Signs before the Day of Judgment























5 Phases of Muslim Rule  



Hudhayfah bin Al-Yaman reported that the Messenger of Allah sallalluhu 'alayhi wa sallam said,


"Prophethood (meaning himself) will remain with you for as long as Allah wills it to remain, then Allah will raise it up whenever he wills to raise it up. Afterwards, there will be a Caliphate that follows the guidance of Prophethood remaining with you for as long as Allah wills it to remain. Then, he will raise it up whenever He wills to raise it up. Afterwards, there will be a reign of oppressive (The reign of Muslim kings who are partially unjust) rule and it will remain with you for as long as Allah wills it to remain. Then, there will be a reign of tyrannical rule and it will remain for as long as Allah wills it to remain. Then, Allah will raise it up whenever He wills to raise it up. Then, there will be a Caliphate that follows the guidance of Prophethood."  

Then Hudhayfah said, "The Prophet stopped speaking."


(As-Sililah As Sahihah, vol. 1, no. 5. The same hadith without any change of a word is also narrated by Hadrat Nauman Ibn-e-Basheer Radiyallaho Anhu in Musnad-e-Ahmad Ibn-e-Hanbal.)


Note: The 5th phase of Muslim rule, the Caliphate that follows the tyrannical rule, refers to the Mahdi. This is established by the fact that that other hadeeths, which we shall later see, state that the Mahdi would fill the Earth with equity and justice, as it was once filled with tyranny, oppression, and injustice. The rule of "tyranny, oppression, and injustice" is consistent with the 4th phase of "tyrannical rule", mentioned in this hadeeth.



The Prophet declared:

"This affair began with Prophethood and as a mercy; then it will be mercy and Caliphate; afterwards it will change into a cruel monarchy, and finally into an iniquity and tyranny." He also prophesied: "Surely, the Caliphate after me will last thirty years; afterwards it will be a cruel monarchy."


(Abu Dawud, At‘ıma, 11; Tirmidhi, At‘ıma, 39; I. Hanbal, 5.441.)


Note: In the above narration, it states that the Caliphate lasted 30 years after the death of the Prophet, which it did. It was followed by the rule of Mu'awiyah, which is the monarchy mentioned in the above hadeeth. 



Narrated by Jabir bin Samurah,


The Prophet (peace be upon him) said: "The religion will continue to be established till there are 12 caliphs over you, and the whole community will agree on each of them." I then heard from the Prophet (peace be upon him) some remarks, which I could not understand. I asked my father: What is he saying: He said: "all of them will belong to Quraysh."


(Sunan of Abu-Dawud, No. 4266)


Note: The Prophet died in 632 CE. Abu Bakr was the 1st Caliph, and he ruled for 2 years, until 634 CE, when he died. Following that was the 2nd Caliph, 'Umarbin al-Khattab, and he ruled for 10 years, until 644 CE, when he was martyred. Then there was the 3rd Caliph 'Uthman, who ruled for 12 years, until 656 CE, when he too was martyred. After that, was the 4th Caliph 'Ali bin Abu Talib, who ruled for 5 years, until 661 CE, when he was also martyred. Finally, his son, the 5th Caliph Hasanbin 'Ali, ruled for 6 months, and then was abdicated. On the Gregorian calendar, it comes to 29 years, while on the Islamic calendar it comes, as the Prophet had prophecied, to 30 years. So in a 30 year period, we had 5 Caliphs. That Caliphate is known as the Rashidun Caliphate. Then of course we had the partially unjust rule of monarchies, sultanates, etc. in the form of the Umayyads, the 'Abbasids, and the Ottomans, which lasted from 661 to 1924 (or 1908, depending on whose opinion you subsribe to), which means that period lasted for 1247-1263 years on the Gregorian calendar. Now, we're in the period of tyrannical, oppressive dictators, which started when the Ottoman Sultanate ended, and continues until this day. This period of tyranny, oppression and injustice, at the hands of the corrupt dictators, would come to an end, by Allah's will, at the hands of the Mahdi, who would replace it with a revived Rashidun Caliphate. 

Going by that, we'd only have 6 Caliphs from the Quraysh, which would thus mean the remaining 6 must've come from among the monarchic, and sultanate Caliphates, if the Mahdi is going to be the last Caliph that comes/descends from the Quraysh tribe. The hadeeth, as we shall see later, the authority of the Quraysh would be taken away, with the return of the Messiah, 'Eyssa ("Jesus"),bin Maryam, which occurs during the rule of the Mahdi. In this case, the 12 Caliphs, are not going to necessarily be actual "Caliphs", but simply put, 12 rulers, from among the Quraysh, that the whole Ummah (Muslim community) agreed upon.


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World Wars


A hadith reported by Hadhrat 'Ali, Abu Hurayrah and Ibn Abbas states:


"The war of the end of time is the war of the world. There will be a third war after two great wars in which many are killed. He who will light the fires of the second world war will be known as the 'Great Leader.'..."


(Al- Mahdi-ul Munthazar, Asmal Masalik Lieyyam Mahdiyy Maliki Li Kull-id Dunya Biemrillah-il Malik, Qalda bin Zayd, p. 216)


Note: As is quite evident from the hadeeth, there will be two major world wars in the end times. The world wars in the first half of the 20th century were indeed two of the most momentous events in history. Again as revealed in the hadeeth, Hitler, who started the Second World War and virtually declared war on the whole world, was known as the 'Führer,' meaning 'leader, guide, commander.' Under National Socialism, this word took on a new significance: the Führer was the 'undisputed leader,' or even the 'deified leader.' The German people regarded Hitler, who initiated World War II, as the 'undisputed and great leader.'



Narrated by Abu Hurayrah (?):


"...1300 years after the Hijra, count a few decades. At that time, the Greek King wants to wage a war against the entire world. Meanwhile, Allah commands the war for that man. ..." 


Note: In this part of the narration, the expression, “the Greek King wants to wage a war against the entire world” calls attention to a great war that will spread all the world. The Arabic word for the “decades” is “ukud”, the plural form of the Arabic word “akd”, which implies the meaning of “at least three.” In this case, when we add three decades to the 1300 of the Hijra, we have 1330. the First World War started in 1332 of the Hijra, that is 1914, the Gregorian calendar. 



"...A short while later, that is, in two decades, a man whose name is associated with a cat name from the German lands, appears as a scourge on the Romans. He starts to bother people and wants to hold control over the world. He wages war against the entire world, both the warm and cold lands. After years filled with severe war fires, he meets Allah's punishment. Then, he is killed as the Russian's mystery..."

(Asmal Masalik Lieyyam Mahdiyy Maliki Li Kull-id Dunya Biemrillah-il Malik ("The Best ways to know the time of the Mahdi, King of the World, by Allah's command"), Qalda bin Zayd, p. 216)

Note: In this part of the narration, it calls attention to the occurences due to appear after a great world war. According to the narration, two decades after this great world war, a German will appear with the will to reign all over the world. Indeed, the Second World War started twenty years after the First World War, with Hitler’s invasion. Just as how the hadith informs, the war raged throughout the Scandinavian lands as well as the North African countries.


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Battles in Mina


“People pay pilgrimage without an Imam leading them. Big wars break out when they come down to Mina and they are entwined just the way dogs entwine and tribes will attack each other. It is to such an extent that legs are buried in lakes of blood."


(Kitab-ul Burhan Fi Alameti-il Mehdiyy-il Ahir Zaman, p. 35)


Note: This can be compared to the killing of 30 people during the clashes between Saudi soldiers and attacking militants during the raid, which happened just inside Beyt-ül Muazzama (Ka’bah) on 1 Muharram (First Month of the Islamic Calendar) 1400.  


"There come the cries of war in Shawwall with the outbreak of a war and massacre and carnage in Zilhijjee and again the plundering of pilgrims in Zilhijje and streets are even not possible to cross because of blood shed and religious prohibitions are violated. Big sins are committed near Beyt-ül Muazzam (Ka’bah)."


(Kitab-ul Burhan Fi Alameti-il Mehdiyy-il Ahir Zaman, p. 37)


Note: This can be compared to the incidents occurring in the month of Zilhijjee (12th month of the Islamic Calendar) in 1407 (Pilgrimage Season), which actually took place near the Ka’bah.


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Conflicts  in the Middle East



"Another of the portents of the coming of the Mahdi is the killing of a senior member of the Hashimites."


(Resalatul huruj ul-mahdi, p. 12)


Note: Jordan is known as the Hashimite kingdom. After the Ottoman Empire it came under British control. Great Britain recognized Jordanian independence in 1946, as part of the Treaty of London. The monarchy was given to Abdullah, head of the principality of Jordan. King Abdullah was later killed by the British, in 1951. Thus the incident indicated in the hadith came to pass.



"The inhabitants of Egypt and Sham will kill their ruler and his commands..."

(Ibn Hajar al-Haythami, Al-Qawl al-Mukhtasar fi `Alamat al-Mahdi al-Muntazar, p. 49)


Note: This hadith draws attention to the fact that the rulers of Damascus and Egypt will be killed before the coming of the Mahdi.

When we examine Egypt's recent history, we see that a ruler was killed: Anwar al-Sadat, who ruled Egypt from 1970-81, was killed by his opponents during a military review in 1981. Other Egyptian leaders who have been killed include Prime Ministers Boutros Ghali (1910), and Mahmoud Nukrashy Pasha (1948). 

Many leaders have been killed in the region of Sham (left of Hijaz), among them former Syrian prime ministers Salah al-Deen Beetar (1920), Droubi Pasha (1921), and Muhsin al-Barazi (1949), King Abdullah of Jordan (1951), and Lebanese Phalange leader Bashir Gemayel (1982).



Reported on a chain of transmission on the authority of Kaab:


"The sign of the Mahdi's appearance will be war banners coming from the west, lead by Kindi(te) al-A'raj (a man with a disability from 'Kinda')"


(Nu'aym bin Hammad, Al-Fitan page 205)


Note: Genreral Richard Meyers, commander of the US Joint chiefs of staff decalared the war on Afghanistan in October 2001 on crutches.



Iran-Iraq War


"A nation / tribe will be coming forth from the Farsi direction, saying : "You Arabs ! You have been too zealous! If you don't give them their due rights, nobody will have alliance with you… It must be given to them one day and to you the following day and mutual promises must be kept…" They will be going up Mutekh ; Muslims will be coming down to the plain… Mushrikun will be standing over there on the bank of a black river called (Rakabeh) on the other side. There will be a war between them. Allah will deprive both armies of a victory…"


(Signs of the Judgment Day, Al Barzeenji, p. 179)




- those coming from the Farsi direction -- those coming from the Iranian side

- Farsi -- Iran, Iranian (Grand Dictionary)

- Coming down to the plain -- Plain, Iranian Plain

- Mutekh -- Name of a mountain in the region

- Rakabeh -- Region where oil wells are concentrated

This hadith draws attention that a racial dispute would break out. Because of this dispute, the sides come down to the plain (Iranian Plain) and then, a war gets under way. Further, as noted by the hadith, the Iran - Iraq war lasted for 8 years and despite thousands of casualties were inflicted, no result was forthcoming for both sides. None of both sides could have a decisive superiority.



"There will be a city called Zawra [Baghdad] between the Tigris and the Euphrates. There will be a great battle there. Women will be taken prisoner, and men will have their throats cut like sheep."


(Muntakhab Kanz al-`Ummal, vol. 5, p. 38)

Note: This hadeeth is also likely referring to the Iran-Iraq war, in which this happened.


Arab-Israeli Wars, Peace Talks and the Gulf War


Narrated by Abu Hurayrah (?):

"... Count five or six or seven or eight decades after 1300 of Hijra. At that time, a man called "Nasser" rules Egypt. Arabs call him "succa-ul Arab", the "brave of the Arabs." Allah despises him twice, once in a war, and then in another one. That "Nasser" can never attain victory. ..." 


Note: The date related in this particular hadith is around 1350 and 1380 Hijra. This is the time Gamal Abdul-Nasser came to power in Egypt. In 1952, Abdul-Nasser came to power and led the movement of Arab Nationalism. During the period of Nasser, two wars erupted between Arabs and Israelis and in both cases Arabs were defeated. 



"...Upon this, Allah, the Lord of the House, makes a dark-colored person, whose father is more enlightened than himself, the leader of the Egyptian people and the Arab nation. But, he makes an agreement with the thieves of the Masjid al-Aqsa. ... "


Note: Continuing with the hadith, it now calls attention to Anwar Sadat's holding power. One of the most telling turning points of Anwar Sadat's time is the Arab-Israel peace talks, to which the hadith draws our attention. As the hadith reveals, the lands of Masjid al-Aqsa in not under the Muslim control and the leader of Egypt makes peace talks with the country who possesses control over Masjid al-Aqsa. It is possible that this hadith implies the Arab-Israel peace talks made in Camp David in 1978 and 1979.



"...Then a cruel man appears in Iraq, which is located in the Damascus region. This man, with a slight injury in his eye, is a Sufyaan. His name comes from confrontation (Saddam), and he is confrontational against his opponents. All the world gathers for him in small Kut, the region to which he came previously because he was deceived. There is no good in that Sufyaani except with Islam and he is both good and bad.....and woe to he who betrays the trustworthy Mahdi. ..."


(Asmal Masalik Lieyyam Mahdiyy Maliki Li Kull-id Dunya Biemrillah-il Malik, Qalda bin Zayd, p. 216)


Note: In the final part of the hadith, it now calls attention to a saddam person who will emerge from Iraq. The dictionary meaning of saddam is "the one who strikes violently, assaultive" it is informed that this person will invade Kut, one of the names given to the region that also includes Kuwait. Saddam Hussein was a dictator notorious with the violence he exercised against his people during his reign. He invaded Kuwait in 1991 and this invasion became the main rea bin the Gulf War I.



‘The Messenger of God said: “The Banu al-Asfar (the Byzantines) and the Franks will gather together in the wasteland with Egypt against a man whose name is Sadim (Saddam)-- none of them will return.” They said: “When, O Messenger of God?” He said: “Between the months of Jumada and Rajab, and you see an amazing thing come of it”.’


(The origin of the "hadeeth" (it is probably a spurious rephrase of some classical material) is the Palestinian newspaper "al-Nahar" from Dec. 15, 1990.)


Note: This is obviously making reference to the Gulf War.



Sanctions on Iraq and Syria


Abu Nadhrah says:


"We were sitting in the company of Jabirbin Abdullah when he said: 'Soon the people of Iraq will neither receive/give any food (grain) nor any money.'" We asked, "Why would such a thing happen?" He replied, "Because of the non-Arabs." He then said: "Soon the people of (Syria) will neither receive/give any money nor grain." We asked as to why this would happen. He replied: "Because of the Romans." He (Jabir) kept quiet for a while and then reported Allah's Messenger (peace be upon him) having said, "There would be a caliph in the last (period) of my Ummah who would freely give handfuls of wealth to the people without counting it." I said to Abu Nadhrah and Abu al-'Ala: "Do you mean 'Umar 'Abd al-Aziz?" They said: "No (he would be Imam Mahdi.)."


(Sahih Muslim, Book 41, No. 6961, At-Taj, Ali Nâsif al-Hussein)

Note: The Romans do indeed prevent food from going into Iraq, in the form of "sanctions" to this day, which started after the Gulf War. Also it says Syria would also suffer the same fate, as the United States has threatened to (if it hasn't already) put sanctions on them. The next event, in this hadith, would be for the Mahdi to give handfuls of wealth to people without counting it.



"The Iraqis will be left with no weighing equipment, and no money will be left to them with which to buy and sell."


(Muntakhab Kanz al-`Ummaal, vol. 5, p. 45)


Note: This hadith may indicate two situations: 

1) Iraq's economic collapse after the Iran-Iraq and the Gulf wars. The Iraqi economy, faced with such crises, could not recover in the post-war period due to the embargos imposed by America and the UN. The Iraqi people grew even poorer, and poverty became a major problem.

2) It might refer to abolishing the Iraqi currency in the post-war era. With the last war, the rapid loss of the Iraqi currency's value and the possibility of its being withdrawn from circulation appeared in the newspapers during 2003.



Israeli-Palestinian Conflict


Ibn Hajr Al-'Asqalani related that Abu Idris Al- Khaulani heard from Nahik bin Surim Al-Sakuni that the Messenger of Allah; Muhammad said:


"You will fight the unbelievers until the remnant of you fights on the River Jordan, you to the east of it and they to the west of it." Al-Saukuni said that he did not know where on earth the Jordan was at that time."


(Musnad Ahmad)


Note: Glory be to God! What are the odds that a State of Israel will arise and have as its Eastern border the very dividing line of the River Jordan that the Prophet said would be the demarcation line between the Muslim armies and the Judeo-Christian armies! This is a prophecy fulfilled indeed!  



Abu Hurayrah said,


"The Prophet said, 'The Last Hour would not come unless the Muslims will fight against the Jews and the Muslims would kill them until the Jews would hide themselves behind a stone or a tree and a stone or a tree would say: Muslim, or the servant of Allah, there is a Jew behind me; come and kill him; but the tree Gharqad would not say, for it is the tree of the Jews.'"


(Bukhari, Kitab al-Jana'iz, 2/124. Muslim, Kitab al-Masajid, 2/93)  

Note: There is a report that at about 8:30 a.m., Sunday, a day after the invasion of Israeli troops in Ramallah ended, three Palestinian youths went out to search for survivors after the air raid, which was launched by the Israelis. While searching, they saw a Jew standing on top of a wall.

The three youths decided to kill the Jew. When they tried to approach the Jew, the Jew ran away. They chased the Jew, but the Jew managed to escape. Disappointed, they decided to go home when suddenly they heard a voice calling them. They thought that it was their imagination when they failed to find where the voice was coming from. When they couldn't find where the voice was coming from, they decided to continue their journey back home. Suddenly, for the second time, they heard a voice repeatedly calling them. They realized that the voice came from the nearby trees. They thought that the voice asking for help was the voice of a survivor who had survived the air raid. When they went to the trees, they heard a voice calling on them to find and kill a Jew hiding behind the trees. When they searched behind the trees, they shockingly found the Jew that they were chasing earlier. They killed the Jew. After that they decided to go to a nearby hospital, and reported the incident to the staffs of the hospital.

Within a few hours, the news spread throughout the whole of Ramallah and the Jews who were confused, and were still searching for the cause of death of the Jew. This incident injected fear into the hearts of the Israeli troops. They responded by pulling out many of their troops...



"And war in a country smaller than the end bone of the spinal cord, the World will gather for its sake, as if it is the richest nation in the world for which the world has gathered to feast around. Its leader will surrender the banner to the leader of all Evil, which will come from the furthest Western shores, then the beginning of the end as it wails to all the world to come to its aid. The leader will regain his throne and Iraq will be destroyed in the confrontation at the end of time. The leader of the tiny nation will fight the Army of the Mahdi, and the same tiny nation is again threatened with destruction because its leader is the cause of its corruption....the Mahdi orders his execution and the small bone returns to the main body again".


(Asmal Masalik Lieyyam Mahdiyy Maliki Li Kull-id Dunya Biemrillah-il Malik, Qalda bin Zayd)


Note: The tiny nation mentioned in this hadeeth, can be said to be Israel, as it is the smallest country in the region. The "war" mentioned can be said to be referring to the Israeli-Palestinian conflict, which either is, or is eventually going to be, a war. During this conflict, according to this hadeeth,, the leader of this "small country" will surrender the banner to another leader, coming from the furthest of western shores. The furthest west you can go is the United States. The banner here is obviously referring to the banner of war, and the surrendering of it to the "leader of all evil", thus means, he is letting the "leader of all evil" take charge of the situation. Then, the country would cry out to the rest of the world to come to its aid, and as it does, the leader would regain his power, and Iraq would be destroyed in this war.

The "army of the Mahdi" mentioned here, is referring to the army, carrying black flags, that comes from the east, from what is today known as Afghanistan, as is mentioned in another hadeeth, which we shall see later. The (...) indicates obscured text. At some point, the Mahdi orders the execution of the leader of this leader, and Israel, returns to being part of the Islamic state again.



Iraq War


"Baghdad is destroyed by fire in the End Times..."


(Resaletul Huruj ul-Mahdi, vol. 3, p. 177)


Note: During the Second Gulf War in 2003, from the very first day Baghdad was the target of a very intensive bombing campaign. Under heavy bombardment, Baghdad burned in flames, just as the hadeeth said it would.



'Doomsday will not come until Iraq is attacked and innocent people in Iraq will seek shelter in (Syria). (Syria) will be reconstructed and Iraq will be reconstructed.'


(Muntakhab Kanzul Ummal, vol. 5 p. 254)


Note: Immediately before the outbreak of the latest Iraq war in 2003, tens of thousands of Iraqis sought to migrate to other countries, especially Syria. This bears a great similarity to the event described in the hadith. News and pictures about this attempted migration appeared in the media.



"The people of Kufa will be divided into three parts. One part will join the Sufyaani army. These are the most wicked people Allah created. Another group will wage war against them, and these people are the honorable servants of Allah. Another part will join the pillagers, and they are sinners."


(An-Najmu's Sakib Fi Beyanı Anna'l Mahdi Min Evlad Ali B. Abu Thalib)



According to the Prophet, "The people of Iraq will be divided into three groups. One part will join the looters. One group will flee, leaving their families behind. And one group will fight and kill. Prepare yourselves for Doomsday when you see this."


(Fera Idu Fevaidi'l Fiqr Fi'l Imam al-Mahdi al-Muntadhar)


Note: Although these narrations are similar, they have some differences. The differences are of who comprises what group. This may be due to the individual who narrated, or it may be that they are referring to 2 different events, the Gulf War and the Iraq War. The first hadeeth would apply to Gulf War, and the Sufyaani army would be Saddam Hussein's army. Since no Iraqis fled, there would've been no need to include them as a separate group. The second narration makes no mention of Saddam Hussein's army, as it was destroyed during the Iraq war. On the other hand it draws attention to the ones who flee, seeking shelter in (Syria), before and during the invasion of Iraq.

On the other hand, these two hadeeths may be referring to the same event, and was just misquoted on the part of one of the narrators, who narrated it from the Prophet.

During the Iraq war, some Iraqis took advantage of the loss of authority and engaged in looting. They comprise the "looting and pillaging" group, mentioned in both narrations. 

Some Iraqis fled, or attempted to flee Iraq for (Syria), as mentioned earlier. These people comprise the group that flees, leaving their families behind. The first narration makes no mention of them as one of the 3 groups, while the 2nd does.

The last two groups we have are those who join the Sufyaani army, and those who fight them. These are in fact generalized as in the second narration, as one group, as those who "fight and kill". In this case, we could say the Sufyaani army are those who kill, and those that fight them are those that fight.



Iraq , Syria, Egypt and the Arabian Peninsula


‘Ali bin Abu Talib narrated that the Prophet  (upon whom be blessings and peace) said:


“If you see the black flags, then remain on the ground and do not move a hand or a leg. A group of weaklings will appear. No one cares for them. Their hearts are like iron. They are the owners of the state (dawla). They fulfill neither a contract nor a covenant. They call to the truth, but they are not its people. Their names are a kunya and their lineages (surnames) are a town. Their hair is unwinding, like the hair of a woman. (Do this) until they differ in it between themselves, then Allah will give the right to whomever He desires.”

