. T. Cyriac, Kandathil: `വിശുദ്ധ ആഗുസ്തീനോസ്' [St. Augustine] (in Malayalam), with an introduction by Kottarathil Sankunni, Bp. Louis M. Pareparambil Memorial Press, Broadway, Ernakulam, Kingdom of Cochin, 1926. Dedicated to Abp. Augustine W. Kandathil on the occasion of his sacerdotal silver jubilee.

    113. Idem: `മര്‍ദ്ദനം നമ്മെ പിന്തിരിപ്പിക്കുമോ?' [Will beatings make us retreat?] (in Malayalam), Kottayam, Kingdom of Travancore, 1945.

    114. Abp. Augustine W. Kandathil: `നാളാഗമം' [Chronicle], MSS. 35 notebooks spanning the period 7 Jan. 1925 - 30 Dec. 1955. Unpublished.

    115. Idem: `മഹാവന്ദ്യ ദിവ്യശ്രീ മലങ്കരയുടെ ആഗുസ്തീനോസ് മെത്രാപ്പോലീത്താ തിരുമനസ്സുകൊണ്ടു് കല്പിച്ചരുളിയ ആശിസ്സു്' [Benediction of the Metropolitan Most Rev. Abp. Augustine of Malankara] (in Malayalam), Statement on the epic-poem [Kattakayam 1926], Ernakulam, Kingdom of Cochin, 19 Feb. 1926.

    116. Idem: `A summary of laws and regulations', Bp. Louis M. Pareparambil Memorial Press, Ernakulam, Kingdom of Cochin, 1940.

    117. Idem: `Letter to Abp. Eugène Card. Tisserant', 6 Jun. 1955. Published: `Chaldæan liturgy not to be restored', Ernakulam Missam, XLIII (6), Jun. 1973, pp. 63-73.

    118. Idem: [Pareparambil 1982]

    119. Abp. Joseph Kariattil: `Noticias do Reino do Malabar' [Information concerning the Kingdom of Malabar] (in Portuguese), MS at Biblioteca Nacional, Lisbon, Portugal, Fundo Geral 33, 36, 536, ff. 1-29. Translated to English by Bp. Michael Arattukulam.

      `During the period we remained under Padre Cajetan the Malpan Achen wrote in Portuguese a brief, orderly, and clear treatise on all that had happened in our country regarding the faith from the time of the Apostle St. Thomas until the present day. In it he described how the Paulists began the mission there and what things they had done, how the Carmelites came and what they had done and are doing, how we started from Malabar by the order of the Malabar Church Assembly and what our experiences had been in Rome. We will append this treatise to the end of this book for the sake of those who may desire to read it.' [Paremmakkal 1936, Chapter LXI] The treatise is, however, not found with the MS.

    120. Idem: `വേദതര്‍ക്കം' [Dialectics on Theology] (in Malayalam), MS written at Alengad, 1768, in the possession of P. J. Thomas, Parekunnel. Unpublished. [Parekunnel 1935, Chapter XI]

    121. Idem: `ഇടയലേഖനം' [Pastoral letter] (in Latin and Malayalam), MS written at Lisbon, 1785. Published: Ernakulam Missam, XXXI (4), Apr. 1961.

      `By the law of nature we were bound to expose our reasons and defend our honour against what our enemies spoke against us. So the Archbishop without much delay wrote a pastoral in Latin succinctly and reasonably dealing with the essentials of our faith. It was translated into Malayalam. Two copies were prepared in book form with gilt edges. On one page was the Latin original and on the opposite page its Malayalam translation. One copy was presented in homage to the King. ... Thus were confounded the wicked who went about saying our Archbishop was an ignorant man. All the learned appreciated the pastoral. ... The translation of the pastoral will be given at the end of this book.' [Paremmakkal 1936, Chapter LXXI] The translation is, however, not found with the MS.

    122. Ludmiła Karpowiczowa: Władysław Michał Bonifacy Zaleski, Słownik biologów polskich [A portrait of Władysław Michał Zaleski on the background of his botanical interests] (in Polish), Warsaw, Poland, 1987.

    123. Kattakayam Cherian Mappillai: `ശ്രീയേശുവിജയം' [Shreeyaeshu vijayam; The Victory of Lord Jesus; Poem relating the complete Bible from the Genesis to the New Testament, and the history of early Christianity up to the reign of the Emperor Constantine the Great] (in Malayalam), composed 1911-1926, Palai, Kingdom of Travancore. Reprinted in `കട്ടക്കയം കൃതികള്‍' [The Works of Kattakayam] (in Malayalam), Carmel Publishing House, Trivandrum, India, 1988. cf. also [Kandathil 1926].

    124. Idem: `തോമ്മാ ചരിതം' [Thoma Charitham], (Poem in Malayalam), adapted from the `Acta Thomæ' (apocryphal), 1908. Reprinted in `കട്ടക്കയം കൃതികള്‍' [The Works of Kattakayam] (in Malayalam), Carmel Publishing House, Trivandrum, India, 1988.

    125. Idem: `വില്ലാള്‍വെട്ടം' [Villalvettam] (Play in Malayalam), 1894. Reprinted in `കട്ടക്കയം കൃതികള്‍' [The Works of Kattakayam] (in Malayalam), Carmel Publishing House, Trivandrum, India, 1988.

    126. Idem: `മാത്തുതരകന്‍' [Matthoo Tharakan] (Poem in Malayalam), 1924. Reprinted in `കട്ടക്കയം കൃതികള്‍' [The Works of Kattakayam] (in Malayalam), Carmel Publishing House, Trivandrum, India, 1988.

    127. Idem: `അഭിഷേകമംഗളം' [Greetings on the Consecration] (Poem in Malayalam), on the occasion of the Consecration of Bp. Augustine W. Kandathil and Bp. Thomas C. Kurialacherry as Bishops, Nasrani Deepika, 5 Dec. 1911. Reprinted in `കട്ടക്കയം കൃതികള്‍' [The Works of Kattakayam] (in Malayalam), Carmel Publishing House, Trivandrum, India, 1988.

    128. Idem: `അനുമോദനാഞ്ജലി' [Offertory of greetings] (Poem in Malayalam), on the occasion of the installation of Abp. Augustine W. Kandathil as the Metropolitan and Head of the Apostolic Church, Nasrani Deepika, 22 Nov. 1924. Reprinted in `കട്ടക്കയം കൃതികള്‍' [The Works of Kattakayam] (in Malayalam), Carmel Publishing House, Trivandrum, India, 1988.

    129. Idem: `കോണ്‍ഗ്രസ്സ് മംഗളം' [Greetings to the Congress] (Poem in Malayalam), on the occasion of the 22nd Annual meeting of the All Kerala Catholic Congress [Convener of the Reception committee: Kattakayam Cherian Mappillai], Palai, Kingdom of Travancore, May 1927. Reprinted in `കട്ടക്കയം കൃതികള്‍' [The Works of Kattakayam] (in Malayalam), Carmel Publishing House, Trivandrum, India, 1988.

    130. Hugh Kay: `Salazar (* 28 Apr. 1889 - † 27 Jul. 1970) and Modern Portugal', Hawthorn books, New York, USA, 1970.

    131. Thomas Hämerken à Kempis [von Kempen], B. C. L.: `De imitatione Christi' [The imitation of Christ], c. 1418. Project Gutenberg. Another translation. Translated to Malayalam by Paremmakkal Thoma Kathanar, unpublished; by Fr. Michael Nilavareth; and by Mayyanatt A. John.

    132. Mgr. Sebastian Kneipp: `The care of children in sickness and in health', Kempten, Bavaria, 1897.

    133. Idem: `Thus shalt thou live: hints and advice for the healthy and the sick on a simple and rational mode of life and a natural method of cure', Kempten, Bavaria, 1894.

    134. Idem: `My water cure as tested through more than 35 years and described for the healing of diseases and the preservation of health', Kempten, Bavaria, 1894.

    135. Idem: `My will: a legacy to the healthy and the sick', H. Grevel & Co., London, England, 1896.

    136. K. R. Narayanan, Kocheril (4 Feb. 1921 [27 Oct. 1920] - 9 Nov. 2005): `Midnight address to the nation by the President of India on the golden jubilee of Indian independence', New Delhi, India, 15 Aug. 1997; `Address on the golden jubilee of the republic'; `Speech by the President of India while accepting credentials from the Apostolic Nuncio-Designate of the Holy See to India', New Delhi, India, 30 Aug. 1999; `Letter on the burning alive of Graham S. Staines and his two minor sons', New Delhi, India, 24 Jan. 1999; `Dalit {Weaker section of} Hindu or Christian?', Rediff, Jul. 1997; `From demon to god', Frontline, Nov. 1997; `Interview with K. R. Gowri and K. R. Bhaskaran', Rediff, Jul. 1997; `Interview with K. R. Narayanan', Maanavasamskruthi [മാനവസംസ്കൃതി], I(8), Feb. 2005 (in Malayalam) in which K. R. Narayanan accused the A. B. Vajpayee Government of complicity in the 2002 Gujarat riots; `Inaugural address'; `Address to Parliament on the golden jubilee of the republic'; `Speech on the visit of the US President'; `Speech on the inauguration of the Kerala Legislature Complex'; `Farewell address'; `A tribute to K. R. Narayanan' (V. B. Rawat); 34, Prithviraj Road, New Delhi.

    137. L. K. Anantakrishna Ayyar, Lakshminarayanapuram [Krishna]: `Anthropology of the Syrian Christians', 1926.

    138. Fr. John J. Laux [Joseph] (* 29 Apr. 1878 - † 7 Feb. 1939): Church history: a complete history of the Christian {Catholic} church to the present day, , Benziger Brothers, New York, USA, 1930.

    139. Bp. Clemens Joseph Colaço Leitão, S. J.: `Ad limina report' (in Latin), describing the martyrdom of Devasahayam, Angengo [അഞ്ചു്തെങ്ങു്], Kingdom of Travancore, 15 Nov. 1756. MS at S. Congr. Concilii Relationes, 237, ff. 53-74. Translated to English by Fr. I. Kulandaiswamy and Fr. A. Gabriel, and revised by George Nedungatt, S. J.

    140. St. Leo PP. I the Great: `Sermons'; `Epistles'.

    141. Leo PP. X (Giovanni di Lorenzo de Medici): `Exsurge Domine' [Bull condemning the errors of Martin Luther], 15 Jun. 1520; `Decet Romanum pontificem' [Bull condemning and excommunicating Martin Luther the heretic and his followers], 3 Jan. 1521.

