known Illyrian king, Hyllus, died.
Fourth Century B.C.
Bardhylus unites Illyria, Molossia (Epirus) and part of Macedonia. The
Illyrian kingdom reaches its peak.
are defeated by Philip II of Macedonia.
Glauk of Illyria expels Greeks from Durrės.
Agron dies, the Illyrian throne is occupied by Queen Teuta.
capture King Gent of Illyria and send him to Rome. Illyria is now under
First Century A.D.
comes to Illyrian populated areas.
Tiberius of Rome subjugates the Illyrians and divides present day Albania
between Dalmatia, Epirus, and Macedonia.
of Roman Empire leaves lands presently inhabited by Albanians under the
administration of the Eastern Empire.
Fourth Century - Seventh
Goths, Huns, Avars, Serbs,
Croats, and Bulgars successively invade Illyrian lands.
tribes settle into the territories of present-day Slovenia, Bosnia, Croatia,
Montenegro and Serbia, and assimilate the Illyrian populations of these
regions. The Illyrians in the south avert assimilation.
are subordinated to the patriarchate of Constantinople by the Byzantine
Emperor, Leo the Isaurian.
divides into Catholic and Orthodox churches. Christians in southern Albania
are left under the ecumenical patriarch of Constantinople and those in
the north under the pope in Rome.
and Albanians are mentioned for the first time in a historical record,
by Byzantine emperor.
occupy parts of northern and eastern Albanian inhabited lands.
wins control over most of Albania, but Byzantines regain control of the
southern portion and establish the Despotate of Epirus.
of the King of Naples occupy Durrės and establish the Kingdom of Arbėria,
the first Albanian kingdom since the fall of Illyria.
ruler of Durrės invites Ottoman forces to intervene against a rival.
join Serbian-led Balkan army that is defeated by Ottoman forces at the
Battle of Kosova.
Kastrioti is born.
losing a battle near Nis, Skenderbeg with a group of Albanian warriors
defect from the Ottoman army and return to Kruja.
principalities unite at Lezha under Skenderbeg, who is proclaimed chief
of Albanian resistance.
under Skenderbeg, rout Ottoman forces under Sultan Murat II.
falls to Ottoman Turks; Shkodra falls a year later. Subsequently, many
Albanians flee to southern Italy, Greece, Egypt, and elsewhere; many remaining
are forced to convert to Islam. Early Seventeenth Century Some Albanians
who convert to Islam find careers in Ottoman Empire's government and military.
Seventeenth Century and
Eighteenth Century About two-thirds of Albanians convert to Islam.
leader Ali Pasha of Tepelena assassinated by Ottoman agents for promoting
1000 Albanian leaders invited to meet with Ottoman general who kills about
half of them. 1835 Ottoman Porte divides Albanian-populated lands into
vilayets of Janina, Manastir, Shkodra, and Kosova with Ottoman administrators.
First school known to use Albanian language in modern times is open in
Treaty of San Stefano, signed after Russo-Turkish War, assigned Albanian-populated
lands to Bulgaria, Montenegro and Serbia; but Austria-Hungary and Britain
block the treaty's implementation. Albanian leaders meet in Prizren, Kosova,
to form the League of Prizren. The League initially advocated autonomy
for Albania. At the Congress of Berlin, the Great Powers overturn the
Treaty of San Stefano and divide Albanian lands among several states.
The League of Prizren begins to organize resistance to the Treaty of Berlin's
provisions that affect Albanians.
Ottoman forces crush Albanian resistance fighters at Prizren. The League's
leaders and families are arrested and deported.
Ottoman authorities disband a reactivated League of Prizren, execute its
leader and ban Albanian language books.
Albanian intellectuals meet in Manastir (Bitolja, Macedonia), at the Congress
of Manastir to standardize the Albanian alphabet using the Latin script.
Up to now, Latin, Cyrillic and Arabic script had been used.
May. Albanians rise against the
Ottoman authorities and seize Shkup (Skopje, Macedonia). October. First
Balkan War begins, and Albanian leaders affirm Albania as an independent
delegates at Vlora declare the independence of Albania and establish a
conference opens in London and discusses Albania's fate.
May. Treaty of London ends
First Balkan War, Second Balkan War begins November. Treaty of Bucharest
ends Second Balkan War. Great Powers recognize an independent Albanian
state. Demographics are ignored, however, and half of the territories
inhabited by Albanians (such as Kosova and Chameria) are divided among
Montenegro, Serbia and Greece.
