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Let the Mute Witnesses Speak
Sita Ram Goel

The cradle of Hindu culture1 on the eve of its Islamic invasion included what are at present the Sinkiang province of China, the Transoxiana region of Russia, the Seistan province of Iran and the sovereign states of Afghanistan, Pakistan, India, Nepal and Bangladesh. The Islamic invasion commenced around 650 A.D., when a Muslim army secured a foothold in Seistan, and continued till the end of the eighteenth century, when the last Islamic crusader, Tipu Sultan, was overthrown by the British. Hordes of Arabs, Persians, Turks, and Afghans who had been successively inspired by the Theology of Islam poured in, in wave after wave, carrying fire and sword to every nook and corner of this vast area. In the process, Sinkiang, Transoxiana region, Seistan and Afghanistan became transformed into darul-Islm where all vestiges of the earlier culture were wiped out.  The same spell has engulfed the areas which were parts of India till 1947 and have since become Pakistan and Bangladesh.

We learn from literary and epigraphic sources, accounts of foreign travellers in medieval times, and modern archaeological explorations that, on the eve of the Islamic invasion, the cradle of Hindu culture was honeycombed with temples and monasteries, in many shapes and sizes.  The same sources inform us that many more temples and monasteries continued to come up in places where the Islamic invasion had yet to reach or from where it was forced to retire for some time by the rallying of Hindu resistance.  Hindus were great temple builders because their pantheon was prolific in Gods and Goddesses and their society rich in schools and sects, each with its own way of worship.  But by the time we come to the end of the invasion, we find that almost all these Hindu places of worship had either disappeared or were left in different stages of ruination.  Most of the sacred sites had come to be occupied by a variety of Muslim monuments-masjids and dghs (mosques), darghs and zirats (shrines), mazrs and maqbaras (tombs), madrasas and maktabs (seminaries) , takiys and qabristns (graveyards) .  Quite a few of the new edifices had been built from the materials of those that had been deliberately demolished in order to satisfy the demands of Islamic Theology.  The same materials had been used frequently in some secular structures as well-walls and gates of forts and cities, river and tank embankments, caravanserais and stepwells, palaces and pavilions.

Some apologists of Islam have tried to lay the blame at the door of the White Huns or Epthalites who had overrun parts of the Hindu cradle in the second half of the fifth century A.D. But they count without the witness of Hiuen Tsang, the famous Chinese pilgrim and Buddhist savant, who travelled all over this area from 630 A.D. to 644. Starting from Karashahr in Northern Sinkiang, he passed through Transoxiana, Northern Afghanistan, North-West Frontier Province, Kashmir, Punjab, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, North-Eastern Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Nepal, Bengal, Assam, Orissa, Mahakosal and Andhra Pradesh till he reached Tamil Nadu. On his return journey he travelled through Karnataka, Maharashtra, Gujarat, Madhya Bharat, Sindh, Southern Afghanistan and Southern Sinkiang. In most of these provinces he found in a flourishing state many Buddhist establishments consisting of vihras (monasteries) , chaityas (temples) and stpas (topes), besides what he described as heretical (Jain) and deva (Brahmanical) temples.  The wealth of architecture and sculptures he saw everywhere confirms what we learn from Hindu literary sources.  Some of this wealth has been recovered in recent times from under mounds of ruins.

During the course of his pilgrimage, Hiuen Tsang stayed at as many as 95 Buddhist centres among which the more famous ones were at Kuchi, Aqsu, Tirmiz, Uch Turfan, Kashagar and Khotan in Sinkiang; Balkh, Ghazni, Bamiyan, Kapisi, Lamghan, Nagarahar and Bannu in Afghanistan; Pushkalavati, Bolar and Takshasila in the North-West Frontier Province; Srinagar, Rajaori and Punch in Kashmir; Sialkot, Jalandhar and Sirhind in the Punjab; Thanesar, Pehowa and Sugh in Haryana; Bairat and Bhinmal in Rajasthan, Mathura, Mahoba, Ahichchhatra, Sankisa, Kanauj, Ayodhya, Prayag, Kausambi, Sravasti, Kapilvastu, Kusinagar, Varanasi, Sarnath and Ghazipur in Uttar Pradesh; Vaishali, Pataliputra, Rajgir, Nalanda, Bodhgaya, Monghyr and Bhagalpur in Bihar; Pundravardhana, Tamralipti, Jessore and Karnasuvarna in Bengal; Puri and Jajnagar in Orissa; Nagarjunikonda and Amaravati in Andhra Pradesh; Kanchipuram in Tamil Nadu; Badami and Kalyani in Karnataka; Paithan and Devagiri in Maharashtra; Bharuch, Junagarh and Valabhi in Gujarat; Ujjain in Malwa; Mirpur Khas and Multan in Sindh. The number of Buddhist monasteries at the bigger ones of these centres ranged from 50 to 500 and the number of monks in residence from 1,000 to 10,000.  It was only in some parts of Eastern Afghanistan and the North-West Frontier Province that monasteries were in a bad shape, which can perhaps be explained by the invasion of White Huns. But so were they in Kusinagar and Kapilavastu where the White Huns are not known to have reached.  On the other hand, the same invaders had ranged over Punjab, Haryana, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh and most of Uttar Pradesh where Hiuen Tsang found the monasteries in a splendid state.  They had even established their rule over Kashmir where Hiuen Tsang saw 500 monasteries housing 5,000 monks. It is, therefore, difficult to hold them responsible for the disappearance of Buddhist centres in areas where Hiuen Tsang had found them flourishing. An explanation has to be found elsewhere. In any case, the upheaval they caused was over by the middle of the sixth century.  Moreover, the temples and monasteries which Hiuen Tsang saw were only a few out of many. He had not gone into the interior of any province, having confined himself to the more famous Buddhist centres.

What was it that really happened to thousands upon thousands of temples and monasteries? Why did they disappear and/or give place to another type of monuments? How come that their architectural and sculptural fragments got built into the foundations and floors and walls and domes of the edifices which replaced them? These are crucial questions which should have been asked by students of medieval Indian history. But no historian worth his name has raised these questions squarely, not to speak of finding adequate answers to them. No systematic study of the subject has been made so far. All that we have are stray references to the demolition of a few Hindu temples, made by the more daring Hindu historians while discussing the religious policy of this or that sultan. Sir Jadunath Sarkar2 and Professor Sri Ram Sharma3 have given more attention to the Islamic policy of demolishing Hindu temples and pointed an accusing finger at the theological tenets which dictated that policy. But their treatment of the subject is brief and their enumeration of temples destroyed by Aurangzeb and the other Mughal emperors touches only the fringe of a vast holocaust caused by the Theology of Islam, all over the cradle of Hindu culture, and throughout more than thirteen hundred years, taking into account what happened in the native Muslim states carved out after the British take-over and the formation of Pakistan after partition in 1947.

Muslim historians, in India and abroad, have written hundreds of accounts in which the progress of Islamic armies across the cradle of Hindu culture is narrated, stage by stage and period by period. A pronounced feature of these Muslim histories is a description- in smaller or greater detail but always with considerable pride-of how the Hindus were slaughtered en masse or converted by force, how hundreds of thousands of Hindu men and women and children were captured as booty and sold into slavery, how Hindu temples and monasteries were razed to the ground or burnt down, and how images of Hindu Gods and Goddesses were destroyed or desecrated. Commandments of Allah (Quran) and precedents set by the Prophet (Sunnah) are frequently cited by the authors in support of what the swordsmen and demolition squads of Islam did with extraordinary zeal, not only in the midst of war but also, and more thoroughly, after Islamic rule had been firmly established. A reference to the Theology of Islam as perfected by the orthodox Imams, leaves little doubt that the citations are seldom without foundation.

The men and women and children who were killed or captured or converted by force cannot be recalled for standing witnesses to what was done to them by the heroes of Islam. The apologists for Islam-the most dogged among them are some Hindu historians and politicians- have easily got away with the plea that Muslim court scribes had succumbed to poetic exaggeration in order to please their pious patrons. Their case is weakened when they cite the same sources in support of their owns speculation or when the question is asked as to why the patrons needed stories of bloodshed and wanton destruction for feeding their piety.  But they have taken in their stride these doubts and questions as well.

There are, however, witnesses who are not beyond recall and who can confirm that the court scribes were not at all foisting fables on their readers. These are the hundreds of thousands of sculptural and architectural fragments which stand arrayed in museums and drawing rooms all over the world, or which are waiting to be picked up by public and private collectors, or which stare at us from numerous Muslim monuments. These are the thousands of Hindu temples and monasteries which either stand on the surface in a state of ruination or lie buried under the earth waiting for being brought to light by the archaeologists spade. These are the thousands of Muslim edifices, sacred as well as secular, which occupy the sites of Hindu temples and monasteries and/or which have been constructed from materials of those monuments.  All these witnesses carry unimpeachable evidence of the violence that was done to them, deliberately and by human hands.

So far no one has cared to make these witnesses speak and relate the story of how they got ruined, demolished, dislocated, dismembered, defaced, mutilated and burnt.  Recent writers on Hindu architecture and sculpture-their tribe is multiplying fast, mostly for commercial reasons-ignore the ghastly wounds which these witnesses show on the very first sight, and dwell on the beauties of the limbs that have survived or escaped injury.  Many a time they have to resort to their imagination for supplying what should have been there but is missing.  All they seem to care for is building their own reputations as historians of Hindu art. If one draws their attention to the mutilations and disfigurements suffered by the subjects under study, one is met with a stunned silence or denounced downright as a Hindu chauvinist out to raise demons from the past4 with the deliberate intention of causing communal strife.

We, therefore, propose to present a few of these witnesses in order to show in what shape they are and what they have to say.

Tordi (Rajasthan)

At Tordi there are two fine and massively built stone baolis or step wells known as the Chaur and Khari Baoris. They appear to be old Hindu structures repaired or rebuilt by Muhammadans, probably in the early or middle part of the 15th century  In the construction of the (Khari) Baori Hindu images have been built in, noticeable amongst them being an image of Kuber on the right flanking wall of the large flight of steps5

Naraina (Rajasthan)

At Naraina is an old pillared mosque, nine bays long and four bays deep, constructed out of old Hindu temples and standing on the east of the Gauri Shankar tank The mosque appears to have been built when Mujahid Khan, son of Shams Khan, took possession of Naraina in 840 A.H. or 1436 A.D To the immediate north of the mosque is the three-arched gateway called Tripolia which is also constructed with materials from old Hindu temples6

Chatsu (Rajasthan)

At Chatsu there is a Muhammadan tomb erected on the eastern embankment of the Golerava tank. The tomb which is known as Gurg Ali Shahs chhatri is built out of the spoils of Hindu buildings On the inside of the twelve-sided frieze of the chhatri is a long Persian inscription in verse, but worn out in several places. The inscription does not mention the name of any important personage known to history and all that can be made out with certainty is that the saint Gurg Ali (wolf of Ali) died a martyr on the first of Ramzan in 979 A.H. corresponding to Thursday, the 17th January, 1572 A.D.7

SaheTh-MaheTh (Uttar Pradesh)

The ruined Jain temple situated in the western portion of MaheTh derives the name Sobhnth from Sambhavantha, the third TrthaMkara, who is believed to have been born at rvast8

Let us now turn our attention to the western-most part of Sobhnth ruins. It is crowned by a domed edifice, apparently a Muslim tomb of the Pathn period9

These remains are raised on a platform, 30 square, built mostly of broken bricks including carved ones This platform, no doubt, represents the plinth of the last Jain temple which was destroyed by the Muhammadan conquerors It will be seen from the plan that the enclosure of the tomb overlaps this square platform. The tomb proper stands on a mass of debris which is probably the remains of the ruined shrine10

3. Sculpture of buff standstone, partly destroyed, representing a TrthaMkara seated cross-legged in the attitude of meditation on a throne supported by two lions couchant, placed on both sides of a wheel

4. Sculpture of buff sandstone, partly defaced, representing a TrthaMkara seated cross-legged (as above)

8. Sculpture of buff sandstone, defaced, representing a TrthaMkara standing between two miniature figures of which that to his right is seated.