    142. Leo PP. XII (Annibale Sermattei della Genga): `Quo graviora' [Apostolic constitution on Freemasonry], 13 Mar. 1826.

    143. Leo PP. XIII (Gioacchino Pecci): `Quæ rei sacræ' [Bull erecting the Vicariates-Apostolic of Trichur, Ernakulam, and Changanacherry], 28 Jul. 1896. Published: Pontificis Maximi Acta, vol. XVI, 1897, pp. 229-232.

    144. Idem: `Humanæ salutis auctor' [Apostolic letter instituting the ecclesiastical Hierarchy of India (Latin)], 1 Sep. 1886. Publlished: Acta sanctæ sedis, vol. XIX, 1887, pp. 176-184.

    145. Idem: `Ad extremas' [Encyclical on seminaries for native clergy], 24 Jun. 1893.

    146. Idem: `Quod iampridem' [Letter separating the Apostolic Christians {Syro-Malabar} from the Latins and erecting the Vicariates-Apostolic of Trichur and Kottayam], 20 May 1887. Publlished: Acta sanctæ sedis, vol. XIX, 1887, pp. 513-514.

    147. Idem: `Fin dal principio', 8 Dec. 1902; `Paternæ', 18 Sep. 1899; `Depuis le jour', 8 Sep. 1899. [Encyclicals on the education of clergy]

    148. Idem: `Annum sacrum' [Encyclical on the consecration of the world to the most Sacred Heart of Jesus], 25 May 1899. Prayer.

    149. Idem: `Æterni patris' [Encyclical on the restoration of Christian philosophy], 4 Aug. 1879.

    150. Idem: `The pope and the people: select letters and addresses on social questions', Christian {Catholic} truth society, London, England, 1903. `Rerum novarum' [Encyclical on capital, labour, and the condition of the working classes], 15 May 1891; `Inscrutabili Dei consilio' [Encyclical on the evils affecting modern society], 21 Apr. 1878; `Immortale Dei' [Encyclical on the Christian constitution of states], 1 Nov. 1885; `Sapientiæ Christianæ' [Encyclical on the chief duties of Christians as citizens], 10 Jan. 1890; `Libertas præstantissimum' [Encyclical on the nature of human liberty], 20 Jun. 1888; `Arcanum divinæ' [Encyclical on Christian marriage], 10 Feb. 1880; `Exeunte iam anno' [Encyclical on the right ordering of Christian life], 25 Dec. 1888; `Quod apostolici muneris' [Encyclical on modern errors such as Socialism, Communism, and Nihilism], 28 Dec. 1878; `Graves de communi re' [Encyclical on Christian democracy], 18 Jan. 1901; `Diuturnum' [Encyclical on the origin of civil power], 29 Jun. 1881.

    151. Idem: `Etsi nos' [Encyclical on conditions in Italy], 15 Feb. 1882; `Humanum genus' [Encyclical on Freemasonry], 20 Apr. 1884; `Officio sanctissimo' [Encyclical on the Church in Bavaria], 22 Dec. 1887; `Ab apostolici' [Apostolic letter on Freemasonry in Italy], 15 Oct. 1890; `Custodi di quella fede' [Encyclical on Freemasonry], 8 Dec. 1892; `Inimica vis' [Encyclical on Freemasonry], 8 Dec. 1892.

    152. Idem: `Præclara gratulationis publicæ' [Apostolic letter on the reünion of Christendom], 20 Jun. 1894.

    153. Idem: `Satis cognitum' [Encyclical on the unity of the Church], 29 Jun. 1896.

    154. Idem: `Testem benevolentiæ nostræ' [Encyclical concerning new opinions, virtue, nature, and grace, with regard to Americanism], 22 Jan. 1899; `Longinqua oceani' [Encyclical on Christianity {Catholicism} in the United States], 6 Jan. 1895; cf. also Pius PP. XII (Eugenio Pacelli): `Sertum lætitiæ' [Encyclical on the hundred and fiftieth anniversary of the establishment of the hierarchy in the United States ], 1 Nov. 1939.

    155. Idem: `Miræ caritatis' [Encyclical on the Holy Eucharist], 28 May 1902.

    156. Idem: `Quamquam pluries' [Encyclical on devotion to St. Joseph], 15 Aug. 1889.

    157. Idem: `Orientalium dignitas' [Encyclical on the Churches of the East], 30 Nov. 1894.

    158. Idem: `Christi nomen' [Encyclical on Propagation of the Faith and Eastern Churches], 24 Dec. 1894.

    159. Abp. Alexis-Henri-Marie Card. Lépicier, O. S. M.: `Jesus Christ the king of our hearts: elevations on the most Sacred Heart of Jesus', Burns & Oates, London, England, 1921.

    160. Gordon Thomson MacKenzie: `Christianity in Travancore', Travancore Government Press, Trivandrum, Kingdom of Travancore, 1901.

    161. John Peter Maffei(us), S. J.: `Historiarum Indicarum' [History of India], 3 volumes, Leyden, The Netherlands, 1589; Translated to Italian by Francesco Serdonati as `Le istorie dell' Indie Orientali', Florence, Italy, 1806: vol. I, vol. II, vol. III.

    162. M. C. Abraham, Makil [Chummar]: `കിനായി തോമ്മാ' (in Malayalam).

    163. Idem: `മാക്കീല്‍ മത്തായി മെത്രാന്‍' [Bp. Matthew T. Makil] (in Malayalam).

    164. Bp. Matthew T. Makil [Thommen]: `ദെക്രത്ത് പുസ്തകം' [The book of decreta/decrees] (in Malayalam), Changanacherry, Kingdom of Travancore, 1902.

    165. Idem: `നാളാഗമം' [Chronicle] (in Malayalam), MSS in 2 volumes in the possession of the Diocese of Kottayam. Unpublished.

    166. Idem: `ക്രിസ്തീയ വേദോപദേശ സംക്ഷേപം' [A summary of Christian catechism] (in Malayalam), Changanacherry, Kingdom of Travancore, 1909.

    167. Maliekal Thoma Ramban: `തോമ്മാ പര്‍വം' [Thoma parvam] / `റമ്പാന്‍ പാട്ടു്' [Ramban paattu] (in Malayalam), Niranam, 1601. Published: Bernard Alenchery of St. Thomas, T. O. C. D.: `തോമ്മാസ് അപ്പസ്തോലന്‍ ക്രിസ്ത്യാനികള്‍' [St. Thomas Christians], Vol. I, Palai, Kingdom of Travancore, 1916. Translated to English by Henri Hosten, S. J.: `The Song of Thomas Ramban', Ernakulam, Kingdom of Cochin, 1931. Translated to Italian by Francis Xavier Rocca, S. J. [N.]: `La leggenda di S. Tommaso Apostolo. Canto popolare del Malabar' [The legend of St. Thomas the Apostle: popular songs in Malabar], Orientalia Christiana, vol. XXXII / n. 89, pp. 168-179, Pontificium Institutum Orientalium Studiorum, Piazza della Pilotta, 35, Rome 1, Italy, 1933. cf. also [Parekunnel 1935, Chapter IV]

      `Lately, ..., I came across a very old manuscript history in Malayalam verse on the life and labours of St. Thomas in South India. Therein it was declared that it was the epitome of a very ancient and original work written by Thomas Maliekal, a Syrian priest, who was the third in succession from St. Thomas, and that the abridgement was made by another Thomas, the father of a priest of the same family who was forty-eighth in descent from the Apostle.' [Panjikaran 1912, p. 5]

    168. Mangalath Chandy Malpan Achen: `നാളാഗമം' [Chronicle] (in Malayalam), MS. Unpublished.

    169. Mgr. Matthew J. Mankuzhikary: `ആദ്ധ്യാത്മിക ജീവിതം' [The life of the spirit] (in Malayalam), 2 Volumes, Bp. Louis M. Pareparambil Memorial Press, Broadway, Ernakulam, India, 1956.

    170. Mgr. Horace K. Mann: `The Lives of the Popes in the early middle ages', beginning from the coronation of St. Gregory PP. I the Great (590) and finishing with the death of Benedict PP. XI (1305), 18 Volumes, Routledge and Kegan Paul Ltd., London, England, 1902-1932.

    171. A. Philipose, Maret [Abraham] (* 15 Oct. 1879 - † 26 Dec. 1961): `The Apostolic origin and early history of the Apostolic {Syrian} Church of Malabar'; A historical dissertation submitted for the Master of Arts Degree of the University of Madras; The Christian literature society, London, England, 1904. Also published in: Madras Christian College Magazine, III(4), pp. 547-558, 621-633, 662-675, Apr. 1904.

    172. John of Marignolli, O. F. M.: `Chronicon Bohemiæ' (in Latin), dated c. 1360. Translated to English by Col. Henry Yule, `Missionary friars: Marignolli', vol. 3 of `Cathay and the way thither: being a collection of medieval notices of China', Second edition, The Hakluyt Society, London, England, 1914.

    173. St. Marie-Françoise-Thérèse Martin of the Infant Jesus and the Holy Face, O. C. D. [St. Thérèse de Lisieux / The little flower]: `L'Histoire d'une Âme' [The story of a soul], Lisieux, France, 1898. Internet archive. Translated to Malayalam as `വിശുദ്ധ കൊച്ചുത്രേസ്യാ സ്വയംകൃതചരിത്രം' by Fr. A. Thomas Mootheden, Carmel Publishing House, Trivandrum, India, 1959.

    174. Idem: `Letters of St. Thérèse de Lisieux'. Translated to Malayalam as `നവമാലികാ സഖി: അഥവാ ചെറുപുഷ്പത്തിന്റെ എഴുത്തുകള്‍' by Fr. A. Thomas Mootheden and K. C. Chacko, Kadankavil, Little Flower Press, Ernakulam, India, 1952.

    175. Matthew [Matthæus] of St. Joseph, O. C. D. (* 1600 [Naples] - † 1691 [Verapoly]): `Breve relação' [Brief report] (in Portuguese), English Library Sloane MS, 2748-A, ff. 86-99v, s. d. Unpublished.

    176. Odoric Mattiussi of Pordenone, O. F. M.: `Travels' (in Latin), dated c. 1330. Translated to English by Col. Henry Yule, `The travels of Friar Odoric of Pordenone (1316-1330)', vol. 2 of `Cathay and the way thither: being a collection of medieval notices of China', Second edition, The Hakluyt Society, London, England, 1913.

    177. Fr. Joseph Mavumkal: `എറണാകുളം അതിരൂപതയും അതിന്റെ മെത്രാപ്പോലീത്തായും' [The Archdiocese of Ernakulam and its Metropolitan] (in Malayalam), Bp. Louis M. Pareparambil Memorial Press, Broadway, Ernakulam, Kingdom of Cochin, 9 Dec. 1936.

