Shpirti i Shqiperisė
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1225 B.C.
Earliest known Illyrian king, Hyllus, died.

Fourth Century B.C.
King Bardhylus unites Illyria, Molossia (Epirus) and part of Macedonia. The Illyrian kingdom reaches its peak.

358 B.C.
Illyrians are defeated by Philip II of Macedonia.

312 B.C.
King Glauk of Illyria expels Greeks from Durrės.

232 B.C.
King Agron dies, the Illyrian throne is occupied by Queen Teuta.

165 B.C.
Romans capture King Gent of Illyria and send him to Rome. Illyria is now under Roman control.

First Century A.D.
Christianity comes to Illyrian populated areas.

9 A.D.
Emperor Tiberius of Rome subjugates the Illyrians and divides present day Albania between Dalmatia, Epirus, and Macedonia.

395 A.D.
Division of Roman Empire leaves lands presently inhabited by Albanians under the administration of the Eastern Empire.

Fourth Century - Seventh Century
Goths, Huns, Avars, Serbs, Croats, and Bulgars successively invade Illyrian lands.

Eighth Century
Slav tribes settle into the territories of present-day Slovenia, Bosnia, Croatia, Montenegro and Serbia, and assimilate the Illyrian populations of these regions. The Illyrians in the south avert assimilation.

Illyrians are subordinated to the patriarchate of Constantinople by the Byzantine Emperor, Leo the Isaurian.

Christianity divides into Catholic and Orthodox churches. Christians in southern Albania are left under the ecumenical patriarch of Constantinople and those in the north under the pope in Rome.

Albania and Albanians are mentioned for the first time in a historical record, by Byzantine emperor.

Twelfth Century
Serbs occupy parts of northern and eastern Albanian inhabited lands.

Venice wins control over most of Albania, but Byzantines regain control of the southern portion and establish the Despotate of Epirus.

Forces of the King of Naples occupy Durrės and establish the Kingdom of Arbėria, the first Albanian kingdom since the fall of Illyria.

Albanian ruler of Durrės invites Ottoman forces to intervene against a rival.

Albanians join Serbian-led Balkan army that is defeated by Ottoman forces at the Battle of Kosova.

Gjergj Kastrioti is born.

After losing a battle near Nis, Skenderbeg with a group of Albanian warriors defect from the Ottoman army and return to Kruja.

Albanian principalities unite at Lezha under Skenderbeg, who is proclaimed chief of Albanian resistance.

Albanians, under Skenderbeg, rout Ottoman forces under Sultan Murat II.

Skenderbeg died.

Kruja falls to Ottoman Turks; Shkodra falls a year later. Subsequently, many Albanians flee to southern Italy, Greece, Egypt, and elsewhere; many remaining are forced to convert to Islam. Early Seventeenth Century Some Albanians who convert to Islam find careers in Ottoman Empire's government and military.

Seventeenth Century and Eighteenth Century About two-thirds of Albanians convert to Islam.

Albanian leader Ali Pasha of Tepelena assassinated by Ottoman agents for promoting autonomy.

1000 Albanian leaders invited to meet with Ottoman general who kills about half of them. 1835 Ottoman Porte divides Albanian-populated lands into vilayets of Janina, Manastir, Shkodra, and Kosova with Ottoman administrators.

First school known to use Albanian language in modern times is open in Shkodra.

Treaty of San Stefano, signed after Russo-Turkish War, assigned Albanian-populated lands to Bulgaria, Montenegro and Serbia; but Austria-Hungary and Britain block the treaty's implementation. Albanian leaders meet in Prizren, Kosova, to form the League of Prizren. The League initially advocated autonomy for Albania. At the Congress of Berlin, the Great Powers overturn the Treaty of San Stefano and divide Albanian lands among several states. The League of Prizren begins to organize resistance to the Treaty of Berlin's provisions that affect Albanians.

Ottoman forces crush Albanian resistance fighters at Prizren. The League's leaders and families are arrested and deported.

Ottoman authorities disband a reactivated League of Prizren, execute its leader and ban Albanian language books.

Albanian intellectuals meet in Manastir (Bitolja, Macedonia), at the Congress of Manastir to standardize the Albanian alphabet using the Latin script. Up to now, Latin, Cyrillic and Arabic script had been used.

May. Albanians rise against the Ottoman authorities and seize Shkup (Skopje, Macedonia). October. First Balkan War begins, and Albanian leaders affirm Albania as an independent state.

November. Albanian delegates at Vlora declare the independence of Albania and establish a provisional government.

