Verbs

Unlike in most languages , verbs are not declined by the form of pronoun or gender.

The root of a regular verb can be derived by removing -uka of the infinitive.

 Verb Root
kaļiquka (to play) kaļiq
pduka (to sing) pd
duka (to run) d
 

Unlike in most languages ,verbs are not declined by the form of pronoun or gender.

Regular verbs fall in two categories - class 1 and class 2. Verb root can be derived by removing -uka or -iquka of the infinitive.

 Verb Root
class 1 pduka (to sing) pd
class 2 kaļiquka (to play) kaļ
 

Auxiliary verb forms used with other verbs.

iriquka to sit

Simple Present

iriqum

Present Continuous

iriquka

Past Continuous

iriquka yirunnu

Past Historical

iriqum

kuka to be

Simple Present

, ņ

Simple Past   

yirunnu

Future Continuous

yiriqum

Future subjuctive (expressing possibility
-may, might in English)

yiriqum

Undkuka to be there

 Past Participle

uņd

The Emphatic : Using  for emphasis

(or ņ), the simple present tense of the auxiliary very 'kuka' is used with the word aθ (or e)  to place emphasis on a word or part of a sentence.

Consider the following neutral sentence.

avan eňňum ňlu maņiq enθeŋkilum kazhiqan vņdi aduθθuļļa httalil pkum.  (eňňum - everyday,  ňlu maņiq - at four o' clock, enθeŋkilum - something,  kazhiqan vņdi - to eat, aduθθuļļa - nearby)

At four o' clock everyday, he goes to the nearby restaurant to eat something.

The sentence above, could be modified in several ways. For example, you might want to say 'He goes at 4 o clock and not at 5 o clock' or 'He goes to the nearby restaurant and not somewhere else'.

Placing after a word places emphasis on the word or part of sentence preceding it. In such constructions, the verb has to be modified by adding aθ to it. In speech, there is often a stress on or a rise in tone at the emphasized part. Listen to the following sentences.

avan eňňum ňlu maņiq enθeŋkilum kazhiqan vņdi aduθθuļļa httalil pkuňňaθ.  (He goes - no one else goes , no one else is interested in going)

avan eňňum ňlu maņiq enθeŋkilum kazhiqan vņdi aduθθuļļa httalil pkuňňaθ.  (He goes at four o' clock and not at five o' clock)

avan eňňum ňlu maņiq enθeŋkilum kazhiqan vņdi aduθθuļļa httalil pkuňňaθ.  (He goes to the restaurant to eat and not to talk to his friends who visit the restaurant at the same time)

avan eňňum ňlu maņiq enθeŋkilum kazhiqan vņdi aduθθuļļa httalil pkuňňaθ. (He goes to the nearby restaurant and not somewhere else).

The simple present (or present continuous) form always assumes the present continuous form root + uňňu.

pkuňňu when followed by aθ liaisons to form pkuňňaθ.             ( pkuňňu + aθ ---> pkuňňaθ )

If e is used instead of aθ, it liaisons with pkuňňu to form pkuňňe.   ( pkuňňu +  e ---> pkuňňe )

Reported Speech

Reported speech or indirect speech is used to express something

ennu is the equivalent of the word that in

He said that he would go. The part of the sentence He said is called the main clause and the part following the word that  - he would go is called the subordinate clause

Though English now avoids use of that in sentences like this, it is used in many languages (French , Spanish que, Hindi ki, German dass).

 

The regular syntax in Malayalam is

Main clause + subordinate clause + ennu

Or

Main clause(without the verb) + subordinate clause + ennu + verb in main clause

 

avan jonine kandu ennu paranju.

avan paranju jonine kandu ennu.

 

He said he had seen John.

Unlike in English, the verb tense does not change in reported speech.

In most other languages like Hindi, English, French and Spanish the syntax is main clause+ that + subordinate clause.

 

                                                                                                                                                

                        

 

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