    178. Mayyanatt A. John, Kodiyil [Antony] (* 8 Aug. 1894 - † 20 Jan. 1968): `വേദഗ്രന്ഥം: പുതിയനിയമം [പൂര്‍വ്വഭാഗം: സുവിശേഷങ്ങള്]‍' [The holy book: New testament [Volume I: The gospels]], Assisi press, Nagercoil, India, 1948; Reprinted: Bishop's house, Quilon, India, 1971.

    179. Bp. Adolph E. Medlycott: "India and the Apostle Thomas: an inquiry with a critical analysis of the `Acta Thomæ'", David Nutt, 57-59 Long acre, London, England, 1905. `Acta Thomæ' (apocryphal).

    180. Idem: `Apostolic {St. Thomas} Christians', The Christian {Catholic} Encyclopædia: an international work of reference on the constitution, doctrine, discipline, and history of the Christian {Catholic} Church. The Encyclopædia press, New York, USA, 1913.

    181. `മിലാന്‍ രേഖകള്‍' [Documents of Milan], MSS at the Biblioteca Ambrosiana, Milan, Italy, consisting of the resolution passed at the meeting at Church of St. George, Edapally, on 25 Dec. 1632, and the memorandum by Archdeacon Thomas Parambil (Pakalomattam / Palliveettil / Panamkuzhackal / Kudukkasseril) [Thomas de Campo] to the Viceroy (Governor General) of Portuguese India, Dom Filipe de Mascarenhas (1644-1651), in Dec. 1645; Published: Scaria Zachariah (ed.), Changanacherry, India, 1982.

    182. Adriaan Moens, Julius van Gollenesse: `The Dutch in Malabar', Government Press, Madras, English India, 1911. Contains: Adriaan Moens: `Memorandum on the administration of the coast of Malabar', 18 Apr. 1781, translated to English by P. Groot and A. Galletti; Julius van Gollenesse: `Memorandum on the administration of the coast of Malabar', 1748, translated to English by A. J. van der Burg and A. Galletti.

    183. Antonio Monserrate, S. J.: `Report on the Christians of St. Thomas', MS dated 2 Jan. 1579 at Archivum Romanum Societatis Iesu, Goa, India, I2-II, ff. 521-524/525-526, 528-529. Published: `Documenta Indica', Joseph Wicki, S. J. (ed.), vol. 11. Variant MS written by Alfonso Pacheco, S. J., 33-II, ff. 149-152.

    184. John of Montecorvino, O. F. M.: `Letters' (in Latin), dated 1305, 1306. Translated to English by Col. Henry Yule, `Preliminary essay on the intercourse between China and the western nations previous to the discovery of the Cape route', vol. 1 of `Cathay and the way thither: being a collection of medieval notices of China', Second edition, The Hakluyt Society, London, England, 1915.

    185. M. M. Varkey, Mookkenchery: `The public service of Travancore and the Christian {Catholic} claims', Trivandrum, Kingdom of Travancore, 1926; Reprinted: All Kerala Catholic Congress, 1931.

    186. Idem: `ഓര്‍മ്മകളിലൂടെ' [Through memories] (in Malayalam), Sahithya Pravarthaka Coöperative Society, Kottayam, India, Jul. 1974.

    187. Fr. A. Thomas Mootheden: `അഗസ്റ്റിന്‍ കണ്ടത്തില്‍ മെത്രാപ്പോലീത്താച്ചന്‍' [Abp. Augustine W. Kandathil] (in Malayalam), Bp. Louis M. Pareparambil Memorial Press, Broadway, Ernakulam, India, Jan. 1972.

    188. Idem: `വിശുദ്ധ ഗ്രന്ഥം' (in Malayalam), translation of the complete Holy Bible based on the Vulgate and Peshitta [ܦܫܝܛܬܐ] manuscripts, G. C. Vazhoor, Better life centre, Aloor, Iringalakuda, 1963.

    189. Idem: `The Apostolate of St. Thomas in India', The Eastern Churches Quarterly (Continuation of Eastern Churches number of `Pax', founded 1931), IX(7), Autumn 1952, pp. 349-358.

    190. Vincent Mary Murchio of St. Catherine of Sienna, O. C. D.: `Il viaggio all' Indie Orientali' [A voyage to the East Indies] (in Latin), Filippo Maria Mancini, Rome, 1672.

    191. Mani Varkey Muttathupadam, T. O. C. D. [ക. നി. മൂ. സ. Mani Kathanar]: `പുതിയ നിയമം' [The New Testament] (in Malayalam), translation of the New Testament of the Holy Bible based on the Vulgate and Peshitta [ܦܫܝܛܬܐ] manuscripts, St. Joseph's Press, Mannanam, Kingdom of Travancore, 1938. `Ecclesiasticus' (1926), `Proverbs' (1928), `Tobias' (1941), `നാലു സുവിശേഷങ്ങള്‍' [The four gospels] (1935), `പഞ്ചഗ്രന്ഥി' [Pentateuch] (in Malayalam).

    192. Mgr. Jacob V. Naduvathucherry: `യുക്തിയില്‍ നിന്നു വിശ്വാസത്തിലേയ്ക്കു്' [From reason to faith] (in Malayalam), Bp. Louis M. Pareparambil Memorial Press, Broadway, Ernakulam, Kingdom of Cochin, 1934; Third edition: 1959.

    193. Idem: `ഫാദര്‍ ഡാമിയന്‍' [St. Damien Jozef de Veuster of Molokai, SS. CC.], Bp. Louis M. Pareparambil Memorial Press, Broadway, Ernakulam, Kingdom of Cochin, 1937. [Robert Louis Stevenson: `Father Damien. An open letter to the Reverend Hyde of Honolulu', 25 Feb. 1890, Sydney, Australia.]

    194. Idem: `നമ്മുടെ കര്‍ത്താവും രക്ഷകനും ആയ ഈശോ മിശിഹായുടെ പുതിയ നിയമം' [The New Testament of our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ] (in Malayalam), translation of the New Testament of the Holy Bible (1956-1958), K. P. Ittyerah, Kozhipatt (Mulavarickal), 1962.

    195. Idem: `കമ്മ്യൂണിസം ഭാരതത്തില്‍' [Communism in India] (in Malayalam), Bp. Louis M. Pareparambil Memorial Press, Broadway, Ernakulam, India, 1960.

    196. N. V. Joseph, Naduvathucherry: `നിവര്‍ത്തന പ്രക്ഷോഭണം' [The abstention struggle] (in Malayalam), Alwaye, 1956.

    197. `നാഗരഗ്രന്ഥവരിയോല' [Nagara grantha variola], MS in the possession of Kalathum Nambudhiri, English Malabar, India.

      "I am informed that in the Nagara Grantha Variola of the family of the Kalathum Nambudhiri in English Malabar the following is written: `Kali year 3153 [52 A. D.], the foreigner Thomas Sanyasi came to our gramom, preached there, causing thereby pollution. We, therefore, came away from that gramom [Palayoor].' This, I am told, was reported by a member of that family. I did not see the original, neither could I procure a copy of it. I hope some one will investigate how far this is true and whether the variola document is authentic." [Panjikaran 1912, p. 5, f. n. 2]

    198. M. O. Joseph, Nedumkunnam {Maruthooparambil}: `തച്ചില്‍ മാത്തു തരകന്‍' [Thachil Matthoo Tharakan] (in Malayalam), Kottayam, India, 1961.

    199. Jawaharlal Nehru: `Declaration on Purna swaraj [Complete Independence] at the 1929 Lahore session of the Indian National Congress, promulgated on 26 Jan. 1930'; `Speech (ex tempore) on the eve of independence', `Message on the eve of independence', `First servant of the Indian people', New Delhi, India, 15 Aug. 1947. Necrology on J. V. Stalin, 6 Mar. 1953. [K. R. Narayanan, Kocheril: `Nehru's vision of India and the world', Nehru memorial lecture, 1997; Nehru Memorial Museum and Library, Teen Murti Bhavan, Teen Murti Marg, New Delhi.] cf. also [Gopal 1984].

    200. C. C. Lonappan Ookken [Ukken]: `തച്ചില്‍ മാത്തു തരകന്‍' [Thachil Matthoo Tharakan] (in Malayalam), Iringalakuda, India, 1966. Written on the foundation of MSS belonging to Matthoo Tharakan which were inherited by the House of Ookken, Edakulam (his maternal house, and also the in-laws of his grand daughter) after the death of his great grandson Thariyath in 1834; the MSS are described in a preface by the author to be poorly conserved. Also consulted was the Chronicle of Thachil Abraham Malpan Achen [Thachil].

    201. Origen Adamantius: `De principiis' [On first principles]; Commentary on the gospels of Matthew and John; Hexapla: I, II.

    202. Luca Bartolomeo de Pacioli, O. F. M. [Luca di Borgo Santo Sepolcro]: `Summa de arithmetica, geometria, proportioni et proportionalita' [Summary of arithmetic, geometry, and proportions] (in Latin), Venice, 1494; reprinted: 1523. The parts on double entry system of accountancy translated to English as part of `Ancient double entry bookkeeping. Lucas Pacioli's treatise (A. D. 1494-- the earliest known writer on bookkeeping) reproduced and translated with reproductions, notes and abstracts from Manzoni, Pietra, Mainardi, Ympyn, Stevin and Dafforne' by John B. Geijsbeek, Denver, USA, 1914.

    203. Bp. Clemente Pagnani, O. S. B. Silv.: `First notions of logic, metaphysics, and ethics', Colombo, Ceylon, 1891.

    204. Mgr. Joseph C. Panjikaran: `The Apostolic {Syrian} Church in Malabar'; A historical dissertation submitted for the Master of Arts Degree of the University of Madras; Br. Joseph, S. J., Superintendent, St. Joseph's Industrial School Press, Trichinopoly, English India, 1912. Reprinted with a few additions, 1914. Chapter I, `St. Thomas, the Apostle of India', pp. 3-12, published in The Tamilian antiquary, II(2), 1914, pp. 69-76.

    205. Idem: `Christianity in Malabar with special reference to the St. Thomas Christians of the Apostolic {Syro-Malabar} Rite', Orientalia Christiana, vol. VI(2) / n. 23, pp. 89-136, Pontificium Institutum Orientalium Studiorum, Piazza della Pilotta, 35, Rome 1, Italy, Apr. 1926.

      `The present Holy Father, Pope Pius XI, restored the Hierarchy of the Apostolic {St. Thomas} Christians in 1923. The pamphlet is dedicated to the newly-created Apostolic Bishops, specially to the Most Rev. Dr. Augustine W. Kandathil, Archbishop of Ernakulam and Metropolitan of the Apostolic {St. Thomas} Christians.' [p. 95]

    206. Idem: `The Malabar Christian {Catholic} Hospital on Charity Mount, Kothamangalam, Travancore, India: a most urgent mission need', Bp. Louis M. Pareparambil Memorial Press, Broadway, Ernakulam, Kingdom of Cochin, Nov. 1929.

