Paper 2

Is earth's gravity increasing?

Ramin Amir mardfar


Does the force of gravity increase?
As we know, there is a direct relationship between the power of a circulatory (blood) system of an animal and its size. In animals, the heart tends to push the blood towards the top of the body where the head is located while gravity force pulls the blood down and tries to prevent it from rising. Thus the heart must overcome the force of gravity in order to push the blood towards the top of the body. The more it is successful, the more the blood rises and the height of the animal is allowed to increase. Mammals are the largest animals because they have the most developed circulatory system and, more than other animals, their 4-chambered heart can overcome the force of gravity and send the blood upwards towards the head where the brain is located. For this reason, mammals have the longest necks and legs. After mammals, birds have the most developed circulatory system. Their heart is also 4-chambered and, to a large extent, it can overcome the force of gravity and also send the blood upwards towards the top of the body, where the head of an ostrich, for example, and other tall birds is located. This is the reason why the birds' necks and legs are also rather long. The blood circulation system, both in mammals and birds, are perfectly segragated and the bright blood is separated from the dark. The reptiles are in the class lower than mammals and birds. Their circulatory system is imperfect and their dark blood is mixed together with the bright one, because their heart is 3-chambered. The 3-chambered heart can send blood forward and this is the reason why reptiles can not hold their head upward, and have to creep on the ground in the lying positio,n and have shorter legs, and we call this action creeping, and the animals are called reptiles. So we observe that because of lack of a strong heart, they have to creep on the ground, for their heart cannot transmit much more blood from the body and send it upwards. However, reptiles' heart, contrary to amphibian's, is much more effective because they have an incomplete wall between their ventricle, although it cannot send the blood upwards, at least it can make it move forward horizontally, and because of this, the reptile's body, such as Lizards, Crocodiles and Snakes, grow horizontally. This is not the case for the amphibians and their body, which is smaller, both horizontally and vertically. Although the fishes' hearts are 2-chambered, they can grow horizontally because they have a perfect circulation system, not mixing their dark blood with the bright one, and being aquatic, because horizontal movement of blood does not need to overcome gravity and their heart is able do this. Understanding the relationship of the strength of the heart and the body size and design of animals is easier when we study, in depth, the living animals we have on the earth today. But in the past, there were animals on the Earth, as well as the present animals, which do not exist today, and we discover them by their fossil traces. Such as with today's animals, was there any relationship between the strength of blood circulation system of animals in the past and the size of their body? Dinosaurs are the primary animals of the past that one might consider, because their huge body is intriguing and holds an interest for everyone. The dinosaurs belonged to the reptile class and had a 3-chambered heart. Thus, the old reptiles, with a 3-chambered heart, and an incomplete blood circulation system, could grow so large and hold their heads upward, and have long necks and legs. Where as today's reptiles cannot even raise their head even slightly, and have very short legs, or do not have any legs at all, and must creep upon the ground completely. Isn't this strange? Isn't the relation of strength of the heart and the size and design of an animal's body also supposed to be true for the dinosaurs? It's thus perhaps better to study about other old animals and compare them, in terms of strength of the heart and body size, in that period, to find the reason why dinosaurs, having an incomplete circulatory system, could grow so large. If we study more carefully, different animal species in the past, we can perhaps arrive at the following results: 1. Observing this phenomenon, from past to the present, the body size of all animals has been gradually decreased. In the Mollusks class, there was an animal 4.5m in diameter called Endocras, which their equals today are only a few centimeters in thickness. In the insect class, there were dragonfiles (Meganeuropsis) 71cm long, which their equals today are much less than 15cm. In the amphibian class there was an animal called Eogyrinus, 4.5m long, but today's amphibians are not more than few centimeters. In the reptile class, Brontotosarus and Tyrannosaurus existed in the past but now alligators and other Crocodiles are the largest reptiles. From the mammals in the past, the Mammoth, Mastodon, and the largest mammals, that is, Baluchithere and also the Giant camel existed - but today they do not. 2. In each period of time, there has been the direct relationship between the strength of the heart and the size of the body. In the past 500 