9. Sculpture of buff standstone, defaced, representing a TrthaMkara, standing under a parasol

12.  Sculpture of buff standstone, much defaced, representing a male and a female figure seated side by side under a palm tree.

13.  Sculpture of buff standstone, broken in four pieces, and carved with five figurines of TrthaMkaras seated cross-legged in the attitude of meditation.  The central figure has a Nga hood. The sculpture evidently was the top portion of a large image slab.11

Coming to the ruins of a Buddhist monastery in the same complex, the archaeologist proceeds:

In the 23rd cell, which I identify with the store-room, I found half-buried in the floor a big earthen jar This must have been used for storage of corn

This cell is connected with a find which is certainly the most notable discovery of the season. I refer to an inscribed copper-plate of Govindachandra of Kanauj The charter was issued from Vrnas on Monday, the full moon day of shDha Sam. 1186, which corresponds to the 23rd of June, 1130. The inscription records the grant of six villages to the Community of Buddhist friars of whom Buddhabhattraka is the chief and foremost, residing in the great convent of the holy Jetavana, and is of a paramount importance, in as much as it conclusively settles the identification of MaheTh with the city of rvast12

He describes as follows some of the sculptures unearthed at SrAvastI:

S.1. Statuette in grey stone of Buddha seated cross-legged in the teaching attitude on a conventional lotus.  The head, breast and fore-arms as well as the sides of the sculpture are broken.

S.2. Lower portion of a blue schist image of Avalokitevara in the sportive attitude (llsana) on a lotus seat.

S. 3. Image of Avalokitevara seated in ardhaparyanka attitude on a conventional lotus The head and left arms of the main figure are missing.13

Sarnath (Uttar Pradesh)

The report of excavations undertaken in 1904-05 says that the inscriptions found there extending to the twelfth century A.D. show that the connection of Sarnath with Buddhism was still remembered at that date. It continues that the condition of the excavated ruins leaves little doubt that a violent catastrophe accompanied by willful destruction and plunder overtook the place.14 Read this report with the Muslim account that Muhammad GhurI destroyed a thousand idol-temples when he reached Varanasi after defeating Mahrj Jayachandra of Kanauj in 1193 A.D. The fragments that are listed below speak for themselves. The number given in each case is the one adopted in the report of the excavation.

a 42. Upper part of sculptured slab

E.8. Architectural fragment, with Buddha (?) seated cross-legged on lotus

a.22. Defaced standing Buddha, hands missing.

a.17. Buddha head with halo.

a. 8. Head and right arm of image.

E.22. Upper part of image.

E.14. Broken seated figure holding object in left hand.

a.11. Fragment of larger sculpture; bust, part of head, and right overarm of female chauri-bearer.

E.25. Upper part of female figure with big ear-ring.

E.6. Fragment of sculpture, from top of throne (?) on left side.

n.19. Seated figure of Buddha in bhmisparamudr, much defaced.

n.221. Torso, with arms of Buddha in dharmachakramudr.

n.91. Lower part of Buddha seated cross-legged on throne. Defaced.

n.142. Figure of Avalokitevara in relief. Legs from knees downwards wanting.

n.1.  Relief partly, defaced and upper part missing. Buddha descending from the TryastriM Heaven Head and left hand missing.

i.50. Lower half of statue. Buddha in bhmisparamudr seated on lotus.

i.17. Buddha in attitude of meditation on lotus. Head missing.

i.46. Head of Buddha with short curls.

i.44. Head of Avalokitevara, with Amitbha Buddha in headdress.

n.10. Fragment of three-headed figure (? Mrch) of green stone.

i.49. Standing figure of attendant from upper right of image. Half of face, feet and left hand missing.

i.1. Torso of male figure, ornamented.

i.4. Female figure, with lavishly ornamented head. The legs from knees, right arm and left forearm are missing. Much defaced.

i.105. Hand holding Lotus.

n.172. Torso of Buddha.

n.18. Head of Buddha, slightly defaced.

n.16. Female figure, feet missing.

n.97. Lower part of female figure. Feet missing.

n.163. Buddha, seated.  Much defaced.

K.4. Fragment of seated Buddha in blue Gay stone.

K.5. Fragment of large statue, showing small Buddha seated in bhmisparamudr

K.18. Fragment of statue in best Gupta style.

J.S.18. 27 and 28.  Three Buddha heads of Gupta style.

J.S.7. Figure of Kubera in niche, with halo behind head.  Partly defaced.

r.67. Upper part of male figure, lavishly adorned.

r.72.  a and b. Pieces of pedestal with three Buddhas in dhynamudr.

r.28. Part of arm, adorned with armlet and inscription in characters of 10th century, containing Buddhist creed.

B.22. Fragment of Bodhi scene (?); two women standing on conventional rock. Head and right arm of left hand figure broken.

B.33. Defaced sitting Buddha in dhynamudr.

B.75. Lower part of Buddha in bhmisparamudr seated cross-legged on lotus.

B.40. Feet of Buddha sitting cross-legged on lotus on throne.

B.38. Headless defaced Buddha seated cross-legged on lotus in dharmachakramudr.

Y.24. Headless Buddha stated cross-legged on throne in dharmachakramudr.

B.52. Bust of Buddha in dharmachakramudr.  Head missing.

B.16. Standing Buddha in varadamudr; hands and feet broken.

Y.34. Upper part of Buddha in varadamudr.

B.24. Bust of standing Buddha in abhayamudr; left hand and head missing.

B.31. Defaced standing Buddha in abhayamudr. Head and feet missing.

B.48. Feet of standing Buddha with red paint.

B.15. Lower part of AvalokiteSvara seated on lotus in llsana.

Y.23. Bust of figure seated in llsana with trace of halo.

B.59. Legs of figure sitting cross-legged on lotus.

B.7. Female bust with ornaments and high headdress. Left arm and right forearm missing.15

Vaishali (Bihar)

In the southern section of the city the fort of Rj Bisl is by far the most important ruin South-west of it stands an old brick Stpa, now converted into a Dargh The name of the saint who is supposed to have been buried there was given to me as Mrn-J16

Gaur and Pandua (Bengal)

In order to erect mosques and tombs the Muhammadans pulled down all Hindu temples they could lay their hands upon for the sake of the building materials

The oldest and the best known building at Gaur and Pandua is the dna Masjid at Pandua built by Sikandar Shh, the son of Ilys Shh. The date of its inscription may be read as either 776 or 770, which corresponds with 1374 or 1369 A.D The materials employed consisted largely of the spoils of Hindu temples and many of the carvings from the temples have been used as facings of doors, arches and pillars17

Devikot (Bengal)

The ancient city of Kotivarsha, which was the seat of a district (vishaya) under Pundra-vardhana province (bhukti) at the time of the Guptas is now represented by extensive mounds of Bangarh or Ban Rajar Garh The older site was in continuous occupation till the invasion of the Muhammadans in the thirteenth century to whom it was known as Devkot or Devikot. It possesses Muhammadan records ranging from the thirteenth to the sixteenth century18

The Rajbari mound at the South-east corner is one of the highest mounds at Bangarh and. must contain some important remains.  The Dargah of Sultan Pir is a Muhammadan shrine built on the site of an old Hindu temple of which four granite pillars are still standing in the centre of the enclosure, the door jambs having been used in the construction of the gateway.

The Dargah of Shah Ata on the north bank of the Dhal-dighi tank is another building built on the ruins of an older Hindu or Buddhist structure The female figure on the lintels of the doorway now, fixed in the east wall of the Dargah appears to be Tara, from which it would appear that the temple destroyed was Buddhist19

Tribeni (Bengal)

The principal object of interest at Tribeni is the Dargh of Zafar Khn Ghz. The chronology of this ruler may be deduced from the two inscriptions of which one has been fitted into the plinth of his tomb, while the other is inside the small mosque to the west of the tomb. Both refer to him and the first tells us that he built the mosque close to the Dargh, which dates from A.D. 1298; while the second records the erection by him of a Madrasah or college in the time of Shamsuddn Froz Shh and bears a date corresponding to the 28th April, 1313 A.D. It was he who conquered the Hindu Rj of Panduah, and introduced Islam into this part of Lower Bengal The tomb is built out of the spoils taken from Hindu temples20

The eastern portion of the tomb was formerly a maNDapa of an earlier Krishna temple which stood on the same spot and sculptures on the inner walls represent scenes from the RmyaNa and the Mahbhrata, with descriptive titles inscribed in proto-Bengali characters The other frieze shows Vishnu with Lakshm and Sarasvat in the centre, with two attendents, and five avatras of VishNu on both flanks Further clearance work has been executed during the year 1932-33 and among the sculptures discovered in that year are twelve figures of the Sun God, again in the 12th century style and evidently reused by the masons when the Hindu temple was converted into a Muslim structure21

Mandu (Madhya Pradesh)

MND became the capital of the Muhammadan Sultns of Mlv who set about buildings themselves palaces and mosques, first with material pilfered from Hindu temples (already for the most part desecrated and ruined by the iconoclastic fury of their earlier co-religionists) , and afterwards with their own quarried material.  Thus nearly all the traces of the splendid shrines of the ParamAras of MAlvA have disappeared save what we find utilized in the ruined mosques and tombs22

The date of the construction of the Hindola Mahall cannot be fixed with exactitude There can, however, be no doubt that it is one of the earliest of the Muhammadan buildings in MND. From its outward appearance there is no sign of Hindu workmanship but the repairs, that have been going on for the past one year, have brought to light a very large number of stones used in the structure, which appear, to have been taken from some pre-existing Hindu temple. The facing stones, which have been most accurately and smoothly cut on their outer surfaces, bear in very many cases on their inner sides the under faced images of Hindu gods, or patterns of purely Hindu design, while pieces of Hindu carving and broken parts of images are found indiscriminately mixed with the rubble, of which the core of the walls is made.23

Dhar (Madhya Pradesh)

The mosque itself appears from local tradition and from the numerous indications and inscriptions found within it to have been built on the site of, and to a large extent out of materials taken from, a Hindu Temple, known to the inhabitants as Rj Bhojas school. The inference was derived sometime back from the existence of a Sanskrit alphabet and some Sanskrit grammatical forms inscribed in serpentine diagrams on two of the pillar bases in the large prayer chamber and from certain Sanskrit inscriptions on the black stone slabs imbedded in the floor of the prayer chamber, and on the reverse face of the side walls of the mihrb.24

The Lt Masjid built in A.D. 1405, by Dilwar Khn, the founder of the Muhammadan kingdom of Mlv is of considerable interest not only on account of the Iron Lt which lies outside it but also because it is a good specimen of the use made by the Muhammadan conquerors of the materials of the Hindu temples which they destroyed25

Vijayanagar (Karnataka)

During the construction of the new road-some mounds which evidently marked the remains of destroyed buildings, were dug into, and in one of them were disclosed the foundations of a rectangular building with elaborately carved base. Among the debris were lumps of charcoal and calcined iron, probably the remains of the materials used by the Muhammadans in the destruction of the building. The stones bear extensive signs of having been exposed to the action of fire. That the chief buildings were destroyed by fire, historical evidence shows, and many buildings, notably the ViThalaswAmin temple, still bear signs, in their cracked and fractured stone work, of the catastrophe which overtook them26

The most important temple at Vijayanagar from an architectural point of view, is the ViThalaswmin temple. It stands in the eastern limits of the ruins, near the bank of the TuNgabhadra river, and shows in its later structures the extreme limit in floral magnificence to which the Dravidian style advanced This building had evidently attracted the special attention of the Muhammadan invaders in their efforts to destroy the buildings of the city, of which this was no doubt one of the most important, for though many of the other temples show traces of the action of fire, in none of them are the effects so marked as in this.  Its massive construction, however, resisted all the efforts that were made to bring it down and the only visible results of their iconoclastic fury are the cracked beams and pillars, some of the later being so flaked as to make one marvel that they are yet able to bear the immense weight of the stone entablature and roof above27

Bijapur (Karnataka)

No ancient Hindu or Jain buildings have survived at Bijapur and the only evidence of their former existence is supplied by two or three mosques, viz., Mosque No. 294, situated in the compound of the Collectors bungalow, Krimud-d-din Mosque and a third and smaller mosque on the way to the Mangoli Gate, which are all adaptations or re-erections of materials obtained from temples. These mosques are the earliest Muhammadan structures and one of them, i.e., the one constructed by Karimud-d-din, must according to a Persian and Nagari inscription engraved upon its pillars, have been erected in the year 1402 Saka=A.D. 1324, soon after Malik Kafurs conquest of the.  Deccan.28

Badami (Karnataka)

Three stone lintels bearing bas-reliefs were discovered in, course of the clearance at the second gateway of the Hill Fort to the north of the Bhtnth tank at Badami These originally belonged to a temple which is now in ruins and were re-used at a later period in the construction of the plinth of guardroom on the fort.