    207. Idem: `L'entrée des éveques Jacobites de l'Inde dans l'obédience du Pape' {The entry of the Jacobite bishops of India into communion with the Pope} (in French), Missions Catholiques, Oct. 1930, pp. 534-535.

    208. `Fonti testa di Ritte Malabarese' {Chief founts/sources of the Malabar rite}, Documentation on the elements of Canon law specific to the Apostolic Christians, written as requested by Abp. Augustine W. Kandathil, 1935 - 2 Jun. 1949.

    209. Parambil (Pakalomattam / Palliveettil / Panamkuzhackal / Kudukkasseril) Iype Mar Thoma VI (Iype Mar Dionysius I): `നിരണം ഗ്രന്ഥവരി' [Niranam chronicle] (in Malayalam), MSS (179 palm leaves) c. 1773-1829 in the possession of the Kanianthra family, Mepral, Niranam [Provenance: Kanianthra Thommi Chandy Kathanar (d. 1847), Vicar, Church of St. Mary, Niranam (Jacobite [Oriental Heterodox]); title given by Joseph Edamaruku]. Copy as transliterated by Akkara C. Kurian (Writer). Copy as transliterated by Ms. Subhadramma, Ms. Kunjamma, and Ms. Indira, Oriental Manuscript Library, University of Kerala, Trivandrum, India, 19 Apr. 1988, upon the request of Joseph K. Alexander, Kanianthra; Published together with a preface on the provenance, chronology, and historical integrity of the MSS: M. Kurian Thomas, Meledath (ed.), Sophia books, Kottayam, India, 2000.

      Simon Mar Dionysius Karottuveetil: `കണ്ടനാടു് ഗ്രന്ഥവരി' [Kandanad chronicle] (in Malayalam), MSS in the possession of the Church of SS. Peter and Paul, Kadungamangalam (Jacobite [Oriental Heterodox]). Church of St. Mary, Kandanad (Jacobite [Oriental Heterodox]). Published: Joseph Cheeran (ed.), Mar Joseph Dionysius Publishing House, Kunnamkulam, India, 2008.

      `നസ്രാണിമാപ്പിളമാരുടെ ചരിത്രം സംബന്ധിച്ചുള്ള പുരാതനകൃതികള്‍ ചുരുക്കമാണു്. ... [കടവില്‍] ചാണ്ടിക്കത്തനാരുടെ [സഭാചരിത്രസംബന്ധമായ] പ്രബന്ധം സുറിയാനിയിലായിരുന്നു വിരചിതമായതെന്നും കടുത്തുരുത്തിയില്‍ സൂക്ഷിച്ചിരുന്നുവെന്നും പറയപ്പെടുന്നു.' [Ancient works concerning the history of the Nazarene Mappillais are meagre. ... The treatise of Kadavil Chandy Kathanar concerning the history of the church is said to have been composed in Syriac and to have been conserved at Kaduthuruthy.] [Parekunnel 1935, Chapter X]

      `പരമ്പരയാ നസ്രാണികളുടെ പ്രധാന ഭരണാധികാരികളായിരുന്ന പകലോമറ്റം അര്‍ക്കദിയാക്കോന്മാര്‍ അവിച്ഛിന്നമായി ഒരു് ഗ്രന്ഥവരി എഴുതി സൂക്ഷിച്ചു് വന്നുവെന്നു് പ്രബലമായ ഐതിഹ്യമുണ്ടു്. അതെല്ലാം കൂട്ടിശേഖരിച്ചാണു് പ്രസ്തുതകുടുംബത്തിലെ ഏറ്റം പ്രസിദ്ധനായ ആറാം മാര്‍ തോമ്മാ തന്റെ നിര്യാണത്തിനു് മുമ്പു് ഒരു് ചരിത്രം എഴുതിയുണ്ടാക്കിച്ചതു്. അതിന്റെ കയ്യെഴുത്തുപ്രതികള്‍ ഇന്നും തെക്കു് ചില പഴയ തറവാടുകളില്‍ കാണുന്നുണ്ടു്.' [There is a strong legend that the Pakalomattam Archdeacons who were the hereditary chief rulers of the Nazarenes used to compose and cherish a chronicle forming an unbroken narrative. It was by conjoining them all that the Mar Thoma VI, the most celebrated of the aforementioned family, directed the writing of a history prior to his death; MSS of this in longhand are still to be found in certain old families of the South.] [Parekunnel 1935, Chapter X]

      `എന്നാല്‍ പാലമറ്റത്തു തറവാട്ടിലുള്ള അര്‍ക്കദ്യക്കോന്മാരുടെയും മെത്രാന്മാരുടെയും വിവരം എഴുതിയിരുന്ന കടുദാസുകളും ഗ്രന്ഥവരിയും നിരണത്തുപള്ളിയില്‍ വെച്ചു പൂട്ടിയിരുന്ന പെട്ടകം ചിതലെടുത്തു കെടുകാര്‍യ്യം വന്നുപോയാറെ അതിലൊരിടത്തുകണ്ടത്...'

    210. Geevarghese Parappuram of St. John the Baptist, T. O. C. D. [ക. നി. മൂ. സ. പാറപ്പുറം ഗീവര്‍ഗീസ് യോഹന്നാന്‍ മാംദാനാ അച്ചന്‍] (* 18 Feb. 1835 - 18 Jun. 1859 - † 28 May 1908): `നാളാഗമം' [Chronicle] (in Malayalam), MSS 32/B/17/2112 and 32/B/18/2113, c. 1902-1905, at St. Joseph's Monastery, Mannanam, India. Unpublished.

    211. P. J. Thomas, Parekunnel: `മലയാള സാഹിത്യവും ക്രിസ്ത്യാനികളും' [Malayalam literature and Christians] (in Malayalam), Second edition, Sahithya Pravarthaka Coöperative Society, Kottayam, India, 1961. First edition: `കേരളത്തിലെ ക്രിസ്തീയ സാഹിത്യം' [Christian literature in Kerala], St. Mary's Press, Athirampuzha, Kingdom of Travancore, 1935.

    212. Idem: `The South Indian tradition of the Apostle Thomas', Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, London, England, Oct. 1924, vol. 56, Centenary supplement S1, pp. 213-223.

    213. Idem: `St. Thomas the Apostle: A souvenir of the 19th century of his arrival in India', Ernakulam, India, 1952. cf. also [Chunkath 1952]

    214. Paremmakkal Thoma Kathanar: `വര്‍ത്തമാനപ്പുസ്തകം' [The Book of Chronicles] (in Malayalam), Luke Matthai Plathottathil (ed.), St. Mary's Press, Athirampuzha, Kingdom of Travancore, 1936. Written c. 1778-1786. Original MS held by House of Parayil till 2000 and presently at St. Thomas Christian Museum, Mount St. Thomas, Ernakulam, India. First published in 1936 from the MS copy of the original written at Athirampuzha by Paremmakkal Matthai Kathanar, 1903. Republished: `വര്‍ത്തമാനപ്പുസ്തകം: ഭൂലോകശാസ്ത്രവും [കരിയാറ്റില്‍ മാര്‍ ഔസേപ്പു് മെത്രാപ്പോലീത്തായുടെ റോമ്മായാത്രയുടെ വിവരണം, 1778-1786]', Fr. A. Thomas Mootheden (ed.), Janatha Book Stall, Thevara, Ernakulam, India, 1977. Republished in Modern Malayalam by Matthew Ulakamthara, D. C. Books, Kottayam, India, 1983. Translated to English after consulting another MS copy written in 1902 at Sacred Heart Monastery, Chethipuzha, by Placid Podipara of St. Joseph, T. O. C. D., `The Varthamanappusthakam. An account of the history of the Malabar Church between the years 1773 and 1786', Orientalia Christiana Analecta, n. 190, Pontificium Institutum Orientalium Studiorum, Rome, Italy, 1971.

      `During the regime of the indigenous Prelates the Varthamanapusthakam began to make its appearance publicly... On 26 Mar. 1936, the body of the author was exhumed and the remains were taken out and deposited in the wall of the sanctuary of the church where they lay buried. The Metropolitan of Ernakulam with his two suffragans performed this moving ceremony. The meeting that followed was presided over by the Metropolitan, Abp. Augustine W. Kandathil; the above mentioned suffragans, Bp. James C. Kalacherry of Changanacherry, the local Hierarch, and Bp. Alexander J. Chulaparambil of Kottayam assisted at it. Bp. Francis Vazhapilly of Trichur could not be present on the occasion. Paremmakkal and the Varthamanapusthakam were the themes dealt with by the president and the speakers. The present writer had the privilege of being one of the speakers. The printing of the book was not completed for the occasion. A little after, it was published by St. Mary's Press, Athirampuzha... Mr. Luke Matthai Plathottathil was the publisher.' Section IV `The vicissitudes of the book' of translator's Introduction, pp. 25-26.

    215. Bp. Aloysius M. Pareparambil (Louis M. Pareparambil) [Mammen]: `An account of a very important period of the history of the Apostolic Christians {Catholic Syrians} of Malabar', Chacko Matthen Pareparambil (ed.), Puthenpally, Kingdom of Travancore, 1920. Part I: MSS in Latin, Syriac, English, and Malayalam; Part II: `The Apostolic Christians {Syrians} in Malabar', History through the years 1850-1896 in three parts.

    216. Idem: `നാളാഗമം' [Chronicle] (in Malayalam). MSS in three parts. Parts I and III in the possession of the Archdiocese of Ernakulam, Part II discovered at the Haouse of Pareparambil, Pulincunnoo, India, and in the possession of I. C. Chacko, Illiparambil [Illiparambil 1937, p. xiv]. Unpublished.

    217. Idem, Bp. Augustine W. Kandathil [Warkey]: `അതിരൂപതാശില്‍പികളുടെ ഇടയലേഖനങ്ങളും നിര്‍ദ്ദേശങ്ങളും' [The Pastoral letters and directives of the Architects of the Archdiocese] (in Malayalam), Bp. Louis M. Pareparambil Memorial Press, Ernakulam, India, 1982. 107 documents through the years 1896-1920; subsequent documents were published in the Ernakulam Missam.

