Giorgi Kavraradze. About the Settlement of the Kartvelian Tribes in Anatolia. Tbilisi, "Metsniereba"1985, 195 pp. (in Georgian).

 

giorgi qavTaraZe. anatoliaSi qarTvelur tomTa gansaxlebis sakiTxisaTvis. Tbilisi: gamomcemloba `mecniereba~, 1985.

 

saqarTvelos mecnierebaTa akademia

iv. javaxiSvilis sax. istoriis, arqeologiisa da eTnografiis instituti. arqeologiuri kvlevis centri. arqeologiuri komisia.

 

902.6(c41)

ББК63. 4(2г)

902.6(47.922)

q 153

 

naSromSi, ZiriTadad, Zveli werilobiTi wyaroebis monacemebze dayrdnobiT, navaraudevia Zv. w. I aTaswleulis centralur da aRmosavleT anatoliaSi qarTvelur tomTa gansaxleba; naCvenebia anatoliis arqeologiuri Zeglebis Seswavlis didi mniSvneloba qarTveluri warmomavlobis tomebis uZvelesi istoriisaTvis.

 

redaqtori saqarTvelos ssr mecnierebaTa akademiis wevr-korespondenti, prof. oT. jafariZe

recenzentebi: prof. r. gordeziani

prof. g. lorTqifaniZe

 

q0505010000

M607(06)_85 228-82 gamomcemloba `mecniereba~, 1985

 

 

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winasityvaoba

 

/3/ anatolia, Tanamedrove TurqeTis respublikis aziuri nawili, axlo aRmosavleTis Crdilo-dasavleT mxares moicavs.

 

termini `anatolia~ mcire aziis naxevarkunZulis aRmniSvnelad pirvelad gamoiyena X s. bizantiis imperatorma konstantine porfirogenetma. berZnulad niSnavs `ganTiads~, `mzes~, `aRmosavleTs~. termini `mcire azia~, aziis kontinentisagan romauli provinciis `aziis~ gansasxvaveblad pirvelad ixmara V s. istorikosma paganos oroseelma, Tumca, Tavad es saxelwodeba bevrad ufro adre iyo cnobili.

 

miuxedavad imisa, rom terminebi `anatolia~ da `mcire azia~ faqtiurad sinonimebad aris miCneuli, maT Soris garkveuli sxvaobac arsebobs. kerZod, `mcire aziisagan~ gansxvavebiT `anatolia~ ar Seicavs tavrosis qedis samxreTiT mdebare xmelTaSuazRvis sanapiros, xolo `mcire azia~ ar unda vrceldebodes sakuTriv naxevarkunZulis farglebs gareT, romlis aRmosavleT mijnas xmelTaSuazRvis iskanderunis yurisa da Savi zRvis e. w. `SemaerTebeli xazi~ warmoadgens, romelic Tavis mxriv miaxloebiT Tanxvdeba centraluri da aRmosavleT anatoliis pirobiT sazRvars mdinareebis meleTis (Sav zRvaSi Caedineba q. ordusTan) da gioqsus (md. jeihanis dasavleTi toti) `SemaerTebeli xazis~ gayolebaze. amdenad, cnebas `centraluri anatolia~ unda Seesabamebodes _ `Crdilo-aRmosavleTi mcire azia~.

 

anatolia unikaluri arqeologiuri aRmoCenebis mxarea; amas aq gaTxril ZeglTa saxelwodebebic mowmoben: troa da boRazqioi, aliSari da alaja huiuqi, hajilari da CaTal /4/ huiuqi, qiul Tefe da beijesultani. arqeologiurma masalam cxadyo, rom anatolia Zveli samyaros erT-erTi yvelaze ufro dawinaurebuli mxare iyo. TvalsaCinoa misi wvlili kacobriobis istoriaSi; kerZod, sakvebwarmoebiTi ekonomikis, spilenZisa da rkinis metalurgiis, protourbanuli sazogadoebis, deda RvTaebis kultis warmoqmna-CamoyalibebaSi. sakvebwarmoebiTi meurneoba evropaSi anatoliidan aris gavrcelebuli. anatoliis arqeologiuri masalis Seswavlas didi mniSvneloba aqvs amierkavkasiis uZvelesi istoriis kvlevis drosac. Rogorc cnobilia, amierkavkasia sami mxridan _ dasavleTidan, CrdiloeTidan da aRmosavleTidan, Semofarglulia bunebrivi zRudeebiT: Savi ZrviT, kavkasionis qediT da kaspiis zRviT, xolo samxreT-dasavleTidan da samxreT-aRmosavleTidan mas Sesabamisad anatolia da irani esazRvrebian. amitom bunebrivia, rom dasavleTi amierkavkasia, pirvel rigSi, swored anatoliasTan avlenda xolme kavSirs, xolo aRmosavleTi amierkavkasia _ iranTan.

 

anatoliis geografiuli mdebareoba Zveli samyaros sxvadasxva mxareebis SemaerTebel gzajvaredinze imTaviTve apirobebda misi ganviTarebis Taviseburebas. anatolia iranTan erTad `SemaerTebeli xidi~ iyo centralur aziasa da evropas Soris, xolo kavkasiasTan erTad erTmaneTTan akavSirebda axlo aRmosavleTsa da evropas. CrdiloeTi anatolia da dasavleTi kavkasia, amave dros, qmnidnen e. w. cirkumponturi zonis samxreT da dasavleT mxareebs, xolo dasavleTi da samxreTi anatolia warmoadgenda xmelTaSuazRvispireTuli, e. w. cirkummediteranuli zonis Crdilo-aRmosavleT nawils. aRsaniSnavia, rom anatoliis samxreTi da dasavleTi mxareebis uZvelesi (winaxeTuri) xanebis kultura sagrZnoblad gansxvavdeba CrdiloeT da aRmosavleT anatoliurisagan, rac, SesaZloa, gansxvavebul safuZvelze misi Camoyalibebis niSani iyos. anatoliis rTuli reliefi, erTmaneTisagan gancalkevebuli xeobebis simravle, klimaturi pirobebis mkveTri regionaluri sxvaoba, xels uwyobda mis teritoriaze gansxvavebuli warmomavlobis, kulturisa da ekonomikuri bazisis mqone mosaxleobis Tanaarsebobas. anatoliuri mosaxleobis heterogenulobas, rac jer kidev antikuri xanis istorikosebs hqondaT SemCneuli, ar SeiZleboda xeli ar Seewyo `simbiozuri kulturebis~ CamoyalibebisaTvis da ar /5/ daeCqarebina adgilobriv mimdinare socialuri stratifikaciis procesi. anatoliis gansakuTrebuli simdidre liTonis wiaRiseuliT, mas ZvelTaganve mimzidvel mxared xdida.

 

kulturul-istoriuli xasiaTis sakiTxebis kvlevis garda, anatoliis Seswavlas kavkasiis arqeologiisaTvis wminda sociologiuri aspeqtic axlavs. kavkasiisaTvis, gansxvavebiT Mesopotamia-egviptisagan, damaxasiaTebelia klasobrivi sazogadoebis Camoyalibebis anatoliuri gza, romelic, mkvlevarTa azriT, xasiaTdeba klasTawarmoqmnis procesis Senelebuli tempiT, miwaTmoqmedebis naklebi produqtiulobiT, mezoblad arsebul civilizaciebTan kontaqtebis Sedegad qonebrivi diferenciaciisa da xelosnobis ganviTarebis stimulirebiT. amave dros, anatoliaSi, kavkasiasTan SedarebiT, saxelmwifos warmoqmnis bevrad adreuli TariRi, SesaZleblobas iZleva davadginoT am or regions Soris socialuri ganviTarebis uTanabrobis gamomwvevi mizezi, rac, Tavis mxriv, klasobrivi sazogadoebisa da saxelmwifoebriobis Camoyalibebis procesis ZiriTadi ganmsazRvreli niSnebisgamoyofis SesaZleblobas mogvcemda sazogadod `anatoliuri modelis~ mqone sazogadoebebisaTvis da dagvexmareboda kavkasiis adreul saxelmwifoTa genezisis gagebaSi.

 

anatoliaSi pirveli saxelmwifos warmoqmnisaTvis garkveuli mniSvneloba hqonda mis centralur, sakvanZo nawilSi, vrceli, irgvliv mTebiT SemozRuduli zegnis arsebobas (zRvis donidan 1000-1500 m), romelsac xeTur xanaSi qveynis ZiriTadi birTvis funqcia daekisra.

 

centralur, anu Sida anatolias, TiTqmis mTel mis sivrceze gasdevs anatoliis udidesi mdinare kizil-irmki (antikuri da momdevno xanebis halisi, xeTuri marasanTia). es mxare CrdiloeTidan Savi zRviT SemoizRudeba, samxreTidan _ koniis naxevarudabnoTi da tavrosis qediT, dasavleTidan md. saqariis Sua weliT, aRmosavleTisaken, rogorc aRvniSneT, daaxloebiT mdinareebis meleTisa da gioqsus `SemaerTebeli xazamde~ vrceldeboda.

 

centraluri, anu Sida anatolia sam ZiriTad nawilad iyofa. mis CrdiloeT nawils istoriuli ponto Seadgens da Tanamedrove qalaqebis Corumis, zilesa da ToqaTis CrdiloeTiT mdebareobs. centraluri nawili umTavresad md. kizil-irmakis rkalis SigniT eqceva da amasTanave moicavs /6/ kizil-irmakisa da sakariis SuamdinareTs. samxreTi nawili, CrdiloeTidan md. kizil-irmakiTa da samxreTidan tavrosis qediT SemoisazRvreba.

 

centraluri, anu Sida anatoliis udidesi nawili antikur da ufro gviandel xanebSi `didi kapadokiis~ (anu `kapadokiis~) da `pontos kapadokiis~ (anu `pontos~) saxeliT aris cnobili.

 

centraluri anatoliis aRmosavleTiT mdebare aRmosavleT Anatolia _ TurqeTis respublikis ukiduresi aRmosavluri nawilis Semcveli, ZiriTadad, aRmosavleT anatoliis mTianeTs (somxeTis zegans) ukavia. CrdiloeTidan igi aRmosavleT-pontos mTebiT (giresunis, giumiuShanes, trabzonisa da lazistanis qedebi), xolo samxreTidan _ aRmosavleTis tavrosiT (erganisa da biTlisis qedebi) aris SemozRuduli.

 

aRmosavleT anatoliis mniSvnelovani nawili antikur xanasa da Sua saukuneebSi somxuri da qarTuli samefo-samTavroebis farglebSi iyo moqceuli.

 

 

Tavi pirveli

 

anatoliis, amierkavkasiisa da egeosuri samyaros urTierTobis zogierTi sakiTxi

 

/7/ qarTul istoriografiasa da hagiografiaSi imTaviTve gansakuTrebuli adgili ekava anatolias, kerZod mis centralur nawils, kapadokias. `kabadukielebi~ iyvnen qarTvelTa umTavres patronad miCneuli wminda giorgi da qarTvelTa ganmanaTleblad wodebuli wminda nino[1]. `bibliis~ `dabadebis~, `SesaqmeTa wignisa~ da `ezekielis winaswarmetyvelebis~ Togarmadan[2] momdinare haosisa da qarTlosis mamis Targamosis[3] saxeli ukavSirdeba kapadokiis teritoriaze mdebare asuruli wyaroebis qalaqis Til-garimus saxelwodebas, romelic, Tavis mxriv, ufro adreuli xanis xeTuri olqis _ Tegaramas saxelidanaa warmomdgari[4]. `moqceva qarTlisas~ teqstis mier qarTlis pirvel mefed miCneuli azos[5] samSoblo mxare, `qarTlis cxovrebis~ monacemebiT, anatoliaSia sagulvebeli[6]. konstantine porfirogenetis mixedviT, iberielebi STamomavlebi arian huri xeTelis meuRlis bersaviasi, romelic SeirTo mefem da winaswarmetyvelma daviTma[7]. p. ingoroyvas komentariT, qristianiizaciisdamiuxedavad, Tqmulebis am gviandel versiaSi mainc ar aris savsebiT warxocili xeTur samyarosTan kavSiris kvali[8].

 

Jer kidev I s. ebraeli istorikosi ioseb flaviusi miiCnevda, rom iberebi da mesxebi anatoliuri warmomavlobisani iyvnen. Bibliuri `Tobelisa~ da `mosoqis~[9] Sesaxeb igi Tavis nawarmoebSi `iudaebrivi sityuadasabamoba~ SeniSnavda: `Tobelma daafuZna Tobelebi, romlebsac /8/ axla iberebi ewodebaT; mosoxenebi dafuZnebuli arian mosoxis mier, axlaxan maT kapadokielebi ewodaT, xolo Zveli maTi saxelwodebis niSanic emCnevaT; rameTu maT aqvT dResac qalaqi mazaka, romelic naTel yofs imaTTvis, visac SeuZlia gaigos, rom odesRac ase ewodeboda mTel toms~[10]. Ioane petriwis TargmaniT: `daamkidrebs ukuiTovilosca TovilTasa, romelni aw ivirad iwodebian, xolo mesaqinni mesxios mier aRSenebulni aw kappadukad iwodebian...~[11]. s. yauxCiSvilis varaudiT, ioane petriws unda hqonoda gamoyenebuli Txzulebis iseTi nusxa, rogoric XVII s. filologs leo alaciuss da romelSic tomis saxeli berZnulad unda yofiliyo Μεσχινοί, xolo mamamTavrisa _ Μέσχος[12]. maTi daweriloba asevea warmodgenili XI s. bizantieli moRvawis leon gramatikosis `qronografiaSi~: `iafetis vaJTagan momdinareoben... Tobelisagan _ Tobelebi, romelTac axla iberebi ewodebaT, mesxosisagan _ mesxebi, romelTac axla kapadokielebi ewodebaT, saidanac aris mazaka, maTi dedaqalaqi~[13], kapadokielTa Zveli saxeli `mesxenebis~, xolo maTi mamamTavrisa `osoxis~ formiT warmodgenilia IV s. pirveli naxevris antioqeli arqiepiskoposis evstaTis TxzulebaSi `eqsTa dReTa ganmarteba~[14].

 

SeniSnulia, rom sazogadod bizantiuri istoriografiisaTvis kapadokielebi igive mesxebia[15].

 

im faqts, rom mosoxenebi Tu mosxebi qarTvelur samyaros ganekuTvnebodnen, unda mowmobdes Zv. w. V s. istorikosis herodote halikarnaselis cnobac, aqemeniduri sparseTis me-19 satrapiaSi mosxTa gaerTianebisa im samxreTSavizRvispireTul tomebTan erTad[16], romelTa qarTveluri warmomavloba eWvs ar iwvevs[17]. yvela es tomi _ mosxebi, tibarenebi, makronebi, mosinikebi, erTnairad iyvnen SeiaraRebuli, xolo mosxebsa da tibarenebs erTi winamZRolic hyavdaT sparsul laSqarSi _ darios I-isa da parmisis (smerdisis asulisa da kirosis SviliSvilis) Ze _ ariomardi[18].

 

mosxTa eTnikuri identificirebisaTvis gansakuTrebiT didi mniSvneloba aqvs Zv. w. VI-V ss. mijnis logografosis hekateos miletelis `dedamiwis aRweris~ fragments, romelic Semoinaxa, stefane bizantionelis `eTnikurma leqsikonma~ (`eTnikam~). hekateosis cnobiT, mosxebi _ kolxuri tomia, matienebis mezoblad mosaxle[19]. /9/ mosxebis kolxur tomad gansazRvra miT ufro niSandoblivia, rom hekateos miletelis xanaSi, isini, pontoSi mosaxle tomebTan erTad, sparsul satrapiaSi Sediodnen, xolo kolxebi faqtiurad damoukideblebi iyvnen sparselebisagan[20]. hekateosis cnobas gansakuTrebuli mniSvneloba aqvs kidev im TvalsazrisiT, rom igi iZleva mosxebis kolxuri tomis kapadokiaSi, mis CrdiloeT nawilSi, lokalizebis saSualebas, vinaidan TviT hekateosis sxva cnobiT, matienebis qalaqi hiope gordiebis mezoblad mdebareobs da aqauri xalxi iseTsave tansacmels atarebs, rogorsac paflagonielebi[21]. aSkaraa, rom mosxebis mezobel matienebSi igulisxmebian gordioneli frigielebisa da paflagonielebis maxloblad mcxovrebi dasavleTis matienebi. hekateos miletelis zemoT moyvanili fragmentebis herodotes im cnobasTan SepirispirebiT, romlis mixedviTac matienebi cxovrobdnen md. halisis (kizil-irmaki) marjvena napirze, xolo mdinaris meore napiri frigielebs ekavaT[22] da rigi sxva monacemebis gaTvaliswinebis Sedegad _ romelTa Soris aRsaniSnavia herodotesave cnobebi matienebis, paflagonielebis, ligiebis, mariandinebis da sirielebis erTnairi sabrZolo aRWurvilobisa da matienebisa da paflagonielebis erTi winamZRolis meTaurobiT gaerTianebis Sesaxeb[23], agreTve, I s. pirveli naxevris romaeli moRvawis pomponius melas mier tibarenebis gverdiT `matianebis~ moxsenebis faqti[24], _ n. xazaraZem gamoTqva mosazreba, rom dasavlel matienebs unda sWerodaT teritoria md. halisis rkalis SigniT, Tanamedrove qalaqebis, Corum-zile-ToqaTis samxreTiTa da dasavleTiT, didi kapadokiis ukidures dasavleT olqSi, xolo mosxebs _ qalaqebis ToqaT-karahisar-giumiuShanes seqtori[25].

 

savsebiT viziarebT ra n. xazaraZis mosazrebas matienebis didi kapadokiis ukidures dasavleT olqSi gansaxlebis Sesaxeb, amave dros aradamajereblad migvaCnia misi varaudi matienebis aRmosavleTis mimarTulebiT q. ToqaTamde gavrcelebis Taobze. pomponius melas mier `matianebisa~ da tibarenebis erTmaneTis gverdiT moxsenieba ar aris aucilebeli maT uSualo mezoblobaze metyvelebdes, xolo hekateosisa da herodotes cnobebis Sejereba TiTqos swored mosxebis gansaxlebaze unda migvaniSnebdes matienebsa da tibarenebs So/10/ris. savsebiT dasaSvebia, teritoria Corumsa da ToqaTs Soris mosxebs sWerodaT, miT ufro, rom q. giumiuShanes dasavleTiT, rogorc Cans, mosinikebs unda ecxovraT. Zv. w. IV s. avtoris fsevdo-skilaqs kariandelis `periplusis~ cnobiT, mosinikebi sanapiro zolis garda mTebSic cxovrobdnen[26]. rac Seexeba matienebis sacxovriss, igi zemoT moyvanili cnobebis da agreTve n. xazaraZis mierve SeniSnuli im faqtis gaTvaliswinebiT, rom `gord~ fuZis Semcveli toponimebi dasturdebian didi frigiis im seqtorSi, romelic dasavleTidan uSualod akravs md. halisis auzs[27], safiqrebelia Tavsdebodes qalaqebis Corumisa da kirSehiris `SemaerTebeli xazisa~ da mis dasavleTiT mdebare md. kizil-irmaks Soris.

 

mosxebis kapadokiaSi gansaxlebis sakiTxTan mimarTebaSi, sainteresoa leo alaciusis komentari ioseb flaviusis zemoT moyvanil fragmentTan dakavSirebiT. igi SeniSnavs, rom zogierTebis varaudiT, mesqinebi xalxia, romelTac Zveli avtorebi Μοσχικοί-s da Μοσσύνοικοι-s uwodeben. maTi Tavdapirveli mkvidrobis adgili evqsinis pontos sanapiro iyo, Semdeg isini kapadokielebi gaxdnen, bolos ki isev CrdiloeTisaken gadainacvles[28].

 

mesxebis kapadokiur warmomavlobaze, SesaZloa, metyveleben qarTuli masalebic, kerZod, qalaq mcxeTasTan dakavSirebuli cnobebi. jer kidev gasuli saukunidan mecnierebi toponim `mcxeTas~ mesxebis satomo saxelTan aaxloebdnen. T. bagrationi, p. ioseliani da v. sen-martini bibliur `meSex-mosoxsa~ da eTnonim `mosx-mesxs~ qarTlosis Zis mcxeTosisa da q. mcxeTis saxelebTan akavSirebdnen, xolo a. xaxanaSvilis mixedviT, cnebebis `mesxeTisa~ da `samcxis~ urTierTkavSiri mniSvnelovnad ufro safuZvlians xdis mcxeTasTan maTi dakavSirebis SesaZleblobas[29]. g. meliqiSvilis SexedulebiT, saxelwodeba `mcxeTa~ udavod warmoqmnilia mesxTa satomo saxelisagan, es faqti ki unda miuniSnebdes mcxeTis mesxuri dasaxlebis aramesxuri mosaxleobis wiaRSi warmoqmnis SesaZleblobaze[30]. Cveulebriv, `samcxel da mcxeTel mesxebs~ mcireazieli muSqebis memkvidreebad miiCneven[31], romlebic werilobiT wyaroebSi pirvelad Zv. w. XIOI s. Cndebian, rodesac asurli wyaroebi iuwyebian maT SeWras aRmosavleT anatoliis Sida raionebSi[32]. amJamad, vfiqrobT, aranaklebi SesaZlebloba arsebobs mesxebTan, berZnuli wyariebis mier Zv. /12/ w. I aTaswleulis Sua xanebSi, centraluranatoliaSi dadasturebuli mosxebis dakavSirebisaTvis. yovel SemTxvevaSi, erTi ram udavoa, mcxeTaSi damkvidrebuli mosaxleoba xeTur-mcireaziuli kulturuli tradiciebis matarebeli iyo. am garemoebas da agreTve imas, rom swored aRniSnul mosaxleobas unda Seesrulebina mniSvnelovani roli aRmosavlurqarTuli saxelmwifoebriobis warmoqmnaSi, mowmobs iberiis samefos warmarTuli sakulto panTeonis anatoliuri xasiaTi[33]. qarTlis uzenaesi RvTaeba armazi warmomdgari iyo xeTur-nesituri mTvaris RvTaeba armasagan, romlis kultic antikur xanaSi RvTaeba menis kultiT Semoinaxa, Tumca fiqroben, rom mcire aziis zogierT mxareSi igi isev Zvel saxelwodebas _ Armas-s atarebda[34]. xeTuri warmomavlobis mqoned aris miCneuli qarTlis erT-erTi mTavari RvTaeba zadenic; mas aaxloeben luviur RvTaeba sanTasTan (sandonTan)[35]. gamoTqmulia agreTve azri, warmarTuli mcxeTis RvTaebebis gacisa da gas (gaimis) kavSiris Sesaxeb mcireaziul RvTaebebTan atisTan da kibelesTan[36].

 

mcire aziisa da kavkasiis urTierTobis sakiTxTan dakavSirebiT, yuradRebas ipyrobs Zv. w. I _ ax. w. I s. geografosTan da istorikosTan strabonTan daculi naxevradlegendaruli cnoba mcire aziidan kavkasiaSi xalxTa gadmosaxlebis Sesaxeb. strabonis mixedviT, miTiuri amaZonelebi, centraluri anatoliis CrdiloeT nawilSi mdebare Temiskiris dablobidan da mis zemoT mdebare mTebidan gamoZevebulni[37], gadmocemebis Tanaxmad, kavkasiaSi, albaneTis zemoT mdebare, keravnulad wodebul mTebSi cxovrobdnen gargarevelebis[38] mezoblad, romlebTanac axlo urTierToba hqoniaT[39]; Semdeg gargarevelebi, romlebic aq Temiskiridan amaZonelebTan erTad iyvnen mosulni, amaZonelebs Camocilebulan da, amave adgilebSi moxetiale TrakielebTan da evbeelebTan SeTanxmebiT, maTTan brZolac ki dauwyiaT[40].

 

amaZonelebisa da gargarevelebis anatoliidan gadmosaxlebis straboniseuli cnoba izolirebuli rom yofiliyo, bevris arafris mTqmeli iqneboda, magram mas exmianeba antikuri xanis mravali mwerlis informacia kavkasiaSi, ZiriTadad, samxreT-dasavleTis mxridan, xalxTa gadmosaxlebis Taobaze. am mxriv, strabonis cnobaSi gansakuTrebul yuradRebas ipyrobs evbeelTa moxsenieba, rac, rogorc Cans, ukav/12/Sirdeba ZvelberZnul mwerlobaSi farTod gavrcelebul Sexedulebas, kavkasiasa da samxreT SavizRvispireTSi pelasgebis (egeidis winaberZnuli mosaxleobis) migraciis Sesaxeb (ix. qvemoT).

 

aRsaniSnavia, rom ukanasknel xanebSi egeosuri (ufro farTod _ mediteranuli) da kavkasiuri samyaros urTierTobis sakiTxebis kvlevas axali stimuli eZleva winaberZnuli (pelasguri) da qarTveluri enebis siaxlovis damtkicebisa[41] da agrTve sxva xmelTasuazRvispireTul enebSi (etruskuli, baskuri) kavkasiuri (da kerZod, qarTveluri) enebisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli elementebis gamovlenis Sedegad[42]. enaTmecnierebis es miRwevebi axal perspeqtivas Slis arqeologiis winaSe ukve mopovebuli masalis xelaxali interpretaciisaTvis. ingliseli arqeologi j. melarTi, imis gaTvaliswinebiT, rom mcire azia-egeidaSi (gansakuTrebiT mis samxreT nawilSi) neoliTis Semdgom periodSi ar SeiniSneba mniSvnelovani xarvezi, romelic aq enis Secvlas SeiZleba daukavSirdes da radganac winaberZnuli enis gavrcelebis mTel am regionSi met-naklebi lingvisturi erTianoba unda yofiliyo indoevropul enebze molaparake tomebis gamoCenamde, gamoTqvams varauds, anatoliis uZvelesi meurneebis, neoliTuri CaTal huiuqis, hajilaris da jan hasanis mosaxleobis, enis SemorCenis SesaZleblobis Sesaxeb gvianbrinjaos xanis kretaze[43].

 

winaberZnuli enis qarTvelur enebTan SeniSnuli siaxlovis Suqze, vfiqrobT, dasaSvebi unda iyos neoliTuri anatoliis mosaxleobis SesaZlo kavSiris varaudi qarTvelur samyarosTanac. miTumetes, rom anatoliis neoliTur Zeglebs TiTqos araerTi paraleli eZebneba qarTul da agreTve kavkasiis sxva xalxTa eTnografiaSi. sayuradReboa, rom anatoliis CrdiloeT raionebSi mosaxle tomebs _ levkosirebs, xalibebs, tibarenebs, mosinikebs, makronebs, xSirad miiCneven winaxeTuri xanidan SemorCenil, anatoliis uZveles, adgilobriv mosaxleobad[44]. SesaZloa, amave garemoebis sasargeblod mowmobdes is faqti, rom e. w. Worox-rionuli anTropologiuri tipi, sadReisod, mxolod am mdinareta mimdebare mxareebSi SemorCenili, rogorc irkveva, adre bevrad ufro farTod unda yofiliyo gavrcelebuli; misTvis damaxasiaTebeli zogierTi specifikuri niSan-Tvisebis Sexameba, dResac TurqeTis TiTqmis mTel teritoriaze vlindeba[45]. /13/

 

rac Seexeba neoliTeli anatolielebis monaTesaavebad miCneuli, minosuri kretis mosaxleobis eTnikur identificirebas, sakuTriv kretis a-xazovani teqstebis masalis gaTvaliswinebiT, romelic namdvilad ar aris indoevropuli-berZnuli, Zalze mwiri monacemebi mogvepoveba. miuxedavad amisa, sxva enebis monacemebTan erTad, aRniSnuli sakiTxis gadawyvetisas, Cveni azriT, saWiroa gaviTvaliswinoT qarTvelur enaTa monacemebic[46]. SeZlebisdagvarad SevecdebiT es varaudi zogierTi monosuri sityvis etimologizaciis cdiT davasabuToT.

 

kretis minosuri teqstebis erT-erTi sityva, romlis mniSvnelobac zustad aris dadgenili, Sejamebis aRmniSvnelia da transliterirebulia _ ku-ro-d. j. Ceduiqis azriT, romelime enaSi msgavsi sityvis povnam SesaZloa minosuri damwerlobis problema gadaWras; e. peruci adarebs mas apofoniur indoevropul formas *ger-s _ `Segroveba~ (berZn. άγείρω), xolo p. merijis mixedviT igi Seesabameba saerTo semitur Zirs kl _ `mTeli~ (aqad. kalu, kullatu, ebr. kol)[47]. Cveni azriT, dasaSvebi unda iyos minosuri sityvis daaxloeba qarTul-zanuri erTobis xanis fuZesTan (ar/r _ `Sekvris, dakavSirebis~ mniSvnelobiT, romelsac Tavis mxriv ukavSireben qarTul-zanur fuZes *reb/areb _ `Segroveba~[48].

 

dadgenilad SeiZleba CaiTvalos `deficitis~ aRmniSvneli minosuri sityvac _ ki-ro. e. peruci masTan aaxloebs andoevropul *s(kel) _ `valdebuloba, unda~ (litv. skeliu da sxv.)[49]. gasaTvaliswinebelia, rom minosuri ar asxvavebs r da l, iseve rogorc b/p, g/k Tanxmovnebs[50]. minosur sityvasTan garkveul msgavsebas avlens, semantikurad imave `deficitis~ mniSvnelobis mqone qarTul-zanuri *al (qarTulSi _ el/l, zanurSi _ or)[51].

 

minosursi _ kunisu da qerau miCneulia, rom aRniSnaven marcvleulis jiSebs; maT ukavSireben aqadur kunāu-s `romeliRac marcvleulis jiSs~ da qālu-s `moxalul macvals~[52]. qarTvelur enebSi yuradRebas ipyrobs qarTul-zanuri fuZe *kum (qarTuli kum-el, zanuri kum-u) _ `moxaluli marcvlis~ mniSvnelobiT (fSavur dialeqtSi qumeli aRniSnavs Cveulebriv sels)[53] da moxevuri xiri _ `gamxmari Tivis, Calis Rero~ (Sdr. agreTve Zvel qarTulSi xmarebuli _ xuarbali _ `marcvleuli~, romelic qarTveluri warmomavlobis sityvad /14/ ar aris miCneuli, magram, vfiqrobT, TavisTavad mainc angariSgasawevia minosuri sityvis etimologiis dadgenisas)[54].

 

savaraudod iTvleba, rom minosurSi WurWleuls aRniSnavda ka-ti, ka-ra-re-we, qa-pa, ka-ro-pa. es sityvebi weria WurWlebis aRmniSvneli ideogramebis Tavze da arc is aris gamoricxuli, rom WurWlebSi moTavsebul nivTierebebs aRniSnavdes[55]. g. noimani ka-ti-s xeTur gazi, luviur gati _ `WurWeli~ adarebs da dasZens, rom luviurSi es sityva winaluviuri ara-indoevropuli enidan unda iyos Sesuli[56]. vfiqrobT, sayuradReboa qarTul-zanuri erTobis xanisaTvis aRdgenili *od- fuZe, romelic aRniSnavda `WurWels gamokveTils xisgan~, `WurWels fxvieri nivTierebebisaTvis~ (Sdr. agreTve qarT. `qoTani~)[57]. WurWlebis aRmniSvnel sxva savaraudo minosuri sityvebisaTvis s. gordons moyavs paralelebi WurWlebis ugarituli saxelwodebebidan: sp, krpn, spl[58]; qarTvelur samyaroSic vxvdebiT minosurTan mimsgavsebul analogiuri mniSvnelobis sityvebs: qronologiurad qarTul-zanuri erTobis drois *ardala-s `momcro qvabi~, romelic, Tumca, nasesxobad aris miCneuli (Sdr. agreTve raWul dialeqtSi _ korva _ `xis WurWeli~), qara _ `kecis kide, amoweuli gverdebi~, gobi _ `WurWeli~, Zvel qarTulSi igi `ormos~, `mRvimesac~ aRniSnavda[59].

 

minosuri xaniskretis msxverplSewirvis adgilebze da sakurTxevlebze gvxvdeba sityvebi ta-na-no, a-ta-no, ja-ta-no, e. peruci maT adarebs xeTur istananas _ `adgili msxverplTa an SesawiravTa miRebisaTvis~, Tumca sagani, romelzedac es sityvaa warwerili, rogorc irkveva, lamparia[60]. sayuradReboa, rom zemoT moyvanili erT-erTi sityva TruloSi mopovebul sakulto WurWelzec gvxvdeba[61].Eegeb, es sityvebi, romlebSic TiTqos tan Ziri gamoiyofa, aRniSnavs ara romelime sagans an konkretul adgils, aramed warmoadgens religiuri xasiaTis formulas. amasTan dakavSirebiT iqneb gasaTvaliswinebeli iyos qarTuli `tan~- zmnisZiri, `gatanebis, atanis~ mniSvnelobiT.

 

religiur Sinaarss akuTvneben niSanTa jgufs, wawerils selakonosis Cuglugze _ da-ku, rac e. perucis azriT, RvTaebis saxels unda warmoadgendes da SesaZlebelia ukavSirdebodes indoevropul *dheghou-s _ `miwa~ (xeT. tegan, Toxar. tkam)[62]. aRsaniSnavia, rom msgavsi sityva aRdgenilia qarTul-zanuri /15/ erTobisaTvis *tiqa (qarTuli tixu, megruli dixa, dexa) `Tixa, niadagi~ (megrulSi agreTve `miwa~)[63].

 

religiur Sinaarss atarebs agreTve warwera _ a-pi, kefalis samarovanis Sesasvlelze, romelsac e. peruci Selocvis formulad Tvlis da ukavSirebs berZnul πίσωs, miRebuls indoevropuli _ *opi-sagan (Sdr. xeT. da luv. appa)[64]. qarTulSi am sityvas emsgavseba warmarTuli RvTaebis _ apanis (romlis Tved ianvari _ apnisi iTvleba) saxelwodeba, romelic, SesaZloa Semosuli iyos qarTulSi sxva wyarodan.

 

minosuri ki- nawilaki, `amitom rom, ase rom~[65], SesaZleblad migvaCnia davukavSiroT qarTul-zanuri erTobis xanis dasturis maniSnebel *kwe nawilaks (qarTuli k(w)e-; zanuri ko-)[66].

 

morfologiuri monacemebidan, romlebic agreTve Zalze mcire raodenobiT aris gamoyofili, aRsaniSnavia s. gordonis mier u- prefiqsis daaxloebis cda (romlis mniSvnelobac, winaaRmdeg s. gordonis Sexedulebisa, ar aris garkveuli) analogiur semitur prefiqsTan[67].Uu- prefiqsi qarTvelur enebisaTvisac aris damaxasiaTebeli, igi gvxvdeba qarTul-zanur doneze, rogorc klebiTi prefiqsi da agreTve aRmatebiTi xarisxis prefiqsuli formanti[68].

 

minosurSi t- formanti miCneulia mravlobiTi ricxvis maCveneblad[69]; ZvelqarTulSi igive formanti, garda saxelobiTisa da wodebiTisa, yvela brunvaSia warmodgenili[70].

 

minosuri sityvebis etimologizaciisas, qarTvelur enaTa gamoyenebis SesaZleblobis sakiTxTan dakavSirebiT, gasaTvaliswinebelia mcenareebis aRmniSvneli is minosuri terminebic, romlebic Semonaxulia berZnuli enis dialeqtebSi, maT Soris b-xazovan mikenurSi[71] da romelTac, qarTvelur enebSi (da maT dialeqtebSi) met-naklebad miaxloebuli paralelebi unda eZebnebodeT: κυλος_ `rko~, Sdr. qarTul-zanuri donis *ro _ `rko~ (qarTuli ro, megruli , i)[72]; μιμαίκυλον _ `marwyvi~, Sdr. saerToqarTveluri *marw (svanuri bsi, bs)[73], sayuradReboa agreTve baskuri maguri _ `marwyvi~[74]; βράβυλον _ `kvrinCxa~, Sdr. ingilouri dialeqtis bruli _ `bardi~; σπρεα _ `Wotosani nayofi~, Sdr. qarTluri dialeqtis spiro _ `blis qerqis abga~[75]; ζίζυφον _ `buCqiani mcenare~, Sdr. qarTul-zanuri *e(w) _ `eklebiani, datotvili /16/ buCqi~[76]; σταφυλή _ `yurZnis mtevani~, Sdr. ZvelqarTuli sTueli _ `Semodgoma, gina yurZnis mokrefa~ (saba) da sTuli _ `darTuli narTi~, romlebic SesaZloa qarTul-zanur fuZes *rtw _ `gadafareba~ ukavSirdebian[77].

 

savaraudoa, winaberZnulidan iyos Sesuli berZnul enaSi `excrement~-is mniSvnelobis mqone sityva _ κόρος[78], romelsac SesaZloaUuaxlovdebodes qarTul-zanur fuZe *ar-, `yars, yrola~[79].

 

gasaTvaliswinebelia, rom minosuri enisaTvis, qarTveluri enebisa da sazogadod xmelTaSuazRvis uZvelesi substratis enebis msgavsad, damaxasiaTebelia calkeuli xmovnebis Tavisufali monacvleoba da meryeoba, rac metad iSviaTia indoevropuli ojaxis enebSi[80].

 

winaberZnuli enebi, minosuri da egeosuri (igive pelasguri), identuri an axlo monaTesave enebi unda yofiliyo. am enebze metyveli mosaxleobis intensiuri urTierTobis kvali kavkasiur da sazogadod SavizRvispireTul samyarosTan, rogorc zemoT SevniSneT, farTod aris asaxuli antikur wyaroebSi.

 

aRmosavleTi da samxreTi SavizRvispireTi xSirad ganixileba antikur literaturaSi rogorc egeosuri samyarodan calkeuli miTiuri pirovnebebisa Tu mTeli tomebis gadmosaxlebis obieqti. msgavsi Sexeduleba, SesaZloa, sazrdoobda antikuri xanis pontospireTSi berZnuli koloniebis daarsebisa da maTSi egeosis zRvis auzidan wamosuli berZnuli mosaxleobis Casaxlebis permanentuli procesiT, magram, sakuTriv berZnuli cnobebis mixedviT, xalxTa gadasaxlebebs, ZiriTadad, winakoloniur periodSi hqonia adgili da maT monawileebad, upiratesad, winaberZnuli mosaxleoba _ pelasgebi arian dasaxelebulni. samxreT da aRmosavleT SavizRvispireTis mosaxleobis nawilis berZnebis mier pelasgTa naSierad miCneva udavod angariSgasawevi garemoebaa; berZnebi kargad icnobdnen TavianTi samSoblos winamosaxleobas _ pelasgebs, romlebTanac xangrZlivad Tanaarsebobdnen kidevac. strabonis azriT, pelasgebi yvelaze Zveli tomia, romelic ki saberZneTSi batonobda[81]. herodotesTan Semonaxuli gadmocemis Tanaxmad, aTenelebisaTvis akropolisis galavani pelasgebs augiaT[82]. misi naSTebi aqamde SemorCenilia akropolisze, sadac uZveles, didroni lo/17/debisagan nageb, e. w. ciklopuri wyobis kedels `pelasgur galavans~ uwodeben[83]. sayuradReboa, rom msgavsi nagebobebi damaxasiaTebelia kavkasiis gvianbrinjaos xanisaTvisac.

