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GOVERNMENT OF
UNITED REPUBLIC OF TANZANIA



COUNTRY PROFILE
 
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Name:  United Republic of Tanzania. [Map of Tanzania]

Conventional shortform:Tanzania

Nationality:Tanzanian(s)

Adjective:Tanzanian

Data code:TZ

Time: GMT plus 3hr

Government type:Republic

Head of State:
The President,
H.E Mr.  Benjamin W. MKAPA

Head of Government:
The Executive President

Government Headquarters: Dar-es-Salaam (later to be transferred to Dodoma)

Government’s system:Parliamentarian

Ruling Party:Chama Cha Mapinduzi (CCM).

Official Currency:Tanzania Shilling. 100 cents = 1 shilling.


NATIONAL SYMBOLS.

The Flag

[Tanzania Flag]Flag description:
Tanzania flag has four colours: Green- Golden-Black and Blue: divided diagonally by a (golden)yellow-edged black band from the lower hoist-side corner; the upper triangle (hoist side) is green and the lower triangle is blue.

Colours' Significance:

  • Black=the People
    Green=the Land
    Blue=the Adjoining Sea
    Golden=the Mineral Wealth

The Emblem (Nembo)

nembo.gif (10071

          bytes)Emblem Description :
The central feature of the Coat of Arms is the Warrior’s Shield which bears a Golden portion on the upper part followed underneath by the United Republic flag of Green, Golden, Black and Blue; and a red portion under which are wavy bands of blue and white.

Colours Significance:
The Golden portion represents minerals in the United Republic; the red portion underneath the flag symbolises the fertile red soil of Africa; while the wavy bands represent the land, sea, lakes and coastal lines of the United Republic.
The Shield is set upon a representation of Mount Kilimanjaro. On each side of the Shield there is an elephant tusk supported by a man on the left (as you look at the emblem) and a woman on the right symbolising both the theme of co-operation and gender and equality of the people of Tanzania. At the feet of the man is a clove bush and at the feet of the woman is a cotton bush symbolising agriculture in the Republic.
Superimposed features on the Shield are flames of a burning torch which signifies freedom, enlightenment and knowledge; a spear signifying defence of freedom and crossed axe and hoe being tools that the people of the United Republic use in developing the country.

The Uhuru Torch

The Uhuru Torch symbolises freedom and light. It was first lit on top of mount Kilimanjaro (5,890m) in 1961, symbolically to shine the country and across the borders to bring hope where there is dispair, love where there is enmity and respect where there is hatred. Yearly there is the Uhuru Torch race, starting from different prominent places in the Republic.

The United Republic motto: "Uhuru na Umoja" = Freedom and Unity, is written in Kiswahili: the National Language of Tanzania.


GEOGRAPHY

The United Republic of Tanzania is located in the Eastern African Continent between longitude 290 and 410. East: Latitude 10 and 120 South; Most Northerly point: Bukoba 10South latitude; Most Southerly point: Mtalika 120South Latitude; Most Westerly point Kigoma 290East of Greenwich and Most Easterly point: Mtwara 410East of Greenwich.
It borders on the Indian Ocean to the east, and has land borders with eight countries: anti-clockwise from the north, Kenya 796 km, Uganda 396km, Rwanda 217km, Burundi 451km, the Democratic Republic of Congo (across Lake Tanganyika)478km, Zambia338km, Malawi 475km and Mozambique 750km, making a total of 3900 km. The countryincludes Zanzibar (consisting of the main island Unguja and Pemba; see below).
Area:
Total area, including inland water and Zanzibar, is 945.234 sq. km. (365,000 sq. miles), of which 886,040 sq. km is land and 62,050 sq. km is water. The coastline is 1,424 km of which over 500 miles is of pure white sandy and unspoiled beaches.

Area-comparative:
The area is approximately half the size of the western European countries put together and larger than twice the size of California.

Major Lakes:
Victoria 35,000 sq. km;
Tanganyika 13,000 sq. km;
Nyasa 6,000 sq. km;
Rukwa 3,000 sq. km;
Eyasi over 1000 sq. km and other over 1000 sq. km.

Topography:
The country comprises several distinct zones: a fertile coastal belt, the Masai Steppe and mountain ranges to the north, with Mt. Kilimanjaro rising to 5,895m and Mount Meru 4,566m, and a high plateau in the central and southern regions. There are over 61,000 sq. km (23.500 sq. miles) of inland water. Unguja Island, 36km from the Mainland, is fertile, hilly, and densely populated on the west side, low and thinly peopled in the east.