    218. Ludwig Freiherr von Pastor-Camperfelden: `The History of the Popes from the close of the middle ages', drawn from the secret archives of the Vatican and other original sources, beginning from the coronation of Clement PP. V (1305) and finishing with the death of Pius PP. VI (1799), Herder and Co., Freiburg, Baden, 1886-1930; translated to English by Frederick Antrobus, C. O. (vol. 1-6), Ralph F. Kerr, C. O. (vol. 7-24), Ernest Graf, O. S. B. (vol. 25-34), and E. F. Peeler (vol. 35-40), Routledge and Kegan Paul Ltd., London, England, 1891-1953.

    219. Clement Peanius, O. C. D. (* Piedmont): `നസ്രാണികള്‍ ഒക്കക്കും അറിയെണ്ടുന്ന സംക്ഷെപവെദാര്‍ത്ഥം COMPENDIOSA LEGIS EXPLANATIO OMNIBUS CHRISTIANIS SCITU NECESSARIA Malabarico Idiomate', റൊമായില്‍ നിന്നു മിശിഹാ പിറന്നീട്ട ... ശ്രഷ്ടമെല്‍പട്ടക്കാരുടെ അനുവാദത്താല്‍, ROMAE AN. A NATIVIT. CHRISTI. MDCCLXXII. Praisidum Facultate. `കുമ്പേന്തി' [Concise catechism as necessarily required to be known by all Christians in the Malayalam langauge], Rome, 1772. Second edition, facsimile together with modern typesetting, D. C. Books, Kottayam, India, 1980. cf. also [Parekunnel 1935, Chapters VI, IX].

    220. Idem: `ALPHABETUM GRANDONICO-MALABARICUM SIVE SAMSCRUDONICUM', ROMAE MDCCLXXII, Typis Sac. Congregationis de Propag. Fide, Praisidum Facultate. [The alphabet of Malayalam (Grantham) and Sanskrit], with an introduction by Johannes Christophorus Amadatius, Rome, 1772.

    221. Idem: `Grammaticæ Latino Malabaricæ' [Grammar of the Malayalam language in Latin].

    222. Idem: `Dictionarium Linguæ Vulgaris Malabaricæ' [Dictionary of the Common Malayalam language (വാമൊഴി)].

    223. Alvaro Penteado, O. F. M.: `Letters' (in Portuguese), dated 1516, 1528. MSS at Arquivo Nacional da Torre do Tombo, Lisbon, Portugal, CVR 164, CVR 55. Translated to English by Georg O. Schurhammer, S. J., Gregorianum, XIV, 1933, pp. 62-86. Published: [Silva Rego, vol. 2]

    224. `പെരുമ്പടപ്പു് ഗ്രന്ഥവരി' [Chronicle of the Perumpadappu Swaroopam] (in Malayalam). A translation of a record-Grandhavari in the State Archives. Published: Kingdom of Cochin, 1916; reprinted: Archives department of Kerala State, Trivandrum, India, 1973, 2005.

    225. John P. Pinamonti, S. J.: `The Immaculate Heart of the Blessed Virgin Mary' [Il sacro cuore di Maria Vergine], Florence, 1699.

    226. St. Pius PP. V (Michele Antonio Ghisleri, O. P.): `The Catechism of the Council of Trent', Rome, 1566. Translated to English by Fr. J. Donovan, Lucas Brothers, Baltimore, Maryland, USA, 1829.

    227. Idem: `Regnans in Excelcis' [Bull condemning and excommunicating Elizabeth, pseudo-Queen of England], 27 Apr. 1570.

    228. Pius PP. IX (Giovanni Maria Mastai-Ferretti): `Quæ in patriarchatu' [Encyclical on the Church in Chaldæa and discontent among the Apostolic Christians], 16 Nov. 1872.

    229. Idem: `Ineffabilis deus' [Apostolic constitution defining the dogma of the Immaculate conception], 8 Dec. 1854. cf. also St. Pius PP. X (Giuseppe Sarto): `Ad Diem illum lætissimum' [Encyclical on the Immaculate conception], 2 Feb. 1904; Pius PP. XII (Eugenio Pacelli): `Fulgens corona' [Encyclical proclaiming a Marian year to commemorate the centenary of the definition of the dogma of the Immaculate conception], 8 Sep. 1953; St. Maximilian Mary Raymond Kolbe, O. F. M. Conv.: `Prayer of Consecration to the Immaculate conception of the Blessed Virgin Mary'

    230. Idem: `The decrees of the Vatican council', Vincent McNabb, O. P. (ed.), Burns & Oates, London, England, 1907.

    231. Idem: `Quanta cura' [Encyclical condemning current errors], `The syllabus of errors', 8 Dec. 1864.

    232. Idem: `Qui pluribus' [Encyclical on faith and religion], 9 Nov. 1846.

    233. Idem: `Nostis et nobiscum' [Encyclical on the church in the Papal states], 8 Dec. 1849.

    234. Idem: `Respicientes' [Encyclical protesting the taking of the Papal states], 1 Nov. 1870.

    235. Idem: `Etsi multa' [Encyclical on the church in Italy, Germany, and Switzerland], 21 Nov. 1873.

    236. St. Pius PP. X (Giuseppe Sarto): `In universi christiani' [Bull erecting the Vicariate-Apostolic of Kottayam for the Southist [തെക്കുംഭാഗര്‍ / Suddhist / Knanaya] Christians], 29 Aug. 1911.

    237. Idem: `The Catechism of Christian Doctrine', Rome, 1904. Translated to English by Bp. John R. Hagan, Dublin, Ireland, 1911. cf. also Pius PP. XII (Eugenio Pacelli): `Si diligis' [Allocution on the canonisation of St. Pius PP. X], 31 May 1954.

    238. Idem: `Acerbo nimis' [Encyclical on teaching Christian doctrine], 15 Apr. 1905; `Lamentabili sane exitu' [Syllabus condemning the errors of the modernists], 3 Jul. 1907; `Pascendi dominici gregis' [Encyclical on the doctrines of the modernists], 8 Sep. 1907; `Præstantia scripturæ' [On the censures and penalties against those who neglect to observe the prescriptions against the errors of the modernists], 18 Nov. 1907; `Sacrorum Antistitum' [The oath against modernism], 1 Sep. 1910; `Doctoris angelici' [To encourage the study of the philosophy of St. Thomas Aquinas in Christian {Catholic} schools], 29 Jun. 1914; Decree of approval of some theses contained in the doctrine of St. Thomas Aquinas and proposed to the teachers of philosophy, 27 Jul. 1914.

    239. Idem: `Notre charge apostolique' [Apostolic letter to the bishops of France], 4 Aug. 1908.

    240. Idem: `Hærent animo' [Apostolic exhortation on priestly sanctity], 4 Aug. 1908.

    241. Idem: `Tra le Sollecitudini' [Instruction on sacred music], 22 Nov. 1903.

    242. Idem: `E supremi' [Encyclical on the restoration of all things in Christ], 4 Oct. 1903.

    243. Pius PP. XI {Achille Ratti}: `Romani pontifices' [Apostolic constitution of the ecclesiastical Hierarchy of the Apostolic Christians of India {Syro-Malabar}], 21 Dec. 1923. Published: Acta apostolicæ sedis, annus XVI, vol. XVI (7), 1 Jul. 1924, pp. 257-262.

    244. Idem: `Allocution at the secret consistory in the Apostolic palace, Vatican', 20 Dec. 1923. Published: Acta apostolicæ sedis, annus XV, vol. XV (13), 31 Dec. 1923, pp. 601-609, 613-614.

    245. Idem: `Quas primas' [Encyclical on the feast of Christ the King], 11 Dec. 1925; Miserentissimus redemptor [Encyclical on the reparation to the most Sacred Heart of Jesus], 8 May 1928; Caritate Christi compulsi [Encyclical on the most Sacred Heart of Jesus], 3 May 1932.

    246. Idem: `Homily on the canonisation of St. Thérèse de Lisieux', 17 May 1925.

    247. Idem: `Christo pastorum principi' [Apostolic constitution of the Reünited Jacobite Hierarchy in the Antiochene rite], 11 Jun. 1932. Publlished: Acta apostolicæ sedis, annus XXIV, vol. XXIV (9), 1 Sep. 1932, pp. 289-292.

    248. Idem: `Divini illius Magistri' [Encyclical on Christian education], 31 Dec. 1929.

    249. Idem: `Casti connubii' [Encyclical on Christian marriage], 31 Dec. 1930.

    250. Idem: `Quadragesimo anno' [Encyclical on the reconstruction of the social order], 15 May 1931.

    251. Idem: `Divini redemptoris' [Encyclical on atheistic communism], 19 Mar. 1937.

    252. Idem: `Dilectissima nobis' [Encyclical on oppression of the Church of Spain], 3 Jun. 1933.

    253. Idem: `Mortalium animos' [Encyclical on religious unity], 6 Jan. 1928.

    254. Pius PP. XII (Eugenio Pacelli): `Nuntius radiophonicus episcopis at Christifidelibus datus, ob solemnia centenaria in honorem S. Thomæ ac S. Francisci Xaverii in Metropolitæ Urbe Ernaculamensi coadunatis' [Radio message to bishops and faithful Christians on the occasion of the conjoined solemn centennial jubilee in honour of St. Thomas the Apostle and St. Francis Xavier at the Metropolitan city of Ernakulam], 31 Dec. 1952. Published: Acta apostolicæ sedis, annus 45, series II, vol. XX (2), 16 Feb. 1953, pp. 96-99.

    255. Idem: `Epistle appointing Abp. Sir Norman T. Card. Gilroy as Legate to the conjoined solemn centennial jubilee in honour of St. Thomas the Apostle and St. Francis Xavier at the Metropolitan city of Ernakulam', 15 Nov. 1952. Published: Acta apostolicæ sedis, annus 45, series II, vol. XX (5), 27 Apr. 1953, pp. 226-227.

    256. Idem: `Quo ecclesiarum' [Apostolic constitution erecting the Diocese of Palai], 25 Jul. 1950. Published: Acta apostolicæ sedis, annus 43, series II, vol. XVIII (4), 31 Mar. 1950, pp. 147-150.

    257. Idem: `Ad Christi ecclesiam regendam' [Apostolic constitution erecting the Diocese of Tellicherry with territory the same as the Latin Diocese of Calicut], 31 Dec. 1953. Published: Acta apostolicæ sedis, annus 46, series II, vol. XXI (10), 16 Aug. 1954, pp. 96-99.

    258. Idem: `Decretum iurisdictio episcopi Changanacherensis extenditur: Multorum fidelium' [Decree extending the jurisdiction of the Diocese of Changanacherry]; `Decretum iurisdictio episcopi Kottayamensis extenditur: Suddistica gens' [Decree extending the jurisdiction of the Diocese of Kottayam (Southist)]; `Decretum iurisdictio episcopi Tellicherriensis ampliatur: Pro fidelibus' [Decree extending the jurisdiction of the Diocese of Tellicherry]; `Decretum iurisdictio episcopi Trichurensis extenditur: Sæpe fideles' [Decree extending the jurisdiction of the Diocese of Trichur] [Decrees extending the territory of the Apostolic Hierarchy], 29 Apr. 1955. Published: Acta apostolicæ sedis, annus 47, series II, vol. XXII (16), 24 Nov. 1955, pp. 784-785; 785-786; 786-787; 787-788.