(Nu’aym bin Hammad, Kitab Al Fitan, No. 573)


Note: The black flags in this narration are essentially described as hypocrites, and are not mentioned as coming from Khorasan, as the army of the Mahdi is said to in other ahadith. Furthermore, this black flag army of hypocrites has already appeared recently and they have already declared their state.



Narrated from Al-Zuhri:


"The black flags will come from the East, led by mighty men, with long hair and beards, their surnames are taken from the names of their home towns and their first names are from a "Kunya". If the people of the black flag divide, then the people of the yellow banner will attack, they will gather in the canal of Egypt and the people of the East and the West will fight for seven (days or months or years). The people of the East will be defeated to the extent that (the people of the West) will land in Al-Ramla (in Palestine). Something will happen between the people of Al-Sham and the people of the West that will make the people of the West angry. So, the people of the West will say: 'We came to aid you and you do what you are doing, we will quit (tilting the balance of power) between you and people of the East!' They warn you because the people of Al-Sham will be few in number in the eyes of the people of the West. Then, the Sufyaani will come out and the people of Al-Sham will follow him. So, he will fight the people of the East."

(Nu’aym bin Hammad, Kitab al-Fitan)


Note: In this narration, these same black flags are described as led by "mighty men" while in the other narration they are described as "weaklings". Given that they are essentially described as being hypocrites, the term "weaklings" may be in terms of their spirituality, piety, etc. while the term "mighty men" may be in reference to their physical strength. Thus they would be spiritually weak, but physically strong. Also, while this narration does not appear to be directly attributed to Prophet Muhammad, it does go into further detail of what happens when these black flags divide/differ among themselves, which leads directly to the appearance of the first Sufyaani.



Our Prophet said: 'There will be such troubles and calamities that nobody will be able to find a place of shelter. These woes will move around (Syria), fall upon Iraq and tie the hands and feet of the Arabian Peninsula. Community of Islam will fight against troubles in the steppes. Nobody will feel any sympathy for them or even say, 'Alas!' As they try to remedy their woes on the one hand, they will emerge again on the other.'


(Muntakhab Kanzul Ummal, vol. 5, pp. 38-39)


Note: In this narration it says these problems will move around Syria, while falling upon Iraq, and tying the hands and feet of the Arabian Peninsula. "tying the hands and feet of the Arabian Peninsula" can be an expression of securing, or restricting it's movement, by controlling its borders. The falling upon Iraq is of course referring to the Iraq war that started in 2003 CE/1424 AH.



Narrated Abu Hurayrah:


Allah's Apostle (peace be upon him) said: "Iraq would withhold its dirhams and qafiz; Syria would withhold its mudd and dinar and Egypt would withhold its irdab and dinar and you would recoil to that position from where you started and you would recoil to that position from where you started and you would recoil to the position from where you started, the bones and the flesh of Abu Hurayrah would bear testimony to it."


(Sahih Muslim, Book 41, No. 6923).


Note: Compare the map of the Zionist empire. It includes Iraq, Egypt and Syria, as well as Saudi Arabia, all mentioned in the prophetic narrations of the Prophet as countries to get into difficulties.



"There will be ruins all around the world. Ultimately, Egypt will also be ruined, but until Basra is destructed, Egypt will remain secure. The ruin of Basra will be because of Iraq’s destruction. Meanwhile, the downfall of Egypt will come with the drying of the Nile..."


(Mukhtasar Tazkirah Qurtubi, p. 530)


Note: In this narration, we can see that there is a sequence of events, in which the first would be Iraq's destruction, followed by Basra being ruined, then the drying of the Nile, and finally, Egypt's downfall and ruin. The destruction of Iraq would come with, as has already been mentioned, with the return to power, of a leader in a small country (Israel). The Iraq War can be seen as a precursor to the destruction of Iraq.



"The tribulation in Sham will calm down on the one hand and flare up again on another. This corruption will not end until an angel from the sky calls: 'The Mahdi is your leader. The Mahdi is your caliph.'"


(Risalat al-Khuruj al-Mahdi, p. 63)


Note: This hadith indicates that there will be terrible chaos in Sham before the Mahdi appears. This refers to the chaos developing in Syria. The "Sham" means "the left" and refers to those countries to the left of the Hijaz. During the early years of the twentieth century, civil wars, rebellions, conflict and great wars were already raging in this region. These conflicts triggered one another and had a great impact upon all of the people living there. The statement "This tribulation will calm down on the one hand and flare up again on another" is noteworthy in this regard: Over the last fifty years, several major events occurred in this region, among them the Suez War, the Six Day War, the Yom Kippur War, the Lebanese civil war, and the ongoing tension in Palestine.



Shafi bin Obaid Al-Asbahi said: "For Alexandria (city in Egypt), there are two battles. One of them is big and the other is small. In the big one, the sea will recede away from the Light-House by one or two Barids (possibly 2 miles), then the treasures of Dhul Al-Qarnayn will appear. The sign of the small battle will be that Alexandria will have blood spilling."  


(Nu'aym bin Hammad, Kitab al-Fitan)



Battle for the Kingdom


'Ali bin Abu Talib narrated that the Messenger of Allah (upon whom be blessings and peace) said:


"There will be at the end of time a trial that will sort out men as gold is sorted out from metal. So do not rebuke the people of Syria but rebuke the evil people among them because amongst them are the Abdals. A flood is about to be sent down upon the people of Syria, which will disperse their groups in such a way, that if foxes attacked they would be beaten. At that time a man from the Family of my House will come under 3 banners; between 12-15,000 and their sign is - 'Amit, Amit (Kill, Kill).' Then, there will come 7 banners and under each will be one man seeking the kingdom. Allah will kill all of them and restore unity and favors upon the hearts of Muslims, and those who were far come close."


( At-Tabarani - al-Awsat, Ibn 'Asakir, Nu'aym bin Hammad - Kitab al-Fitan)



Reported by 'Ali bin Abu Talib:


"At the end of time there will be a trial in which people will be sorted in a similar way to that in which gold is sorted from metal. Therefore do not rebuke the people of Syria rather, rebuke the evil people among them, because amongst them are the Abdals. Allah will send a flood from Heaven that will disperse their groups in a way that if foxes were to attack them they would be victorious. Then Allah will send a man from the perfumed musked children of the Messenger, praise and peace be upon him, amongst approximately 12-15,000 under three banners and their password is 'Amit, Amit! (Kill, Kill!).' And they will be fought by the people of 7 banners under each is a man seeking the kingdom. They will be killed, defeated, then the Hashemite will appear, so Allah will restore unity and favors to the people and this will be the case until the Dajjal (the lying, false messiah) comes."


(Nu'aym bin Hammad - Kitab al-Fitan, al-Hakim)


Note: The kingdom (if it is talking about a monarchy specifically and not general leadership) can be understood as referring to the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan, as it is the only "kingdom" in that al-Sham. The dispute over who attains the succession of leadership of this kingdom would therefore only ensue after the death of the of one of the Kings, with no succession to leadership. However, if it is not talking about a "kingdom" specifically, then it may be referring to any government in al-Sham. 


Also, the hadith directly quoting Prophet Muhammad is less specific about what happens after these forces kill each other than what 'Ali bin Abu Talib narrated regarding it, which mentions the appearance of the Hashemite and the coming of the Dajjal. It is also not clear if the people of the 7 banners represent 7 different armies with no connection to each other, or if they represent a confederacy of 7 factions, or if they represent 1 army/faction with 7 banners under each is an individual seeking the kingdom/rulership for themselves.



2 Conflicts in North Africa


Al-Hakim narrated from 'Abdullah bin 'Amr bin al-'As that he said:

"A man from the enemies of the Muslims in
Andalusia, called Dhul-'Urf, will gather a great assembly of the tribes of polytheism. Those who are in Andalusia will realize that they have no power to face them, so the people of means from the Muslims will flee in ships and cross to Tanjah. The weaker people will remain behind, and their group will not have any ships in which they can cross. So Allah will send them a mountain goat to make a path for them across the sea. The mountain goat will cross over, and the water will not cover its hooves. The people will see it and say: "The mountain goat! The mountain goat! Follow it!" So the people will all cross over, following its traces, then the sea will go back to how it was. The enemy will cross over in ships, and when the people of North Africa see them, they will flee from North Africa along with those Muslims who had been in Andalusia, until they enter al-Fustat. That enemy will come forward until they settle in the area between Marbut and the Pyramids, at a distance of five burud from them, and they will fill that area with evil.

The banner of the Muslims will go out to face them on the bridge, and Allah will give them victory and they will defeat them and kill them up to Libya, to the distance of ten nights' journey. The people of al-Fustat will make use of their cattle and their tools for seven years. Dhul-'Urf will escape from death and he will have with him a document that he will not read until he is defeated. He will find in it the mention of Islam, and that he is ordered to enter into Islam. So he will request for safety for himself and for those of his companions who came with him who accepted to enter Islam. So he will enter Islam and become one of the Muslims.

Then, in the next year, a man will come from Abyssinia called Asbis, who will have gathered a great assembly. So the Muslims will flee from them, going out from Aswan, until there is no Muslim remaining there or around there except that he has entered al-Fustat. So Asbis and his army will settle at Manaf, at a distance of a barid from al-Fustat, and the banner of the Muslims will go out to face them, and Allah will grant them victory over them, so they will kill them and take them prisoner, until an (Abyssinian) will be sold for a cloak."


(Nu'aym bin Hammad, Kitab al-Fitan, No. 55)


Note: In this hadith, we see two different conflicts; one, which takes place in one year, and the other in the following year. To briefly summarize, the first conflict is between Andalusians from Spain and Muslims, in which the Andalusians invade North Africa, and occupy an area in Egypt. They are defeated, and some embrace Islam.  In the following year, the Abyssinians come against the Muslims and are also defeated by them.

In another hadith (mentioned later), there is also mention of the Abyssinians coming against the Arabs, and being defeated. According to that hadith, after this happens, the Sufyaani appears in Syria. It seems possible that the two conflicts with the Abyssinians are in fact one in the same. If this is the case, then these conflicts with the Andalusians and the Abyssinians, in the greater scheme of things, occur in the aftermath of the third World War, as well as the Romans' subsequent invasion and conquest of "Bilad al-Sham".



'Abdullah bin 'Amr said regarding the Abyssinians:

"They will come in their ships, heading for al-Fustat, and they will set out until they settle at Manaf, where Allah will cause the treasure of Fir'awn to come out for them, and they will take from it what they wish, saying: "We will never find a treasure better than this!" So they will go back, and the Muslims will follow their trail until they catch up to them. Allah will cause the Abyssinians to be defeated, and the Muslims will kill them and take them captive, until an Abyssinian will be sold for a cloak."


(Nu'aym bin Hammad, Kitab al-Fitan, No. 57)

Note: Here, it goes into even more detail with the same Abyssinian conflict mentioned above, saying they will come in ships (just like the Andalusians), and that they will find Fir'awn's treasure and leave, before the Muslims defeat them.


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War of the Euphrates



"The halting of the Euphrates is one of the portents of the Mahdi."


(Al-Muttaql al-Hindi, Al-Burhan fi Alamat al-Mahdi Akhir al-Zaman, p. 39)


Note: The above hadeeth indicates that the Euphrates incident occurs before the Mahdi, near the time of his emergence. Many respected books of hadith mention both of these events. Al-Suyuti mentions this hadith as 'the stopping of water.' Actually, the Keban Dam has stopped the flow of this river's water. Thus, that part of the Euphrates incident has already come to pass. 



Abu Hurayrah said,


“The Prophet Sallallahu ‘Alaihi Wa Sallam said, ‘The Hour will not come before the Euphrates uncovers a mountain of gold, for which people will fight. 99 out of 100 will die, but everyone among them will say that perhaps he will be the one who will survive.’


(Sahih Muslim, Book 41, No. 6918)  



Narrated Ubayybin Ka'b:


I heard Allah's Apostle (peace_be_upon_him) said: "The Euphrates would soon uncover a mountain of gold and when the people would hear of it they would flock towards it but the people who would possess that (treasure) (would say): 'If we allow these persons to take out of it they would take away the whole of it.' So they would fight and ninety-nine out of one hundred would be killed."


(Sahih Muslim, Book 40, No. 6922)


Note: Hafezbin Hagar states that this event will be at the time of the Mahdi's appearance. Therefore, it is one of the battles immediately preceding the Mahdi.

to the question.]

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Two Roman Armies


Narrated Auf bin Mali: 


I went to the Prophet during the Ghazwa of Tabuk while he was sitting in a leather tent. He said, "Count six signs that indicate the approach of the Hour: 

  1. my death, (this happened in 632 CE)

  2. the conquest of Jerusalem, (this has already happened in 638 CE at the hands of the second Caliph; Umarbin Al-Khattab)

  3. a plague that will afflict you (and kill you in great numbers) as the plague that afflicts sheep, (This epidemic disease spread immediately after the conquest of Bait al-Maqdis by Umarbin Al-Khattab around 640 CE, at Anwas region in Syria-Damascus-Palestine, which resulted in the deaths of 25,000 Muslims including Abu Ubaidah bin Al-Jarrah) 

  4. the increase of wealth to such an extent that even if one is given one hundred Dinars, he will not be satisfied; (this is what the situation is today.)

  5. then an affliction which no Arab house will escape, (This has happened, is happening, and is intensifying as a result of the declared"War on Terrorism".)

  6. and then a truce between you and (the Byzantines) who will betray you and attack you under 80 flags. Under each flag will be 12,000 soldiers. (this could be in reference to the Great War, or the current crusade of conquest in the Middle East. The number of nations that were part of the coalition against "terrorism" after the September 11 attacks was 80 nations. However, if the "truce" is the 7-year peace treaty between them and the Muslims during the time of the Mahdi, then it obviously is yet to happen.)

(Bukhari Volume No: 4 Book No: 53 No: 401)


At the time, when the Muslim Ummah will have abundance of wealth, gold and silver, the Muslims will be extremely belittled, weak and helpless. The enemy nations will invite each other to pounce upon them as hungry people invite one another for food."

The Sahabah asked with utter worry, "O Prophet of Allah! Would we be very few in number?"

Prophet Muhammad replied: "No! You’d be as great in quantity as the foam of the sea is, seen wherever the eye can reach. But you’ll be overtaken by ‘wahn’."

The Sahabah asked, "O Prophet of Allah! What is ‘wahn’?"

He replied: "Love of this world and fear of death!"

"You’ll join hands with a Roman group and war with another. You’ll gain victory. At that time, you will be present in a plain of great mountains with plenty of trees.
In the meantime, the Romans will raise the crucifix and refer the victory to it. At this, a Muslim will become angry, and will pull the crucifix down, at which, the Romans will unite breaking all treaties with the Muslims.

The Romans will demand their wanted people, to which the Muslims will answer: "By Allah! They are our brothers. We will never hand them over." This will start the war. One-third Muslims will run away. Their ‘Tawbah’ (Repentance) will never be accepted. One-third will be killed. They will be the best 'Shaheed' (martyrs) near Allah. The remaining one-third will gain victory, until, under the leadership of the Mahdi, they will fight against Kufr (non-believers). This group will belong to Khurasan. They will be wearing black turbans. People will rise up from the East who will keep on coming forward, trampling the ground under the feet, to the aid of the Mahdi to help establish his government.


(Ibn Majah)


Dhu Mukhammar said,


“The Prophet Sallallahu ‘Alaihi Wa Sallam said, ‘you will make a peace-treaty with the Romans, and together you will invade an enemy beyond Rome. You will be victorious and take much booty. Then you will camp in a hilly pasture; one of the Roman men will come and raise a cross and give victory to it, so one of the Muslims will come and kill him. Then the Romans will break the treaty, and there will be a battle. They will gather an army against you and come against you with 80 flags, each flag followed by 12,000 men.’


Narrated with sound chains from Dhu Mikhbar al-Najashi: 


"You will make a firm truce with the Romans (al-Rum) until you and they wage a campaign against an enemy that is attacking them. You will be granted victory and great spoils. Then you will alight in a plain surrounded by hills. There, someone among the Romans shall say: 'The Cross has overcome!' whereupon someone among the Muslims shall say: 'Nay, Allah has overcome!' and shall go and break the cross. The Romans shall kill him, then the Muslims shall take up their arms and the two sides shall fall upon each other. Allah shall grant martyrdom to that group of Muslims. After that the Romans shall say to their leader: 'We shall relieve you of the Arabs,' and they shall gather up for the great battle. They shall come to you under eighty flags (nations), each flag (nation) gathering 12,000 troops."


(Abu Dawud, Kitab al-Jihad - Vol. 3/7 - No. 2479, Ahmad, Ibn Majah)  

Note: The peace agreement mentioned above is the same as the 7-year peace agreement with the Romans, which is mentioned in another hadith (as we shall see later)). The conflict mentioned here, is referring to the "war in Byzantium", which is discussed on this website. This conflict takes place before the Mahdi becomes the Caliph, and therefore, he isn't involved in the 7-year peace agreement. Rather, it is the leader of the Muslims at this time who is, that precedes his Caliphate, which can be said to be the Hashimite, mentioned earlier.


This hadith could also potentially be referring (somewhat) to the Russian invasion of Afghanistan in 1399 (1979), in which America (allied Roman force) formed an alliance with the Muslims to fight the Russians (enemy Roman force). In 1409 (1989) the Russians lost and retreated from Afghanistan. In 1410 (1990) the Soviet Union fell, and America, along with its Muslim allies gained victory over them. Following that the Roman forces invaded Iraq in the Gulf War. What the cross is can only be based on speculation. The area of “hilly pastures” is obviously Afghanistan, since that is what Afghanistan is. The battle could be referring to the Gulf War. Also, each of the 80 flags represents one nation, so there would be 80 different nations involved in pursuing the Muslims.

I have used it for both.



Abdullah bin Masud said that the Prophet said: 


"Between the Muslims and the Romans, there will be a Hudna (truce) and reconciliation treaty to the extent that they will fight together against their  enemy and they (Muslims & Romans) will split the war acquisitions.  Then, the Romans with the Muslims will invade Persia (Iran)." 


(Nu'aym bin Hammad, Kitab al-Fitan)



Abu Firas said he heard Abdullah bin Amr bin Al-'Aas say: 


"You will confront Constantinople (meaning the Romans) three times. In the first confrontation, you will do well. In the second one, you (after defeating the Romans) will enter into a reconciliation treaty with them to the extent that the Muslims will build a mosque in it (Constantinople) and invade (together with the Romans) an enemy located behind Constantinople and then you will return (after that invasion) to Constantinople. In the third (confrontation), Allah will open it (Constantinople) for you when you (Muslims) say Takbir (Allah Akbar, meaning Allah is Greater) . One third of it (Constantinople) will be destroyed.  Allah will burn one third of it.  You will divide among you the wealth found in the remaining third."  


(Nu'aym bin Hammad, Kitab al-Fitan)



Arta heard Abu Amir Al-Hani say:


" The Romans will have 3 invasions (against Muslims). In the second one, an army comes by sea with one thousand boats.... The fighting becomes fierce in the land of Palestine for four consecutive days. Allah will grant victory to the Muslims in the fourth day and the Romans will be defeated. The Muslims follow them and fight them in every mountain or plain until the remaining Romans enter Constantinople. Then,  they will ask for reconciliation. You will  enter into a reconciliation treaty with them for 10 years. You and the Romans will invade an enemy behind Constantinople. When you return for that invasion, you will see Constantinople... Then, together, you will invade Al-Kufa ... Then, you and the Romans together will invade some of the people of the East. You will capture women, children and money (possessions and wealth) 


The Romans will tell you: Give us our share of the children and women. 

The Muslims will say: No, we cannot based on our religion, but take from the rest of things (meaning from the possessions, etc). 

The Romans say: We will not take except from every thing. You won (the battle against the common enemies) because of us and our Cross.

The Muslims will say: No, Allah granted victory and support to His religion. 


So, they will raise the Cross and the Muslims will become angry. A (Muslim) man will jump on to the Cross and break it. The Romans will leave angry and when you reach their king, they will tell him: 'The Arabs deceived us and withheld from us what we are entitled to and they broke our Cross and killed some of us.' Their king will become very angry and amasses a large army and reconcile with other nations. They will march against the Muslims. The Muslims Caliph will be the Yemeni and his is from the Quraysh. They will fight and the Romans will be winning. They drive out the Muslims from their locations... Victory will be withheld. The Caliph of the Muslims will killed with 70 princes (commanders) on the same day and the Muslims will give Bay'a to a man from the Quraysh. A group (of Muslims) will join the Romans, a group will be killed, a group will flee from the battle, and a group will win.


The Romans will say: ' We have learned that you detest fighting us. Give us those who are originally from us and go back to your land.'

The Arabs will say: 'Here they are. They have head what you are saying. You know better (what to do).'


The Mawali (non-Arab converts) will get angry... They will give Bay'a to a man from among them and will separate themselves from the Arabs. The Mawalis will fight the Romans from one side, while the Arabs will fight the Romans from the other side. Then, Allah will descend victory. The king of the Romans will be killed and the Romans will be defeated. The Muslims will track the Romans, killing them in every plain and mountain. No city will be able to stand in their way, until they reach Constantinople. Then, a group of the people of Moses will follow the Muslims and will witness (and participate in) the conquest with the Muslims. The Muslims will say Allah Akbar (God is Greater) at one side of the city. The wall will collapse, so people will enter Constantinople..."  


(Nu'aym bin Hammad, Kitab al-Fitan)



Narrated on the authority of Abdullah bin Masood, the Messenger of Allah (Peace and Blessings Be Upon him) said:


"The Romans will attack those Arabs who reside in their land, until not a single Arab man or woman or child remains in their land but that they shall be killed by the Romans."


(Nu'aym bin Hammad - Kitab Al Fitan, Bab Al Aamaq wa fath al Constantiniya, page 260)


Note: This hadeeth mentions Arabs residing in the Roman lands not Muslims, and today Muslims are racially stereotyped and profiled as being "Arabs".



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The Sufyaani


The Prophet, (upon whom be blessings and peace) said, "A man of the Umayyads will take power in Egypt and then his power will be taken from him, or wrested from him, and he will flee to Byzantium and enlist them against the people of Islam; and that will be the first of the battles."




Note: Although this doesn't mention this man to be the Sufyaani, his actions, his origin, and the fact that he rules Egypt first, imply that he is, or at least one of them. The Umayyads are from the family and descendants of Abu Sufyaan.



Reported by Abu Hurayrah:


The Messenger of Allah (upon whom be blessings and peace) said, "A man named the Sufyaani will come from the center of Damascus. The majority of his followers will be from the tribe of Kalb. He will kill until he rips women open and kills children. So the tribe of Qays will rise up in retaliation and he will slaughter all of them! Then a man from the Family of my House will come in Al Hirrah and the news will reach the Sufyaani. Then he will send his army but it will suffer defeat. The Sufyaani will march with his followers to him until they reach a desert and the ground will swallow them up. None will be saved except the one bearing the news."