Elevation extremes:
Lowest point: India Ocean 0m and Kilimanjaro, highest point, 5,895 m.

Land use:
Arable land:

6%; permanent crops: 1%; permanent pastures: 40%; Forest and woodland: 40% and other 18% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land:
1,500 sq. km (1993 est.)

Maritime claims:
Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm. Territorial sea: 12 nm.

CLIMATE:

Varies with geographical zones:

tropical on the coast, where it is hot and humid (rainy season March-May): semi-temperate in the mountains (with the Short Rains (Masika) in November-December and the Long Rains (Vuli) in February -May): and drier (Kiangazi)in the plateau region with considerable seasonal variations in temperature. Total rainfall increases towards the north around lake Victoria. Rainfall is well distributed throughout the year reaching peak during the period of March and May.

Average Maximum Temperature (Degree Centigrade)

CITY JANUARY APRIL JULY OCTOBER
Dar-es-Salaam 31.5 30.7 28.8 31.9
Arusha 28.1 25.2 21.8 27.2
Bukoba 26.3 25.8 25.4 26.2
Dodoma 26.3 25.8 25.4 26.2
Mbeya 23.2 23.1 21.7 26.8
Zanzibar n\av n\av n\av n\av

 

Average Minimum Temperature (Degree Centigrade)

CITY JANUARY APRIL JULY OCTOBER
Dar-es-Salaam 23.2 22.4 18.2 19.7
Arusha 13.7 16.2 12.4 13.9
Bukoba 16.1 16.9 15.4 16.4
Dodoma 16 17.0 15.4 16.4
Mbeya 13.5 12.1 4.9 11.8
Zanzibar n\av n\av n\av n\av

VEGETATION:

Lush tropical at the coast:

forest and woodland covered 46% of the land in 1990 ( a reduction of almost 6% by 1993!) : in the previous 35 years, coverage decreased by an average 0.3% p.a. The rest of the country, apart from urban areas. is savannah and bush.

Forestry and Fishing:
Yearly timber production in Tanzania in the late 1980s totalled about 24.8 million cu m (about 876 million cu ft.), more than 90% of which was used as fuel. Timber includes camphor, podo and African mahogany. The annual fish catch in the late 1980s was about 313,500 metric tons, more than three-quarters of which were caught in inland waters, especially Lake Victoria. Sardines and tuna are caught in the Indian Ocean.

Natural resources:
hydropower potential, gold, diamonds, gemstones, nickel, natural gas, coal, iron ore, phosphates, tin, mica, salt, lead, tungsten, pyrochlore, kaolin and magnesite.

Natural hazards:
tropical hazards; vulnerable to flooding on the central plateau during the rainy season.

WILDLIFE

Tanzania’s national parks and game reserves cover one-seventh of the country, and include Serengeti National Park (famous for its vast migratory herds of plains animals. notably wildebeest, zebra. eland and kudu). Small bands of chimpanzees are found in the Gombe National Park along Lake Tanganyika. The steep mountain walls of Ngorongoro Park’s volcanic crater have provided protection and a natural enclosure for animals in an environment of great natural beauty. Rhino and elephant are still depleted by poaching despite government protective measures.

MAIN TOWNS

Dar-es-Salaam (commercial capital, population(1,651,900).
Dodoma (capital designate 1,052,000).
Mwanza 2,280,000).
Tanga 1,590,000).
Zanzibar Town(254,600),
Zanzibar North & Central (118,000)
Zanzibar South & West 254,000)
Mbeya 1,790,800).
Arusha 1,640,700).
Pemba north(167,000)
Pemba South(155,000) [figures from 1995 census].

Administrative divisions:

There are 27 regions (Mikoa); 1. Arusha, 2. Dar-es-Salaam, 3. Dodoma, 4. Iringa, 5. Kagera, 6. Kigoma, 7. Kilimanjaro, 8. Lindi, 9. Mafia, 10. Mara, 11. Mbeya, 12. Morogoro, 13. Mtwara, 14. Mwanza, 15. Pemba North, 16. Pemba South, 17. Pwani, 18. Rukwa, 19. Ruvuma, 20. Shinyanga, 21. Singida, 22. Tabora, 23. Tanga, 24. Zanzibar Central\Sotuh, 25. Zanzibar North, 26. Zanzibar Urban\West & 27. Ziwa Magharibi.