    259. Idem: `Haurietis aquas' [Encyclical on the devotion to the most Sacred Heart of Jesus], 15 May 1956.

    260. Idem: `Munificentissimus deus' [Apostolic constitution defining the dogma of the Assumption], 1 Nov. 1950; `Deiparæ virginis mariæ' [Encyclical on the possibility of defining the Assumption], 1 May 1946.

    261. Idem: `Sacro vergente anno'/`Carissimis Russiæ populis' [Apostolic letter on the consecration of Russia to the Immaculate Heart of the Blessed Virgin Mary], 7 Jul. 1952. Prayer of Consecration of mankind to the Immaculate Heart of the Blessed Virgin Mary (originally in Portuguese), 13 Oct. 1942; repeated on 8 Dec. 1942.

    262. Idem: `Ad cæli reginam' [Encyclical on proclaiming the Queenship of Mary], 11 Oct. 1954.

    263. Idem: `Le Pelerinage de Lourdes' [Encyclical warning against materialism on the centenary of the apparitions at Lourdes], 2 Jul. 1957.

    264. Idem: `Anni sacri' [Encyclical on a program for combatting atheistic propaganda throughout the world], 12 Mar. 1950.

    265. Idem: `Humani generis' [Encyclical concerning some false opinions threatening to undermine the foundations of Christian {Catholic} doctrine], 12 Aug. 1950. [Reginald Garrigou-Lagrange, O. P.: "The structure of the encyclical `Humani generis'"]

    266. Idem: `Orientalis ecclesiæ' [Encyclical on St. Cyril, Patriarch of Alexandria], 9 Apr. 1944.

    267. Idem: `Sempiternus rex Christus' [Encyclical on the Council of Chalcedon], 8 Sep. 1951.

    268. Idem: `Communium interpretes dolorum' [Encyclical appealing for prayers for peace during May], 15 Apr. 1945.

    269. Idem: `Sæculo exeunte octavo' [Encyclical on the eighth centenary of the independence of Portugal], 13 Jun. 1940.

    270. Idem: `Luctuosissimi eventus' [Encyclical urging public prayers for peace and freedom for the people of Hungary], 28 Oct. 1956; `Lætamur admodum' [Encyclical renewing exhortation for prayers for peace for Poland, Hungary, and the Middle East], 1 Nov. 1956; `Datis nuperrime' [Encyclical lamenting the sorrowful events in Hungary and condemning the ruthless use of force], 5 Nov. 1956.

    271. Idem: `Orientales omnes ecclesias' [Encyclical on the Ruthenian (Ukrainian) Church], 23 Dec. 1945; `Orientales ecclesias' [Encyclical on the persecuted Eastern Church], 15 Dec. 1952.

    272. Idem: `Invicti athletæ' [Encyclical on St. Andrew Bobola of Poland], 16 May 1947.

    273. Idem: `Ad Sinarum gentem' [Encyclical on the supranationality of the Church], 29 Jun. 1954; `Ad apostolorum principis' [Encyclical on communism and the Church in China], 29 Jun. 1958.

    274. Idem: `Mystici corporis Christi' [Encyclical on the mystical body of Christ], 29 Jun. 1943.

    275. Idem: `Mediator Dei' [Encyclical on the Sacred liturgy], 20 Nov. 1947; `Musicæ sacræ' [Encyclical on sacred music], 25 Dec. 1955; `Christus Dominus' [On the discipline to be observed with respect to the Eucharistic fast], 6 Jan. 1953; `Sacram communionem' [On laws of fasting and the evening mass], 19 Mar. 1957.

    276. Idem: `The proofs for the existence of God in the light of modern natural science', 22 Nov. 1951 [Variant translation]; `On God, the universe, and man', 30 Nov. 1941; `On natural philosophy', 24 Apr. 1955.

    277. Idem: `On midwifery', 29 Oct. 1951; `The moral limits of medical research and treatment', 14 Sep. 1952; `On psychotherapy and religion', 13 Apr. 1953; `Applied psychology', 10 Apr. 1958.

    278. Idem: `Counsel to teaching sisters', 15 Sep. 1951.

    279. Idem: `Exsul familia Nazarethana' [Apostolic constitution on migrants], 1 Aug. 1952.

    280. Idem: `The internal order of states and people', 25 Dec. 1942; `On democracy and a lasting peace', 25 Dec. 1944.

    281. Idem: `The states of perfection', 12 Dec. 1957.

    282. Idem: `Miranda prorsus' [Encyclical on motion pictures, radio, and television], 8 Sep. 1957; `Exhortations to representatives of the cinema world', 21 Jun. 1955.

    283. Idem: `Sacra virginitas' [Encyclical on consecrated virginity], 25 Mar. 1954; `To seminarians', 24 Jun. 1939; `Menti nostræ' [Apostolic exhortation on the development of holiness in priestly life], 23 Sep. 1950.

    284. Idem: `Ci riesce' [Address to jurists on the problems of religious liberty], 6 Dec. 1953.

    285. Idem: `Guiding principles of the lay apostolate', 5 Oct. 1957.

    286. Idem: `To fathers of families', 18 Sep. 1951.

    287. Idem: `The woman of today', 11 Sep. 1947.

    288. Idem: `The function of art', 8 Apr. 1952.

    289. Idem: `On rural life', 15 Nov. 1946.

    290. Idem: `On bees', 27 Nov. 1948.

    291. Idem: `Meminisse iuvat' [Encyclical on prayers for the persecuted church], 14 Jul. 1958.

    292. Idem: `The Pope speaks: the worlds of Pius XII', Charles Rankin (ed.), New York, USA, 1940.

    293. Idem: `Guide for living: an approved selection of letters and addresses of His Holiness Pope Pius XII', Maurice Quinlan (ed.), New York, USA, 1960.

    294. Idem: `Last testament', 15 May 1956; published posthumously.

    295. P. T. Chacko, Pullolil {Puthiyaparambil}: `Sir C. P.-kku oru thuranna kaththu' [സര്‍ സി. പി.-യ്ക്കു് ഒരു് തുറന്ന കത്തു് / An open letter to Sir C. P.] (in Malayalam), Kottayam, Kingdom of Travancore, 15 Dec. 1945.

    296. Artist P. J. Cherian, Puthanangady: `എന്റെ കലാജീവിതം' [My life in art] (in Malayalam), Kottayam, India, 1964.

    297. Idem: `Nirmala' [Immaculate / നിര്‍മ്മല] (in Malayalam); Direction: P. V. Krishna Iyer; Screenplay: Puthezhathu Raman Menon; Story: M. S. Jacob, Moonjappilly; Lyrics: G. Sankara Kurup; Producer: Artist P. J. Cherian, Kerala Talkies Ltd., Ernakulam; Music: E. I. Warrier, P. S. Divakar; Baby Joseph (debut) as Nirmala, P. C. Joseph, Puthanangady (debut) as Raghu, Gracy Davis, Vimala B. Varma as Lalitha, Cherthala Vasudeva Kurup, Kumari Radha; Cinematography: J. G. Vijayam, G. Ranganathan; Editor: Balu; Sound recording: K. B. S. Mani, S. Padmanabhan; Singers: T. K. Govinda Rao, Sarojini Menon, Vasudeva Kurup, P. Leela (debut), Vimala B. Varma, P. K. Raghavan; film, Jan. 1948.

    298. P. U. Lucas, Puthenpurackal: `മലയാളത്തെ സുറിയാനി ക്രിസ്ത്യാനികളുടെ പുരാതന പാട്ടുകള്‍' [The ancient songs of the Syriac Christians of Malayalam] (in Malayalam), Christian {Catholic} Mission Press, Kottayam, Kingdom of Travancore, Mar. 1910. Reprinted: Fifth edition, Jyothi Book House, Kottayam, India, 1980.

      `പുരാതന പാട്ടുകളെ സംഗ്രഹിച്ചു് അറിയേണ്ടുന്നവയായ അനേക സംഗതികളേയും പ്രതിപാദിച്ചു് ഈ വിധം എത്രയും മനോഹരമായ ഒരു് പുസ്തകം പ്രസിദ്ധപ്പെടുത്തുന്നതില്‍ ചെയ്തിട്ടുള്ള വിലമതിക്കത്തക്കതല്ലാത്ത പരിശ്രമത്തെ ലോകത്തിലെ പ്രാചീന വൃത്താന്തങ്ങളില്‍ ശ്രദ്ധാലുക്കളായ സഹൃദയന്മാരെല്ലാവരും ഐകകണ്‍ഠ്യേന അഭിനന്ദിക്കുന്നതാണെന്നുള്ളതിനു് സംശയമില്ല. പ്രസാധകന്റെ ശ്ളാഘ്യമായ ഈ പരിശ്രമം കേവലം സുറിയാനി ക്രിസ്ത്യാനികളാല്‍ മാത്രമല്ല മലയാളദേശത്തിലെ പൂര്‍വ്വചരിത്രത്തെക്കുറിച്ചു് ശ്രദ്ധിക്കുന്നവരായ സഹൃദയന്മാരാല്‍ എല്ലാവരാലും വേണ്ടുംവണ്ണം ആദരിക്കപ്പെടേണ്ടതാണെന്നും പറഞ്ഞുകൊണ്ടു് അധികവിസ്താരത്തില്‍ നിന്നും ഇപ്പോള്‍ വിരമിക്കുന്നു.' Kerala Varma Valiya Coil Thampuran, 25 തുലാം 1086 [1910].

    299. Lakshmi Raghunandan: `At the turn of the tide: the life and times of Maharani Setu Lakshmi Bayi, the last queen of Travancore', Maharani Setu Lakshmi Bayi Memorial Charitable Trust, Bangalore, 1995.

    300. Hendrik Adriaan van Rheede tot Draakestein: `Hortus Malabaricus' {കേരളാരാമം} (in Latin); with contributions by Matthæus of St. Joseph, O. C. D. (* 1600 [Naples] - † 1691 [Verapoly]), John Cæsarius, Ranga Botto {Ranga Batt}, Vinaique Pandito {Vinayak Pandit}, Apu Botto {Appu Batt}, Itti Achudem {Kollatt {Coladda} Itty Achyuthan Vaidyan, Chego by race, Carrapuram}; work finished 20 Apr. 1675; Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 1678-1693. Translated to English (2003) and Malayalam (2008) by Fr. Antony Mukkath, Bp. Aldo Maria Patroni, Joseph Kannampuzha, S. J., Paul Lanthaparambil, S. J., and K. S. Manilal, Kattungal [Subramanian] (General ed.), 12 volumes, University of Kerala. cf. also [Parekunnel 1935, Chapter IX].