December. Ambassadorial conference opens in London and discusses Albania's fate.

Treaty of London ends First Balkan War, Second Balkan War begins November. Treaty of Bucharest ends Second Balkan War. Great Powers recognize an independent Albanian state. Demographics are ignored, however, and half of the territories inhabited by Albanians (such as Kosova and Chameria) are divided among Montenegro, Serbia and Greece.

Prince Wilhelm of Wied is installed as head of the Albanian state by the International Control Commission. His rule ended within six months, with the outbreak of World War I.

World War I ends, with Italian armies occupying most of Albania, and Serbian, Greek and French armies occupying the remainder. Italian and Yugoslav powers begin struggle for dominance over Albanians. In December, Albanian leaders meet at Durrės to discuss Albania's interests at the Paris Peace Conference.

Serbs attack Albanian cities; Albanians adopt guerilla warfare. Albania is denied official representation at the Paris Peace Conference; British, French and Greek negotiators decide to divide Albania among Greece, Italy and Yugoslavia. This decision is vetoed by American president Wilson.

January. Albanian leaders meet in Lushnjė and reject the partitioning of Albania by the Treaty of Paris, warn that Albanians will take up arms in defence of territory, and creates bicameral parliament.

February. Albanian government moves to Tirana, which becomes the capital.

September. Albania forces Italy to withdraw its troops and abandon claims on Albanian territory.

December. Albania is admitted to the League of Nations as sovereign and independent state.

November. Yugoslav troops invade Albania; League of Nations commission forces Yugoslav withdrawal and reaffirms Albania's 1913 borders.

December. Popular Party, led by Xhafer Ypi, forms government with Ahmet Zogu as minister of internal affairs. 1922 August. Ecumenical patriarch in Constantinople recognizes the Autochephalous Albanian Orthodox Church.

September. Ahmet Zogu assumes position as Prime Minister.

Albania's Sunni Muslims break ties with Constantinople and pledge primary allegiance to native country.

March.Zogu's party wins elections for National Assembly, but Zogu steps down after a financial scandal and a assassination attempt.

July. A peasant-backed insurgency wins control of Tirana; Fan S. Noli becomes Prime Minister; Zogu flees to Yugoslavia.

December. Zogu, backed by Yugoslav army, returns to power and begins to smother parliamentary democracy; Noli flees to Italy.

Italy and Albania sign First Treaty of Tirana, which guarantees Zogu's political position and Albania's boundaries.

Zogu pressures the parliament to dissolve itself, a new constituent assembly declares Albania a kingdom and Zogu becomes Zog I, "King of the Albanians."

Zog refuses to renew the First Treaty of Tirana. Italians continue with political and economic pressure.

After Albania signs trade agreements with Greece and Yugoslavia, Italy suspends economic support, then attempts to threaten Albania.

Mussolini presents a gift of 3,000,000 gold frances to Albania; other economic aid follows.

March. Mussolini delivers ultimatum to Albania.

April. Mussolini's troops invade and occupy Albania; Albanian parliament votes to unite Albania with Italy; Zog flees to Greece.

Italian army attacks Greece through Albania.

April. Germany, with support of Italy and other allies defeat Greece and Yugoslavia. October. Josip Broz Tito, Yugoslav communist leader, directs organizing of Albanian communists.

November. Albanian Communist Party founded; Enver Hoxha becomes first secretary.

September. Communist Party organizes National Liberation Movement, a popular front resistance organization.

October. Non-communist nationalist groups form to resist the Italian occupation.

August. Italy's surrender to Allied forces weakens Italian hold on Albania; Albanian resistance fighters overwhelm five Italian divisions. September. German forces invade and occupy Albania.

January. Communist Partisans, supplied with British weapons, gain control of southern Albania. May. Communists meet to organize an Albanian government; Hoxha becomes chairman of executive committee and supreme commander of the Army of National Liberation. July. Communist forces enter central and northern Albania. October. Communists establish provisional government with Hoxha as prime minister.

November. Germans withdraw from Tirana, communists enter capital.

December. Communist provisional government adopts laws allowing state regulation of commercial enterprises, foreign and domestic trade.

January. Communist provisional government agrees to restore Kosova to Yugoslavia as an autonomous region; Yugoslav leaders bring Kosova under marshal law. Tribunals begin in Albania to condemn thousands of "war criminals" and "enemies of the people" to death or prison. Communist regime begins to nationalize industry, transportation, forests, pastures.