The bas-reliefs represent scenes from the early life of KRISHNA and may be compared with similar ones in the BADAMI CAVES29

The Pattern of Destruction

The Theology of Islam divides human history into two periods-the Jhiliyya or the age of ignorance which preceded Allahs first revelation to Prophet Muhammad, and the age of enlightenment which succeeded that event. It follows that every human creation which existed in the age of ignorance has to be converted to its Islamic version or destroyed. The logic applies to pre-Islamic buildings as much as to pre-Islamic ways of worship, mores and manners, dress and decor, personal and place names. This is too large a subject to be dealt with at present. What concerns us here is the fate of temples and monasteries that existed on the eve of the Islamic invasion and that came up in the course of its advance.

What happened to many abodes of the infidels is best described by a historian of Vijayanagar in the wake of Islamic victory in 1565 A.D. at the battle of Talikota. The third day, he writes, saw the beginning of the end. The victorious Mussulmans had halted on the field of battle for rest and refreshment, but now they had reached the capital, and from that time forward for a space of five months Vijayanagar knew no rest. The enemy had come to destroy, and they carried out their object relentlessly. They slaughtered the people without mercy; broke down the temples and palaces, and wreaked such savage vengeance on the abode of the kings, that, with the exception of a few great stone-built temples and walls, nothing now remains but a heap of ruins to mark the spot where once stately buildings stood. They demolished the statues and even succeeded in breaking the limbs of the huge Narsimha monolith. Nothing seemed to escape them. They broke up the pavilions standing on the huge platform from which the kings used to watch festivals, and overthrew all the carved work. They lit huge fires in the magnificently decorated buildings forming the temple of Vitthalswamin near the river, and smashed its exquisite stone sculptures. With fire and sword, with crowbars and axes, they carried on day after day their work of destruction. Never perhaps in the history of the world has such havoc been wrought, and wrought so suddenly, on so splendid a city: teeming with a wealthy and industrious population in the full plenitude of prosperity one day, and on the next seized, pillaged, and reduced to ruins, amid scenes of savage massacre and horrors beggaring description30

The Muslim victors did not get time to raise their own structures from the ruins of Vijayanagar, partly because the Hindu Raja succeeded in regrouping his forces and re-occupying his capital and partly because they did not have the requisite Muslim population to settle in that large city; another invader, the Portuguese, had taken control of the Arabian Sea and blocked the flow of fresh recruits from Muslim countries in the Middle East. What would have happened otherwise is described by Alexander Cunningham in his report on Mahoba. As Mahoba was, he writes, for some time the headquarters of the early Muhammadan Governors, we could hardly expect to find that any Hindu buildings had escaped their furious bigotry, or their equally destructive cupidity. When the destruction of a Hindu temple furnished the destroyer with the ready means of building a house for himself on earth, as well as in heaven, it is perhaps wonderful that so many temples should still be standing in different parts of the country. It must be admitted, however, that, in none of the cities which the early Muhammadans occupied permanently, have they left a single temple standing, save this solitary temple at Mahoba, which doubtless owed its preservation solely to its secure position amid the deep waters of the Madan-Sagar. In Delhi, and Mathura, in Banaras and Jonpur, in Narwar and Ajmer, every single temple was destroyed by their bigotry, but thanks to their cupidity, most of the beautiful Hindu pillars were preserved, and many of them, perhaps, on their original positions, to form new colonnades for the masjids and tombs of the conquerors.  In Mahoba all the other temples were utterly destroyed and the only Hindu building now standing is part of the palace of Parmal, or Paramarddi Deva, on the hill-fort, which has been converted into a masjid. In 1843, I found an inscription of Paramarddi Deva built upside down in the wall of the fort just outside this masjid. It is dated in S. 1240, or A.D. 1183, only one year before the capture of Mahoba by Prithvi-Raj Chohan of Delhi. In the Dargah of Pir Mubarak Shah, and the adjacent Musalman burial-ground, I counted 310 Hindu pillars of granite. I found a black stone bull lying beside the road, and the argha of a lingam fixed as a water-spout in the terrace of the Dargah. These last must have belonged to a temple of Siva, which was probably built in the reign of Kirtti Varmma, between 1065 and 1085 A.D., as I discovered an inscription of that prince built into the wall of one of the tombs.31

Many other ancient cities and towns suffered the same tragic transformation. Bukhara, Samarkand, Balkh, Kabul, Ghazni, Srinagar, Peshawar, Lahore, Multan, Patan, Ajmer, Delhi, Agra Dhar, Mandu, Budaun, Kanauj, Biharsharif, Patna, Lakhnauti, Ellichpur, Daulatabad, Gulbarga, Bidar, Bijapur, Golconda-to mention only a few of the more famous Hindu capitals-lost their native character and became nests of a closed creed waging incessant war on a catholic culture. Some of these places lost even their ancient names which had great and glorious associations. It is on record that the Islamic invaders coined and imposed this or that quranic concoction on every place they conquered. Unfortunately for them, most of these impositions failed to stick, going the way they came. But quite a few succeeded and have endured till our own times. Reviving the ancient names wherever they have got eclipsed is one of the debts which Hindu society owes to its illustrious ancestors.

On the other hand, a large number of cities, towns and centres of Hindu civilization disappeared from the scene and their ruins have been identified only in recent times, as in the case of Kpi, Lampaka, Nagarahra, Pushkalvat, UdbhNDapura, Takshil, lor, Brhmanbd, Debal, Nandana, Agroh Virtanagara, Ahichchhatra, rvast, Srnth, Vail, Vikramla, Nland, KarNasuvarNa, PuNDravardhana, Somapura, Jjanagar, DhnyakaTaka, Vijayapur, Vijayanagara, Dvrasamudra. What has been found on top of the ruins in most cases is a mosque or a dargh or a tomb or some other Muslim monument, testifying to Allahs triumph over Hindu Gods. Many more mounds are still to be explored and identified. A survey of archaeological sites in the Frontier Circle alone and as far back as 1920, listed 255 dheris32 or mounds which, as preliminary explorations indicated, hid ruins of ancient dwellings and/or places of worship. Some dheris, which had been excavated and were not included in this count, showed every sign of deliberate destruction.  By that time, many more mounds of a similar character had been located in other parts of the cradle of Hindu culture. A very large number has been added to the total count in subsequent years. Whichever of them is excavated tells the same story, most of the time. It is a different matter that since the dawn of independence, Indian archaeologists functioning under the spell or from fear of Secularism, record or report only the ethnographical stratifications and cultural sequences.33

Muslim historians credit all their heroes with many expeditions each of which laid waste this or that province or region or city or countryside. The foremost heroes of the imperial line at Delhi and Agra such as Qutbud-Dn Aibak (1192-1210 A.D.), Shamsud-Dn Iltutmish (1210-36 A.D.), Ghiysud-Dn Balban (1246-66 A D.), Alud-Dn Khalj (1296-1316 A.D.), Muhammad bin Tughlaq (1325-51 A.D.), Fruz Shh Tughlaq (135188 A.D.) Sikandar Lod (1489-1519 A.D.), Bbar (1519-26 A.D.) and Aurangzeb (1658-1707 A.D.) have been specially hailed for hunting the peasantry like wild beasts, or for seeing to it that no lamp is lighted for hundreds of miles, or for destroying the dens of idolatry and God-pluralism wherever their writ ran. The sultans of the provincial Muslim dynasties-Malwa, Gujarat, Sindh, Deccan, Jaunpur, Bengal-were not far behind, if not ahead, of what the imperial pioneers had done or were doing; quite often their performance put the imperial pioneers to shame. No study has yet been made of how much the human population declined due to repeated genocides committed by the swordsmen of Islam. But the count of cities and towns and villages which simply disappeared during the Muslim rule leaves little doubt that the loss of life suffered by the cradle of Hindu culture was colossal.

Putting together all available evidence-literary and archaeological- from Hindu, Muslim and other sources, and following the trail of Islamic invasion, we get the pattern of how the invaders proceeded vis-a-vis Hindu places of worship after occupying a city or town and its suburbs. It should be kept in mind in this context that Muslim rule never became more than a chain of garrison cities and towns, not even in its heyday from Akbar to Aurangzeb, except in areas where wholesale or substantial conversions had taken place.  Elsewhere the invaders were rarely in full control of the countryside; they had to mount repeated expeditions for destroying places of worship, collecting booty including male and female slaves, and for terrorising the peasantry, through slaughter and rapine, so that the latter may become a submissive source of revenue.  The peasantry took no time to rise in revolt whenever and wherever Muslim power weakened or its terror had to be relaxed for reasons beyond its control.

1. Places taken by assault: If a place was taken by assault-which was mostly the case because it was seldom that the Hindus surrendered- it was thoroughly sacked, its surviving population slaughtered or enslaved and all its buildings pulled down. In the next phase, the conquerors raised their own edifices for which slave labour was employed on a large scale in order to produce quick results. Cows and, many a time, Brahmanas were killed and their blood sprinkled on the sacred sites in order to render them unclean for the Hindus for all time to come. The places of worship which the Muslims built for themselves fell into several categories. The pride of place went to the Jmi Masjid which was invariably built on the site and with the materials of the most prominent Hindu temple; if the materials of that temple were found insufficient for the purpose, they could be supplemented with materials of other temples which had been demolished simultaneously. Some other mosques were built in a similar manner according to need or the fancy of those who mattered. Temple sites and materials were also used for building the tombs of those eminent Muslims who had fallen in the fight; they were honoured as martyrs and their tombs became mazrs and rauzas in course of time. As we have already pointed out, Hindus being great temple builders, temple materials could be spared for secular structures also, at least in the bigger settlements. It can thus be inferred that all masjids and mazrs, particularly the Jmi Masjids which date from the first Muslim occupation of a place, stand on the site of Hindu temples; the structures we see at present may not carry evidence of temple materials used because of subsequent restorations or attempts to erase the evidence. There are very few Jmi Masjids in the country which do not stand on temple sites.

2. Places surrendered: Once in a while a place was surrendered by the Hindus in terms of an agreement that they would be treated as zimmis and their lives as well as places of worship spared. In such cases, it took some time to eradicate the emblems of infidelity. Theologians of Islam were always in disagreement whether Hindus could pass muster as zimmis; they were not People of the Book. It depended upon prevailing power equations for the final decision to go in their favour or against them. Most of the time, Hindus lost the case in which they were never allowed to have any say. What followed was what had happened in places taken by assault, at least in respect of the Hindu places of worship. The zimmi status accorded to the Hindus seldom went beyond exaction of jizya and imposition of disabilities prescribed by Umar, the second rightly-guided Caliph (634-44 A.D.).

3. Places reoccupied by Hindus: It also happened quite frequently, particularly in the early phase of an Islamic invasion, that Hindus retook a place which had been under Muslim occupation for some time. In that case, they rebuilt their temples on new sites. Muslim historians are on record that Hindus spared the mosques and mazrs which the invaders had raised in the interregnum. When the Muslims came back, which they did in most cases, they re-enacted the standard scene vis-a-vis Hindu places of worship.