    301. Abp. Francisco Ros, S. J.: `De Erroribus Nestorianorum qui in hac India Orientali Versantur' (in Latin), Irénée Hausherr, S. J. (ed.), Orientalia Christiana, Vol. XI-1 / n. 40, Pontificium Institutum Orientalium Studiorum, Piazza della Pilotta, 35, Rome 1, Italy, 1928. Written: 1587.

    302. Idem: `ഉദിയംപേരൂര്‍ സൂനഹദോസിന്റെ കാനോനകള്‍' [The Canons of the Synod of Diamper] (in Malayalam), K. N. Daniel, Kurunthottickal [Ninan] (ed.), Tiruvalla, India, 1952. Written in 1599 by the Malayali priests of the Diocese of Cochin, under the direction of Mgr. Ros (cf. [de Gouvea 1606a, Book I, Chapter 17f.]). Published chiefly from the MS 6E9/299 of St. Joseph's Monastery, Mannanam, Travancore-Cochin, India. Republished after consulting another MS in K. N. D.'s collection, Scaria Zachariah (ed.), Palai, India, 1994. Additional MSS Borg. Ind. 3, Borg. Ind. 21, Vat. Ind. 18, and Vat. Ind. 14-B, at the Vatican have never been consulted for publication.

    303. Idem: `Relação da Serra' [Report on Malabar] (in Portuguese), English Library Additional MS, 9853, ff. 86-99v, dated 1604. Unpublished.

    304. Idem: `നമ്മുടെ മലംകരെ മാര്‍തൊമ്മാ ശ്ലീഹാടെ എടവകെടെ കല്‍പനകള്‍ ഇത' [The Statutes of Our Malankara Mar Thoma Diocese] (in Malayalam), Fondo Borgiano Indiano n. 18. MS dated 16 May 1606. Rediscovered by Jonas Jacob Thaliath [Thaliyath], T. O. C. D. Published (pp. 111-177) along with [Ros 1599] as `രണ്ടു് പ്രാചീന ഗദ്യകൃതികള്‍' [Two ancient prose works], Scaria Zachariah (ed.), Sandesanilayam, Changanacherry, India, 1976. cf. [Parekunnel 1935, Chapter IX]

    305. St. Francis de Sales [François de Sales de Boisy]: `Introduction à la vie dévote' [Introduction to a devout life], France, 1619; translated to Malayalam by Bp. Marcelline Antony Berardi of St. Teresa, O. C. D. as `ആത്മീയ വഴികാട്ടി'. cf. also Pius PP. XI (Achille Ratti): `Rerum omnium perturbationem' [Encyclical on St. Francis de Sales], 26 Jan. 1923.

    306. Georg O. Schurhammer, S. J. [Otto]: `The Malabar church and Rome during the early Portuguese period and before', Trichinopoly, English India, 1934.

    307. Idem: `The mission work of the Jesuits in Muthedath alias Arthunkal and Porakad in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries', Santa Cruz Press, Alleppey, India, 1957.

    308. Idem: `Franz Xaver: sein leben und seine zeit' [Francis Xavier: his life, his times] (in German), vol. 1: Europe, 1506-1541; vol. 2: India, 1541-1545; vol. 3: Indonesia and India, 1545-1549; vol. 4: Japan and China, 1549-1552; Translated to English by M. Joseph Costelloe, S. J., Society of Jesus Historical Institute, Rome.

    309. Bp. Joseph Sebastiani of St. Mary, O. C. D.: `Prima Speditione all' Indie Orientali' [First expedition to the East Indies] (in Latin), Rome, 1666.

    310. Idem: `Seconda Speditione all' Indie Orientali' [Second expedition to the East Indies] (in Latin), Rome, 1672.

    311. Antonio da Silva Rego: `Documentacao para a historia das Missoes do Padroado Portugues do Oriente: India', 12 volumes, Lisbon, Portugal, 1947-1958.

    312. Vishwanath Pratap Singh, 41st Raja Bahadur of Manda (25 Jun. 1931 - 27 Nov. 2008): `Statement to the press on the violence towards Christians in India', 1 Teen Murti Marg, New Delhi, India, 11 Oct. 2008 (his last meeting with the press); `The 1985 budget'; `Speech in the Lok Sabha on 7 Aug. 1990 announcing the implementation of the Backward Classes Commission Report'; `Address to the nation from the ramparts of the Red Fort on independence day'; `Reply to debates on the Confidence motion of 7 Nov. 1990'; `Farewell address'; `Speeches in the Lok Sabha before and after the demolition of the Babri Masjid on 6 Dec. 1992'; Right to information; `Necrology on Chandra Shekhar' [Home page; Interview, 13 Aug. 2007; Funeral; Allan de Noronha: `V. P. Singh: An enigma or enema?', 5 Dec. 2008; `Why V. P. Singh must be defended' (Ajit Bhattacharjea); `V. P. Singh's second coming' (Surendra Mohan); `Why V. P. Singh remains relevant' (Praful Bidwai); `V. P. Singh-- The man and his politics'; `Icon of social justice' (Venkitesh Ramakrishnan); `A man of great conviction and impeccable integrity' (V. B. Rawat); `The Raja of small things' (Aruna Roy and Nikhil Dey); `The lonely punter' (Farzana Versey); (Padmaja Phenany Joglekar); (V. Krishna Ananth); `The populist Raja' (Pratap Bhanu Mehta); `A moral man, a failure' (Ashok Mitra); `The uncommon catalyst' (Prabhash Joshi); `Departure of a reformer' (C. K. Lal); `Death of a Statesman' (Kancha Ilaiah)]

    313. Aleksandr I. Solzhenitsyn (* 11 Dec. 1918 - † 3 Aug. 2008): `Commencement address at Harvard University', Cambridge, USA, 8 Jun. 1978; Translated to English by Irina Ilovayskaya Alberti [Audio]; `Ethics and politics on the eve of the twenty-first century', Address to the International Academy of Philosophy, Liechtenstein, 14 Sep. 1993; Translated to English by Yermolai Solzhenitsyn. [Home page; Interview with Yermolai Solzhenitsyn (s. of A. and Natalya Dmitrievna Solzhenitsyna), 11 Dec. 2008]

    314. Francisco Suárez, S. J.: `Disputationes Metaphysicæ' (in Latin).

    315. V. Lawrence Sundaram, S. J.: `A great Indian Jesuit: Fr. Jerome Gregory D'Souza (1897-1977), priest, educationist, and statesman', Gujarat Sahithya Prakash, Anand, India, 1986.

    316. Tertullian: `Apologeticus'; `Ad nationes'; `Ad martyras'; `Prescription against heretics'; `An answer to the Jews'; `To his wife'; `Against Marcion' [Alternative version].

    317. Thachil Abraham Malpan Achen: `നാളാഗമം' [Chronicle] (in Malayalam), MS in the possession of Ookken Geevarghese Malpan Achen, Edakulam. Unpublished. [Ookken 1966]

    318. Fr. George J. Thalian: `The Great Archbishop Augustine W. Kandathil, D. D.: The outline of a vocation', Second edition, Bp. Louis M. Pareparambil Memorial Press, Broadway, Ernakulam, India, 1993. First edition: `The First Indian Archbishop, His Grace Most Rev. Augustine W. Kandathil, D. D.', Bp. Louis M. Pareparambil Memorial Press, Broadway, Ernakulam, India, 1961.

    319. Justice Joseph Thaliath [Thaliyath]: `Truth about the Travancore education policy', Trivandrum, Kingdom of Travancore, 1945.

    320. Abp. Eugène-Gabriel-Gervais-Laurent Card. Tisserant: `Nestorienne (l'Eglise)' (in French), Dictionnaire de thèologie catholique, vol. XI, France, 1930, pp. 157-323.

    321. Idem: `Syro-Malabare (l'Eglise)' (in French), Dictionnaire de thèologie catholique, vol. XIV, France, 1941, pp. 3089-3162.

    322. Idem: `Eastern Christianity in India: a history of the Syro-Malabar Church from the earliest time to the present day', authorised adaptation in English from the essay in French (cited above) by Édouard {Edward} R. Hambye [René], S. J., Orient Longman, Bombay, India, 1957. Translated to Malayalam by Bp. Abraham D. Mattam, V. C., and Jose Thachil, Liturgical Research Centre, Mount St. Thomas, Ernakulam, India, 2002.

    323. `Travancore Archæological Series', 5 volumes, T. A. Gopinatha Rao (vol. 1-3), K. V. Subrahmanya Aiyar (vol. 4), A. S. Ramanatha Ayyar (vol. 5); published under the orders of the Government of Travancore, Government Press, Trivandrum, Kingdom of Travancore. Reprinted: Department of Cultural Publications, Government of Kerala; Feb. 1985, Mar. 1991, Feb. 1999.

    324. Brahmabandhab [Theophilus] Upadhyay [Bhavani Charan Banerjee (Bandyopadhyay)]: `The Writings of Brahmabandhab Upadhyay', Julius J. Lipner and George Gispert-Sauch, S. J.; Bangalore, India, 2 Volumes, 1991, 2001.

    325. Mgr. Chepat Vanchiyil Philipose Rambachan (* 12 May 1887 - † 24 Jun. 1979): `ചേപ്പാട്ടു് വഞ്ചിയില്‍ പീലിപ്പോസ് റമ്പാച്ചന്റെ പൂര്‍വ്വകാല സ്മരണകള്‍' {Reminiscences from the early years of Chepat Vanchiyil Philipose Rambachan}, 1969; Published: Thomas Eapen Vanchiyil, Chepad, Jun. 2014.

    326. Fr. Matthew Vadakel [Vadakkel]: `പഴയ നിയമം' [The Old Testament] (in Malayalam), translation of the Old Testament of the Holy Bible, 3 volumes, Sacred Heart League, Seminary of St. Joseph, Mangalapuzha, Alwaye, Kingdom of Travancore, 1930, 1934, 1939.

    327. Mgr. Thomas Vadacherry (* 8 Oct. 1908 [Thambalakkad] - † 20 Jul. 1966): `ക്രിസ്തീയ {കത്തോലിക്കാ} സഭയും യാക്കോബായ വാദങ്ങളും' [The Christian {Catholic} Church and the Jacobite contentions], Tiruvalla, Kingdom of Travancore, Jul. 1945.