 

herodotes mixedviT, aTenelebi, vidre eladas pelasgebi flobdnen, TviTonac pelasgebi iyvnen, xolo ionielebs, vidre isini peloponesze cxovrobdnen, pelasgebi da egialeebi ewodebodaT[84]. aseve eolielebic, vidre pelasgiotidaSi (CrdiloeT TesaliaSi) cxovrobdnen, elinuri gadmocemiT, pelasgebad iwodebodnen[85]. eolielebisa da ionielebis, rogorc Cans, pelasguri substratis mqone berZnuli tomebi, ufro gviandel xanebSi, Sesabamisad, mcire aziis dasavleT (egeosuri) napiris CrdiloeT da centralur, pelasgur olqebs ikaveben. strabonic, iuwyeboda ra, pelasgTa farTo gavrcelebas mTel saberZneTSi, gansakuTrebiT xazs usvamda maT siWarbes eolielTa Soris, TesaliaSi[86]. homerosi Tesaliis argoss pelasgur argoss uwodebda[87]. strabonis SeniSvniT, peloponess homerosi, iseve, rogorc mTel eladas (saberZneTs), argoss uwodebda[88]. epirec pelasgebs unda sWerodaT, homerosi epiruli dodonis zevss pelasgurs uwodebs[89], herodotec iuwyeba, rom dodonaSi pelasgTa samlocvelo iyo[90], xolo Zv. w. VII s. poeti hesiode epires Turme Turme pelasgTa sadgomad miiCnevda[91]. strabonisave cnobiT, Zv. w. IV s. istorikosi eforos kvimeli peloponesis naxevarkunZuls pelasgias uwodebda, xolo Zv. w. VI-V ss. dramaturges esqiles pelasgebi mikenis maxloblad mebare argosidan gamohyavda[92]. esqiles msgavsad, Zv. w. V s. dramaturgisaTvis evripidesaTvisac peloponesis argosi _ pelasguri miwaa[93]. herodotes azriT, mTel eladas winaT pelasgia erqva[94]. homerosis monacemebiT, kunZul kretazec sxva tomebTan erTad pelasgebic cxovrobdnen[95].

 

rogorc Cans, berZnuli tomebis mZlavrobasTan erTad pelasgebi materikidan sul ufro kunZulebisaken inacvlebdnen. isini SedarebiT didxans, daaxloebiT Zv. w. I aTaswleulis Sua xanebamde inarCunebdnen egeosis zRvis CrdiloeT nawils. maT ekuTvnodaT TrakiaSi, kerZod mis samxreT-aRmosavleT /18/ nawilSi, larisis olqSi, qalkidikaSi _ qalaqi krestoni, `iliadis~ `xomaldTa katalogis~ mixedviT _ mxare helespontsa da Trakias Soris, kunZulebidan _ lesbosi, lemnosi, imbrosi, qiosi, samoTrakia[96]. strabonis cnobiT, maTi nawili italiaSi gadasula tirenebis (igive etruskebis) eponimis, atisis Zis tirenis winamZRolobiT, xolo maTi meore nawili, TviT atisisa da misi meore Zis lidis, lidielTa eponimis meTaveobiT lidiaSi darCenila[97]. ax. w. I-II ss. mwerlis plutarqes ganmartebiT, pelasguri warmomavlobis tirenebi (etruskebi) jer TesaliaSi mosaxleobdnen, mere lidiaSi gadasaxldnen, lidiidan ki italiaSi gadavidnen[98]. herodotes dros, mcire aziaSi, helespontos (Tanamedrove dardanelis srute) aRmosavleT napirze gadasuli pelasgebi plakiesa da skilakeSi cxovrobdnen[99]. straboni, menekrat eleelis monacemebze dayrdnobiT, mcireazieli pelasgebis sacxovriss mTeli ioniuri sanapiroTi da misi mimdebare kunZulebiT gansazRvravs[100]. strabonis azriT, eoliur qalaq kimes maxloblad unda mdebareobdes pomerosis `iliadaSi~ moxseniebuli pelasguri larisa[101]. rogorc fiqroben, `larisa~ pelasgur enaze `akropoliss~ niSnavda[102].

 

ufro CrdiloeTiT, propontidis (Tanamedrove marmarilos zRva) mcireaziul sanapiroze pelasguri warmomavlobis mqoned miCneuli dolionebis tomi. iseT mniSvnelovan naSromSi, rogoric iyo Zv. w. IV s. istorikosis, eforos kvimelis ocdaaTtomiani `sazogado istoria~, romlis fragmentebic apolonios rodoselis `argonavtikis~ sqolionebSia Semonaxuli, dolionebis tomi, sxva pelasgur tomTa darad, Tesaliidan elinebis mier gamoZevebul tomadaa gamocxadebuli[103]. strabonis azriT, dolionebi, bebrikebis msgavsad, ukve trios omis xanebSi yofilan frigielebTan aRreulebi[104]; iqneb, swored am ukanaskneli garemoebiT aixsnas dolionebis pelasgebTan dapirispirebis faqti, rac Zvel mwerlebTan SeiniSneba. Zv. w. II s. avtoris, apolodores Txzulebis ~biblioTekis~ cnobiT, dolionebi SeCveulebi iyvnen pelasgTa xSir Tavdasxmas[105]. apolonios rodoselis poemis `argonavtikis~ mixedviT, es pelasgebi makri/19/selebi yofilan: `...da moeCvenaT, rom sanapiros umamacesi makrielebis moadga razmi pelasgiuri~[106]. poemis sqoliastis ganmartebiT, makriselebi igive makronebia, romelTa Sesaxebac Zv. w. IV s. moRvawes dionisios qalkidels SeuniSnavs, rom isini uwin kunZul evbeaze, anu makrisze saxlobdnen da saxelic aqedan SeerqvaTo; sqoliasti dasZens, rom sxvebis azriT, makronebs ase imitom uwodeben, rom maT Soris bevria grZelTaviani _ makrokefali[107]. ax. w. IV s. poemis, orfikuli `argonavtikis~ cnobiT, makronebi Crdilo-dasavleT anatoliaSi mcxovrebi mariandinebis mezoblebi arian; Tumca poemis erT-erT nusxaSi Μάκρωνες Senacvlebulia Μακριέες-iT[108]. apolonios rodoselis mixedviTac, makriebi Crdilo-dasavleT anatoliaSi binadrobdnen, dolionebis mezoblad; dolionebis miwas gacdenili argonavtebi makriadis mTebs gascqerodnen[109]. amave dros, yuradRebas ipyrobs is garemoeba, rom apolonios rodoseli sxva adgilas, samxreT-aRmosavleT SavizRvispireTSi mosaxle tomebTan erTad, asaxelebs makronebsac[110]. qsenofontis `anabasisis~ monacemebic cxadyofen, rom Zv. w. V-IV ss. mijnaze makronTa sacxovrisi trapezuntis samxreTiT ori dRis savalze iyo[111]. samxreT-aRmosavleT SavizRvispireTSi mcxovreblebad Tvlian makronebs, agreTve straboni[112], ax. w. I s. istorikosi plinius ufrosi[113], ax. w. II s. moRvawe flavius ariane[114] da sxv.

 

rogorc vxedavT, makriseleb-makronebs, garda saxelwodebis ori formisa, ori gansxvavebuli adgilmdebareobac moepovabaT da SeiZleboda gvefiqra, rom isini or sxvadasxva toms warmoadgendnen. magram apolonios rodoselis `argonavtikis~ sqoliastis zemomoyvanili ganmartebebis garda, amas xels uSlis, masTanve daculi erTi cnoba, romlis mixedviT zogierTebi makriselebs saxels uwodeben beqeirebis tomsac, romlebic mudmivad kizikelebs (anu dolionebs) eomebodnen[115]. moyvanil konteqstSi beqeirTa tomis moxsenieba sacaraudos xdis im garemoebas, rom dolionebTan mebrZol tomebSi SemdgomSi aRmosavleT pontoSi mosaxle tomebi unda igulisxmebodnen. hekateos mileteli beqeirebis qveyanas `beqeirikas~, xoebis mezoblad, Crdilo-aRmo/20/savleT anatoliaSi aTavsebda[116]. Zv. w. IV s. avtoris fsevdo skilaqs kariandelis mixedviT beqeirebi qalaq trapezuntisa da makrokefalebis tomis aRmosavleTiT cxovrobdnen[117] samxreT-aRmosavleT SavizRvispireTSi; erTmaneTis gverdiT moixseniebs maT pomponius melac[118], xolo apolonios rodoseli da ax. w. II s. avtori dionisios periegeti beqeirebsa da makronebs asaxeleben imave regionSi[119]. a. uruSaZis azriT, apolonios rodoselis poemis sqolionebSi daculi cnoba makriselebisa da makronebis igiveobaze, am ukanasknelTa adreuli gansaxlebis viTarebis amsaxvelia, rodesac berZnebis mier egeosis zRvis auzidan gamoZevebuli pelasguri warmomavlobis makriselebi-makronebi, sxva pelasgur tomebTan erTad jer propontidis (Tanamedrove marmarilos zRva), xolo Semdeg Savi zRvis sanapiroebisaken gaxiznulebi, ZvelTaganve iq damkvidrebuli tomebis gverdiT dasaxlebulan[120].

 

hekateosisa da strabonis miTiTebiT makronebi maT xanaSi sanebad iwodebodnen[121]. XII s. moRvawe evstaTi Tesalonikeli, romelsac dionise periegetis komentarebi ekuTvnis, aRniSnavs, rom beqeirebis samxreTiT mcxovreb makronebs mis dros sannebi ewodebodaT, xolo mdabiourad _ tZanebi (Τζάνους)[122]; rogorc aRniSnaven, τζ kompleqsiT berZnulisaTvis ucxo afrikati W aris gadmocemuli da sannebis `mdabiuri~ saxelwodeba unda yofiliyo _ Wani[123]. sakuTriv saxelwodeba `makronic~, mkvlevarTa azriT, ukavSirdeba erT-erT zanur (megrul_Wanur) satomo saxels `megrel || margals~-s, romelSic gamoiyofa arg || ark Ziri, miRebuli saxelwodeba `makronSi~ Semavali agr || akr Ziris metaTezis Sedegad; eTnonim `makronSi~ gamoiyofa agreTve sadaurobis aRmniSvneli qarTveluri m- prefiqsi da WanurisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli on sufiqsi[124]. a. uruSaZis azriT, satomo saxelis Μάκρωνες uZvelesi varianti aris Μακριείς < Μακριέες, romelic momdinareobs Μακρις-idan da qarTul-zanuri *magralis Sesatyvisia[125]. arg || agr fuZe farTod aris gavrcelebuli egeosis zRvis auzis toponimikaSi da pelasguri warmomavlobis mqoned aris miCneuli[126]. toponim `argosSi~, `velis~ aRmniSvnel pelasgur sityvas xedaven[127]; Tumca igive sityva xSiria egeosur anTroponimika/21/Si; T. miqelaZis azriT, kolxTa miTiuri mefis aietesis SviliSvili argosi SesaZloa `qarTlis cxovrebis~ genealogiuri sqemis egriselTa eTnarq-eponims `egross~ Seesabamebodes; a. uruSaZe zemomoyvanili arg- Ziriani eTnonimebis arsebobis safuZvelze, dasaZvebad miiCnevs, rom pelasgur-kolxur samyaros eTnarq-eponimi argosi unda yofiliyo[128].

 

sayuradReboa, rom apolonios rodoselis `argonavtikis~ sqoliastis mixedviT, makronebi skviTuri tomia, wamosuli evbeelTagan, romelTa sacxovrissac mdebareobis gamo makrisi ewodeboda[129]. rogorc vxedavT, sqoliasti makronebs erTidaimave dros miiCnevs rogorc skviTur, aseve egeosur (pelasgur) tomad. es ar aris izolirebuli SemTxveva, rodesac antikuri epoqis wyaroebSi SavizRvispireTis qarTveluri tomebi skviTur an pelasgur tomebad moixsenebian; pirveli gansazRvreba, savaraudoa, rom, upiratesad kulturul-politikuri Sinaarsis Semcvelia, xolo meore _ eTnikuri naTesaobis gamomxatveli.

 

gansakuTrebiT rTulia am mxriv, samxreT-dasavleT SavizRvispireTSi mosaxle kavkonebis vinaobis garkveva, romlebic qalaq herakleidan mdinare parTeniosamde (Tanamedrove q. ereglidan _ md. koja-irmakamde), mariandinebsa da enetebs (Zv. w. IV s. istorikosis kalisTenes mixedviT _ levkosirebs) Soris saxlobdnen; maT zogierTi skviTebad miiCnevda, zogi pelasgebad, zogic romeliRac makedonur tomad[130]. strabonis mixedviT, maTi Tavdapirveli binadrobis mxared peloponess _ elides, xolo TviT maT, pelasgebis msgavsad, arkadiul tomad miiCnednen[131]. strabonis dros md. parTeniosTan ukve kavkoniatebisa Tu kavkonitebis paflagoniuri tomi cxovrobda, xolo sakuTriv kavkonebis tomi ukve aRarsad iyo[132].

 

aseve gauCinarebula strabonis droisaTvis md. parTeniosis aRmosavleTiT, e. i. paflagoniaSi, mosaxle enetebis tomi[133]. strabonis cnobiT, trios dacemis Semdeg maTi nawili adriatikis zRvis Soreul napirze, enetikaSi, gadasaxlebula[134]. enetebis qveynisa da paflagoniis siaxlove Tu identuroba, SeimCneva `iliadis~ `xomaldTa katalogis~ mixedviTac, sadac vkiTxulobT: `paflagonielebs xelmZRvanelobda /22/ pilemene guladi, enetedan, saidanac gareuli jorebis modgmaa (cnobili), kitorosSi rom cxovrobdnen da sesamosis garSemo saxlobdnen, mdinare parTeniosis garSemo didebul saxlebSi binadrobdnen, kromnasa, aigialossa da maRal eriTiniosSi (cxovrobdnen)~[135]. aSkaraa, rom dasaxelebulia teritoria md. parTeniosidan karambisis (amJamad qeremfes) koncxamde, anu zRvispira paflagoniis dasavleTo nawili. strabonis cnobiT, meandros mileteli iuwyeboda, rom trois omSi mimavali da Semdeg adriatikis Soreul napirze dasaxlebuli enetebi levkosirebis qveynidan iyvnen wamosuli, xolo adgilze darCenilebi droTa ganmavlobaSi kapadokielebad iqcnen; strabonis azriT, am gancxadebis sasargeblod unda mowmobdes, paflagoniis gaswvriv mdebare, md. halisis maxlobel kapadokiur olqebSi gamoyenebul orive enaSi paflagoniuri saxelebis siuxve[136]. magram meandrosis cnobis mixedviT, ar aris naTeli md. halisTan eguleboda Tu ara mas `levkosirebis qveyana~. md. halisis aRmosavleTiT enetTa lokalizebis SesaZleblobas iZleva strabonTan Semonaxuli Zv. w. II s. avtoris apolodores cnoba, hekateos miletelis mier qalaq amisosis (Tanamedrove q. samsuni) enetad miCnevis Taobaze, Tumca, amis sawinaaRmdegod, straboni xazs usvams md. halisis aRmosavleTiT, levkosirebis qveyanaSi, amisosis mdebareobas[137].

 

gamoTqmulia mosazreba, romlis mixedviTac, herodotes mier sirielTa (igive levkosirTa) binadrobis adgilTan moxseniebuli md. parTeniosi[138], romelic agreTve gvxvdeba `iliadis~ zemomoyvanil fragmentSi, unda yofiliyo md. halisis (kizil-irmakis) maxloblad, sadac dResac dasturdeba mdinare msgavsi saxelwodebiT da romelsac Turquli nomenklaturiT barTan-su an ubralod barTine ewodeba[139]. Magram, vinaidan, `iliadis~ md. parTeniosi dasavlurpaflagoniur qalaqebTan kromnasTan, aigialosTan, eriTiniosTan da sesames-amasTriasTan mezoblobaSi moixsenieba[140] da agreTve, imis gamo, rom kalisTenes mixedviT, kavkonebis tomi herakleadan da mariandinebis olqidan levkosirebamde da md. parTeniosamde vrceldeboda[141], aSkara xdeba, rom `iliadasa~ da herodotesTan naxseneb md. parTeniosSi Crdilo-dasavleT anatoliaSi mdebare Tanamedrove mdinare koja irmaki /23/ igulisxmeba, romlis Zveli saxelwodeba amave mdinareze mdebare qalaq barTinSi Cans Semonaxuli. miuxedavad amisa, enetebis (henetebis) aRmosavleTisaken gansaxlebis sasargeblod SesaZloa migvaniSnebdes maTi saxelwodebis savaraudo kavSiri fsevdo-skilaqsis `periplusSi~ moxseniebul xalibTa daxurul navsadgur genetesTan (Γενήτης)[142], apolonios rodoselis `argonavtikis~ genetes koncxTan (Γενηταίη κρη)[143], strabonis `geografiis~ mdinare genetesTan[144].

 

p. ingoroyva saxelwodeba `genetes~ henioxTa satomo saxels ukavSirebda[145]. a. uruSaZes msgavsi varaudi ar miaCnia gamarTlebulad, radgan berZnul enas `h~-s gadmosacemad saukeTeso saSualeba hqonda Zlieri aspiraciis saxiT, garda amisa, misi azriT, es sityva momdinareobs berZnuli zmnisagan γεννάω, xolo forma Γενήταιος zevsis epiTetad ixmareboda (`mSobliuri zevsi~)[146]. magram, saxelwodeba `genetesis~ samnairi gamoyeneba navsadguris, koncxis da mdinaris saxelwodebisaTvis, savaraudos unda xdides mis adgilobriv warmomavlobas. saxelwodeba `genetesis~ berZnulad gaazreba, savsebiT dasaSvebia, momxdariyo adgilobrivi saxelis kontaminaciis Sedegad. analogiuri SemTxvevebi xSiria antikuri epoqis SavizRvispireTis sinamdvileSi[147]. T. miqelaZis dakvirvebiT, aRniSnuli saxelwodeba Semonaxuli unda iyos amave midamoebSi arsebuli kunZulis Tanamedrove saxelwodebaSi _ haneT kalesi[148].

 

henioxebi, rogorc Cans, farTod vrceldebodnen SavizRvispireTis aRmosavleT raionebSi. maT fsevdo-skilaqsi Crdilo-aRmosavleT SavizRvispireTSi aqaielebis samxreTiTa da koraqsebis CrdiloeTiT aTavsebs[149]. dionisios periegetis mixedviT, dasavleT anatoliidan mosuli aqaielebis mezoblad cxovrobdnen pelasgidebis qveynis Svilebi _ henioxebi da zigiebi (Ζύγιοί)[150]. strabonTan daculi, Zv. w. II-I ss. geografosis artemidore efeselis cnobiT, henioxebi didi pitiuntis (Tanamedrove biWvinTis) CrdiloeTiT cxovrobdnen[151]. TviT strabonisTvisac henioxebi Crdilo-aRmosavleT SavizRvispireTSi mosaxle tomia, aqaielebis msgavsad, argonavt iasonis laSqris nawilisagan warmomdgari[152]. /24/ ax. w. II s. aleqsandrieli moRvawis, klavdius ptolemaiosis `geografiuli saxelmZRvanelos~ cnobiT, henioxebi Crdilo-aRmosavleT SavizRvispireTSi binadrobdnen, aqaielebis, kerketebisa da suanokolxebis mezoblad[153]. Zv. w. IV-III ss. avtors heraklide pontoelis `politiebSi~, romelic, rogorc dadginda, Zv. w. IV s. didi filosofosis aristoteles amave saTauris mqone Txzulebis eqscerptebs warmoadgenen[154], henioxebi kolxeTis dablobis uZveles mosaxleobadaa miCneuli; aq aRiniSneba, rom fasisis gayolebaze Tavdapirvelad ucxovria henioxebis velur toms, Semdeg ki miletelebs, qalaq fasisis berZen kolonistebs[155].

 

Zneli saTqmelia, Tu sad varaudobda henioxTa gansaxlebas Zv. w. V s. logografosi helanike mitileneli, romlis mixedviT, kerketebis zemoT cxovroben mosxebi da xarimatebi, xolo qvemoT henioxebi, zemoT ki _ koraqsebi[156]; yvela es tomi Tu maTgan nawarmoebi toponimi, garda Crdilo-aRmosavleT SavizRvispireTisa, samxreT-aRmosavleT SavizRvispireTSic gvxvdeba, xolo Zv. w. IV s. avtori palefat abidoseli, TxzulebaSi `troas omis Sesaxeb~ (misi fragmentic, helanikes fragmentTan erTad stefane bizantionelis `eTnikur leqsikonSia~ Semonaxuli), xarimatebis Sesaxeb wers, rom `kerketebs emijnebian mosxebi, da xarimatebi floben parTenioss evqsinis pontomde~[157]; vinaidan xarimatebis parTeniosad samecniero literaturaSi miCneulia fsevdo-skilaqsis md. pordanisi[158], flavius arianes md. pritanidi[159], istoriuli lazeTis mdinare fortuna[160], igive Tanamedrove md. fazari, savaraudo xdeba, rom helanikesTan moxseniebuli henioxebi samxreT-aRmosavleT SavizRvispireTis mosaxleni unda yofiliyvnen[161]. aRsaniSnavia, rom ax. w. IV s. avtoris amianus marcelinusis cnobiT, md. fasisis maxloblad cxovrobda kamaritebis tomi[162], romlis saxelwodeba, SesaZloa eTnonim `xarimatisagan~ metaTezisiTa da dioniseseul kamaritebTan kontaminaciiT iyos miRebuli. helanikesTan CamoTvlili tomebis samxreTuli lokalizeba TiTqos miT ufro dasaSvebia, rom pliniusis monacemebiT, sani-henioxebi (Sannorum Heniochorum) q. trapezuntis mxareSi da misgan aR/25/mosavleTiT binadrobdnen, xolo md. mtkvars saTave henioxur, anu koraqsul mTebSi hqonia[163]. Tumca, gasaTvaliswinebelia isic, rom TviT pliniusis mixedviT, Crdilo-aRmosavleT SavizRvispireTSic, suanebis tomsa da Sav zRvas Soris cxovrobda dioskurTa meetleebis STamomaval henioxTa mravalricxovani tomebi[164].

 

pliniusis san-henioxebs, rogorc Cans, Seesabameba flavius arianes `periplusSi~ sanebis aRmosavleTiT moxseniebuli makronebisa da henioxebis gaerTianeba, romelsac saTaveSi edga erTi mefe _ anqiale, xolo misi sasaxle md. pritanidze yofila gaSenebuli[165]. ax. w. V s. anonimur `periplusSi~ makronebis nacvlad imave konteqstSi maxelonebia dasaxelebuli[166]. amdenad, TiTqos moipoveba safuZveli helanikeseuli henioxebis samxreT SavizRvispireTSi lokalizebisaTvis, magram, amave dros, angariSgasawevad migvaCnia helanikesa da palefatis zemomoyvanili cnobebis adreulobis mimarT gamoTqmuli eWvi: fiqroben, rom stefane bizantionelTan Semonaxuli es cnobebi pontos mefis miTridate VI evpatoris omebis istorikosebis tradicias unda uaxlovdebodes[167].

 

berZnul-laTinur wyaroebSi moxseniebuli henioxebis warmomavlobis sakiTxTan dakavSirebiT gamoiTqva varaudi imis Taobaze, rom dasaSvebi unda iyos maTi daaxloeba urartuli warwerebis mier Zv. w. VIII s. Cildiris tbis midamoebSi damowmebul iganiexielebTan, romelTa mogvianebiT dasavleTisaken gadanacvlebuli STamomavlebi, q. trapezuntis aRmosavleTiT mdebare sanapiro mxareSi `henioxTa~ saxelwodebiT unda gamoCeniliyvnen[168]. sapirispirod amisa, T. yauxCiSvili iziarebs Sexedulebas, henioxebis, zogierT sxva tomTan erTad, aRmosavleT SavizRvispireTis Crdilo sanapirodan samxreTisaken gadanacvlebis Sesaxeb[169]; Tumca igi amasTanave SesaZleblad Tvlis, strabonTan moxseniebuli, iasonis laSqridan henioxebTan erTad Crdilo-aRmosavleT SavizRvispireTSi dasaxlebuli, fTiuri anu Tesaliuri warmomavlobis aqaielebi[170] Zv. w. II aTaswleulis Sua xanebis xmelTaSuazRvis auzSi mimdinare tomTa didi gadasaxlebebis Sedegad moxvedriliyvnen kavkasiaSi[171].

 

gansxvavebuli Sexedulebebia gamoTqmuli henioxTa eTnikuri kuTvnilebis Sesaxebac, maT, ZiriTadad, svanur[172], zanur[173], an afxazur-adiRuri[174] modgmis tomad miiCneven. i. orbeli /26/ eTnonim `henioxSi~ gamoyofda hen- fuZes[175]. aRsaniSnavia, rom lingvisturi monacemebis safuZvelze, b. gigineiSvili Seecada daesabuTebina eTnonimebis `henioxisa~ da `Wanis~ identuroba. misi azriT, heni-(o)-xi Wanebis (igive sanebis) svanuri saxelwodebaa da saerTo qarTveluri *w1enisagan unda momdinareobdes; qarTulSi misi kanonzomieri Sesatyvisi *weni unda yofiliyo, zanurSi ki _ Wani[176]. T. yauxCiSvilis SexedulebiT, aseTi varaudi mraval dabrkolebas awydeba, magram Tavad Sexedulebas henioxebis dasavlurqarTuli (svanuri an zanuri) kuTvnilebis Sesaxeb igi iziarebs[177].

 

henioxTa dasavlurqarTul kuTvnilebas, SewsaZloa, swored winakoloniur periodSi md. rionis auzSi maTi binadrobis zemomoyvanili cnoba mowmobdes, rac, amave dros, ufro gviandel xanebSi, CrdiloeTisaken maTi gadanacvlebis sasargeblodac unda metyvelebdes da risTvisac, rogorc fiqroben, kolxebis md. fasisze (rionze) gabatonebas unda Seewyo xeli[178]. msgavsi viTareba TiTqos asaxulia `argonavtikis~ ax. w. I s. epikosi poetis valerius flakusiseul versiaSi[179], romelSic kolxebis mefis asulis medeas ZiZad henioxi qalia dasaxelebuli, es ki mkvlevarTa azriT, urTierTobis garkveul etapze henioxebis kolxebisadmi daqvemdebarebuli mdgomareobis gamomxatvelia[180].

 

yuradRebas ipyrobs agreTve is garemoeba, rom adreul cnobaTa umravlesoba, sadac henioxebi Crdilo-aRmosavleT SavizRvispireTSi arian dasaxelebuli, maTi iq egeosuri samyarodan gadmosaxlebas iuwyeba. garda dionisios periegetisa da sxva avtorebis mier henioxebis pelasgTa naSierebad gamocxadebisa, pelasgur samyarosTan maT siaxloveze SesaZloa miuniSnebdes antikuri epoqis avtorebis mier henioxebis tomis warmomavlobis dakavSirebis cda iasonis TanamolaSqreebis, tyupi Zmebis _ dioskurebis meetlebTan, im faqtis gaTvaliswinebiT, rom iasoni da sazogadod argonavtebi pelasgebad miiCneodnen (ix. qvemoT). aRsaniSnavia, rom eTnonim `henioxs~ (Ήνίοχοι) Zveli avtorebi Cveulebriv ganmartaven `meetlis~ aRmniSvneli berZnuli terminiT νίοχος (mr. r. νίοχοι). henioxebisa da dioskurebis urTierTkavSiri Cans pomponius melas im cnobidanac, rom qalaqi dioskuria (Dioscurias) henioxTa miwaze dioskurebma daarses[181]; xolo pliniusis mixedviT, es qalaqi daarses TviT `meetleebma~, romelTaganac warmoiSva /27/ henioxTa tomi[182].

 

ax. w. I s. avtoris, pompous trogusis mixedviT, romlis Txzuleba ax. w. II-III ss. moRvawis, iustinusis redaqciiTaa Semonaxuli, iasoni mravali wlis Semdeg ukan brundeba kolxeTSi da samefo taxts ubrunebs Tavis simamrs aietess, romlisTvisac mtrebs samefo waurTmeviaT. Semdeg iasons didi brZolebi gadauxdia mezoblebTan da dapyrobili miwa-wylis nawili aietesis samefoebisaTvis SeuerTebia, xolo nawili Tavis TanamolaSqreebisaTvis gauyvia; maT Soris, dioskurebis _ kastorisa da poluqsis meetleebisaTvis, frigiasisa da amfistratosisaTvis[183]. dionisios periegetis `dedamiwis aRwerilobis~ evstati Tesalonikiseuli komentariT, ax. w. II-III ss. miTografosi qaraqs pergamoneli iuwyeboda, rom, rodesac argonavtebi kolxeTisaken mravali xomaldiT gamgzavrebulan da ara mxolod `argoTi~, erT-erT xomalds gezi arevia da masze myofi dioskurebis anu tindaridebis (maTi mamis, spartis mefis tindareosis saxelidan) meetleebs napirze gadmosvlisas Zalaufleba xelSi CaugdiaT; maTgan adgilobrivma tomebma henioxebisa da tindaridebis, xolo qalaqma _ dioskuriadis saxeli miiiRo[184]. aRsaniSnavia, rom amianus marcelinusTan dasaxelebuli dioskurebis erT-erTi meetle kerkiusi[185], T. yauxCiSvilis azriT, SesaZloa warmoadgenda Crdilo-aRmosavleT SavizRvispireTSi mcxovrebi kerketebis tomis eTnarq-eponims[186].

 

dionisios periegetis mier, henioxebTan erTad pelasgTa naSierebad miCneuli zigiebi, romelTac Cveulebriv afxazur-adiRuri modgmis tomebTan jiqebTan aigiveben[187], henioxebis msgavsad, garda Crdilo-aRmosavleT SavizRvispireTisa, samxreT SavizRvispireTSic Canan; kerZod, maT ukavSireben trapezuntis samxreTiT strabonis mier moxseniebuli qalaqis zigopolisis saxelwodebas[188]. es toponimi dRemdea SemorCenili am mxareSi ziganis qedisa da uReltexilis saxelwodebebSi. amave dros, ziganis uReltexilisa da iqve mdebare daba ziganis saxelwodebas ukavSireben persepolisis maxloblad qaaba-i-zardoStSi napovn, adresasaniduri xanis iranis Sahis Sapur I-is (ax. w. 242-272 ww.) samenovani warweris parTul-falaur teqstSi, sasanuri saxelmwifos SemadgenlobaSi Semaval qveynaTa da xalxTa Soris dasaxelebul Syk(r?)n-s, romelsac berZnuli teqstis Μαχελονία /28/ Seesatyviseba da, romelsac zogierTi mkvlevari SavizRvispireTis `maxelonebisa da henioxebis samefosTan~ aigivebs[189]. Tumca, gamoTqmulia varaudi, qaaba-i-zardoStis warweraSi moxseniebuli qveynis aRmosavleT amierkavkasiaSi lokalizebis SesaZleblobaze (ix. qvemoT).

 

K

kidev erTi tomi, romelic gvxvdeba, rogorc aRmosavleT SavizRvispireTis CrdiloeT seqtorSi, aseve samxreTSic _ kerketebia. antikuri epoqis mwerlebi maT Cveulebriv Crdilo-aRmosavleT SavizRvispireTSi, aqaiebisa da henioxebis mezoblebad asaxeleben[190]. garda amisa, yuradReba eqceva im garemoebas, rom samxreT da aRmosavleT SavizRvispireTSi dadasturebulia satomo saxel `kerketTan~ sakmaod axlo mdgomi formebis arseboba, ekeqerielebis[191], ekrektikis[192], kegritikis[193] saxiT[194], xolo straboni pirdapir aRniSnavs, rom trapezuntis, farnakiisa da mcire armeniis maxloblad cxovroben apaitebi, uwindeli kerkitebi[195].

 

mkvlevarTa mier wamoyenebulia Sexeduleba, samxreT SavizRvispireTSi mcxovrebi mosinikebis saxelwodebis Crdilo-aRmosavlel SavizRvispireli sanigebis saxelisagan qarTuli m- prefiqsis darTviT warmomavlobis Taobaze[196]. gansxvavebuli azri aqvs gamoTqmuli T. miqelaZes; man mosinikebis satomo saxeli daukavSira svanebis TviTdasaxelebis erT-erT variants _ `muSuns romelsac agreTve ax. w. pirveli saukuneebis wyaroebSi damowmebul misimianTa tomis saxelTan aaxloeben[197] da SesaZleblad miiCnia misimielebis gaigiveba samxreT-aRmosavleT SavizRvispireTidan mosul mosin-mosinikebis tomTan; T. miqelaZis azriT, es garemoeba, samxreTuli eTnonimiis CrdiloeTSi ganmeorebis gaTvaliswinebiT, unda naTelyofdes eTnikuri jgufebis moZraobis mimarTulebas samxreTidan CrdiloeTisaken[198].

 

Cven, ar gamovricxavT ra eTnikuri jgufebis moZraobis aRniSnuli mimarTulebis realurobas, amave dros vfiqrobT, rom qsenofontis mier nauwyebi faqti mosinikebis xalibebze gabatonebisa[199], zogierT sxva niSanTan erTad, kerZod, samxreTeT SavizRvispirel tomebTan SedarebiT maTi sazogadoebrivi ganviTarebis dabali done da gansxvavebuli Cvevebi, agreTve, TvalSisacemad ufro Ria pigmentacia[200], mosinikebSi TiTqos CrdiloeTidan Se/29/moWril mosaxleobas unda gvavaraudinebdes. g. meliqiSvilis SeniSvniT, Crdilokavkasiuri da Crdilokolxuri saxelwodebebis gaCena samxreT-aRmosavleT SavizRvispireTSi SeeZlo gamoewvia Zv. w. VIII-VII ss. kimeriul-skviTuri tomebis aq SemoWras da ufro mogvianebiT momxdar gadaadgilebebs[201]. Tumca, zogierTi `Crdilouri ieris~ mqone saxelwodeba, albaT arc iyo CrdiloeTidan Semotanili; magaliTad, satomo saxel `kerketTan~ miaxloebul zemoT moyvanil samxreTul saxelwodebebSi mkvlevrebi dasavlurqarTul `egr~ Zirs gamoyofen da gamoricxulad ar miiCneven, saxelwodeba `kerketis~ amave Ziridan warmoqmnas[202]. gasaTvaliswinebelia Crdilo-aRmosavleT SavizRvispireTSi eTnonim `mosxis~ dadasturebis faqtic (ix. qvemoT), Tuki masSi samxreTuli warmomavlobis tomi igulisxmeba. yuradRebas ipyrobs agreTve zemoT moyvanili cnoba, henioxebis pelasgur Camomavlobaze, rac iqneb Crdilo-aRmosavleT SavizRvispireTSi samxreTidan maTi gavrcelebis mauwyebeli iyos; rodesac antikur wyaroebSi Savi zRvis tomTa pelasguri warmomavloba aRiniSneba, aseTi tomebi, ZiriTadad, samxreT SavizRvispireTSi arian xolme lokalizebulni.

 

pelasguri migraciis erT-erT Semadgenel nawilad, rogorc irkveva, xalibebic miiCneodnen. Zv. w. I s. poetis vergiliusis `georgikebis~ sqolionis mixedviT, xalibebs, rkinis aRmomCen toms pontoSi, saxeli ewoda evbeis sofel xalibiumidan, radgan isini aqedan gadasaxlebulan[203]. iuniliusisadmi miwerili es ganmarteba m. Sancis azriT, ekuTvnis iunius filargiriuss, romelsac xelT bevri Zveli wyaro hqonia[204]. amgvarad, sqoliastis monacemebis gaTvaliswinebiT, gamodis, rom xalibebic imave kunZul evbeidan (makrisidan) arian gadmosaxlebulni pontoSi, saidanac antikuri eroqis avtorebis cnobiT, makronebic wamosulan.

 

Zneli saTqmelia, Tu ramdenad sandoa xalibebisa da makronebis evbeidan gadmosaxlebis cnoba, magram xalibebisa da makronebis erTidaimave kunZulidan gamoyvana, albaT unda miuTiTebdes im garemoebaze, rom isini axlomonaTesave tomebad iyvnen miCneulni. es, orive am tomis dasavlurqarTuli (zanuri) samyarosadmi kuTvnilebiTac dasturdeba. Rogorc zemiT aRvniSnavdiT, makronebi ZvelTaganve Wanebad iyvnen miCneulni, /30/ xolo xalibebi, strabonis mowmobiT, mis dros xaldebad (Χαλδαοι) iwodebodnen[205]; xaldebisa da Wanebis identuroba ki SemCneuli hqondaT jer kidev adreuli Sua saukuneebis somex avtorebs. anonimuri `somxuri geografiis~ mixedviT, romelsac VII s. filosofoss anania Sirakacs miaweren, kolxida anu egeri iyofa oTx provinciad: manrili, egrevika, lazivi da WaneTi, romelic aris xaltiqi (ճանեթ որք են խադտիք)[206], xolo movses xorenacis cnobiT, romis imperatori `tacitusi Tavisianebma mokles pontoelTa WanivqSi, e. i. xaltiqSi~[207]. miCneulia, rom saxelwodebebSi `xalibi~, `xaldi~ da `xaltiqi~ gamoiyofa al- Ziri, gaformebuli sxvadasxva warmoSobis mravlobiTi ricxvis sufiqsebiT, amasTanave, `xaltiqSi~ (resp. xaRtiqi) -ti sufiqss, somxuri enisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli mravlobiTobis sufiqsi k aqvs damatebuli[208].

 

xalibebisa Tu maTgan dasavleTiT mcxovrebi mosaxleobis zanurenovnebis erT-erT sabuTs, SesaZloa warmoadgendes toponimi Temiskira (Θεμίσκρα), Tanamedrove samsunis yuris aRmosavleTiT lokalizebuli, im faqtis gaTvaliswinebiT, rom `skirze~ daboloebuli toponimebi damaxasiaTebelia zanuri toponimiisaTvis da maT megrul-Wanur sityvas skirs _ `Svili~ ukavSireben[209]. T. miqelaZis varaudiT, radgan toponim `TemiskiraSi~ boloswina xmovani berZnuli ι-nacvlad, υ-Tia gadmocemuli, xolo megrul-Wanuri `skiris~ arqetipi *skri unda yofiliyo, amitom toponim Θεμίσκυρα-Si `vi~ kompleqsi iqneboda mocemuli[210]. amave varaudisaTvis damatebiT sabuTs unda iZleodes, iqve, Termodontis velze, pomponius melas mier dasaxelebuli qalaqis _ Temiskuris (Themiscurum oppidum) saxelwodeba[211], romelic `Temiskiris~ variants unda warmoadgendes. vfiqrobT, am toponimis mniSvnelobis dadgenisas, mxedvelobaSia misaRebi megruli skur- elementis Semcveli im toponimebis arseboba, romlebic upiratesad Releebis aRsaniSnavad gamoiyeneba da romelTac, rogorc Cans, unda ukavSirdebodes megruli sityva squri (mSrali), noskiri (danaSrobi)[212]. im garemoebis gaTvaliswinebiT, rom sityva `noskiridan~ nawarmoebi Cans Tanamedrove soflis nosiris saxelwodeba[213], romelic, s. yauxCiSvilis varaudiT, SesaZloa jer kidev bizantiis imperatoris iustinianes mier kolxeTSi agebuli cixe-simagris losorionis, igive lisirisis saxelwode/31/baSi iyo asaxuli[214], macdunebeli xdeba Temiskiris dablobze mosaxle sirebis (levkosirebis) tomis[215] saxelwodebis zanur skir || skur ZirTan dakavSirebis SesaZlebloba.