4. Places in the countryside: The invaders started sending out expeditions into the countryside as soon as their stranglehold on major cities and towns in a region had been secured.  Hindu places of worship were always the first targets of these expeditions. It is a different matter that sometimes the local Hindus raised their temples again after an expedition had been forced to retreat. For more expeditions came and in due course Hindu places of worship tended to disappear from the countryside as well. At the same time, masjids and mazrs sprang up everywhere, on the sites of demolished temples.

5. Missionaries of Islam: Expeditions into the countryside were accompanied or followed by the missionaries of Islam who flaunted pretentious names and functioned in many guises. It is on record that the missionaries took active part in attacking the temples. They loved to live on the sites of demolished temples and often used temple materials for building their own dwellings, which also went under various high-sounding names. There were instances when they got killed in the battle or after they settled down in a place which they had helped in pillaging. In all such cases, they were pronounced shahds (martyrs) and suitable monuments were raised in their memory as soon as it was possible. Thus a large number of gumbads (domes) and ganjs (plains) commemorating the martyrs arose all over the cradle of Hindu culture and myths about them grew apace. In India, we have a large literature on the subject in which Sayyid Slr Masd, who got killed at Bahraich while attacking the local Sun Temple, takes pride of place. His mazAr now stands on the site of the same temple which was demolished in a subsequent invasion. Those Muslim saints who survived and settled down have also left a large number of masjids and dargAhs in the countryside. Almost all of them stand on temple sites.

6. The role of sufis: The saints of Islam who became martyrs or settled down were of several types which can be noted by a survey of their zirats and mazrs that we find in abundance in all lands conquered by the armies of Islam. But in the second half of the twelfth century A.D., we find a new type of Muslim saint appearing on the scene and dominating it in subsequent centuries. That was the sufi joined to a silsila. This is not the place to discuss the character of some outstanding sufis like Mansr al-Hallj, Byazd Bistm, Rm and Attr. Suffice it to say that some of their ancestral spiritual heritage had survived in their consciousness even though their Islamic environment had tended to poison it a good deal. The common name which is used for these early sufis as well as for the teeming breed belonging to the latter-day silsilas, has caused no end of confusion. So far as India is concerned, it is difficult to find a sufi whose consciousness harboured even a trace of any spirituality. By and large, the sufis that functioned in this country were the most fanatic and fundamentalist activists of Islamic imperialism, the same as the latter-day Christian missionaries in the context of Spanish and Portuguese imperialism.

Small wonder that we find them flocking everywhere ahead or with or in the wake of Islamic armies. Sufis of the Chishtyya silsila in particular excelled in going ahead of these armies and acting as eyes and ears of the Islamic establishment. The Hindus in places where these sufis settled, particularly in the South, failed to understand the true character of these saints till it was too late. The invasions of South India by the armies of Alud-Dn Khalj and Muhammad bin Tughlaq can be placed in their proper perspective only when we survey the sufi network in the South. Many sufis were sent in all directions by Nizmud-Dn Awliy, the Chistyya luminary of Delhi; all of them actively participated in jihds against the local population.  Nizmud-Dns leading disciple, Nasrud-Dn Chirg-i-Dihl , exhorted the sufis to serve the Islamic state.  The essence of sufism, he versified, is not an external garment. Gird up your loins to serve the Sultn and be a sufi.34 Nasrud-Dns leading disciple, Syed Muhammad Husain Banda Nawz Gesdarz (1321-1422 A.D.), went to Gulbarga for helping the contemporary Bahmani sultan in consolidating Islamic power in the Deccan. Shykh Nizmud-Dn Awliys dargh in Delhi continued to be and remains till today the most important centre of Islamic fundamentalism in India.

An estimate of what the sufis did wherever and whenever they could, can be formed from the account of a pilgrimage which a pious Muslim Nawwb undertook in 1823 to the holy places of Islam in the Chingleput, South Acort, Thanjavur, Tiruchirapalli and North Arcot districts of Tamil Nadu. This region had experienced renewed Islamic invasion after the breakdown of the Vijayanagar Empire in 1565 A.D. Many sufis had flocked in for destroying Hindu temples and converting the Hindu population, particularly the Qdiryyas who had been fanning out all over South India after establishing their stronghold at Bidar in the fifteenth century. They did not achieve any notable success in terms of conversions, but the havoc they wrought with Hindu temples can be inferred from a large number of ruins, loose sculptures scattered all over the area, inscriptions mentioning many temples which cannot be traced, and the proliferation of mosques, darghs, mazrs and maqbaras.

The pilgrim visited many places and could not go to some he wanted to cover. All these places were small except Tiruchirapalli, Arcot and Vellore. His court scribe, who kept an account of the pilgrimage, mentions many masjids and mazrs visited by his patron. Many masjids and mazrs could not be visited because they were in deserted places covered by forest. There were several graveyards, housing many tombs; one of them was so big that thousands, even a hundred thousand graves could be there. Other notable places were takiys of faqirs, saris, darghs, and several houses of holy relics in one of which a hair of the Holy Prophet is enshrined. The account does not mention the Hindu population except as harsh kafirs and marauders. But stray references reveal that the Muslim population in all these places was sparse. For instance, Kanchipuram had only 50 Muslim houses but 9 masjids and 1 mazr.

The court scribe pays fulsome homage to the sufis who planted firmly the Faith of Islam in this region. The pride of place goes to Hazrat Natthar WalI who took over by force the main temple at Tiruchirapalli and converted it into his khnqh. Referring to the destruction of the Sivalinga in the temple, he observes: The monster was slain and sent to the house of perdition.  His image namely but-ling worshipped by the unbelievers was cut and the head separated from the body. A portion of the body went into the ground. Over that spot is the tomb of WalI shedding rediance till this day.35 Another sufi, Qyim Shh, who came to the same place at a later stage, was the cause of the destruction of twelve temples.36 At Vellore, Hazrat Nr Muhammad Qdir, the most unique man regarded as the invaluable person of his age, was the cause of the ruin of temples which he laid waste. He chose to be buried in the vicinity of the temple which he had replaced with his khnqh.37

It is, therefore, not an accident that the masjids and khAnqAhs built by or for the sufis who reached a place in the first phase of Islamic invasion occupy the sites of Hindu temples and, quite often, contain temple materials in their structures. Lahore, Multan, Uch, Ajmer, Delhi, Badaun, Kanauj, Kalpi, Biharsharif, Maner, Lakhnauti, Patan, Patna, Burhanpur, Daulatabad, Gulbarga, Bidar, Bijapur, Golconda, Arcot, Vellor and Tiruchirapalli- to count only a few leading sufi center-shave many darghs which display evidence of iconoclasm.  Many masjids and darghs in interior places testify to the same fact, namely, that the sufis were, above everything else, dedicated soldiers of Allah who tolerates no other deity and no other way of worship except that which he revealed to Prophet Muhammad.

7. Particularly pious sultans: Lastly, we have to examine very closely the monuments built during the reigns of the particularly pious sultans who undertook to cleanse the land from the vices of infidelity and God-pluralism that had cropped up earlier, either because Islamic terror had weakened under pressure of circumstances or because the proceeding ruler (s) had wandered away from the path of rectitude. Fruz Shh Tughlaq, Sikandar Lod and Aurangzeb of the Delhi-Agra imperial line belonged to this category.  They had several prototypes in the provincial Muslim dynasties at Ahmadabad, Mandu, Jaunpur, Lakhnauti, Gulbarga, Bidar, Ahmadnagar, Bijapur and Golconda. There is little doubt that all masjids and mazrs erected under the direct or indirect patronage of these sultans, particularly in places where Hindu population predominates, stand on the sites of Hindu temples.

A Preliminary Survey

We give below, state-wise and district-wise, the particulars of Muslim monuments which stand on the sites and/or have been built with the materials of Hindu temples, and which we wish to recall as witnesses to the role of Islam as a religion and the character of Muslim rule in medieval India. The list is the result of a preliminary survey. Many more Muslim monuments await examination. Local traditions which have so far been ignored or neglected, have to be tapped on a large scale.

We have tried our best to be exact in respect of locations, names and dates of the monuments mentioned.  Even so, some mistakes and confusions may have remained. It is not unoften that different sources provide different dates and names for the same monument. Many Muslim saints are known by several names, which creates confusion in identifying their mazrs or darghs. Some districts have been renamed or newly, created and a place which was earlier under one district may have been included in another. We shall be grateful to readers who point out these mistakes so that they can be corrected in our major study. This is only a brief summary.
 
 

ANDHRA PRADESH

I. Adilabad District.

Mahur, Masjid in the Fort on the hill. Temple site.


II. Anantpur District.

1. Gooty, Gateway to the Hill Fort. Temple materials used.
2. Kadiri, Jmi Masjid.  Temple site.
3. Konakondla, Masjid in the bazar. Temple materials used.
4. Penukonda

(i) Fort. Temple materials used.
(ii) Masjid in the Fort. Converted Temple.
(iii) Sher Khns Masjid (1546).38 Converted Temple.
(iv) Dargh of Babayya. Converted vara Temple.
(v) Jmi Masjid (1664-65). Temple site.
(xi) Dargh of Shh Fakbrud-Dn (1293-94). Temple site.

5. Tadpatri

(i) Jmi Masjid (1695-96). Temple site.
(ii) Idgh completed in 1725-26. Temple site.

6. Thummala, Masjid (1674-75). Temple site.


III. Cuddapah District

1. Cuddapah

(i) Bhp Shib-k-Masjid (1692). Temple site.
(ii) Idgh (1717-18). Temple site.
(iii) Bahdur Khn-k-Masjid (1722-23). Temple site.
(iv) Dargh of Shh Amnud-Dn Ges Darz (1736-37). Temple site.

2. Duvvuru, Masjid. Temple site.
3. Gandikot, Jmi Masjid (1690-91). Temple site.
4. Gangapuru, Masjid. Temple site.
5. Gundlakunta, Dastgr Dargh. Temple site.
6. Gurrumkonda, Fort and several other Muslim buildings. Temple materials used.
7. Jammalmaduguu, Jmi Masjid (1794-95). Temple site.
8. Jangalapalle, Dargh of Dastgr Swm. Converted Jangam temple.
9. Siddhavatam

(i) Qutb Shh Masjid (restored in 1808). Temple materials use.
(ii) Jmi Masjid (1701). Temple materials used.
(iii) Dargh of Bismillh Khn Qdir. Temple materials used.
(iv) Fort and Gateways. Temple materials used.
(v) Chowk-k-Masjid. Temple site.

10. Vutukuru

(i) Masjid at Naligoto. Temple site.
(ii) Masjid at Puttumiyyapeta. Temple site.


IV. East Godavari District.

Bikkavolu, Masjid. Temple materials used.


V. Guntur District.

1. Nizampatnam, Dargh of Shh Haidr (1609). Temple site
2. Vinukonda, Jmi Masjid (1640-41). Temple site.


VI. Hyderabad District.

1. Chikalgoda, Masjid (1610). Temple site.
2. Dargah, Dargh of Shh Wal (1601-02). Temple site.
3. Golconda

(i) Jmi Masjid on Bl Hissr. Temple site.
(ii) Trmat Masjid. Temple site.

4. Hyderabad

(i) Dargh of Shh Ms Qdir. Temple site.
(ii) Masjid on the Pirulkonda Hill (1690). Temple site.
(iii) Tol Masjid (1671). Temple materials used.
(iv) Dargh of Min Mishk (d. 1680). Temple site.
(v) Dargh of Mumin Chup in Aliybd (1322-23). Temple site.
(vi) Hj Kaml-k-Masjid (1657). Temple site.
(vii) Begum Masjid (1593). Temple site.
(viii) Dargh of Islm Khn Naqshband. Temple site.
(ix) Dargh of Shh Dd (1369-70). Temple site.
(x) Jmi Masjid (1597). Temple site.