Prince Wilhelm of Wied is installed as head of the Albanian state by the
International Control Commission. His rule ended within six months, with
the outbreak of World War I.
World War I ends, with Italian armies occupying most of Albania, and Serbian,
Greek and French armies occupying the remainder. Italian and Yugoslav
powers begin struggle for dominance over Albanians. In December, Albanian
leaders meet at Durrės to discuss Albania's interests at the Paris Peace
Serbs attack Albanian cities; Albanians adopt guerilla warfare. Albania
is denied official representation at the Paris Peace Conference; British,
French and Greek negotiators decide to divide Albania among Greece, Italy
and Yugoslavia. This decision is vetoed by American president Wilson.
January. Albanian leaders meet in Lushnjė and reject the partitioning
of Albania by the Treaty of Paris, warn that Albanians will take up arms
in defence of territory, and creates bicameral parliament.
government moves to Tirana, which becomes the capital.
forces Italy to withdraw its troops and abandon claims on Albanian territory.
is admitted to the League of Nations as sovereign and independent state.
November. Yugoslav troops invade Albania; League of Nations commission
forces Yugoslav withdrawal and reaffirms Albania's 1913 borders.
Party, led by Xhafer Ypi, forms government with Ahmet Zogu as minister
of internal affairs. 1922 August. Ecumenical patriarch in Constantinople
recognizes the Autochephalous Albanian Orthodox Church.
Zogu assumes position as Prime Minister.
Albania's Sunni Muslims break ties with Constantinople and pledge primary
allegiance to native country.
March.Zogu's party wins elections for National Assembly, but Zogu
steps down after a financial scandal and a assassination attempt.
July. A peasant-backed
insurgency wins control of Tirana; Fan S. Noli becomes Prime Minister;
Zogu flees to Yugoslavia.
backed by Yugoslav army, returns to power and begins to smother parliamentary
democracy; Noli flees to Italy.
Italy and Albania sign First Treaty of Tirana, which guarantees Zogu's
political position and Albania's boundaries.
Zogu pressures the parliament to dissolve itself, a new constituent assembly
declares Albania a kingdom and Zogu becomes Zog I, "King of the Albanians."
Zog refuses to renew the First Treaty of Tirana. Italians continue with
political and economic pressure.
After Albania signs trade agreements with Greece and Yugoslavia, Italy
suspends economic support, then attempts to threaten Albania.
Mussolini presents a gift of 3,000,000 gold frances to Albania; other
economic aid follows.
March. Mussolini delivers ultimatum to Albania.
troops invade and occupy Albania; Albanian parliament votes to unite Albania
with Italy; Zog flees to Greece.
Italian army attacks Greece through Albania.
April. Germany, with support of Italy and other allies defeat Greece
and Yugoslavia. October. Josip Broz Tito, Yugoslav communist leader, directs
organizing of Albanian communists.
Communist Party founded; Enver Hoxha becomes first secretary.
September. Communist Party organizes National Liberation Movement,
a popular front resistance organization.
nationalist groups form to resist the Italian occupation.
August. Italy's surrender to Allied forces weakens Italian hold
on Albania; Albanian resistance fighters overwhelm five Italian divisions.
September. German forces invade and occupy Albania.
January. Communist Partisans, supplied with British weapons, gain
control of southern Albania. May. Communists meet to organize an Albanian
government; Hoxha becomes chairman of executive committee and supreme
commander of the Army of National Liberation. July. Communist forces enter
central and northern Albania. October. Communists establish provisional
government with Hoxha as prime minister.
withdraw from Tirana, communists enter capital.
provisional government adopts laws allowing state regulation of commercial
enterprises, foreign and domestic trade.
January. Communist provisional government agrees to restore Kosova
to Yugoslavia as an autonomous region; Yugoslav leaders bring Kosova under
marshal law. Tribunals begin in Albania to condemn thousands of "war criminals"
and "enemies of the people" to death or prison. Communist regime begins
to nationalize industry, transportation, forests, pastures.
are held for the People's Assembly. Only members of the Democratic Front
are permitted to participate.
