Plural formation is decided by how a noun ends. If an inanimate noun ends in a vowel, plural is formed by adding -kal. Those ending in -am end in -anŋal in plural.
|paŗam (plantain; fruit)||paŗaŋŋaļ|
If the noun is human, plural is formed by adding -márr
amma (mother) ammamárr
puθrran (son) puθrranmárr
Malayalam, like other Dravidian languages and Sanskrit, does not have prepositions, instead uses a set of cases to bring in senses such as location or transfer of an action.
Before delving into declensions, let me give an overview of what it will be like.
There are five main cases in Malayalam. All other cases can be derived from these five.
It is Anna’s cat.
2. Objective case (direct object of a transitive verb)
This case is used when the noun is the object of some action.
She likes me.
There are two accusative cases in Malayalam, which I will call accusative and parlative (pardon me, I coined this word – etymology parlare , Latin, to speak)
Indirect object of a transitive verb
I gave her a pen
This is used when the transitive verb is
to speak, to tell, to ask, to shout etc.
I am speaking to her.
This case is used when the noun is given something.
I gave him a nice book.
Objective, Parlative, Dative, Locative and Possessive
Ending in a, i.
Objective + ye
Parlative + yódë
Dative + kkë
Locative + yil
Possessive + yude
Parlative kaiyyinóde (those ending in ai takes this form)
Possessive kaiyyude (+yinte instead of +yude in some cases)
Ending in u, ë
Objective + ine
Parlative + inódë
Dative + inë
Locative + il
Possessive + inte
Accusative case is same as nominative (the noun without declension) if the noun is inanimate. Otherwise it is same as objective case.
ñán avanë oru pattikuttiye koduθu. (pattikutti puppy ; noun ending in 'i'. Accusative is same as objective as puppy is a living creature)
I gave him a puppy.