4. Maisaram, Masjid built by Aurangzeb from materials of 200 temples demolished after the fall of Golconda.
5. Secunderabad, Qadam RasUl. Temple site.
6. Sheikhpet

(i) Shaikh-k-Masjid (1633-34). Temple site.
(ii) SariwAl Masjid (1678-79). Temple tite.


VII. Karimnagar District.

1. Dharampuri, Masjid (1693). TrikTa Temple site.
2. Elangdal

(i) Mansr Khn-k-Masjid (1525). Temple site.
(ii) Alamgr Masjid (1696). Temple site.

3. Kalesyaram, lamgr Masjid. Temple site.
4. Sonipet, lamgr Masjid. Temple site.
5. Vemalvada, Mazr of a Muslim saint. Temple site.


VIII. Krishna District.

1. Gudimetta, Masjid in the Fort, Temple materials used.
2. Guduru, Jmi Masjid (1497). Temple materials used.
3. Gundur, Jmi Masjid. Converted temple.
4. Kondapalli

(i) Masjid built in 1482 on the site of a temple after Muhammad Shh BahmanI had slaughtered the Brahmin priests on the advice of Mahmd Gawn, the great Bahman Prime Minister, who exhorted the sultan to become a Ghz by means of this pious performance.
(ii) Mazr of Shh Abdul Razzq. Temple site.

5. Kondavidu

(i) Masjid (1337). Temple materials used.
(ii) Dargh of Barandaula. Temple materials used.
(iii) Qadam Sharf of dam. Converted temple.

6. Machhlipatnam

(i) Jmi Masjid. Temple site.
(ii) Idgh. Temple site.

7. Nandigram, Jmi Masjid. Temple site.
8. Pedana, Iamail-k-Masjid. Temple site.
9. Rajkonda, Masjid (1484). Temple site.
10. Tengda, Masjid. Temple site.
11. Turkpalem, Dargh of Ghlib Shahd. Temple site.
12. Vadpaili, Masjid near NarsiMhaswmn Temple. Temple materials used.
13. Vijaywada, Jmi Masjid. Temple site.


IX. Kurnool District.

1. Adoni

(i) Jmi Masjid (1668-69). Materials of several temples used.
(ii) Masjid on the Hill. Temple materials used.
(iii) Fort (1676-77). Temple materials used.

2. Cumbum

(i) Jmi Masjid (1649). Temple site.
(ii) Gachinl Masjid (1729-30). Temple site.

3. Havli, Jmi Masjid. Temple materials used.
4. Karimuddula, Dargh. Akkadevi Temple materials used.
5. Kottakot, Jmi Masjid (1501). Temple site.
6. Kurnool

(i) Pr Shib-k-Gumbad (1637-38). Temple site.
(ii) Jmi Masjid (1667). Temple site.
(iii) Ll Masjid (1738-39). Temple site.

7. Pasupala, Kaln Masjid. Temple site.
8. Sanjanmala, Masjid. Temple sites.
9. Siddheswaram, Ashurkhna. Temple materials used.
10. Yadavalli, Mazr and Masjid. Temple sites.
11. Zuhrapur, Dargh of Qdir Shh Bukhr. Temple site.


X. Mahbubnagar District.

1. Alampur, Qal-k-Masjid. Temple materials used.
2. Jatprole, Dargh of Sayyid Shh Darwish. Temple materials used.
3. Kodangal

(i) Dargh of Hazrat Nizmud-DIn. Temple site.
(ii) Jmi Masjid. Temple site.

4. Kundurg, Jmi Masjid (1470-71). Temple site.
5. Pargi, Jmi Masjid (1460). Temple site.
6. Somasila, Dargh of Kamlud-Dn Baba (1642-43) Temple site.


XI. Medak District.

1. Andol, Old Masjid. Temple site.
2. Komatur, Old Masjid. Temple site.
3. Medak

(i) Masjid near Mubrak Mahal (1641). VishNu Temple site.
(ii) Fort, Temple materials used.

4. Palat, Masjid. Temple site.
5. Patancheru

(i) Jmi Masjid. Temple materials used.
(ii) Dargh of Shykh Ibrhm known as Makhdmji (1583). Temple site.
(iii) Ashrufkhna. Temple site.
(iv) Fort (1698). Temple materials used.


XII. Nalgonda District.

1. Devarkonda

(i) Qutb Shh Masjid. Temple materials used.
(ii) Dargh of Sharfud-Din (1579). Temple site.
(iii) Dargh of Qdir Shh Wal (1591). Temple site.

2. Ghazinagar, Masjid (1576-77). Temple site.
3. Nalgonda

(i) Garh Masjid. Temple site.
(ii) Dargh of Shh Latf. Temple site.
(iii) Qutb Shh Masjid (Renovated in 1897). Temple site.

4. Pangal, lamgr Masjid. Temple site.


XIII. Nellore District.

1. Kandukuru, Four Masjids. Temple sites.
2. Nellore, Dargh named Dargmitt. Akkaslvara Temple materials used.
3. Podile, Dargh. Temple site.
4. Udayagiri

(i) Jmi Masjid (1642-43). Temple materials used.
(ii) Chhot Masjid (1650-51). Temple materials used.
(iii) Fort. Temple materials used.


XIV. Nizambad District.

1. Balkonda

(i) Patthar-k-Masjid. Temple site.
(ii) Idgh. Temple site.

2. Bodhan

(i) Deval Masjid. Converted Jain temple.
(ii) Patthar-k-Masjid. Temple site.
(iii) lamgr Masjid (1654-55). Temple site.

3. Dudki, Ashrufkhna. Temple materials used.
4. Fathullapur, Muaskar Masjid (1605-06). Temple site.


XV. Osmanabad District.

Ausa, Jmi Masjid (1680-81). Temple site.


XVI. Rangareddy District.

Maheshwar, Masjid (1687).  Madanna Pandits Temple site.


XVII. Srikakulam District

1. Icchapuram, Several Masjids. Temple sites.
2. Kalingapatnam, DargAh of Sayyid Muhammad Madn Awliy (1619-20). Temple materials used.
3. Srikakulam

(i) Jmi Masjid (1641- 42). Temple site.
(ii) Dargh of Bande Shh Wal (1641- 42). Temple site.
(iii) Atharwl Masjid (1671-72). Temple site.
(iv) Dargh of Burhnud-Dn Awliy. Temple site.


XVIII. Vishakhapatnam District.

1. Jayanagaram, Dargh. Temple site.
2. Vishakhapatnam, Dargh of Shh Madn. Temple site.


XIX. Warangal District.

Zafargarh, Jmi Masjid. Temple site.


XX. West Godavari District.

1. Eluru

(i) Fort. Temple materials used.
(ii) Sawi Masjid. Converted temple.
(iii) Qzis House. Somevara Temple materials used.

2. Nidavolu, Masjid. Mahdeva Temple materials used.
3. Rajamundri, Jmi Masjid (1324). Converted VeNugoplaswmin Temple.


 

ASSAM

District Kamrup
Hajo

(i) Po Masjid (1657). Temple site.
(ii) Mazr of a Muslim saint who styled himself Sultn Ghiysud-Dn Balban. Temple site.


 

BENGAL

I. Bankura District.

Lokpura, Mazr of Ghz Ismil. Converted Venugopala temple.


II. Barisal District.

Kasba, Masjid. Temple site.


III. Birbhum District.

1. Moregram, Mazr of Sayyid Bb. Temple materials used.
2. Patharchapuri, Maz of Dt, or Mahbb Shib. Temple site.
3. Rajnagar, Several Old Masjids. Temple sites.
4. Sakulipur, Jmi Masjid. Temple site.
5. Siyan, Dargh of Makhdm Shh (1221). Materials of many temples used.


IV. Bogra District.

Mahasthan

(i) Dargh and Masjid of Shh Sultn Mahswr. Stands on the ruins of a temple.
(ii) Majid on ildev Ghat. Temple materials used.


V. Burdwan District.

1. Inchalabazar, Masjid (1703). Temple site.
2. Kasba, Rj, Masjid. Temple materials used.
3. Kalna

(i) Dargh of Shh Majlis (1491-93). Temple site.
(ii) ShhI Masjid (1533). Temple site.

4. Mangalkot, Jmi Masjid (1523-24). Temple site.
5. Raikha, Talb-wl Masjid. Temple site.
6. Suata

(i) Dargh of Sayyid Shh Shahd Mahmd Bahman. Buddhist Temple materials site.
(ii) Masjid (1502-02). Temple site.


VI. Calcutta District.

Bania Pukur, Masjid built for Alud-Dn Alul Haqq (1342). Temple materials used.


VII. Chatgaon District.

Dargh of Badr Makhdm. Converted Buddhist Vihra.


VIII. Dacca District.

1. Dacca

(i) Tomb of Bb Par. Temple materials used.
(ii) Saif Khn-k-Masjid. Converted temple.
(iii) Churihatt Masjid. Temple materials used.

2. Narayanganj, Qadam Rasl Masjid. Temple site.
3. Rampal

(i) Masjid. Converted temple.
(ii) Dargh of Bb. Adam Shahd (1308). Temple materials used.

4. Sonargaon, Old Masjid. Temple materials used.


IX. Dinajpur District.

1. Basu-Bihar, Two Masjids. On the ruins of a Buddhist Vihra.
2. Devatala

(i) Dargh of Shykh Jallud-Dn Tabrizi, Suhrawardyyia sufi credited in Muslim histories with the destruction of many, temples. Temple site.
(ii) Jmi Masjid (1463). VishNu Temple site.

3. Devikot

(i) Dargh and Masjid of Pr Atullah Shh (1203). Temple materials used.
(ii) Dargh of Shh Bukhr. Temple materials used.
(iii) Dargh of Pr Bahud-Dn. Temple materials used.
(iv) Dargh of Shh Sultn Pr. Temple materials used.

4. Mahisantosh, Dargh and Masjid. On the site of a big VishNu Temple.
5. Nekmard, Mazr of Nekmard Shh. Temple site.


X. Faridpur District.

Faridpzir, Mazr of Fard Shh. Temple site.


XI. Hooghly District.

1. Jangipura, Mazr of Shahd Ghz. Temple materials used.
2. Pandua

(i) Masjid. Temple materials used.
(ii) Mazr of Shh Safiud-Dn. Temple site.
(iii) Fath Minr. Temple materials used.

3. Santoshpur, Masjid near Molla Pukur (153-310). Temple site.
4. Satgaon, Jmi Masjid. Temple materials used.
5. Tribeni

(i) Zafar Khn-k-Masjid (1298). Temple materials used.
(ii) Dargh of Zafar Khn. Temple materials used.
(iii) Masjid (1459). Temple site.


XII. Howrah District.

Jangalvilas, Pr Shib-k-Masjid. Converted temple.


XIII. Khulna District.

1. Masjidkur

(i) Sht Gumbaz. Temple materials used.
(ii) Mazr of Khanj Ali or Khn Jahn. Temple site.

2. Salkhira, Dargh of Ma Chmp. Temple materials used.


XIV. Malda District.

1. Gangarampur

(i) Dargh of Shh At. iva Temple site.
(ii) Masjid on the river bank (1249). Temple site.

2. Gaur, Muslim city built on the site and with the ruins of LakshmaNvat, Hindu capital destroyed by the Muslims at the end of the twelfth century A.D. Temple materials have been used in the following monuments:

(i) Chhot Son Masjid.
(ii) Qadam Rasl Masjid (1530)
(iii) Tntipr Masjid (1480)
(iv) Lttan Masjid (1475)
(v) Bad Son Masjid (1526)
(vi) Dargh of Makhadm Akh Sirj Chisht, disciple of Nizmud-Dn Awliya of Delhi (1347)
(vii) Darsbr or College of Theology.
(viii) Astn of Shh Nimatullh.
(ix) Chmkatt Masjid (1459).
(x) Chikk Masjid.
(xi) Gunmant Masjid.  Converted temple.
(xii) Dkhil Darwz.
(xiii) Kotwl Darwz.
(xiv) Fruz Minr.
(xv) ChaNDipur Darwz.
(xvi) Brdur Masjid.
(xvii) Lukchuri Masjid.
(xviii) Gumt Darwz.