(Ibn Hibban, At-Tirmizi, Abuya'li, At-Tabarani, Al Bazaar, Abu Nuaym and Al Hakim.)


Hadhrat 'Ali said,


"The Sufyaani will be one of the descendants of Khalid,bin Yazid,bin Abu Sufyaan: a man with a large head, a pockmarked face, and white spots in his eyes. He will emerge from part of Damascus and most of those who follow him will be from the tribe of Kalb. He will kill to the point of slicing open the bellies of women and slaying their unborn children. A man from the people of my House will come out against him in the Haram. The Sufyaani will hear of this and send one of his armies to fight him, which he will defeat. Then the Sufyaani himself will come against him with his people until he crosses some land in the desert, which swallows them up. Only those who are among them under compulsion will be saved."


(al-Hakim, Mustadrak)


Note: The term "Sufyaani" in these hadeeths simply means that he is from the descendants of Abu Sufyaan. The man from the family of the the Prophet's household obviously refers to the Mahdi. From the above hadeeths, we can see that there is one army he sends against the Mahdi that is defeated, before the second sent and is swallowed up by the ground. These hadeeths also indicate he is with the second army, and thus, could mean he is also swallowed up by the ground.



According to 'Alqama, Ibn Mas'ud said:


 "The Messenger of Allah, upon whom be blessings and peace, told us, 'I warn you of 7 severe trials, which will occur after me: a trial, which will come from Medina, a trial in Mecca, a trial, which will come from Yemen, a trial, which will come from Syria, a trial, which will come from the East, a trial, which will come from the West, and a trial from the valley of Syria, which is the Sufyaani'"

Ibn Mas'ud said, "Some of us have seen the first of them, and some of this community will see the last of them."

Al-Walid,bin 'Ayyash said, "The trial in Medina was that of Talha and az-Zubayr, the trial in Mecca was that of 'Abdullah bin az-Zubayr, the trial of Syria was from the Umayyads, and the trial of the East is from these people."


(al-Hakim and Nu'aym bin Hammad)


Note: The "trial, which will come from the West", can be said to be the conflict involving the Romans, as mentioned in other hadeeths. This hadeeth also demonstrates that the conflict with the "West" is one that precedes the trial of the Sufyaani, and thus, they are two different conflicts.



Al Walid, Ibn Muslim, said:


"The Mahdi will not come until The Sufyaani is established."



Narrated from Ka'b:

"The name of the Sufyaani is 'Abdullah."


(Nu'aym bin Hammad, Kitab al-Fitan, No. 62)


Note: This is the name of the last Sufyaani.



Narrated from 'Ali bin Abu Talib:


"When the cavalry of the Sufyaani goes to Kufa, he will send them against the dwellers of Khurasan (Afghanistan). (At that time) the people of Khurasan will come out looking for the Mahdi. Then he and the Hashimite will meet with a group of people with black banners at their front is Shuayb bin Salih. Then he and the companions of the Sufyaani will meet in battle at the Gate of Istakhr and there will be a tremendously fierce battle between them. The black banners will be victorious and the cavalry of the Sufyaani will flee. It is at that time that the people will wish for the Mahdi and look for him."


(Nu'aym bin Hammad, Kitab al-Fitan)

Note: The location of Kufa is in Iraq, and location of the "Gate of Istakhr" is in Iran. The "Hashimite" mentioned here, is referring to al-Harith bin Hirath, who we shall see mentioned later in another hadeeth. However, this is hadith is not referring to the Hashimite himself, but to his army with Black Banners with Shuayb bin Salih leading them.



' Ali bin Abu Talib said: "The Sufyaani will appear in al-Sham, and then there will be a battle between them in Qirqisiya (Circesium) until the birds of the sky and the wild animals of the earth are satiated with their corpses. Then, there will be an attack against them from their rear so a group of them will go forward until they enter the land of Khurasan. The cavalry of the Sufyaani will come pursuing the people of Khurasan, and they will kill the supporters of the Family of Muhammad in Kufa. Then the people of Khurasan will come out, seeking the Mahdi."

(Nu'aym bin Hammad, Kitab al-Fitan)



Narrated from Al-Zuhri:

"The people of Syria will give bay'ah to the Sufyaani, and he will fight the people of the east, defeating them from
Palestine until they settle at Marj as-Safar. Then they will meet again, and the people of the east will be defeated until they settle at Marj ath-Thaniyyah. Then they will fight again, and the people of the east will be defeated until they come to al-Hiss. Then they will fight again, and the people of the east will be defeated until they reach the ruined city," meaning Qirqisiya. "Then they will fight again, and the people of the east will be defeated until they end up at 'Aqar Quf. Then they will fight again, and the people of the east will be defeated, and the Sufyaani will capture all of their wealth. After that, an abscess will develop in the Sufyaani's throat. Then he will enter Kufa in the morning and leave it in the afternoon accompanied by his armies, and upon entering Syria he will die.

The people of Syria will rise up and give bay'ah to thebin the woman from Kalb, whose name is 'Abdullah bin Yazid bin al-Kalbiyyah, a dry-eyed man with a distorted face. The people of the east will hear of the Sufyaani's death, so they will say: "Gone is the state of the people of Syria!" and they will revolt. Thebin the woman of Kalb will hear of this, so he will go out with an assembly of soldiers under flags to fight them, and the people of the east will be defeated until they enter Kufa, where he will kill their fighting men, take their women and children as captives, and then he will lay waste to Kufa. Then, from there he will send an army to al-Hijaz."


(Nu'aym bin Hammad, Kitab al-Fitan, No. 63)


Note: Here we have mention of 2 Sufyaanis. The first Sufyaani appears, and fights the black flags, from Palestine onward, defeating them 6 times, before he conquers them, and then he dies. This cannot be referring to the black flags that give alliegence to the Mahdi, but another group that precedes them.  These may be the ones the remnants that came with al-Harith bin Hirath, the Hashimite beforehand. The second Sufyaani mentioned here, would be the one mentioned in the previous two ahadith, that the second army of black flags, led by Shu'ayb bin Salih, defeats.



Narrated from Artah:


"The Sufyaani who will die is the one who will first fight against the black banners and the yellow banners in the middle of Syria. He will come out from al-Mandarun, east of Baysan, on a red camel and wearing a crown. He will defeat the united community [al-jama'ah] twice, and then he will die. He will kill the free people, take the women and children as captives, and cut open the bellies of the pregnant women."


(Nu'aym bin Hammad, Kitab al-Fitan, No. 64)


Note: This is referring to the first Sufyaani mentioned above.

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The Mahdi  


And why should ye not fight in the cause of Allah and of those who, being weak, are ill-treated (and oppressed)? – Men, women, and children, whose cry is “Our Lord! Rescue us from this town. Whose people are oppressors; and raise for us from thee One who will protect; And raise for us from thee One who will help!” (4:75)


Amrbin Shamer quoted Jabir, who quoted Mohammed bin Ali to have said:


"For our Mahdi, there are two signs. Since the birth of Universe, these events have never taken place. Those two signs are that there will be Lunar Eclipse on the first night of Ramadan and Solar Eclipse in the middle of Ramadan."

(Dar-e-Qatni, Vol. 1, P.188)


Note: This narration is not attributed to holy Prophet (upon whom be blessings and peace), but attributed to Mohammed bin Ali. No other person has substantiated this alleged statement of Mohammed bin Ali. Muslim scholars have always rejected this and other narrations of Amr and Jabir, as both have been known to transmit unreliable and forged narrations.


This sign has already happened before, in the Ramadan of 1311H (1894 CE). The lunar eclipse occurred on the 13th of Ramadan (March 21st) and the solar eclipse occurred on the 28th of Ramadan (April 6th). The only individual that emerged in this time is a dajjal by the name of Mirza Ghulam Ahmad Qadiani. The problem with this is that it would in fact occur again in the Ramadan of 1424H (2003 CE). The lunar eclipse would be on the 15th of Ramadan (November 9th) and the solar eclipse would be on the 29th of Ramadan (November 23rd).


There are several other signs, which are important and reliable, one of which is that the world will be filled with tyranny and oppression, specifically the Muslim world. This has not happened once in history, except for in the last 50-100 years. The Mahdi liberates everyone from this by replacing tyranny and oppression with equity and justice. That is his most important function. There has to be a NEED for the Mahdi, not just a WANT. The Mahdi is not going to appear when people WANT him to appear, he is going to appear when people NEED him to appear and liberate them. If the Mahdi appeared in any other time, devoid of this tyranny and oppression, his appearance would be meaningless and void of any purpose.  


Update: It has come to my attention that there are indeed other narrations, besides the above, that make mention of eclipses in Ramadan as being a sign of the Mahdi. However, these other narrations do vary in which eclipse occurs first, and whether they occur in the beginning-middle of the month or the middle-end of the month. That being the case, I have made a chart of Eclipses During The Month Of Ramadan, which tables the month of Ramadan up to the year 2100, the eclipses that occur during them, as well as where they would be viewable from. The best potential (I think) would be 2005 as the eclipses would both be viewable from the Middle East, as well as the United Arab Emirates, and the eastern coastal area of the Arabian peninsula. The problem is that the calculated first day of Ramadan begins the day after the first eclipse. Although, it is possible for Ramadan to start a day earlier than the projected date for some places, and thus I include these as potentials, and why I have expressed this opinion in my scenario.


Update: I have furthered my list of eclipses in Ramadan, by expanding it to cover the rest of this millennium, at this link.


Ibni Munavi said that, “Danyal (Daniel) (as) reported in his book that, “There are 3 Sufyaanis and 3 Mahdis. When the first Sufyaani appears and his name and fame become widespread, the first Mahdi will confront him, the second Mahdi will confront the second Sufyaani and the third Mahdi will confront the third Sufyaani and Allah, the Exalted, will send him (the third Mahdi) to save the ones who have suffered mischief, and the believers. The Sunnah will be revived through him and oppression, injustice and cruelty will come to an end through him. The people will be highly prized and become victorious over their opponents at his time. A beautiful life will be lived, and the earth and the heavens will increase their blessing.. (*)


(*) This hadith exists in a handwritten copy of the book titled Al-Burhan fi Alamat al-Mahdi Akhir al-Zaman held in the Suleymaniye Library.


Note: The Mahdi we are discussing, is the third Mahdi, mentioned in the above quotation. The previous 2 can be interpreted to be his forerunners and supporters, that pave the way for his arrival. If this is the case, then we already know who they are, as they are mentioned in other hadeeths (which we shall see later). Likewise, with the 3 Sufyaanis, the Sufyaani we are discussing is the third one, who is the main one. The others would, likewise, be his forerunners and/or supporters.



"People will gather around the Mahdi in 1400."


(Risalat al-Khuruj al-Mahdi, p. 108)



Narrated Abu Hurayrah:

"Count two or three decades after the year/decade(s) of Hijri 1400. At that time, the Mahdi emerges…"


(Asmal Masalik Lieyyam Mahdiyy Maliki Li Kull-id Dunya Biemrillah-il Malik, Qalda bin Zayd, p. 216)

Note: The second decade of 1400 hijri is 1411 - 1420, which spans from 1990 - 2000. The third decade of 1400 hijri  is 1421 - 1430, which spans from 2000 - 2009. If it is counting after the decade of 1400 instead of the year then, that would mean the second decade is 1421-1430 and the third decade is 1431-1440, which spans from 2009-2019. Therefore, based on this, we can say that the Mahdi would in fact appear by the year 2019 CE/1440 AH, if not before then.



Reported by a companion who informed Mujahid:


"Surely, the Mahdi will not come until the purified soul has been killed. When this occurs those in the Heaven and those on Earth will be angry. So people will come in a procession to the Mahdi; like the procession of a bride to her husband on their wedding night, and he will fill the earth with fairness and justice and the earth will produce its plants and the heaven will pour its rain and my nation will enjoy his government and favors never before enjoyed."


(Ibn Abu Shaybah)


Note: Along with a host of other things, the killing of the "purified soul" is another event preceding the Mahdi. From an Islamic perspective, "purification" means cleansing the soul from corruption, and growing it with the belief in Allah, and by doing good deeds and refraining from doing evil so that the soul will be blessed in this world and in the Hereafter. The "purified soul" is the one that is purified according to Allah's legislation and deserves all the beautiful traits in this world and the great rewards in the Hereafter. 


Therefore, this hadeeth is referring to the killing of someone who has spiritually cleansed itself from corruption, and increased itself in faith. This may happen during the conflict that happens during the Hajj season in which the Mahdi appears.



Yunus bin Maysara bin Halbas narrated that the Prophet had stated:


"This matter (namely the Caliphate) will be after me in Medina, then in Syria, then in the Jazeerah, then in Iraq, then in Medina, then in Jerusalem. If it is in Jerusalem, its home country is there, and if any people expel it, it will never return there."


(Ibn 'Asakir)


Note: The Rashidun Caliphate's first location was in Medina, and its last location was in Iraq, before it was replaced by the Umayyads. Therefore, when this Caliphate returns with the appearance of the Mahdi, it is going to be in Medina. At some point during his rule, the Mahdi is prophecied to migrate to Jerusalem, and thus, would be fulfilling the last part of this Caliphate.



Narrated by Hudhayfah, The Prophet said:


"Woe to this nation from the dictatorship of kings! Why do they kill and make pious people fear except those who obey them, and the pure believer soothes them with his tongue but resists them with his heart? If Allah wishes to revive Islam in might He will break the back of every stubborn tyrant -- He is Able to do anything and can reform the nation after its corruption. O Hudhayfah, if there remains but one day left in the world Allah will prolong that day until a man from the Family of my House will govern and fierce battles will be in his hands, and Islam will spread. Allah does not change His Promise and He is quick to recompense."


(Abu Nuaym, At-Tabarani, and Abu Amru Ad Dani.)


Note: The spread of Islam follows the fierce battles mentioned in this hadeeth, which would either happen during the time he governs, before he governs, or after he governs.



On the authority of Mujahid, Tubay said: 


"A man will seek refuge in Mecca and will be killed, then after that, along period of time will pass, then another man (the Mahdi) will seek refuge in Mecca but if you meet him do not fight him for if you do you will be part of the army that will be sunk and destroyed."


(Nu'aym bin Hammad, Kitab Al Fitan, "Sinking and Destruction of the Army of the Sufyaani", page 202)


Note: The first incident occured in the Grand Mosque of Mecca in 1980.



'Ali said that the Prophet said, "The birth-place of the Mahdi will be in Medina. He is from the family of the House of the Prophet, praise and peace be upon him, and his migration is to the House of Jerusalem. His beard is thick, his eyes naturally masquerade, his teeth are radiant and upon his face is a mole and upon his shoulder is the Sign of the Prophet, praise and peace be upon him. And he will come out under the Banner of the Prophet made from a marked woolen black square that will not have been unfolded since the Messenger, praise and peace be upon him, and it will not be unfolded until the Mahdi comes. Allah will support him with 3,000 angels who will beat the faces and buttocks of those that oppose him. He will be sent between the age of 30 and 40."


(Nu'aym bin Hammad, Kitab al-Fitan, No. 73)


Note: From this hadeeth, we learn that the Mahdi's place of birth is in fact Medina, and that he migrates to Jerusalem. This is consistent with the above-mentioned hadeeth that states that the Caliphate would be in Medina then in Jerusalem.



Ibn Masood said:


"When commerce and roads are blocked and trials increase, seven knowledgeable people will come from different directions without previous appointment. Each will receive the allegiance of over three hundred men until they meet in Mecca. 

The seven will meet and asked one another; 'What brought you here?' 

They will reply: 'In Search of the man upon whose hand the trials will be calmed, and for whom Constantinople will be opened. We know him by his name, his father's name, his mother's name, and his army.' 


So the seven will agree upon this and search for him then find him in Mecca. 


So they will ask him: 'Are you so and so, son of so and so?' 

He will reply: 'No, I am a man from the supporters.' And escape from them, so they will describe him to people in their midst that are both righteous and knowledgeable and it will be said to them: 'The one whom you seek was in your company,  and he will go to Medina.' 

So they will search for him in Medina but at that time he will be in Mecca. 

So they will search for him in Mecca and say to him: 'You are so and so,bin so and so, and your mother is so and so, daughter of so and so, and in you are the signs of such and such, and such and such. You escaped from us once so stretch out your hands and we will pledge our allegiance to you.' 

So he will say: 'I am not your companion.' 


Then he will escape from them so they will search for him in Medina when he has returned to Mecca, then they will find him in Mecca beside Al Rukn and say to him: 'Our sins will be upon you and our blood upon your neck if you do not stretch out your hand so that we may pledge our allegiance! The army of the Sufyaani is coming demanding us in which there is a man from Jurm.' 


So he will sit between Al Rukn and Al Makam and stretch out his hand and allegiance will be pledged to him. So, Allah will sow love of him in the chests of the people and he will lead a nation that are lions during the day and worshippers at night."


(Nu'aym bin Hammad, Kitab al-Fitan)


Note: Here it is mentioned that the Mahdi is expected to open Istanbul. At this time, Istanbul would be in control by the "Romans". This is also further demonstrates that the Mahdi would be the one who would fight against the Romans, conquering Istanbul and Rome, as well as fighting against the False Messiah (the Dajjal). This also means that it is him that would be the one who would lead the congregational prayer, in which the true Messiah, thebin Maryam, prays in. 



Reported by Abdullah bin Amru:


"In the month of Zul-Qa'dah, the tribes will start to fight and pilgrims will be robbed. There will be a fierce battle at Mina until their companion escapes and he will be pledged allegiance between Al Rukn and Al Makam whilst he dislikes it. The allegiance will be pledged by the same number of fighters at Badr and the inhabitants of the Heaven and Earth will be pleased with him."


(Al Hakim, Nuaym bin Hammad's book 'Al Fitan')


Note: Here is mentioned that that there would be a battle at Mina. We can say, based on other hadeeths, that this is the battle between the forces of the Sufyaani and the Muslims of Medina. Based on both of these hadeeths, we can surmise that after the battle with the Sufyaani's army, the Mahdi flees to Mecca. The 7 individuals arrive in search of him, and after looking for him back and forth between the two cities of Mecca and Medina, they finally catch up to them, and forcefully given allegiance by them.



Hadhrat 'Ali bin Abu Talib said,


"The Prophet (S) said, 'The Mahdi is one of us, from among the people of my household. In one night Allah will inspire him and prepare him to carry out his task successfully.'"


 (Ahmad and Ibn Majah.)


Note: The night of his inspiration and preparation is described in the hadeeths above.



Hadhrat Abdullah bin Mas'ood reports from the Prophet, who said:


"The world will not come to pass until a man from among my family, whose name will be my name, rules over the Arabs." 


(Tirmidhi Sahih, Vol. 9, P. 74; Abu Dawud, Sahih, Vol. 5, P. 207; also narrated by Ali b. Abi Talib, Abu Sa'id, Umm Salma, Abu Hurayra)



Hadhrat Ali narrates that the Messenger of Allah said:


"Even if only a day remains for Qiyamah to come, yet Allah will surely send a man from my family who will fill this world with such justice and fairness, just as it initially was filled with oppression."


(Sunan Abu Dawud, Book 36, No. 4270)



Abu Is-haq told that Ali bin Abu Talib looked at his son Hasan and said:


"This bin mine is a sayyid (chief) as named by the Prophet (peace be upon him), and from his loins will come forth a man who will be called by the name of your Prophet (peace be upon him) and resemble him in conduct but not in appearance. He then mentioned the story about his filling the earth with justice."


(Sunan Abu Dawud, Book 36, No. 4276A)


Note: If we look at the Prophet's life, we see that his mission, from the time he was first given revelation to the time of his death, was 22-23 years, and it was only the last 10 of them, in which he ruled as a statesman over the city-state of Yathrib (Medina). If the Mahdi resembles the Prophet in conduct, then this suggests his situation would be very similar.

Therefore, if there is a significant time-gap between when he becomes the Mahdi, and when he becomes the Caliph (just as there was a significant time-gap between when the Prophet :saws: became the Prophet and when he became a statesman), that means he would really appear quite a few years before he is actually appointed as the Caliph.


Narrated Abdullah bin Mas'ud:

The Prophet (peace be upon him) said: "If only one day of this world remained. Allah would lengthen that day (according to the version of Za'idah), till He raised up in it a man who belongs to me or to my family whose father's name is the same as my father's, who will fill the earth with equity and justice as it has been filled with oppression and tyranny (according to the version of Fitr).

Sufyaan's version says: "The world will not pass away before the Arabs are ruled by a man of my family whose name will be the same as mine."


(Sunan Abu Dawud, Book 36, No. 4269)



Prophet Muhammad said: "If it remains only one day to the end of the world, Allah will elongate that day until a man of my family whose name is the same as mine will be inspired, he will make the world full of justice after it ha become full of oppression."


(Sahih al-Tirmidhi, vol. 5, p. 343)



'Abdullah said,


"The Prophet (S) said, 'A man from my household, whose name is like mine, will take power."'  

In another report, from Abu Hurayrah, the Prophet (S) said, "If there were only one day left for this world, Allah would lengthen it until he took power."


(Tirmidhi, Al-Fitan)


Hazrat Umme Salmah (RA), Prophet's wife, narrates that she heard the Prophet (SAW) say:


"The promised Mahdi will be among my progeny, among the descendants of Fatima."


(Abu Dawud, Sahih, Vol. 2, P. 207; Ibn Majah, Sahih, Vol. 2, P. 519)



The Messenger of Allah announced, "The Mahdi will be of my family, of the descendants of Fatima (the Prophet's daughter)."


(Sunan Ibn Majah, Vol. 2, Tradition No. 4086)



Abu Sa'id al-Khudari narrated that the Prophet said:


"Our Mahdi will have a broad forehead and an aquiline nose. He will fill the earth with justice as it is filled with injustice and tyranny. He will rule for seven years."


(Abu Dawud, Sahih, Vol. 2, p. 208; Fusul al-muhimma, p. 275)



Narrated Abu Sa'id al-Khudri:


The Prophet said, “The Mahdi will be of my stock, and will have a broad forehead and an aquiline nose. He will fill the earth will equity and justice as it was filled with oppression and tyranny, and he will rule for seven years.”


(Sunan Abu-Dawud, Book 36, No. 4272)  


Note: In the above two ahadith, it says that he:


1) fills the Earth with equity and justice

2) rules for seven years.

Elsewhere, it says that he would rule the entire world, which, based on the above, would be for a period of seven years. Another duration of his rule given, is 20 years. Also, according to Nu'aym bin Hammad, the Mahdi would survive for 40 years after his emergence. For these three durations to be correct, it can only be said that from his emergence to his death is 40 years, the last 20 of which he rules, while it is only the last 7 years of that period, that he rules the entire world with equity and justice.