 

egeosuri mosaxleobis SavizRvispireTisaken swrafvis erT-erT yvelaze adreul gamoxatulebas argonavtebis miTi warmoadgens. marTalia, specialur literaturaSi gamoTqmulia azri, rom argonavtebis laSqrobis obieqts Tqmulebis uZveles variantSi kolxeTi ki ar warmoadgenda, aramed legendaruli qveyana aia, romelic TiTqos `qveynis kideze~, eTiopiaSi mdebareobda[216], magram ukanaskneli xanebis kvleva-Ziebis Sedegebis mixedviT, naTeli xdeba am Tqmulebis dasabamiTganve mWidro kavSiri pontospireTTan.

 

`argonavtebis Tqmulebis~ kolxeTis mefis aietesis mier Tavisi samemkvidreos _ pelasguri efires (korinTo) mitoveba da kolxeTis miwisaken gamgzavreba, rac nauwyebia Zv. w. VIII s. epikosis, evmelos korinTelis `korinTiahaSi~, berZnul wyaroebSi kolxeTis xsenebis yvelaze adreul faqtad iTvleba[217]. amave saukunis Sua xanebs ganekuTvneba urartus mefis sarduri II-is warwera, sadac moxeniebulia `kulxas qveyana~, romelsac kolxeTTan aigiveben; rogorc cnobilia, urartuli lursmuli damwerloba `o~ xmovans `u~-Ti gadascemda[218]. Zv. w. VIII s. TariRdeba, agreTve, `argonavtebis miTis~ Cinebuli mcodnis, didi epikosis hesiodes poema `Teogonia~, sadac sxva mdinareebTan erTad fasisi da resosia CamoTvlili[219]. SesaZloa, hidronim fasisTan iyos dakavSirebuli Zv. w. XII s. asureTis mefis TiglaT-fileser I-is warwerebis mier aRmosavleT anatoliaSi moxseniebuli abeSlas tomis saxelwodeba[220], im garemoebis gaTvaliswinebiT, rom Zv. w. V s. bolos qsenofonti miaxloebiT imave regionSi iuwyeba fasianebis tomis arsebobas, md. arezis zemo wells ki fasisis saxelwodebiT icnobs[221], Tumca, misTvis nacnobia SavizRvispireTis fasisic, sadac fasianTa qveyana mdebareobda da aietesis SviliSvili mefobda[222]. savaraudoa, rom, qsenofontis msgavsad, herodotec saxelwodeba `fasisiT~, md. rionis garda[223] md. arezsac aRniSnavda; es Cans, mis mier moyvanili, skviTebis im sityvebidan, romlebic gvauwyeben, rom isini Seecdebian midiaSi SeWras mdinare fasisis gaswvriv da mouwodebdnen /32/ spartelebs efesodan daZruliyvnen da sadme qveynis SigniT maT Sexvedrodnen[224]. radgan, sxva SemTxvevaSi herodotes, ZiriTadad, sworada aqvs am mdinaris saxelwodeba aRniSnuli, rogorc araqsi (arezi), savaraudo xdeba, rom saxelwodeba `fasisiT~, md. arezis mxolod zemo weli moixsenieboda. sayuradReboa md. Woroxis mimarT saxelwodeba `afsarosis~ gamoyenebis faqti[225], romelic bizantiuri xanis wyaroebSi da maT Tanadroul qarTul TargmanebSi `fsarosis~ formiT aris cnobili[226]. md. fasisis samxreTuli lokalizaciis sasargeblod, SesaZloa is garemoebac mowmobdes, rom masTan antikuri wyaroebis mixedviT, ganuyoflad dakavSirebuli mxare _ kolxeTi, rogorc fiqroben, Tavdapirvelad istoriuli kolxeTis samxreTiT mdebareobda[227]. herodote xazgasmiT imowmebs im faqts, rom argonavtebi aia-kolxeTSi Cavidnen[228], amis safuZvelze T. miqelaZe varaudobs, rom herodotes amiT SeiZleba surda ganesxvavebina aia-kolxeTi misi Tanamedrove rion-fasisis kolxeTisagan; gasaTvaliswinebelia, qsenofontis mier qalaq trapezuntis mxareSi kolxebis moxsenieba Zv. w. IV s. dasawyisSi[229].

 

samxreTSavizRvispireTul samyarosTan kolxebis dakavSirebisas, mxedvelobaSi misaRebia agreTve Sexeduleba, maTi saxelwodebis msgavsebis Sesaxeb spilenZis aRmniSvnel berZnul sityvasTan χαλκός, romlisganac, rogorc fiqroben, nawarmoebia eTnonimi xalibi (Χάλβες), bosforis srutis aziur napirze mdebare qalkedonisa (Χαλκηδών) da Trakiuli mxaris qalkidikes (Χαλκιδική) saxelebi, kunZul evbeis saxelwodeba _ xalkisi (Χαλκίς)[230]. i. otkupSCikovis mier gamoTqmuli varaudiT, vinaidan toponimi Χαλκηδών-i, Tavdapirvelad unda gvxvdebodes xolme Καλχηδών-formiT, romelSic iolad gamoiyofa sufiqsialuri δών, SesaZlebloba iqmneba qveynis saxelwodeba _ Κολχίς etimologiuri TvalsazrisiT gauTanabrdes toponim Χαλκίς-s _ `spilenZiT mdidari qveyana~[231]. egeb, ZvelberZnuli warmodgena argonavtebis laSqrobis mxareze _ liTonebiT mdidar qveyanaze, pontospireTis berZnebis mier TandaTanobiT aTvisebasTan erTad, sul ufro Sors, aRmosavleTisaken inacvlebda, amaZonelTa qveynis Sesaxeb Tqmulebis msgavsad[232]. amave dros, savaraudoa, rom samxreT Savi/33/zRvispireTSi realurad mimdinare tomTa migraciebsac, romelTa kvali antikuri epoqis samxreT da aRmosavleT SavizRvispireTis toponimiaSi mZlavrad aris asaxuli, xeli unda Seewyo warmodgeneTa msgavsi monacvleobisaTvis.

 

tradiciuli SexedulebiT, `argonavtebis miTi~ trois omze ufro adreul xanas miekuTvneba, amdenad miTSi aRwerili ambis uZvelesi plasti Zv. w. XIII s. ufro gviani xaniT ar unda TariRdebodes. Mis siZveles mowmobs Tundac homerosis `odiseaSi~ naxsenebi, `yvelasaTvis sanukvari sazRvao xomaldi `argo~~[233]. trois omis winamorbed xanaSi mcire aziaSi Zlieri iyo xeTuri saxelmwifoebrioba da kulturuli tradiciebi; amasTanave, centraluri anatoliis CrdiloeT nawilSi jer kidev SemorCenili iyo winaxeTuri, xaTuri tradiciebi, romelTa Soris mniSvnelovan rols asrulebda, cxvris an Txis tyavis (sawmisis) kulti, romlis mimarTebas `argonavtebis miTis~ sawmisTan sagangebo naSromi miuZRvna germanelma mecnierma f. haasma[234]. argonavtebis mogzaurobis mTavari mizani _ sawmisi, xeTur religiur ritualebSi ganayofierebis, samefo keTildReobisa da laSqrobis damcveli RvTaebis simbolos warmoadgenda da inaxeboda omis RvTaebis _ zababas taZrebSi[235]. xeTuri `Telefinus miTis~ mixedviT, sawmisi an muxaze ekida, romlis qveS ganayofierebis urCxuli ijda, anda deda RvTaeba xanxanas wminda mindorze, Tasze ido; sawmisian muxis xes gansakuTrebuli adgili xaTuri qalaqis neriqis sakulto ritualebSi ekava[236]. antikuri warmodgenebiT, sawmisi md. fasisis piras, omis RvTaeba aresis WalaSi muxaze iyo Camokiduli da mas gveleSapi darajobda[237]. antikuri epoqis wyaroebis mixedviT, aresis kulti damaxasiaTebelia pontoSi mosaxle tomebisaTvis; kolxebisa[238] da skviTebis[239] garda, mis Tayvanismcemlebad Canan xalibebi da amaZonebi, romlebic aresis STamomavlebad iTvlebodnen[240]. sagulisxmoa, rom homerosis cnobiT, aresi troelebs elinTa winaaRmdeg exmareboda[241].

 

xeTuri ritualebis sawmisi mWidro kavSirSia xaTur vegetaciur qalRmerT inarasTan (argonavtebis Tqmulebis mede/34/as prototipi)[242]. `iluianqas miTis~ mixedviT, inara, ubralo mokvdavi mamakacis xufasias (iasonis prototipi) daxmarebiT, amarcxebs iluianqa gveleSaps, mis mier gadaylapuli amindis (Weqa-quxilis) RvTaebis dasaxsnelad; inarac, medeas msgavsad, amisaTvis, upirveles yovlisa, urCxuls aZinebs[243]. `argonavtebis Tqmulebis~ analogiurad, qorwinebis saSualebiT gmiris mier miznis miRwevis Tema mocemulia `iluianqas miTis~ meore versiaSic, sadac amindis RvTaebis vaJs colad mohyavs iluianqas qaliSvili da mamamiss iluianqas mier misgan amoglejil sxeulis nawilebs ubrunebs, ris Semdegac, gamrTelebuli amindis RvTaeba klavs iluianqas zRvis napirTan[244]. `argonavtebis Tqmulebis~ erT-erTi variantis mixedviT, romelic Zv. w. V s. dourisiosis moxatul kilikis fskerzea gamosaxuli, sawmisiani vaSlis xis qveS gawolili gveleSapis xaxidan ukan amoityorcneba gonebadakarguli iasoni, rogorc Cans, gveleSapis pirispir mdgomi qalRmerTis _ aTena paladas zemoqmedebis Sedegad[245], romelic gvelebis mfarvelad iTvleboda[246]. sayuradReboa, rom aTenas atributebad busa da gvelis garda, miiCneoda meduzisTaviani egisi _ Txis tyavis safari[247]. oqros sawmisis motacebis amsaxvel, or sxva scenaze, romlebic Zv. w. V s. atikur kraterebzea gamosaxuli, gvelis Tavis zeda nawili, mkvlevarTa azriT, falosTanaa mimsgavsebuli[248]; safiqrebelia, rom es garemoeba unda exmianebodes xeTuri miTologiis sawmisiani xis qveS mjdom ganayofierebis urCxuls. f. haazis SexedulebiT, urCxulis mier gmiris gadaylapvis motivi, uaxlovdeba qarTul miTs promeTes Sesaxeb, sadac gveleSapis mier Caylapuli amirani mucels ufatravs mas da gareT gamodis[249].

 

argonavtebis laSqrobis centraluranatoliuri lokalizaciis sasargeblod TiTqos unda metyvelebdes ax. w. V s. didi kapadokieli RvTismetyvelis grigol nazianzelis sityvebi, Tqmuli mis TanamoRvaweze basil didze, romelic warmoSobiT pontoeli iyo, md. likosis (Tanamedrove kelkiT-Cais) xeobidan; grigol nazianzeli basil kabadukielis winaprebis Sesaxeb werda, rom pontos qveyana maT Sesaxeb iseT ambebs mogviTxrobs, romlebic ar Camouvardeba pontosave im Zvel sakvirvelebebs, romlebiTac savsea wignebi[250]. XI s. qarTveli moRvawis efrem mciris komentariT, grigol nazianzels nagu/35/lisxmebi hqonia qsenofontisa da polibioisis naSromebi, agreTve apolonios rodoselis `argonavtika~[251]. magram, vinaidan, apolonios rodoselis `argonavtikis~ moqmedebis asparezi md. fasisis dablobia, safiqrebeli xdeba, rom grigol nazianzels imave wyaroTi unda esargebla, romliTac Zv. w. III s. poet likofron qalkidels, rodesac `kasandraSi~, iasons ligistikur kჳტაჲaSi misuls uwodebda[252], Tuki mas `ligistikurSi~ mdinare likosi _ kelkiT-Cai eqneboda nagulisxmevi. magram, amave dros, gasaTvaliswinebelia, rom apolonios rodoselisaTvis `likosi~, mariandinebis qveynis mdinaresa da md. fasisis Senakadsac hqvia[253]. rogorc klavdios ptolemaiosis `geografiul saxelmZRvanelosTan~ SeTanapirebidan irkveva, sadac md. likosi md. afsarosis erT-erT Senakadad aris dasaxelebuli[254], apolonios rodoselis is `fasisi~, romlis Senakadic `likosia~, md. Woroxi unda yofiliyo (ix. qvemoT). am mxriv yuradRebas ipyrobs agreTve vaxuSti batoniSvilis mier md. Woroxis qvemo welze moxseniebuli liganis xeoba[255]. e. xinTibiZis varaudiT, grigol nazianzelis cnoba, ZiriTadad, ganpirobebuli unda yofiliyo im garemoebiT, rom misi droisaTvis kolxeTi ukve didi xnis ganmavlobaSi pontos SemadgenlobaSi Sedioda, romlisganac arc Tavisi eTnikuri xasiaTiT iyo didad gansxvavebuli[256]. msgavsi Sexeduleba gansakuTrebiT mkafiod SeiniSneba ax. w. IV s. filosofosisa da oratoris Temistiosis sityvaSi, rom man `ritorikis nayofni mowyvita pontos boloSi, fasisis maxloblad sadac cnobilia Termodoti, amaZonT saomari saqmeebi da Temiskviri~[257]. aSkaraa, rom TemistiosisaTvis ponto da kolxeTi erT qveynad aRiqmeba sadac fasisic aris da Termodontic. ukanasknel xanebSi, i. diakonovis mier gamoTqmuli mosazrebis Tanaxmad, qsenofontis cnobebi[258] cxadyofen, rom Zv. w. I aTaswleulis Sua xanebSi unda arsebuliyo SavizRvispireTis mileTuri koloniebis federacia `pontos~ (Πόντος) saxelwodebiT, romlis SemadgenlobaSic SesaZloa fasisic Sedioda[259]. /36/

 

`argonavtebis Tqmulebis~ oqrossawmisiani qveynis adgilmdebareobis dadgenisaTvis garkveuli mniSvneloba eniWeba Sexedulebas sawmisis aRmniSvneli berZnuli sityvis κας-is (uZvelesi forma κυ) tyavis aRmniSvnel qarTul tyav-, dasavlurqarTul (zanur) tyou-tkov-, saerToqarTvelur tyav- sityvidan warmomavlobis Sesaxeb[260]. niSandoblivia agreTve isic, rom warmodgena wminda xeze Camokiduli sawmisis Sesaxeb Semonaxulia dasavlurqarTul kulturul samyaroSi, kerZod, svanur dResaswaulebSi[261]. egeb, erTi da igive Ziri SesaZloa gamoiyos sawmisis aRmniSvnel xeTuri sityvidan kura da analogiuri Sinaarsis mqone Wanuri sityvidan _ kiribiSi, romelic miCneulia miRebulad zanuri krbisagan (kravi)[262]; yuradRebas ipyrobs aRmosavlurqarTul dialeqtebSi dadasturebuli samsxverplo mozveris an sazogadod Sewiruli cxovelis saxelwodebac _ kurati[263], romelic kurvas (patara kuro) msgavsad kurosagan (daukodavi xari) aris nawarmoebi[264].

 

miuxedavad im garemoebebisa, rom TiTqos moipoveba safuZveli `oqros sawmisis qveynis~ qarTveulur samyarosTan da kerZod SavizRvispireTTan dakavSirebisaTvis, Znelia konkretulad imis Tqma, rom Tavdapirvelad igi Tanamedrove kolxeTis dablobze igulisxmeboda, vinaidan samxrteT SavizRvispireTSi qarTveluri wrmomavlobis mqone tomebis farTo gansaxlebas unda hqonoda adgili.

 

xeTuri xanis centraluri anatoliis CrdiloeT raionebSi sawmisis kultis arsebobis faqts TiTqos ramdenadme exmianeba strabonis cnoba, m. halisis qvemo welis marjvena napirze mdebare gazelonitidis mxareSi. mTels kapadokiasa da pontospireTSi gamorCeuli wvrilsawmisiani da rbilmatyliani cxvris jiSis arsebobis Sesaxeb[265]. aRsaniSnavia isic, rom halisi oqroTi mdidar mdinared iTvleboda[266], xolo oqros sawmisi oqros simbolur gamoxatulebad aris miCneuli. SemTxveviTi ar unda iyos oqros sawmisis kavSiri kolxeTTan, sadac, antikur xanaSi arsebuli warmodgeniT, oqromravali kolxebi cxovrobdnen[267]. strabonis azriT, miTi oqros sawmisis Sesaxeb Seqmnilia im faqtis gaTvaliswinebiT, rom kavkasionTan mcxovrebi svanebi mTis niaRvrebSi Cafenili banjgvliani tyavebis meSveobiT agrovebdnen o qros[268]. Zv. w. IV s. avtoris palefatis Txzulebis `daujerebelTa Sesaxeb~ cnobiT, zogierTebis azriT, /37/ friqses verZis tyavi oqrosi iyo[269]. Zv. w. I _ ax. w. I ss. romaeli poetis ovidius nazonis sityvebiT, iasonma mas Semdeg, rac kolxeTSi oqros xis mcveli gveleSapi daaZina da oqros sawmiss daeufla, medeasTan erTad Tavis samemkvidreo iolkosSi (Tesalia) gaitaca igi[270]. aRsaniSnavia, rom xeTuri ritualuri sawmisi oqrosagan damzadebuli `mzis diskoTi~ yofila xolme morTuli[271]. am garemoebas xom ar exmianeba ioane ceceseuli likofronis `kasandras~ komentari, romlis mixedviT, diomedi sawmisis saZebrad kolxeTidan ioniis ZRvaSi, feakebTan Casul urCxuls klavs mas Semdeg, rac es ukanaskneli mzeze molaplape fars SecdomiT oqros sawmisad miiCnevs da misken gaeSureba[272].

 

samefos mfarveli wminda cxvris tyavis xaTuri warmomavlobis centraluranatoliuri idea, f. haasis azriT, mikenur-berZnul samyaroSi oqros sawmisis saxiT aris warmodgenili da misi axsna mocemulia peloponesur pelopidTa samefo dinastiis Sesaxeb arsebul legendaSi, romlis mixediT, oqros sawmisi TviT samefos ganasaxierebda[273]. sagulisxmoa, rom arqeologiuri masala adasturebs mikenur saberZneTsa da centraluri anatoliis CrdiloeT nawils Soris kontaqtebis arsebobas, rac Tavis mxriv sakmaod myar safuZvels uqmnis Sexedulebas argonavtebis miTis arqaulobaze da cxadyofs Zv. w. II aTaswleulis Suaxanebidan samxreT pontospireTisadmi egeosuri samyaros mzard interess. am interesis umTavres obieqts, iseve, rogorc ufro adre, asureli kolonistebis dros, warmoadgenda centraluri anatoliis unikaluri simdidre liTonis wiaRiseuliT da aq arsebuli spilenZis, vercxlis, oqros, brinjaos da rkinis metalurgiis maRali done[274]. ukanasknel xanebSi Turqma arqeologma T. iozgiuCma md. ieSil-irmakis xeobaSi mdebare Zegl maSaTSi gamoavlina gvianheladuri IIIB periodis mikenuri keramika[275], riTac, nawilobriv mainc misaRebi gaxada Zvel samsunSi (amisosSi) adreve mopovebuli is Tanadrouli masala, romelic gaTxrebis viTarebis arcodnis gamo, sandod ar miiCneoda[276]. Zvel samsunSi napovn nivTebs Soris, yuradRebas ipyrobs cxvris terakotuli gamosaxuleba, tanze grafito warweriT, romelsac a. evansi a-xazovani minosuri damwerlobis nimuSad miiCnevda[277]. /38/

 

amrigad, arqeologiuri monacemebis gaTvaliswinebiTac SeiZleba iTqvas, rom berZnuli legenda, trois omis winamorbed xanaSi avtolikesa da misi megobrebis samxreT pontospireTSi laSqrobis Sesaxeb[278] da amasTan erTad `argonavtebis miTic~, egeosiszRvispireTsa da pontospireTs Soris realurad arsebuli urTierTobis safuZvelzea aRmocenebuli. xolo Sexedulebas imis Taobaze, rom am or regions Soris ormocxofiani xomaldis Seqmnamde, anu Zv. w. VII s., egeosis zRvis Sav zRvasTan damakavSirebel sruteebSi (gansakuTrebiT bosforis sruteSi) Zlieri sawinaaRmdego dinebis arsebobis gamo SeuZlebeli iyo naosnoba[279], aqarwyleben, rogorc sakuTriv fizikuri geografiis monacemebi[280], aseve britaneli mecnierisa da mogzauris T. severinis mier 1984 w. zafxulSi Catarebuli eqspediciis Sedegebi, rodesac Zv. w. II aTaswleulis egeosuri samyarosaTvis tipiuri ocxofiani xomaldiT ganvlili iyo argonavtebisaTvis navaraudevi gza, saberZneTis qalaq volosidan md. rionis SesarTavamde.

 

im mosazrebas, rom `argonavtebis miTi~ trois omis winamorbed xanas ganekuTvneba, erTgvarad unda gamoxatavdes Zvel avtorebTan damowmebuli cnobebi argonavtTa pelasgurobis Taobaze. SeniSnulia, rom homerosi iliadis II simReraSi, e. w. xomaldTa katalogSi, berZenTa banakidan calke gamoyofs pelasgTa samkvidreblidan _ Tesaliidan mosul gmirebs da maT im siaSi aTavsebs, romelsac `pelasgur argoss~ uwodebs, aq moxseniebul gmirTa Soris ki arian xomald `argoTi~ kolxeTSi molaSqreTa Svilebi[281]. apolonios rodoselisaTvis Tesalielebi pelasgebia, xolo Tesalia _ pelasgTa miwaa[282]. ovidius nazoni iasonis samSoblos qalaqebs _ pelasgur qalaqebs, xolo argonavtebs _ pelasgebs an miniebs uwodebs[283]. ax. w. V s. saeklesio moRvawe da poeti sidoniusic, argos _ pelasgur xomalds, iasons _ pelasg gmirs, xolo argonavtebs _ miniebs uwodebs[284]. SeiZleba iTqvas, rom `argonavtebis Tqmuleba~ mWidro kavSirSia antikur xanaSi gavrcelebul SexedulebasTan samxreT da aRmosavleT pontospireTSi mosaxle tomebis pelasguri warmomavlobis Sesaxeb da savaraudoa, rom masTan erTad, erTsadaima/39/ve movlenis, egeosuri mosaxleobis pontospireTSi gansaxlebis amsaxveli unda iyos.

 

antikur mwerlobaSi gansakuTrebiT popularuli iyo argonavtebisagan kavkasiis xalxTa warmoSobis Tema. `argonavtebis Tqmulebis~ TiTqmis yvela personaJi gaazrebuli iyo pontospireTisa da kavkasiis romelime qalaqis an saxelmwifos damaarseblad, anda romelime xalxis eTnarq-eponimad[285]. ase, magaliTad, pomponius melas cnobiT, mariandinebis qveyanaSi qalaqi heraklea argoseli herkulesis mier iyo agebuli[286]. enetebis qveynis qalaqis amastrisis Semadgenel nawils _ qalaq kitorums saxeli friqses Zis, aietesis SviliSvilis kitorosisagan miuRia; am cnobas straboni efoross dasesxebia[287]. avtolikosi qalaq sinopes damaarseblad iTvleboda[288]. plutarqes mixedviT, avtolikoss herkulesTan erTad amaZonebze ulaSqria da ukan dabrunebisas sinopi waurTmevia sirebisaTvis, romlebic apolonis Zis sirisa da asopes asulis sinopes STamomavlebi yofilan[289]. iasonis TanamebrZoli fTieli-aqaielebi dasaxlebulan pontos Crdilo-aRmosavleT napirze, maT mezoblad henioxeTSi ki _ lakonelebi[290]. pliniusi iuwyeba, rom arsebobda cnoba kavkasiis albanelebis iasonisagan warmoSobis Sesaxeb[291], xolo pompous trogusis cnobiT, isini italiidan gamohyolian herkuless[292]. herodotes SexedulebiT, Zveli saxeli `aria~ midias kolxi medeas iq Casvlis Semdeg Sescvlia[293]. strabonis azriT, midiaSi medea da iasoni mefobdnen, xolo TviT qveyanas saxeli medeas Zis medosisagan Serqmevia[294]. analogiuri cnoba midiis saxelwodebis Sesaxeb moepoveba hekateos miletels[295]. armenia strabonis cnobiT, saxeldebuli yofila argonavt armenosidan, romelic Tesaliis qalaq armenionidan wamosula[296], xolo mis Tanamgzavrebs dausaxlebiaT akilisena da sispiritida, asurul kalaxenemde da adiabenemde[297]. strabonisave cnobiT, iasons armenosTan erTad kaspiis zRvamde miuRwevia da mounaxulebia iberia, albaneTi da armeniisa da midiis didi nawili, risi niSanic iq arsebuli iasonis salocavebi da zogierTi sxva Zegli yofila[298]. /40/

 

s. janaSias SexedulebiT, iasonis, rogorc eTnarqis, moRvaweobis erT-erT mTavar sarbiels TiTqos mermindeli armeniis teritoria warmoadgenda; am mxriv, mis yuradRebas ipyrobs strabonis sityvebi, rom iasonma, da ara armenosma, gauWra kalapoti barSi tbad mdgar mdinare araqss (arezi), Tesaliis tempes xeobis msgavsad[299]. im garemoebis gaTvaliswinebiT, rom md. arezis zemo weli adre sasper-iberebs ekavaT, xolo tacitusis cnobiT, iberebi Tesalielebisagan warmoSobilan im dros, rodesac iasoni ukan dabrunda aietesis dacarielebul sasaxleSi umefod darCenil kolxebTan[300], s. janaSia daaskvnis, rom iasoni iberTa eTnarqi unda yofiliyo da igi unda igulisxmebodes strabonis mier moxseniebul armenosis im TanamgzavrSi, vinc sispiritida daasaxla[301]; s. janaSias azriT, antikuri epoqis wyaroebis mier iasonis kavkasiel xalxTa eTnarqad miCneva adgilobrivi, kavkasiuri warmomavlobis mqone gadmocema unda yofiliyo da mas paralelebi eZebneba qarTul saistorio mwerlobaSi Semonaxul TqmulebaSi arian-qarTvelTa mefis Zis azos Sesaxeb[302].

 

`moqceva qarTlisas~ da `qarTlis cxovrebaSi~ Semavali XI s. avtoris leonti mrovelis `cxovreba qarTvelTa mefeTas~ cnobiT, qarTlSi gamolaSqrebulma aleqsandre makedonelma mcxeTaSi mefed (`qarTlis cxovrebis~ mixedviT _ patrikad) masTan xlebuli azo (`qarTlis cxovrebis~ _ azoni) daadgina (moqceva qarTlisa, 320; leonti mroveli, I, 18). `moqceva qarTlisas~ X s. Satberduli xelnaweriT: `...ese azo warvida ar[i]an-qarTlad, mamisa Tsisa da warmoiyvana rva saxli da aTni saxlni mamamZuZeTani[303], da dajda Zuel mcxeTas da Tana-hyvandes kerpni RmrTad _ gaci da ga, da ese iyo pirveli mef mcxeTas Sina azo, Z arian-qarTvelTa mefisa...~[304]. daviT aRmaSeneblis sulieri moZRvris arsen beris (mas arsen iyalToelad miiCneven), `ninos cxovrebis~ metafrasuli redaqciis avtoris, ganmartebiT: `Cven qarTvelni Svilni varT maT arian-qarTliT gamosrulTani da enai maTi uwyiT, da yovelni mefeni qarTlisani amaT mefeTa Svilis-Svilni arian~[305]. sawinaaRmdego tendenciaa asaxuli leonti mrovelis TxzulebaSi; misTvis azoni, araqarTvelia, makedonelia[306]. Tumca `qarTlis cxovrebis~ cnobaSic yura/41/dRebas ipyrobs erTi garemoeba; miuxedavad imisa, rom aleqsandre makedoneli qarTlis dampyrobelia, matianeSi xagasmulia, rom qarTlSi yofnisas man `mosrna da daatyuevna~ ucxotomelebi, xolo `dautevna naTesavi qarTlosianni, da dauteva maT zeda patrikad azon, Ze iaredosisi...~[307]. g. meliqiSvilis varaudiT, saxeli `iaredosi~, `moqcevaqarTlisas~ teqstis `arian-qarTlis~ msgavsad kavSirSia iseTi sityvebis ZirTan, rogoricaa: irani, ariana da a.S.[308].

 

mkvlevarTa saerTo azriT, `arian-qarTli~ Tanamedrove saqarTvelos samxreT-dasavleTiT aris saZebari. erT-erTi Sexedulebis Tanaxmad `arian-qarTlSi~, SavSeT-klarjeTisa da kola-artaanis gamyofi arsianis qedi unda igulisxmebodes[309]. magram am gaigivebas, xels unda uSlides `qarTlis cxovrebis~ cnoba, rom azonis mokvlis da misi `spis~ damarcxebis Semdeg `warvida farnavaz da motyuena sazRvari saberZneTisa anZianZora, da ekleciT Semoiqca. movida klarjeTs da daipyra klarjeTi, warmovida mcxeTad sixaruliTa didiTa~[310]. farnavazis ase Sors, samxreT-dasavleTSi SeWris varaudi saeWvos unda xdides arsianis qedis mxareSi an klarjeTSi, azonis samSoblos danaxvis SesaZleblobas[311]. fonetikuri TvalsazrisiT ufro misaRebi Cans, k. Tumanovis mier `arian-qarTlis~ klavdios ptolemaiosisa `aranesa~[312] da xeTuri wyaroebis haranasTan dakavSireba, romelic mcire somxeTSi mdebareobda, Tabalis qveynis qalaqis Togorma/Tegarama/Til-garimus maxloblad[313]; vinaidan, q. Togormas saxelwodeba ukavSirdeba haosisa da qarTlosis mamis Targamosis saxels, da radganac es qalaqi ax. w. III s. sasuliero moRvawis ipolite romaelisadmi miwerili `warmomavlobis wignis~ (Liber Generations) Tu `qronikebis~ mixedviT (rasac Zvel somex mweralTa umravlesoba eyrdnoba) somexTa pirvelsacxovrisia, xolo tibaren-iberebi Tabalis qveynidan arian gamosuli, k. Tumanovis azriT, dasaSvebi unda iyos, rom yvela am gadmocemaSi, `arian-qarTlis~ Sesaxeb cnobis CaTvliT uZvelesi adgilobrivi tradicia yofiliyo Semonaxuli[314]. rac Seexeba Sexedulebas, rom `arian-qarTlSi~ ariuli qarTli anu aqemeniduri sparseTis mflobelobaSi moqceuli samxreTqarTuli raionebi unda igulisxmebodnen, mas xels unda uSlides is garemoeba, rom ZvelqarTulSi TiTqos ar /42/ dasturdeba sityva `ariulis~ gamoyeneba `sparsulis~ mniSvnelobiT[315]. safiqrebelia, rom g. meliqiSvilis varaudi, `arian-qarTlidan~ qarTvelTa gadmosaxlebis cnobaSi samxreTidan, mcireaziuli, mesxuri elementis Sida qarTlSi gadmosaxlebis faqtis arekvlis Taobaze, mesxebis (mosxebis) winasacxovrisad, Zv. w. I aTaswleulis Sua xanebSi, albaT, centralur anatolias ufro unda saxavdes, vidre aRmosavleT anatoliis mTianeTs, sadac isini qsenofontis `anabasisis~ monacemebis mixedviT ar Canan[316]. Am mxriv, yuradRebas ipyrobs TviT g. meliqiSvilis mier adre gamoTqmuli mosazreba, `arian-qarTlis~ md. halisis zemo dinebasTan mdebare olqTan, xarsianTan gaigivebis Sesaxeb; saidanac, misi TqmiT, unda yofiliyvnen muSqi-mosxebi qarTlSi gadmosulni[317].

 

gasuli saukunis samocdaaTiani wlebis dasawyisSi axali xeTuri teqstis aRmoCenam, romelic SesaZleblobas iZleva xeTuri xanis qalaqis calfuvas md. kizil-irmakis SesarTavTan lokalizebisa[318], dasaSvebi gaxada agreTve centraluri anatoliis CrdiloeT nawilSi, calfuvasTan erTad xSirad moxseniebuli qalaqis, arinas lokalizebac, romelic iyo xeTuri xanis erT-erTi mniSvnelovani religiuri centri, saxelganTqmuli, mzis qalRmerT arinas (xaTuri vurusemus) taZriT. iqneb am punqtis saxelwodeba daedo safuZvlad termin `arian-qarTlis~, pirvel Semadgenel nawils `arians~. aRsaniSnavia, rom xeTur xanaSi amave mxareSi dasturdeba toponimi Kartapaa (Katapa-s maxloblad), romelic grafikulad gadmoicema auKarta-au saxiT da sadac -au Crdiloanatoliuri toponimebisaTvis Cveuli sufiqsia[319]. xeTuri warwerebis arinasa da qarTapaxas, `moqcevaqarTlisas~ `arian-qarTlTan~ dakavSirebis ZiriTad damabrkolebel garemoebad, albaT is unda CaiTvalos, rom antikur xanaSi es toponimebi amave mxareSi aRar gvxvdeba, mxolod strabons, ramdenadme ufro samxreTiT, qalaqi karana aqvs dasaxelebuli[320]. Tumca, yuradRebas ipyrobs is garemoeba, rom diodores cnobis, miTridatidebis pontos samefos fuZemdeblis miTridate kioselis gamgeblobaSi myofi qalaqi arrina specialur literaturaSi miCneulia dasavleTanatoliur, misiis qalaq karinad[321]. G. meliqiSvils dasaSvebad miaCnia, rom swored miTridate kioselisadmi daqvemdebarebuli qalaqis _ `arrinas~ saxelwodebidan unda iyos warmomdgari qarTuli `ariani~[322]; xolo, TviT /43/ miTridate kioseli, pontos samefos damaarsebeli da aqemeniduri sparseTis mefis darios III satrapi, igive _ movses xorenaciseuli dariosis satrapi miTridate, aleqsandre makedonelis mier iberTa mmarTvelad dadgenili, misi azriT, SesaZloa, Seesabamebodes qarTuli wyaroebis azos[323].

 

movses xorenacisaTvis `arian-qarTli~ ucnobia. misi gadmocemiT, darehis naxarari mihrdati wamoiyvana aleqsandre didma da mTavrad dausva nabuqodonosoris mier libielTa da iverTa qveynebidan tyved moyvanil da pontos zRvis marjvena mxares dasaxlebul iverielTa modgmas, xolo mis naSiers, aseve mihrdats somexTa mefem artaSesma CrdiloeTis mTebisa da pontos gamgebloba miando[324]. vinaidan, movses xorenaci SeniSnavs, rom iveria (veria) qveynierebis dasavleT sazRvarze mdebareobs[325], aSkara xdeba, rom iveriaSi igi pirenes naxevarkunZuls gulisxmobda. g. meliqiSvilis mier gamoTqmuli varaudiT, `arian-qarTlis~ `ariani~ SesaZloa pireneis (pirenes) damaxinjebis Sedegad iyos miRebuli[326]. marTlac, rogorc cnobilia, antikur xanaSi gadmocema pontosTan mcxovrebi iberielebis dasavleTis iberiidan gadmosaxlebis Taobaze farTod iyo gavrcelebuli da savsebiT mosalodnelia mas Taviseburi asaxva qarTul matianeSic epovna.

 

antikuri epoqis mweralTa miTiTebis Tanaxmad, cnoba babilonis mefis nabuqodonosor II-is (Zv. w. 605-562 ww.) mier libiisa da iberiis dalaSqvris Sesaxeb, ekuTvnis Zv. w. IV-III ss. istorikossa da politikur moRvazes, `indoeTis istoriis~ avtors megasTenes; ax. w. IV s. avtoris evsebi kesarielis TxzulebaSi `saxarebisadmi winamomzadebaSi~ naTqvamia: `vpove me agreTve abidenosis TxzulebaSi `asurelTa Sesaxeb~ nabuqodonosorze Semdegi: megasTene ambobs, rom nabukodrosori herakleze ufro Zlevamosili iyo, libiasa da iberiaze gailaSqra, daeufla da maTi nawili pontos marjvniv daasaxla~[327]. es cnoba nabuqodonosor II-is mier afrikisa (libia) da pirenes naxevarkunZulis (iberia) dalaSqvris Sesaxeb, ra Tqma unda legendarulia, magram cnobilia, rom man Zv. w. 597-586 ww. iudeidan babilonSi gadaasaxla adgilobrivi mosaxleobis 20% da SesaZloa SeaRwia egvipteSic. amis kvals, rogorc fiqroben, warmoadgens qalaq heliopolisis maxloblad qalaq ba/44/bilonis daarsebis faqti[328]. g. meliqiSvili SeniSnavs, rom Tqmulebebma qarTvelTa warmomavlobisa da saxelmwifos Camoyalibebis sesaxeb, maTi fiqsirebis xanamde, gansxvavebuli istoriuli da epikuri tradiciebis mqone axal momentebTan dakavSirebis Sedegad bevri cvlileba da aRreva-gaerTianeba ganicades; kerZod, misi azriT, tyve-iberebis ambiT gadmocemulia cnoba nabuqodonosoris mier ebraelTa samSoblodan ayris Sesaxeb[329].

 

aRniSnul sakiTxTan mimarTebaSi gasaTvaliswinebeli Cans is garemoeba, rom nabuqodonosoris mier libia-iberiidan wamoyvanili tyveebis Sesaxeb cnobas, TiTqos, ramdenadme exmianeba `qarTlis cxovrebis~ Semdegi striqonebi: `nabuqodonosor mefeman warmostyuena ierusalimi, da muniT otebulni uriani movides qarTls, da moiTxoves mcxeTeli mamasaxlisisagan queyana xarkiTa. misca da dasxna aragusa zeda, wyarosa, romelsa hqan zanavi da romeli queyana aqunda maT xarkiTa, aw hqan xerk xarkisa misTs~[330]. sayuradReboa agreTve movses xorenacis SeniSvna, rom somexTa mefen _ `hraCiam sTxova nabuqodonosors datyvevebul ebraelTa erTi meTaurTagani, saxelad SambaTi; man moiyvana, daasaxla igi Cvens qveyanaSi da didi pativi miago. mematiane samarTlianad Tvlis, rom misgan momdinareobs bagratunTa gvari~[331]. X s. bizantiis imperatoris konstantine porfirogenetis cnobiT, iberielebi mogviTxroben, rom maTi tomi ierusalimidan aris warmoSobili da, rom isini wamovidnen ierusalimidan RvTis brZanebis momaswavebeli sizmrebis CvenebiT da daesaxlnen sparseTis mxareebTan, e. i. qveyanaSi, sadac amJamad mkvidroben[332]. aRsaniSnavia, rom saxelwodeba `iberias~, zogierTi mecnieri im ebrauli sityvidan warmomdgarad miiCnevs, romelic unda aRniSnavdes cnebas _ `iqiTa mxare~ (mTis iqiTa mxare _ kavkasiis iberia, zRvis iqiTa _ pireneebisa)[333]. ebrauli zogadi saxeli ֞֞֞eber _ `iqiTa mxare~, k. wereTlis mixedviT, amosavalia TviT terminisaTvis ʿibrī _ `ebraeli~, iseve, rogorc saxelisaTvis `everi~, romelic ebraulSi termin `ebraelis~ amosaval _ `iqiTa mxares~ aRniSnavs (msgavsad qarTuli `imeri~ > `imerelisa~)[334].