3. Malda

(i) Jmi Masjid (1566). Temple materials used.
(ii) Sak Mohan Masjid (1427). Temple site.

4. Pandua, Another Muslim city built with the ruins of LakshmaNvat. Temple materials have been used in the following monuments.

(i) dina Masjid (1368)
(ii) Yaklakh Masjid.
(iii) Chheh Hazri or Dargh of Nr Qutb-i-lam (1415).
(iv) Bis Hazr or Khnqh of Jallud-Dn Tabriz (1244).
(v) Son Masjid.
(vi) Barn-like Masjid.
(vii) Qadam Rasl.


XV. Midnapur District.

1. Gagneswar, Karambera Garh Masjid (1509). iva Temple site.
2. Hijli, Masnad-i-l-k -Masjid. Temple site.
3. Kesiari, Masjid (1622). Mahdeva Temple materials used.
4. Kharagpur, Mazr of Pr Lohni. Temple site.


XVI. Murshidabad District.

1. Chuna Khali, Barbak-k-Masjid. Temple site.
2. Murshidabad, Temple materials have been used in the following monuments:

(i) Katr Masjid.
(ii) Motjhl Lake Embankments.
(iii) Sang Dln.
(iv) Mahal Sar.
(v) Alvard Khn-k-Masjid.
(vi) Hazrdur Mahal.

3. Rangamati, Dargh on the Rkshas DNg. Stands on the ruins of a Buddhist Vihra.


XVII. Noakhali District.

Begamganj, Bajr Masjid. Converted temple.


XVIII. Pabna District.

Balandu, Madrasa. Converted Buddhist Vihra.


XIX. Rajshahi District.

1. Bhaturia, Masjid. iva Temple materials used.
2. Kumarpura, Mazr of Mukarram Shh. Converted temple.
3. Kusumbha, Old Masjid (1490-93). Constructed entirely of temple materials.


XX. Rangpur District.

Kamatpur

(i) BaD Dargh of Shh Ismil Ghz. Temple site.
(ii) Idgh on a mound one mile away. Temple materials used.


XXI. Sylhet District.

1. Baniyachung, Famous Masjid. Temple site.
2. Sylhet

(i) Masjid of Shh Jall. Temple site.
(ii) Mazrs of Shh Jall and many of his disciples. Temple sites.


XXII. 24-Parganas District.

1. Barasat, Mazr of Pr Ekdil Shib. Temple site.
2. Berchampa, Dargh of Pr GorchNd. Temple site.


 

BIHAR

I. Bhagalpur District.

1. Bhagalpur

(i) Dargh of Hazrat Shhbz (1502). Temple site.
(ii) Masjid of Mujahidpur (1511-15). Temple site.
(iii) Dargh of Makhdm Shh (1615). Temple site.

2. Champanagar

(i) Several Mazrs. On ruins of Jain temples.
(ii) Masjid (1491). Jain Temple site.

3. Sultanganj, Masjid on the rock on the river bank. Temple site.


II. Gaya District.

1. Amthua, Masjid (1536). Temple site.
2. Gaya, Shh Masjid in Nadirganj (1617). Temple site.
3. Kako, Dargh of Bb Kamlo. Temple site.


III. Monghyr District.

1. Amoljhori, Muslim Graveyard. VishNu Temple site.
2. Charuanwan, Masjid (1576). Temple site.
3. Kharagpur

(i) Masjid (1656-57). Temple site.
(ii) Masjid (1695-96). Temple site.

4. Monghyr

(i) Fort Gates. Temple materials used.
(ii) Dargh of Shh Nafa Chisht (1497-98). Temple site.


IV. Muzaffarpur District.

Zaruha, MamN-BhNj-k- Mazr. Temple materials used.


V. Nalanda District.

1. Biharsharif, Muslim capital built after destroying UdaNDapura which had a famous Buddhist Vihra. Most of the Muslim monuments were built on the site and from materials of temples. The following are some of them:

(i) Dargh of Makhdmul Mulk Sharfud-Dn. (d. 1380).
(ii) BaD Dargh.
(iii) Chhot Dargh.
(iv) Brdar.
(v) Dargh of Shh Fazlullh GosN.
(iv) Mazr of Malik Ibrhim Bayy on Pr PahD.
(vii) Kabriud-Dn-k -Masjid (1353).
(viii) Mazr of Sayyid Muhammad Siwistni.
(ix) Chhot Takiy containing the Mazr of Shh Dwn Abdul Wahhb.
(x) Dargh of Shh Qumais (1359-60).
(xi) Masjid in Chandpur Mahalla.
(xii) Jmi Masjid in Paharpur Mahalla.

2. Parbati, Dargh of Hj Chandar or ChNd Saudgar. Temple materials used.
3. Shaikhupura, Dargh of Shykh Shib. Temple materials used.


VI. Patna District.

1. Hilsa

(i) Dargh of Shh Jumman Madryya (repaired in 1543). Temple site.
(ii) Masjid. (1604-05). Temple site.

2. Jana, Jmi Masjid (1539). Temple site.
3. Kailvan, Dargh and Masjid. Temple site.
4. Maner, All Muslim monuments stand on temple sites. The following are prominent among them:

(i) BaD Dargh of Sultnul Makhdm Shh Yhy Maner.
(ii) Dargh of Makhdm Daulat Shh.
(iii) Jmi Masjid.
(iv) Mazr of Hj Nizmud-Dn.

5. Muhammadpur, Jmi Masjid (1510-11). Temple site.
6. Patna

(i) Patthar-k-Masjid (1626). Temple materials used.
(ii) Beg Hajjm-k-Masjid (1510-11). Temple materials used.
(iii) Muslim Graveyard outside the Qiladari. On the ruins of Buddhist Vihras.
(iv) Dargh of Shh Mr Mansr. On the ruins of a Buddhist Stpa.
(v) Dargh of Shh Arzni. On the site of a Buddhist Vihra.
(vi) Dargh of Pr Damariy. On the site of a Buddhist Vihra.
(vii) Mirza Msm-k-Masjid (1605). Temple materials used.
(viii) Meetan Ght-k-Masjid (1605). Temple site.
(ix) Katr Masjid of Shista Khn. Temple site.
(x) Khwja Ambar Masjid (1688-89). Temple site.
(xi) Bbuganj Masjid (1683-86). Temple site.
(xii) Sher-Shh Masjid near Purab Darwaza. Temple site.
(xiii) Chamn Ght-k-Masjid. Temple site.

7. Phulwarisharif

(i) Dargh of Shh Pashmnposh. Temple site.
(ii) Dargh of Minhjud-Dn Rast. Temple site.
(iii) Dargh of Ll Min. Temple site.
(iv) Sang Masjid (1549-50). Temple site.


VII. Purnea District.

1. Hadaf, Jmi Masjid. Temple site.
2. Puranea, Masjid in Keonlpura. Temple site.


VIII. Saran District.

1. Chirand, Masjid (1503-04). Temple site.
2. Narhan, Jmi Masjid. Temple site.
3. Tajpur-Basahi Mazr of Khwja Bdshh. Temple materials used.


IX. Shahabad District.

1. Rohtasgarh

(i) Masjid of Aurangzeb. Part of a temple converted.
(ii) Mazr of Sq Sultn. Temple site.

2. Sasaram, Mazr of Chandan Shahd Pr. Temple site.


X. Vaishali District.

1. Amer, Mazr of Pr Qattl. Temple materials used.
2. Chehar

(i) Fort. Temple materials used.
(ii) Jmi Masjid. Temple materials used.

3. Hajipur

(i) Hj Ilys-k- Masjid. Converted temple.
(ii) Dargh of Barkhurdr Awliy. Temple site.
(iii) Dargh of Pr Shattr. Temple site.
(iv) Dargh of Hjul Harmain. Temple site.
(v) Dargh of Pr Jallud-Dn. Temple site.

4. Basarh

(i) DargAh of Pr Mrn. On top of a Buddhist Stpa.
(ii) Mazr of Shykh Muhammad Faizullh Ali alias Qzin Shattr. Temple site.
(iii) Graveyard. Many tombs built with temple materials.
(iv) Masjid. Temple site.


XI. District to be determined.

1. Hasanpura, Mazr of Makhdm Hasan. On the site of a Buddhist Stpa,
2. Jhangira, Jmi Masjid. Temple site.


 

DELHI

Islamic invaders destroyed the Hindu cities of Indarpat and Dhillik with their extensive suburbs and built seven cities successively. The following Muslim monuments stand on the site of Hindu temples; temple materials can be seen in some of them.

I. Mehrauli

1. Quwwatul Islm Masjid (1198).
2. Qutb Mnr.
3. Maqbara of Shamsud-Dn Iltutmish (1235.)
4. Dargh of Shykh Qutbud-Dn Bakhtyr Kk (d. 1236).
5. Jahz Mahal.
6. AlI Darwz.
7. AlI Mnr.
8. Madrasa and Maqbara of Alud-Dn Khalj.
9. Maqbara of Ghiyud-Dn Balban.
10. Masjid and Mazr of Shykh Fazlullh known as Jaml-Kaml.
11. MaDh Masjid.


II. Sultan Ghari

Maqbara of Nsirud-Dn, son of Sultn Shamsud-Dn Iltutmish (1231).


III. Palam

Bbr (Ghazanfar) Masjid (1528-29).


IV. Begumpur

1. Masjid.
2. Bijai Mandal.
3. Klu Sari-k-Masjid.
4. Mazr of Shykh Najbud-Dn Mutwakkal Chisht (d. 1272).


V. Tughlaqabad

Maqbara of Ghiysud-Dn Tughlaq.


VI. Chiragh-Delhi

1. Dargh of Shykh Nasrud-Dn Chirgh-i-Dehl (d. 1356).
2. Maqbara of Bahlul Lod.


VII. Nizamud-DIn

1. Dargh and Jamat-Khna Masjid of Shykh Nizmud-Dn Awliy (d. 1325).
2. Kaln Masjid.
3. ChauNsaTh-Khamb .
4. Maqbara of Khn-i-Jahn Tilangn.
5. Chill of Nizmd-Dn Awliy.
6. Ll Mahal.


VIII. Hauz Khas

1. Maqbara and Madrasa of Fruz Shh Tughlaq.
2. Dd-Pot-k-Maqbara.
3. Biran-k-Gumbad.
4. Chhot and Sakr Gumt.
5. Nl Masjid (1505-06).
6. Idgh (1404-00).
7. Bgh-i-lam-k- Gumbad (1501).
8. Mazr of Nrud-Dn Mubrak Ghaznaw (1234-35).


IX. Malviyanagar

1. Ll Gumbad or the Mazr of Shykh Kabrud-Dn Awly (1397).
2. Mazr of Shykh Alud-Dn (1507).
3. Mazr of Shykh Ysuf Qattl (d. 1527).
4. Khirk Masjid.


X. Lodi Gardens

1. Maqbara of Muhammad Shh.
2. BaD Gumbad Masjid (1494).
3. Shsh Gumbad.
4. Maqbara of Sikandar Lod.


XI. Purana Qila

1. Sher Shh Gate.
2. Qal-i-Kuhna Masjid.
3. Khairul Manzil Masjid.


XII. Shahjahanabad

1. Kl Masjid at Turkman Gate.
2. Maqbara of Razi Sultn.
3. Jmi Masjid on Bhojala PahD.
4. Ghat or Zainatul Masjid.
5. Dargh of Shh Turkmn (1240).


