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Red Rain of Kerala:New Findings

       Red Rain of Kerala

The red rain phenomenon of Kerala and its possible   extraterrestrial Origin

       Godfrey Louis and A. Santhosh Kumar

                    (Accepted for publication in Astrophysics and Space Science)


         Cometary Panspermia Explains Red rain of Kerala- Full Paper  

                       Godfrey L and A Santhosh Kumar


         New Biology of red rain microbes proves cometary panspermia  - Full Paper

                       Godfrey L and A Santhosh Kumar

          About The Red Rain Phenomenon

Red coloured rain occurred in many places of Kerala in India during July to September 2001 due to the mixing of a huge quantity of microscopic red cells in the rainwater. The red rain was first reported at Changanasserry in Kottayam district on July 25.  At first, it was dismissed as an "isolated" case. But in the next days, coloured rains were reported from Ernakulam, Pathanamthitta and Palakkad districts. The panic-striken people collected samples of the coloured water in kitchen vessels. This greatly helped the experts to get access to samples conduct their studies

An unidentified fungus and a meteor shower are the two possible solutions being put forward to explain mysterious red rain phenomenon

Researchers from the Centre for Earth Science Studies in the state capital Thiruvananthapuram say that spores of a fungus found in the rains may be responsible for the red colour. But several questions remain unanswered. What, for instance, had produced the huge quantity of spores? And how were the spores injected into the clouds? Was the source local or alien?  "While the cause of the colour in the rainfall has been identified, finding the answers to these questions is what is posing a challenge

Meanwhile, meteorologists at the Centre of Monsoon Studies have put forward a radically different hypothesis for the coloured showers. According to them, the fine dust blown into the Arabian sea from the deserts of West Asian countries are colouring the Kerala rain. In a reported statement, the dust-laden air from the Arabian dust-bowl moves southwards and turns east over central Arabian Sea towards the Kerala coast. This, they says, "got mixed with the monsoon rains".
Analysing data from satellites and a laser radar, scientists at the Vikram Sarabai Space Centre in Thiruvananthapuram have found the reason for the red rain is that a dust cloud that originated in the Gulf.

But microscopic examination of these particles showed that the colour causing materials are life particles and not dust particles.

According to the locals, a loud sound like a thunderclap was heard at around 5.30 a.m. accompanying which was a flash of light. What followed was a three-hour spell of heavy rain, 15 minutes of which they claim, was a scarlet sheet.

This points to a possible link between the meteor and red rain.

One of the observed fact regarding this phenomenon is its highly localized appearance . It usually occurs over an area of less than a square kilometer to a few square kilometers. The maximum numbers of cases were reported from in and around Kottayam and Pathanamthitta districts.


Reason for why the red rain phenomenon can be explained by a meteoric origin

1) The origin of huge quantity of red particles can be explainable.......

2) Delayed cases of red rain that occurred for two months can be explainable.....

3) High concentration of red rain occurred in and around Kottayam district can be explainable....

Whether the comet contains these type of red cells is a challenging question. Even then, this argument supports earlier hypothesis of Cometary Panspermia


Some links about the phenomenon

Dust settles over Kerala's `red rain'

Strange red/scarlet rain over Kerala August 2001

BBC News | SOUTH ASIA | Coloured rain falls on Kerala

India Today Group Online > Web Exclusive >Despatches

news in brief : Nature

The Indian Express: National Network

Our Recent Study on Red Rain Phenomenon

Red rain phenomenon of Kerala and its possible Extraterrestrial origin-

Accepted  in Astrophysics and Space Science-

Arxiv -Full paper


Cometary Panspermia Explains Red rain of Kerala- Full Paper  


 New Biology of red rain microbes proves cometary panspermia  - Full Paper


Photograph of the red rain cells that cuase red colouration to the rain water








Movie of the cluster of red rain cell under low magnification

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Movie of the red rain cell under low magnification

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Movie of the red rain cell under high magnification

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Movie of the red rain cell

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SEM image of the red rain cells





Red rainwater in a bottle

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Plot of the Intensity of the red rain occurred in Kerala(red rain occurred at many localized places in the shadded area shown in the picture below)




Some useful links about our recent studies

Skepticism greets claim of possible alien microbes

A dust storm couldn't have caused the red rain of Kerala

What'sNEW in Cosmic Ancestry, Oct-Dec 2003. by Brig Klyce

Xenophilia - Panspermia: life from space

National Institute for Discovery Science (NIDS): Science institute


















Hosted by

When aliens rained over India - by Hazel Muir

New Scientist - podcast

Red rain from another planet? - by George Iype, Rediff news

Life hain professor! - Prerna Shah, Times of India

Mysterious red cells might be aliens - Jebediah Reed ,

Physicist: Cell-like structures could be microbes from space - WorldNetDaily

"Extraterrestrial Life" in Red Rain of Kerala, India? -Linda Moulton Howe,

Germs from space? - Michael Carroll , Astronomy Magazine

Red rain in Kerala - Wikipedia, the encyclopedia

Alien attack after red rain in Kerala - Naveen Nair, CNN-IBN

Is mysterious 'red rain' first evidence of life in space? By Chris Benfield, Yorkshire Post (UK)

ANALYSIS OF RED RAIN OF KERALA - Cardiff Centre for Astrobiology

Red rain of Kerala - David Darling, Encyclopedia of Astrobiology, Astronomy & Spaceflight 1