 

magram `iberiis~ ebraul `eberTan~ dakavSirebas sakmaod mniSvnelovani dabrkolebebi eRobeba. upirveles yovlisa, ar unda gamoiricxos imis SesaZlebloba, rom saxelwodeba `ibe/45/ria~ sakuTriv qarTul `imer~ sityvidan iyos nawarmoebi[335]. garda amisa, es saxelwodeba ukve Zv. w. IV-III ss. avtors megasTenes hqonda naxsenebi, maSin, rodesac ebrauli koloniis daarseba mcxeTaSi, TviT adgilobrivi ebrauli tradiciis mixedviT momxdara Zv. w. 169 w.[336] gasaTvaliswinebelia isic, rom Zv. w. I s. ebraeli istorikosi ioseb flaviusi arafers ambobs ebraelTa gadmosaxlebis Sesaxeb, rodesac mohyavs megasTenes cnoba nabuqodonosoris mier libiisa da iberiis dalaSqvraze, xolo iberebs ara ebraelTa, aramed TabalelTa STamomavlebad miiCnevs[337].

 

p. ingoroyvas azriT, konstantine porfirogenetis TxzulebaSi `moqcevaqarTlisas~ teqstis `arian-qarTlis~ ierusalimiT SenacvlebaSi, asaxulia tendencia qarTvelTa samefos politikuri damoukideblobis dasabuTebisa daviT mefesTan iberTa dakavSirebis saSualebiT, rac pirdapir kavSirSi iyo bagrationTa genealogiis daviT mefemde da winaswarmetyvelamde ayvanis aRiarebasTan[338]. konstantine porfirogenetis sityvebiT, iberielebi `uwodebdnen Tavis-Tavs daviT mefisa da winaswarmetyvelis naTesavs da aqedan yovladwminda RvTismSoblis naTesavsac, radgan isic daviTisagan aris warmoSobili~; damaxasiaTebelia agreTve misi Semdegi sityvebic: `vinaidan iberielebi, rogorc TviTve amboben, STamomavlobiT ierusalimidan arian, amis gamo maT aqvT didi siyvaruli misi da uflisa ieso qristes saflavisa da gansazRvrul droebSi uxvad ugzavnian fuls wminda qalaqis patriarqsa da iqaur qristianebs~[339].

 

rogorc Cans, `qarTlis cxovrebis~ zemoT moyvanili cnoba, nabuqodonosoris mier ierusalimis aRebis Semdeg `otebuli~ ebraelebis qarTlSi damkvidrebis Sesaxeb, SedarebiT gvian xanebSia SeTxzuli da `moqcevaqarTlisas~ teqsts unda iyos dasesxebuli, oRond am ukanasknelSi moxseniebuli, da ukve gaugebari, `honnebi~, `uriebiT~ aris Secvlili. `moqcevaqarTlisas~ Satberdiseuli teqstis mixedviT: `...movides naTesavni mbrZolni, qaldevelTagan gamosxmulni, honni, da iTxoves bun-TurqTa uflisagan qveyana xarkiTa da dasxdes igini zanavs da epyra igi, romel xarkiTa aqunda, hrqan mas xerki~[340]. /46/

 

yuradRebas ipyrobs TiTqmis sruli Tanxvedra `moqcevaqarTlisas~ `qaldeveli honnebis~ mier dakavebuli miwebis adgilmdebareobis da maTi aq damkvidrebis xasiaTisa da pirobebisa, `qarTlis cxovrebis~ `uriaTa~ mcxeTaSi dasaxlebis ambavTan[341]; sityvebic ki erTnairia gamoyenebuli. aSkaraa rom orive ZeglSi erTidaigive ambavia aRwerili, Tumca `moqcevaqarTlisas~ `bun-TurqTa ufali~, `qarTlis cxovrebaSi~ `mamasaxlisiT~ aria Secvlili, rac albaT unda aixsnas leonti mrovelisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli qarTvelTa avtoqtonobis koncefciis zemoqmedebiT. Miuxedavad im garemoebisa, rom `moqcevaqarTlisas~ `qaldevelTagan gamosxmuli honnebis~ nacvlad `qarTlis cxovrebaSi~ `uriebia~ dasaxelebuli, aRsaniSnavia, rom, amave dros, `qarTlis cxovrebac~ icnobs qaldevelebis qarTlSi gadmosaxlebis ambavs, oRond `honnTa~ mouxsenieblad: `...gamovides sxuani naTesavni qaldevelni da daaSennes iginica qarTls...~[342]. es ambavi `qarTlis cxovrebaSi~, iseve rogorc `moqcevaqarTlisas~ teqstis `qaldeveli honnebis~ mosvla, aleqsandre makedonelis xaniT, kerZod, qarTlSi misi ori legendaruli laSqrobis Sualeduri xaniT TariRdeba[343], e. i. `uriaTa~ CamosaxlebasTan SedarebiT, rasac nabuqodonosoris xanaSi unda hqonoda adgili, mniSvnelovnad ufro gviani xaniT[344]. Tumca, `moqcevaqarTlisas~ cnobiT, ebraelebi qarTlSi, mxolod meTormete da mecamete qarTlis mefeebis xanaSi arian mosulni: `...da mefobda qarZam armazs da mcxeTas _ bratman da amaTTa JamTa huriani movides mcxeTas da dasxdes~[345]. `moqcevaqarTlisas~ teqstis es cnoba miT ufro angariSgasawevi Cans, rom mas Tanxvdeba romis imperatoris titus flavius vespasianes (ax. w. 69-79 ww.) mier ierusalimis aRebis TariRi _ ax. w. 70 w.[346]. safiqrebelia, rom `moqcevaqarTlisas~ `qaldevelTagan gamosxmul honnebSi~ ebraelebi ar unda igulisxmebodnen. aRniSnul sakiTxTan dakavSirebiT, ramdenadme yuradsaRebia V s. somexi istorikosis agaTangelosis `somxeTis istoriis~ berZnuli teqstis masaxa honnebi (Μασαχο τν Οννων)[347]. somxuri teqstis maTi Sesatyvisi masquTebiTurT (Մասքթաց)[348], masquTebSi /47/ zogierTi mecnieri mesxebs xedavs[349]; Tumca ki ufro xSirad samecniero literaturaSi masquT/masaxebs kaspiispira masagetebad, xolo `honnebs~ hunebad miiCneven[350]. magram Tu `moqcevaqarTlisas~ `honnebs~ hunebTan gavaigivebT, gaurkvevelia ra kavSiri unda hqonodaT maT samxreTmesopotamiur qaldeasTan?

 

`honnebis~ vinaobis dadgenisaTvis, vfiqrobT, yuradRebas imsaxurebs i. orbelis SeniSvna, rom Zvel somex istorikosebTan dadasturebuli eTnonimi honqi (չոնք), romelSic ք _ mravlobiTobis somxuri sufiqsia, svanuri tomis _ hon/henioxebis, anu igive sani-sanigebis aRmniSvneli da ar SeiZleba misi aRreva hunebis saxelwodebasTan[351]. rac Seexeba qaldevelTa saxelwodebas, cnobilia, rom babiloneTis garda, qaldea aRniSnavda pontos aRmosavleT nawils _ WaneTs[352]. XVIII s. qarTul literaturaSi igi jer kidev ixmareba trapizonis mxarisa da kerZod iqve mdebare qalaqis giumiuShanes aRsaniSnavad[353]. movses xorenacisaTvisac WaneTi igive xalseTia[354]. Tu gaviTvaliswinebT `honnebisa~ da `qaldevelebis~ qarTvelur samyarosTan dakavSirebis SesaZleblobas, maSin dasaSvebad SeiZleba miviCnioT isic, rom `moqcevaqarTlisas~ `qaldevelTagan gamosxmul honnebSi~, pliniusis `sani henioxebis~ (Sannorum Heniochorum)[355] analogiuri movlena yofiliyo asaxuli. aRniSnul sakiTxTan dakavSirebiT, yuradRebas ipyrobs ax. w. II s. avtoris klavdius ptolemaiosis mier, kavkasiis albaneTis gadaRma sanarelTa tomis (Σαναραοι) dasaxeleba[356], rac cxadyofs, rom XIII s. somexi istorikosis vardan didis `msoflio istoriis~ cnoba, wanarelTa tomis kavkasiaSi mosvlis viTarebisa da TariRis Sesaxeb (bizantiis imperatoris iraklis Semdgom xanebSi) sinamdviles ar Seefereba da safiqrebelia, rom mas kavSiri unda hqondes `moqcevaqarTlisas~ `qaldevelTagan gamosxmul honnTa~ ambavTan. vardan didis cnobiT: `zogierTi vinme kacni xaldebisa, gamosulni TavianTi samSoblodan, movidnen gardmanSi da mimarTes gardmanis iSxans _ `dagviTme Cven nawili im jvrisa, romelic iraklisagan gaqvs miRebuli, xolo Cven miviRebT qristes rjuls da gavxvdebiT Seni msaxurni~. es kidevac aRsrulebul iqna. baRdadis amiram Seityo ra es ambavi, daemuqra maT da isini SeSinebulni gaemarTnen kavkasiis mTis Ziras. qristes SemweobiT, romelic /48/ maT irwmunes, isini daepatronen mTels iqaur mezobel mxareebs... am (xaldebma) TavianT mxares uwodes wanarqi (Ծանարք) im safuZvelze, rom masSi maT Seicnes TavianTi pirvandeli adgilsacxovrisi, da radganac isini (e. i. xaldebi) laparakobdnen qarTuli eniT, amitom gardmanis iSxanma moiwvia maTTvis qorepiskoposi~[357]. n. mari da s. kakabaZe satomo saxel wanars, `wan~ formiT aRadgendnen, gamoyofdnen ra masSi svanuri enisaTvis damaxasiaTebel, mravlobiTi ricxvis -ar daboloebas, xolo TviT wanarebs svanuri warmomavlobis tomad miiCnevdnen[358]. svanebTan wanarebs akavSirebs agreTve j. gvasalia[359]. vardan didis zemomoyvanil teqstze dayrdnobiT, T. papuaSvili Tvlis, rom wanarebis winaprebi xaldebis (igive Wanebis, sanebis) dasavlurqarTuli tomi iyo, ufro zustad ki, rom `wani~ megrul-Wanuri (zanuri) ganStoebis erT-erTi tomTagania[360]. yuradRebas ipyrobs samegreloSi dadasturebuli samxreTis qaris saxelwodeba wani-boria, e. i. wanis, anu Wanis qari, risi gaTvaliswinebiTac s. janaSia afxazuri gadmocemebis `wanebis~ toms, megrul-Wanuri warmomavlobis tomad miiCnevda[361].

 

aRsaniSnavia, rom eTno- toponimi `wona~ (`sona-sena-soena~), ZiriTadad, istoriuli xevis teritoriazea SemorCenili[362]. ukanasknel xanebSi yuradReba eqceva aragvis xeobis toponimikaSi zanuri xasiaTis mqone saxelTa jgufis arsebobas da gamoiTqva varaudi adre aq zanuri tomebis saxlobis Sesaxeb[363]. r. ramiSvilis dakvirvebiT, zanuri ieris matarebeli toponimebi aRmosavleT saqarTveloSi, zenasoflidan mokidebuli qvemo qarTlamde da kaxeT-hereT-sojeTSi, araerTganaa SemCneuli[364].

 

wanarebis zanuri warmomavlobis an ufro swored, centraluri kavkasionis mxareSi zanuri mosaxleobis arsebobis erT-erT mniSvnelovan damamtkicebel sabuTs, vfiqrobT, unda warmoadgendes indoevropuli ojaxis iranuli jgufis osuri enisaTvis zanurenovani (megrul-Wanuri) substratis gamovlenis faqti[365].

 

angariSgasawev garemoebad gveCveneba agreTve pliniusis mier meotiis tbidan karavnul mTebamde (anu azovis zRvidan kavkasionis qedis aRmosavleT nawilamde) mcxovreb tomTa Soris mazakebis (Mazacae) moxsenieba, am saxelis garegnuli msgavsebis gamo mesxebis saxelTan da xunZur /49/ (avarul) enaSi adre gamoyenebul TuSebis aRmniSvnel satomo saxel _ `mosox/mosoqTan~[366]. aRsaniSnavia, rom Crdilo-oseTis teritoriaze dasturdeba toponimi _ maska/moske[367], piriqiTa TuSeTSi ki _ samcixi, T. papuaSvilis mier saxelwodeba `samcxesTan~ dakavSirebuli[368]. T. papuaSvilis varaudiT, msgavsi toponimebis gaCenis gamomwvevi mizezi unda yofiliyo samxreT-dasavleTidan qarTlSi Semosuli muSq-mesxebis, rac, mkvlevarTa azriT, toponim mcxeTaSia (mesxTa alagi) asaxuli, erT-erTi talRis kidev ufro CrdiloeTiT SeRweva da kaxeTis mTianeTSi dasaxleba[369]. Tu gavixsenebT Sexedulebas, romlis mixedviTac mosx-mesxebs zanur samyaros miakuTvneben[370], SesaZlebloba mogvecemoda paraleli gavataroT TuSebis memkvidreobiT kavSirsa mosoq-mesxebTan da wanarTa zanur warmomavlobas Soris.

 

yuradRebas imsaxurebs agreTve agaTangelosis Txzulebis berZnuli versiis zemoT naxsenebi masaxoi (Μασαχο), romelsac s. eremiani vaxuSti bagrationis `saqarTvelos geografiaSi~ moxseniebul md. mawis-wyals (belaqniswylis Senakadi) da mis saTavesTan mdebare `maWs~, am mxaris erisTavebis _ `maWelebis~ sarezidencio adgilis saxels ukavSirebs[371]. Es saxelwodeba s. eremianis azriT, safuZvlad daedo sasaniani mefis Sapur I-is qaaba-i-zardoStis berZnul teqstSi moxseniebuli qveynis `maxeloniis~ saxels, romlis amosaval berZnul formas, agaTangelosis berZnul versiaSi dadasturebuli `masaxois~ gaTvaliswinebiT, igi *masaxelonis saxiT aRadgens, rac misi SexedulebiT, Tavdapirvelad, samxreT-aRmosavleT SavizRvispireTSi mdebare megrul-Wanuri `maWaxelis~ berZnuli transkripcia unda yofiliyo[372]. s. eremianis azriT, kaspiispireTSi sxva kavkasiur tomebTan erTad megrul-Wanur tomebsac unda ecxovraT, iseve rogorc SavizRvispireTSi arsebobda `maxelonTa da henioxTa samefo~, aqac garda maxelonebisa, Cans henioxTa binadrobis kvalic; anonimuri periplusiT henioxebi kaspiis zRvis maxlobladac cxovrobdnen[373], xolo tacituss isini albanelebTan erTad hyavs dasaxelebuli[374]. rogorc zemoT aRvniSnavdiT, miTiuri amaZonebic SavizRvispireTis garda antikuri wyaroebis mier aRmosavleT kavkasiaSic moixseniebian. qaaba-i-zardoStis warweris maxelonia/sik(?)n-is qveynis aRmosavleT amierkavkasiuri adgilmdebareobis sasargeblod SesaZloa warweraSi CamoTvlili qvey/50/nebis Semdeg kapis mTebisa (romelsac Cveulebriv kavkasionTan aigiveben) da alanTa (zogierTi mecnieris mixedviT _ albanTa) karis moxseniebac metyvelebdes. yuradRebas ipyrobs agreTve kamaritebis tomis lokalizeba, erTi mxriv amianus marcelinusTan, SavizRvispireTSi, mdinareebis fasisis da kalixoris maxloblad[375], xolo meore mxriv, dionisios periegetis `dedamiwis aRwerilobaSi~, hirkanelebTan Tavdauzogavad mebrZol, pirenes naxevarkunZulidan kavkasiaSi mosul iberebsa da kaspiis zRvas Soris[376].

 

rogorc Cans, samxreT da aRmosavleT SavizRvispireTsa da centralur da aRmosavleT amierkavkasiaSi dadasturebul eTno- toponimebis Tanxvedra am or regions Soris arsebuli mWidro urTierTobis gamoxatuleba unda iyos. es garemoeba, rogorc ukve iyo aRniSnuli, antikuri epoqis avtorebsac aqvT SeniSnuli. pliniusi iuwyeboda, rom gadmocemis Tanaxmad, albanelebi argonavt iasonis STamomavlebi arian[377]. s. janaSia aq pliniusis mier tacitusis zereled wakiTxvas an kalmis Secdomas varaudobda da pliniusis teqstSi `albanelebs~ `iberielebiT~ asworebda[378]; tacitusis `analebis~ mixedviT, xom iberebi, Tesalielebisagan im dros warmoiSvnen, rodesac iasoni umefod darCenil kolxebTan dabrunda[379]. magram, gasaTvaliswinebelia, rom sakuTriv albanelTa Sesaxeb sxva avtorebsac moepovebaT cnobebi, pompous trogusis mixedviT, albanelebi italiuri warmomavlobisani arian[380], xolo bizantieli mwerali qalis evdokias gancxadebiT, `albanelebi axlandeli minkrelebia (μίνκρελλοι)~[381]. Tumca, vfiqrobT, am ukanaskneli cnobis sxvagvari interpretaciac unda iyos dasaSvebi (ix. qvemoT).

 

aRsaniSnavia, rom iv. javaxiSvilis SexedulebiT, megasTenes cnobaSic, nabuqodonosoris libiasa da iberiaze galaSqrebisa da maTi mosaxleobis pontos marjvniv dasaxlebis Taobaze, SesaZlebelia iberTa winandeli binadrobis adgilis monacvleobis mizezis gamosarkvevad SeTxzul ambavTan gvqondes saqme da am cnobas igi sayuradRebod miiCnevs, rogorc qarTvelTa samxreTuli warmomavlobis Sesaxeb Zveli gadmocemis arsebobis erT-erT damadasturebel mowmobas[382]. iv. javaxiSvili SeniSnavs, rom libiisa da iberiis erT konteqstSi dasaxeleba SemTxveviTi ambavi ar unda iyos da xazs usvams kav/51/kasieli iberebis aRmosavleTiT, albaneTSi, lubenebisa Tu liponebis (romelTac agreTve leponebs uwodeben) binadrobis faqts[383]. pliniusis cnobiT, lupenebi (Lupeniorum) albaneTis sazRvrebTan, kavkasionis ferdobebze cxovrobdnen[384]. e. w. pevtingeris rukaze aRniSnulia saxelwodeba `luponesi~ (Lupones)[385], xolo ravenis anonimTan moixsenieba leponTa qveyana (Patria Lepon)[386]. klavdios ptolemaiosis rukaze iberiisa da albaneTis sazRvarze sofeli lubionia (Λούβιον κμη) aRniSnuli[387]. agaTangelosis berZnul versiaSi dasaxelebuli lifenebis (Λιφννιοι) tomi[388]. lbinebis toms icnoben somexi istorikosebi eRiSe (V s.) da movses kaRankatvaci (X s.)[389]. VII s. anonimur `somxur geografiaSi~ dasaxelebulia lbinebis tomi, romelTa saxelwodeba, Tumca ki aq defeqturi wakkiTxviTaa Semonaxuli _ fliqebi (Փւիք), nacvlad lfniqebisa (լփնիք)[390]. T. papuaSvilis azriT, leonti mrovelis mier moxseniebuli `daba elarbinis~ saxeli[391] unda iyos qarTuli formiT gadmocemuli somxuri wyaroebis `lrbniki~ anu `lfniqi~;amave dros, missive SeniSvniT, ax. w. III s. avtoris ipolite romaelisadmi miwerili `qronikebis~ berZnul teqstSi moxseniebul herebs _ Έρρατοι, VII s. somxur enaze gadamuSavebul variantSi Seesabamebian lfniqebi (igive lbinebi)[392]. zogierTi mecnieris mier gamoTqmulia azri, eTnonim `lbinis~, tomisa da qveynis saxelwodeba _ `albaneTTan~ dakavSirebis SesaZleblobis Sesaxeb[393]. aRsaniSnavia, rom evsebi kesarielTan dacul megasTenes zemomoyvanil cnobaSi ara konkretulad iberebis gadmosaxlebaa nauwyebi, aramed zogadad aRiniSneba, rom nabuqodonosorma libiasa da iberiaze galaSqrebis Sedegad adgilobrivi mcxovreblebi pontos marjvena mxares gadaasaxla[394]. TavisTavad cxadia, rom am cnobis megasTeneseul, e. i. am sakiTxTan dakavSirebiT uZveles variantSi, nagulisxmebi iyo libielTa gadmosaxlebac.

 

samecniero literaturaSi gamoiTqva azri, aRniSnuli cnobis kolxebis egvipturi warmomavlobis herodotiseuli Sexedulebis[395] safuZvelze Camoyalibebis Sesaxeb[396]. magram, megasTenesTan moxseniebuli libiis adgilmdebareobis garkvevisaTvis, vfiqrobT, yuradsaRebia antikuri /52/ wyaroebis miniSnebebi samxreTSavizRvispireTuli libiis arsebobis Taobaze[397]. Zv. w. IV-III ss. avtoris palefat abidoselis Txzulebis `trios omis Sesaxeb~ mixedviT, makrokefalebi libiaSi kolxebs zemoT cxovrobdnen[398]. poluqsis (Zv. w. II s.) cnobiTac, makrokefalebi libiaSi mcxovrebi xalxia[399]. fsevdo-skilaqs kariandelis `periplusi~ azustebs, rom makrokefalebi trapezuntis maxloblad saxlobdnen[400]. Zv. w. IV s. moRvawe diofanti `pontikaSi~ (stefane bizantioneli am Txzulebas SecdomiT `politikas~ uwodebs) libistinebs kolxebis momijnave xalxad miiCnevs[401]. vfiqrobT, TviT diofantis Txzulebis saTauri _ `pontika~, cxadyofs, rom libistinebisa da kolxebis sacxovrisad pontospireTia nagulisxmevi. stefane bizantionelic SavizRvispireTSi mosaxle tomebs gulisxmobs, rodesac mohyavs likofrones sityvebi, ligistikuri kჳტაჲას arsebobis Sesaxeb da dasZens, rom libistinebi, kolxebis mezobeli xalxia[402].

 

a. uruSaZis azriT, libia (libistike) unda daukavSirdes homerosTan damowmebul alibes (Άλύβη), haliZonebis sacxovriss[403] da ara afrikis `libias~; mas dasaSvebad miaCnia, rom pontos Λιβύη xelnaweris cdomilebis Sedegad iyos Άλύβη-sagan miRebuli[404].

 

pontoSi `libiis~ arsebobis erT-erT gamoxatulebad albaT SeiZleba CaiTvalos pliniusis cnoba, trapezuntis dasavleTiT cixe-simagre liviopolisis arsebobis Taobaze[405]. aRsaniSnavia, rom `warmomavlobis wignis~ teqstSi, im tomebs Soris, romelTac sakuTari ena aqvT, dasaxelebuli arian: armenielebi, hiberebi, libranebi, skviTebi, sanebi da bosforanebi[406]; rogorc Cans, libranebSi nagulisxmevia SavizRvispireTSi an mis maxloblad mcxovrebi tomi. aRniSnul sakiTxTan dakavSirebiT, ramdenadme yuradRebas ipyrobs, pirvelad apolonios rodoselTan moxseniebuli filirebis tomis saxelwodeba[407], egeb f da l bgerebis metaTezisis Sedegad miRebuli. rogorc, zemoT aRiniSna, samxreT SavizRvispireTis centralur nawilSi, sadac avlionis gamoqvabuli da mdinare kalixori mdebareobda, gadmoce/53/mis Tanaxmad, indoeTidan mobrunebul miTiur libers (igive dionisios/baqxuss) orgiebi ganuaxlebia[408]; vfiqrobT, arc am konteqstSi unda iyos SemTxveviTi aRniSnul regionTan liberis dakavSireba[409].

 

samxreT SavizRvispireTis centraluri nawilisaTvis saxelwodeba `libiisa~ Tu msgavsi Ziridan nawarmoebi sxva saxelebis dakavSirebisas mniSvnelovan garemoebad gvesaxeba strabonis Sexeduleba imis Sesaxeb, rom xalibebis Zveli saxelwodeba homerosis mier moxseniebuli `alibe~[410] yofila; strabonis sityvebiT: `amJamindeli xaldebi (Χαλδαϊοι) Zvelad xalibebad iwodebodnen... vfiqrob, swored maT uwodebs haliZonebs poeti `katalogSi~ paflagonielebis Semdeg: `xolo haliZonebs odiosi da epistrofosi mouZRodnen Soreuli alibedan, sadac vercxlis samSoblo aris~ an teqsti Secvlila `Soreuli xalibedan~, an arada am xalxs adreul xanebSi `xalibebis~ nacvlad `alibebi~ ewodebodaT, xom arc axla iqneboda SesaZlebeli maTTvis `xaldebis~ Serqmeva, am saxelis `xalibebisagan~ warmoebiT, uwin rom ar ewodaT maTTvis `alibebis~ nacvlad `xalibebi~; miTumetes, rom saxelwodebebi mraval cvlilebas ganicdian, gansakuTrebiT ki barbarosTa Soris~[411]. sayuradReboa, rom Sexeduleba, saxelwodeba `xalibis~ homerosiseuli `alibesagan~ warmomavlobis Sesaxeb, strabonisave gadmocemiT, cnobili yofila jer kidev Zv. w. III s. gramatikosisa da geografosis dimitrios skepsiselisTvisac, romelsac ar gauziarebia es azri[412]. iqneb swored alibeelebis Sesaxeb arsebuli raime cnoba daedo safuZvlad evdokia makrembolitises warmodgenas albanelebisagan megrelebis warmomavlobis Sesaxeb; misi sityvebiT xom: `albanelebi axlandeli minkrelebia~; aRsaniSnavia, rom evdokias Tavisi miTologiuri krebulisaTvis mravali Zveli wyaro daudvia safuZvlad[413].

 

gansxvaveba `alibesa~ da `xalibebs~ Soris, vfiqrobT, SeiZleba aixsnas saxelwodeba `xalibSi~, xaTuri da qaSquri enebisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli toponimebis mawarmoebeli a- prefiqsis arsebobis gaTvaliswinebiT[414]. saxelwodebebis `alibesa~ da `libiis~ Semcveli Ziri iqneb warmodgenilia xeTuri xanis qalaqis Zalpa || Zalpuwa-s saxelwodebaSic, vinaidan, rogorc cnobilia, xaTurSi arsebobda toponimTa ma/54/warmoebeli ta- prefiqsi, xolo ta da za marcvlebis monacvleoba damaxasiaTebeli movlenaa am enisaTvis[415]. msgavs varauds gansakuTrebuli mniSvneloba eniWeba im garemoebis gaTvaliswinebiT, rom, rogorc bolo xanebSi dadginda, qalaqi calfa mdebareobda Savi zRvis sanapiroze, md. marasanTias, Semdegdroindeli halisis (Tanamedrove kizil irmakis) SesarTavTan[416]. aRsaniSnavia, rom md. halisis saxelwodebas zogierTi mkvlevari ukavSirebs alibis qveynisa da haliZonebis tomis, agreTve am ukanasknelTa STamomavlebad miCneul xalibTa saxelebs[417]. Tanamedrove injeburunis naxevarkunZulis Zveli saxelwodebac _ lepte[418], romelic berZnul sityvas λεπτός-s (wvrili, viwro, Txeli) ukavSirdeba, ar aris gamoricxuli, rom Tavdapirvelad adgilobriv, iqneb `lib~ Ziris Semcvel sityvasTan mimsgavsebis Sedegad iyos aRmocenebuli. amave sakiTxTan dakavSirebiT, yuradRebas ipyrobs bibliis teqstSi araerTxel moxseniebuli qveynis saxelwodebis Pw-is `libiad~ wakiTxvis ioseb flaviusiseuli tradiciis arseboba da romelic, rogorc es i. diakonovma daasabuTa P-ad unda ikiTxebodes da afrikis `libiis~ nacvlad `pontos~ unda aRniSnavdes[419]. albaT, SemTxveviTobasTan gvaqvs saqme, magram, sakvlev sakiTxTan mimarTebaSi, mainc unda aRiniSnos, rom `orientiosisa da ZmaTa misTa martvilobis~ samidan erT-erT, mokle svinaqsarul variantSi, romelic berZnul enazea SemorCenili, `lazTa qveynis~ _ Λαζικήν-is nacvlad weria Λιβυκήν; sayuradReboa isic, rom giorgi mTawmindelis qarTul TargmnSi, am adgilas ikiTxeba `qveyana ovseTisa~, rac k. kekeliZis SeniSvniT, qarTveli mTargmnelis geografiuli orientaciis Sedegia[420].

 

ukanasknel xanebSi T. yauxCiSvilma gamoTqva mosazreba, Zv. w. III s. avtoris likofronis poema `kasandraSi~ naxsenebi `ligistikuri kჳტაჲას~[421] `libistikurad~ Sesworebis saWiroebis Sesaxeb[422]. ioane cece likofronis poemis Sesabamisi adgilis komentarSi, rogorc `ligistikes~, aseve `libistikes~ ganmartebas iZleva[423], xolo stefane bizantioneli pirdapir miuniSnebs, rom `ligistikuri~ mas `libistikurad~ esmis[424]; evstaTi Tesalonikeli likofronis citirebisas mxolod `ligistikur qalaqs~ ixseniebs; misi azriT, kolxi ligielebi warmoSobili arian evropeli ligie/55/lebisagan, romelTac igi ligurebTan aigivebs[425]; Zveli sqoliastis mixedviTac: `kჳტაჲა kolxebis qalaqia, xolo ligistinelebi kolxebis mezoblad mcxovrebi xalxia~, Tumca, Semdeg dasZens, rom `ligistinelebi pelasgebs eomebodnen~[426].

 

rogorc Cans, `ligistikes~ Secvla `libistikeTi~ unda momxdariyo garkveul enobriv garemoSi, guturaluri fonemis dakargvisa da xmovanTa Soris glaidis gaCeniT; kerZod, gamoiTqva varaudi analogiuri transformaciis Sedegad luviuri saxelwodeba Luwija-s xeTuri Lukka-sagan miRebis Taobaze[427]. qarTvelur samyaroSi msgavsi SemTxveva dasturdeba klarjeTSi, md. Woroxis qvemo dinebasTan mdebare olqis nigalis saxelwodebis transformaciiT: nigali > ligani > livana. aRsaniSnavia, rom l da n bgeraTmonacvleoba damaxasiaTebelia xeTuri xanis CrdiloeTi anatoliis toponimebisaTvis[428]. Sexeduleba dasavluranatoliuri toponimebis `alopesa~ da `likiis~ identurobis Sesaxeb, oRond `alopes~ adreulobis TvalsazrisiT, warmodgenili yofila ax. w. II s. avtoris Temistagores `oqros wignSi~, romlis Sesaxeb cnoba elianus herodians Semounaxavs[429]. interess moklebuli ar unda iyos is, rom stefane bizantionelisuli sqemiT, xamxreTanatoliel pisidielTa eponimi pisidasi (Πισίδαι), Ze iyo solimosisa (solimebis eponimi), romelic Tavis mxriv zevsisa da xaldenes (Χαλδήνη _ xaldebis eponimis?) Svilia; es garemoeba p. kreCmers saSualebas aZlevda daeskvna, rom likiisa da pisidiis Tavdapirveli mosaxleoba xaldenes STamomavlebad aris gamoyvanili[430].

 

angariSgasawevad migvaCnia Sexeduleba `ligistikur kჳტაჲაSi~ Crdilokapadokiuri qalaqis danaxvis SesaZleblobis Taobaze ligiebisa da levkosirebis saxelwodebaTa fonetikuri msgavsebis gamo[431]. amave sakiTxTan dakavSirebiT, yuradRebas ipyrobs ioane ceces komentari, rom `md. fasisTan mcxovrebi kolxebi, igive lazebi, iwodebian agreTve aziel skviTebad da levkosirebad (Λευκσυροι)~[432]. rogorc cnobilia, antikur samyaroSi `skviTebi~, xSirad krebiT saxels warmoadgenda pontospireTSi mcxovrebi tomebisaTvis, xolo levkosirebTan (romelTa saxelwodebac aseTive farTo krebiT mniSvnelobas ar atarebda) kolxebis dakavSireba, safiqrebelia maT eTnokulturul er/56/Tobaze miuniSnebdes. rogorc Cans, ioane cece icnobda wyaros, sadac nauwyebi iyo kolxebisa da levkosirebis axloblobis Sesaxeb. damafiqrebelia agreTve sofokles mier `timpanistebSi~ kolxebis, xaldebis da sirielebis erTad moxseniebac: `kolxic, xaldic da sirielTa tomic~[433], Tu `xaldSi~ SavizRvispireTeli xaldi aris navaraudevi, maSin `sirielSi~ _ levkosiri unda igulisxmebodes.

 

ligiebisa Tu ligistinebis saxelwodebis genezisis dadgenisaTvis gasaTvaliswinebelia, herodotes mier, matienebTan, mariandinebTan da sirielebTan erTad, dasaxelebuli ligielTa tomi[434], apolonios rodoselis `argonavtikaSi~ moyvanili `likastieli amaZonebi~[435], md. halissa da Temiskiras Soris mdebare qalaqi likastosi[436]. amave saxelwodebis qalaqi, homerosis cnobiT, yofila kunZul kretazec[437]. aRniSnul sakiTxTan dakavSirebiT, yuradRebas ipyrobs agreTve mariandinebis qveynis mefis likosis saxeli[438], amave qveynis mdinaris saxelwodeba likosi[439] da analogiuri saxelwodebis mdinare pontoSi[440]; rogorc zemoT ukve iTqva, likosi md. Woroxis erT-erT Senakadsac erqva. ligielTa vinaobis garkvevisaTvis mxedvelobaSi misaRebia ax. w. I s. avtoris, isigone nikeelis cnoba, rom `ligielebi kldeebidan gadaisvrian xolme Tavis mSoblebs, rodesac isini siberis gamo usargebloni xdebian~[441]. es cnoba srul TanxmobaSia antikuri xanis mwerlebis gadmocemasTan tibarenebis Sesaxeb. magaliTad ax. w. III s. avtoris porfiriosis cnobiT, tibarenebi uaxloes moxuc naTesavebs cocxlebs gadaisrodnen xolme kldeebidan[442]; igives imeoreben evsebi kesarieli[443] da ax. w. V s. moRvawe Teodorite kirelic[444]. rogorc vxedavT, ligielTa Sesaxeb cnoba ufro Zvelia da safiqrebelia, rom msgavsi warmodgena SedarebiT gvian xanebSi gavrcelda tibarenebze, ligielTa Tu levkosirTa SesaZlo memkvidreebze.

 

eTnonim `tibarenze~ msjelobisas gasaTvaliswinebelia, rom garda satomo saxelis funqciisa, mas, `tibareniisa~ da `tibarenuli xalxebis~ formiT xSirad krebiTi mniSvnelo/57/bac hqonda[445] erTmaneTis monaTesave, da rogorc mravali monacemiT irkveva qarTveluri warmomavlobis mqone[446], tomebisaTvis, romlebic md. halisis SesarTavsa da kolxebs Soris saxlobdnen. rogorc zemoT aRvniSneT, ukanasknel xanebSi i. diakonovma yuradReba miaqcia im garemoebas, rom qsenofontis `anabasisSi~ gvxvdeba cnoba SavizRvispireTis berZnuli koloniebis: sinopis, kotioris, kerasuntis, trapezuntis da, SesaZloa, fasisis, erT federaciaSi gaerTianebis Sesaxeb[447], romlis saxelwodebac jer kidev maSin (Zv. w. 399 w.) iyo _ `ponto~ (Πόντος)[448] da romelic bibliur teqstebSi grafikulad Pw-iT gadmoicemoda[449]; i. diakonovis azriT, am saxelwodebis semituri eTnikoni unda yofiliyo *pon > *poṭṭ, xolo TviT federaciis saxeli ikiTxeboda P, rac `pontod~ unda iTargmnebodes[450]. aRsaniSnavia, rom qsenofontis teqstis mixedviT `ponto~ ewodeba ara sakuTriv CamoTvlili berZnuli axalSenebis teritorias, aramed, rogorc Cans, moicavs ufro farTo cnebas, samxreT-aRmosavleT SavizRvispireTs, mxares sadac qsenofontis TanamolaSqreebi imyofebian; yovel SemTxvevaSi es dadasturebulia trapezuntsa da kotioris Soris mdebare miwa-wylis misamarTiT[451].

 

yvelaze adre satomo saxeli `tibareni~ gvxvdeba Zv. w. VI s. moRvawis hekateos miletelis `dedamiwis aRwerilobaSi~, sadac igi tibaris (Τιβαροί) formiT aris warmodgenili[452]. amave formiT gvxvdeba es eTnonimi evsebi kesarielis zemoT moyvanili teqstis erT-erT nusxaSic[453]. S. janaSias varaudiT, -en, -an sufiqsi saxelwodeba `tibaren || tibaran~-Si unda gaCeniliyo arauadres Zv. w. V s.[454] iv. javaxiSvili Tvlida, rom T || t > h || > 0 Sesatyvisobis dadgena saSualebas iZleva `Tubal-Tabal-tibarenis~ `iberTan~ dakavSirebisa[455]. ukanasknel xanebSi gamoiTqva eWvi, rom aRniSnuli Sesatyvisobis daSveba ar unda iyos marTebuli, vinaidan Tanamedrove fonetikis miRwevebis mixedviT ar dasturdeba bgeraTgadasvla nulovani formidan T/t-mde da Sesabamisad uaryofili iqna `tibarenis~ `iberTan~ dakavSirebis SesaZleblobac[456].

 

saxelwodeba `tibarenSi~ Tavkidura t-s nulovan formaSi gadasvlis, anu gaqrobis SesaZleblobis daSvebisas, vfi/58/qrobT, gasaTvaliswinebelia antikuri xanis SavizRvispireTisa da kavkasiuri samyarosaTvis damaxasiaTebeli is eTno- toponimebi, romlebSic agreTve dasturdeba Tavkidura t || T-s dakargvis faqti. aseT terminTa ricxvs ganekuTvneba klavdios ptolemaiosis mier mtkvris gayolebaze moxseniebuli totene[457], dadasturebuli II-III ss. avtoris asinius kvadratosis `parTikaSi~ otenes formiT[458]. ptolemaiosTan mocemuli, md. mtkvrTan mdebare meore meore provinciis tosarenes saxelwodeba[459], rogorc Cans, asinius kvadratosTan, aseve md. mtkvarze mdebare da otenesTan erTad naxseneb, obarenes saxiT aris warmodgenili[460]. obarenebs, zogierTi mkvlevari, evdoqs rodoselis (Zv. w. III s.) mier moxseniebul, xalibebis irgvliv mcvovreb xabarenebTan (Χαβαρηνοί) aigivebs[461]. TiTqos eTnonimebSi `obareni~ da `xabareni~, igive Ziria warmodgenili, rac `ibersa~ da `tibarenSi~; sayuradReboa, rom ipolite romaelis cnobiT: `kapadokielTa gadaRma, marjvena mxareebSi, cxovroben armenielebi, iberebi da beranebi~[462]. Tavkidura t || T-s dakargvis sakiTxTan mimarTebaSi gasaTvaliswinebelia evstaTi Tesalonikelis SeniSvna, rom kaspiis zRvsTan mcxovrebi hunebis saxelwodeba Tunebi, unda daiweros θ-s gareSe, rogorc unebi[463]; misive cnobiT, kaspiispireTSi mcxovrebi tomis, apirebis saxelwodebas, straboni Tavkidura τ-Ti, tapirebad moixseniebs[464]. Crdilo-aRmosavleT SavizRvispireTSi mcxovrebi toretebis saxelwodeba[465] dadasturebulia `oretebis~ formiTac[466].