Narrated by Hudhayfah,


The Prophet said: "The Mahdi is a man from my children. His skin is the color of an Arab, and his body is like that of Israel. Upon his right cheek is a mole like a shining star. He will fill the earth with justice just as it will have been filled by injustice, and the dwellers of Heaven and Earth and the birds in the sky will be pleased with his Caliphate."


(Musnad Ar-Ruwayyani, Abu Nuaym, At-Tabarani, and Abu Amru Ad Dani.)


Note: From the above hadeeths, we can conclude that the Mahdi's name is Muhammad (the Prophet's name) and that his father's name is Abdullah (the Prophet's father's name), he descends from Hasanbin Ali, has a broad forehead, an aquiline nose, replacing tyranny, oppression and injustice with equity and justice, and then rules the world for 7 years.



Ka'b al-Ahbar says,


"He will be called 'Mahdi' because he will guide to something hidden and will bring out the Torah and Gospel from a town called Antioch."


(Abu Nu'aym)



Al-Suyuti mentioned in al-Hawi that the Messenger of Allah, upon whom be blessings and peace, said,


"He is called the Mahdi because he will guide people to a mountain in Syria from, which he will bring out the volumes of the Torah to refute the Jews. At the hands of the Mahdi, the Ark of the Covenant will be brought forth at Lake Tiberias and taken and placed in Jerusalem."


Ad-Dani said that he is called the Mahdi because he will be guided to a mountain in Syria from, which he he will bring forth the volumes of the Torah with which to argue against the Jews and at his hand a group of them will become Muslim.


Sulaiymanbin 'Isa said, :"I have heard that it is at the hands of the Mahdi that the Ark of the Covenant will be brought from Lake Tiberias and will be carried and placed before him in Jerusalem. When the Jews see it, they will become Muslim except for a few of them."


Note: Based on the above mentioned hadeeths, we can see that upon the Mahdi's arrival in Jerusalem, that he would bring forth volumes of the Torah to argue against the Jews, and would bring the Ark of the Covenant, and place it in Jerusalem.



The Prophet said, "There have been four great kings on the Earth: Two were believers and two were unbelievers. The believers were Dhu'l-Qarnayn and Sulaiyman (Solomon), and the unbelievers were Nimrod and Bakhtinasr. There will be a fifth king to rule the world will be from the people of my House."


(Ibn al-Jawzi, Mektubat-i Rabbani, 2/1163)



"The Mahdi will rule the world like the Prophet Dhu’l-Qarnayn and the Prophet Sulaiyman."


(Ibn Hajar al-Haythami, Al-Qawl al-Mukhtasar fi 'Alamat al-Mahdi al-Muntazar, p. 29)


Note: These two hadeeths demonstrate that the Mahdi's rule is comparable to the rule of "Dhu'l-Qarnayn" and Prophet Sulaiyman. Prophet Sulaiyman is obviously King Solomon and "Dhu'l-Qarnayn" is said by some to be Cyrus or Dairus I, the emperor of Persia.



Note: The Great Imam of Islam, Imam al-Suyuti is considered by many to have been one of the reformers of Islam that the Prophet Muhammad (upon whom be blessings and peace) said God would send every one hundred years to renew the religion. He lived  more than 400 years ago at a time of the 1000 year millennial year of the Hijra when for subjective reasons, many common Muslims thought the Imam Mahdi was to come to usher in the Kingdom of God. The Imam wrote a book refuting any significance to the year 1000 A.H (Hijri on the Islamic calendar). He also wrote that according to his knowledge and all his understanding of the Ahadeeth and the Qur'an the year of the Imam Mahdi will be some time in the 15th Islamic century . We are now in the early part of the 15th Islamic century. What is also significant is that the Mahdi is expected to appear in the 2nd or 3rd decade of this Islamic century (which is now). It should also be noted however that according to the Qur'an no one can predict when the Day of Judgment itself will exactly occur.  


The Rise of the Comet with a Tail


"A star with a luminous tail will rise from the east before the Mahdi emerges."


(Muhammad bin `Abd al-Rasul Barzanji, Al-Isha`ah li Ashrat as-Sa`ah, p. 200)



"The rise of that star will occur after the eclipse of the Sun and the Moon."


(Al-Muttaqi al-Hindi, Al-Burhan fi `Alamat al-Mahdi Akhir az-Zaman, p. 32)


"When this comet first appeared, the people of Prophet Noah perished, Prophet Abraham was cast into fire, Pharaoh and his people who fought against Prophet Moses perished, and John [Yahya] passed away. When you see that comet, take refuge in God from the evil of fitna."


(Al-Muttaqi al-Hindi, Al-Burhan fi `Alamat al-Mahdi Akhir az-Zaman, p. 32)



"A big flame will occur in the east for 3 or 7 days in a row, followed by darkness in the sky and a brand new redness unlike the usual color of red spreading over the sky. A proclamation will be heard in a language Earth can understand."


(Muhammad bin `Abd al-Rasul Barzanji, Al-Isha`ah li-Ashrat as-Sa`ah, p. 166)



In its section on the signs of the Mahdi's emergence, the book Iqd al-Durar states:


"The emergence of a big flare, which is seen in the east, in the sky for three nights. Sighting of an extraordinary redness, not as red as the usual color of the dawn, and its spread over the horizon."


(Al-Muttaqi al-Hindi, Al-Burhan fi `Alamat al-Mahdi Akhir az-Zaman, p. 32)



Narrated by Abu Ja`farbin Muhammad bin Ali:


"When you see a flame rise in the east for three or seven days, then wait for the emergence of Al-i Muhammad; God will proclaim from the sky uttering the name of the Mahdi and everybody, whether in the east or the west, will hear that voice."


(Al-Muttaqi al-Hindi, Al-Burhan fi `Alamat al-Mahdi Akhir az-Zaman, p. 32)


Note: Although the latter 3 hadiths describe a "flame" as opposed to a comet/star in the first 3, both can be argued to be the same, as they're both objects that rise from the east, as a sign of the Mahdi. Also, a comet that passes close, would appear as a flame/flare in the sky. This can also be said to be referring to the same event, in that a comet crashing to Earth would cause such a large flame to happen, which would turn the sky red.



Black Banners from Khurasan (Afghanistan) to Jerusalem


Abdullah bin al-Harith,bin Juz' al-Zubaydi said,


"The Prophet (S) said, 'A people will come out of the East who will pave the way for the Mahdi.'"


(Ibn Majah.)


"Pity poor Taliqan (a region in Afghanistan) that at that place are treasures of Allah, but these are not of gold and silver. There are people who have recognized Allah as they should have. They are the supporters of the Mahdi in the End Times."


(Al-Muttaqi al-Hindi, Al-Burhan fi Alamat al-Mahdi Akhir al-zaman, p.59)


On the authority of Thawban, the Messenger of Allah (upon whom be blessings and peace) said:


The Prophet Sallallahu ‘Alaihi Wa Sallam said: "Before your treasure, three will kill each other -- all of them are sons of a different caliph but none will be the recipient. Then the Black Banners will appear from the East and they will kill you in a way that has never before been done by a nation." Thawban, a companion said: 'Then he said something that I do not remember by heart' then continued to say that the Prophet, praise and peace be upon him, said: "If you see him give him your allegiance, even if you have to crawl over ice, because surely he is the Caliph of Allah, the Mahdi. If you see the black (meaning war) flags coming from Khurasan (Afghanistan), join that army, even if you have to crawl over ice, for this is the army of the Caliph, the Mahdi and no one can stop that army until it reaches Jerusalem."


(Ibn Majah, Al Busiri, Al Hakim, Ahmad Nuaym, Ad-Daylami,  Hasan,bin Sufyaan, and Abu Nuaym.)


Note: This hadith is considered to be weak by some, partly due to one of its transmitters as well as because of its use to give support to Abu Muslim's Abbasid revolution in 749 CE, when he raised armies, carrying black banners from Khurasan. It's use was hence used to support the idea that the Mahdi would come from the family of Abbas. This has led others to doubt its authenticity, or at least believe that it was tampered with in support of the Abbasid cause.


However, as there are other hadiths, which say pretty much the same thing, it must therefore be regarded as "tampered with in support of the Abbasid cause". Based on other hadiths, we can see that the nature of this tampering, is that it was made to say that the Mahdi himself would come from Khurasan, when in fact, it was only his main army of supporters that are said to. As we shall see later, there are other hadiths that distinguish between the Abbasid's black banner army from Khurasan, and the Mahdi's black banner army from Khurasan. They also specify that the one who leads the Mahdi's army.


In more recent times, we see others in Khurasan region, who carry black flags in Khurasan, such as Usama bin Ladin's fighters over there, as well as the former Taliban regime:


Mullah Muhammad Umar has stated: "The crusaders have changed this this plan by calling for their own destruction. Insha'Allah first we will see America's end and then the black flags will march to Philasteen!..."  

This is obviously a reference to this very hadith, and although it may just be for the Taliban's morale in light of the American invasion of Afghanistan (which is also part of Khurasan), it may also prove to be a fulfillment of it, as the characteristics, and circumstances, are consistent with the black banner army that supports the Mahdi (as we shall see later).


The treasure in which they fight over, can be said to be the Euphrates' treasure. This would put that Battle of the Euphrates in the context of happening just before the black flags from Khurasan, led by the Mansoor, appear.



Related by Abu Hurayrah:


The Prophet Sallallahu ‘Alaihi Wa Sallam said: "(Armies carrying) black flags will come from Khurasan (Afghanistan). No power will be able to stop them and they will finally reach Jerusalem where they will erect their flags."





Narrated 'Ali bin Abu Talib:


“The Prophet said, ‘A man named al-Harith bin Hirath will come from Transoxania (Tajikistan). His army will be led by a man named Mansoor. He will be pave the way for and establish the government of the family of Muhammad, just as the Quraysh established the government of the Messenger of Allah. Every believer will be obliged to support them.’


(Sunan Abu-Dawud, Book 36, No. 4277)


Note: The two above sayings (as well as the third one, narrated by Thawban) are claimed by some to be of weak/fabricated narrations, while others claim they have reliable chains of narration. However, their consistency with other related narrations (as well as current events), have prompted me to endorse them.


Most notably, the latter narration regarding al-Harith and the Mansoor, is of particular interest. Earlier, there was a quote, that mentioned 3 Mahdis. These individuals can be said to be the among the second. Later, we shall see them mentioned in more detail. This hadith compares the situation to being similar to that of Prophet Muhammad's. As we know, when the followers of the Prophet arrived in Yathrib during his time, as his forerunners, the Prophet had already been a Prophet and receiving revelation for several years.

If we apply this to the Mahdi's situation, we'd also have to conclude that when the black flags appear in the east, preparing the minds of the Muslims to accept the Mahdi before he comes, that the Mahdi would also have already been the Mahdi for several years.

This also means that those first few years before his Caliphate, his mission, like the Prophet's, would be largely spiritual, while when he becomes the Caliphate, it would also, like the Prophet's, become largely political.

So when we see his forerunners coming from Taliqan in Khurasan with black flags to accomplish this task for him, we'll know that the Mahdi is already here as the Mahdi. Or else, why would they come in his support, unless they knew for a fact that he was already here? And how would they know for a fact he was already here, unless he had already been inspired as the Mahdi by that time?

And so, based on that, it can be surmised that the Mahdi would live 40 years after his emergence, the last 20 of which he would be the Caliph, and ruling the world with equity and justice for the last 7 with Prophet 'Esa :saws: to help and succeed him in doing so.

In his first 20 years, we would have forerunners ruling in his place; among them would be al-Harith bin Hirath the Hashimite with Mansoor; Shu'ayb bin Salih al-Tamimi leading his army.


Reported by Abu Said Al Khudri:


"A man from my nation will come who speaks with my Sunnah and Allah, the Mighty, the Glorified will send showers of rain from the heavens so that the earth will produce its blessing. Through him the earth will be filled with fairness and justice just as it had been filled by oppression and injustice. He will govern this nation for seven years, and go to Jerusalem."


(Abu Dawud, Al Hakim, At-Tirmizi, Ahmad,bin Hibban, Muslim, Al Tabarani, Al Barudi and Abu Nuaym)  

Note: Following that immigration to Jerusalem, Medina will be destroyed and become the shelter of the savage people.



Az-Zuhri said:

"The black banners will meet in battle with the yellow banners, and they will fight each other up to
Palestine. Then the Sufyaani will come out against the people of the east, and when the people of the Maghrib settle in Jordan, their ruler will die. So they will split into three groups; one group that will return to where they came from, one group that will go to the Hajj, and one group that will stay and against whom the Sufyaani will fight. He will defeat them, and they will enter his obedience."


(Nu'aym bin Hammad, Kitab al-Fitan, No. 54)


Note: Both of those ahadith talk about the black flags and yellow flags fighting each other. If they are referring to the same conflict, then this takes place before Shu'ayb leads them to Jerusalem to establish his power for the Mahdi, as they appear after the Sufyaani and not before. Here, the people of the east, are those of the black banners, and the "people of Maghrib" are those of the yellow banners.



Hudhayfah bin al-Yaman said to a group of people from Egypt:

"When there comes to you a document from the east that will be read out to you as: "From the slave of Allah, 'Abdullah, Amir al-Mu'minin," then await another document coming to you from the west that will be read out to you as: "From the slave of Allah, 'Abd ar-Rahman, Amir al-Mu'minin," then by He in Whose Hand is Hudhayfah's soul, you will fight them near al-Qantarah, and they will expel you far, far away from the land of Egypt and the land of ash-Sham, and an Arabian woman will be sold at the stairs of Damascus for twenty-five dirhams."


(Nu'aym bin Hammad, Kitab al-Fitan, No. 52)


Narrated from Ka'b:

"There will be, after the fitnah in ash-Sham, the eastern one which will be the destruction of the kings and the humiliation of the Arabs, until the people of the Maghrib come out."

(Nu'aym bin Hammad, Kitab al-Fitan, No. 53)

Note: The two ahadith above could be referring to the yellow flags vs. black flags conflict. In which case, these black flags are not the ones that support the Mahdi, and therefore, cannot come from Afghanistan, but may come from Iraq or Iran.

Narrated Abdullah bin Hawalah al-Azdi:


"The Apostle of Allah (peace be upon him) sent us on foot to get spoil, but we returned without getting any. When he saw the signs of distress on our faces, he stood up on our faces and said: 'O Allah, do not put them under my care, for I would be too weak to care for them; do not put them in care of themselves, for they would be incapable of that, and do not put them in the care of men, for they would choose the best things for themselves.'  

He then placed his hand on my head and said: 'Ibn Hawalah, when you see the caliphate has settled in the holy land (i.e., Palestine), earthquakes, sorrows and serious matters will have drawn near and on that day the Last Hour will be nearer to mankind than this hand of mine is to your head.' 


(Translation of Sunan Abu-Dawud, Jihad (Kitab Al-Jihad), Book 14, Number 2529)


Ammar, thebin Yasir, may Allah be pleased with both of them, said:


"When the Sufyaani reaches Kufa and kills the supporters of the family of Muhammad, praise and peace be upon him, the Mahdi will come and the bearer of his Banner will be Shu'ayb bin Salih."

(Nu'aym bin Hammad, Kitab al-Fitan)


Muhammad,bin Al Hanaffia, said:


"The Black Banners will come out for the children of Al Abbas. The other black banners will come from Khurasan. Their turbans will be black and their clothes white. At their front will be a man named Shuayb bin Salih, from Tamim. They will defeat the companions of The Sufyaani until he comes to the House of Jerusalem where he will establish his power for the Mahdi, and he will be supplied with three hundred (men) from Syria after his arrival and the matter will be settled for the Mahdi in seventy-two months (six years)."


(Nu'aym bin Hammad, Kitab al-Fitan)


Note: Here it says that the matter will be settled for the Mahdi in 6 years. The "matter" that is settled, is quite possibly in reference to the establishment of his Caliphate. Th 6-year period mentioned here, is the time between when the Black Banners arrive in Jerusalem, to when the Mahdi becomes the Caliph.  The Mansoor mentioned earlier, is again mentioned here, with the name of "Shu'ayb bin Salih", descending from the Banu Tamim (Tamim tribe). However, we see no mention of Al-Harith, and so we must conclude that at this point, he would have been martyred.



'Abdullah, thebin Abbas, may Allah be pleased with both of them, said to Mujahid: "If I had not heard that you are like the people of this House I would never tell you this."  

Whereupon Mujahid said: "It is surely in secret, I will not mention it to someone you hate." 

So Ibn Abbas told him: "There are four people from the House, from us is As-Saffah, and from us Al Mundhir, and from us the Mansoor, and from us is the Mahdi."  

So Mujahid said: "Clarify these four for me." 

He answered: "As for As-Saffah, perhaps he will kill his supporters and forgive his enemy. Al Mundhir will give away plenty of wealth, he will be humble and keep but a little of his rights. The Mansoor, will be given victory over his enemy and part of what was given to the Messenger of Allah, praise and peace be upon him, and that is that his enemies were frightened away from him the traveling distance of two months, whereas the enemy of the Mansoor will be frightened away from him the traveling distance of one month. The Mahdi will fill the earth with justice just as it has been filled with transgression -- livestock and foxes will live together peacefully. And the earth will bring forth that which is hidden from its depths -- they look like cylinders of gold or silver."


(Ibn Abu Shaybah)

Note: In the above narration, it mentions the Mansoor as being from the Prophet's household, whereas the Mansoor; Shu'ayb bin Salih, isn't even from the Qur'aysh, but descends from Banu Tamim. Therefore, we must conclude that there are two different Mansoors. This Mansoor can be said to be the Mansoor from the Ahl ul-Bayt, is the same as the one that is given bayah long after the Mahdi (as we shall see later).



Said bin Al Musayyab reported:


"The Black Banners will come from the East from the children of Al Abbas. Then there will remain whatsoever Allah wishes. Then, small Black Banners will come to fight a man from the children of Abu Sufyaan from the East. They will give their allegiance to the Mahdi."


(Nuaym bin Hammad, Kitab al-Fitan)  


Al Hasan Al Basri said:


"A man of medium stature will come from Ar-Ray (a far-eastern town). He will be dark and from the children of Tamim -- a Wasaj, named Shuayb bin Salih with four thousand men. Their clothes will be white and Banners black, and at his front is the Mahdi. He meets no one that he does not defeat and scatter."


(Nu'aym bin Hammad, Kitab al-Fitan)


Note: The children of Al Abbas have indeed carried black banners in revolt against the Umayyad dynasty. This occurred in 749 CE.

Today, the Taliban wear black turbans and white clothes, and do carry Black Banners in wartime. These characteristics are consistent with the above narrations of Muhammad,bin Al-Hanaffa, and Hasan al-Basri.


Here are pictures of the Taliban with their black turbans and white clothes:




The base network of Usama descendant of Ladin also carries Black Banners, although their attire isn't consistent with the black banner army that supports the Mahdi.


Abdullah bin Shuraykh, said:


"With the Mahdi is the marked banner of the Messenger of Allah, praise and peace be upon him. If only I could live to meet him while I was still young!"


(Nu'aym bin Hammad, Kitab al-Fitan)


Note: According to the website Allah has said that the Jews will master the world two times (It states we are currently living in the first one) and the Mahdi will appear between those two periods and will rule through the last one, though it does not list it’s references.



Ammar, thebin Yasir, may Allah be pleased with both of them, said:


"The bearer of the Banner of the Mahdi is Shuayb bin Salih."


(Nu'aym bin Hammad, Kitab al-Fitan)



Narrated by Umm Salamah:


The Prophet said, "Disagreement will occur at the death of a ruler and a man from the people of Medina will flee to Mecca. Some of the people of Mecca will come to him, bring him out against his will and swear allegiance to him between the Corner and the Maqam. An army will then be sent against him from Syria but will be swallowed up in the desert between Mecca and Medina. When the people see that, the eminent saints (Al-Abdal) of Syria and the best people of Iraq will come to him and swear allegiance to him.

Then a man from Quraysh whose mother is from Kalb will appear and send against them an army which will be overcome by them, and that is the Battle of Kalb. Disappointed will be the one who does not receive the booty of Kalb. He will divide the property, and will govern the people by the Sunnah of the Prophet. He will remain seven years, then die, and the Muslims will pray over him."


(Sunan Abu Dawud, Book 36, No. 4273)


Note: In this hadeeth, it suggests that the ruler of Syria at the time, and the Sufyaani are two different people. This hadeeth is considered to be "weak", so the actual differentiation between the ruler of Syria and Sufyaani may not be accurate. However, prior to the Mahdi it mentions a "disagreement" occurring after the death of a ruler. This is significant, as we have seen in other hadeeths, that people would be fighting over the (Saudi???) kingdom/Caliphate before the Mahdi comes, so this part of the hadeeth has some  merit to it, especially in relation to current events. So the weakness of this hadeeth may not mean it is "fabricated" as much as it simply not being narrated correctly. 



Narrated by Hudhayfah:


The Messenger of Allah said, 

"There will be a battle at az-Zawra'." 

They said: "O Messenger of Allah, what is az-Zawra'?" 

He said: "A city in the east, between rivers, in which reside the worst of Allah's creation, the tyrants of my Ummah. It will be afflicted with four kinds of punishment: The sword, swallowing by the earth, being pelted with stones, and transformation into animals. When the dark people come after the Arabs they will be defeated and thrown into the lowest part of the earth. While these circumstances exist, The Sufyaani will come with three hundred and sixty riders until he reaches Damascus. After a month, he will be followed by thirty thousand from Kalb, so he will send an army to Iraq and kill a hundred thousand in Az-Zawra. Then they will go to Kufa and pillage. When this occurs a banner will come from the east led by a man from Tamim called Shuayb, thebin Salih who will restore what is in their hands from the captured people of Kufa and he will kill them. Then, another army from The Sufyaani will go to Medina and pillage it for three days and thereafter proceed towards Mecca until they find themselves at al-Bayda'. Then, Allah will send Gabriel and say to him, 'O Gabriel, Chastise them!' So he will beat them with his leg once and Allah will cause them to be swallowed up into the earth. None will remain except two men who will return to the Sufyaani to inform him of the swallowing-up of his army, but this will not scare him. Several men from the Quraysh will escape to Istanbul and the Sufyaani will send a message to the leader of the Romans: "Send them all back to me", who will then return them to him and he will slit their throats together with their followers/behead them at the gate of the city of Damascus. It will be such that a woman wearing a single garment will be taken around in the main masjid of Damascus in full view of everyone, until she comes and sits on the thigh of the Sufyani while he is sitting in the mihrab. So a man from the Muslims will stand up and say: "Woe to you! Have you disbelieved after you had faith? This is not allowed!" So he [i.e. the Sufyani] will stand up and behead him in the masjid of Damascus, and he will kill everyone who sympathized with what that man had done. At that time a voice will come from Heaven saying:  'O people, surely Allah prevents dictatorship, tyrants and their followers for you and gives leadership to the best of the nation of Muhammad. So join him in Mecca for he is the Mahdi and his name is Ahmad bin Abdillah!'"

Then, Hudhayfah said: "'Imranbin Husayn stood up and asked: 'O Messenger of Allah, how shall we know him?'