million years, Endocras was larger than all other animals because its heart was stronger than all of them and the blood circulation system was more developed than were the others. In the past 330 million years, when the amphibian Eogyrinus (with 4.5m long) and Erypos with 2.5m long existed in the Carbonipher period, they were larger than all the animals living on the land, because they had the strongest heart of all the animals at that time. Then in the past 200 million years, reptiles became the largest, because they had the strongest heart at the time. Mammals like Baluchithere and Mammoths became the largest land animals on earth in the past 20 million years, because at that time they also had the strongest heart. Nowadays, mammals such as elephants and Giraffes have the largest bodies among land animals because they have have the strongest heart of all the animals today. 3. The third observation is that as we close to the present time, from past to today, animals need stronger hearts to create larger bodies. In the Carbonipher period, the heart of an amphibian could allow an animal to reach 4.5m long, but the same heart today only allows an animal to become a few centimeters high. In the past 200 million years, a 3-chambered heart of a reptile could create a dinosaur, but now it can only create animals as large as Snakes and Lizards. In the past 20 million years, a 4-chambered heart of a mammal could allow for a Baluchithere and other large mammals, but today the same heart can only create animals as large as elephants and giraffes. (Although the Whale is larger than the elephant and giraffe, but this characteristic is because of it being aquatic and because its body grows in a horizontal state, and if tge whale lived on land like the elephant and tried to raise its body vertically and stand, it wouldn't be larger than the elephant and giraffe.) In the past 250 million years, the blood circulation system in insects, could create dragonfiles 71cm long, but now it can only allow for 15cm ones. So far, we know that the heart needs to overcome the gravity force of the Earth in order to send blood upwards to the heads of animals. We observe that any animal with strong heart can overcome this force better and this contributes to make the animal higher and taller. But how is it possible that an animal with specific heart contraints at one time, can overcome the gravity and become larger while in at a later time, the same specific heart constraints cause the animals to have a smaller body? Only in one case this is possible and that is if we suppose the strength of gravity at these two times is different. We can thus justify why it is in the past that an animal with an identical heart to today's animals is larger than its modern counterpart. Such as it is, that the large animals did not extinct suddenly, but rather gradually, so it must be that the increase of gravity from past to present has also occurred gradually. When a Molluscan Endocras, that had an open blood circulation system, in the past 500 million years, could reach 4.5m in diameter, and move its large shell and keep on living, certainly the gravity must has been lower in order to allow for such a result. From that time to the present, no shell has been created because the gravity has increased and this animal could not grow it in these conditions. In the past 330 million years, when an amphibian, 4.5m long, lexisted, its 3-chambered heart and incomplete blood circulation system could easily overcome the gravity and send its blood upwards to its head. Surely at that time, the force of gravity must have been lower than it is today. Since then, no amphibian has become so large because the gravity increased and the amphibian's heart could no longer overcome the force of gravity, which caused their bodies to become small. We can thus cite a primary reason for the extinction of the dinosaurs, if we accept that gravity has increased from the past to the present. It is interesting that the dinosaurs themselves did not become extinct suddenly, and that their extinction has come about gradually, throughout millions years. An additional, most important issue is that their extinction began from the larger animals, because the gravity increased gradually, and prevented their blood from reaching their head, and as a result, the animals had to gradually decrease in height and body size. In other words, the larger animals became extinct and the smaller ones survived, and only counterparts who are small and who creep on the ground were amongst the survivors. The animals in the mammal class have also lost many of their largest types, such as Mammoths, because of gravity increase. An interesting point is that presently, the larger types of this class are in danger of extinction; that is, the elephants and the rhinoceroses. From this we might conclude that the continuing increase in gravity persists and that it is bringing an end to the taller and larger animals. We may not be able to perceive this so clearly today, because this increase in gravity occurs very slowly, and its effects only become evident through much longer time spans, such as thousands and millions of years. .

Paper 3
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