    328. Idem: `യാക്കോബായക്കാര്‍ എന്തുകൊണ്ടു് ക്രിസ്തീയ {കത്തോലിക്കാ} സഭയില്‍ ചേരണം' [Why the Jacobites must join the Christian {Catholic} church], Tiruvalla, India, 1957.

    329. Bp. Sebastian Valloppilly: `ദൈവം നമ്മോടു് കൂടെ: മലബാര്‍ കുടിയേറ്റ ചരിത്രവും ആത്മകഥയും' [God with us: the history of the migration to (English) Malabar and autobiography] (in Malayalam), Bishop's house, Tellicherry, India, 1999.

    330. Giorgio Vasari: `Le vite delle più eccellenti pittori, scultori, e architettori' [Lives of the Most Excellent Painters, Sculptors, and Architects], 1568. Legend.

    331. Bp. Sebastian M. Vayalilkalapura {Vayalil} [Mani]: `നിന്റെ വഴികള്‍ എത്ര സുന്ദരം' [How beautiful thy ways] (in Malayalam), Palai, India, 1987.

    332. Veticutel Matthai Kathanar: `മലയാളത്തിലുള്ള സുറിയാനിക്കാര്‍ക്കു് ഭവിച്ച ഭവിതങ്ങള്‍' (in Malayalam and Syriac), MSS written c. 1720 in the possession of Leyden University Library, Cod. Or. 1213 (Syriac) & Cod. Or. 1214 (Malayalam). Published in Syriac (pp. 24-30) along with translation to Latin (pp. 123-127): Jan P. N. Land (ed.), `Anecdota Syriaca', vol. 1, Leyden, The Netherlands, 1862. Translated to English by Henri Hosten, S. J., `Land's Anecdota Syriaca on the Syrians of Malabar', Indian Antiquary, vol. LVI, 1927, pp. 41-46, 81-88. cf. also [Parekunnel 1935, Chapter X]

    333. `ഉദയമ്പേരൂര്‍ പഴയ പള്ളി നാളാഗമം' [Chronicle of the Church of All-Saints, Diamper / Udayamperoor / Udiamperur / ഉതിയന്‍പെരൂര്‍] (in Malayalam), Seat of the House of Villalvettam [വില്ലാള്‍വെട്ടം സ്വരൂപം] (variant spellings: Beliarte, Villarvattam [വില്ലാര്‍വട്ടം]).

      "The Christians were so powerful that they chose a king among themselves. The Christian dynasty was known as Villalvettam. In 1439 Pope Eugene IV sent a letter to the reigning prince which begins thus: `To my most beloved son in Christ, Thomas, the illustrious Emperor of the Indians, Health and the Apostolic Benediction:- There has often reached us a constant rumour that Your Serenity and also all who are the subjects of Your kingdom are true Christians.' (Travancore State Manual, vol. II, p. 143) This dynasty survived till a few years before the advent of the Portuguese." [Panjikaran 1926, p. 103]

      `വില്ലെടുത്തവരില്‍ വില്ലാള്‍വെട്ടത്തിനു് തുല്യനില്ല.'

    334. Bp. Angelo Francis Violoti of St. Teresa, O. C. D. (* 1650 [Montregal, Piedmont] - † 17 Oct. 1712 [Verapoly]): `Grammaticæ Linguæ Vulgaris Malabaricæ' [Grammar of the Common Malayalam language (വാമൊഴി)] (in Latin), Fondo Borgiano Indiano n. 2, ff. 1-34. MS dated 12 Jan. 1733. `Malabarico-Latinum Dictionarium' [Malayalam-Latin dictionary], and `Grammaticæ Linguæ Malabaricæ' [Grammar of the Malayalam language (വരമൊഴി)] (in Latin) are not extant. cf. also [Parekunnel 1935, Chapter IX]

    335. Jacob C. Visscher: `Letters from Malabar', 1743. Translated to English by Maj. Heber Drury (ed.) and appended with an account of Travancore and the travels of Paulinus Johann Filip [Philipp] Vezdin [Wesdin] of St. Bartholomew, O. C. D. in that country, Madras, English India, 1862.

    336. Aloysius Vaippicherry of St. Mary, T. O. C. D. [Founding editor: Sathyanadakahalam {സത്യനാദകാഹളം / Kerala Times}]; Michael Puthenparambil of the Holy Family, T. O. C. D.; Polycarp Kadavilparambil of St. Anne, T. O. C. D.: `നമ്മുടെ കര്‍ത്താവും രക്ഷിതാവുമായ യേസുക്രിസ്തുവിന്‍ പുതിയനിയമം' [The New Testament of Our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ] (in Malayalam); Volume I; translation of the Gospels and the Acts of the Apostles based on the Vulgate, together with annotations; I. S. Press, Ernakulam, Kingdom of Cochin, 1905.

    337. Henri-Alexandre Wallon: `Jeanne d'Arc', Paris, France, 1860: vol. I; vol. II; Second edition: 1877.

    338. Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington: `Speech in support of the Christian {Roman Catholic} Relief Bill given to the House of Lords', 2 Apr. 1829. Bill enacted 13 Apr. 1829. Act. Daniel O'Connell the Emancipator.

    339. Paulinus Johann Filip [Philipp] Vezdin [Wesdin] of St. Bartholomew, O. C. D.: `India Orientalis Christiana' [Christianity in the Oriental India] (in Latin), Propaganda Press, Rome, 1794. Translated to Malayalam as `പൌരസ്ത്യ ഭാരതത്തിലെ ക്രൈസ്തവമതം' by John Francis Pallath of St. Mary († 7 May 1999), O. C. D., Jyothir Bhavan Publications, Kalamacherry, Ernakulam, India, 1988.

    340. Idem: `Viaggio alle Indie Orientali' (in Latin), Antonio Fulgoni, Rome, 1790. Translated to English as `Voyage to the East Indies' by William Johnston, London, England, 1800.

    341. Sir Edmund T. Whittaker [Taylor]: `Space and spirit: theories of the Universe and the arguments for the existence of God', Donnellan lectures, Trinity College, Dublin, Ireland, Jun. 1946. Published: Henry Regnery Co., Hinsdale, Illinois, USA, 1948.

    342. Idem: `The Beginning and End of the World', Sir John Buchanan Riddell memorial lectures, delivered before the University of Durham at King's College, Newcastle upon Tyne, Fourteenth series, Oxford, England, Feb. 1942.

    343. Idem: `The modern approach to Descartes's problem: the relation of the mathematical and physical sciences to philosophy', The Herbert Spencer lecture in the University of Oxford, Thomas Nelson and Sons Ltd., London, England, 1948.

    344. Idem: `Chance, Freewill, and Necessity in the scientific conception of the Universe', Twenty seventh Guthrie lecture, Physical Society of London, 18 May 1943. Published: Proceedings of the Physical Society of London, LV (6), pp. 459-471.

    345. Fr. Francis Xavier of Arakuzha [ആരക്കുഴ പ്രംസീസ്ക് ശൌരിയാര്‍ പാതിരി]: `ധ്യാനങ്ങള്‍' [Meditations], MSS in the Vatican Library. cf. also [Parekunnel 1935, Chapter X].

    346. Abp. Władysław Michał Zaleski: `The Apostle St. Thomas in India: history, tradition, and legend', The Codialbail Press, Mangalore, English India, 1912. Also published simultaneously in French.

    347. Idem: `The Saints of India', The Codialbail Press, Mangalore, English India, 1915.

    348. Idem: `Les Origines du Christianisme aux Indes' [The Origins of Christianity in India] (in French), The Codialbail Press, Mangalore, English India, 1915.

    349. Idem: `Ceylon at les Indes' [Ceylon and the Indies] (in French), Paris, France, 1891.

    350. Idem: `Les martyrs de L'Inde: constances des Indiens dans la foi' [The martyrs of India: the constancy of Indians in the faith] (in French), Paris, France, 1900.

    351. Idem: `St. Francis Xavier, missionary', Benziger Brothers, New York, USA, 1911.

    352. Idem: `The Apostle of Ceylon: Fr. Joseph Vaz, 1651-1711', Benziger Brothers, New York, USA, 1911.

  • Left: St. Jerome of Stridon, by Domenico Ghirlandaio, Fresco, c. 1480. 184 cm x 119 cm. Church of Ognissanti [All saints], Florence, Italy.
    `And in the Church of Ognissanti in Florence, in competition with Sandro di Botticello, he painted a S. Jerome in fresco (which is now beside the door that leads to the choir), surrounding him with an infinite number of instruments and books, such as are used by the learned. The friars having occasion to remove the choir from the place where it stood, this picture, together with that of Sandro di Botticello, has been bound round with irons and transported without injury into the middle of the church, at the very time when these Lives are being printed for the second time.'
    -- Giorgio Vasari on Domenico Ghirlandaio in [Vasari 1568].
  • Right: St. Augustine of Hippo (* 13 Nov. 354 - † 28 Aug. 430; Feast: 28th August), by Sandro Botticelli , Fresco, c. 1480. 152 cm x 112 cm. Church of Ognissanti [All saints], Florence, Italy. An armillary sphere is on the left above, the coat of arms of the House of Vespucci in the middle, and a clock on the right; clock hand points to the hour (XXIV - I) immediately after sunset.
    `In the tramezzo of the Ognissanti, by the door that leads into the choir, he painted for the Vespucci a S. Augustine in fresco, with which he took very great pains, seeking to surpass all the painters of his time, and particularly Domenico Ghirlandaio, who had made a S. Jerome on the other side; and this work won very great praise, for in the head of that Saint he depicted the profound meditation and acute subtlety that are found in men of wisdom who are ever concentrated on the investigation of the highest and most difficult matters. This picture, as was said in the Life of Ghirlandaio has this year (1564) been removed safe and sound from its original position.'
    -- Giorgio Vasari on Sandro Botticelli in [Vasari 1568].
  • Centre: St. Catherine of Alexandria (Feast: 25 Nov.), by Raffaello Santi of Urbino, Oil on wood, c. 1507. 71.1 cm x 54.6 cm. National Gallery, London, England. An abbey was erected in her honour in campo belli at Mont Gisard [25 Nov. 1177] by King Baudouin [Baldwin] IV (* 1161 - † 16 Mar. 1185).

    `Although he suffered from leprosy from childhood, yet he strenuously preserved the frontiers of the Kingdom of Jerusalem [☩] and won a remarkable victory over Saladin at Mont Gisard [25 Nov. 1177], and as long as he lived, he was victorious.'
    -- Bp. Sicard of Cremona, Chronicon, P. L., 213, col. 512. (encomium on King Baudouin [Baldwin] IV.)

    © 2001. David C. Kandathil. All rights reserved.