He replied: "He is a man from my children, he looks like the men from the children of Israel, upon him are two white cloaks with frayed edges. His face is like a colorful, glittering star, upon his right cheek there is a black mole and he is forty years old. The Abdal and those looking like them will come to him from Syria. An-Nujaba will come to him from the dwellers of Egypt and groups of dwellers from the east, and those looking like them until they all gather together in Mecca and so they will pledge their allegiance to him between Al Rukn and Al Makam. Then he will direct himself towards Syria with Gabriel at his front and Michael at his middle and the dwellers of Heaven and Earth will be joyful because of him. Water will be plentiful in his country and the river will be spread and treasures found. When he reaches Syria he will slay the Sufyaani under the tree, the branches of which grow in the direction of Lake Tiberias and he will kill Kalb. So the loser of that Day of Kalb is he who does not gain even a rein."

Hudhaybah asked: 'O Messenger of Allah, praise and peace be upon him, how is it permitted to kill them when they believe in the Oneness?'

The Messenger of Allah, praise and peace be upon him, replied: "O Hudhayfah, they are at that time apostates, they claim that wine is permitted and do not pray."


(Abu Nuaym, At-Tabarani, and Abu Amru Ad Dani.)  


'There will be a city called Zawra between the Tigris and the Euphrates. There will be a great battle there. Women will be taken prisoner, and men will have their throats cut like sheep.'


 (Muntakhab Kanzul Ummal, vol. 5, p. 38)



7-year Peace Agreement with the Romans


Hadhrat Abu Umamah says that the Messenger of Allah (upon whom be blessings and peace) said:


"There will be four peace agreements between you and the Romans. The fourth agreement will be mediated through a person who will be from the progeny of Hadhrat Aaron and will be upheld for seven years." The people asked: "O Messenger of Allah, who will be the Imaam of the people at the time?" The Messenger of Allah said: "He will be from my progeny and will be forty years of age. His face will shine like a star and he will have a black spot on his left cheek. He will don two "Qutwaani" cloaks and will appear exactly as a person from the Children of Israel. He will rule for 20 years and will conquer the cities of the Mushrikeen (Idolators)"


(Tabrani, Ref: Kanz-ul-Aamal, Page 268, Hadith No. 3868)

Note: In the above hadith, it says that the Mahdi rules for 20 years, instead of the traditional 7 years. The hadiths which mention the 7 year rule, are far more numerous, and more authentic than this one, so, if the 20 year rule cannot be reconciled with the 7 year rule, then the 7 year rule should be the accepted term.

However, it is possible to reconcile them, as it can be argued, based on other ahadith, that he spends the first 13 years as a Caliph ruling only one region, while fighting and conquering, and then, after gaining victory over his adversaries, only rules the world for 7 years, then dies.

It can also be argued, that he spends the first 6 years fighting to establish his Caliphate, the next 7 years ruling the region, and the 7 years after that, fighting again, then dies.

Comparing the two, either one could potentially work. However, if he is really going to rule the world, as other ahadith suggest, then the former would make more sense. His conquests and invasions beyond the Middle East happen no more than a year before the Dajjal appears. To only rule the world for less than a year doesn't make much sense. If he rules the world for 7 years, it would make a lot of sense, and if he does, it could only happen after the Dajjal has been killed by the Messiah, 'Eyssa,bin Maryam.

For my website, as it is a very inclusive one in terms of Islamic literature, I'm going to use the former scenario.

The 7-year peace agreement here, refers to the peace-treaty that the Romans make with the Hashimite to "invade an enemy beyond Rome". This takes place before the Mahdi becomes the Caliph.





Abu Hurayrah narrated that the Messenger of Allah, sallallahu `alaihi wa sallam, said,


“Madinah will be deserted while in its prime! Then, it will be inhabited by birds and beasts.”


(Al-Hakim in Al-Mustadrak, vol. 4, p. 436)



“They (Muslims) will leave Madinah while in its prime. Only wild beasts and birds will roam it. The last persons to be gathered (for the beginning of the Last Day) will be two shepherds from (the tribe) of Muzainah heading towards Madinah. They will be herding their sheep, and (when they reach it) they will find it deserted. When they reach Thaniyyat Al-Wadaa` they will collapse on their foreheads (because the Hour will have started then).” 

(Ahmad, Al-Bukhari and Muslim, As-Sililah As-Sahihah, vol. 2, no. 683)


Mu’adh, thebin Jabal said,


“The Prophet Sallallahu ‘Alaihi Wa Sallam said, ‘The building of Bayt al-Maqdis (al-Aqsa in Jerusalem) will be followed by the destruction of Yathrib (Madinah), which will be followed by a fierce battle (great war), which will be followed by the conquest of Rome, which will be followed by the appearance of the Dajjal.’"

Narrated Mu'adh bin Jabal: 

The Prophet (peace be upon him) said: "The flourishing state of Jerusalem will be when Yathrib is in ruins, the ruined state of Yathrib will be when the great war comes, the outbreak of the great war (i.e., the battle of Armageddon) will be at the conquest of Constantinople and the conquest of Constantinople when the Dajjal comes forth." He (the Prophet) struck his thigh or his shoulder with his hand and said: "This is as true as you are here or as you are sitting (meaning Mu'adh bin Jabal)".


(Translation of Sunan Abu-Dawud, Battles (Kitab Al-Malahim), Book 37, Number 4281) 


Note: The abandonment of Medina precedes its ruined state. The abandonment happens when Muslims migrate to Bilad al-Sham. It is said that they would migrate there for the sake of jihad in the Great War, and it is also said they would migrate there because of the flourishing state of Jerusalem at that time. In either case, it would still precede the "Great War".



Fierce Battle (Great War)


When comes the Help of Allah and Victory, And thou dost see the People enter Allah's Religion in droves, Celebrate the Praises of thy Lord, and pray for his forgiveness; For he is Oft-Returning (In forgiveness). (Surah 110(An-Nasr))


Narrated Abu Hurayrah (?):

"...He (the Mahdi) fights the whole world and both the ones who have gone astray (Christians) and the ones who have earned Allah's anger (Jews) join against him with the hypocrites in the land of Isra and Miraj at Mount Megiddo. And there comes out against him the Queen of the world and deception, an adulteress called (America), who incites the world to deviation and infidelity...and the Jews of the world at that time would have the upper hand , ruling Quds and the holy city. And all nations come to fight by sea and air except those in the land of extreme cold and the land of extreme heat. And the Mahdi sees that all the world does plot against him, but he also sees that Allah's plan is stronger than all, and he sees that the World belongs to Allah and to Him it will return, and that the World is but a tree that Allah wills him to rule from its roots to its branches.......and Allah throws down on them (unbelievers) with a disastrous punishment, burning their lands and seas and skies. And the sky rains down a harmful shower, with the people of the Earth cursing the infidels, and Allah wills the defeat of the unbelievers."


(Asmal Masalik Lieyyam Mahdiyy Maliki Li Kull-id Dunya Biemrillah-il Malik, Qalda bin Zayd, p. 216)

Note: In this prophecy, it says that the battle between the Mahdi and the Romans, takes place at Mount Megiddo, which implies that it may be the same as the battle of Armageddon, mentioned in Biblical prophecy. If this is the case, then the leader of the Romans, at this time, would be the Dajjal, as other Hadith say that the Dajjal would spread everywhere except Mecca and Medina. This also means that their defeat is where the Messiah  'Eyssa descends, as according to other ahadith, he brings an end to the Dajjal and his followers.



'Abd Allah bin 'Amr said,


"I went to the Prophet (S) one day whilst he was performing Wudu' (ablution) slowly and carefully. He raised his head, looked at me and said, 'Six things will happen to this Ummah: the death of your Prophet - 'and when I heard that I was aghast,' - this is the first. The second is that your wealth will increase so much that if a man were given ten thousand, he would still not be content with it. The third is that tribulation will enter the house of every one of you. The fourth is that sudden death will be widespread. The fifth is a peace-treaty between you and the Romans; they will gather troops against you for nine months - like a woman's period of childbearing then they will be the first to break the treaty. The sixth is the conquest of a city.'  

I asked, 'O Messenger of Allah, which city?' 

He said, 'Constantinople.'"


(Ahmad, Muslim, Ibn Kathir Page No: 34)



Narrated Mu'adh bin Jabal:

The Prophet (peace be upon him) said: "The greatest war, the conquest of Constantinople and the coming forth of the Dajjal (False Messiah) will take place within a period of seven months."


(Sunan Abu Dawud: Book 37, Number 4282)


Note: The above hadeeth is considered to be fabricated, due to the hadeeth, which appears immediately after it, below. This is due to the discrepancy between the length of time being 7 months or 7 years.



Narrated Abdullah bin Busr:


The Prophet Sallallahu ‘Alaihi Wa Sallam said: "The time between the Great War and the conquest of the city will be six years, and the Dajjal (False Messiah) will come forth in the seventh."


(Sunan Abu Dawud: Book 37, Number 4283)


Note: The "city" mentioned in this hadeeth is not specifically identified as referring to either Rome or Constantinople. If it is neither city, then it is possible that both narrations above are compatible with each other. It is possible that the city mentioned in the latter hadeeth above may well be Jerusalem. In that case, the “Great War” referred to here  could be “The Day of Wrath” referred to in the prophecy of Daniel (another Biblical source). It puts the time between Jerusalem’s “distress” and “relief” as 45 years. Its distress would be its occupation in 1387/1967 and thus its relief would therefore be in 1432/2011 according to this source.


However, other hadiths specify that the "Great war" is with the Romans, so the former hadith cannot be entirely correct. What the former hadith may mean, is that the greatest war (a final battle perhaps) is the end of the Great war, and would thus take place, with the conquest of Istanbul, and the appearance of the Dajjal, in a period of 7 months. It can simply be said that the final battle and city's conquest, takes place in the middle to end of the sixth year, and the Dajjal would appear in the early to middle of the seventh year. This is probably the more correct way of reconciling the two ahadith.


Also, there was another hadith narrated by Ibn al-Hanaffa (mentioned earlier), which says that the matter would be settled for the Mahdi in 6 years. That hadith, however, was talking about the establishment of the Mahdi's power as the Caliph, immediately upon emergence, and not the Great War with the Romans mentioned above. Therefore, it must be concluded, that the 6-7 year "Great war" takes place after the 6 year period of establishing the Caliphate against the opposing establishments in the region. At the beginning of this establishment phase, he would make the 7-year peace agreement with the Romans (as mentioned above). After it is accomplished, however, the Romans (as it says in other ahadith) would break their treaty, and then the "Great war" mentioned here, would begin.



Narrated Ibn Hawalah:


The Prophet said: "It will turn out that you will be armed troops; one in Syria, one in the Yemen and one in Iraq.bin Hawalah said: Choose for me, Messenger of Allah, if I reach that time. He replied: Go to Syria, for it is Allah's chosen land, to which his best servants will be gathered, but if you are unwilling, go to your Yemen, and draw water from your tanks, for Allah has on my account taken special charge of Syria and its people."


(Sunan Abu-Dawud, Book 14, No. 2477)



Prophet Muhammad said, "A section of my community will continue to fight at the gates of Damascus and around it and at the gates of Jerusalem and around it. It does not effect them the desertion of people who deserted them. They (will continue to) hold The Truth till the Judgment Day occurs."


(al-Hafiz al-Haithami)



Narrated Abu Darda':


The Prophet (upon whom be blessings and peace) said: "The place of assembly of the Muslims at the time of the Great war (Armageddon) will be in al-Ghutah near a city called Damascus, one of the best cities in Syria."


(Sunan Abu Dawud, Book 37, No. 4285)



Narrated Abu Hurayrah:


Allah's Apostle (peace be upon him) said: "The Last Hour will not come until the Romans land at al-A'maq or in Dabiq. An army consisting of the best (soldiers) of the people on Earth at that time will come from Medina (to oppose them). When they arrange themselves in ranks, the Romans will say: 'Do not stand between us and those (Muslims) who took prisoners from among us. Let us fight them.' The Muslims will say: 'Nay, by Allah, we shall never turn aside from you and from our brethren so that you may fight them.'

They will then fight and a third (part) of the army, whom Allah will never forgive, will run away. A third (part of the army), which will be constituted of excellent martyrs in Allah's eyes, would be killed. The third who will never be put on trial will win and they will be the conquerors of Constantinople."

As they are busy in distributing the spoils of war (amongst themselves) after hanging their swords by the olive trees, Satan will cry: The Dajjal has taken your place among your families. They will then come out, but it will be of no avail. When they reach Syria, he will come out while they are still preparing themselves for battle, drawing up the ranks."

Certainly, the time of prayer will come and then ‘Eyssa (peace be upon him),bin Maryam, descends and will lead them in prayer. When the enemy of Allah sees him, it will (disappear) just as salt dissolves in water and if he (‘Eyssa) were not to confront them at all, even then it would dissolve completely. Allah would kill them by his hand and he would show them their blood on his lance." 


(Muslim Book No: 40 No: 6924)



Reported by Abu Hurayrah:


The Messenger of Allah (upon whom be blessings and peace) said, "The Romans will surround a leader from my descendents whose name will be the same as mine. They will fight each other at a place called Al-Amuq and one third, or thereabouts, of the Muslims will be killed. They will fight again on another day and again one third or thereabouts of the Muslims will be killed. On the third day they will fight again and the Romans will be defeated. And they will remain there until they open Constantinople. It is whilst they are distributing the spoils of war that a messenger will come informing them that the false messiah is in their home town with their children."


(Al-Khatib - al-Muttafaq wal-Muftaraq, Ibn Hibban, At-Tirmizi, Abuya'li, At-Tabarani, Al Bazaar, Abu Nuaym and Al Hakim.)


Note: The above can be seen as evidence supporting the fact that during the Mahdi's reign, the Romans will be defeated and Istanbul along with Rome, will be conquered, the Dajjal will appear and 'Eyssa will descend. This further supports the fact that the Dajjal emerges after the Mahdi and not before.



'Awf bin Malik al-Ashja'i narrated that the Messenger of Allah said:


"There will be born among Banu Al-Asfar (Romans) a boy from the descendents of kings, who will age in a day as a child ages in a week, and who will age in a week as a child ages in a month, and who will age in a month as a child ages in a year. When he reaches the age of twelve years, they will make him their king. So he will stand up among them and say: "For how long will these people conquer us in our best lands? I think I should go to them and drive them out." So the speakers will stand up and agree with his idea. So, he will send out to the islands and the lands, ordering them to build ships, then he will sail in them with his armies until he lands between Antioch (in Turkey) and Al-'Arish (in Egypt)."  





Abdullah bin Masud said that the Prophet said


"Between the Muslims and the Romans, there will be a Hudna (truce) and reconciliation treaty to the extent that they will fight together an enemy for Romans (non-Muslim nation) and they will split the war acquisitions. Then, the Romans with the Muslims will invade Persia (Iran). 


The Romans will say: 'Split with us the war booties (spoils) like we did.' 


So, Muslims will split with the Romans the war booties and children of Polytheists. 


The Roman will say: 'Split what you got of the (Persian) Muslim children.' 

The Muslims will say: 'We cannot split with you the the children of Muslims. ...' 


The Romans will invade and take over all of Al-Sham, except Damascus and Ma'taq mountain near Homs (in Syria) where Muslims will keep their children. Victory will be withheld until one third of the Muslims dies, one third flees and one third remains fighting. Each of the martyrs of the third who are killed is equal to 10 of those martyred in Badr (at the time of Prophet Mohammad). Each of Badr's martyrs can intercede for 70 people, thus each of the martyrs in this battle (with the Romans) can intercede for 700 people. The third will flee can be divided into groups: one third will join the Romans and say, 'If Allah had anything to do with this religion (Islam), he would have supported Muslims', one third will say, 'We'd better go back to the lands of our parents' and they are the Bedouins, the last third say, 'Al-Sham is ominous like its name sounds', so they will leave Al-Sham. Then, the Romans will say: 'The Cross has won.' Allah will become angry and say: 'O Gabriel, help my worshippers!' and Gabriel will descend with one hundred thousand angels. Allah will say: 'O Michael, help my worshippers!' and Michael will descend with two hundred thousand angels. Allah will say: 'O Israfeel, help my worshippers!' and Israfeel, will descend with three hundred thousand angels and Allah will descend victory on the believers (Muslims) and descend his wrath on the disbelievers, so they get defeated and killed. Muslims will reach Amoria and the Romans there will offer to pay Jizya (penalty tax) in exchange for security. Muslims will accept this offer. However, the Romans will attack the remaining Arabs in their lands and kill all of them, to the extent that there will not remain in the land of Romans any Arab adult or child who has not been killed. The Muslims will be able to conquer any city or fort in no more than 3 days. They will reach the bay (where Constantinople is located) and the water will expand (making it difficult to reach the city). So, in the morning, the people of Constantinople will say: 'the Cross expanded our sea and Messiah supported us.' However, in the next morning, they will find the bay has dried up and the sea will recede away from Constantinople. The Muslims will besiege the City of Kufr (Disbelief) on a Friday night and keep on chanting Tahmeed (Al-Hamd li Allah, meaning Praise to God), Takbeer (Allah Akbar, meaning God is Greater), Tahleel until the morning. At dawn, the Muslims will say one Takbeer, what is between the two towers collapses. The Romans will say: We were fighting the Arabs, but now we are fighting our God and God has destroyed for them (Arabs or Muslims) our city. The Muslims will grab the booties of war and gold. The Muslims will distribute among themselves the progenies of the Romans to the extent that each man will get 300 virgins to enjoy. Then, the Dajjal actually appears..." 


(Nu'aym bin Hammad, Kitab al-Fitan)



Abdullah bin 'Amr talking about the third war with the Romans said:


"A boy will appear among the Romans who will age in a year as a boy would age in ten years. He will live in the lands of the Romans, and the Romans will make him their king.


So he will say: 'For how long will we allow these people to overcome us in part of our own land? I will certainly go out and fight them until I overcome them in the lands they have taken, or they overcome me in what remains under my feet.'


So he will go out with seventy thousand ships until he lands between Akka (Acre) (in Palestine) and Al-Arish (in Egypt),  then he will set his ships on fire. The people of Egypt will leave Egypt, and the people of Al-Sham (Greater Syria) will leave Al-Sham, and they will all go to the Arabian Peninsula. That is the day about which Abu Hurayrah used to say: 'Woe to the Arabs from an evil that has approached.' A rope and a well-fed riding animal will be dearer to a man on that day than his family and his wealth.

So the Arabs will seek help from the bedouins, then they will march until they reach the Amaq (valleys) of Antioch where the greatest of the battles will occur, until the horses are soaked in blood up to their flanks. 


Allah will withhold victory from all, until the angels will say: 'O Lord, will You not help Your believing slaves?'

So, He will say: 'Not until they have had many martyrs.'


So, one third will be killed, one third will retreat, and one third will remain patient (keep fighting). Allah will cause the retreating third to be swallowed by the earth.


The Romans will say: 'We will keep fighting you until you bring out to us every one among you whose origin is not from you.' 

So, the Ajam (non-Arab Muslims) will come out and say: 'May Allah forbid that we should go back to Kufr (unbelief) after Al-Islam!'


That is when Allah (God) will show his wrath, strike with His sword and stab with His spear. None of them (Romans) will remain alive, not even someone to tell about what happened.

And they (the Muslims) will not pass any city without conquering it by chanting Takbir (saying Allah Akbar, meaning is Greater), until they arrive to the City of the Romans, and they will find that its gulf has dried up. So Allah [ta'ala] will make them conquer it, and on that day, there will be an over-supply of virgins, and the spoils will be distributed using large scoops."


(Nu'aym bin Hammad, Kitab al-Fitan)


Ka'b said: " Two branches of the descendants of Israel will fight in the Great War and they will support Islam and its people." 

Then Ka'b recited verse 104 of Sura 17 of the Quran:  وَقُلْنَا مِنْ بَعْدِهِ لِبَنِي إسْرائيلَ اسْكُنُوا الأرضَ فَإِذَا جَاءَ وَعْدُ الآخِرَةِ جِئْناَ بِكُمْ لَفِيفاً  [And we said thereafter to the Israelites: Dwell in the Land (of promise) but when the Promise of the End comes, We gather you as a mixed crowd.]. " 


(Nu'aym bin Hammad, Kitab al-Fitan



Narrated Yusair bin Jabir:


Once there blew a red storm in Kufah and there came a person who had nothing to say but (these words): "Abdullah bin Mas'ud, the Last Hour has come." 

He (Abdullah bin Mas'ud) was sitting reclining against something, and he said: "The Last Hour will not come until the people do not divide inheritance and rejoice over booty."  

Then He said pointing towards Syria, with a gesture of his hand like this: "The enemy will muster strength against the Muslims and the Muslims will muster strength against them."  

I said: "You mean Rome?" 

He said: "Yes, and there will be a terrible fight. The Muslims will prepare a detachment (for fighting unto death), which will not return unless victorious. They will fight until darkness intervenes. Both sides will return without being victorious and both will be wiped out. The Muslims will again prepare a detachment for fighting unto death so that they may not return unless victorious. When it is the fourth day, a new detachment from the remnant of the Muslims will be prepared and Allah will decree that the enemy will be routed. They would fight such a fight the like of which has not been seen, so fierce that even if a bird were to pass their flanks, it would fall down dead before reaching the other end. (There will be such a large scale massacre) that when counting will be done, (only) one out of a hundred men related to one another would be found alive. So what can be the joy at the spoils of such war and what inheritance can be divided? They will be in this very state when they will hear of a calamity more horrible than this. A cry will reach them: 'The Dajjal has taken your place among your offspring.' They will therefore throw away what is in their hands and go forward, sending ten horsemen as a scouting party. Allah's Apostle (peace be upon him) said: 'I know their names, the names of their forefathers and the color of their horses. They will be the best horsemen on the surface of the Earth on that day or among the best horsemen on the surface of the Earth on that day.'"


(Sahih Muslim, Book 41, No. 6927)



Abdullah bin Amr bin Al-'Aas that he said:


"When the two old men rule: the old man of the Arabs , and the old man of the Romans , then at their hands will be the (beginning of) Malahim (Battles) ."


(Nuaim bin Hammad's Kitab al-Fitan)



Arta said: 


"The First War (with the Romans) according to (Prophet) Daniel (in the Bible) will be in Alexandria. They (Romans) will come in their ships. The people of Egypt will ask the people of Al-Sham for help. They (Romans and Muslims) will meet and fight fiercely. The Muslims will defeat the Romans after exerting a tremendous effort. Then, they (Romans) amass a big army and disembark in Yafa (Jaffa) in Palestine and advance 10 miles (in Palestine). Its people (Palestinians) will seek refuge with their children in the mountains. The Muslims will meet the Romans, defeat them and kill their (Romans') king. 