 

savaraudoa, rom t || T TavsarTi eTnonimTa mawarmoebel prefiqss warmoadgendes[467]. am mxriv, yuradRebas ipyrobs evstaTi antioqelis (ax. w. IV s.) `eqsTa dReTa ganmartebaSi~ nauwyebi, TabalelTa bibliuri pirvelwinapris saxeli _ obeli, im garemoebis gaTvaliswinebiT, rom iqve mesxenebis pirvelwinapars osoxi ewodeba[468], xolo m qarTvelur enebSi eTnonimTa mawarmoebeli cnobili prefiqsia[469]. aRniSnul sakiTxTan dakavSirebiT SesaZloa nawilobriv gasaTvaliswinebeli iyos is garemoeba, rom Tavkidura t-s dakargvis faqti dasturdeba Wanur enaSi SemorCenil samSabaTi dRis aRmniSvnel saxelebSi. samSabaTis aRmniSvneli saxeli WanurSi oTxia: erkinaCxa, ekinaCxa, tikinaCxa da ikinaCxa; maT fuZe/59/ulad iv. javaxiSvili `erkina~-s da `tikina~-s gamoyofs, xolo uZveles formas `terkin~-is saxiT aRadgens, romelsac mcireaziuli RvTebis saxels `tarkuns~ (igive _ Tarxons) ukavSirebs[470].

 

Sexeduleba tibarenTa da iberTa dakavSirebis SesaZleblobis Sesaxeb, saTaves albaT ioseb flaviusis im cnobidan iRebs, romlis mixedviTac Tubalebi iberTa winaprebi arian; ioane petriwiseuli TargmaniT: `daamkvidrebs ukui Tovilosca, TovilTasa, romelni aw iverad iwodebian~[471]; amave dros samecniero literaturaSi miCneulia, rom msoflios xalxTa bibliur CamoTvlisas, iafetis Svilebs Soris moxseniebul gomerSi, iavanSi, TubalSi da meSexSi[472] _ kimerielebi, ionielebi, tibarenebi da muSqebia nagulisxmevi[473]. Tubal-Tabalis saxelTan tibarenebis saxelwodebis gaigivebisaTvis garkveuli mniSvneloba eniWeba hekateosiseuli `tibar~ formis[474] arsebobas da agreTve pomponius melasTan dadasturebul `taberenebs~[475], Tumca masTanve gvxvdeba `tibarani~ formac[476]. aRsaniSnavia agreTve evsebi kesarielTan moyvanili forma `tibarini~[477] da kilikiaSi (e. i. TabalelTa teritoriis siaxloves) Zv. w. I s. romael moRvawesTan ciceronTan damowmebuli tibaranebis tomis saxelwodeba[478]. g. meliqiSvilisa da T. miqelaZis azriT, is garemoeba, rom Tabalebisa da tibarenebis saxelwodebebis etimologiis dadgena qarTveluri enebis monacemebis safuZvelze xerxdeba, TavisTavad unda metyvelebdes am saxelebis matarebel tomTa eTnikur vinaobaze[479]. n. xazaraZis azriT, qarTveluri tomis tibarenebis saxelwodebis fuZis _ `tibaris~ siaxlove `TabalTan~, `Tubal-kainis~ ormagi saxelwodebis meore nawilis (`kaenis~) fonetikurad identuri variantis gamovlena WanebiT dasaxlebul teritoriaze ax. w. VI s. avtoris prokopi kesarielis mier moxseniebuli `okenitis Wanebisa~, `sofel kenis~[480] da sxv. saxiT, qarTul eTnografiaSi `magari rkinis~ aRmniSvneli terminis `tobarinis~ arseboba da bibliuri Tubalis iberebis pirvel winaprad dasaxva, pirvel rigSi Tabalisa da qarTveluri tomebis adgilsacxovrisis teritoriuli siaxloviT unda aixsnas[481]; xolo TviT saxelwodeba `Tabali~ n. xazaraZes xeTur-luviuri warmomavlobis mqoned miaCnia, rasac, misi TqmiT, unda /60/ mowmobdes, Tabalis qveynis arseboba uZvelesi droidanve xeTur-luviuri tomebis gavrcelebis arealSi, Tabalis onomastikonisa da RvTaebaTa panTeonis xeTur-luviuri warmomavloba, agreTve am qveynis teritoriaze napovni luviur-ieroglifur enaze Sedgenili warwerebi[482]. aRsaniSnavia, rom amave mizezebs xeli ar SeuSlia i. diakonovisaTvis gamoeTqva ukanasknel xanebSi mosazreba, jer kidev Zv. w. XII s. zemo evfratis auzSi winasomxuri mosaxleobis binadrobis Sesaxeb; rac Seexeba im garemoebas, rom Zv. w. XI-VII ss. adgilobrivi onomastikoni da kerZod, dinastiuri saxelwodebebi ar avlenen somxuri enis kvals, man axsna imiT, rom, SesaZloa, somxurenovani olqebis dinastebis saxelebma Cvenebma ver moaRwies, xolo zemo evfratis marjvena napiris mxareSi luviuri dinastiebi batonobdnen (Tumca, misi mosaxleoba savsebiT SesaZlebelia, rom ukve somxurenovani yofiliyo) da amave dros ieroglifuri luviuri iyo iq oficialuri ena[483].

 

aRniSnul sakiTxTan dakavSirebiT, sayuradReboa g. meliqiSvilis mier adregamoTqmuli varaudi, rom vinaidan aRmosavleT mcire aziaSi `xeTur-ieroglifuri~ luviuri damwerlobis enisa da kulturis gavrcelebis are mniSvnelovnad aRemateboda sakuTriv `xeTur-ieroglifuri~ luviuri eTnikuri elementis gavrcelebis ares da ZiriTadad urTierTobis, mwerlobis enis rols asrulebda, amitom amave teritoriaze sxvebTan erTad qarTveluri tomebis arsebobacaa sagulvebeli[484]. winasomxuri tomebis zemo evfratis auzSi saxlobas, i. diakonovis azriT, somxur enaSi xuritul-urartul substratTan erTad luviuri substratis arsebobac unda adasturebdes[485]. ufro zustad _ zemo evfratis marjvena napirze somexTa winasacxovrisis lokalizebas, misive SexedulebiT, mowmobs melid-kamanus samefos urartuli saxelwodeba āte, romelsac somxuri enisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli refleqsiis Sedegad unda moeca _ hay-k somexTa TviTdasaxelebisaTvis, da agreTve sakuTriv somxuri tradiciis mier somexTa warmoavlobis bibliur Torgom || TogarmasTan dakavSireba[486]; rogorc cnobilia, bibliuri Bt-Tarmā- `Togarmas saxli~[487] igivea, rac asuruli wyaroebis Til-Garimme da xeTuri Tegarama || Tagarama[488].

 

somexTa winasacxovrisis dadgenisas, Cveni azriT, aucilebelia somxur enaSi gamovlenili im mZlavri megrul-Wanuri /61/ warmomavlobis mqone fenis gaTvaliswinebac, romelic somxuri enisaTvis substratulad aris miCneuli[489] da winasomxuri mosaxleobis axal samSobloSi gansaxlebisas, iq zanurenovani mosaxleobis arsebobaze unda miuniSnebdes. somexTa TviTdasaxlebac _ չայք (haq) ar aris gamoricxuli, rom zanurenovani xaldi-xalibebis _ al Ziris Semcveli saxelwodebidan iyos miRebuli, anatoliuri samyarosaTvis damaxasiaTebeli l da i bgerebis monacvleobis Sedegad. gansxvaveba Tavkidura fonemaSi, zemoT moyvanil saxelwodebaTa daaxloebisaTvis mniSvnelovan damabrkolebel mizezs ar unda warmoadgendes, rogorc cnobilia, samecniero literaturaSi termin `haq~, Cveulebriv, qveynis saxelwodebebisagan `xaiasasagan~ da `xaTesagan~ warmomdgarad miiCneven[490]. amave dros, sayuradReboa, rom g. meliqiSvilis azriT, savsebiT dasaSvebia, TviT eTnonim `xalibSic~, t da l bgeraTamonacvleobis Sedegas miRebul, `xaTis~ variaciasTan gvqondes saqme, xolo masSi mocemuli bolokiduri -ib, romelime mcireaziuli sufiqsis nakvalevi iyos (ati-ib > ali-ib > alib)[491]. igive bgeraTmonacvleoba asaxulia analogiuri Ziris Semcvel xaTuri (protoxeTuri) RvTaebis alipinu || atepinu-s saxelwodebaSic, romelic Sedgenil saxeladaa miCneuli da masSi xaTur binu-s (`bavSvi~) gamoyofen[492]. saxelwodeba `xalibSi~ bolokiduri -ib-is gamoyofis SesaZleblobas TiTqos iZleva agreTve eTnonimi `xaliri~, CamoTvlili evsebi kesarielis mier tabarinebsa da mosinikebs Soris[493], rac xalibebTan maT identurobas unda mowmobdes. ar aris gamoricxuli, rom alib-Si Semavali bolokiduri ib, romeliRac enobriv garemoSi sufiqsad iqna aRqmuli, es ki ganapirobebda mis Secvlas am enobrivi wrisaTvis ufro damaxasiaTebeli, `Sesatyvisi~ sufiqsiT[494]. Tumca, rogorc ukve zemoT iTqva, eTnonim `xalibSi~ mosalodneli Cans a- prefiqsis gamoyofis SesaZleblobis arsebobac.

 

saxelwodeba `xalibis~ etimologiis sakiTxTan dakavSirebiT yuradRebas ipyrobs is garemoeba, rom Tu mas adre aaxloebdnen spilenZis, liTonis da foladis aRmniSvnel berZnul sityvebTan χαλκός-Tan da χάλυψ-Tan, ukanasknel xanbSi gamoiTqva azri am berZnuli sityvebis rkinis aRmniSvnel xaTur termin apalki-dan miRebis Taobaze[495]. unda iTqvas, rom n. adonci da k. kekeliZe, arsebiTad, sworad miiCnevdnen ra mosazrebas /62/ foladis aRmniSvneli berZnuli sityvis χάλυψ (naT. br. χαλύβ-ος) satomo saxel `xalibTan~ kavSiris Sesaxeb, amave dros ucnaurad Tvlidnen, rom berZnebma folads uwodes im tomis saxeli, romelic mas amuSavebda, da ara is saxeli, romliTac es tomi am sagans aRniSnavda[496]. erT-erT ZiriTad arguments, romelsac v. ivanovi iyenebs xalibebTan xaTebis dasaaxloeblad, am ukanasknelTa rkinis metalurgiaSi daxelovneba unda warmoadgendes, rasac, missive azriT, xaTuri warmomavlobis terminis _ apalki-s Zvel samyaroSi farTod gavrceleba da xTuri werilobiTi wyaroebis miniSnebebi unda mowmobdnen, xaTuri xanis (Zv. w. III aTaswleulis) centraluri anatoliis arqeologiur masalaSi gamovlenil rkinis metalurgiis arsebobis kvalTan erTad[497]. v. ivanovis varaudiT, xaTuri sityva apalki, garda xalibebis (χάλβες) mier warmoebuli foladis berZnuli saxelwodebisa (χάλυψ) da sazogadod liTonis aRmniSvneli mikenuri ka-ko, berZnuli χαλκός-isa, aisaxa mWedlobis gamomgonebeli telxinebis (romelTa saxelsac igi mWedlebisa da rkinis mfarveli adiRuri RvTaebis tlefs/tlefSis saxels uaxlovebs) da agreTve kolxebisa da kolxeTis saxelwodebebSi[498].

 

xalibebisa da xaTebis (Tu xeTebis) urTierTdakavSirebis SesaZleblobas TiTqos iZlevais garemoeba, rom qsenofontis `anabasisis~ daskvniT nawilSi, sadac mokled aris Sejamebuli ukanmobrunebuli moqirave berZeni jariskacebis mier ganvlili gza, ZiriTad teqstSi moxseniebuli mosinikebisadmi daqvemdebarebuli SavizRvispireli xalibebis[499] nacvlad dasaxelebuli arian kotebi (Κοται)[500]. qsenofontis `anabasisis~ daskvniTi paragrafi, mecnierTa Soris gavrcelebuli azriT, ekuTvnis ara qsenofonts, aramed romeliRac kargad gaTviTcnobierebul pirs da amitom aris, rom masSi mocemuli calkeuli cnobebi nawilobriv ar Seesabameba Txzulebis ZiriTad teqsts[501]. safiqrebelia, rom zRvispira xalibebis kotebiT Senacvleba, ZiriTadad ganpirobebuli unda yofiliyo, qsenofontis mierve mdinareebis fasisisa (arezi) da harpasosis (Woroxi) Soris moxseniebul, mTian mxareSi mosaxle xalibebisgan gansxvavebis surviliT[502]. satomo saxel `kotebTan~ mimarTebaSi, egeb mxedvelobaSi iyos misaRebi xalib-kotebisagan dasavleTiT ori dRis savalze mde/63/bare qalaqi kotiora[503], pliniusis kotiorumi[504], `iliadis~ kitorosi[505] da likofroniseuli `ligistikuri kჳტაჲა~[506]; T. yauxCiSvilis azriT, eTnonim Κοται-s Tavdapirveli daweriloba unda yofiliyo Κύται da masSi igive Ziria sagulvebeli, rac aris `quTaisis~ aRmniSvnel Κύταια-Si[507]. safiqrebelia, rom homerosi xeTebs keteebis (Κήτειοι) saxelwodebiT icnobda[508]; homerosiseul `keteebs~ straboni Crdilo-dasavleT anatoliaSi, misiaSi, troel kilikielebsa da pelasgebs Soris aTavsebda[509]. `warmomavlobis wignis~ cnobiT, kitielTa ganayofs (tribu Citiensium) ganekuTvnebodnen kviproselebi dad agreTve isini, vinc ufro CrdiloeTiT cxovrobda, Tuki, es uknasknelni, avtoris TqmiT, misi droisaTvis jer kidev iyvnen SemorCenilni[510].

 

rogorc ar unda gadawydes xalibebisa da xaTi-xeTebis urTierTsiaxlovis sakiTxi, cntralur anatoliaSi rkinis metalurgiis uZvelesi da Zlieri keris arseboba da rkinisa da sazogadod liTonis metalurgiis tradiciebis qarTvelur samyaroSi gansakuTrebuli reliefurobiT asaxva, rac TvalsaCinodaa warmoCenili specialur literaturaSi, Cveni azriT, dasaSvebs xdis qarTveluri warmomavlobis tomebis garkveul kavSirs centraluranatoliur metalurgiul kerasTan.

 

zemoT ukve iTqva, rom zogierT werilobiT wyaroSi centraluri samxreT SavizRvispireTis aRsaniSnavad gamoyenebuli termini `libia~ SesaZloa eTnonim `xalibs~ ukavSirdebodes; vfiqrobT, moipoveba saxelwodeba `libiis~ warmoqmnis axsnis sxva alternatiuli variantic. rogorc cnobilia, CrdiloeT anatoliaSi dadasturebulia xeTuri xanis qasquri qveyana Tibia[511], romelic antikur xanaSi tibarenebis tomis mier dasaxlebulad aris miCneuli[512]; pliniusis cnobiT Zv. w. III s. Meore naxevris berZeni istorikosi filarqosi iuwyeboda pontoSi Tibiebis (Thibiorum) tomis arsebobas[513]. qveynis saxelwodebas _ Tibia, anatoliuri samyarosaTis damaxasiaTebeli t/l bgeraTmonacvleobis Sedegad, SeeZlo moeca _ Libia[514].

 

xaTuri t- bgeris xeTur-nesiturSi l-d gadmocemis SemTxvevebi da gvianxeTurisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli l > t bgeraTmonacvleoba TvalsaCinod aris asaxuli `didi mefis~ aRmniSvnel xaTuri warmomavlobis mqone xeTur terminSi _ T/Labarna[515]. /64/ aRsaniSnavia, rom d/l bgeraTmonacvleoba SeimCneva egeosuri samyaros winaberZnuli substratisa da qarTul enebSi[516].

 

T/l bgeraTmonacvleobis gaTvaliswinebiT, vfiqrobT, SesaZlebeli xdeba md. marasanTiis (halisi) qvemo dinebis dasavleT napirze mdebare xeTuri provinciis Taggasta-s[517] daaxloeba apolonios rodoselis `argonavtikaSi~ moxseniebul `likastiel amaZonebTan~[518], pomponius melasa da pliniusis mier md. halisis aRmosavleTiT lokalizebul qalaq likastosTan[519] da albaT `ligistinebisa~ Tu `libistinebis~ qveyanasTanac.

 

Tu dadasturdeba garkveul periodSi samxreT SavizRvispireTis centraluri nawilis aRmniSvnelad saxelwodeba `libiis~ arseboba, axali Suqi moefineboda berZen-romaeli istorikosebisa da qarTveli da somexi mematianeebis zogierT bundovan cnobas; kerZod, maTi monacemebis urTierTSepirispirebis Sedegad, albaT SesaZlebeli gaxdeboda kolxebisa da iberebis warmomavlobis sakiTxTan dakavSirebiT antikuri wyaroebis mier samxreT da dasavleT xmelTaSuazRvispireTisadmi miwerili didi mniSvneloba samxreT SavizRvispireTze yofiliyo gadatanili, miTumetes, rom samxreT-aRmosavleT SavizRvispireTi, rogorc cnobilia, Zv. w. I aTaswleulSi upiratesad qarTveluri tomebiT iyo dasaxlebuli.

 

Tavi meore

 

centraluri da aRmosavleTi anatolia da qarTveluri tomebi

 

/65/ samxreT-aRmosavleT SavizRvispireTis sanapiro zoli da mis mTel gayolebaze gadaWimuli janikis, giresunis, giumiuShanes, ziganis, trabzonis, lazistanis mTebis ferdobebi da agreTve aRmosavleT anatoliis Crdilo-aRmosavleT nawilSi, mdinareebis Woroxis, mtkvris, karasus (CrdiloeT evfrati) da arezs Soris moqceuli e. w. `mosxuri mTebis~ Semadgeneli Woroxis, arsianis, SavSeTis, soRanluRis, kopis, akdaRis, kargapazaris, Caxirbabis, alahiuekberis qedebi _ istoriuli tao-klarjeTisa da `didi mesxeTis~ umetesi nawilis momcveli, ZvelTaganave qarTveluri warmomavlobis tomTa gavrceleebis mxareebad aris miCneuli.

 

samxreT-aRmosavleT SavizRvispireTsa da aRmosavleT anatoliaSi mosaxle da berZeni istorikosisa da moRvawis qsenofontis mier Zv. w. IV s. dasawyisSi nanaxi da aRwerili makronebi, drilebi, kolxebi, mosinikebi, tibarenebi, xalibebi, xaldebi, fasianebi, taoxebi qarTvelurenovan tomebad iTvlebian[520]. drilebi da makronebi qalaq trapezuntis samxreTiT cxovrobdnen[521], Zveli avtorebi maTi sanebTan anu WanebTan gaigivebis SesaZleblobas iZlevian; ariane _ drilebisas[522], xolo straboni _ makronebisas[523]. qsenofontis cnobiT, trapezunti da kerasunti kolxeTis miwaze mdebareobda[524], xolo rionispira kolxeTs fasianTa qveyanas uwodebs[525]. mosinikebis teritoria q. kerasuntis dasavleTiT iwyeboda[526] da q. kotioras, aRmosavleTidan, maTdami daqvemdebarebuli mcirericxovani xalibebis samkvidrebeli da tibarenTa miwis ori dRis savali manZili aSorebda[527]. sakuTriv q. kotiora `anabasisSi~ aRwerili ukanaskneli saxmeleTo punqti, tibarenebis qveyana/66/Si yofila daarsebuli sinopelTa mier[528]. savaraudoa, rom qsenofontis xanaSi tibarenebis teritoria q. kotioris dasavleTiTac vrceldeboda. V s. anonimuri periplusis mixedviT, mosinikebi uwin cxovrobdnen q. farnakiidan q. kotioris sanaxebamde, xolo teritoria kotioridan q. polemonis (Tanamedrove md. balamanis SesarTavTan) sanaxebamde, tibarenebs ekavaT[529]. qsenofontis cnoba, mosinikebsa da tibarenebs Soris xalibebis lokalizebis Sesaxeb, upirispirdeba sxva Zvel avtorTa monacemebs, romelTa mixedviT tibarenebs (tibarebs) aRmosavleTidan mosinikebi (mosinebi) esazRvrebodnen[530], xalibTa sacxovrisi ki Cveulebriv tibarenebis dasavleTiT moixsenieba xolme[531]. amave dros, qsenofontis mixedviT, xalibebis tomi cxovrobda aRmosavleT anatoliaSic, md. fasisis (arezis) zemo welis CrdiloeTiT[532]; etyoba, iqve unda yofiliyo urartus mefis _ rusa II-is (daaxl. Zv. w. 685-645 ww.) adiljevazis warweris aliu-s tomTa gaerTianeba[533], romelsac g. meliqiSvili homerosis `haliZonebis~ qveyanasTan aigivebs[534]. aRsaniSnavia, rom straboni xalib-xaldebs, garda mcire somxeTamde gadaWimul farnakiisa da trapezunis mopirdapire mxareebisa, didi somxeTis dasavleTi nawilis karenitidis olqis (Tanamedrove q. erzurumis maxloblad) Zvel mflobelebadac miiCnevs[535] da amiT igi TiTqos exmianeba qsenofontis cnobas xalibTa gansaxlebis Taobaze; Tumca farnakia-trapezuntis gadaRma mcire somxeTamde xalibebis gavrceleba, SesaZloa, faqtiurad maT uwyvet ganfenaze miuTiTebdes pariadris qedis gayolebiT da ufro aRmosavleTiT mdebare mTianeTSi. strabonis mixedviT, `xalibebi~ _ xaldebis Zveli saxelia[536], magram `xaldebis~ saxelis sakmao siZveles, garda urartul wyaroebSi asaxuli `xalitus qveynis~ saxelwodebisa, mowmobs isic, rom qsenofonti, miuxedavad `anabasisSi~ ZiriTadad saxelwodeba `xalibis~ gamoyenebisa, q. kotioraSi Casul sinopel elCebTan saubrisas aRmosavleTiT mcxovreb xalibebs `xaldebis~ saxelwodebiT moixseniebs[537], xolo amave Txzulebis daskvniT paragrafSi, romelsac qsenofontis kalams ar miaweren, xalibebi da /67/ xaldebi erTmaneTis gverdiT arian dasaxelebuli, karduxebsa da makronebs Soris, maSin rodesac, zRvispira xalibebis adgilas mosinikebsa da tibarenebs Soris, kotebis tomia moTavsebuli.[538] rogorc Cans, ukve hekateos mileteli ganasxvavebda xalibTa or did dajgufebas, Tu erT SemTxvevaSi, misi azriT, xalibebs (χλυβοι) samxreTidan armenielebi esazRvrebodnen[539], meore mxriv, mas dasaxelebuli hyavs xalibebi (χλιβες), romelTac qalaqi stamena ekuTvniT[540]. fsevdo-skilaqsis mixedviTac, elinuri qalaqi _ stameneia, daxuruli navsadguri _ genetesi da elinuri akropolisi _ iazonia xalibebis miwaze iyo[541]. gamoTqmulia azri, rom hekateosis pirvel fragmentSi aRmosavleT anatoliaSi mcxovrebi xalibebi igulisxmebian, xolo meoreSi _ pontospireTSi, Tanamedrove iasunis koncxis dasavleTiT mosaxleni[542]. xalibebis farTod gavrcelebis sakiTxTan dakavsirebiT yuradRebas ipyrobs pomponius melas sityvebi, rom `paflagoniasTan yvelaze axlos myof xalibebs aqvT saxelganTqmuli qalaqebi amisosi da sinope _ cinikosi diogenes samSoblo, mdinareebi halisi da Termodonti...~[543].

 

amave dros safiqrebelia, rom Zv. w. I aTaswleulSi adgili unda hqonoda samxreT SavizRvispireTSi mosaxle tomebis TandaTanobiT gadanacvlebas dasavleTidan aRmosavleTisaken. es procesi TiTqos SeimCneva levkosirebis (sirebis, sirielebis) gansaxlebis sakiTxTan dakavSirebiT[544]. magaliTad herodotem, miuxedavad imisa, rom icis, md. halisiT paflagonielebisa da sirielebis erTmaneTisagan gamoyofis faqti[545], aRniSnavs, rom sirielebi md. Termodontis garda md. parTeniosTanac cxovrobdnen[546], anu paflagoniis teritoriaze (ix. zemoT). md. halisis dasavleTiT levkosirebis gavrcelebaze SesaZloa migvaniSnebdes maTi gaerTianeba paflagonielebTan da mariandinebTan dariosis mesame satrapiaSi[547], romelic lidiis yofili samefos miwebs moicavda da helespontodan md. halisis SesarTavamde vrceldeboda[548]. amave sakiTxTan dakavSirebiT yuradRebas ipyrobs injeburunis koncxis (romelzedac q. sinope mdebareobs) Zveli saxelwodeba _ siriada[549], xolo fsevdo-skimnosis cnobiT, sinopeSi odesRac cxovrobda mkvidri mosaxleoba _ sirebi, TviT qalaqs ki saxeli amaZoneli sinopesagan Seerqva (Ps.-/68/Skymn., 941-943). antikuri xanis miTologiuri warmodgenebiT, asopes asuls sinopes apolonisagan eyola vaJi _ siri, adgilobrivi sirebis eponimi, romelTac ekuTvnodaT qalaqi sinope avtolikosis (anu berZnebis) iq gamoCenamde (Plut., Luc., XXIII; Dion. Per., 774-778; Apoll. Rhod., II, 946-947).

 

md. halisis aRmosavleTiT mdebare qalaqi amisosi (Tanamedrove q. samsunTan) Zv. w. VI s. berZnuli koloniaa. strabonTan Semonaxuli cnobiT, Zv. w. IV s. istorikosi Teopompe iuwyeboda, rom igi Tavdapirvelad miletelebs dauarsebiaT, Semdeg kapadokielebs CaugdiaT xelSi da bolos aTenel berZnebs dausaxlebiaT[550]; levkosirebis mier amisosis dapyrobas evstaTi Tesalonikelic iuwyeba `iliadis~ komentarebSi[551]; rogorc fsevdo-skimnosis cnobidan irkveva, amisosi levkosirebis teritoriaze yofila daarsebuli, oRond fokeelebis da ara miletelebis mier (Ps.-Scymn., 917). am gadmocemebSi asaxuli Cans brZolis kvali berZen moaxalSeneebsa da adgilobriv, kapadokiur Tu levkosirul mosaxleobas Soris. terminebi `kapadokieli~ da `levkosiri~ erTidaimave xalxis aRmniSvnelad gamoiyeneboda; herodotes ganmartebiT, pirvels sparselebi xmarobdnen, xolo meores - berZnebi[552]. amave dros, aRsaniSnavia, rom antikur da bizantiur literaturaSi gavrcelebuli iyo Sexeduleba kapadokielebisa da mosxebis igiveobis Taobaze. ioseb flaviusis mixedviTac xom `mesxosma daafuZna mesxenebi, romelTac axla kapadokielebi ewodebaT...~[553].

 

ioseb flaviusis cnoba gansakuTrebul yuradRebas imsaxurebs bolo xanebSi, vinaidan `aRmosavleli muSqebis~ (anu aRmosavleT anatoliis _ md. evfratis zemo dinebis marjvena napirisa da misi mimdebare mxareebis e. w. `Zvelfrigiuli kulturis~ matarebeli mosaxleobis) kuTvnileba frigiuli samyarosadmi sul ufro saeWvo xdeba. i. diakonovis azriT, termini Muki (da misgan warmoebuli saxelwodebebi) urartelebis, asurelebisa da ebraelebis mier gadatanili iyo `aRmosavleli muSqebidan (ufro zustad musqebidan)~ frigielebze, romelTa saxelwodebac, Tavis mxriv, SesaZloa Musa yofiliyo.[554] rogorc irkveva, q. koniis maxloblad aRmoCenil ieroglifur-luviur enaze Sesrulebuli warwera, sadac savaraudod ikiTxeba eTnonimi Muska, xeTebis dacemis wi/69/namorbed xanas ganekuTvneba. es ki imas miSnavs, rom warwera frigielebis gamoCenamde bevrad ufro adreul xanebSia Sesrulebuli da maT ar unda aRniSnavdes[555]. i. diakonovi agreTve SeniSnavs, rom q. karxemiSis A7 warwera, erTmaneTisagan ganasxvavebs Musa-sa da Muska-s; pirvelebi, misi azriT, frigielebi arian, xolo meoreni _ protoarmenielebi[556]. erT-erT ZiriTad arguments i. diakonovisaTvis, protoarmenielebad muSqebis miCnevisas, warmoadgens maT saxelwodebaSi mocemuli sufiqsi -ki, romelsac igi somxuri enisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli mravlobiTi ricxvis -k(ք) morfemis kanonzomier Zvel Sesatyvisad Tvlis[557]. i. diakonovi aRiarebs ra, rom qarTvelurenovan mesx-tomis aRsaniSnavad gamoyenebuli berZnuli wyaroebis eTnonimi Μόσχοι, fonetikuri TvalsazrisiT zustad Seesatyviseba asurul-urartul Muki-s, amave dros, Tvlis, rom berZnuli termini miRebulia kontaminaciis Sedegad da mis matarebel qarTvelurenovan mesxebis toms araferi ara aqvs saerTo `aRmosavlel muSqebTan~ (protoarmenielebTan) da frigielebTan[558]. rogorc Cans, i. diakonovi saTanadod ar iTvaliswinebs im faqts, rom forma mosx- > musx- qarTuli eTnonimis Mesx-is zanuri Sesatyvisia da am ukanasknelTan erTad *masx-formidan unda iyos warmomdgari[559]; ar Cans gaTvaliswinebuli toponim `musxis~ arseboba mesxeTSi, agreTve xunZur enaSi fSav-xevsurTa aRmniSvnelad gamoyenebuli termini `mosoq/maseq/mosox~-i[560]; mxedvelobaSia misaRebi TviT i. diakonovis mier moyvanili magaliTic, `mesxuri mTebis~ saxelwodebis somxur enaSi Մոսքեկան (mosqekan) formiT gamovlenisa[561]. rac Seexeba i. diakonovis mier `protoarmenielebTan~ muSqebis gaigivebis cdas, tradiciuli Sexedulebis Tanaxmad _ somexi xalxis warmoqmnis adgilad miCneul zemo evfratis orive mxareSi, Zv. w. XII-IX ss., `aRmosavleli muSqebis~ gavrcelebis gamo[562], unda iTqvas, rom somxur enaSi zanuri substrates arsebobis zemoT aRniSnuli faqti, `muSqebSi~ zanebis danaxvis SesaZleblobas TiTqos ufro unda iZleodes. yuradRebas ipyrobs isic, rom centraluri anatoliis CrdiloeT nawilSi mosaxle mosxebs hekateos mileteli kolxur tomad miiCnevda[563], xolo amerkavkasieli mesxebisaTvis, samecniero literaturaSi, megrul-Wanuri warmomavloba aris navaraudevi[564]. muSqebSi qarTulenovani tomis danaxvas, i. diakonovis azriT, mniSvnelov/70/nad abrkolebs is garemoeba, rom qarTuli tomebi, garda egris-iberia-kaxeTisa da a. S. mxolod lazeTsa da kolxeTSi cxovrobdnen[565]; magram, Zveli berZnuli wyaroebis Sejerebis Sedegad mosxebis kolxuri tomis centralur anatoliaSi lokalizebis zemoaRniSnulma SesaZleblobam, da aRmosavleT anatoliaSi qarTveluri tomebis gansaxlebis Sesaxeb arsebulma cnobebma, kerZod, zemo evfratis auzSi qarTvelur tomebad miCneuli xalibebiT da mosinikebiT dasaxlebuli karenitidisa da qserqsenes mdebareobam[566] da aRmosavleT anatoliis mTianeTSi somxebis mezoblad xaldi-xalibebis binadrobam[567], vfiqrobT, gansxvavebulad unda warmogvidginos anatoliaSi qarTveluri warmomavlobis mqone tomebis gansaxlebis suraTi.

 

i. diakonovs ekuTvnis sayuradRebo mosazreba SavizRvispireTeli xalibebisa da mosxebis identurobis Sesaxeb; man yuradReba miaqcia im garemoebas, rom herodotes `istoriaSi~ xalxTa CamoTvlisas, Cveulebriv dasaxelebuli arian mosxebi, xolo xalibebi moixsenebian mxolod erT fragmentSi[568] da isic interpolaciad aris miCneuli[569]. Sexedulebas mosxebisa da xalibebis igiveobis Taobaze, vfiqrobT, mxars unda uWerdes aRmosavleT anatoliis mTianeTis xaldi-xalibebis gansaxlebis zemomoyvanili cnobebi[570] asurul-urartuli wyaroebis `aRmosavleli muSqebis~ sacxovriss _ alzsa (md. murad-sus marcxena napirze) _ da mosxur mTebs Soris mdebare mxareSi. niSandoblivia isic, rom Tu ZvelaRmosavluri wyaroebis abeSlaelebi muSqebTan erTad arian gaerTianebulni, maT memkvidreebad miCneul fasianebs (ix. qvemoT) xalibebTan aqvT samxedro kavSiri[571]. gasaTvaliswinebelia agreTve SesaZlo kavSiri pliniusTan dasaxelebul `armeno-xalibebis tomsa~[572] da mosxebis qveynis erTi nawilis armenielTa qveynis SemadgenlobaSi moqcevis straboniseul cnobas Soris[573], miTumetes, rom pliniusis teqstSi uSualod armeno-xalibebis Semdeg naxsenebia `mosxebis miwebi~ gavrcelebuli md. mtkvris Senakad md. iberamde[574], romelic md. iors unda aRniSnavdes[575], xolo strabonis mixedviT, mosxebis qveynis darCenili ori nawili _ kolxebsa da iberebs ekuTvnodaT[576]. magram, pliniusiseuli md. iberis md. iorTan gaigivebiT (rasac xels unda uwyobdes Tundac is, rom pliniusis teqstis aRniSnuli paragrafi iberiasa da albaneTs exeba), gamodis, rom mosxebis qveyana faqtiurad mTeli iberiis momcvelia, mis farglebSi TiTqos md. fasisis (am SemTxvevaSi md. rioni) saTavec eqceva[577]; amave dros, sayuradReboa, rom armeno-xalibebi da `mosxebis miwebi~ parihedros mTebis im mxares arian ganlagebuli, romelic kavkasionis mTavari qedis aRmosavluri nawilis Semadgenel keravnul mTebs Sehyurebs, xolo mis sawinaaRmdego mxares kolxuri (Colchicae) udabnoa[578]. parihedros mTebTan mdebare Tasisa da Triaris, anu taSirisa da TrialeTis olqebis, aseve keravnuli mTebis sapirispiro mxares ganlageba, parihedros mTebSi TiTqos TiTqos bambakis qedis danaxvis SesaZleblobas iZleva[579] da amasTanave, armeno-xalibebisa da `mosxebis miwebis~ iqneb istoriuli gardabnisa da hereTis midamoebSi adgilmdebareobaze unda miuTiTebdes, miT ufro, rom armeno-xalibebis Semdeg pliniusis teqstSi sakasenebia (SakaSene, ganjis mxare) dasaxelebuli[580]; es garemoeba pliniusis cnobas, Tuki Secdoma ar aris masSi daSvebuli (aRsaniSnavia, rom SavizRvispireTis amsaxvel amave Tavis meTormete paragrafSi, armeno-xalibebi trapezuntis gadaRma mxareSi arian dasaxelebulni), strabonis cnobisagan[581] unda aSorebdes; meore mxriv, pliniusis cnoba[582] TiTqos exmianeba zemomoyvanil cnobebs, `qaldevelTagan gamosuli honnebis~, `masaxa-honnebis~ da `gardmanSi (gardabanSi) dasaxlebuli xaldebis Sesaxeb.

 

mosxebisa da xalibebis gaigivebis sawinaaRmdego sabuTs, Cveni azriT, unda warmoadgendes hekateos miletelis `dedamiwis aRwerilobis~ Semonaxul fragmentebSi, rogorc SavizRvispireli xalibebisa[583], aseve centraluri anatoliis CrdiloeT raionebSi mosaxle mosxebis[584] moxsenieba; agreTve, urartus mefis rusa II-is adiljevazis warweraSi erTmaneTis gverdiT muSkinis, xaTesa da xalitus qveynebis dasaxeleba[585]. Rac Seexeba i. diakonovis SeniSvnas, rom strabonis mier, rogorc mosxebis, aseve xalibebisa da xaldebis erTad moxsenieba albaT gamowveulia avtoris mier sxvadasxva wyaroebis ekleqtikuri gamoyenebiT[586], unda iT/72/qvas, rom strabonTan mosxebi, xalibebi da xaldebi erTmaneTisagan gansxvavebul geografiul garemoSi gvxvdebian; kerZod, straboniseuli mosxebi _ Crdilo-aRmosavleT SavizRvispireTSi[587], xolo xaldebi[588] da xalibebi[589] _ samxreT-aRmosavleT SavizRvispireTsa da aRmosavleT anatoliis mTianeTSi; Tumca, xalibebTan, rogorc zemoT ukve aRvniSneT, SesaZloa, dakavSirebuli iyo strabonis mier naxsenebi `mosxebis qveyana~[590] _ istoriuli mesxeTis Sesatyvisi. rogorc Cans, terminebi `mosxi~ da `xaldi~ || `xalibi~, miuxedavad calkeul periodebSi maTi mniSvnelobebis nawilobrivi damTxvevisa da erTidaimave eTnikuri samyarosadmi kuTvnilebisa, mTlianobaSi erTmaneTs ver faraven da garkveuli Sinaarsobrivi Taviseburebis matarebelni arian, asaxaven ra lokalur Tu qronologiur gansxvavebebs (msgavsad dasavleT saqarTveloSi gavrcelebuli saxelwodebebisa: `kolxi~, `lazi~, `egriseli~, `megreli~, `odiSari~).

 

rogorc vxedavT, iZebneba garkveuli Sexebis wertilebi erTi mxriv, mosxebsa da meore mxriv, `siriel kapadokielebsa~ (levkosirebsa) da xalibebs Soris; es ki, TavisTavad cxadia, rom unda ayenebdes levkosirebisa da xalibebis urTierTmimarTebis sakiTxsac. herodotes mier sirielTa sacxovrisis mdinareebiT parTeniosiTa da TermondontiT gansazRvra[591], im garemoebis gaTvaliswinebiT, rom samxreT SavizRvispireTSi sabadoebis garkveulil metalurgiuli simZlavriT aRniSnul mdinareTa Soris mdebare mxarec xasiaTdeba, sirielebSic TiTqos `xalibebis~ danaxvis SesaZleblobas unda iZleodes[592]. urTierTkavSiri SeiniSneba agreTve sirielTa md. halisis dasavleTiT gansaxlebis Taobaze arsebul zemoT moyvanil cnobebsa da im cnobebs Soris, romlebic Seicaven miTiTebebs md. halisis dasavleTiT xalibebis SesaZlo lokalizebis Sesaxeb[593].