SOCIETY

Population:
Tanzania’s population was estimated at 29,646,753 (July 1997 est.), giving a rate of population growth 1985-95 period of 3.0% pa., and 1.6% (1997 est.) Outside the urban areas, most of the country is sparsely populated. The birth rate is 46.0 per 1,000 population (1997) and death rate: 15.0 deaths per 1,000 (1997 est.). Life expectancy is 49 years, 47 for men and 50 for women (1996).

Age structure:
0-14 years: 47.1% (male 6,597,703; female 6,638,333); 15-64 years: 52% (male 7,496,133; female 7,868,581) and 65 years and over: 3% (male 399,747; female 460,256) (July 1997 est.)

 

Most of the people are of Bantu origin representing 95%, with some 120 tribes on the mainland, none of which exceeds 10% of the population, others are of Asian, Arab and Afro-Arab and European. The biggest African group is the Sukuma: others include Masai, Haya, Gogo, Nyamwezi. Chagga. There are people of mix blood in the coastal area known as Swahilis as well as Asian, Arabs and expatriate minorities.

Religion:

Traditional beliefs (30%) Islam (35%) and Christianity (35%) est.

Language:
The official language is Kiswahili, which is universally spoken, in addition to various local languages, and is the medium of instruction in all primary schools. English is second official language, the country’s commercial language and also the main teaching language for all scientific subjects in secondary schools and higher education institutions, Arabic (widely spoken in coastal areas, particularly Zanzibar).


EDUCATION AND HEALTH

EDUCATION

Enrolment in primary school education rose from 34% of the relevant age group in 1970 to 68% in I 992, but is still far from the national goal of compulsory universal primary education. Secondary enrolment figures have been low, at 5.5% of primary school leavers in 1985, but strong emphasis on secondary education increased this proportion to 14.5% by 1995 (186,246 pupils in total).

Primary Schools.
Number of primary schools (in 1995) stood at 10,927, of which 10,908 are public schools and 19 private schools, with teaching staff 103,900 or which 296 are in private schools. There are over 3.2 million pupils in primary schools.

Secondary Schools.
Number of secondary schools in 1995 stood at 598 of which 259 are public schools and 336 are private schools, with teaching staff 10,612 of which 5,818 are in public schools and 4,798 in private schools. The number of students stood at 99,154 in 1994.

Universities:
There are five local universities:

  • the University of Dar-es-Salaam(1961)

  • the Sokoine University of Agriculture (1984),

  • Muhimbili University College of Medical Sciences in Dar-es-Salaam (1992)

  • and University College of Lands, Architecture and Survey
    (formerly Ardhi Institute of Dar-es-Salaam).

  • In 1995 an Open University was established for distance Education,
    and finally in 1998,

  • Zanzibar established its first ever University, in a newly built Campus in the outskirts of Zanzibar town, known as the University of Zanzibar, making total number of local Universities in Tanzania to be Six.

Entrants in the first two mentioned Universities stood at 4,289 in 1994, with finalist of 1,197. Three more private universities were established during 1997-98 whose figures are not yet available. In addition, there is Institute of Finance Management in Dar-es-Salaam and Institute of Development Management at Mzumbe, Morogoro.

Teacher Training Colleges.
The number of teacher training colleges stood at 40 in 1995 plus 3 technical colleges.

Literacy:
the adult literacy rate was 68% in 1995, 70% among men and 57% among women, down from 85% of the person over the age of 15 during the late 1980s..

Libraries.
Among the libraries in Tanzania are the National Central Library, the British Council Library and the American Centre Library, all in Dar-es-Salaam. The University of Dar-es-Salaam has an important library and a lending service at the Dar-es-Salaam Technical College circulates books by mail throughout the country. Zanzibar has several community and school libraries in addition to the Museum Library and the Zanzibar National Archives, with very rich old Arabic manuscripts. The National Museum of Tanzania is located at Dar-es-Salaam and the Zanzibar Government Museum is located in the city of Zanzibar, near Mnazi Moja.

 

Culture:
Tanzania culture is a product of African, Arab, European and Indian influences.Traditional African values are being consciously adapted to modern life.


HEALTH

 

Hospitals:
The number of hospitals increased from 152 in 1988 to 183 in 1995 and Dispensaries from 2,840 in 1988 to 3,286 in 1995; while the number of inhabitants per one doctor was reduced from 22,000 in 1991 to 20,000 in 1992. Latest available figures give one nurse per 5,000 inhabitants. (These figures do not take account of traditional health systems.)