In the Second War, they (Romans) after their defeat (in the first Battle) will amass an army larger than their first army. Then, they will head to and disembark in Akka (Acre) (in Palestine). They will have chosen as a king, the son of their king who was killed. He will meet the Muslims (in the battlefield) in Akka. Victory for the Muslims will be withheld for 40 days. So, the people of Al-Sham will ask for help from the people of all Muslim lands. There will be slowness in sending support armies. (On the Romans' side), There will not be a Christian free man or slave who will not go to help the Romans. So, one third of people of Al-Sham will flee and one third will be killed and Allah will grant victory to those remaining third. They (Muslims) will defeat the Romans such a defeat that has never been heard of before and they will kill the king of the Romans.

 In the Third War, whoever left by sea will return and will join them whoever from them fled by land. They will chose the son of their killed king who will be so young that he has not reached puberty yet. They will love him so much. He will send armies with troops in much larger numbers than the two previous kings. They will disembark in the valley of Antioch. The Muslims will gather across from them. They will fight for 2 months. Then, Allah will grant victory to the Muslims so they will defeat the Romans. Muslims will fight them as they are fleeing. Support armies will arrive to help the Romans. Muslims will kill their king and the rest are defeated.... Immigrant Muslims will continue fighting the fleeing Romans until the Cross is abolished. The Romans will leave to nations behind them. The Immigrants will split into two halves. Half of them will march in land and the other half will sail by sea. The Immigrants who are in land will meet their enemies in land and defeat them even more severely than the previous defeats. They (Immigrants) will send someone to tell the good news to their (Muslim) brothers in the sea that their destination should be the City. Allah will support them in their sailing until they embark in the City. They will conquer it and devastate it...." 


(Nu'aym bin Hammad, Kitab al-Fitan)




3-Year Drought

Narrated by Ibn Majah, Ibn Khuzaimah, and ad-Dhiyaa’, and attributed to Abu Umamah, that the Prophet of Allah (upon whom be blessings and peace) said,


“There will be three hard years before the Dajjal (appears). During them, people will be stricken by a great famine. In the first year, Allah will command the sky to withhold a third of its rain, and the earth to withhold a third a third of its produce. In the second year, Allah will command the sky to withhold two thirds of its rain, and the earth to withhold two thirds of its produce. In the third year, Allah will command the sky to withhold all of its rain, and it will not rain a single drop of rain. He will command the earth to withhold all of its produce, and no plant will grow. All hoofed animals will perish, except that which Allah wills.”

He (sallallahu `alaihi wa sallam) was asked, ‘What sustains people during that time?’

He said, “Tahlil, takbir and tahmid (Saying, la ilaha ill Allah, Allahu Akbar and al-hamdulillah). This will sustain them just as food does.”


(Sahih Al-Jami` as-Saghir, no. 7875)


Note: The Dajjal appears the year after the conquest of Istanbul and Rome. This would mean that the "Great War" mentioned earlier overlaps with the 3-year drought.



Conquest of India


Thawban - may Allah be pleased with him - reported that the Messenger of Allah (sallallahu 'alaihi wa sallam) said,


"Two groups of my Ummah Allah has protected from the hellfire: a group that will conquer India and a group that will be with 'Eyssa bin Maryam - 'alaihimas- salat was-salaam."


(Ahmad, an-Nisa'i, and at-Tabarani.)


Abu Hurayrah - may Allah be pleased with him - said that the Messenger of Allah (sallallahu 'alaihi wa sallam) mentioned India and said:


"A group of you will conquer India, Allah will open for them [India] until they come with its kings chained - Allah having forgiven their sins - when they return back [from India], they will find Ibn Maryam in Syria."


(Nu'aym bin Hammad - Kitab al-Fitan)



While Abu Hurayrah said, "The Messenger of Allah (sallallahu 'alaihi wa sallam) promised us the conquest of India. If I was to come across that I will spend my soul and wealth. If I am killed then I am among the best of martyrs. And if I return then I am Abu Hurayrah the freed."


(Ahmad, an-Nisa'i, and al-Hakim.)



Conquest of Istanbul and Rome


Imam Ahmad narrated that Abdullah bin 'Amr bin Al-Aas said,


"While we were around the Messenger of Allah) writing (the Hadith) the Messenger of Allah sallallaahu `alayhi wa sallam was asked, 'Which of these two cities will be conquered first, Constantinople or Rome?' 

He said, 'The city of Heraclius will first be conquered.'  

He meant Constantinople.''


(Al-Hakim, Al-Mustadrak, vol. 4, p. 508. Also, see As-Silsilah as-Sahihah, vol. 1)


Reported by Abu Hurayrah: 


The Prophet said: "If there only remains but one day left in the world, Allah will prolong it until a man from my house governs. He will open Constantinople (Istanbul) and the Mountain of Al-Daylam."


(Ibn Hibban, At-Tirmizi, Abuya'li, At-Tabarani, Al Bazaar, Abu Nuaym and Al Hakim.)



Nafi’, thebin ‘Utbah said,


“The Prophet said, ‘you will invade the Arabian Peninsula and Allah will grant it (to you). Then (you will invade) Persia and Allah will grant it (to you). Then, you will invade Rome and Allah will grant it (to you). Then, you will invade The Dajjal and Allah will grant him (to you).’


"When the Great War occurs, a group from the masters will come from Damascus. They are the most honorable horses (horse is the symbol of honor) among Arabs and they have the best weapons among them (Arabs). Allah will support The Religion (Islam) with them."


 (Ibn Majah, Hakem, Ibn-'Asakir)



Narrated Abu Hurayrah:


Allah's Apostle (peace_be_upon_him) said: "You have heard of the city, one side of which is inclined and the other is on the coast."  

They said: "Yes, Allah's Apostle (peace be upon him)." 

Thereupon he said: "The Last Hour will not come until 70,000 people from the children of Israel attack it. When they land there, they will neither fight with weapons nor shower arrows but will only say: 'There is no god but Allah and Allah is the Greatest,' and one side of it will fall." - Thawr (one of the narrators) said: I think that he said: "The area on the coast." - "Then they will say for the second time, 'There is no god but Allah and Allah is the Greatest,' and the other side will also fall. They will say, 'There is no god but Allah is the Greatest,' and the gates will be opened for them and they will enter. They will be collecting spoils of war and distributing them among themselves when a noise will be heard and it will be said: 'Verily, the Dajjal has come.' Thus they will leave everything there and turn to (confront) him."


(Sahih Muslim, Book: 40, No: 6979)


Note: Some believe that the city of Constantinople, in these narrations, is actually referring to the city of Rome as it's descriptions and other narrations indicate, that before the Dajjal's appearance, the city of Rome would be conquered. However, it can also be said (and this is probably more correct) that Constantinople would be conquered for a second time, because the Romans would've gained control of it from the Muslims. So it would in fact be that there would be a second conquest of Constantinople, immediately followed by the conquest of Rome.



"The Mahdi will own the entire world."


(Al-Muttaqi al-Hindi, Al-Burhan fi 'Alamat al-Mahdi Akhir al-Zaman, p. 10)



"The Mahdi will invade all the places between East and West"


(Ibn Hajar al-Haythami, Al-Qawl al-Mukhtasar fi 'Alamat al-Mahdi al-Muntazar, p. 56)


"A small group of Muslims will rise and conquer the White House."


(Musnad al-Imaam Ahmad)


Note: The above two ahadeeth demontrate that the Mahdi's rule would span the entire world, and previous hadeeth show that his rule would be like that of Prophet Sulaiyman, (King Solomon). If he rules the entire world, it could only be after the the Great war, which would also mean after the Dajjal.


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The Dajjal (False Messiah/"Antichrist")


Are they waiting to see if the Angels come to them, or thy Lord (Himself), or certain of the Signs of thy Lord! The day that certain of the Signs of the Lord come, no good will it do to a soul to believe then, if it believed not before nor earned righteousness through its Faith. Say: “Wait ye: we too are waiting” (Qur’an 6:158) 


It was reported from Abu Hurayrah that the Prophet said,


"There are 3 things, which, if they appear, 'No good will it do to a soul to believe them then, if it believed not before nor earned righteousness through its faith'. They are: the rising of the sun from the west, the Dajjal, and the Beast from the Earth."


(Ahmad, Musnad, 2/455 - Muslim, Kitab al-Iman 1/96 - Tirmidhi, Abwab al-Tafsir (Hadeeth 5097), 8/449,450)


Note: Although the Dajjal is not mentioned specifically in the Qur'an, the above hadeeth clearly makes ayat 6:158 as a reference to the Dajjal's appearance as one of the signs that will appear when faith will not be accepted of anyone who did not have it before. For that reason, I have decided to add that ayat in reference to the Dajjal as well as in reference to the sun's rise from the west.



Narrated Umm Sharik:


I heard Allah's Apostle (peace be upon him) said: "The Dajjal would be followed by 70,000 Jews of Isfahan (in Iran) wearing Persian shawls."





Anas bin Malik reported that Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) said:


"The Dajjal would be followed by 70,000 Jews of Isfahan wearing Persian shawls"


(Sahih Muslim, Book 41, No. 7034)


‘Armies of the Dajjal will carry blue helmets’


Note: Is it a coincidence that Israel and UN has soldiers with blue helmets? Or that some countries police forces and/or military forces start using blue helmets lately?



The Jassasah (Spy)



'Amirbin Sharahil Sha'bi Sha'b Hamdan reported that he asked Fatimah daughter of Qays, the sister of Dahhakbin Qays, who was one of the first Muhajirat, "Tell me a Hadith which you heard directly from the Prophet with no narrator in between." 

She said, "I can tell you if you like." 

He said, 'Yes, please tell me," 

She said, "I married Ibn al-Mughirah, who was one of the best of the youth of Quraysh in those days. But he fell in the first Jihad on the side of the Prophet.

"When I became a widow, 'Abd al-Rahmanbin 'Awf, one of the companions of the Prophet sent me a proposal of marriage. The Prophet also sent me a proposal of marriage on behalf of his freedman Usamah bin Zayd. I had been told that the Prophet had said, 'He who loves me should also love Usamah.' When the Prophet spoke to me, I said, 'It is up to you: marry me to whomever you wish.' "The Prophet said, 'Go and stay with Umm Sharik.' Umm Sharik was a rich Ansari (Muslim originally from Madinah) woman, who spent much in the way of Allah and entertained many guests. I said, 'I will do as you wish.' Then he said, 'Don't go. Umm Sharik has many guests, and I would not like it if your head or leg were to become uncovered accidentally and people saw something you would not wish them to see. It is better if you go and stay with your cousin 'Abullah bin 'Amrbin Umm Maktum' (Abdullah was of the Banu Fihr of Quraysh, the same tribe as that to which Fatima belonged).

"So I went to stay with him, and when I had completed my 'Iddah (period of waiting), I heard the Prophet's announcer calling for congregational prayer. I went out to the mosque, and prayed behind the Prophet. I was in the women's row, which was at the back of the congregation. When the Prophet had finished his prayer, he sat on the pulpit, smiling, and said, 'Everyone should stay in his place.'  

Then he said, 'Do you know why I had asked you to assemble?'  

The people said, 'Allah and His Messenger know best.'

"He said, 'By Allah, I have not gathered you here to give you an exhortation or a warning. I have kept you here because Tamim al-Dari, a Christian man who has come and embraced Islam, told me something which agrees with that which I have told you about the Dajjal. He told me that he had sailed in a ship with 30 men from Banu Lakhm and Banu Judham. The waves had tossed them about for a month, then they were brought near to an island, at the time of sunset. They landed on the island, and were met by a beast who was so hairy that they could not tell its front from its back. 

They said, "Woe to you! What are you?" 

It said, "I am al-Jassasah." 

They said, "What is al-Jassasah?" 

It said, "O people, go to this man in the monastery, for he is very eager to know about you." 


Tamim said that when it named a person to us, we were afraid lest it be a devil.

"Tamim said, 'We quickly went to the monastery. There we found a huge man with his hands tied up to his neck and with iron shackles between his legs up to the ankles. 

We said, "Woe to you, who are you?" 

He said, "You will soon know about me. Tell me who you are." 

We said, "We are people from Arabia. We sailed in a ship, but the waves have been tossing us about for a month, and they brought us to your island, where we met a beast who was so hairy that we could not tell its front from its back. We said to it, "Woe to you! What are you? and it said , "I am al-Jassasah." We asked, "What is al-Jassasah?" and it told us, "Go to this man in the monastery, for he is very eager to know about you." So we came to you quickly, fear in that it might be a devil.'

"The man said, "Tell me about the date-palms of Baysan.' 

We said, 'What do you want to know about them?" 

He said, 'I want to know whether these trees bear fruit or not.' 

We said, 'Yes.' 

He said, 'Soon they will not bear fruit.' 

Then he said, "Tell me about the lake of al-Tabariyyah [Tiberias, in Palestine].' 

We said, 'What do you want to know about it?" 

He asked, 'Is there water in it?' 

We said, 'There is plenty of water in it.' 

He said, 'Soon it will become dry.' 

Then he said, 'Tell me about the spring of Zughar.' 

We said, 'What do you want to know about it?' 

He said, 'Is there water in it, and does it irrigate the land?" 

We said, 'Yes, there is plenty of water in it, and the people use it to irrigate the land.'

"Then he said, "Tell me about the unlettered Prophet ' what has he done?' 

We said, 'He has left Makkah and settled in Yathrib.' 

He asked, 'Do the Arabs fight against him?' 

We said, 'Yes.' 

He said, 'How does he deal with them?' 


So we told him that the Prophet had overcome the Arabs around him and that they had followed him. 


He asked, 'Has it really happened?' 

We said, 'Yes.' 

He said, 'It is better for them if they follow him. Now I will tell you about myself. I am the Dajjal. I will soon be permitted to leave this place: I will emerge and travel about the earth. In 40 nights I will pass through every town, except Makkah and Madinah, for these have been forbidden to me. Every time I try to enter either of them, I will be met by an angel bearing an unsheathed sword, who will prevent me from entering. There will be angels guarding them at every passage leading to them.'

Fatimah said, "The Prophet striking the pulpit with his staff, said: 'This is Tayyibah, this is Tayyibah, this is Tayyibah, [ie Madinah]. Have I not told you something like this?'  

The people said, 'Yes.' 

He said, 'I liked the account given to me by Tamim because it agrees with that which I have told you about the Dajjal, and about Makkah and Madinah. Indeed he is in the Syrian sea or the Yemen sea. No, on the contrary, he is in the East, he is in the East, he is in the East' and he pointed towards the East.' "

Fatimah said: "I memorized this from the Prophet."


(Sahih Muslim, Book 41, No. 7028)

Narrated Jabirbin Abdullah:

The Apostle of Allah (peace be upon him) said one day from the pulpit: "When some people were sailing in the sea, their food was finished. An island appeared to them. They went out seeking bread. They were met by the Jassasah (the Dajjal's spy)."

 I said to Abu Salamah: "What is the Jassasah?" 

He replied: "A woman trailing the hair of her skin and of her head. She said: 'In this castle.' 

He then narrated the rest of the (No. 4311) tradition. He asked about the palm-trees of Baysan and the spring of Zughar. He said: 'He is the Dajjal.'

Ibn Salamah said to me: "There is something more in this tradition, which I could not remember." 

He said: "Jabir testified that it was he who was Ibn Sayyad." 

I said: "He died". 

He said: "Let him die." 

I said: "He accepted Islam." 

He said: "Let him accept Islam." 

I said: "He entered Medina." 

He said: "Let him enter Medina."


(Sunan Abu-Dawud, Book 37, Number 4314)



Details of the Dajjal


The wife of the Messenger of Allah, Hafsah daughter of 'Umar, said that the Messenger of Allah said, "He (the Dajjal) will appear driven by a fit of rage." He also said, "He (the Dajjal) will first appear to people, driven in a fit of rage" 




Jabirbin Abdullah said,


“The Prophet said, ‘The Dajjal will appear at the end of time, when religion is taken lightly. He will have 40 days in which to travel throughout the earth. One of these days will be like a year, another will be like a month, and another will be like a week, and the rest will be like normal days. He will be riding a (white) donkey (this could possibly an airplane) (made of iron); the width between its ears (possibly wings) will be 40 cubits (60 feet). He will say to the people: “I am your lord.” He is one eyed, but your Lord is not one eyed. On his forehead will be written the word Kaffir, and every believer, literate or illiterate, will be able to read it. He will go everywhere except Makkah and Madinah, which Allah has forbidden to him; angels stand at their gates. He will have a mountain of bread, and the people will face hardship, except for those who follow him. He will have 2 rivers, and I know what is in them. He will call one Paradise and one Hell. Whoever enters the one he calls Paradise will find that it is Hell, and whoever enters the one he calls Hell will find that it is Paradise. Allah will send with him devils that will speak to the people. He will bring a great tribulation; he will issue a command to the sky and it will seem to the people as if it is raining. Then he will appear to kill someone and bring him back to life. After that he will no longer have this power. The people will say, “Can anybody do something like this except the Lord?” The Muslims will flee to Jabal al-Dukhan in Syria, and the Dajjal will come and besiege them. The siege will intensify and they will suffer great hardship.


Then ‘Eyssa bin Maryam will descend, and will call the people at dawn: “O people, what prevented you from coming out to fight this evil liar?” 

They will answer, “He is a jinn.”  


Then they will go out, and find ‘Eyssa bin Maryam. The time for prayer will come, and the Muslims will call on ‘Eyssa to lead the prayer, but he will say, “Let your Imam lead the prayer.” Their Imam will lead them in praying (the morning prayer), and then they will go out to fight the Dajjal. When the liar sees ‘Eyssa, he will dissolve like salt in water. ‘Eyssa will go to him and kill him, and he will not let anyone who followed him live.’




Note: In the above narration we are informed of a "white donkey" that's made of iron, and the width between it's ears is 40 cubits. Undoubtedly one can say this is a white airplane made of iron and the width between it's wings is 60 feet. If this were true, then we need to determine what airplane is white and has a wingspan of 60 feet. Fortunately, I have located only one plane that matches this description:



This jet is both white, and has a 60 ft. wingspan, and it is the only one I could find that matches this description. Therefore, it is very possible that this is indeed the exact type of aircraft the Dajjal will ride.



‘Abdullah bin Masood narrates that the Prophet said, “The distance between the ears of Dajjal’s donkey is 40 cubits and its single step is equal to 3 days journey. He will board his donkey and enter the seas like you enter a narrow pipe riding upon a horse…”

(Nu’aym bin Hammad, Kitab al-Fitan)



The Prophet said:

"The Dajjal uses a special kind of donkey possessing two enormous ears, each of which is at least 30 arms-lengths, moving in the skies, with the clouds so near he can reach them with his hand and it travels faster than the sun going to its sunset."

(Mentioned in Kanz ul-`Ummal and `Uqd ad-Durrar, Imam al-Maqdisi.)


The Prophet said, regarding the Dajjal's donkey:

"He eats rocks and a mountain of smoke precedes him and people ride inside him, and not on his back."


Another version has:


"In front of him is something like a mountain of smoke and behind him something like a green mountain, calling to men in a loud voice, 'come to me, my sincere ones, my saints, come to me my lovers, come to me I am going to create for you everything good.'"


(al-Hakim and Ibn Asakir)



Abu Hurayrah narrated that the Messenger of Allah said,


"The False Messiah will appear from the east heading towards Medina until it reaches (the area) behind (the mount of) 'Uhud. Afterwards the Angels will (force him to) turn his face towards al-Sham, and there he will perish."


(Ahmad and Sahih Muslim, Book 7, No. 3187)



Abu Hurayrah narrated that the Messenger of Allah said,


"On every pass near Medina there are Angels (guarding it). Plagues and the Dajjal will not enter Medina."


(Malik, Ahmad, Bukharai, Muslim; see mukhtasar sahih Muslim, no. 781)


Anas bin Malik said that the Messenger of Allah said,


"There is not a city but will be overwhelmed by the Dajjal, except Mecca and Medina. Every pass that leads to them will be surrounded and guarded by Angels. He (Dajjal) will make camp close to the Sabkhah (salty marsh). Then, Medina will experience 3 earth tremors, after which every disbeliever and hypocrite will leave it to join him."


(Bukhari and al-Nasa, Ibid. No. 2055)


Reported by Imran,bin Hussain in the reference of Nawawi, "Gardens of Righteousness", the Messenger of Allah said:


"When the Dajjal appears, a believer will set out towards him and encounter his guards. 

They will ask: 'Where are you going?' 

He will reply: 'I am going to the one who has appeared.' 

They will ask him: 'Don't you believe in our lord!' 

He will reply: 'Our Lord has no secrecy.' 

Then some will say to the other: 'Let us kill him!' 

But they will say: 'Hasn't your lord forbidden you to kill anyone without his order?' 


So they will take him to the Dajjal. 


When the believer sees him he will call out: 'O people, this is the Dajjal who was mentioned by the Messenger of Allah!' 


Upon this the Dajjal will command them to kill him, and inflate his back and stomach. 


Then he will ask the man: 'don’t you still believe in me?" 

But he will reply: 'You are the Dajjal.' 


Then the Dajjal will order him to be sawn in half, through his skull to the top of his legs. After this the Dajjal will step between the two parts of his body and address them saying: 'Rise up!' whereupon the man will become whole and stand up. 


The Dajjal will question him again: 'Do you believe in me?' 

But the man will answer: 'I have only learned more about you!' 

And he will turn to the people and say: 'Now, he will be unable to do anything to anyone!' 


So the Dajjal will seize him in order to kill him but Allah will make his neck from its base upwards to be as if it were made of brass and the Dajjal will be rendered incapable of killing him. Thereafter he will take hold of his arms and legs and throw him. People will think that the Dajjal has thrown him into the fire, but instead he will be thrown into Paradise."


The Messenger of Allah, praise and peace be upon him, added: "This man will be the one of the greatest martyr in rank before the Lord of the Worlds."


(Abu Sa'id Khudri)


Note: This believer is said to be the Khidr.



Narrated Umm Sharik:


I heard Allah's Apostle (peace be upon him) said: "The people would run away from the Dajjal seeking shelter in the mountains." 

She said: "Where would be the Arabs then on the day?" 

He said: "They would be small in number."


(Sahih Muslim, Book 41, No. 7035)



It was reported that Ibn ‘Umar (may Allah be pleased with him) said:


The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) said: “The Dajjal will come to this pond in Marriqanaat – a valley in Madinah – and most of those who go out to him will be women, until a man will come to his mother in law, his mother, his daughter, his sister and his aunt, and will tie them up strongly for fear that they will go out to him.”


(Narrated by Ahmad, no. 5099)


Abu Umamah al-Bahili said, "The Prophet (S) delivered a speech to us, most of which dealt with the Dajjal and warned us against him. He said, 'No tribulation on earth since the creation of Adam will be worse than the tribulation of the Dajjal. Allah has never sent a Prophet who did not warn his Ummah against the Dajjal. I am the last of the Prophets, and you are the last Ummah. The Dajjal is emerging among you and it is inevitable. If he appears while I am still among you, I will contend with him on behalf of every Muslim. But if he appears after I am gone, then every person must contend with him on his own behalf, and Allah will take care of every Muslim on my behalf. He will appear on the way between Syria and Iraq, and will spread disaster right and left. O servants of Allah, adhere to the path of Truth. I shall describe him for you in a way that no Prophet has ever done before.

