Paper 8

The relationship between the blood system and air pressure.

Ramin Amir mardfar


The relationship between the blood system and air pressure.  

We knew that there is a direct relation between the strength of blood system and the largeness of animals’ bodies. In away that, the greater the efficacy of blood system and the strength of the heart of animal, the bigger the size of its body. Because, by increase of the strength of blood system of the animal, it can over come the gravity easily and makes the blood to go higher and make its body larger.
But, there is a question. How far the increasing of the increase of heart and as a result the increase of its body's size, can be continued? If an animal has a blood system with good efficacy and a strong heart, to what extent can get longer and enhance its body’s size?
Assume that we have a water pump, and we want to draw water from a well. The question is that: How much is the maximum depth, that we can draw water by this pump from the well?
  According to Aristotle, it was possible; it was possible to draw the water by the pump from every depth. But the miners, who intended to send the out of the mine, noticed that, they couldn’t draw the water more than ten meters depth, even if they pump very hard. At the last years of his life Galileo became interested to this subject, but he couldn’t achieve a result, except for this result that the nature hates vacuity, to some extent. He thought that if he use heavier liquid, wills this amount decrease or not? But before practicing this, he died. His student Torricelli examined this experience in 1644. They conducted this examination with mercury, and they noticed that, they could lift it up to 76cm only in vacuity. They justified this, with air pressure and said that, the air around us have a pressure on the all the surfaces of the earth, the value of which is steady on the earth, and this pressure causes the coming up of the water from the well through pumping, and because its strength is a clear amount, with what intensity we pump, it is not possible to draw the water more than ten meters. (Of course now, in deep wells float pumps are being used at the button of the wells and these pumps do not suck the water upwards, but they push the water from down ward.)
  If we suppose the heart of animals like a water pump, we can understand the importance of the air pressure around us. The heart has to pump the blood from lower parts of body. The air interference in this action, and when the heart dilates, it make a vacuity in itself, and the air pressure, sends the blood toward the heart, by forcing on the surface of the body. As we knew, the force of the air pressure is a certain quantity, and the heart cannot lift up the blood from a certain amount, as the water pump was not able to lift up the water more than 10 meters.
The blood is heavier than the water, and its density is 1.6, that is, so ever strong is the heart, it is able to settle 6m above the ground. So we that the maximum size of animal's body is interrelated with the amount of air pressure. Blood system has more efficiency in less gravity and high air pressure. So ever the strength of blood system is weaker; the animal is less able to overcome the gravity and its size become smaller. Also, if the animal has weak blood system, it has to live in a place that the air pressure is high. So the birds that have strong blood system and advanced respiratory system, can fly in high heights. Like Indian goose which flies at 9000m of sea surface where the air pressure in one third of the air pressure on the surface of sea. On earth, big mammals with strong blood system are able to live in most of earth and, they are tall and have large bodies. Reptiles, which have weaker hearts, can only lie on the ground. When amphibious are newborn and have a weak 2-chambered hearts, live in water, and when they obtain a strong and 3-chambered heart they can live on earth but with small bodies. Fish can live in water with 2-chambered heart, and it lies in the water.
  The water is 800 times denser than the water and the pressure inside the water are by far more than that of the air. In different depths of water, the pressure is different, and for every 10m depth, one atmosphere is added to the pressure of the water. In deep areas of water, the pressure is very high, so we conclude that, the animals, which have weaker blood system, should be survived in depths of water. So, Coelacanth which is an primary fish, now it is able to live in very deep seas and if we bring it to less deep waters it will die within a short time.
So, with this knowledge, we can understand the death of aquatic mammals, like whales and dolphin, when they go out of wear. Although these animals have lungs and are able to breathe in air, they can not live out of water, because they can not live in low pressure. The pressure which existing in the water is higher than the pressure out sides the water. So, whale or dolphin is not able to live out of water.
We knew that the lower the density of blood, the easier and more it is send to upper parts of the body. There are tow types of oxygen carriers in blood of different animals, one is hemoglobin and the other one is hemocyanin.
Molecule weight of hemoglobin is 67,000Ag and molecule weight of hemocyanin is 4,000,000Ag. Vertebrates use hemoglobin, they can have large bodies, but most of arthropods and mollusks use hemocynin, so it is difficult for them to get larger, because their blood is heavier.
  Past animals had big and heavy red cell in compare with today's animals. In an amphibious which live in cave, and now it has been declined, the diameter of red cells was 35-38 and their volume was 1100�. While the red cells of todays amphibious is very small. So, we conclude that in the past the gravity was low enough to amphibious to move their heavy and big red cells upwards and survive.
  But because of the increase of the gravity they are able to move their small and light red cells. Also, largeness of the diameter of their red cells shows that, the capillaries of previous animals had animals had more diameter in compare with today's animals, so large cells were able to pass through them. As we know, by increasing of the diameters of capillaries the blood pressure lower. That is, previous animals had low blood pressure in compare with today's animals. That is they were able to reach to heights with their low blood pressure. So, we conclude that, at that time the gravity was low enough to blood pressure to over come the gravity and to move the blood to high parts.
Because of increase of gravity, the animals had to decrease their blood heaviness and its components, so they had to narrow their capillaries to take the blood upwards and reach it to high parts.

  Paper 9

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