Pronouns

Personal Pronouns

First Person Singular (I)

n

First Person Plural (we)

This has two forms

aŋŋaļ    

This is used when the listener(s) is/are not in the group the speaker is referring to.

ňammaļ

This is used when the listener(s) is/are in the group the speaker is referring to.

Second Person Singular (you, thou)

ň

This is used only when the listener is quite familiar to the speaker ( Caution: This is equivalent to Hindi tu ,German du or French tu)

θn

This is used when the listener is familiar to the speaker.

Using name as a pronoun

The most common form is using the name of the listener as a pronoun. It is safe to use this form in most contexts. I advise learners to use this form.

evide pkuvaa ?

Where are you going? (The listener is John)

Second Person Plural (you)

ňiŋŋaļ

Third Person Singular (he, she , it)

avan                 he 

avaļ                  she

aθ                   it/that

aθ oru ňalla aidia aa

That is a good idea

The first two are considered impolite forms. The alternative form is the name of the person referred to.

Third Person Plural (they)

avanmrr         they (males)

avaļmrr        they(females). This is considered a solecism and is seldom used.  

avarr               they ( males or females or males and females).  

When avarr is followed by a word beginning with a vowel it gets modified to avar 

aθell            they (plural form of it)

The first two are considered impolite forms. The alternative form is avarr or  the names of the persons referred to.

Singular Plural
First n aŋŋaļ , ňammaļ
Second ň , name ňiŋŋaļ
Third avan , avaļ  , aθ avarr , avanmrr , avaļmrr , aθellm

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Personal Pronouns : Cases

   Objective Parlative Dative Locative Possessive  
n enne ennd eniqq ennil ente
aŋŋaļ aŋŋaļe aŋŋaļd aŋŋaļk aŋŋaļil aŋŋaļude
ň ňinne ňinnd ňinak ňinnil ňinte
ňiŋŋaļ ňiŋŋaļe ňiŋŋaļd ňiŋŋaļk ňiŋŋaļil ňiŋŋaļude
avan avane avand avan avanil avante
avaļ avaļe avaļd avaļk avaļil avaļude
aθ aθ aθind aθin aθil aθinte
avarr avare avard avarrk avaril avarude

 

Indefinite Pronouns

vronn                                     another / another one

reŋgilum  (lit: who but)                  anyone/someone

θeŋgilum  (lit: which but)            anything

enθeŋgilum (lit: what but)             anything

ellm                                         all

ellarum                                      everyone

rum                                         nobody

oňňum                                       nothing

kurrac                                      some

enθeŋgilum kittiyo ?

Did you get anything ?   (Note that the pronoun 'you' can be omitted)

reŋgilum vaňňo ?

Did anybody come?

rdeŋgilum codico ?

Did you ask anybody? (Note the use of parlative case. reŋgilum can be split as r + eŋgilum. r - who undergoes case declension)

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