XIII. Ramakrishnapuram

1. Tn Burj Maqbara.
2. Malik Munr-k-Masjid.
3. Wazrpur-k-Gumbad.
4. Mund Gumbads.
5. Bar-Lo-k-Gumbad.
6. Barje-k-Gumbad.


XIV. The Ridge

1. Mlch Mahal,
2. Bhl Bhatiyri-k-Mahal.
3. Qadam Sharf.
4. Chauburz Masjid.
5. Pr Ghaib.


XV. Wazirabad

Masjid and Mazr of Shh lam.


XVI. South Extension
1. Kle Khn-k-Gumbad.
2. Bhre Khn-k-Gumbad.
3. Chhote Khn-k-Gumbad.
4. BaDe Khn-k-Gumbad.

XVII. Other Areas

1. Maqbara of Mubrak Shh in Kotla Mubarakpur.
2. Kushk Mahal in Tin Murti.
3. Sundar Burj in Sundarnagar.
4. Jmi Masjid in Kotla Fruz Shh.
5. Abdun-Nab-k- Masjid near Tilak Bridge.
6. Maqbara of Raushanra Begum.


 

DIU

Jmi Masjid (1404). Temple site.


 

GUJARAT

I. Ahmadabad District.

1. Ahmadabad, Materials of temples destroyed at Asaval, Patan and Chandravati were used in the building of this Muslim city and its monuments. Some of the monuments are listed below :

(i) Palace and Citadel of Bhadra.
(ii) Ahmad Shh-k-Masjid in Bhadra.
(iii) Jmi Masjid of Ahmad Shh.
(iv) Haibat Khn-k-Masjid.
(v) Rn Rpmat-k-Masjid.
(vi) Rn B Harr-k-Masjid.
(vii) Malik SraNg-k-Masjid.
(viii) Mahfz Khn-k-Masjid.
(ix) Sayyid lam-k-Masjid.
(x) Pattharwli or Qutb Shh-k-Masjid.
(xi) Sakar Khn-k-Masjid.
(xii) Bb Ll-k-Masjid.
(xiii) Shykh Hasan Muhammad Chisht-k-Masjid.
(xiv) Masjid at Isnpur.
(xv) Masjid and Mazr of Malik Shabn.
(xvi) Masjid and Mazr of Rn Spr (Sabarai).
(xvii) Masjid and Mazr of Shh lam at Vatva.
(xviii) Maqbara of Sultn Ahmad Shh I.

2. Dekwara, Masjid (1387). Temple site.
3. Dholka

(i) Masjid and Mazr of Bahlol Khn Ghz. Temple site.
(ii) Mazr of Barkat Shahd (1318). Temple site.
(iii) Tanka or Jmi Masjid (1316). Temple materials used.
(iv) Hilll Khn Qz-k-Masjid (1333). Temple materials used.
(v) Khrn Masjid (1377). Converted Bvan Jinlaya Temple.
(vi) Kl Bazar Masjid (1364). Temple site.

4. Isapur, Masjid. Temple site.
5. Mandal

(i) Sayyid-k-Masjid (1462). Temple site.
(ii) Jmi Masjid. Temple site.

6. Paldi, Patthar-k-Masjid. Temple site.
7. Ranpur, Jmi Masjid (1524-25). Temple site.
8. Sarkhej

(i) Dargh of Shykh Ahmad Khatt Ganj Baksh (d. 1445). Temple materials used.
(ii) Maqbara of Sultn Mahmd BegaD. Temple materials used.

9. Usmanpur, Masjid and Mazr of Sayyid Usmn. Temple site.


II. Banaskantha District.

1. Haldvar, Mazr of Ln Shh and Gjar Shh. Temple site.
2. Halol

(i) Ek Mnr-k-Masjid. Temple site.
(ii) PNch MuNhD-k-Masjid. Temple site.
(iii) Jmi Masjid (1523-24). Temple site.

3. Malan, Jmi Masjid (1462). Temple materials used.


III. Baroda District.

1. Baroda

(i) Jmi Masjid (1504-05) Temple site.
(ii) Dargh of Pr Amr Thir with its Ghz Masjid. Temple site.
(iii) Mazr of Pr GhoD (1421-23). Temple site.

2. Dabhoi

(i) Dargh of PNch Bb. Temple materials used.
(ii) Mazr of M Dhokr. Temple materials used.
(iii) Fort. Temple materials used.
(iv) Hira, Baroda, MabuDa and NandoDi Gates. Temple materials used.
(v) MahuNDi Masjid. Temple materials used.

3. Danteshwar, Mazr of Qutbud-Dn. Temple site.
4. Sankheda, Masjid (1515-16). Temple site.


IV. Bharuch District.

1. Amod, Jmi Masjid. Temple materials used.
2. Bharuch

(i) Jmi Masjid (1321). Brahmanical and Jain temple materials used.
(ii) Ghaznav Masjid (1326). Temple site.
(iii) Idgh (1326). Temple site.
(iv) ChunwD Masjid (1458). Temple site.
(v) Qz-k-Masjid (1609). Temple site.
(vi) Mazr of Makhdm Sharfud-Dn (1418). Temple site.

3. Jambusar, Jmi Masjid (1508-09). Temple site.
4. Tankaria, BaD or Jmi Masjid (1453). Temple site.


V. Bhavnagar District.

1. Botad, Mazr of Pr Hamr Khan. Temple site.
2. Tolaja, Idgh and Dargh of Hasan Pr. Temple site.
3. Ghoda, Masjid (1614). Temple site.


VI. Jamnagar District.

1. Amran, Dargh of Dawal Shh. Temple materials used.
2. Bet Dwarka, Dargh of Pr Kirmn. Temple site.
3. Dwarka, Masjid (1473). Temple site.


VII. Junagarh District.

1. Junagarh

(i) BorwD Masjid (1470). Temple site.
(ii) Jmi Masjid in Uparkot. Jain Temple site.
(iii) Masjid at M GaDhech. Converted Jain temple.

2. Loliyana, Dargh of Madr Shh. Temple site.
3. Kutiana, Jmi Masjid. Temple site.
4. Mangrol

(i) Rahmat Masjid. Temple materials used.
(ii) Jmi Masjid (1382-83). Temple materials used.
(iii) JnI Jail-k-Masjid (1385-86). Temple site.
(iv) Revl Masjid (1386-87). Temple materials used.
(v) Masjid at Bandar. Temple materials used.
(vi) Dargh near Revli Masjid. Temple materials used.
(vii) Mazr of Sayyid Sikandar alias Makhdm Jahniy (1375). Temple materials used.
(viii) GaDhi Gate. Temple materials used.

5. Somnath Patan

(i) Bzr Masjid (1436). Temple site.
(ii) Chndn Masjid (1456). Temple site.
(iii) Qz-k-Masjid (1539). Temple site.
(iv) PathnwaDi Masjid (1326). Temple site.
(v) Muhammad Jamdr-k-Masjid (1420). Temple site.
(vi) MiThshh Bhang-k-Masjid (1428). Temple site.
(vii) Jmi Masjid. Temple materials used.
(viii) Masjid made out of the SomanAtha Temple of Kumrapla.
(ix) Masjid at the back of the Somantha Temple. Converted temple.
(x) Mot Darwza. Temple materials used.
(xi) Mpur Masjid on the way to Veraval. Temple materials used.
(xii) Dargh of Manglri Shh near Mpur Masjid. Temple materials used.
(xiii) Shahd Mahmd-k-Masjid (1694). Temple site.

6. Vanasthali, Jmi Masjid. Converted VAmana Temple.
7. Veraval

(i) Jmi Masjid (1332). Temple site.
(ii) Nagna Masjid (1488). Temple site.
(iii) Chowk Masjid. Temple site.
(iv) MNDv Masjid. Temple site.
(v) Mazr of Sayyid Ishq or Maghrib Shh. Temple site.
(vi) Dargh of Muhammad bin Hj Giln. Temple site.


VIII. Kachchh District.

1. Bhadreshwar

(i) Solkhamb Masjid. Jain Temple materials used.
(ii) ChhoT Masjid. Jain Temple materials used.
(iii) Dargh of Pr Ll Shhbz. Jain Temple materials used.

2. Bhuj

(i) Jmi Masjid. Temple site.
(ii) Gumbad of Bb Guru. Temple site.

3. Munra or MunDra, Seaport built from the materials of Jain temples of Bhadreshwar which were demolished by the Muslims; its Safed Masjid which can be seen from afar was built from the same materials.


IX. Kheda District.

1. Kapadwani

(i) Jmi Masjid (1370-71). Temple site.
(ii) Sm Shahd-k-Masjid (1423). Temple site.

2. Khambhat

(i) Jmi Masjid (1325). Jain Temple materials used.
(ii) Masjid in Qaziwara (1326). Temple site.
(iii) Masjid in Undipet (1385). Temple site.
(iv) Sadi-i-Awwal Masjid (1423). Temple site.
(v) Fujr-k-Masjid (1427). Temple site.
(vi) Mazr of Umar bin Ahmad Kzrn. Jain Temple materials used.
(vii) Mazr of Qbil Shh. Temple site.
(viii) Mazr of Shykh Al Jaulq known as Parwz Shh (1498). Temple site.
(ix) Mazr of Shh Bahlol Shahd. Temple site.
(x) Maqbara of Ikhtyrud-Daula (1316). Temple site.
(xi) IdgAh (1381-82). Temple site.

3. Mahuda, Jmi Masjid (1318). Temple site.
4. Sojali, Sayyid Mubrak-k-Masjid. Temple site.


X. Mehsana District.

1. Kadi

(i) Masjid (1384). Temple site.
(ii) Masjid (1583). Temple site.

2. Kheralu, Jmi Masjid (1409-10). Temple site.
3. Modhera, Rayadi Masjid. Temple site.
4. Munjpur, Jmi Masjid (1401-02). Temple site.
5. Patan

(i) Jmi Masjid (1357). Temple materials used.
(ii) Pht Mahalla or Pinjar Kot-k-Masjid (1417). Temple site.
(iii) Bzr-k-Masjid (1490). Temple site.
(iv) Masjid in a field that was the Sahasralinga Talav. Temple materials used.
(v) Masjid and Dargh of Makhdm Husmud-Dn Chisht, disciple of Shykh Nizmud-Dn Awliya of Delhi. Temple materials used.
(vi) GmD Masjid (1542). Temple site.
(vii) RangrezoN-k- Masjid (1410-11). Temple site.
(viii) Dargh of Shykh Muhammad Turk Kshgar (1444-45). Temple site.
(ix) Dargh of Shykh Fard. Converted temple.

6. Sami, Jmi Masjid (1404). Temple site.
7. Sidhpur, Jmi Masjid. Built on the site and with the materials of the Rudra-mahlaya Temple of Siddharja JayasiMha.
8. Una, Dargh of Hazrat Shh Pr. Temple site.
9. Vijapur

(i) Kaln Masjid (1369-70). Temple site.
(ii) Mansr Masjid. Temple site.


XI. Panch Mahals District.

1. Champaner

(i) Jmi Masjid (1524). Temple site.
(ii) Bhadra of Mahmd BegD. Temple site.
(iii) Shahr-k-Masjid.  Temple site.

2. Godhra, Masjid. Temple site.
3. Pavagadh

(i) Masjid built on top of the Dev Temple.
(ii) PNch MuNhD Masjid. Temple site.
(iii) Jmi Masjid. Temple site,

4. Rayania, Masjid (1499-1500). Temple site.


XII. Rajkot District.

1. Jasdan, Dargh of Kl Pr. Temple materials used.
2. Khakhrechi

(i) Jmi Masjid. Temple site.
(ii) Dargh of Kaml Shh Pr. Temple site.

3. Mahuva, Idgah (1418). Temple site.
4. Malia, Jmi Masjid. Temple site.
5. Morvi, Masjid (1553). Temple site.
6. Santrampur, Masjid (1499-1500). Temple site.


XIII. Sabarkantha District.

1. Hersel, Masjid (1405). Temple site.
2. Himmatnagar, Moti-Mohlat Masjid in Nani Vorwad (1471). Temple site.
3. Prantij

(i) Fath or Tekrewl Masjid (1382). Temple site.
(ii) Dargh of Sikandar Shh Shahd (d. 1418). Temple materials used.