He will start by saying that he is a Prophet, but there will be no Prophet after me. Then he will say, "I am your Lord," but you will never see your Lord until you die. The Dajjal is one-eyed, but your Lord, glorified be He, is not one-eyed. On his forehead will be written the word Kafir, which every Muslim, literate or illiterate, will be able to read. Among the tribulations he will bring will be the Paradise and Hell he will offer; but that which he calls Hell will be Paradise, and that which he calls Paradise will be Hell. Whoever enters his Hell, let him seek refuge with Allah and recite the opening Ayat of Surat al-Kahf, and it will become cool and peaceful for him, as the fire became cool and peaceful for Abraham.

"He will say to a Bedouin, What do you think if I bring your father and mother back to life for you? Will you bear witness that I am your lord? The Bedouin will say Yes, so two devils will assume the appearance of his father and mother, and will say, "O my son, follow him for he is your lord."

"He will be given power over one person, whom he will kill and cut in two with a saw. Then he will say, Look at this slave of mine, now I will resurrect him, but he will still claim that he has a Lord other than me. Allah will resurrect him, and this evil man (the Dajjal) will say to him, Who is your Lord? The man will answer, My Lord is Allah, and you are the enemy of Allah. You are the Dajjal. By Allah, I have never been more sure of this than I am today."

Abu Sa'id said, "The Prophet (S) said, 'That man will have the highest status among my Ummah in Paradise. '

Abu Sa'id said, "By Allah, we never thought that that man would be any other than 'Umarbin al-Khattdb, until he passed away."

Al-Muhdribi said: 'Then we referred to the Hadith of Abu Rafi'i, which said, "Part of his Fitnah 'will be the fact that he will pass through an area whose people will deny him, and none of their livestock will remain alive. Then he will pass through a second area whose people will believe in him; he will order the sky to rain and the earth to bring forth crops, and their flocks will return from grazing fatter than they have ever been, with their flanks stretched, their udders full. He will pass through every place on earth - except Makkah and Madinah, which he will never enter, for there are angels guarding every gate of them with unsheathed swords until he reaches al-Zarib al-Ahmar and camps at the edge of the salt-marsh. Madinah will be shaken by three tremors, after which every Munafiq (hypocrite) will leave it, and it will be cleansed of evil, as iron is cleansed of dross. That day will be called Yawm al-Khalas (The Day of Purification)."'

Umm Sharik bint Abi'l-'Akr said , "O Messenger of Allah, where will the Arabs be at that time?" 

He said, "At that time they will be few; most of them will be in Bayt al-Maqdis (Jerusalem), and their Imam will be a righteous man. Whilst their Imam is going forward to lead the people in praying Salat al-Subh (the morning prayer), 'Eyssa bin Maryam will descend. The Imam will step back, to let 'Eyssa lead the people in prayer, but 'Eyssa will place his hand between the man's shoulders and say, 'Go forward and lead the prayer, for the Iqamah was made for you.' So the Imam will lead the people in prayer, and afterwards 'Eyssa (AS) will say, 'Open the gate.' The gate will be opened, and behind it will be the Dajjal and a thousand Jews, each of them bearing a sword and shield. When the Dajjal sees 'Eyssa, he will begin to dissolve like salt in water, and will run away. 'Eyssa will say, 'You will remain alive until I strike you with my sword.' He will catch up with him at the eastern gate of Ludd and will kill him. The Jews will be deflated with the help of Allah. There will be no place for them to hide; they will not be able to hide behind any stone, wall, animal or tree - except the boxthorn (al-Gharqarah) - without it saying, 'O Muslim servant of Allah! here is a Jew, come and kill him!"' 

The Prophet (S) said, "The time of the Dajjal will be forty years; one year like half a year, one year like a month, and one month like a week. The rest of his days will pass so quickly that if one of you were at one of the gates of Madinah, he would not reach the other gate before evening fell."

Someone asked, "O Messenger of Allah, how will we pray in those shorter days?" He said, "Work out the times of prayer in the same way that you do in these longer days, and then pray."  

The Prophet (S) said, "'Eyssa bin Maryam will be a just administrator and leader of my Ummah. He will break the cross kill the pigs, and abolish the Jizyah (tax on non-Muslims). He will not collect the Sadaqah, so he will not collect sheep and camels. Mutual enmity and hatred will disappear.

Every harmful animal will be made harmless, so that a small boy will be able to put his hand into a snake's mouth without being harmed, a small girl will be able to make a lion run away from her, and a wolf will go among sheep as if he were a sheepdog. The earth will be filled with peace as a container is filled with water. People will be in complete agreement, and only Allah will be worshipped. Wars will cease, and the authority of Quraysh will be taken away. The earth will be like a silver basin, and will produce fruit so abundantly that a group of people will gather to eat a bunch of grapes or one pomegranate and will be satisfied. A bull will be worth so much money, but a horse will be worth only a few dirhams."

Someone asked, "O Messenger of Allah, why will a horse be so cheap?" 

He said, "Because it will never be ridden in war."  

He was asked, "Why will the bull be so expensive?" 

He said, "Because it will plough the earth. For three years before the Dajjal emerges, the people will suffer severe hunger. In the first year, Allah will order the sky to withhold a third of its rain, and the earth to withhold two-thirds of its fruits. In the third year, He will order the sky to withhold all of its rain, and the earth to withhold all of its fruits, so that nothing green will grow. Every cloven-hoofed creature will die except for whatever Allah wills."  

Someone asked, "How will the people live at that time?" 

He said, "By saying La ilaha illa Allah, Allahu Akbar, Subhan Allah and Al-Hamdu-li'llah. This will be like food for them."


(Ibn Majah, Kitib al-Fitan, (Hadith 4077), 2: 1363.)

is is the answer to the question.]

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The Messiah 'Eyssa  ("Jesus")bin Maryam (Mary)


And there is none of the People of the Scriptures but must believe in him before his death; And on the Day of Judgment he will be a witness against them; (4:159)  


Narrated Abu Hurayrah:


"I swear by Him in whose hand is my soul, thebin Maryam shall descend among you and judge mankind justly (as a Just Ruler). Then he will break the Cross, and kill the swine and put an end to war (in another Tradition, there is the word Jizyah (tax) instead of war, meaning that he will abolish of jizyah); then there will be such abundance of wealth that nobody will like to accept it, and (conditions will be such that) performing of one sajdah (prostration) before Allah will be considered better than the world and what it contains."

Abu Hurayrah added, "If you wish, you can recite (this verse of the Holy Book): -- 'And there is none Of the people of the Scriptures but must believe in him before his death. And on the Day of Judgment he will be a witness against them;'" (See Fateh Al Bari, Page 302, Vol. 7)


(Sahih Bukhari, Vol. 4, Book 5, No. 657 and Muslim).


Note: Abu Hurayrah, in the above hadith, makes reference to the Qur'anic ayat (4:159) as meaning that 'Eyssa is yet to die, but is going to, and therefore indicating he is going to return and die before the Day of Judgment.



Ibn Mas'ud reported that the Prophet (upon whom be blessings and peace) said:


"On the night of the 'Isra (night journey), I met my father Abraham, Moses and 'Eyssa, and they discussed the Hour. The matter was referred first to Abraham, then to Moses, and both said, 'I have no knowledge of it'. Then it was referred to 'Eyssa, who said, 'No-one knows about its timing except Allah; what my Lord told me was that the Dajjal will appear, and when he sees me he will begin to melt like lead. Allah will destroy him when he sees me. The Muslims will fight against the Kaffirs, and even the trees and rocks will say, "O Muslim, there is a Kaffir hiding beneath me - come and kill him!" Allah will destroy the Kaffirs, and the people will return to their own lands. Then Gog and Magog will appear from all directions, eating and drinking everything they find. The people will complain to me, so I will pray to Allah and He will destroy them, so that the earth will be filled with their stench. Allah will send rain which will wash their bodies into the sea. My Lord has told me that when that happens, the Hour will be very close, like a pregnant woman whose time is due, but her family do not know exactly when she will deliver'"


 (Ahmad, Musnad, 1/375 and Ibn Majah)


Note: In this hadith, we can see Prophet 'Eyssa  himself , during his Night Journey to Jerusalem ('Isra) and ascension into Heaven (Mi'raj) of Prophet Muhammad, informing that  he would descend, kill the Dajjal and his followers, and then contend with Gog and Magog.



"Since the world came into existence, at the beginning of every century an important event occurred. At the beginning of one century, the Dajjal will emerge and 'Eyssa, thebin Maryam will descend and kill him."


(Ibn Abi Hatem)



Prayer behind the Mahdi


"What will be your reaction when thebin Mary (Jesus) descends and your Imam is from among yourselves?"


(Sahih Muslim, Sahih Bukhari)  


"What would be your situation if thebin Mary (i.e. Jesus) descends upon you and your Imam is from among you?"




"... then ‘Eyssa bin Maryam will descend. The leader of the Muslims will say to him, 'Come, lead us in the Prayer', but he will say, 'No: you yourselves are leaders over one another." This he will say in view of the honor that Allah has bestowed on this Community."


(Muslim and Ahmad).



Narrated from Ibn Sirin:


"The Mahdi is from this Ummah, and he is the one who will lead 'Eyssa bin Maryam in the prayer."


(Ibn Abi Shaybah)



Narrated Hudhayfah bin al-Yaman:


The Messenger of Allah (upon whom be blessings and peace) said, "The Mahdi will turn around and he will find that 'Eyssa bin Maryam has descended from the sky in two garments, as if water is dripping from his hair. 


So the Mahdi will say to him: 'Come forward and lead the people in prayer.' 

But he will answer: 'The Call to Prayer has been made for you to lead.' 


So he will pray behind a man from my children."


(Abu Nuaym, At-Tabarani, and Abu Amru Ad Dani.)



End of the Dajjal


The Holy Prophet (after making mention of the appearance of the Dajjal) said: "In the meantime, When the Muslims will be making preparations to fight him, will be lining up (for the Prayer) and the lqamah will have been pronounced, ‘Eyssa bin Maryam shall descend and lead them in the Prayer; and the enemy of Allah (i.e. the Dajjal) on seeing him shall start dissolving like salt in water. If ‘Eyssa were to leave him alone, he would melt to death anyway, but Allah will have him killed at his hand, and he will show his blood on his spear to the Muslims."





"Exactly at the time when the Imam of the Muslims will have stepped forward to lead them in the Morning Prayer, ‘Eyssa bin Maryam shall descend upon them. The Imam will step back so that ‘Eyssa may step forward (to lead the Prayer), but ‘Eyssa, placing his hand between his two shoulders, will say, "No, you should lead, for the congregation has assembled to follow you. So, the Imam will lead the Prayer. After the salutation, ‘Eyssa will say, "Open the gate;" so the gate will be opened. Outside there will be the Dajjal along with 70,000 of the armed Jews. As soon as he will look at ‘Eyssa (upon whom be peace) he will start melting like the salt in water, and will flee. ‘Eyssa will say, "I shall strike you a blow which will not let you live." And he will overtake him at the eastern gate of Lod, and Allah will cause the Jews to be defeated.... And the earth will be so filled with the Muslims as a vessel is filled with water. The entire world shall recite and follow one and the same Kalimah (word) and none shall be worshipped except Allah."


(Ibn Majah).



"There is no prophet between me and him (i.e. the Messiah ‘Eyssa bin Maryam), and he shall descend. So, recognize him when you see him. He is a man of medium height, of ruddy and fair complexion; he will be dressed in two yellow garments; the hair of his head will appear as though water was going to trickle down from it, whereas it will not be wet. He will fight people in the cause of Islam, will break the Cross and kill the swine and will abolish jizyah; and Allah will put an end to all communities in his time except Islam; and he will slay the Dajjal; and he will stay in the world for 40 years; then will die and the Muslims will offer the funeral Prayer for him."


(Abu Dawud and Ahmad).


Note: Keep a note that he will bring an "end to all communities in his time except Islam".  


From Ibn Sa'd page 244:

"... and there has been no prophet but he has lived half the life of the prophet preceding him. 'Eyssa thebin Maryam lived for one hundred and twenty five years, and this is the sixty second year of my life." He (prophet) died half the year after this.


Note: In the above hadeeth (although I'm not sure of it's authenticity) it points out that the lifespan of 'Eyssa is 125 years. This may mean that he lived 125 years before his ascension or that his lifespan is 125 years total, including the last 40 years of his life, which he spends in the "end of time". In the case of the latter, 125 - 40 = 85, thus meaning he would have been at the age of  85 when he ascended and when he descends.



The Holy Prophet (while relating the story of the Dajjal) said: "At that time suddenly ‘Eyssa bin Maryam (on whom be peace) shall appear among the Muslims. Then the people will stand up for the Prayer, and he will be asked, 'Step forward, O Spirit of Allah (and lead us in the Prayer); but he will say, 'No: your own leader should step forward and lead the Prayer.' Then, after offering the Morning Prayer, the Muslims shall go forth to fight the Dajjal.' He said, 'When the liar will see ‘Eyssa, he will start dissolving like the salt in water. Then ‘Eyssa will advance towards him and will slay him; and it will so happen that the trees and the stones will cry out: 'O Spirit of Allah, here is a Jew (and/or disbeliever) hiding behind me.' None will be left from among the followers of the Dajjal, whom he (i.e. ‘Eyssa) will not kill."




What we can now conclude about 'Eyssa's return to Earth is that:

  • He would descend during the morning just before Fajr Prayer (the Morning Prayer)

  • He would bring an end to all communities except Islam.


"In the mean time when the Dajjal will be busy doing this and this, Allah will send down the Messiah bin Maryam, and he will descend in the eastern part of Damascus, near the white minaret (tower), dressed in the two yellow garments, with his hands resting on the arms of two angels. When he will bend down his head, water drops will appear trickling down, and when he will raise it, it will appear as though pearl--like drops are rolling down. Any disbeliever whom the air of his breath reaches--and it will reach up to the last limit of his sight will fall dead. Then thebin Maryam will go in pursuit of the Dajjal, and will overtake him at the gate of Lod, and will kill him."


(Muslim, Abu Dawud: Kitab, Tirmidhi, Ibn Majah).


The white minaret in the eastern part of Damascus where 'Eyssa will descend:



"The Dajjal will appear in my Ummah (nation), and will live for forty (I do not know whether he said 40 days, or 40 months or 40 years). Then Allah will send ‘Eyssa bin Maryam. He will closely resemble 'Urwah bin Mas'ud (a Companion). He will pursue him and kill him. Then for seven years the people will live in such a state that no ill-will and enmity will exist between any two of them."





"Then in the morning ‘Eyssa bin Maryam will join the Muslims, and Allah will cause the Dajjal and his hosts to be routed, until the walls and the roots of the trees will call 'out: "O believer, here is a disbeliever hidden behind me: come and kill him."


(Ahmad, Hakem).



"Then ‘Eyssa (on whom be peace) will descend, and Allah will cause the Dajjal to be killed near the mountain pass of Afiq."





"How will you be when thebin Maryam (i.e. ‘Eyssa) descends amongst you and he will judge people by the law of the Quran and not by the law of Gospel."





Pronunciation of Talbiyah


"‘Eyssa bin Maryam shall descend; then he will kill the swine and destroy the Cross; and a congregation will be held for him for the Prayer; and he will distribute so much wealth that people will be satiated with it; and he will abolish the tribute; and he will encamp at Rauha', and from there will go to perform Hajj or 'Umrah, or both."




"By Him in Whose Hand is my life;bin Maryam (‘Eyssa) would certainly pronounce Talbiyah for Hajj or for Umrah or for both (simultaneously as a Qarin) in the valley of Rawha."




Marriage, Children, and Death 


Allah’s Apostle said: "After his descent on earth, Hadhrat ‘Eyssa will marry. He will have children, and he will remain on earth 19 years after marriage. He will pass away and Muslims will perform his (funeral prayers) and bury him next to the Messenger of Allah (Muhammad; referring to himself)."





Allah’s Prophet said: "Hadhrat Messiah will die after completing the duration he was destined to pass in the world and that Muslims would offer his funeral prayers and bury him next to the grave of the holy Prophet, Hadhrat Abu Bakr and Hadhrat Umar."


(Mishkat, P. 480)

 to the question.]

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Yajuj and Majuj (Gog and Magog)


"Until the Yajuj and Majuj (people) Are let through (their barrier), And they swiftly swarm From every hill.  Then will the True Promise Draw nigh (of fulfillment): Then behold! the eyes Of the Unbelievers will Fixedly stare in horror: 'Ah! Woe to us! we were indeed Heedless of this; nay; we Truly did wrong!'  (21:96-97) 

Narrated An-Nawwas bin Sam'an:


Allah's Apostle (peace be upon him) mentioned of the Dajjal one day in the morning. He sometimes described him as insignificant and sometimes described (his turmoil) as very significant (and we felt) as if he were in the cluster of the date-palm trees.


When we went to him (to the Holy Prophet) in the evening and he read (the signs of fear) on our faces, he said: "What is the matter with you?" 

We said: "Allah's Apostle (peace be upon him) you mentioned the Dajjal this morning (sometimes describing him) as insignificant and sometimes very important, until we began to think he was present in some (nearly) part of the cluster of the date-palm trees." 

So he said: "I harbor fear in regard to you in so many other things besides the Dajjal. If he comes forth while I am among you, I shall contend with him on your behalf, but if he comes forth while I am not among you, a man must contend on his own behalf and Allah will take care of every Muslim on my behalf (and safeguard him against his evil). He (the Dajjal) will be a young man with twisted, cropped hair, and a blind eye. I compare him with AbdulUzza bin Qatan. He who among you will survive to see him should recite over him the opening verses of Surah al-Kahf (xviii). He will appear on the way between Syria and Iraq and will spread mischief right and left. O servant of Allah! Adhere (to the path of Truth)."

We said: "Allah's Apostle (peace be upon him), how long will he stay on Earth?" 

He said: "For forty days, one day like a year, one day like a month, one day like a week, and the rest of the days will be like your days." We said: "Allah's Apostle (peace be upon him) will one day's prayer suffice for the prayers of the day equal to one year?" 

Thereupon he said: "No, but you must make an estimate of the time (and then observe prayer)."

We said: "Allah's apostle (peace be upon him) how quickly will he walk upon the earth?" 

Thereupon he said: "Like cloud driven by the wind. He will come to the people and invite them (to a wrong religion); they will affirm their faith in him and respond to him. He will then give a command to the sky: there will be rainfall upon the Earth and it will grow crops. Then in the evening, their pasturing animals will come to them with their humps very high, their udders full of milk and their flanks distended. He will then come to another people and invite them. But they will reject him so he will go away from them; they will have a drought and nothing will be left with them in the form of wealth."

He will then walk through the desert and say to it: 'Bring forth your treasures.' The treasures will come out and gather before him like a swarm of bees. He will then call someone in the flush of youth, strike him with the sword, cut him into two pieces and (make these pieces lie at the distance, which is generally between the archer and his target."

He will then call (that young man) and he will come forward laughing with his face gleaming (with happiness). It will, at this very time that Allah will send the Messiah,bin Maryam. He will descend at the white minaret on the eastern side of Damascus, wearing two garments lightly dyed with saffron and placing his hands on the wings of two Angels. When he lowers his head, there will fall beads of perspiration from his head, and when he raises it up, beads like pearls will scatter from it. Every non-believer who smells the odor of his body will die and his breath will reach as far as he is able to see. He will then search for him (Dajjal) until he catches hold of him at the gate of Ludd and kills him. Then a people whom Allah had protected will come to ‘Eyssa,bin Maryam, and he will wipe their faces and inform them of their ranks in Paradise. It will be under such conditions that Allah will reveal to ‘Eyssa these words: I have brought forth from among My servants such people against whom none will be able to fight; you take these people safely to Tur, and then Allah will send Gog and Magog and they will swarm down from every slope. The first of them will pass the lake of Tiberias and drink out of it. And when the last of them passes, he will say: 'There was once water there.'"

‘Eyssa and his companions will then be besieged here (at Tur, and they will be so hard pressed) that the head of the ox will be dearer to them than one hundred dinars. Allah's Apostle (peace be upon him), ‘Eyssa, and his companions will supplicate Allah, Who will send to them insects (which will attack their necks) and in the morning they would perish as one single person. Allah's Apostle (peace be upon him), ‘Eyssa, and his companions, then come down to Earth and they will not find on Earth as much space as a single span that is not filled with putrefaction and stench. Allah's Apostle (peace be upon him), ‘Eyssa, and his companions will then beseech Allah who will send birds whose necks would be like those of Bactrian camels and they will carry them away and throw them where Allah wills."

Then Allah will send rain, which no house of mud-bricks or (tent of) camelhair will keep out and it will wash the Earth until it resembles a mirror. Then the Earth will be told to bring forth its fruit and restore its blessing and, as a result thereof, there will grow (such a big) pomegranate that a group of people will be able to eat it and seek shelter under its skin, a dairy cow will give so much milk that a whole party will be able to drink it. The milking camel will give such (a large quantity of) milk that the whole tribe will be able to drink from it, and the milking-sheep will give so much milk that the whole family will be able to drink from it. At that time Allah will send a pleasant wind, which will soothe (people) even under their armpits. He will take the life of every Muslim and only the wicked will survive who will commit adultery like Asses and the Last Hour would come to them."


(Muslim Book No: 40 No: 7015)



The Messenger of Allah said, "For seven years Muslims will build fires with Gog and Magog's bows and arrows."


(Muslim and al-Tirmidhi; silsilah al-ahathith al-sahihah, no. 1924 and al-jami al-saghir, no. 3673)



It was reported from Abu Hurayrah that the Prophet (upon whom be blessings and peace) said,


"The hour will not come until there has been rain which will destroy all dwellings except tents".

(Ahmad, 2/262.)  


Narrated Abu Said Al-Khudri:


The Prophet said, "The people will continue performing the Hajj and 'Umra to the Ka’bah even after the appearance of Gog and Magog."


(Bukhari Volume No: 2 Book No: 26 No: 663)


Note: Gog and Magog are generally believed to be the wild tribes of Central and Northeastern Asia including the Tartars, Mongols, Huns, and Scythians. This is False! This belief contradicts with many Sayings of the Prophet. Gog and Magog (Yajuj and Majuj) are hidden people from us. For a detailed account and history of Gog and Magog, go here

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New Fitna


Narrated from Ka'b:


"The Mahdi will die a normal death. Then the people will be ruled after him by a man from his household who has both good and evil in him, but whose evil is more than his good. He will make the people angry, and call them to division after their unity. He will remain a short while, for a man from his household will rise up against him and kill him. After him, the people will fight each other fiercely, and the one who killed him will remain a short while and then die a normal death. Then they will be ruled by a man from Mudhar, from the east. He will make the people commit kufr, and cause them to go out of their religion. He will fight the people of Yemen fiercely between the two rivers, but Allah will defeat him and those who are with him."