December. Elections are held for the People's Assembly. Only members of the Democratic Front are permitted to participate.

People's Assembly proclaims Albania a "people's republic"; purges of non-communists from government positions begins. People's Assembly adopts new constitution. Enver Hoxha becomes prime minister, defense minister, foreign minister and commander-in-chief.

July. Treaty of friendship signed with Yugoslavia; Yugoslav advisors and grain begin pouring into Albania.

October. British destroyers hit mines off Albania's coast. The United Nations and the International Court of Justice condemn Albania.

Albanian Communist Party leaders vote to merge Albanian and Yugoslav economies and militaries. June. Cominform expels Yugoslavia; Albanian leaders launch anti-Yugoslav propaganda campaign, cut economic ties, and force Yugoslav advisors to leave. Later on the treaty of friendship with Yugoslavia is abrogated; Hoxha begins purging high-ranking party members accused of "Titoism"; Soviet Union begins economic aid to Albania.

November. Communist Party of Albania renames itself the Party of Labor of Albania.

Britain and United States insert anti-communist guerillas into Albania; all are unsuccessful. 1955 Albania becomes a founding member of the Warsaw Pact.

Albania sides with China on Sino-Soviet ideological dispute; consequently Soviet economic support is curtailed and Chinese aid is increased.

Soviet Union breaks diplomatic relations, Albania looks towards China for support.

Hoxha regime conducts violent campaign to extinguish religious life in Albania; by year's end over two thousand religious buildings were closed or converted to other uses. Albania is declared "the world's first atheist country," religious leaders are imprisoned and executed.

Albania condemns Soviet-led invasion of Czechoslovakia, subsequently Albania withdraws from Warsaw Pact.

New constitution adopted in Yugoslavia. Autonomous units, including Kosova, become constituent members of the federation.

New constitution adopted. Albania becomes a "people's socialist republic."

China terminates all economic and military aid to Albania.

Massive demonstrations occur in Kosova. Demonstrators demand Kosova become a republic in Yugoslavia. Yugoslav police and army presence is increased in Kosova.

Enver Hoxha died. Ramiz Alia is his successor.

Alia, addressing the Eighth Plenum of the Central Committee, signals that radical changes to the economic system are necessary. In Yugoslavia, a new constitution is adopted in Serbia, which limits the autonomy of Kosova. The constitution passes without the approval of the parliament of Kosova.

January. Demonstrations at Shkodra force authorities to declare a state of emergency. July. Young people demonstrate against regime in Tirana, 5,000 citizens seek refuge in foreign embassies. Albanian delegates of the parliament of Kosova declare the independence of Kosova from Serbia. Subsequently Serbia abolishes the parliament and government of Kosova, closes down the only Albanian daily, and takes over the state-owned television and radio. August. Government abandons its monopoly on foreign commerce and begins to open Albania to foreign trade.

December. University students demonstrate in streets and call for dictatorship to end; Alia meets with students; multiparty system introduced; the Democratic Party, the first opposition party is established; regime authorizes political pluralism.

January. First opposition newspaper Rilindja Demokratike begins publishing.

March-April. First multiparty elections held since the 1920s; Labor Party wins over 67 percent of votes, Democratic Party wins around 30 percent.

April. Alia reelected to President. Assembly passes law on Major Constitutional Provisions which provides for fundamental human rights and separation of powers and invalidates the 1976 constitution.

June. Prime Minister Fatos Nano and rest of cabinet resign after trade unions call for general strike to protest worsening economic conditions and killing of opposition demonstrators in Shkodra. Party of Labor renamed to Socialist Party of Albania. Albania accepted as a full member of the CSCE. August. 18,000 Albanians cross the Adriatic to seek asylum in Italy; most are returned. People's Assembly passes law allowing private ownership, foreign investment and private employment of workers.

September. A referendum is held in Kosova. Over 90 percent of voters vote for independence. December. Democratic Party withdraws ministers after accusing communists of blocking reform. Alia sets up new government headed by Vilson Ahmeti and sets March 1992 for new elections.

March. Democratic Party scores decisive election victory over the Socialist Party in the midst of economic freefall and social chaos. Elections are held in Kosova; the Democratic League of Kosova wins the majority of votes; the elections are called illegal by the Serbian regime. April. Sali Berisha, leader of the Democratic Party, becomes first democratically elected president. September. Former President Alia and eighteen other former communist officials, including Nexhmije Hoxha, wife of late dictator Hoxha, arrested and charged with corruption and other offenses.











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