Infant mortality was 82 per 1.000 live births in 1995. Tanzania’s health figures are in advance of all other very poor countries, apart from Vietnam. Muhimbili Medical Centre, in Dar-es-Salaam, is the country’s referral centre and teaching hospital. There is considerable concern about AIDS, since recent estimates suggest that 10% of the population may be HIV-positive.

Employment:
The labour force is around 12m, most of whom are subsistence farmers. In the period 1990/91, of 12.3m employed person, 10,889,205 people were employed on the mainland: 869,725 were self-employed in agriculture and trade and 405,722 were unemployed.


COMMUNICATIONS

Media:
The semi-official Daily News
is published in English: Uhuru, owned by the ruling party, CCM., in Kiswahili. There are several independent newspapers including:

The Guardian,
The East African;
The Business Times
;
The African;
The Express ;
Family Mirror a few Swahili daily:
Rai (opinion);
Mtanzania (Tanzanian);
Mfanyakazi (The Worker);
Hoja (Argument);
Mchapo (Rumours) ;
Mwananchi (Citizen);
Nipashe (Gossip);
Majira (Season) ;
Kasheshe ;
(Furore) and a few more; some weekly:
Sunday Observer; Sunday News; some less frequently.


The government runs two radio stations Radio Tanzania and Radio Tanzania-Zanzibar. There are a number of independent radio stations, notably Radio One and Capital Radio. Radio Tumaini and Radio Sauti ya Injili are Christian religion stations.
Television channels include Independent Television (ITV), Dar-es-Salaam Television, DTV) and Coast Television Network (CTN) in addition to Television Zanzibar (TVZ), the first colour TV to be established in the African content. In November 1995, plans for the launch of further radio and television channels, in several provincial capitals which were not then receiving television broadcasts, were well advanced. There are also plan to launch National Television soon. There are 3.5m radio sets.

Post:
There are 208 post offices in Tanzania scattered around the country including Zanzibar. The post, by average, takes between three to five days to Europe and Middle East by air mail and five to seven days to USA. For Far East it may take a little bit longer.

Telephone Services:
Telephone IDD (code 255) is available. The local network in Dar es Salaam (IDD +51) is being rehabilitated with Japanese assistance. Zanzibar IDD is + 54. There are over 93,000 lines in use with over 1668 telex lines in use. Mobile telephone services are also available, provided by Mobitel and Tritel. In mainland Tanzania, there were 3 main telephone lines per 1.000 people in 1995.

Telecoms:
Telex and fax facilities are available at hotels: (e-mail and Internet facilities are also available at major international hotels) telex also from main post office in Dar es Salaam: telegrams from the post office.

Internet Services:
IT has picked up rapidly in Tanzania and there are over 100 servers services providers in the country.


TRANSPORT

 

Road:
Major road links are all-weather, but only 3,660km of the 55,550km of classified roads are bitumenised. Some l,200 km. are classified as highways, with 57% rated as in good condition in 1994. Many roads have been upgraded under a US$750m long-term World Bank road improvement programme begun in 1989.

Rail:
There are two railway systems, running on different gauges. One links Dar-es- Salaam with northern Tanzania and Kenya (Tanzania Railways Corporation, gauge 1m.): the other links Dar-es-Salaam to Zambia (Tanzania-Zambia Railways Authority or Tazara. gauge 3ft. 6in.). Recently rehabilitated, the Tazara line has been making an operating profit, although competition from South Africa and Mozambique reduced Tazara volumes to one-third of capacity. Copper freight from Zambia is the chief source of the line’s revenue.

Sea and inland water:
Tanzania’s main ports are at Dar-es-Salaam (11 deep-water berths), Mtwara, Tanga and Zanzibar. A daily boat service - almost on the hour every hour from 7.30 a.m. till 5 p.m. noon- carries passengers and freight between Dar-es-Salaam and Zanzibar. In January 1996 passenger services between Mwanza and Kisumu (Kenya) began again. Ferryboats provide freight and passenger transport on Lake Victoria. In May 1996, Tanzania experienced its worst shipping disaster when the ferryboat MV Bukoba sank in Lake Victoria and more than 900 people were drowned.

 

Air:
There are three international airports (Dar-es-Salaam, -DIA-, Kilimanjaro -KIA-, and Zanzibar -ZIA) and over 50 local airports and airstrips. As Tanzania is a very large country with a scattered population, air services have become the most significant form of internal transport for official and business travel. Air Tanzania Corporation (ATC), established in 1977, runs international services and domestic flights to all main towns. Small planes, from charter companies, fly to towns and to bush airstrips.



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