People's Assembly proclaims Albania
a "people's republic"; purges of non-communists from government positions
begins. People's Assembly adopts new constitution. Enver Hoxha becomes
prime minister, defense minister, foreign minister and commander-in-chief.
July. Treaty of
friendship signed with Yugoslavia; Yugoslav advisors and grain begin pouring
destroyers hit mines off Albania's coast. The United Nations and the International
Court of Justice condemn Albania.
Albanian Communist Party leaders vote to merge Albanian and Yugoslav economies
and militaries. June. Cominform expels Yugoslavia; Albanian leaders launch
anti-Yugoslav propaganda campaign, cut economic ties, and force Yugoslav
advisors to leave. Later on the treaty of friendship with Yugoslavia is
abrogated; Hoxha begins purging high-ranking party members accused of
"Titoism"; Soviet Union begins economic aid to Albania.
Party of Albania renames itself the Party of Labor of Albania.
Britain and United States insert anti-communist guerillas into Albania;
all are unsuccessful. 1955 Albania becomes a founding member of the Warsaw
Albania sides with China on Sino-Soviet ideological dispute; consequently
Soviet economic support is curtailed and Chinese aid is increased.
Soviet Union breaks diplomatic relations, Albania looks towards China
Hoxha regime conducts violent campaign to extinguish religious life in
Albania; by year's end over two thousand religious buildings were closed
or converted to other uses. Albania is declared "the world's first atheist
country," religious leaders are imprisoned and executed.
Albania condemns Soviet-led invasion of Czechoslovakia, subsequently Albania
withdraws from Warsaw Pact.
New constitution adopted in Yugoslavia. Autonomous units, including Kosova,
become constituent members of the federation.
New constitution adopted. Albania becomes a "people's socialist republic."
China terminates all economic and military aid to Albania.
Massive demonstrations occur in Kosova. Demonstrators demand Kosova become
a republic in Yugoslavia. Yugoslav police and army presence is increased
Hoxha died. Ramiz Alia is his successor.
Alia, addressing the Eighth Plenum of the Central Committee, signals that
radical changes to the economic system are necessary. In Yugoslavia, a
new constitution is adopted in Serbia, which limits the autonomy of Kosova.
The constitution passes without the approval of the parliament of Kosova.
January. Demonstrations at Shkodra force authorities to declare
a state of emergency. July. Young people demonstrate against regime in
Tirana, 5,000 citizens seek refuge in foreign embassies. Albanian delegates
of the parliament of Kosova declare the independence of Kosova from Serbia.
Subsequently Serbia abolishes the parliament and government of Kosova,
closes down the only Albanian daily, and takes over the state-owned television
and radio. August. Government abandons its monopoly on foreign commerce
and begins to open Albania to foreign trade.
students demonstrate in streets and call for dictatorship to end; Alia
meets with students; multiparty system introduced; the Democratic Party,
the first opposition party is established; regime authorizes political
January. First opposition newspaper Rilindja Demokratike begins
multiparty elections held since the 1920s; Labor Party wins over 67 percent
of votes, Democratic Party wins around 30 percent.
April. Alia reelected
to President. Assembly passes law on Major Constitutional Provisions which
provides for fundamental human rights and separation of powers and invalidates
the 1976 constitution.
June. Prime Minister
Fatos Nano and rest of cabinet resign after trade unions call for general
strike to protest worsening economic conditions and killing of opposition
demonstrators in Shkodra. Party of Labor renamed to Socialist Party of
Albania. Albania accepted as a full member of the CSCE. August. 18,000
Albanians cross the Adriatic to seek asylum in Italy; most are returned.
People's Assembly passes law allowing private ownership, foreign investment
and private employment of workers.
September. A referendum
is held in Kosova. Over 90 percent of voters vote for independence. December.
Democratic Party withdraws ministers after accusing communists of blocking
reform. Alia sets up new government headed by Vilson Ahmeti and sets March
1992 for new elections.
March. Democratic Party scores decisive election victory over the
Socialist Party in the midst of economic freefall and social chaos. Elections
are held in Kosova; the Democratic League of Kosova wins the majority
of votes; the elections are called illegal by the Serbian regime. April.
Sali Berisha, leader of the Democratic Party, becomes first democratically
elected president. September. Former President Alia and eighteen other
former communist officials, including Nexhmije Hoxha, wife of late dictator
Hoxha, arrested and charged with corruption and other offenses.