 

md. halisis dasavleTiT xalibebi dasaxelebuli hyavs herodotes, rodesac Tavis `istoriaSi~ CamoTvlis lidiis mefis kroisosis mier md. halisis dasavleTiT damorCilebul xalxebs, lidielebs, frigielebs, misielebs, mariandinebs, xalibebs, paflagonielebs, Trakielebs, Tinebs, biTvinebs, karielebs, ionielebs, dorielebs, pamfilielebs[594]. gamoTqmulia, agreTve azri, rom xalibebi unda hyavdes dasaxelebuli herodotes meSvide TavSic, sadac sparselTa jarSi Semavali calke/73/uli tomebis SeiaraRebaa daxasiaTebuli da maTi sardlebia CamoTvlili da sadac erT adgilas satomo saxelia gamotovebuli[595], es miT ufro dasaSvebi Cans, rom aq dasaxelebul xalxs hqonia aresis samisno[596], aresi ki xalibebis eponimis _ xalibis mamad iyo miCneuli[597]. Tumca, herodotes teqstis gamomcemelTa didi nawili am adgilas pisidielebis saxelis aRdgenas aniWebs upiratesobas. rac Seexeba xalibebis md. halisis dasavleTiT mcxovreb tomTa Soris moxseniebis faqts[598], herodotes teqstis jer kidev gasuli saukunis germaneli gamomcemeli h. Staini gamoTqvamda azrs, rom aRniSnuli paragrafis is nawili, sadac tomebis saxelwodebebia CamoTvlili, gviandeli CanarTi unda iyos, radgan iq naxsenebi zogierTi tomi herodotes teqstis sxva adgilebi ar gvxvdeba, mag., Tinebis (Θυνοί) an xalibebisa, maSin, rodesac sxva adgilebSi dasaxelebuli tomebi am fragmentSi ar arian CamoTvlilni[599]. n. lomouris SexedulebiT, im garemoebas, rom herodote saerTod ar icnobs xalibebs, mowmobs, mis mier, sxva avtorebTan xalibebis mezoblad dasaxelebuli tomebis (mosxebis, tibarenebis, makronebis, mosinikebis da sxv.) araerTgzis moxseniebac, xalibebisagan gansxvavebiT[600]. magram Zalze Zneli warmosadgenia, rom herodotes araferi scodnoda xalibebis Sesaxeb. xalibTa siZveleze miuniSnebs Tundac strabonis sityvebi, rom maT jer kidev homerosi moixseniebda alibes mkvidr haliZonebad Tu alibeelebad[601]. xalibebi dasaxelebuli hyavs herodotes winamorbeds hekateos miletels, romlis naSromsac herodote kargad icnobs, Tavis TxzulebaSi sakmaod xSirad ixseniebs[602] da zogjer miTiTebis gareSec ki ekamaTeba mas[603]. xalibebi naxsenebi hyavs herodotes ufros Tanamedroves, dramaturg esqilesac (Zv. w. 525-456 ww.), rodesac isini `mijaWvul promeTeosSi~ rkinis dammuSavebel, mkacr da saxifaTo xalxad hyavs daxasiaTebuli[604].

 

herodote xalibebs, maT mezobel tomebTan, mosxebTan, tibarenebTan, mosinikebTan da makronebTan erTad SesaZloa imitom ar ixseniebs, rom is fragmentebi, sadac es tomebia dasaxelebuli[605], momdinareoben gansakuTrebuli xasiaTis mqone ori nawilidan, `satrapiebis anu dario/74/sis moxarkeTa siidan~ da `qserqses armiisa (da flotis) siidan~[606], romelTa Tavdapirvel wyaros oficialuri sparsuli sabuTebi unda warmoadgendnen. am sabuTebSi xalibebi, safiqrebelia, rom sxva tomebTan erTad iyvnen gaerTianebulni da amdenad, maT saxels amofarebulni, anda, sulac sxva saxelwodebiT moixseniebodnen, Tundac `mosxebisa~ (ix. zemoT). sayuradReboa, rom urartelebis aRmniSvneli saxelwodeba `alarodielebi~ herodotesTan mxolod aRniSnul siebSia moyvanili[607] da es garemoeba samecniero literaturaSi axsnilia herodotes mier dionisios miletelis naSromebis gamoyenebiT, romlebic dawerili iyo oficialuri sparsuli dokumentebis safuZvelze[608]. xolo sxva konteqstSi, rodesac Txroba uSualod herodotesagan momdinareobda, mas, ra Tqma unda, SeeZlo daesaxelebina xalibebic. Amave dros, Cven verc xalibebis saxelwodebis Semcveli fragmentis interpolacias gamovricxavT herodotes teqstSi, magram, aRniSnuli fragmenti CanarTsac rom warmoadgendes, vfiqrobT, mas mainc unda gaewios angariSi, rogorc garkveuli, albaT, arc Tu SemTxveviTi, informaciis gamomxatvels, miTumetes, rom es fragmenti herodotes teqstSi (romlis yvelaze adreuli nusxa ax. w. X s. ganekuTvneba) sakmaod adreul xanaSi Camatebulad aris miCneuli[609]. marTalia, iseTi SedarebiT gviandeli avtori, rogoric likofrenes `aleqsandras~ sqoliastia, romelsac XII s. moRvawed miiCneven[610], xalibebs paflagoniaSi mcxovreb tomad moixseniebs[611], magram bevrad ufro adreuli xanis, ax. w. I s. pirveli naxevris romaeli moRvawis pomponius melas mixedviTac, romelic mcire aziis karg codnas avlens, aRmosavleTisaken paflagoniis ukanasknel qalaqs _ armenes (Tanamedrove injeburunis koncxze), xalibTa miwa-wyali mosdevda, misi sityvebiT, `...paflagoniis ukanaskneli qalaqia armene. paflagoniasTan yvelaze axlos myof xalibebs aqvT saxelganTqmuli qalaqebi amisosi da sinope, cinikosi diogenes samSoblo, mdinareeebi halisi da Termodonti...~[612]. xalibebis mosazRvreebi aRmosavleTis mxridan taberenebia, igive tibaranebi[613]. yuradRebas ipyrobs pomponius melas ganmarteba imis Taobaze, rom qalaqebi amisosi da sinope aqvT paflagoniasTan yvelaze axlos myof xalibebs, rac unda migvaniSnebdes sxva, paflagonielebisagan ufro Sors mosaxle xalibe/75/bis arsebobazec, amave dros, xalibebi mas im teritoriaze hyavs moxseniebulni, sadac sxva avtorebi levkosirebs (sirebs, asirielebs) aTavseben xolme[614] da Tu imasac gaviTvaliswinebT, rom mela Tavis TxzulebaSi levkosirebs arsad moixseniebs, safiqrebeli xdeba, rom `xalibebSi~ mas levkosirebic unda hyoloda nagulisxmevi. rogorc Cans, pomponius melas, romelic kompilatori mweralia, xalibTa gansaxleba mis dros arsebuli realuri viTarebis mixedviT ki ara aqvs warmodgenili, aramed, romeliRac Zveli wyaros mixedviT. niSandoblivia, rom moZvelebuli wyaroebis sruliad ukritiko gamoyeneba da sxvaTa naSromebidan xSiri dasesxeba melas did naklad aris miCneuli[615]. Amave dros, misi naSromis mTavar Rirsebas swored es Tavisebureba, SemdgomSi dakarguli an fragmentulad SemorCenili wyaroebis monacemTa Semonaxva warmoadgens. masTan araerTi iseTi cnoba aris Semonaxuli, romelic ufro adre arsebuli mdgomareobis amsaxvelia[616].

 

Cveni azriT, xalibTa adreuli gansaxlebis sakiTxTan dakavSirebiT pomponius melas zemomoyvanil cnobas garkveuli mniSvneloba unda mieniWos. rac Seexeba im braldebas, rom pomponius mela ver erkveva mis mier dasaxelebul tomTa adgilmdebareobaSi[617], Cven mas ver gaviziarebT. mogvyavs is citata pomponius melas Txzulebidan, romlis gamoc aris ZiriTadad gamoTqmuli aseTi uaryofiTi Sefaseba melas sandoobis mimarT: `Sida qveynebSi bevri da nair-nairi xalxebi cxovroben... skviTebsa da skviTebis tramalebs zemoT dahebi cxovroben; xolo kaspiis ubes zemoT _ komareebi, masagetebi, kadusebi, hirkanebi, hiberebi; amaZonebsa da hiperboreebs axlos _ kimerielebi, kisiantebi, aqeebi, georgilebi, mosxebi, korsitebi, foristebi, rimfakebi; xolo sadac Cvens zRvebs emxroba _ matianebi, tibaranebi da ukve ufro cnobili saxelis mqoneni _ midielebi, armenielebi, komagenebi, muranebi, vegetebi, kapadokielebi, galogrekebi, likaonelebi, frigielebi, pisidielebi, isavrielebi, lidielebi, sirokilikielebi~[618]. teqstis mixedviT aqeebi da mosxebi uSualod kaspiis zRvis zeviT ki ar cxovroben, aramed amaZonebisa da hiperboreebis axlos (ufro zustad, maT zeviT Tu maTs iqiT _ super), Tumca sxva adgilas mela mosxebs albanelebTan da hirkanebTan erTad hirkaniis ubesTan aTavsebs[619]. rogorc cnobilia, eTnonim `mosxTan~ mi/76/msgavsebuli saxelebi damaxasiaTebeli Cans kavkasionis centraluri da aRmosavleT nawilebisaTvis; mxedvelobaSi gvaqvs agaTangelosis _ masaxa honnebi[620], pliniusis _ mazakebi[621], am mxareebis toponimiaSi da eTnonimiaSi dadasturebuli msgavsi JReradobis saxelwodebebi (ix. zemoT), alazneli CeCnebis saxelwodeba maxis-to-bi (maTi TviTdasaxelebaa maistwey)[622], `qveynis~ aRmniSvneli CeCnuri termini `moxq~[623]. al. gamyreliZis varaudiT, mosxTa gansaxlebis Taobaze pomponius melas cnoba, SesaZlebelia warmoadgendes romelime iseTi wyaros anarekls, romelic mosxebis erTi nawilis Crdilo-aRmosavleTisaken gadmonacvlebaze miuTiTebda[624]. rac Seexeba aqeebis (`aqaelebis~) tomis saxelwodebas, rogorc SeniSnaven, igi erT-erTi mkvlevris mier yofila amokiTxuli damaxinjebuli adgilidan da sakmaod saeWvocaa; xelnawerSi kisiantebisa da aqeebis nacvlad yofila mxolod _ cissi anthiacae[625]. ar aris gamoricxuli, rom am tomebSi veinaxuri tomebi igulisxmebodes. kisiantebis (anu kisiebis) saxels TiTqos uaxlovdeba inguSebis aRmniSvneli bacburi eTnonimi _ kis-ti-y (qisti)[626], xolo aqeebis saxeli, Tu ki miviRebT aRniSnul konieqturas, emsgavseba CeCnebis yvelaze Crdilouri jgufis saxelwodebas _ akki[627]. Moyvanil citataSi arc midielebi, armenielebi, komagenelebi... unda hyavdes pirenes naxevarkunZulze dabadebul romael moRvawes _ pomponius melas mcdar konteqstSi moxseniebulni, vinaidan mis frazaSi _ `xolo sadac Cvens zRvebs emxroba~, unda igulisxmebodes mTlianad xmelTaSua zRvis auzi da ara martooden Savi zRvisa.

 

garda zemoT moyvanili monacemebisa, xalibTa lokalizaciisaTvis garkveuli mniSvneloba eniWeba Zv. w. IV s. pirveli naxevris istorikosis _ eforosis cnobas, romelic strabons aqvs Semonaxuli: `eforosi ambobda, rom es naxevarkunZuli dasaxlebulia Teqvsmeti tomiT, romelTagan sami aris elinuri, xolo danarCeni barbarosuli, Tu ar CavTvliT Sereul tomebs; zRvasTan arian kilikielebi, likielebi, biTvinielebi, paflagonielebi, mariandinebi, troelebi da karielebi; Sua qveyanaSi mosaxleoben pisidielebi, misielebi, xalibebi, frigielebi da milielebi~[628]. straboni ar eTanxmeba efoross da SeniSnavs: `...jer unda SevekiTxoT efoross, ratom aTavsebs naxevarkunZulis SigniT xalibebs, romlebic mosaxleoben esoden Sors aRmosavleTiT, sinopesa da amisosi/77/sagan~[629]. strabonisgan vgebulobT, rom eforosi xalibebs aTavsebda mcire aziis naxevarkunZulis SigniT, anu sinopesa da isosis (Tanamedrove iskanderunis yuris Crdilo-aRmosavleT napirze) `SemaerTebeli xazis~ dasavleTiT; igulisxmeba sinopis yuris ukiduresi samxreT wertili da isosis yuris Crdilo wertili[630]. arsebobda naxevarkunZulis gansazRvris sxva xerxic, romelic strabons ufro marTebulad miaCnia _ amisosisa da isosis Soris mdebare viwrobis mixedviT[631]. straboni SeniSnavs, rom aravin Tvlis naxevarkunZulis yelis xazs xalibebze gadamavalad, vinaidan maSin xazi mrude gamovidoda, mcire armeniasa da evfratze gadaivlida, xolo naxevarkunZuli mTel kapadokias, komagenes, amanoss da isikosis yures moicavda[632].

 

rogorc vxedavT, straboni imitom ar miiCnevs xalibebs naxevarkunZulis mcxovreblebad, rom maT naxevarkunZulis farglebs gareT, aRmosavleTiT aTavsebs. ZiriTadi mizezi, ris gamoc straboni efoross ekamaTeba, xalibebis sanapiro zolisagan daSoreba da qveynis SigniT moTavseba ki ar aris, aramed swored maTi naxevarkunZulze, isosidan evqsinamde gamavali xazis dasavleTiT lokalizebaa; straboni ar gamoricxavda xalibebis qveynis SigniTa mxareSi binadrobas; es mkafiod Cans missive sityvebSi, rom efoross umjobesi iyo xalibebis erTi nawili zRvis piras moeTavsebina, xolo meore nawili qveynis SigniT[633]. T. yauxCiSvilis ganmartebiT, straboni eTanxmeboda efoross (da masTan erTad Zv. w. II s. moRvawes apolodores) xalibebis nawilis maT mier miTiTebul adgilze cxovrebis Sesaxeb, meore nawils ki zRvis piras aTavsebda[634]. amave dros, vfiqrobT, naTelia, rom eforosisaTvis xalibebi isos-sinopesa Tu isos-amisosis SemaerTebeli xazis dasavleTiT cxovrobdnen, winaaRmdeg SemTxvevaSi, strabonis sityvebisa ar iyos, `Tu xalibebis qveyanas naxevarkunZulis nawilad miviCnevT, miT ufro unda CavTvaloT aseTebad kataonia, orive kapadokia da likaonia...~[635]. aSkaraa, rom eforosi imitom Tvlida xalibebs naxevarkunZulis mosaxleebad da ar Tvlida aseTebad zemoCamoTvlil xalxebs, rom xalibebs, maTgan gansxvavebiT, ufro dasavleTiT aTavsebda.

 

sayuradReboa, rom fsevdo-skimnosis `periegesis~ mixedviTac, xalibebi aseve naxevarkunZulis, amisossa da isikosis yures Soris mdebare aziis uviwroe/78/si yelis dasavleTiT, qveynis SigniT da kapadokielebis maxloblad moixseniebian[636]. fsevdo-skimnosis cnobas gansakuTrebuli mniSvneloba aqvs eforosTan dasaxelebuli xalibebis adgilmdebareobis garkvevisaTvis, vinaidan `periegesis~ erT-erT ZiriTad wyaros swored eforosi warmoadgenda, amas fsevdo-skimnosi TviTonve aRniSnavs, rodesac CamoTvlis im avtorebs, visganac aris igi dasesxebuli[637]. Tumca, T. yauxCiSvilis SeniSvniT, `periegesis~ is fragmenti, sadac xalibebia naxsenebi, unda momdinareobdes wyarodan, romelic Zv. w. III-II ss. TariRdeba[638]. am mxriv niSandoblivia, rom fsevdo-skimnosi eforosisagan gansxvavebiT kapadokielebs naxevarkunZulze aTavsebs; isini, misi TqmiT, pisidiis qveyanaSi da xalibebis maxloblad cxovroben[639]. fsevdo-skimnosis es cnoba, amave dros, xalibTa qveynis Semdeg mdebare sacxovrisis gansazRvris saSualebasac iZleva pisidiis qveyanaSi mcxovrebi kapadokielebis mezoblad. kapadokielebis pisidiis qveyanaSi (samxreT anatolia) moTavseba xalibebis ufro CrdiloeTiT mdebareobaze unda migvaniSnebdes, SesaZloa, Semdegdroindeli galaTiis midamoebSi, Tumca Tu gaviTvaliswinebT eforosTan qveynis SigniT mcxovrebi xalxebis _ pisidielebis, misielebis da miliebis, zRvidan daSorebis manZils, ar aris gamoricxuli xalibTa sacxovrisic napiridan sul 20-30 km-iT yofiliyo daSorebuli. garkveul eWvs aRZravs naxevarkunZulze da qveynis SigniT mosaxle xalxebs Soris eforosis mier kapadokielTa mouxseniebloba, vinaidan isosis, rogorc sinopTan, aseve amisosTan damakavSirebeli naxevarkunZulis yelis xazi kapadokielebis miwaze gadioda; xom ar unda vifiqroT, rom eforosis `xalibebSi~ _ kapadokielebi an maTi romeliRac Semadgeneli nawili igulisxmeba; iqneb amave garemoebas ukavSirdeba pomponius melas mier xalibebis lokalizacia levkosirebis teritoriaze (ix. zemoT), romlebic herodotes mixedviT, igive kapadokielebi arian[640].

 

kidev erTi Zveli avtori, romelic iuwyeboda xalibebis naxevarkunZulze binadrobas, rogorc amas strabonisagan vgebulobT, yofila apolodore, romelic Tavis TxzulebebSi `troelTa sabrZolo wyoba~ da `xomaldTa katalogis Sesaxeb~, SeniSnavda, rom homerosTan CamoTvlili troelTa yvela azieli mokavSire, e. i. maT Soris haliZonebic, naxevarkunZul/79/ze, sinop-amisosis viwrobebis dasavleTiT cxovrobdnen[641]. rogorc straboni gvamcnobs, apolodores erTmaneTTan Sepirispirebuli hqonia homerosisa da eforosis cnobebi: `cxadia, rom apolodorem saTanadod ver gaarCia eforosis gancxadeba da auria da daamaxinja poetis (homerosis _ g. q.) sityvebi~[642]. miuxedavad strabonis mier im garemoebis aRniSvnisa, rom apolodoresaTvis ucnobi iyo haliZonTa vinaoba[643], raSic straboni albaT xalibebisa da haliZonebis mis mier navaraudev igiveobas unda gulisxmobdes[644], apolodores mier homerosis `xomaldTa katalogSi~ dasaxelebuli troelTa mokavSireebis, maT Soris haliZonebis, naxevarkunZulis mcxovreblebad miCneva, da agreTve is faqti, rom igi, rogorc es strabonis sityvebidan irkveva, iziarebda eforosis cnobas, naxevarkunZulze xalibebis binadrobis Taobaze[645], savaraudos xdis, rom apolodoresaTvisac cnobili unda yofiliyo Sexeduleba xalibebisa da haliZonebisa Tu alibeelebis identurobis Sesaxeb; es miT ufro dasaSvebia, rom msgavsi azri sakmaod gavrcelebuli Cans mis epoqaSi; straboni iuwyeba, rom apolodores winamorbed demetrios skepsiselisaTvis (Zv. w. II s.) cnobili iyo zogierTebis mier herodotes `xomaldTa katalogSi~ moxseniebulni `Soreuli alibes~[646] `Soreul xalibed~ Sesworebis faqti[647].

 

aRsaniSnavia, rom straboni, rogorc Cans, swored imis gamo, rom haliZonebsa Tu alibeelebs xalibebTan aigivebda[648], ar iziarebda Sexedulebas amaZonebisa da haliZonebis identurobaze, rac zogierT avtors dasaSvebad miaCnda[649]; magaliTad, eforosi `xomaldTa katalogis~ `alibel haliZonebs~ `alopeli amaZonebiT~ cvlida da maT sacxovriss misias, kariasa da lidias Soris aTavsebda[650]. strabonis gancxadebiTac, es mxare, SemdgomSi eolielebiTa da ionielebiT dasaxlebuli, Tavdapirvelad amaZonelebs ekuTvnodaT, magram misTvis gaugebaria, Tu rogor SeiZleboda aq `alibes~, anu `alopes~ Tu `alobes~ danaxva, anda, riTi gamarTldeboda am SemTxvevaSi homerosis sityvebi aRniSnuli mxaris siSorisa da vercxliT misi simdidris Sesaxeb[651]. dasavleT anatoliis egeosiszRvispireTSi `alopes~ /80/ mdebareobis Sesaxeb cnoba hqonia Temistagoresac `oqros wignSi~, romlis fragmenti elianus herodians Semounaxavs; am fragmentis mixedviT, amaZonelebi cxovrobdnen alopeSi, romelsac imJamad ukve likia erqva da q. efesosTan mdebareobda[652]; homerosis zemoT moyvanili sityvebis gaTvaliswinebis gamo straboni kidev ufro miuReblad miiCnevs Sexedulebas haliZonebis Crdilo-dasavleT anatoliaSi lokalizebis Sesaxeb, romelic gamoTqmuli hqoniaT hekateos miletels, palefats, menekrate elaitels da demetrios skepsisels[653]. aRsaniSnavia, rom TviT straboni, uaryofda ra amaZonebisa da haliZonebis igiveobas, amave dros amaZonTa sacxovrissac pontoSi aTavsebda; misi cnobiT: `yvelani uwodebdnen Temiskiras, Termodontis midamoebSi mdebare dablobebs da maT zemoT mdebare mTebs amaZonebis qveyanas da amboben, rom isini aqedan iyvnen gaZevebulni~[654]. Tqmuleba Termodontze mosaxle amaZonebis samSoblodan gaZevebis Sesaxeb farTod iyo gavrcelebuli antikur samyaroSi[655]. rogorc zemoT aRvniSnavdiT, Termodontis mxare iTvleboda agreTve levkosirebisa da xalibebis miwad, xolo mTebis (janikis qedi) gadaRma unda yofiliyo mosxebis sacxovrisi.

 

eTnonim `amaZonSi~, savaraudoa, rom gamoiyofa maZ- fuZe, xolo on- sufiqsis arseboba damaxasiaTebelia Wanuri da berZnuli enebisaTvis[656]. eTnonim `haliZonSi~ Semavali on- sufiqsis eTnonimTa mawarmoebel sufiqsad miCnevis SesaZleblobas iZleva Tundac homerosis mier satomo saxelis _ `haliZonis~ dapirispireba qveynis saxelwodeba `alibesTan~: `haliZonebs odiosi da apostroposi mouZRodnen Soreul alibedan...~[657]. sayuradReboa, rom haliZonebis (=haliZebis?) qveyanas, igive `alibes~, md. halisis auzSi aTavseben, rogorc Cans, am hidronimTan maTi saxelwodebis msgavsebis gamo[658]. amave sakiTxTan dakavSirebiT, vfiqrobT, mxedvelobaSia misaRebi xeTebis mefis mursilis II-is (Zv. w. 1345-1315 ww.) analebSi moxseniebulni azi-xaiasas qveynis, zRvis piras mdebare qalaqi _ Aripsa (aigiveben q. kerasuntTan, Tanamedrove giresuni)[659], romlis saxelwodebaSic sa- sufiqsi gamoiyofa[660]; gasaTvaliswinebeli Cans xeTuri wyaroebis alisas qveyanac, romelic sakulto qalaq arinnas maxloblad da durmiTis qveynisa da qalaq haqfiss || hakmiss (q. amasia) Soris mdebareobda /81/ centraluri anatoliis CrdiloeT nawilSi[661]; ar aris gamoricxuli, rom toponimebi Alisa da Hakmis || Hakpis (Hagmis, Haggamis, Ha-ag-mi) qalaqebis amisosisa da amasiis saxelwodebebisa[662] da eTnonim `amaZonis~ winamorbedebs warmoadgendnen; albaT mxedvelobaSi misaRebia is garemoebac, rom q. amasiis maxloblad Zv. w. I aTaswleulis Sua xanebSi unda ecxovraT mosxebs, romelTa saxelwodebis arqetips, rogorc iTqva, mas-i warmoadgenda, sakmaod axlo mdgomi amaZonTa saxelwodebis savaraudo fuZesTan maZ, rac Tavis mxriv, Zalauneburad wamoWris sakiTxs, xom ar unda igulisxmebodnen miTiur amaZonebSi realurad arsebuli mosxebi? iqneb maTi da agreTve mosinikebis saxelwodebaTa garegnulma msgavsebam amaZonebis saxelTan gamoiwvia am legendaruli tomis samxreT SavizRvispireTSi lokalizeba?[663]

 

rac Seexeba eTnonim `amaZonSi~ a- prefiqsis gamoyofis SesaZleblobas, gasaTvaliswinebelia analogiuri movlenebi, damaxasiaTebeli aRmosavleTanatoliuri da kavkasiuri geografiuli saxelwodebebisaTvis. Sdr., mag., hidronimebi, md. kintriSis Zveli saxelwodebebi `akinase~ (Άκινάσηϛ)[664] da `kinasi~ (Κίνασοϛ)[665], md. Woroxisa _ `afsarosi~ (Άψαροϛ)[666] da `fsarosi~ (ψάροϛ)[667]; agreTve qarTul wyaroebSi dadasturebuli md. araqsis (arezi) saxelwodeba _ `rasi~[668]. yuradRebas imsaxurebs asurul warwerebSi muSqebTan erTad Zv. w. XII s. aRmosavleT anatoliaSi SeWrili qasqas (qaSqebis) tomis saxelwodebis sinonimad gamoyenebuli eTnonimi `abeSla~[669] (iqneb Tavad dakavSirebuli eTnonim `amaZonTan~), romelic, i. diakonovis azriT, qsenofontis `anabasisSi~ fasianebis (Φασιανοί)[670] saxelwodebiT aris moxseniebulni. Tumca ki fasianebSi upirveles yovlisa md. fasisis piras (aq md. arezis zemo weli) mcxovrebi mosaxleoba unda igulisxmebodes; Sdr. amave terminiT (Φασιανοί) aRniSnuli md. rion-fasisis mosaxleobac[671]. eTnonimebSi `abeSla~ da `fasiani~ erTmaneTTan axlomdgomi beS da fas fuZeebi gamoiyofa, warmodgenili agreTve abazinelebis Cerqezul dasaxelebaSi `basxeR~[672], romelic Tavis mxriv eTnonim `abasks~ unda uaxlovdebodes. termini `abaski~ n. maris azriT, `mosxidan~ iyo miRebuli[673]. msgavsi transformacia, rogorc fonetikuri kanonebiT, aseve werilobiTi wyaroebis /82/ monacemebiT, dasaSvebi Cans; m~b bgeraTmonacvleoba damaxasiaTebelia anatoliuri samyarosTvis[674] da agreTve SeiniSneba qarTul da afxazur-abazur enebs Sorisac, sadac garkveuli kanonzomierebiT aris gamovlenili qarT. m, afxaz-abaz. bB bgeraTSefardeba[675], xolo antikuri da momdevno xanebis wyaroebis SeTanapirebiT STabeWdileba iqmneba, rom afxazeTis teritoriaze, daaxloebiT mermindeli abaskebis miwaze (Άβασκοί)[676], Zv. w. I saukuneSi mosxebi binadrobdnen[677]. amave mxareSi, abaskebis mezoblad lokalizdebian afsilebic (Άψλαι[678], Absilae[679]) romelTac samecniero literaturaSi Cveulebriv asuruli wyaroebis abeSlaelebs ukavSireben[680]. niSandoblivia, miuxedavad imisa, rom abeSlaelebica da afsilebic erTmaneTisagan gansxvavebul qronologiur da sivrcobriv ganzomilebebSi Canan, orive es tomi, rogorc aRmosavleT anatoliaSi, aseve Crdilo-dasavleT kolxeTSi gvxvdeba iq, sadac muSqi-mosxebic[681] arian damowmebuli. yuradRebas ipyrobs basianis olqisa, romelic, rogorc fiqroben, fasianelebis tomis saxels unda atarebdes[682], da mosxuri mTebis mezoblobis faqtic[683].

 

amave dros, TiTqos moipoveba Crdilo-dasavleT kolxeTSi mosaxle mosxebis savsebiT gansxvavebuli warmomavlobis varaudis SesaZleblobac. Straboni, miTridates omebis istorikosebze dayrdnobiT, mosxebs kerketebsa da kolxebs Soris aTavsebda[684], xolo fsevdo-skilaqsis `periplusis~ mixedviT, Crdilo-aRmosavleT SavizRvispireTSi Crdilo-dasavleTidan samxreT-aRmosavleTisaken cxovrobdnen... kerketebi, toretebi, aqaebi, henioxebi, koraqsebi, kolebi, melanqlainebi, gelonebi, kolxebi...[685]. strabonis mosxebica da fsevdo-skilaqsis melanqlainebic Tanamedrove afxazeTis teritoriaze lokalizdebian[686]. aseve Crdilo-aRmosavleT SavizRvispireTSi Tavsdeba pomponius melas `melanqlena~[687] da pliniusisa da anonimuri `periplusis~ melanqlainebi[688]. bevrad ufro Sors CrdiloeTiT isazRvreba melanqlainTa sacxovrisi herodotes[689], dionisios periegetisa[690] /83/ klavdios ptolemaiosis[691] da sxvaTa cnobiT. klavdios ptolemaiosis teqstis sxva fragmentis mixedviT isini CrdiloeT kavkasiaSi cxovrobdnen[692], hekateosi maT skviTebad Tvlis[693], herodotes mixedviT ki, isini miuxedavad imisa, rom skviTuri cxovrebis wess misdeven, skviTebi ar arian[694] sayuradReboa, rom maTi mezoblebi, rogorc azovis zRvis CrdiloeTiT mdebare mxareSi, aseve Crdilo-dasavleT kolxeTSic gelonebi arian[695].

 

Cveni azriT, arsebobs SesaZlebloba fsevdo-skilaqsis melanqlainebisa da strabonis mosxebis gaigivebisa, rasac, garda maTi adgilmdebareobis Tanxvdenisa, unda mowmobdes isic, rom fsevdo-skilaqsTan melanqlainelTa mezoblad dasaxelebuli gelonebis nacvlad, strabons, kerketebis, mosxebisa da kolxebis zemoT (anu mTebSi) mcxovreblebad fTeriofagebi (girCismWamelebi) hyavs dasaxelebuli, xolo, rogorc herodotes `istoriidan~ vgebulobT, elinebis mier gelonebTan gaigivebuli budinebic girCismWamelebad iTvlebodnen[696]. arianes cnobiTac, pitiuntis dasavleTiT Zvelad mcxovrebi girCismWamelTa skviTuri tomi is tomi yofila, romelsac herodote skviTebis qveynis aRwerisas ixseniebda[697]. sayuradReboa, rom fsevdo-skilaqsTan moxseniebuli gelonebis nacvlad anonimur `periplusSi~, melanqlainebisa da kolxebs Soris, maqelonebi arian dasaxelebulni[698]; aqac, iseve rogorc fsevdo-skilaqsis `periplusSi~, erTmaneTis Semdeg arian CamoTvlili: henioxebi, koraqsebi, kolikebi (nacvlad fsevdo-skilaqsis kolebisa), melanqlainebi, maqelonebi (nacvlad gelonebisa) da kolxebi. savaraudoa, rom gelonebis saxels anonimis teqstSi damatebuli aqvs, SesaZloa, qarTvelur enobriv garemoSi SeZenili, eTnonimTa mawarmoebeli m- prefiqsi[699]. amave dros, arc is aris gamosaricxi, rom straboniseul `mosxebs~[700] melanqlainebis saxelwodebis Sesatyvisi qarTveluri forma dasdeboda safuZvlad; mxedvelobaSi gvaqvs is garemoeba, rom hekateosis, herodotes da sxvaTa cnobiT, melanqlainebs Tavisi saxelwodeba SeerqvaT Savi feris tansacmlis tarebis gamo[701], berZnulad _ μέλϛ, μέλαινα, μέλν niSnavs `Savs, muqi ferisas~, xolo svanur enaSi igive mniSvneloba /84/ aqvs sityvas mexe[702]. evstaTi Tesalonikelis mixedviT, zogierT avtors miaCnda, rom melanqlainebisaTvis aseTi saxelis Serqmeva maTi kanis muqma ferma ganapiroba[703]. es cnoba, melanqlainTa kolxeTSi binadrobis gaTvaliswinebiT, SesaZloa ukavSirdebodes herodotesa da Zv. w. VI-V ss. Poetis pindares Sexedulebas kolxTa muqkanianobisa Tu Savgvremanobis Sesaxeb[704]. melanqlainebTan mosxebis gaigivebis sakiTxTan dakavSirebiT, gasaTvaliswinebelia cnoba, romlis mixedviTac mosxebi, CrdiloeTSi mcxovreb tomebTan, sarmatebTan da getebTan erTad arian moxseniebulni, rogorc sisxliani rZis msmeli da jamebis ZarRvebiT Semkobis moyvaruli xalxi[705]; sagulisxmoa, rom vergiliusis mixedviT gelonebic, rodopasa da getebis udabnos Sexiznulebi, cxenis sisxlSi areul rZes svamdnen[706].

 

rac Seexeba sazogadod kavkasiasa da anatoliaSi farTod gavrcelebuli terminis `mosxi || mesxis~ etimologias, amisaTvis upirveles yovlisa, albaT, zanuri (megrul-Wanuri) da qarTuli enebis monacemebi unda iyos gamoyenebuli. rogorc aRvniSnavdiT, jer kidev mecxramete saukuneSi toponim `mcxeTas~ eTnonim `mesxisagan~ nawarmoebad miiCnevdnen[707]; Tumca, am mosazrebas yvela mecnieri ar iziarebda. vfiqrobT, terminebis `mcxeTisa~ da `mesxis~ urTierTkavSiris postulirebiT, rac maTi msgavsebis gamo, dasaSvebi unda iyos, moipoveba imis SesaZlebloba, rom piriqiT, toponim `mcxeTis~ savaraudo mniSvnelobis gaTvaliswinebis saSualebiT SevecadoT eTnonim `mesxis~ etimologiis dadgenas. samecniero literaturaSi gamoTqmulia varaudi, adgilis saxelwodebis _ `mcxeTis~ warmomavlobis Taobaze qarTul-zanuri erTobis xanis `cixis~ aRmniSvneli sityvidan _ *ӡ1ixe[708]. es azri miT ufro damajerebeli Cans, rom antikur xanaSi qalaqi mcxeTa centraluri amierkavkasiis umTavresi fortifikaciuli centri iyo, qveynis oTxive mxaris gzajvaredinis Camketi[709]. leonti mrovelis cnobiT, mcxeTaSi oTxi cixe yofila[710]. aRsaniSnavia, rom qarTvelTa TviTdasaxeleba armazis cixis Zveli saxelwodebidan _ `qarTlisagan~ aris warmomdgari, romelic Tavis mxriv semantikurad `SemozRudul, gamagrebul adgils, cixe-simagres, qalaqs~ aRniSnavda, xolo misi Tavdapirveli mniSvneloba, megruli `oqarTes~ msgavsad, albaT /85/ `moRobili adgili, baki~ unda yofiliyo[711]. yuradRebas ipyobs mcxeTis bebris cixis Zveli saxelwodeba `beltis cixec~[712], romelSic iqneb, cixe-simagris aRmniSvneli arameuli sityva birtȃ[713] iyos Semonaxuli.

 

eTnonim `mosxis~ etimologizaciisas, vfiqrobT, gasaTvaliswinebelia is garemoebac, rom es saxelwodeba Zvel avtorebs xSirad aqvT aRreuli eTnonim `mosinikTan~; `warmomavlobis wignis~ mixedviT, mosinikebi warmoSobilni arian mosoxisagan[714], mosxi || mosoxenebis bibliuri mamamTavrisagan, xolo epifane kviprelis cnobiT, mosinikuri ena warmoqmnila mosoxisagan, bibliuri godolis agebis Semdgom xanaSi[715]. ioseb flaviosis `iudaebriv sityuadasabamobis~ komentarSi, XVII s. mecnieri l. alaciusi SeniSnavda, rom zogierTebis azriT, mesqinebi xalxia, romelTac Zveli avtorebi mosxebsa da mosinikebs uwodebdnen[716]. am ori eTnonimis, `mosxisa~ da `mosinikis~, aRrevas gansakuTrebuli mniSvneloba satomo saxel `mosxis~ etimologizaciisas, CvenTvis, imis gamo eniWeba, rom termini `mosiniki~ (μοσσύνοικοι) berZnulad niSnavs `xis koSkSi mcxovrebs~ da nawarmoebia sityvidan μόσσυν _ `xis koSki~[717]; eTnonim `mosinikis~ msgavs warmomavlobaze jer kidev apolonios rodoseli miuTiTebda[718], xolo qsenofonti iuwyeboda, rom mosinikebis beladi, `mosinSi~ cxovrobda[719]. T. yauxCiSvils saeWvod miaCnia, rom mosinikebis qarTul toms wminda berZnuli etimologiis saxeli hqonoda Serqmeuli; misi azriT, berZnebs maTTvis cnobili sityvisaTvis unda daekavSirebinaT adgilobrivi saxeli, fonetikuri (SeiZleba, SemTxveviTi) msgavsebis safuZvelze[720]. vfiqrobT, Zv. w. I s. avtoris, dionisios halikarnaselis im cnobis gaTvaliswinebiT, rom xis ximinjian koSkisebur nagebobebs TviT mosinikebi uwodebdnen mosinebs[721], yuradRebas unda ipyrobdes eTnonimi `mosxi || mesxi~, romelic, rogorc iTqva, SesaZloa masTan axlo mdgom toponim `mcxeTis~ msgavsad, `cixis~ aRmniSvnel qarTul-zanuri erTobis xanis fuZes *ӡ1ixe-s ukavSirdebodes. sainteresoa, rom satomo saxeli `mosxi~ gvxvdeba termin `mosinikTan~ ufro axlo mdgomi formiTac _ `mosoxeni || mosxeni~[722]; Tumca arc is aris gamoricxuli, rom ν-bgera termin `mosinikSi~ Tu mis winare-formaSi jer kidev am satomo sa/86/xelis berZnul gaazrebamde gaCenuliyo, analogiuri movlena dasturdeba klavdios ptolemaiosis `geografiul saxelmZRvaneloSi~ da stefane bizantionelis `eTnikur leqsikonSi~, sadac zigebi (zixebi) da boxebi, Sesabamisad, `zinxebisa~ da `bonxebis~[723] saxelwodebiT arian moxseniebulni[724].