Narrated from Artah:


"He will live long and become oppressive. He will be heavily guarded towards the end of his time. He and those with him will become so wealthy that the thinnest of them is as fat as the fattest of the rest of the Muslims. He will abolish ways that were known, and innovate things that were unknown. Adultery will be openly committed, and wine will be drunk in public.

He will intimidate the scholars until a man will ride his horse and travel to a town and not find a single man that will relate a hadith of knowledge. Al-Islam will become in his time something strange, as it was when it began. On that day, the one who holds onto his religion will be like one grasping a burning coal.

His situation will become such that he will send a slave girl to the markets, walking in gold slippers accompanied by guards, and wearing a garment that does not conceal her from the front or the back. If a man were to speak a single word against that, he would be beheaded."


(Nu'aym bin Hammad, Kitab al-Fitan, No. 118-119)


The Makhzumi


Narrated from az-Zuhri:


"The Mahdi will die a normal death, then after him the people will fall into trials. A man from Banu Makhzum will come to them, be given the bay'ah, and he will remain for some time. Then he will withhold people's provision, and will find no-one daring to object. Then he will withhold people's pensions, and will again find no-one daring to object.

He will settle in Bayt al-Maqdis, and he and his companions will become very immoral and disreputable. Their women will walk in sandals decorated with gold and in garments that do not cover them, and no-one will dare object to it.

He will order the expulsion of the people of Yemen: Qudha'ah, Mudhhaj, Hamdan, Himyar, al-Azd, Ghassan, and everyone else who is said to be from Yemen. He will drive them out until they settle in the woods of Palestine, where groups from Judays, Lakhm, Judham, and the people from those mountains will bring them food and drink and provide relief for them, as Yusuf was a means of relieving his brothers.

Then a caller from the sky, neither human nor jinn, will announce: "Give the bay'ah to so-and-so, and do not turn back on your heels after emigrating." So they will look, but they will not know who called. He will announce it again three times. Then they will give the bay'ah to the Mansoor, who will send a delegation of ten men to the Makhzumi, who will kill nine of them and leave one. Then he will send five, and he will kill four and let one go. Then he will send three, and he will kill two and leave one. Then he [i.e. the Mansoor] will go to him [i.e. the Makhzumi], and Allah will make him victorious over him. Allah will cause him [i.e. the Makhzumi] to be killed as well as those with him, and none will escape except those who flee. He will not leave a single Qurashi without killing him, so that if one were to look for a single Qurashi he would not find one, as today one might look for a man from Jurhum and similarly no find him. Likewise will Quraysh be killed, until none of them are found afterwards."


(Nu'aym bin Hammad, Kitab al-Fitan, No. 121)

Note: This mentions the Mansoor as taking power after the Mahdi. However, in another hadith (as mentioned earlier), it says that the Mansoor is the one who helps establish the Mahdi's government. We've already established that the Mansoor is the same as Shu'ayb bin Salih in that narration. In this case, it cannot be the same person, as it takes place a while after the Mahdi's death, and likewise after 'Eyssa bin Maryam's death as well. Therefore, this Mansoor cannot be the same Mansoor that helped the Mahdi, and therefore, must be a completely different person. This Mansoor may be the Mansoor that descends from the Prophet's household (as mentioned in another hadith), whereas the one with the Mahdi, descended from people of Tamim.



Abu Hurayrah said,


“The Prophet said, ‘Day and night will not come to an end until a freedman called Jahjah holds sway.’




Narrated from Ka'b:


"He will fight the people of Yemen very fiercely between the two rivers, but Allah will defeat him and those with him. The people of the east [i.e. the followers of the Makhzumi] and those with him will be terrified at the sight of all of the dead bodies thrown into the river, and they will realize that they have been defeated.

So their [i.e. the people of Yemen's] rider will go to Yemen, while they are camped between the two rivers, and Allah [ta'ala] will give victory to him and those with him. So the people's affairs will be righted, and they will enjoy a happy unity. Then they will go until they settle in ash-Sham, where they will remain for a long time under a righteous rule.

Then Qays will rise up against them, so the people of Yemen will kill them until one would think that no-one from Qays is left alive, then a man from the people of Yemen will stand up and say: "Fear Allah regarding your brothers! Fear Allah regarding those who are left!"

Then the remnants of Qays will go until they settle between the two rivers, where they will assemble a great gathering, and appoint as their ruler a man from Banu Makhzum. Then the ruler of Yemen will die, and Qays will rejoice at his death. The Makhzumi will go forward, until when the last of them has crossed the Euphrates, the Makhzumi will die.

So Yemen will go back to its borders, and Qays to its borders. The mawali will be angry about that, and on that day, they will be the majority of people. So they will say: "Come, let us appoint as our ruler a man from the people of the religion." So they will send a group from the people of Yemen, a group from Mudhar, and a group from the mawali to Bayt al-Maqdis, where they will recite the Book of Allah and ask Him to guide them to the correct choice. So that group will return, having appointed as their ruler a man from the mawali, and woe to the people of ash-Sham and its land from his rule!

So he will go to Mudhar, intending to fight them. Then he will send a man from the people of the west, heavily built and broad shouldered, who will kill whoever he meets in battle until he enters Bayt al-Maqdis. Then he will be injured by a horse and die. At that time, the world will be in the worst state that it has ever been.

Then a man will rule after him from the people of Mudhar who will kill the righteous people, an accursed and evil man. Then, al-Mudhari al-'Umani al-Qahtaani will rule. He will live by the example of his brother the Mahdi, and at his hands the city of the Romans will be conquered."

Abu 'Abdullah Nu'aym bin Hammad said: "He will come from a town called Yakla, a short distance behind San'a'. His father is from Quraysh and his mother is from


(Nu'aym bin Hammad, Kitab al-Fitan, No. 122)

Note: It mentions the conquerer of the Romans' city not being the Mahdi, but by another individual altogether, describing him as being half-Qurayshi, and half-Yemeni. This individual appears to be the Qahtaani, as in another hadith, it says the Qahtaani lives by the Mahdi's example (as seen below). However, that hadith says, the conquerer is from the Ahl ul-Bayt (household of the Prophet), and comes after the Qahtaani. The more authentic and widely reported ahadith, however, say it is the Mahdi who conquers. Sine this disagreement cannot be reconciled, the more authentic version takes precedence, which says that is is the Mahdi who does these things.


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The Qahtaani


O you who believe! If any of you renounce your religion, Allah will bring forward a people whom He loves and who love Him, humble to the believers, fierce to the disbelievers, who strive in the Way of Allah and do not fear the blame of any censurer. That is the grace of Allah which He gives to whoever He wills. And Allah is Boundless, All-Knowing. (Qur’an 5:54)


The Prophet said, “The Hour will not come until a man from Qahtaan appears and rules the people.”




Narrated Abu Hurayrah:


Allah's Apostle said, "The Hour will not be established till a man from Qahtaan appears, driving the people with his stick."





Reported by Mamar:


"The Qahtaani is not lesser than the Mahdi."  


(Nu'aym bin Hammad, Kitab al-Fitan)



Reported by Jabir bin Majid As Sadafi:


The Prophet, upon whom be blessings and peace, said: "After me there will be caliphs, and after the caliphs, princes and after princes, kings, and after kings, tyrants. Then, a man from the Family of my House will come and fill the earth with justice just as it had been filled with transgression. Then, the Prince after him is the Qahtaani and by He who sent me with the Truth he is not lesser than him."


(At-Tabarani (in his large dictionary), Ibn Mandah, Abu Nuaym and Ibn Asakir.)


Note: The above narration clearly establishes that the Qahtaani appears and rules after the Mahdi, and thus, after the bin Maryam. This should remove any doubts about when the Qahtaani would appear and rule in relation to the other events.



Reported from the hadeeth of Dhi Mikhbar, the son of the brother of an-Najaashi, from the Prophet (SAW) that he said,


"This matter used to be amongst the red-skinned people but Allah removed it from them and placed it amongst the Quraysh but it shall return to them."



Narrated from Artah:


"It has reached me that the Mahdi will live for forty years, then he will die on his bed. Then a man from Qahtaan will come, with pierced ears, who will live according to the example of the Mahdi. He will remain for twenty years and then he will die, killed by the sword. Then a man will come from the household of the Prophet [sallallahu 'alayhi wa-sallam], rightly guided and of good example, who will conquer the city of Caesar. He will be the last leader from the Ummah of Muhammad [sallallahu 'alayhi wa-sallam]. During his time, the Dajjal will come out, and during his time, 'Eyssa bin Maryam ['alayhis-salam] will descend."


(Nu'aym bin Hammad, Kitab al-Fitan, No. 122)

Note: Although the Qahtaani does come after the Mahdi, it is not correct that there is another after him, who 'Eyssa descends upon. This is confirmed in other more authentic ahadith, with regards to the Mahdi (mentioned earlier), which confirm it is him who 'Eyssa descends upon, and not someone afterwards. Also note that the individual here, has the same description that other ahadith give to the Mahdi. It may be that they were mistaken to be two different people, and were in fact the same person.


To be correct (i.e. in accordance with the more correct ahadith), there are two ways of interpretting this hadith:


1) "The Mahdi" we are familiar with, is the 3rd individual, and the first individual referred to as "the Mahdi" is someone else.

2) They're both the same, and the correct interpretation of this should be that: "The Mahdi will come from the household of the Prophet, live for 40 years, and of good example, who will conquer the city of Caesar. He will be the last leader from the Ummah of Muhammad. During his time, the Dajjal will come out, and during his time, 'Eyssa bin Maryam will descend. Then a man from Qahtaan will come, with pierced ears, who will live according to the example of the Mahdi. He will remain for 20 years and then"


It appears that (2) is the more correct one, as both share a lot of similarities with each other, as is demonstrated in other ahadith, that discuss the first one, as different from the last.


The fact that it says he lives for 40 years is also an important detail, one which I have already included into my scenario, as well as his 20-year rule, and his 7-year rule. He lives for 40 years after he appears. He rules as the Caliph for the last 20 of those years, the last 7 of which he rules the entire world with 'Eyssa bin Maryam to help and succeed him in doing so.


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Destruction of the Ka’bah


Abdullah bin ‘Amr said,


“I heard the Prophet say, ‘Dhu’l-Suwayqatayn from Abyssinia will destroy the Ka’bah and steal its treasure and Kiswah (cloth covering). It is as if I could see him now: he is bald-headed and has a distortion in his wrists. He will strike the Ka’bah with his spade and pick-axe’.”


(Ahmad, Musnad, 2/220)


Ibn ‘Abbas narrated that the Prophet said,


“It is as if I can see him now: he is black and his legs are widely spaced. He will destroy the Ka’bah stone by stone.”


(Ahmad, Musnad, 1/227)



It is reported from Abdullah bin ‘Umar that the Prophet said,


“Leave the Abyssinians alone so long as they do not disturb you, for no one will recover the treasure of the Ka’bah except Dhu’l-Suwayqatayn from Abyssinia.”


(Abu Dawud, Kitab al-Malahim, (Hadeeth 4287), 11/423)


‘Umar bin al-Khattab reported that he heard the Prophet say:


“The people of Makkah will leave, and only a few people will pass through it. Then it will be resettled and rebuilt; then the people will leave it again, and no one will ever return.”


Narrated Shu'ba extra:


"The Hour (Day of Judgment) will not be established till the Hajj (to the Ka'bah) is abandoned."




Hudhayfah bin al-Yamdn said,


"The Prophet (S) said, 'Islam will become worn out like clothes are, until there will be no-one who knows what fasting, prayer, charity and rituals are. The Qur’an will disappear in one night, and no Ayah will be left on earth (in the hearts of the people). Some groups of old people will be left who will say, "We heard our fathers saying La ilaha illa Allah, so we repeat it."'

Silah asked Hudhayfah, "What will saying La ilaha illa Allah do for them when they do not know what prayer, fasting, ritual and charity are?" Hudhayfah ignored him; then Silah repeated his question three times, and each time Hudayfah ignored him. Finally he answered, “O Silah, it will save them from Hell” and said it three times.


(Ibn Majah.)


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Sun rising in the West


Are they waiting to see if the Angels come to them, or thy Lord (Himself), or certain of the Signs of thy Lord! The day that certain of the Signs of the Lord come, no good will it do to a soul to believe then, if it believed not before nor earned righteousness through its Faith. Say: “Wait ye: we too are waiting” (Qur’an 6:158)


Abu Hurayrah said,


“The Prophet said, ‘The Hour will not come until the sun rises from the West. When the people see it, whoever is living on earth will believe, but that will be the time when, ‘No good will it do to a soul to believe in them then, if it believed not before.’


(Bukhari, Kitab al-Tasfir, 6/73)


It is also reported that Abu Hurayrah said,


“The hour will not be established till the sun rises from the West; and when it rises (from the West) and the people see it, they all will believe. And that is (the time) when ‘No good will it do to a soul to believe in them then.’”


(Bukhari, ibid)


Note: Before the rising of the sun in the west, there is the “Night of three nights”, which the narration has not been located yet.



"The hijra wiill not stop until the end of tauba (repentance).. and tauba (repentance) will not stop until the sun rises in the west." 


("Al-Musnad", Vol.4/99, Abu Dawud, Kitab al-Jihad, Vol.3/7, Hadith 2479, and ad-Darami, Kitab as-Siyyar, Vol.2/239. Albani classifies it as Sahih. See: "Sahih al-Ja'mi' as-Sagheer", Vol.6/186, Hadith 7346.)


Abdullah bin ‘Amr said,


“I memorized a saying from the Prophet, which I have not forgotten since. I heard the Prophet say, ‘The first of the signs (of the Hour) to appear will be the rising of the sun from the West and the appearance of the Beast before the people in the forenoon. Which ever of these two events happens first, the other will follow immediately.’


(Muslim, Kitab al-Fitan, 8/202)


Note: This is to say, these will be the first of the extraordinary signs to appear.

Note: It is also possible, that the Sun rising from the west is the first of the major signs to appear, which would mean it would appear before the Dajjal. 


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The Beast


And when the Word is fulfilled against them (the unjust), We shall produce from the earth a Beast to (face) them: it will speak to them because mankind had no faith in our Signs. (27:82)


Note: The Beast is also a Biblical prophecy figure, and is also given the title "Antichrist" in a some passages, however, the characteristics between the two seem to be very different, as the Biblical Beast, the "Antichrist", is very much like the Dajjal mentioned in the prophetic hadeeths. The similarity between the two is that they both lay claim to divinity at some point. At the same time, the other Biblical figure, the "False Prophet" is also very much like the Dajjal, as they both travel through the Earth, performing miracles to mislead the people. 

If the Beast mentioned in the Qur'an and prophetic hadeeths is the same Beast mentioned in the Bible, then this would place it's advent, as well as the Sun's rise from the west (which is directly connected to it) BEFORE the other major events, such as the appearance of the Dajjal, and the descent of the Messiah and NOT after.


Baridah said:


“The Prophet took me to a place in the desert, near Makkah. It was a dry piece of land surrounded by sand. The prophet said, ‘The Beast will emerge from this place.’ It was a very small area.”


(Ibn Majah, Kitab al-Fitan, (Hadeeth 4267), 2/1352)


Note: In an unknown saying, it says the Beast would emerge 7 days after the Sun initially started rising in the West and setting in the East.



It was reported from Abu Hurayrah that the Prophet said,


“The Beast of the Earth will emerge and will have with it the rod of Moses and the ring of Solomon.”

It was also reported that he said, “(The Beast) will destroy the noses of the unbelievers with the ring, so that people seated around one table will begin to address one another with the words “O Believer!” or “O Unbeliever!”


(Similar Hadeeth narrated by Ibn Majah in Kitab al-Fitan, (Hadeeth 4061), 2 - 1351, 1352 and Ahmad, Musnad, 2 - 295)


Note: It should be noticed, with the very brief description of the Beast in the Prophetic narrations above, that the actual fate of the Beast is not mentioned and there seems to be a similarity between the beast in the Bible and in the Qur'an - that they both seem to mark people on their foreheads. The Dajjal, according to some narrations, also has this mark on his forehead, which says "Kaffir" (Disbeliever).

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The Smoke


Then watch thou for the Day that the sky will Bring forth a kind of Smoke (or mist) Plainly visible. Enveloping the people: This will be a Chastisement Grievous. (44:10-11) 


"Smoke will appear all over the earth which will cause believers to catch something similar to a slight cold, whereas the unbelievers will be hit harder by it. Finally, a cold wind will come and kill all believers, leaving only unbelievers on the earth who will then witness the last hour. The angel Israfil will blow a trumpet, and the resurrection of all human beings will begin."

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Breeze from the South (The "Rapture")


It was reported from Abdullah bin ‘Amr that the Prophet said,


“The Hour will not come until Allah takes away the best people on earth; only the worst of people will be left; they will not know any good or forbid any evil.”





Narrated Uqbah bin Amir:


It has been narrated on the authority of AbdurRahman bin Shamasah al-Mahri who said: I was in the company of Maslamah bin Mukhallad, and Abdullah bin Amr bin 'As was with him. Abdullah said: "The Hour shall come only when the worst type of people are left on the earth. They will be worse than the people of pre-Islamic days. They will receive whatever they ask of Allah."


While we were still sitting, Uqbah bin Amir came and Maslamah said to him: "Uqbah, listen to what Abdullah says." 

Uqbah said: "He knows better so far as I am concerned." 

I heard the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) say: "A group of people from my Ummah will continue to fight in obedience to the Command of Allah, remaining dominant over their enemies. Those who oppose them shall not do them any harm. They will remain in this condition until the Hour overtakes them."

(At this) Abdullah said: "Yes. Then Allah will raise a wind, which will be fragrant like musk and whose touch will be like the touch of silk; (but) it will cause the death of all (faithful) persons, not leaving behind a single person with an iota of faith in his heart. Then only the worst of men will remain to be overwhelmed by the Hour."





 Abdullah bin 'Amr said,


“The Prophet (S) said, 'The Dajjal will appear in my Ummah, and will remain for forty - "I cannot say whether he meant forty days, forty months or forty years." - Then Allah will send ‘Eyssa bin Maryam, who will resemble 'Urwah bin Masud. He will chase the Dajjal and kill him. Then the people will live for seven years during which there will be no enmity between any two persons. Then Allah will send a cold wind from the direction of Syria, which will take the soul of everyone who has the slightest speck of good or faith in his heart. Even if one of you were to enter the heart of a mountain, the wind would reach him there and take his soul. Only the most wicked people will be left; they will be as careless as birds, with the characteristics of beasts, and will have no concern for right and wrong. Satan will come to them in the form of man and will say, "Don't you respond?" They Will say, "What do you order us to do?" He will order them to worship idols, and in spite of that they will have sustenance in abundance, and lead comfortable lives…’”




Note: In Christian Prophecy, there is something similar to this, that is referred to as the "Rapture", which is almost identical to what the "cold wind from Syria" does, except that Christians believe the rapture to occur upon the believers to save them from the tribulation of the antichrist before the return of "Jesus", while Muslim s believe the rapture to occur upon the believers to save them from the destruction of the world on the Day of Judgment after the return of "Jesus". 



Narrated by Aisha:


I heard Allah's Apostle (peace be upon him) said: "The (system) of night and day would not end until the people have taken to the worship of Lat and Uzza."

I said: Allah's Apostle (peace be upon him) I think when Allah has revealed this verse: "He it is Who has sent His Messenger with right guidance, and true religion, so that He may cause it to prevail upon all religions, though the polytheists are averse (to it)" (Qur’an 9:33), it implies that (this promise) is going to be fulfilled.

Thereupon he said: "It would happen as Allah would like. Then Allah would send the sweet fragrant air by which everyone who has even a mustard grain of faith in Him would die and those only would survive who would have no goodness in them. And they would revert to the religion of their forefathers."





Hafiz Ibn-i-Hajar has alluded to a tradition from the Prophet, saying:


"The Doomsday shall not come until things come to such a pass that a woman shall pass through a crowd of men and one of the men will rise and lift her undergarment (as a tail of a she-lamb is lifted) and engage in copulation with her. Seeing such a happening one of the men will say: "It would have been better if you had engaged in intercourse with her in privacy behind a wall." "Then", said the Prophet, "such a man will be as virtuous among those people as Abu Bakr and 'Umar are the most righteous among you."


(Tabrani in Fath-ul-Bari)


Note: A similar incident of "copulation in public" has in fact occurred.



Narrated Abu Hurayrah: Allah's Apostle said,


"The Hour will not be established till the buttocks of the women of the tribe of Daus move while going round Dhi-al-Khalasa."




Note: Dhi-al-Khalasa was the idol of the Daus tribe, which they used to worship in the Pre Islamic Period of ignorance.


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3 Landslides and the Fire in Yemen

Narrated Hudhayfah bin Usayd Ghifari:


Allah's Apostle (peace be upon him) came to us all of a sudden as we were (busy in a discussion) 

He said: "What do you discuss about?" 

(the Companions) said: "We are discussing about the Last Hour."

Thereupon he said: "It will not come until you see ten signs before and (in this connection) he made a mention of the smoke, Dajjal, the beast, the rising of the sun from the west, the descent of ‘Eyssa bin Maryam (Allah be pleased with him), The Gog and Magog, and landslides in three places, one in the east, one in the west and one in Arabia at the end of which fire would burn forth from the Yemen, and would drive people to the place of their assembly."





Narrated Abu Hurayrah: Allah's Apostle said,


"The Hour will not be established till a fire will come out of the land of Hijaz, and it will throw light on the necks of the camels at Busra."


(Sahih Bukhari)



Narrated Abu Hurayrah:


The Apostle of Allah (peace_be_upon_him) said: "The best day on which the sun has risen is Friday; on it Adam was created, on it he was expelled (from Paradise), on it his contrition was accepted, on it he died, and on it the Last Hour will take place. On Friday every beast is on the lookout from dawn to sunrise in fear of the Last Hour, but not jinn and men, and it contains a time at which no Muslim prays and asks anything from Allah but He will give it to him."  

Ka'b said: "That is one day every year." 

So I said: "It is on every Friday." 

Ka'b read the Torah and said: "The Apostle of Allah (peace be upon him) has spoken the truth." 

Abu Hurayrah said: "I met Abdullah bin Salam and told him of my meeting with Ka'b." 

Abdullah bin Salam said: "I know what time it is." 

Abu Hurayrah said: "I asked him to tell me about it. 

Abdullah bin Salam said: "It is at the very end of Friday." 

I asked: "How can it be when the Apostle of Allah (peace be upon him) has said: 'No Muslim finds it while he is praying....' and this is the moment when no prayer is offered." 

Abdullah bin Salam said: "Has the Apostle of Allah ((peace be upon him) not said: 'If anyone is seated waiting for the prayer, he is engaged in the prayer until he observes it.'" 

I said: "Yes, it is so."


(Abu Dawud.)



It was narrated that Sahl bin Sa’d said:


“I heard the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) say, ‘The people will be gathered on the Day of Resurrection on reddish white land like a pure loaf of bread (made from pure fine flour).'" Sahl or someone else said, “It will have no landmarks for anyone (to make use of).”


(Bukhari, 6521)


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