 

rac Seexeba mosxebisa da mosinikebis gaigivebis SesaZleblobas, amas xels uSlis Tundac is, rom orive es tomi aqvT dasaxelebuli iseT Zvel avtorebs, rogorebic arian hekateos mileteli[725] da herodote[726], meore mxriv, mosxebisa da mosinikebis mWidro urTierTkavSirze SesaZloa mowmobdes is garemoebac, rom Tu adreul xanebSi (Zv. w. I aTaswleulis Sua xanebSi) maTi adgilmdebareoba centraluri anatoliis CrdiloeT nawiliT ganisazRvreboda (ix. zemoT), mogvianebiT, orive es tomi, isev erTmaneTis mezoblobaSi, magram amjerad bevrad ufro aRmosavleTiT mdebare mxareebSi, aRmosavleT anatoliaSi da samxreT-dasavleT amierkavkasiaSi Canan gansaxlebulni; mxedvelobaSi gvaqvs, upirveles yovlisa, strabonis cnobebi, heptakometebis, adre mosinikebad wodebulebis _ skidises mTasa (Σκυδίσηϛ), xolo mosinikebis _ qserqseneSi (Ξερξήνη, igive derWani) binadrobis Sesaxeb[727], agreTve mosxebis qveynisa (Μοσχική) da mosxuri mTebis (Μοσχικά όρε) adgilmdebareobaze[728]. mosinikebisa da mosxebis aRmosavleTanatoliuri adgilsamyofelis dadgenas garkveuli mniSvneloba aniWeba samxreT-dasavleTiT qarTvel tomTa gansaxlebis sakiTxTan dakavSirebiT.

 

iv. javaxiSvilis dakvirvebiT, skidises mTis saxelwodeba berZnulad gadmocemuli `SkvidiSi~ unda iyos, megruli `SkviTis~ (`Svidi~) aRmniSvneli, rasac unda mowmobdes strabonis cnobac, skidises mTis mwvervalebze heptakometebis saxlobis Sesaxeb[729], romelTa saxelwodebac berZnulad `Svidi soflis mcxovreblebsa~ niSnavs[730]. vinaidan, `SvidsoflelTa~ saxeli Tanamedrove epoqamde Semoinaxa q. rizes maxloblad mTebSi mdebare sanjayis arabul saxelSi `kura seba~, rac arabul enaze `Svid sofels~ niSnavs, iv. javaxiSvili SesaZleblad Tvlida masTan gaeigivebina heptakometebis sacxovrisi da miiCnevda, rom rogorc berZnuli, aseve arabuli saxelwodebebi adgilobrivi saxelis Targmani un/87/da yofiliyo, Tumca, aRniSnavda, rom strabonis droisaTvis heptakometebis megrul-Wanuri tomi, anu `Svidsofleli mosinikebi~, xaldi-xalibebs samxreTisaken, mTebSi unda gaerekaT[731]; strabonis cnobiT, somxebma xalibebsa da mosinikebs CamoaWres mcire armeniis mezoblad mdebare mxareebi, Tu sulac misi Semadgeneli nawili, kareniti da qserqsene[732]. p. ingoroyvac `SqviTisis~ mTebad md. Woroxis xeobisa da lazeTis gamyof parxalis mTebis sistemas (Tanamedrove lazistanis qeds) miiCnevs, romelic Woroxis xeobas gasdevs da Woroxis SesarTavidan trapizonis zonamde vrceldeba[733]. misi azriT, garda arabuli toponimis `kura sebas~ aq lokalizebis faqtisa, amasve mowmobs Woroxis xeobis zemo nawilSi qsenofontis mier moxseniebuli tomis, skviTinebis saxelwodebis (Σκυδινοί)[734] gaigivebis SesaZlebloba `SqviTinebTan~, igive `SvidsoflelebTan~ da strabonis cnoba, rom `SvidsoflelTa~ (heptakometTa) erTi nawili iwodeba biwerebad (igulisxmeba biZerebi _ Βύζηρες)[735], romlebic antikuri xanis saistorio wyaroebis mixedviT, parxalis qedis kalTaze saxlobdnen biwes (viwes) xeobidan afsaramde (Tanamedrove sof. sarfi) da romelTa satomo saxelic biwes (viwes) Temis saxelTan aris dakavSirebuli[736].

 

miuxedavad skidises mTisa da eTnonim `skviTinebis~qarTveluri (megruli) enis safuZvelze etimologizaciis damajereblobisa, strabonis monacemebis mixedviT, skidises mTis lazistanis (parxalis) qedTan gaigiveba, vfiqrobT, Zneli unda iyos. strabonis mixedviT, armenias dasavleTidan esazRvrebian tibarenuli xalxebi da agreTve pariadresa da skidises mTebi, gadaWimulni mcire armeniamde da md. Evfratis xeobamde, romelic Tavis mxriv, armenias kapadokiisa da komagenesagan gamohyofda[737]; es mTebi, misi TqmiT, trapezuntisa da farnakiis zemoT mcxovrebi tomebis _ tibaranebis, xaldebis, sanebis (winandeli makronebis) miwebsa da mcire armenias kveTen, amasTanave, skidises kldovani mTa kolxeTs zemoT mdebare mosxur mTebs uerTdeba, xolo pariadri sidenesa da TemiskirasTan mdebare adgilebidan mcire armeniamde vrceldeba da pontos aRmosavleTis kides hqmnis[738]. vinaidan, klavdios ptolemaiosis `geografiuli saxelmZRvanelos~ cnobiT sazRvari kapadokiasa da did armenias Soris, /88/ im adgilidan sadac evfrati yvelaze CrdiloeTiT uxvevs aRmosavleTisaken (e. i. q. baiburTis samxreTiT), mosxuri mTebis xazze gadioda[739], xolo kilxeTi strabonisaTvis, sakuTriv kolxeTis dablobis garda, trapezuntis aRmosavleTiT mdebare mxaremde vrceldeboda[740], savaraudo xdeba, rom skidisesa da pariadris mTebi md. evfratis Crdilo totis _ karasus dasavleTiT da trapezuntis samxreTiT iyvnen gadaWimulni. rac Seexeba lazistanis (parxalis) qeds, safiqrebelia, rom igi kolxeTis mTis saxeliT iyo cnobili. aRsaniSnavia, rom qsenofontis `anabasisis~ mixedviTac TviT trapezunti da mis dasavleTiT mdebare mxarec kolxeTad iwodeboda[741]. strabonis cnobiT, kavkasioni, romelic gars ertymis albanelebsa da iberebs da aRwevs armeniamde, uerTdeba agreTve mosxur da kolxur mTebs, gadaWimulebs e. w. tibaranebamde, xolo tibaranebi, missive monacemebiT, aRmosavleTis mimarTulebiT mcire armeniamde yofilan gavrcelebulni[742].

 

sayuradReboa agreTve, rom apolonios rodoselis `argonavtikis~ sqolionebis mixedviT, poemaSi moxseniebuli amarantuli tomebi, saidanac md. fasisi momdinareobs, kolxeTSia sagulvebeli[743], xolo am mdinareSi rom Woroxi unda igulisxmebodes, mowmobs mis Senakadad likosis, Tanamedrove md. olTus dasaxeleba; es TvalsaCinod Cans apolonios rodoselis sityvebidan, rom mquxare araqss (arezs) daSorebuli likosis wminda talRebi fasisis dinebas uerTdebian da ukve Semdeg orive es mdinare erTad kavkasiis zRvaSi Caedineba[744]. md. Woroxis saTave lazistanis qedis gadaRma (samxreTiT) mdebareobs, albaT aq, da ara md. rionis saTavesTan, unda iyos saZiebeli `argonavtikaSi~ moxseniebuli amarantuli mTebi, saidanac md. fasisi iRebda saTaves[745]. cnoba kolxeTSi amarantuli mTebis arsebobis Sesaxeb, jer kidev Zv. w. V s. meore naxevris avtors kTesios knidels hqonia[746]. iqneb SesaZlebeli iyos toponim `amarantSi~ aRmosavleTanatoliur-dasavleTkavkasiuri a- prefiqsisa da egeosur-anatoliuri nth || nd sufiqsis gamoyofa[747] da misi eTnonim `marTan~[748] dakavSireba, miTumetes, rom, rogorc apolonios rodoselis `argonavtikis~ /89/ sqoliasti da stefane bizantioneli aRniSnavdnen, arsebobda amarantebis tomi[749], romelTa saxelis mixedviTac, fasiss ewodeboda amarantuli fasisi[750]. marebis tomis sacxovrisic, Tu gaviTvaliswinebT, rom isini mosinikebis Semdeg moixsenebian xolme[751], xolo sparsul armiaSi maT da kolxebs saerTo mxedarTmTavari hyoliaT[752], mosinikebsa da kolxebs Soris aris sagulvebeli da ar aris gamoricxuli, rom md. Woroxis zemo welTan Tu mis maxloblad yofiliyo.

 

rac Seexeba apolonios rodoselis mier md. fasisis qvemo welze kirkes velis lokalizebas[753], romlis mdebareobas kolxeTSi Zv. w. IV-III ss. istorikosi timeosic iuwyeboda[754], vfiqrobT, ar aris aucilebeli masTan mxolod md. rionis dablobi gavaigivoT[755]; es toponimi warmoqmnili unda iyos homerosis `odiseaSi~ moxseniebuli heliosis Svilisa da aietesis dis, kunZul aias mflobeli kirkes[756] saxlisa Tu simagris _ kirkeionis saxelis[757] msgavsi JReradobis mqone nebismier kolxur toponimTan mimsgavsebis Sedegad. am mxriv md. rion-fasisis mxareSi yuradRebas ipyrobs ekrektikis[758], kirkeumis, kegritikis[759] da egrisis[760] saxelebi, xolo md. WoroxTan ekeqerielebisa[761]. gasaTvaliswinebelia albaT strabonis cnobac, rom farnakiasTan, trapezuntTan da mcire armeniasTan mcxovrebi tomebis maxloblad binadrobdnen apaitebi, uwindeli kerkitebi[762]. kirkes dablobis md. Woroxis qvemo welTan SesaZlo lokalizebis sakiTxTan dakavSirebiT mniSvnelovan garemoebas warmoadgens Zveli somxuri wyaroebis egri || egeris qveyana, romelzedac mimdinareobda Woroxi, klarjeTs rom gascildeboda da nigalis xeobaSi Sevidoda[763]; savaraudoa, rom es toponimi dRes SemorCenilia md. Woroxis qvemo welis marjvena napirze mdebare sof. erges saxelwodebaSi[764]. N. adoncis azriT saxelwodeba `egeri~, xorxismieri g-s palatalur W-Si Cveuli gadasvliT Semonaxulia termin `aWaraSi~[765].

 

safiqrebelia, rom antikur xanaSi gavrcelebuli cnoba md. fasisis saTavis armeniis mTebSi mdebareobis Sesaxeb, amarantul mTebTan kontaminaciiT unda iyos miRebuli, /90/ rasac garkveuli periodis politikuri viTareba, md. Woroxis saTavis armeniis farglebSi moqcevac Seuwyobda xels. es cvlileba gansakuTrebiT kargad SeimCneva dionisios periegetis `msoflios aRwerilobaSi~, sadac, iseve rogorc apolonios rodoselis `argonavtikaSi~, md. fasisis Sesaxeb naTqvamia, rom igi kirks dablobze miedineba da evqsinis wylebs uerTdeba (`argonavtikis~ cnobiT _ kavkasiis zRvas), oRond misi saTave, gansxvavebiT apolonios rodoselis poemis _ `amarantuli mTebisa~, armeniis mTebSia moTavsebuli[766]. dionisiosTan rom md. Woroxzea saubari da ara md. rionze, mowmobs is garemoeba, rom md. fasisis Crdilo-aRmosavleTiT naxsenebia kaspiisa da evqsinis zRvebs Sois mdebare yeli, romelzedac iberTa aRmosavluri tomi cxovrobs[767]. niSandoblivia, rom Zv. w. III s. meore naxevris avtoris eratosTenes teqstis fragmentSi, romelic `argonavtikis~ sqoliasts Semounaxavs, da romelSic pirvelad gvxvdeba md. fasisis saTaved armeniis dasaxeleba, xazgasmulia, rom armeniidan momdinare fasisi zRvas kolxeTis miwaze uerTdeba[768], e. i. ukve eratosTenesaTvis armenia kolxeTTan yofila dapirispirebuli, rogorc md. fasisis saTavis mxare, nacvlad sxva avtorTa kolxeTSi mdebare amarantuli mTebisa. oRond es cvlileba, rogorc ukve iTqva, Tavdapirvelad ara imdenad im epoqis realuri viTarebis amsaxveli iqneboda (vinaidan qarTvelur tomebs es teritoria da misi samxreTidan mimdebare mxareebi arauadres Zv. w. II s. damdegisa unda daekargaT)[769], ramdenadac igi `amarantul mTebTan~ kontaminaciis Sedegad iyo aRmocenebuli. arsebuli mdgomareobis gamomxatvelad arc strabonis is cnoba aris CasaTvleli, romlis mixedviTac md. rion-fasisi (am SemTxvevaSi fasisis rionTan gaigivebis SesaZlebloba eWvs ar iwvevs) saTaves armeniaSi iRebs[770], Tumca, igi sxva adgilze amave mdinaris saTaves marTebulad gansazRvravs iberiis zemoT mdebare mTebiT[771].

 

Sexeduleba md. Worox-fasisis saTavis armeniaSi mdebareobis Sesaxeb, strabonis `geografiis~ teqstSi meqanikurad rom aris gadatanili md. rion-fasisze, vfiqrobT, naTeli xdeba pliniusis im cnobis gaTvaliswinebis Sedegad, romlis mixedviTac fasisi (aqac ueWvelad rioni igulisxmeba) mosxTa qveynidan momdinareobda[772], e. i. iqidan, sadac /91/ md. Woroxs aqvs saTave; sakuTriv Woroxi pliniusisaTvis absaris saxeliT aris cnobili[773]. strabonisa da pliniusis teqstebSi md. rion-fasisis saTavis adgilmdebareobis gansazRvrisas daSvebuli aRrevis erTmaneTTan dakavSirebis SesaZlebloba miT ufro sarwmuno Cans, rom pliniusTan mocemuli md. rion-fasisis aRweriloba sakmaod uaxlovdeba straboniseuls[774]da es albaT orive avtoris mier erTidaimave wyaros gamoyenebiT unda aixsnas[775]. pliniusisagan gansxvavebiT, straboni md. Woroxsac fasiss uwodebs, xolo es mdinare armeniaSi moqceulad mxolod nawilobriv, misi zemo dinebis gaTvaliswinebiT SeiZleba CaiTvalos, iseve, rogorc masTan erTad armeniaSi Semavalad miCneuli md. likosi[776]; md. likosSi, rom md. ieSil-irmakis Senakadi md. kelkiTi unda igulisxmebodes, da ara md. Woroxis Senakadi md. olTu, miuTiTebs strabonis cnoba, imis Taobaze, rom erastosTenes es mdinare SecdomiT TermodontTan hqonia gaigivebuli[777] da agreTve sakuTriv misi informacia, q. amasiis Crdilo-aRmosavleTiT, fanareaSi, armeniidan gamomdinare md. likosis SeerTebis Sesaxeb md. irisTan, romelic Semdeg Temiskiraze mimdinare, pontoSi Caedineba[778]. md. Woroxis armeniis farglebSi mdebareobis SesaZleblobas ewinaaRmdegeba klavdios ptolemaiosis cnobac, rom md. afsarosi (Woroxi) saTavidan SesarTavamde kapadokiis pontos teritoriaze miedineboda, iqve hqonia saTave, amave mdinaris Senakads likossac[779].

 

parxalis (lazistanis) mTebis skidisesTan gaigiveba garkveulad efuZneba qsenofontis cnobas, rom harpasosis (Άρπασος) miRwevis Semdeg skviTinebis qveyanaSi moxvedrilma berZnebma maT teritoriaze did da mdidar qalaq gvimniasamde 40 farsangi gaiares[780]; harpasosi md. Woroxis Zveli saxelia[781], xolo gvimniasi, mkvlevarTa azriT, Tanamedrove qalaq baiburTis dasavleTiT mdebareobda[782]. magram Tu mxedvelobaSi miviRebT im garemoebas, rom berZenma moqiravneebma md. harpasosTan misvlis Semdeg, vidre skviTinebis soflebs miaRwevdnen, 20 farsangi gaiares skviTinebis qveynis vakeze[783], naTeli gaxdeba, rom aq nagulisxevi ar unda iyos md. Woroxis Sua dinebis marcxena, mTagoriani da xevebiT daserili napiri, rome/92/lic lazistanis qedis samxreT kalTebze mdebareobda. marTalia, qsenofonti mxolod md. harpasosTan misvlas iuwyeboda da ara masz gadasvlas[784], magram analogiuri formulireba `anabasisSi~ gvxvdeba im mdinareTa mimarTac, romelTa gadalaxva berZenTa mier eWvs ar iwvevs[785]. ufro damafiqrebelia is garemoeba, rom qsenofonti arafers ambobs aRniSnul mdinareze gadasvlis procesis Sesaxeb, maSin, rodesac harpasosis sigane 4 pleTroni, anu, daaxl. 120 m yofila[786], xolo `anabasisSi~ bevrad ufro mcire mdinareTa gadalaxvis procesi aris xolme aRwerili[787]. savaraudoa, rom md. harpasosi adidebuli da napirebidan gadmosuli iyo Tovlis dnobis Sedegad, romlis didi raodenobiT mosvlas qsenofonti jer kidev dasavleT armeniaSi yofnisas iuwyeboda[788] da amdenad, SesaZloa masSi Woroxis zemo dineba yofiliyo nagulisxmevi. arc is aris gamoricxuli, rom harpasosis saxeliT qsenofontisaTvis cnobili yofiliyo ara md. Woroxi, aramed misi erT-erTi Senakadi, magaliTad, md. olTu, anda, romelime sxva mdinare, Tundac, karasu an serCami; aRsaniSnavia, rom qsenofonts xSirad arasworad aqvs moyvanili aRmosavleT anatoliis mdinareTa saxelebi[789], gasaTvaliswinebelia isic, rom berZenTa msvleloba taoxebis qveynidan xalibebis qveyanaSi da Semdeg skviTinebTan[790], am tomebis ara samxreTidan CrdiloeTisaken ganfenis maniSnebeli unda iyos, aramed ufro aRmosavleTidan dasavleTisaken maTi gansaxlebis Tanamimdevrobisa. Amave dros, berZeni moqirave jariskacebis marSrutis Sors, aRmosavleTisaken gadawevas, ris SesaZleblobas TiTqos iZleva gzis ganvlili manZilebis qsenofontiseuli aRnusxva[791], xels unda uSlides maTi dasavleT armeniaSi moxvedris faqti[792]; TavisTavadac, qsenofontis mier farsangebis mixedviT gazomili manZilis gadaangariSebiT aRmosavleT anatoliaSi berZenTa mier gavlili gzis dadgenis did sirTules mowmobs sparsuli zomis erTeulis _ farsangis sididis cvalebadoba, romelic damokidebulia gzaSi daxarjul droze[793]. aRmosavleT anatoliaSi qsenofontis mier farsangSi navaraudevi manZili mniSvnelovnad mcire un/93/da yofiliyo Cveulebrivze (1 farsangi _ daaxl. 5,5 km), Zalze rTuli reliefisa da Tovlis gamo.

 

skviTinebis qveynis adgilmdebareobis gansazRvris SesaZleblobas, upirveles yovlisa, unda iZleodes maTi, rogorc Cans, umniSvnelovanesimda qveynis SuagulSi moTavsebuli qalaqis, gvimniasis mdebareoba q. trapezuntis samxreTiT ganlagebuli mTebis gadaRma 5 dRis saval manZilze[794] da, rogorc fiqroben, Tanamedrove qalaq baiburTis dasavleTiT. skviTinebis qveynis SuagulSi q. gvimniasis mdebareobas mowmobs isic, rom berZenTa msvlelobis gzaze, rogorc am qalaqis miRwevamde, agreTve, misi gavlis Semdegac, skviTinebis teritoria sakmaod did farTobze iyo gadaWimuli[795]. sayuradReboa, rom qsenofontis cnobas, CrdiloeTis mimarTulebiT skviTinebis teritoriis makronebis samflobelomde gavrcelebis Taobaze[796], exmianeba strabonis cnoba, rom trapezuntisa da farnakiis zemoT mcxovreb sanebisa, romelTac uwin makronebi ewodebodaT (xazi Cvenia _ g. q.) da sxva aqaur tomebis qveynebs, kveTda, pariadrTan erTad, skidises mTa[797]. s. janaSia skidised im mTebs miiCnevda, romlebic giresun-kerasuntisa da trabzon-trapezuntis xazze gasdevdnen Savi zRvis sanapiros[798]. msgavsi Sexeduleba garkveulad gamomdinareobda mosxuri mTebis lokalizaciidan trapezunt-baiburTis xazidan Woroxis qvemo welamde[799], anu, lazistanis qedTan maTi gaigivebidan; magram, mosxuri mTebis Worox-arezisa da Worox-mtkvris wyalgamyof mTebad miCnevam (ix. qvemoT) saWiro gaxada skidises mTis, romelic strabonis sityvebiT, mosxur mTebs kolxeTis zemoT uerTdeboda[800], adgilmdebareobis gansazRvra mosxur mTebTan da amave dros, rogorc zemoT ukve aRvniSneT, mcire armeniisa da md. evfratis xeobis maxloblad[801]. klavdios ptolemaiosis cnobiT, mosxuri mTebi mdebareobdnen md. evfratis (karasu) CrdiloeTiT, im adgilas, sadac es mdinare yvelaze CrdiloeTiT uxvevs aRmosavleTisaken[802], anu q, baiburTis samxreTiT[803]. savaraudo xdeba, rom skidises mTa uSualod mosxuri mTebis dasavleTiT mdebareobda da mas, Woroxisa da evfratis (karasu) wyalgamyof, Tanamedrove kopis qeds romeliRac nawilSi esazRvreboda.

 

mdi/94/nareebis Woroxisa da karasus zemo welis maxloblad skidises mTis mdebareobasa da heptakometebis tomis binadrobas mowmobs strabonis ori sxva cnobis erTmaneTTan Sejerebac. Straboni, erTi mxriv aRniSnavs, rom skidises mTis mwvervalebze mcxovreb heptakometebs Zvelebi mosinikebs uwodebdnen[804], xolo meore mxriv, iuwyeba, rom armenebma xalibebsa da mosinikebs CamoaWres mcire armeniis mezoblad mdebare, Tu sulac masSi Semavali kareniti da qserqsene[805]. es provinciebi md. Woroxis zemo wels, md. karasus zemo welsa da mcire armenias Soris mdebareobdnen[806]; pliniusis cnobiT, karenitidan gamomdinare evfrati (karasu) derzeneze (igive qserqsene) miedineboda[807]. heptakometebisa da maTTan erTad skidises mTis daSorebis saSualebas am regionidan arc strabonis informacia unda iZleodes, romlis mixedviTac, heptakometebma, maT mTebSi gamavali pompeusis jaris sami razmi (gabruebuli momwamvleli Taflis zemoqmedebiT) amoxoces[808]; aseTi daskvnis gamotanis saSualebas gvaZlevs, kerZod, plutarqes cnoba, rom md. karasus dasavleT napirze qalaq dasteirasTan miTridate evpatorTan momxdari brZolis Semdeg pompeusi Tavisi jariT md. arezisaken wasula[809], es ki savaraudos xdis, rom gzad mas swored qserqseneze (derWanze) unda gaevlo. ramdenadme moulodnelia CvenTvis strabonis mier gamoTqmuli SeniSvna, rom zogierTi im barbarosTagan (igulisxmeba heptakometebi) iwodeboda agreTve biZerebad[810]; es garemoeba, SesaZloa metyvelebdes skidises lazistanis qedTan gaigivebis sasargeblod, magram vinaidan, g. meliqiSvilis azriT, biZerebis calkeul tomebs, garda maTi gansaxlebis ZiriTadi mxaris _ Woroxis SesarTavis midamoebisa, skidises mTian raionSic unda SeeRwiaT[811], vfiqrobT, dasaSvebi unda iyos biZerebis SeRwevis varaudi ufro samxreTiT mdebare qserqseneSi, da amasTanave maTi saxelwodebis kontaminaciac termin qserqsene || derqsene, somxur derWanTan, imis gaTvaliswinebiT, rom somxuri W (ճ) berZnulSi Z-d (ζ) gadmoicema[812], xolo biZerebi hekateos miletelTan diZerebis (Δίζηες) saxelwodebiT arian moxseniebulni[813].

 

aRmosavleT anatoliaSi qarTveluri tomebis gavrcelebis sakiTxTan dakavSirebiT mniSvneloba eniWeba xolme strabo/95/nis cnobas, artaqsiisa da zariadris droindeli armeniis (Zv. w. II s. pirveli naxevari) mier iberTagan, gogarenasTan erTad, pariadris mTiswineTisa da xorZenes warTmevis Taobaze[814]. gamoTqmuli iyo gansxvavebuli Sexedulebebi. samecniero literaturaSi gansakuTrebiT aRiarebulia i. markvartis, h. hiubSmanis, n. adoncis da sxv. mosazreba straboniseuli `xorZenes~ (Χορζηνή) hipoTeturi `xolarZenesagan~ (Χολαρηνή) Sekvecis Sedegad miRebisa da md. Woroxis qvemo dinebis auzSi mdebare qarTuli provincia _ klarjeTTan (somxurad _ կղարջք) misi gaigivebis SesaZleblobis Sesaxeb[815]. es mosazreba, ZiriTadad, emyareboda klavdios ptolemaiosis cnobiT armeniaSi Semavali mxaris _ katarZenes (Καταρζηνή) saxelwodebis[816] h. kipertis mier kalarZened (Καλαρζηνή) anu klarjeTad aseve TviTnebur Sesworebas[817], rac TviT am avtorebis mierac iyo gaziarebuli[818]. Sexeduleba xorZene-katarZenesa da klarjeTis igiveobis Sesaxeb, ufro mogvianebiT, zogierTi mecnierisaTvis imdenad damajerebeli gamodga, rom maTTvis es sakiTxi sabolood garveulad iyo miCneuli, kerZod, k. Tumanovma Tavis Tavs ufleba misca, Zveli qarTuli matianeebis `klarjeTi~ Tavisi naSromis inglisur teqstSi `xolarZened~ (Cholarzene) eTargmna[819]. termin `xorZenes~ `xolarZened~ Sesworebis usafuZvlobas, Tundac is faqti unda mowmobdes, rom strabonis `geografiis~ yvela xelnawerSi gvxvdeba forma `xorZene~, xolo `xolarZene~ arc erTxel ar aris dadasturebuli, iseve, rogorc arc klavdios ptolemaiosis `geografiuli saxelmZRvanelos~ arcerT xelnawerSi ar ikiTxeba forma `kolarZene~[820]. gasaTvaliswinebelia isic, rom `xorZene~ strabonis teqstSi orjer gvxvdeba da orivejer erTnairi dawerilobiT[821]. am toponimis klarjeTTan dakavSirebisas ZiriTad arguments warmoadgens strabonis SeniSvna, rom `xorZene da kambisena, armeniis mxareTagan yvelaze ufro CrdiloeTiT mdebareni da yvelaze ufro uxvTovlianebi, esazRvrebian kavkasionis mTebs, iberiasa da kolxeTs~[822]. magram Tu gaviTvaliswinebT md. alaznis marjvena (samxreT) napirze mdebare kambisenes (qarTuli _ kambeCovani, igive qiziyi) sakmao manZiliT daSorebis faqts kavkasionis mTavari qedidan[823], naTeli gaxdeba, rom strabonis teqstSi saubaria mxolod am mxareebis miaxloebiT adgilmdebareobaze. mxed/96/velobaSia misaRebi strabonis is sityvebic, rom sam nawilad gayofili `mosxebis qveynis~ erTi nawili kolxebis mflobelobaSi iyo, meore _ iberielebis, xolo mesame _ armenielebis[824]; safiqrebelia, rom upirveles yovlisa, swored `mosxebis qveynis~ Crdilo-dasavleT nawilSi mdebare klarjeTi SeiZleba yofiliyo nagulisxmevi am qveynis kolxur da ara armenul nawilSi[825].

 

amave dros, iberiisa da kolxeTis maxloblad straboniseuli `xorZenes~ mdebareoba saSualebas ar iZleva igi amave saxelwodebis mqone dasavleT armeniis kantonTan (Խործեն, Χορζανή, Χορζιανηνή, Κορτζηνή) gavaigivoT, romelic haStianqis olqis CrdiloeTiT, md. aRmosavleT evfratis (murati) Senakadis gail-getis (Tanamedrove md. kelxasi) Sua welTan mdebareobda, qalaqebis kolaberdisa da artalesis seqtorSi[826], anu xalibebisa da mosinikebisagan armenielebis mier miTvisebul karenitsa da qserqseneze ufro samxreTiT, rac, cxadia, gamoricxavs iberTagan misi CamoWris SesaZleblobas. k. Tumanovis dakvirvebiT, aRniSnuli mxaris saxelwodeba werilobiT wyaroebSi ax. w. V-VI ss. adre ar gvxvdeba da, amitom, igi fiqrobs, rom strabonis teqstSi analogiuri saxelwodebis gamoCena, Tu SemTxveviT damTxvevas ara aqvs adgili, gadamweris mier xolarZenesTan misi aRreviT unda gamoCeniliyo[827], Tumca, arc imas gamoricxavs, rom am toponims zegavlena TviT strabonze moexdina, Tuki igi ukve arsebobda mis xanaSi[828].

 

rogorc irkveva, jer kidev ax. w. III-IV ss., `Sesaqmis wignis~ damuSavebisadmi miZRvnil TxzulebebSi gvxvdeba msgavsi JReradobis mqone eTnonimebi: korzeini[829], korzini[830], korZenoi (Κόρζηνοι)[831]. am saxelwodebis matarebeli tomis binadrobis adgili ar aris garkveuli da, vinaidan es tomi kolebisa (Κολλοι) Tu xolebis (Cholli) Semdeg moixseneba xolme, SeiZleba gvefiqra, rom maTSi Crdilo-aRmosavleT SavizRvispireTSi, afxazeTSi mosaxle koraqsebi (Κόραξοι) da kolebi (Κλοι) unda igulixmebodnen[832], magram Tu gaviTvaliswinebT kolis Zveli qarTuli provinciis arsebobas[833], saidanac md. mtkvari gamoedineba[834] da SevuTanapirebT am faqts pliniusis cnobas, md. mtkvris saTave/97/ebis henioxur mTebSi mdebareobis Sesaxeb, romelTac, misive sityvebiT, sxvebi koraqsuls uwodeben[835] da romelTac kolis mTebad miiCneven[836], dauSvebeli aRar unda Candes aRniSnuli eTnonimebis md. mtkvris saTaveebis axlomdebare mxareebTan dakavSirebis SesaZlebloba. yuradRebas ipyrobs is garemoebac, rom koli || xolebi da korzein || korZenebi _ medebis (midielebis), albanelebis, garganebis (=gargarebis?), areebis Tu ereebis (=herebis?), armenielebisa da amaZonebis (=mosxebis?) SEmdeg da bene(a)ginebis Tu denagebis, kapadokielebis, galaTebis, paflagonielebis, mariandinebis, tibarensebis, tabarinebis (tibarenebis), xalibebisa Tu xalirebis da mosinikebis win arian dasaxelebuli[837], anu aRmosavleT da centraluramierkavkasiul da Crdiloanatoliur tomebs Soris, rac kargad esadageba samxreT saqarTveloSi maTi lokalizebis varauds. aRsaniSnavia, rom mosinikebis Semdeg moxseniebuli arian xolme ufro CrdiloeTiT, rogorc Cans, Savi zRvis aRmosavleT, CrdiloeT da dasavleT sanapiroebis gayolebiT mosaxle tomebi: kolxebi, melankenebi Tu melasxenebi (melanqlainebi), sarmatebi, meoTebi, skviTebi, tavrebi Tu tavrinebi, Trakielebi, bastarnebi, ilurebi da sxv.[838] vinaidan am TxzulebebSi mocemuli tomebisa da qveynebis amsaxveli siebi ramdenadme mainc icaven geografiul perspeqtivas, safiqrebeli xdeba maTSi Crdilo-aRmosavleT SavizRvispireTSi mosaxle kolebi da koraqsebi rom yofiliyvnen nagulisxmevi, isini kolxebisa da melanqlainebis Semdeg iqnebodnen dasaxelebulni[839].

 

mniSvnelovan garemoebad termin `koraqsisa~ Tu `koraZenis~ md. mtkvris saTavis mxaresTan dakavSirebisaTvis unda CaiTvalos klavdios ptolemaiosis `geografiuli saxelmZRvanelos~ erT-erT xelnawerSi toponim `koraZenes~ (Κοραζηνή) arseboba, romelic ZiriTadi teqstis `katarZenes~ (Καταρζηνή) enacvleba[840]. toponimi `koraZene~, iseve, rogorc straboniseuli `xorZene~, iqneb TviT strabonis mier Semonaxul md. mtkvris (Κρος) Zveli saxelwodebidan _ romelic mis dros ukve aRar ixmareboda _ korosidan (Κόρος)[841] iyos nawarmoebi. am hidronomidan miRebuli forma /98/ `korosuli~, savaraudod md. mtkvris saTaveebTan mdebare mTebis aRmniSvneli, iolad gadaiqceoda pliniusis teqstSi `koraqsulad~[842], Crdilo-aRmosavleT SavizRvispireTeli koraqsebisa da maTsave qveynis `koraqsis mTis~ (Κόραξ ρος)[843] saxelwodebebTan kontaminaciis Sedegad. Savaraudoa isic, rom pliniusi skidises mTas `skviTur mTas~ unda uwodebdes[844]. Tu es varaudi sworia, miT ufro sarwmuno unda iyos, iqve pliniusis teqstSi, amave mTasTan da anatoliur da mcire kavkasionis Semadgenel mTebTan erTad moxseniebuli `koraqsuli mTebis~[845] md. mtkvris saTavesTan mdebare analogiuri saxelwodebis mTebTan gaigiveba[846], rac, Tavis mxriv, pomponius melas mier msgavs konteqstSi dasaxelebuli `koraqsuli mTebis~[847] samxreT kavkasiaSi lokalizebis SesaZleblobas unda iZleodes, miTumetes, rom misive ganmartebiT, md. mtkvari (Cyrus), md. kambisTan erTad, koraqsuli mTebis ZirTan iRebs saTaves[848]. sakuTriv koraqsikebis (Coraxici) toms pomponius mela maTTvis (koraqsebisaTvis) `tradiciul~ Crdilo-aRmosavleT SavizRvispireTSi aTavsebs[849], es ~Seusabamoba~ mis mier gansxvavebuli warmomavlobis mqone wyaroebis gamoyenebiT unda aixsnas.

 

md. mtkvris saTavis mxareSi korZene || xorZenes Ziebis siswores, SesaZloa, mowmobdes agreTve, strabonis cnoba, rom pontosa da kolxeTs iqiT gadasaxlebuli iberebis adgilebsa da armenias Soris sazRvari, apolodores mier md. mtkvarze gadebuli, sinamdvileSi md. mtkvarsa da mosxur mTebze gadadioda[850]; radgan mocemul konteqstSi md. araqsis (arezis) zemo welsa da md. mtkvrisagan mis wyalgamyof mosxur mTebzea (ix. qvemoT) saubari, naTeli xdeba, rom `mtkvarSi~ (Κρος) am mdinaris zemo weli unda igulisxmebodes. amasve unda mowmobdes is faqtic, rom straboni armeniaSi saTavis mqone md. mtkvris mxolod iberiisa da albaneTis teritoriaze mimdinareobas iuwyeba[851]. Tu Cven davuSvebdiT, rom Zv. w. II s. SuaxanebSi moRvawe apolodores cnoba, iberTa samflobeloebsa da armenias Soris sazRvris md. araqsze (arezi) mdebareobis Sesaxeb[852], artaqsiisa (artaSes I) da zariadris (zarehis) droindeli armeniis mier iberTagan miwebis miTvisebis[853] wina xanis, anu /99/ Zv. w. II s. pirvel naxevarze ufro adreuli mdgomareobis[854] amsaxvelia, maSin SesaZlebloba mogvecemoda gvefiqra, rom swored artaqsiisa da zariadris dros warTmeuli miwebis, kerZod ki, md. mtkvris saTavis mxareSi savaraudod mdebare iberuli provinciis _ `xorZenes~ xarjze unda momxdariyo armeniis teritoriis md. mtkvramde gavrceleba. Tavis mxriv, md. mtkvris iberiisa da armeniis mijnad miCneva, xorZenes adgilmdebareobas am mdinaris zemo welis samxreTiT unda gansazRvravdes[855]. xorZenesaTvis damaxasiaTebeli mkacryinvebiani zamTaric, romlis drosac strabonis sityvebiT: `mTebis uReltexilze mTeli mgzavrebi TovlSi igudebian, radganac didZali Tovli (Tu didi qarbuqi) icis xolme... Tovlis grovebi iyinebian da SigniT rogorc qitonSi, ise inaxaven karg wyals~[856], TiTqos ufro kola-artaanisa day yarsis mxareebisaTvis damaxasiaTebel zamTars emsgavseba _ didZali TovliT, qarbuqebiT da mdinareebisa da tbebis gayinuli zedapiriT gamorCeuls, vidre klarjeTis, marTalia uxvTovlian, magram Tbil zamTars[857].

 

xorZenes md. mtkvris saTavis mxareSi an mis maxloblad lokalizaciisaTvis garkveul mniSvnelobas iZens masTan gaigivebuli armeniis provinciis _ katarZenes adgilmdebareobis garkveva. klavdios ptolemaiosis cnobiT: `mdinareebs evfrats, kirossa (mtkvari) da araqss (arezi) Soris mdebare armeniis nawilSi Semdegi olqebia: mosxur mTebTan _ katarZene (varianti: koraqsene), e. w. boxebis zeviT~[858]. p. ingoroyvas SeniSvniT, vinaidan, klavdios ptolemaiosis teqstSi saubaria evfrats, mtkvarsa da araqss (arezi) Soris moTavsebul armeniis provinciebze da ara md. Woroxis xeobaSi mdebare mxareze, unda gamoiricxos ptolemaiosiseul `katarZeneSi~ klarjeTis danaxvis SesaZlebloba[859], rac, rogorc zemoT iTqva, h. kipertisa da sxvaTa naSromebSi iyo navaraudevi. `katarZenes~ adgilmdebareobis dadgenisaTvis klavdios ptolemaiosi kidev or ganmsazRvrels asaxelebs _ mosxur mTebsa da boxebis tomis sacxovriss. mosxuri mTebi, istoriul wyaroTa monacemebis mixedviT, mdinareebis Woroxis, mtkvris, arezisa da evfratis wyalgamyof mTaTa sistemas warmoadgenda[860], xolo boxebisa Tu bonxebis karenituli tomis teritoria, romelsac Cveulebriv taos samxreTiT aTavseben xolme[861], stefane bizantionelis `eTnikur leqsikonSi~ Semonaxuli roma/100/eli istorikosis asinius kvadratosis (ax. w. II-III ss.) cnobis mixedviT, evfratsa da mtkvars Soris mdebareobda (Steph. Byz., s. v. Βόνχαι).[862] amgvarad, klavdios ptolemaiosisa da asinius kvadratosis cnobebis SeTanapirebidan naTeli xdeba, rom `katarZene~ mdebareobda evfratis, mtkvrisa da arezis wyalgamyof mosxur mTebTan da evfratsa da mtkvars Soris mcxovrebi boxebisa da bonxebis zeviT. vinaidan klavdios ptolemaiosi katarZenes adgilmdebareobis gansazRvrisas md. Woroxs ar moixseniebs, safiqrebelia, rom es olqi md. mtkvris dasavleTiT ki ar unda yofiliyo, aramed samxreTiT; agreTve, imis gamo, rom md. evfratis (karasu) CrdiloeTiT ganlagebuli kareniti boxebs ekavaT, iseve, rogorc amave mdinaris saTaveebis aRmosavleTiT mdebare miwebi[863], katarZene md. mtkvris samxreTiT ufro unda ivaraudebodes. katarZenes lokalizaciisaTvis mniSvnelovan garemoebad p. ingoroyva urartul epigrafikul ZeglebSi moxseniebul Katarza-s mxares miiCnevda, da, rogorc Cans, katarZenesTan erTad am ukanasknelsac md. aRmosavleT evfratis (murati) xeobaSi mdebare punqt kiTariZTan akavSirebda[864]; magram, kiTariZis _ md. muratis xeobaSi, aSTianqis olqSi mdebareobam[865] da agreTve urartuli werilobiTi wyaroebis qaTarzasaTvis miRebulma lokalizaciam _ daaxloebiT Tanamedrove somxuri qalaqis kiumris mxareSi[866], gamoricxa maTi erTmaneTTan dakavSirebis SesaZlebloba da, amave dros, ufro sarwmuno gaxada urartul qaTarzasTan katarZenes kavSiri, romelic, rogorc ukve iTqva, md. mtkvris samxreTiT unda yofiliyo. g. meliqiSvilic iziarebs Sexedulebas, rom urartuli `qaTarza~ ptolemaiosiseuli `katarZenes~ saxelwodebiT iCens Tavs da aaxloebs mas samcxisa da aWaris SemaerTebeli goderZis uReltexilis saxelTan[867] da strabonis `xorZenesTan~; amave dros, misi azriT, dasaSvebi unda iyos aRniSnul toponimebTan klarjebis didi eTnikuri jgufis saxelwodebis dakavSireba, vinaidan qarTuli istoriuli wyaroebi ar icnoben msgavsi saxelwodebis mqone sxva tomebs am raionSi[868].

 

garda yovelive zemoTqmulisa, rac, vfiqrobT, unda gamoricxavdes qaTarzasa da katarZene || xorZenes klarjeTTan gaigivebis SesaZleblobas, amave sakiTxTan dakavSirebiT yuradRebas ipyrobs `moqceva qarTlisas~ teqstSi gamoyenebuli termini `kedari~: `pirvel, odes aleqsandre mefeman naTesav/101/ni igi loTis SvilTani wariqcina da Seadna igini kedarsa mas queyanasa, ixilna naTesavni sastikni bun-Turqni, msxdomareni mdinaresa zeda mtkuarsa mixueviT, oTx qalaqad, da dabnebi maTi: sarkine-qalaqi, kaspi, urbnisi da oZrae, da cixeni maTni: cix didi sarkinisaჲ, ufliscixkaspisa, urbnisisa da oZraisa~[869]. termin `kedars~ yuradReba iv. javaxiSvilma miaqcia da ganmarta, rom `qveyana kedrad~ mtkvris xeobis is nawili igulisxmeba, romelSic qalaqebi sarkine-qalaqi, kaspi, urbnisi da oZrae mdebareobda, anu zemo qarTli (igive _ mesxeTi) da Sida qarTli[870]. iv. javaxiSvilis SeniSvniT, kedari rom marTlac geografiuli saxelia, es fsalmunis ebrauli dednis teqstidanac Cans: `vame, rom vmwirob mosoxTan, vmkvidrob karebsa Tana kedarisaTa~[871]; amasve unda mowmobdes `moqceva qarTlisas~ teqstis formulirebac `Seadna igini kedarsa mas queyanasa~, vinaidan, Tu `kedarSi~ vigulisxmebT mag. qarTul sityvas `kedaros~, mxaris, kidis mniSvnelobis mqones[872], xolo aq qveynis kidis aRmniSvnels, sityva `qveyana~ idgeboda naTesaobiT brunvaSi da, Sesabamisad, gveqneboda forma: `...kedar(o)sa mas queyanisasa~. rogorc cnobilia, `moqceva qarTlisas~ teqstSi `kedaris qveyana~ bibliuri loTis SvilebTan dakavSirebiT aris naxsenebi, es ki SesaZlebelia migvaniSnebdes, rom avtori cdilobda `bibliaSi~ araerTgzis moxseniebuli `kedari~, romelsac asureT-arabeTis udabnos mniSvnelovan momTabare tomad miiCneven[873], gaeigivebina mtkvris xeobis mxaresTan.

 

aRsaniSnavia, rom termini `kedarTa qveyana~, rogorc amierkavkasiaSi mdebare mxare, dasturdeba fsevdo-kalisTenes `aleqsandres romanSi~ Sesul ax. w. VII s. TxzulebaSi `moTxroba ucdomeli sufevisaTs naTesavTa da ukanasknelTa JamTaTs~[874], romelsac ax. w. III-IV ss. avtors meTodios patrels miaweren da romelic aSkara kavSirSia `moqceva qarTlisas~ teqstTan; fsevdo-meTodiosis Txzulebis mixedviT, rodesac aleqsandre makedonelma `CrdiloeTis masisi~ (ararati) gadalaxa da `kedarTa qveyanaSi~ aRmoCnda, ixila uwminduri tomi, romelic gvamebiT ikvebeboda; iqve cxovrobdnen Turqebi da somxebi, romelTa didi nawili mas amouJletia[875]. bun-TurqTa Sesaxeb `moqceva qarTlisa~ gvamcnobs: `daukrda aleqsandre da cna, rameTu ieboselTa naTesavni iyvnes, yovelsaorcielsa Wamdes da samare maTi ara /102/ iyo, mkduarsa SeSWamdes~[876]. termin `kedaris~ kavSirs qarTvelur samyarosTan, rogorc iTqva, fsalmunis ebrauli dednis monacemebic adastureben; iv. javaxiSvilis dakvirvebiT, ebrauli teqsti cxadyofs, rom `kedari~ swored mosoxis e. i. mesxTa qveynis adgilTaganis saxeli yofila[877]. aRniSnul cnobas Tu SevuTanapirebT im faqts, rom `moqceva qarTlisa~ `kedaris qveyanas~ md. mtkvris xeobas uwodebs[878], dasaSvebi xdeba, rom mosxur mTebTan mdebare mtkvris zemo welic amave saxeliT yofiliyo cnobili, sadac, rogorc aRvniSneT, savaraudoa klavdios ptolemaiosiseuli `katarZenes~ lokalizebac. amrigad, safiqrebelia, rom klavdios ptolemaiosis `geografiuli saxelmZRvanelos~ teqstis sxvadasxva variantSi damowmebul mosxur mTebTan mdebare mxaris aRmniSvnelad gamoyenebuli saxelwodebis orive variants `katarZenesac~ da `korZenesac~ safuZveli eZebneba md. mtkvris zemo welTan Tu mis maxlobel mxareSi lokalizaciisaTvis da Tu d. musxeliSvili forma `korZenes~ aniWebs upiratesobas straboniseul `xorZenesTan~ misi msgavsebis gamo[879], saxelwodeba `katarZenesac~ moepoveba amave mxareSi paraleli urartuli Katarza-s da, SesaZloa, agreTve md. mtkvris xeobis aRmniSvnelad gamoyenebuli `kedaris~ saxiT[880].

 

kidev erTi saxelwodeba, romelsac aigiveben xolme xorZenesTan, ax. w. II s. berZeni istorikosis apianes `miTridates omebis istoriaSi~ moxseniebulni `xotenea~[881]; fiqroben, rom am saxelwodebis `xorZenesagan~ miReba unda momxdariyo an berZnuli paleografiis niadagze τ da ζ asoebis aRreviTa da-ορ- jgufis ω-d qceviT an qarTveluri enebisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli r-s dakargva-gaCenisa da Z-s (an monaTesave afrikatis) t-Ti Senacvlebis Sedegad[882]. apianes cnobiT, damarcxebulma pontos mefem _ miTridate VI evpatorma, Tavis amalasTan erTad Tavi Seafara sinoreqsis cixe-simagres (igive sinoria, q. baiburTis samxreTiT)[883], sadac mas didi Tanxa hqonda Senaxuli; aqedan kolxeTisaken mimavali miTridate miiCqaris md. evfratis saTaveebisaken da es mdinare SeuCerebladmimavalma meoTxe dRes gadalaxa; man sami dRe moandoma Tavisi razmis mowesrigebas da amis Semdeg SeiWra armeniis teritoriaze xoteneSi, sadac gaarRvia isrebiTa da SurdulebiT SeiaraRebuli xotenelebisa da iberebis jgufebi, romlebic mis uku/103/qcevas cdilobdnen da md. afsarosTan mivida[884]. vinaidan miTridate Tavisi razmiT mxolod md. evfratis gadalaxvisa da iq Zalebis mokrefis Semdeg SeiWra armeniaSi (xoteneSi), savaraudo xdeba, rom teritoria sinoreqsa da md. evfratis saTaves Soris, evfratisa da Woroxis SuamdinareTSi mdebare, armenias ki ara, aramed pontos SemadgenlobaSi unda yofiliyo moqceuli; SesaZloa amasve mowmobdes klavdios ptolemaiosis cnoba, rom md. afsarossa da mis Senakads md. likoss saTave kapadokiis pontoSi hqonda[885]. ramdenadme moulodnelia miTridates mier evfratis dinebis gadalaxva, maSin rodesac mas SeeZlo evfratis (karasu) saTavis ayolebiTa da e. w. gurji-boRazis gavliT TorTomis xeobaSi Sesvla. magram, Tu apianeseul evfratSi am mdinaris marjvena Senakadi md. serCami ar igulisxmeba, romlis saTavec md. Woroxis saTavis maxloblad mdebareobs, unda vifiqroT, rom evfratis gadalaxvis Semdeg miTridate jer aRmosavleTisken unda wasuliyo, daaxloebiT Tanamedrove q. pasinleris maxloblad CrdiloeTisken unda gadaexvia da md. olTisiswylis saTavisken (Tanamedrove md. sivridere) gasuliyo. Tumca, rogoric ar unda yofiliyo miTridates marSruti, aSkaraa, rom mas taoze unda gaevlo da rom swored taoSi masTan SebrZolebuli mosaxleoba unda igulisxmebodes apianesTan naxseneb xotenelebsa da iberebSi.

 

termin `xotenes~, romelSic xot-fuZe gamoiyofa, t> fonetikuri kanonzomierebis Sedegad, SeeZlo moeca forma `xo~[886]. aRsaniSnavia, rom diodore sicilielis `biblioTekaSi~ gvxvdeba eTnonimi `xao~ (Χοι), gamoyenebuli qsenofontis `anabasisis~ `taoxebis~ (Τοχοι) nacvlad[887]. am ori eTnonimis gaigivebis sawinaaRmdegod gamoTqmulia eWvi, rom `xao~ `taoxo~-s Seryvnil formas unda warmoadgendes, aRmocenebuls gadamwerTa Secdomis Sedegad[888], magram Tu gaviTvaliswinebT, rom hekateos miletels moxseniebuli hyavs `xoebis~ (Χο) tomi[889], romelTa sacxovrisic taos maxloblad unda yofiliyo, formebis xao || xo-s da taoxis erTidaimave tomis aRsaniSnavad gamoyeneba dasaSvebi unda Candes. stefane bizantionelis `eTnikur leqsikonSi~ Semonaxuli hekateos miletelis cnobis Tanaxmad, xoebi beqeirikas (Βεχειρική) mezoblad cxovrobdnen da maT aRmosavleTidan diZerebi esazRvrebodnen[890]. /104/fsevdo-skilaqsis mixedviT, biZerebsa da beqeirebs (Βέχειροι) Soris cxovrobda ekeqeiriebis tomi[891], romelsac p. ingoroyva hekateos miletelis `xoebTan~ aigivebs[892]. ekeqeiriebis teritoriaze dasaxelebulia mdinareebi pordanisi da arabisi, qalaqi limne da elinuri qalaqi odeiniosi[893]. Zv. w. V s. anonimuri `periplusis~ ganmartebiT, ekqeiriebad (EkceirieV) wodebul toms winaT ucxovria mdinare arqabisidan mdinare ofiuntamde, sadac ukve maqelonebi da henioxebi cxovrobdnen[894]; igulisxmeba lazistanis qedsa da Sav zRvas Soris mdebare mxare. n. lomouris varaudiT, ekeqeiriebis teritoria md. Abo-viwedan (furtuna-su) q. rizes aRmosavleTiT mdebare midamoebamde vrceldeboda[895]. Tu Cven davuSvebT, rom xoebsa da beqeirebs lazistanis qedis gadaRmac ekavaT miwebi, SesaZlebeli gaxdeboda maTi dakavSireba, Sesabamisad, xao-taoxebTan da boxebTan[896].

 

im garemoebas, rom apianes Txzulebis teqstSi iberebi md. evfratis saTavis maxlobel mxareSi xotenelebTan erTad SemTxveviT an SecdomiT ar unda iyvnen dasaxelebulni, mowmobs apianes mier iqve mocemuli iberTa vinaobis sakmaod vrceli ganmarteba, rom `zogierTebis mixedviT aziis iberebi evropis iberebis winaprebi arian, xolo sxvebi piriqiT, fiqroben, rom pirvelebi ukanasknelTa emigrantebi arian, kidev sxvaTa azriT, maT mxolod erTnairi saxelwodeba aqvT, radgan arc Cveulebebi da arc ena ara aqvT msgavsi~[897]. xotenesa da iberTa urTierTkavSirze SesaZloa miuTiTebdes ioseb flaviusis cnoba, damarcxebuli miTridates iberiaSi gaqcevis Sesaxeb[898]. apianesa da ioseb flaviusis cnobaTa SeTanapireba, TiTqos, xotenes teritoriis iberebisadmi kuTvnilebas unda mowmobdes, xolo am mxaris apianes mier armeniad dasaxeleba, rogorc Cans, ukavSirdeba Zv. w. II s. pirveli naxevarSi armenielebis mier iberTagan miwebis warTmevis faqts[899]. Dd. musxeliSvilis SexedulebiT, is garemoeba, rom `xotenes armenia~ faqtiurad iberiis provincia iyo, mowmobs xotene || xorZenes igiveobas[900]; marTalia, d. musxeliSvilma, Cveni azriT, savsebiT sworad gansazRvra, rom strabonTan dasaxelebul `mosxebis qveynis~ armenul nawilSi[901] armenielebis mier iberTagan CamorTmeuli miwebi unda igulisxmebodes[902] /105/da rom es miwebi tao, speri da kolaa, magram, manve, imis gaTvaliswinebiT, rom xorZene-kolas unda aRniSnavdes, xolo xotene _ taos, am ori saxelwodebis (xorZenesi da xotenes) identurobis Sesaxeb arsebuli mosazrebis gaziarebis Sedegad, gamoTqva varaudi, xorZene || xoteneSi, rogorc Woroxis, aseve mtkvris saTaveebis mdebareobis Taobaze da erTidaimave provinciad _ xorZene-xotened, erTdroulad kolac miiCnia da taoc[903]. erTian cnebad warmodgenil xorZene || xotenes (radgan es ukanaskneli pirvelis damaxinjebul formad ganixileba) erTdroulad vrceli teritoriis gaerTianeba rom SesZleboda, romelSic moqceuli iqneboda ori iseTi gansxvavebuli mxare, rogoric tao da kolaa, erTmaneTisagan daSorebuli Woroxisa da mtkvris wyalgamyofi arsianis qedis samxreT-aRmosavleTi ganStoebiT soRanluRis qediT, igi sakmaod Zlieri politikuri warmonaqmni unda yofiliyo, risi araviTari niSanic ar mogvepoveba. vinaidan, terminebi `xorZenec~ da `xotenec~ mxolod erTi, calkeuli mxaris saxelwodebebad Canan da radganac orive maTganis adgilmdebareobis dadgena xerxdeba, pirvelis _ md. mtkvris saTaveebis mxareSi, xolo meorisa _ taos teritoriaze, maTi gaigiveba, vfiqrobT, ar unda iyos marTebuli. Rac Seexeba Sexedulebas, xorZenes dakavSirebis SesaZleblobaze taosTan _ Woroxisa da mtkvris saTaveebiTurT, rasac TiTqos iqve damowmebuli toponimi `xorzianis velic~ metyvelebs[904], igi albaT unda gavigoT, rogorc xorZenes mdebareobis gamomxatveli, konkretulad _ md. mtkvris saTaveebis mxareSi; s. janaSias cnobiT, toponimi `xorzianis veli~, romelic, misi azriT, SesaZloa `xorZenes~ istoriuli gamoZaxili iyos, mdebareobda q. artaanis samxreTiT, artaan-olTisis gzaTkecilidan aRmosavleTiT, md. mtkvris marjvena saTavis xeobaSi[905], anu kolaSi. damTxveva iberebTan dakavSirebul, apianiseul `xotenes~ armeniis nawilad miCnevasa da straboniseul `xorZenes~ armenielebis mier swored iberTagan miTvisebas Soris[906], safiqrebelia, rom unda aixsnas armenielebis mier iberTagan xorZenesTan erTad agreTve pariadris mTiswineTis CamoWris Sesaxeb arsebuli cnobis safuZvelze[907], romelSic, rogorc Cans, swored tao (anu xotene) unda yofiliyo ZiriTadad nagulisxmevi. /106/

 

samecniero literaturaSi gamoTqmulia azri, rom strabonis cnobebis urTierTSeTanapireba cxadyofs, rom pariadri zogadad skidisesac ewodeba[908]. rogorc Cans, es marTlac ase unda iyos, oRond, am mTebSi upiratesad, ara giumiuShanes, trabzonis da lazistanis qedebi unda igulisxmebodes[909], aramed, evfratisa da Woroxis wyalgamyofi kopis qedi. am qedTan, Tu mis nawilTan, skidises gaigivebis SesaZleblobas zemoT aRvniSnavdiT, xolo pariadris gavrcelebas amave mxareSi mowmobs strabonis cnoba, rom mcire armeniis teritoriaze pontos mefe miTridate VI evpatorma 75 cixe-simagre aago, sadac Tavisi simdidris didi nawili moaTavsa. am cixe-simagreTagan yvelaze cnobilni yofilan hidara, basgoidariZa da didi armeniis sazRvarze mdebare sinoria (apianeseuli _ sinoreqsi); aq, pariadris mTianeTSi cixe-simagreebis ageba gamowveuli yofila amisaTvis xelsayreli bunebrivi pirobebis arsebobiT da pontos samefos swored am Soreul nawilSi Seufarebia Tavi miTridates, rodesac mis qveyanas pompeusis jari Sesevia[910]. Pariadri aRmosavleTiT mcire armeniamde rom vrceldeboda, strabons sxva adgilasac aqvs aRniSnuli[911], magram iberebisagan armenielebis mier CamoWril pariadris mTiswineTSi[912], ra Tqma unda ara sidenedan (Σιδήνη) mcire armeniamde gadaWimuli mTis qedi igulisxmeba, aramed mis aRmosavleTiT mdebare mxare. amasTan dakavSirebiT yuradRebas ipyrobs TviT strabonis cnoba, rom `evfratis iqiTa mxares (aRmosavleTiT _ g. q.), mcire armeniis maxloblad, antitavrosis gadaRma CrdiloeTisken, gadaWimulia didi mTa mravali ganStoebebiT, romelTagan erTs ewodeba pariadri, meores _ mosxuri mTebi, mesames _ sxvadasxva saxelebi aqvs; am mTebiT aris garSemortymuli mTeli armenia iberebamde da albanelebamde~[913].

 

evfrat-Woroxis SuamdinareTSi pariadris lokalizebis SesaZleblobas exmianeba pliniusis cnoba didi armeniis parihedris mTebidan (Parihedris montibus) dawyebis Taobaze; misi sityvebiT, didi armenia gamoiyofa pontoSi Camdinare md. afsarosiT da parihedris mTebiT, romelTa wiaRidanac gamoedineba es mdinare[914]. vinaidan md. afsarosi igive Woroxia, cxadia, parihedris mTebSi _ md. Woroxis saTaveebis mxareSi md/107/ebare mTebi unda igulisxmebodes. k. Tumanovis ganmartebiT, pliniusiseuli parihedris mTebi warmoadgenen md. akamfsisis (Woroxis) mier pontos alpebis ukiduresi aRmosavluri seqtorisagan (lazistanis qedi) gamoyofil maRlobs, sadac TviT akamfsisi da agreTve evfrati iRebs saTaves da romelic CrdiloeTiT mcire kavkasionamde vrceldeba, xolo samxreTiT evfratisa da araqsis (arezi) wyalgamyofia[915]; e. i. mas parihedris mTebad mxedvelobaSi hqonia e. w. mosxuri mTebi (ix. qvemoT). miuxedavad im garemoebisa, rom k. Tumanovi pliniusis `parihedrisis mTebs~ _ pariadris mTebad miiCnevs, amave dros, strabonis monacemebze dayrdnobiT[916] cdilobs pontos alpebis zogierT aRmosavlur ganStoebasac, romelSic, rogorc irkveva, igi lazistanis qeds gulisxmobs[917], miakuTvnos pariadris (Παρυάδρης) saxeli[918]. magram, pirvel rigSi, swored strabonis cnobebi ar iZleva q. trapezuntis aRmosavleTiT mdebare lazistanis qedis pariadrTan gaigivebis SesaZleblobas. strabonis mixedviT, `kavkasionis totebi miemarTeba samxreTisaken da isini ara marto moicaven iberiis Suaguls, aramed erTvian armenul da e. w. mosxur mTebs da agreTve, skidisesa da pariadrs. yvela es mTebi tavrosis nawilebi arian, romelic armeniis samxreT kides qmnis; tavrosisagan isini rogorRac mowyvetili arian CrdiloeTisaken da grZeldebian kavkasionamde da evqsinis sanapiros im nawilamde, romelic kolxeTidan Temiskiramde vrceldeba~[919]. rogorc zemoT aRvniSneT, kolxeTi strabonisaTvis dasavleTis mimarTulebiT q. Trapezuntamde aRwevs, xolo pariadri unda igulisxmebodes im mTaSi, romelic evqsinis sanapiros moicavs kolxeTidan Temiskiramde[920]. Arc strabonis is sityvebi unda iZleodnen gansxvavebuli daskvnis gamotanis saSualebas, rom `kavkasioni gars artyia albanelebsa da iberebs da emijneba armenias, agreTve mosxebisa da kolxebis mTebs e. w. tibarenebamde~ da rom `dasavleTiskenac arian es tomebi (tibarenuli tomebi _ g. q.) da pariadre da skidise mcire armeniamde da evfratis xeobamde, romelic gamoyofs armenias kapadokiisagan da komagenesagan~[921], vinaidan, tibarenuli tomebi, pariadre da skidise, mcire armeniamde da evfratis xeobamde dasavleTidan aRmosavleTisaken da ara aRmosavleTidan dasavleTisaken vrceldebodnen[922]. /108/ es mkafiod Cans strabonis im cnobaSic, rom `farnakiis momijnave sidenesa da Temiskiris zemoT (igulisxmeba samxreTiT _ g. q.) mdebare fanareas (Φανάροια) vels, romlis SuagulSi erTmaneTs uerTdebian armeniidan momdinare likosi da amasiasTan mdebare viwrobebidan gamosuli irisi, aRmosavleTis mxridan zRudavs misive paralelurad gadaWimuli pariadri, xolo dasavleTidan _ liTrosisa da oflimosis mTebi~[923]. aq fanareas velSi _ q. amasiis Crdilo-aRmosavleTiT mdebare veli, xolo pariadrSi _ Tanamedrove janikis qedis aRmosavleTis seqtori igulisxmeba. amgvarad, rogorc vxedavT, strabomis zemoT moyvanili cnobebis pariadrSi is mTebi unda igulisxmebodes, romlebic Savi zRvis sanapiros gasdeven q. trapezuntis aRmosavleTiT mdebare kolxeTidan Temiskira-sidenemde da romlebic aRmosavleTis mimarTulebiT skidisesTan erTad vrceldebodnen mcire armeniamde da, kapadokiisagan da komagenesagan armeniis gamomyof, evfratis xeobamde da romelsac araferi ar unda hqondes saerTo pontos alpebis aRmosavleT nawilTan _ lazistanis qedTan; Sesabamisad, strabonTan sxva adgilas moxseniebul armenielebis mier iberTagan warTmeul pariadris mTiswineTSi ara lazistanis qedTan mdebare mxare unda igulisxmebodes, aramed, md. Woroxis samxreTiTa da samxreT-aRmosavleTiT mdebare miwebi, pliniusiseuli parihedris mTebis (Plin., NH,VI, 25) Sesatyvisi, igive qarTuli provincia _ tao.

 

aRsaniSnavia, rom k. Tumanovi qarTuli da somxuri istoriuli wyaroebis monacemebis gaTvaliswinebiT cdilobda istoriuli mxaris _ parxalis saxelwodeba md. Woroxis Sua dinebis aRmosavleTiT mdebare taosaTvis miesadagebina[924], rogorc Cans, pliniusis parihedris mTebis lokalizaciis gavleniT da miuxedavad im garemoebisa, rom parxali, ZiriTadad, Woroxis marcxena napirsa da lazistanis qeds (igive parxal daRi) Soris mdebareobda[925]. `pariadris mTebis~ saxelwodebasTan dakavSirebiT yuradRebas ipyrobs md. olTisiswylis (Tanamedrove sivridere) erT-erTi Zveli saxelwodeba `bolxa~[926], Tavis mxriv, rogorc Cans, dakavSirebuli mdinareebis olTisiswyalsa da arezs Soris mosaxle bolxebis, bolxarebis, boxaelebisa Tu boxebis[927] satomo saxelTan. amgvarad, pariadris mTebis saxelwodebiT, garda janikis, giresunisa da giumiuShanes qedebisa, zogierTi mona/109/cemebis mixedviT, cnobili iyo md. Woroxis samxreTiT mdebare kopisa da Woroxis qedebic.

 

Pariadris mTebis saxelwodebas, safiqrebelia, atarebda agreTve gogarenes (somxuri gugarqi) samxreTiT, sevanis tbis CrdiloeT nawilis dasavleTiT mdebare bambakis qedi. klavdios ptolemaiosis `geografiuli saxelmZRvanelos~ mixedviT, pariadris mTis gayolebiT mdebareobdnen sirakene da sakasene[928]. sirakene, cxadia, Siraqia, xolo sakasene, romelic strabonis mixedviT albaneTsa da mtkvars esazRvreboda da gogarenes maxloblad iyo moTavsebuli[929], gviandeli SakaSenea[930]. amave sakiTxTan dakavSirebiT, yuradRebas ipyrobs pliniusis cnoba Tasiisa (Thasie) da Triaris (Thriare), anu taSirisa da TrialeTis[931] iberuli olqebis mdebareobis Sesaxeb parihedros mTebamde (Parihedros monte)[932]. parihedros mTebSi aq bambakis qedi rom unda igulisxmebodes[933], mowmobs albaneTisa da iberiis aRwerisadmi miZRvnil pliniusis Txzulebis moyvanil paragrafSi am mTebis calis gverdis kavkasionis qedis aRmosavleT nawilis Semadgeneli keravnuli mTebis sapirispiro mxares ganlageba, mtkvris (Cyrum) Senakadis md. iberis (gaigivebulia iorTan) qvemoT sakasenebis (Sacaseni) dasaxeleba da, agreTve, albaneTis sazRvrebidan dawyebuli kavkasionis ferdobebze mcxovrebi silvebis, lupenebis (Lupeniorum), didurebisa da sodebis moxsenieba, romelTa gadaRmac `kavkasionis kari~ yofila moTavsebuli, pliniusis ganmartebiT, zogierTis mier SecdomiT `kaspiurad~ wodebuli[934]. Tumca, gasaTvaliswinebeli iqneb isic iyos, rom gansxvavebiT afsarosisagan armeniis gamomyofi parihedris mTebisa[935], am SemTxvevaSi pliniusi ramdenadme gansxvavebul firmas parihedros mTebs xmarobs (Parihedros montes)[936]. miuxedavad yovelive zemoTqmulisa, naklebad damajerebelia, rom strabonis cnobis, armenielebis mier iberTagan warTmeul, pariadres mTianeTSi[937] bambakis qedi yofiliyo nagulisxmevi, vinaidan, sakuTriv strabonTan saxelwodeba`pariadriT~ es mTebi ar aris cnobili; amave dros, yuradRebas ipyrobs misive cnoba, rom im mTis ganStoebebs Soris, romlebic armenias CrdiloeTidan Semofarglaven evfratis gadaRma da mcire armeniis maxloblad mdebare mxaridan iberielebamde da albanelebamde, erTs ewodeba /110/ pariadri, meores _ mosxuri mTebi, xolo mesames sxvadasxva saxelebi aqvs[938]. es mTebi Qorox-evfratisa da mtkvar-arezis SuamdinareTSi arian lokalizebulni, pariadri da mosxuri mTebi armenias Crdilo-dasavleTidan Semofarglavdnen, xolo is mTa, romelsac sxvadasxva saxelebi hqonda, savaraudoa, rom armeniis Crdilo-aRmosavleTiT mdebareobda da, Sesabamisad, albanelebamdec aRwevda; swored igi unda yofiliyo bambakis qedi. Strabonis sityvebi, rom am mTas `sxvadasxva saxelebi aqvs~, albaT miuTiTebs im garemoebaze, rom misTvis cnobili iqneboda am mTis saxeli `pariadri~[939]. bambakis qeds `pariadris~ saxelwodebiT straboni Tundac imis gamo ver moixseniebda, rom imave winadadebaSi am saxels uwodebda mcire armeniisa da evfratis zemo welis maxloblad mdebare mTebs[940]. is garemoeba, rom taSiri iberiis farglebSi iyo moqceuli[941], mowmobs, rom bambakis qedze unda gasuliyo armeniis CrdiloeT sazRvari.

 

rac Seexeba strabonis ganmartebas, rom armenielebma iberebisagan miiTvises gogarene, romelic md. mtkvris gadaRma mdebareobda, igi unda gavigoT ara rogorc gogarenes mdebareobis gamomxatveli md. mtkvris, an Tundac md, javaxeTis mtkvris (igive faravani), samxreT napirze[942], aramed kola-artaanSi mimdinare mtkvris aRmosavleTiT, rac, ra Tqma unda, gamoricxavs gogareneSi ara marto klarjeTis, aramed SavSeTisa da kola-artaanis garkveuli nawilis moqcevis SesaZleblobas. Rogorc cnobilia, VII s. somxuri geografiis `aSxarhacuicis~ mixedviT, klarjeTi (կաշարծօք) gugarqis (gogarenes) Semadgenel nawilad iTvleboda[943].

 

aRmosavleT anatoiaSi qarTvelur tomTa gansaxlebis sakiTxis garkvevisaTvis garkveuli mniSvneloba aqvs antikuri xanis werilobiT wyaroebSi xSirad naxsenebi mosxuri mTebis lokalizacias. vaxuSti bagrationis cnobiT, devaboinus, irijlusis, yalnus, TorTomis, Sifaqlusa da ispiris mTebi, mosxis, anu mesxis mTaa[944]. mosxuri mTebis adgilmdebareobis gansazRvrisas vaxuStis antikuri xanis wyaroebic hqonia gamoyenebuli, igi SeniSnavs, rom krebiTi saxeli `mosxi~, qveynis aRsaniSnavad, aleqsandre makedonelze adrindeli xanis Zvel geografTa TxzulebebSi ixmareboda[945]. vaxuSti bagrationi `mosxis mTebis~ /111/ saxeliT icnobda agreTve mTa Rados, anu fersaTs, aWara-guriis Soris mdebare mTas da, rogorc Cans, artaan-kolasa da yarss Soris mdebare yarsis mTasac[946].

 

p. ingoroyvam, vaxuSti bagrationis monacemebis SeTanapirebiT klavdios ptolemaiosis cnobebTan, e. w. boxebis zeviT, mosxis mTebTan, katarZenes mdebareobisa da dasavleTis mimarTulebiT mosxis mTebis kapadokiis pontomde gavrcelebis Sesaxeb[947] da agreTve strabonis cnobasTan, skidisesTan mosxis mTebis SeerTebis Taobaze[948], mosxuri mTebi, Worox-mtkvrisa da araqss (arezi)-CrdiloeT evfratis (karasu) xeobebis wyalgamyof mTavar qedad miiCnia da masve miakuTvna CrdiloeT evfratsa da arezs Soris mdebare ganStoebis gagrZeleba, romelic deveboinus mTis gavliT bingelis mwvervalebs adgeba[949].

 

d. musxeliSvili, strabonis im cnobis `mosxur mTebs~, sadac aRniSnulia, rom kolxeTi mdebareobs kavkasionisa da mosxuri mTebis Ziras[950], dRevandel mesxeTis (anu aWara-imereTis) qedTan aigivebs[951]; amasTanave igi yuradRebas amaxvilebs strabonisave cnobaze iberiasa da armenias Soris sazRvris mtkvrisa da mosxur mTebze gavlis Sesaxeb[952] da am ori orientiris, md. mtkvrisa da mosxuri mTebis, erTmaneTTan dakavSirebiT, ramdenadac iqve mtkvris saTavebzea laparaki. `mosxur mTebsac~ mtkvris saTaveebTan aTavsebs; es ki, misi azriT, mowmobs, rom `mosxur mTebSi~ is mTagrexili unda ivaraudebodes, romelic mesxebis (mosxebis) qveyanas armeniisagan sazRvravda da romelTa Sesaxebac straboni iuwyeboda, mosxebis mTebi gars ertymian mTel armenias iberiamdeo[953]. vinaidan, mesxeTis teritoria im xanad mtkvris zemo welsa da Woroxis auzs moicavda, d. musxeliSvili daaskvnis, rom strabonis `mosxebis mTebi~ am SemTxvevaSi gulisxmobs Worox-mtkvris auzis, erTi mxriv, da meore mxriv, evfrat-araqsis (arezi) auzis wyalgamyof mTebs; amasve adasturebs, misive ganmartebiT, klavdios ptolemaiosis cnoba, mdinareebs _ evfrats, kirossa da araqss Soris moTavsebuli armeniis nawilebSi, e. w. boxebis zemoT, mosxur mTebTan, katarZenes mdebareobis Sesaxeb[954], romelic, misi TqmiT, jer erTi, sruliad mxoloazrovnad migviTiTebes, rom mosxuri mTebia is mTebi, romlebic kiross (mtkvari), evfrats da araqss (arezi) Sorisaa da e. i. aq igulisxmeba maincdamainc am mdinareTa saTaveebis /112/ wyalgamyofi, xolo meore mxriv, am mTebTan mdebare qveyana katarZene, ufro sworad `koraZene~, unda iyos straboniseuli `xorZene~, romelic mosxur mTebTan mdebareobda[955]. d. musxeliSvili marTebulad SeniSnavs, rom lazistanis qedis mosxur mTebad miCneva[956] ar unda iyos swori, vinaidan, es qedi arasdros ar iyo da arc SeiZleba yofiliyo sazRvari iveriasa (iberia) da somxeTs (armenias) Soris, sazRvravda ra samxreT-aRmosavleTidan mTlianad WaneTs da yvela epoqaSi igi mxilid WaneTis da romelime sxva qveynis sazRvars warmoadgenda[957].

 

n. xazaraZec `mosxur mTebs~, erTi mxriv, mcire kavkasionis dasavleT nawilSi, kolxeTis samxreT sazRvarTan aTavsebs, xolo meore mxriv, iberiisa da armeniis sasazRvro zonaSi, Worox-mtkvris, Worox-evfratis da evfrat-araqsis (arezi) wyalgamyofi qedebis adgilas; strabonis zemoT moyvanili cnobebis garda, n. xazaraZe gansakuTrebul yuradRebas uTmobs klavdios ptolemaiosis cnobebs kapadokiasa da did armenias Soris sazRvris mosxur mTebze gavlis Sesaxeb im adgilidan sadac evfrati yvelaze CrdiloeTiT uxvevs aRmosavleTisaken[958]; klavdios ptolemaiosis `geografiuli saxelmZRvanelos~ sxva cnobaze dayrdnobiT, rom md. afsarosi (Woroxi) saTavidan SesarTavamde kapadokiis pontos teritoriaze miedineba, sadac saTaves iRebs md. likosic, romelic md. glavkosTan *Tanamedrove md. olTu) erTad erTvis afsaross[959]. n. xazaraZe kidev ufro akonkretebs mosxuri mTebis adgilmdebareobas da maT Worox-TorTumis saTaveebis samxreTiTa da samxreT-aRmosavleTiT aTavsebs[960].

 

Tu Cven mxedvelobaSi miviRebT im garemoebas, rom didi armenia kapadokiisagan imijneboda, jer dasavleTiT _ md. evfratis dinebiT, xolo Semdeg _ kapadokiis pontos xaziT, mosxur mTebze gadavliT kolxeTamde[961], zemoTqmulidan gamomdinare, unda vivaraudoT, rom mosxur mTebze gamavali sazRvari md. olTus gadakveTiT, arsianis qeds ebjineboda, es ki, Tavis mxriv, SesaZleblobas mogvcemda dagveSva, rom arsianis qedis dasavleTiT mdebare klarjeTi kolxeTis SemadgenlobaSi iyo moqceuli. rogorc Cans, klarjeTi unda yofiliyo nagulisxmvi klavdios ptolemaiosis im cnobaSic, romlis mixedviT, didi armenia CrdiloeTidan kolxeTis nawiliT isazRvreboda[962]. Tu Cven, amasTana/113/ve, klavdios ptolemaiosis mier, did armeniasa da iberias Soris md. kirosis (mtkvari) gayolebaze gaRebul sazRvars[963], ganvsazRravdiT iseve, rogorc strabonis zemoT moyvanili cnobisas[964], kola-artaanSi mimdinare mtkvarze gamavalad[965], imis SesaZleblobac mogvecemeboda, rom olTisiswyalsa da mtkvars Soris mdebare arsianis qedis seqtori, anu daaxl. `mosxuri mTebis~ Suaguli, warmogvedgina, rogorc oTxi saxelmwifos: pontos kapadokiis, kolxeTis, didi armeniisa da iberiis sasazRvro zona[966], rasac strabonis cnobac exmianeba, `mosxebis qveynis~ sam _ kolxebis, iberebisa da armenielebis nawilad dayofis Sesaxeb[967]. safiqrebelia, rom cnebebi `mosxuri qveyana~ (Μοσχική) da `mosxuri mTebi~ TiTqmis mTlianad faravdnen erTmaneTs[968]. aRsaniSnavia, rom d. musxeliSvili klarjeTis kolxeTis SemadgenlobaSi moqcevis Sesaxeb analogiur daskvnamde mivida, oRond sruliad sxva safuZvelze. kerZod, xotene || xorZenes gaigivebis Sedegad (ix. zemoT) da strabonis im cnobis gaTvaliswinebiT, rom xorZene armeniis ukiduresi Crdilouri Temi iyo da Tan kolxeTis mosazRvre[969], man miiCnia, rom klarjeTi da artaan-javaxeTi somxeTs (armenias) ar ekuTvneboda, Tumca ki Sedioda straboniseuli `mosxikes~ farglebSi, romlic moicavda mtkvris zemo welsa da Woroxis auzs; aqedan speri, tao da kola somxeTs mieerTebina, SavSeT-klarjeTi da aWara kolxeTs, xolo artaan-javaxeTi da samcxe qarTls (iberias) darCenoda[970].

 

md. Woroxis zemo dinebasTan mdebare speris mxare, iseve rogorc sxva qarTuli miwebi, Zv. w. II s. pirvel naxevarze ufro adrindel xanaSi ver moeqceoda armeniis SemadgenlobaSi. rac Seexeba Sexedulebas, rom speri, gaigivebuli straboniseul `sispiritisTan~ (ΣuσπιρτιV),