XIV.  Surat District.

1. Navasari

(i) Jmi Masjid (1340). Temple site.
(ii) Shh Masjid. Temple site.

2. Rander, The Jains who predominated in this town were expelled by Muslims and all temples of the former were converted into mosques. The following mosques stand on the site of and/or are constructed with materials from those temples:

(i) Jmi Masjid.
(ii) Nit Naur Masjid.
(iii) Min-k-Masjid.
(iv) Khrw Masjid.
(v) Munsh-k-Masjid.

3. Surat

(i) Mirz Smi-k-Masjid (1336). Temple site.
(ii) Nau Sayyid Shib-k-Masjid and the nine Mazrs on Gopi Talav in honour of nine Ghzs. Temple sites.
(iii) Fort built in the reign of Farrukh Siyr. Temple materials used.
(iv) Gopi Talav (1718). Temple materials used.

4. Tadkeshwar, Jmi Masjid (1513-14). Temple site.


XV. Surendranagar District.

1. Sara, DarbargaDh-k -Masjid (1523). Temple site.
2. Vad Nagar, Masjid (1694). Stands on the site of the Htakevara Mahdeva temple.
3. Wadhwan, Jmi Masjid (1439). Temple site.


 

HARYANA

I. Ambala District.

1. Pinjor, Temple materials have been used in the walls and buildings of the Garden of Fidi Khn.
2. Sadhaura

(i) Masjid built in Khalj times. Temple materials used.
(ii) Two Masjids built in the reign of Jahngr. Temple materials used.
(iii) QzioN-k-Masjid (1640). Temple site.
(iv) Abdul Wahb-k-Masjid. Temple site.
(v) Dargh of Shh Qumais. Temple site.


II. Faridabad District.

1. Faridabad, Jmi Masjid (1605). Temple site.
2. Nuh, Masjid (1392-93). Temple materials used.
3. Palwal

(i) Ikrmwl or Jm Masjid (1221). Temple materials used.
(ii) Idgh (1211). Temple material Is used.
(iii) Mazr of Sayyid Chirgh. Temple site.
(iv) Mazr of Ghz Shihbud-Dn. Temple site.
(v) Mazr of Sayyid Wrah. Temple site.


III. Gurgaon District.

1. Bawal, Masjid (1560). Temple site.
2. Farrukhnagar, Jmi Masjid (1276). Temple site.
3. Sohna

(i) Masjid (1561). Temple site.
(ii) Mazrs known as Kl and Ll Gumbad. Temple sites.


IV. Hissar District.

1. Barwala, Masjid (1289). Temple site.
2. Fatehabad

(i) Idgh of Tughlaq times. Temple materials used.
(ii) Masjid built by Humnyn (1539). Temple site.

3. Hansi

(i) Idgh built in the reign of Shamsud-Dn Iltutmish. Temple site.
(ii) JulhoN-k-Masjid built in the same reign. Temple site.
(iii) B Al Baksh Masjid (1226). Temple site.
(iv) dina Masjid (1336). Temple site.
(v) Masjid in the Fort (1192). Temple site.
(vi) Shahd-Ganj Masjid. Temple site.
(vii) Humyn-k-Masjid. Temple materials used.
(viii) Dargh of Nimatullh Wal with adjascent Brdar. Temple materials used.
(ix) Dargh of B Al Qalandar (1246). Temple site.
(x) Dargh of Shykh Jallud-Dn Haqq (1303). Temple site.
(xi) Dargh of Mahammad Jaml Shh. Temple site.
(xii) Dargh of Wilyat Shh Shahd (1314). Temple site.
(xiii) Chahr Qutb and its Jmi Masjid. Temple materials used.
(xiv) Fort and City Gates. Temple materials used.

4. Hissar, This city was built by Fruz Shh Tughlaq with temple materials brought mostly from Agroha which had been destroyed by Muhammad Ghur in 1192.

(i) Lt-k-Masjid. Temple materials used.
(ii) Humayns Jmi Masjid (1535). Temple site.
(iii) Masjid and Mazr of Bahlul Lod. Temple site.
(iv) Humyns Masjid outside Delhi Gate (1533). Temple site.
(v) Dargh of Bb Prn Pr Pdshh. Temple materials used.
(vi) Fort of Fruz Shh Tughlaq. Temple materials used.
(vii) Jahz Mahal. Converted Jain Temple.
(viii) Gjar Mahal. Temple materials used.

5. Sirsa

(i) Masjid in the Mazr of Imm Nsir (1277). Temple materials used.
(ii) Bbar Masjid in the Sarai (1530). Temple site.
(iii) QzIzda-k-Masjid (1540). Temple site.


V. Karnal District.

Panipat

(i) Masjid opposite the Mazr of B Al Qalandars mother (1246). Temple site.
(ii) Bbar Masjid in Kbul Bgh (1528-29). Temple site.
(iii) Mazr of Shykh Jallud-Dn (1499). Temple site.
(iv) Mazr of B Al Qalandar (1660). Temple site.


VI. Kurukshetra District.

1. Kaithal

(i) Dargh of Shykh Salhud-Dn Abul Muhammad of Balkh (d. 1246). Temple materials used.
(ii) Shh Wilyat-k-Masjid (1657-58). Temple site.
(iii) Jmi Masjid. Temple materials used.
(iv) Madrasa. Temple materials used.

2. Kurukshetra, Madrasa on the Tila. Temple site.
3. Thanesar

(i) Dargh and Madrasa of Shykh Chill or Chehal Bannur. Temple materials used.
(ii) Pathari Masjid near Harsh-k-Tl. Temple materials used.
(iii) Chnwl Masjid. Temple materials used.


VII.  Mahendergarh District.

Narnaul, Mazar of Pr Turk Shahd or Shh Wilyat (d. 1137). Temple site.


VIII. Rohtak District.

1. Jhajjar, Kl Masjid (1397). Temple site.
2. Maham,

(i) PirzdoN-k-Masjid built in Bbars reign (1529). Temple site.
(ii) Humyns Jmi Masjid (1531). Temple site.
(iii) QasiyoN-k-Masjid. Temple site.
(iv) Masjid (1669). Temple site.
(v) Daulat Khn-k-Masjid (1696). Temple site.

3. Rohtak

(i) Dn Masjid (1309). Temple materials used.
(ii) Masjid in the Fort (1324). Temple site.
(iii) Bbars Masjid-i-Khurd (1527-28). Temple site.
(iv) Bbars RjptoN-k-Masjid. (1528). Temple site.
(v) Second or Humyns Masjid in the Fort (1538). Temple site.
(vi) Masjid at Gokaran (1558). Temple site.
(vii) DogroN Wl Masjid (1571). Temple site.
(viii) Mast Khn-k-Masjid (1558-59) Temple site.


IX. Sonepat District.

1. Gohana, Dargh of Shh Ziud-Dn Muhammad. Temple site.
2. Sonepat

(i) Masjid and Mazr of Imm Nsir (renovated in 1277). Temple site.
(ii) Bbars ShykhzdoN-k- Masjid (1530). Temple site.
(iii) Mazr of Khwja Khizr. Temple site.
(iv) Humyn's Masjid (1538). Temple site.


 

HIMACHAL PRADESH

Kangra, Jahngr Gate. Temple materials used.


 

KARNATAKA

I. Bangalore District.

1. Dodda-Ballapur, Dargh of Muhiud-Dn Chisht of Ajodhan (d. 1700). Temple materials used.
2. Hoskot

(i) Dargh of Saball Shib. Temple site.
(ii) Dargh of Qsim Shib. Converted temple.


II. Belgaum District.

1. Belgaum

(i) Masjid-i-Safa in the Fort (1519). Temple site.
(ii) Jmi Masjid (1585-86). Temple site.
(iii) Mazr of Badrud-Dn Shh in the Fort (1351-52). Temple site.

2. Gokak, Masjid. Temple site.
3. Hukeri

(i) Mn Sahib-k-Darg h (1567-68). Temple site.
(ii) Kl Masjid (1584). Temple materials used.

4. Kudachi

(i) Dargh of Makhdm Shh Wal. Temple site.
(ii) Mazr of Shykh Muhammad Sirjud-Dn Prdd. Temple site.

5. Madbhavi, Masjid. iva Temple materials used.
6. Raibag, Jmi Masjid. Temple site,
7. Sampgaon, Masjid. Temple site.


III. Bellary District.

1. Bellary, Masjid built by Tp Sultn (1789-90). Temple site.
2. Hampi, Masjid and Idgh in the ruins of Vijayanagar. Temple materials used.
3. Hospet, Masjid in Bazar Street built by Tp Sultn (1795-96). Temple site.
4. Huvinhadgalli, Fort. Temple materials used.
5. Kanchagarabelgallu, Dargh of Husain Shh. Temple site.
6. Kudtani, Dargh. Durgevara Temple materials used.
7. Sandur, Jmi Masjid. Temple site.
8. Siruguppa, Ld Khn Masjid (1674). Temple site.
9. Sultanpuram, Masjid on the rock. Temple site.


IV. Bidar District.

1. Bidar, Ancient Hindu city transformed into a Muslim capital. The following monuments stand on temple sites and/or temple materials have been used in their construction:

(i) Sol Khamb Masjid (1326-27).
(ii) Jmi Masjid of the Bahmans.
(iii) Mukhtr Khn-k-Masjid (1671).
(iv) Kl Masjid (1694).
(v) Masjid west of Kl Masjid (1697-98).
(vi) Farrah-Bgh Masjid, 3 km outside the city (1671).
(vii) Dargh of Hazrat Khallullh at Ashtr (1440).
(viii) Dargh of Shh Shamsud-Dn Muhammad Qdir known as Multn Pdshh.
(ix) Dargh of Shh Waliullh-al- Husain.
(x) Dargh of Shh Zainul-Dn Ganj Nishn.
(xi) Dargh and Masjid of Mahbb Subhn.
(xii) Mazr of Ahmad Shh Wal at Ashtr (1436).
(xiii) Mazr of Shh Abdul Azz (1484).
(xiv) Takht Mahal.
(xv) Gagan Mahal.
(xvi) Madrasa of Mahmd Gawn.

2. Chandpur, Masjid (1673-74). Temple site.
3. Chillergi, Jmi Masjid (1381). Temple site.
4. Kalyani, Capital of the Later Chlukyas. All their temples were either demolished or converted into mosques.

(i) Jmi Masjid (1323). Temple site.
(ii) Masjid (1406). Temple site.
(iii) Masjid in Mahalla Shahpur (1586-87). Temple site.
(iv) Dargh of Maulna Yqb. Temple site.
(v) Dargh of Sayyid Pr Psh. Temple site.
(vi) Fort Walls and Towers. Temple materials used.
(vii) Nawbs Bungalow. Temple materials used.

5. Kohir

(i) Jmi Masjid. Temple site.
(ii) Darghs of two Muslim saints. Temple sites.

6. Shahpur, Masjid (1586-87). Temple site.
7. Udbal, Jmi Masjid (1661-62). Temple site.


V. Bijapur District.

1. Afzalpur, Mahal Masjid. Trikta Temple materials used.
2. Badami, Second Gateway of the Hill Fort. VishNu Temple materials used.
3. Bekkunal, Dargh outside the village. Temple materials used.
4. Bijapur, Ancient Hindu city transformed into a Muslim capital. The following monuments are built on temple sites and/or temple materials have been used in their construction:

(i) Jmi Masjid (1498-99).
(ii) Karmud-Dn-k- Masjid in the rk (1320-21).
(iii) ChhoT Masjid on way to Mangoli Gate.
(iv) Khwja Sambal-k-Masjid (1522-13).
(v) Makka Masjid.
(vi) AnD Masjid.
(vii) Zangr Masjid.
(viii) Bukhr Masjid (1536-37).
(ix) Dakhn Idgah (1538-39).
(x) Masjid and Rauza of Ibrhm II Adil Shh (1626).
(xi) Gol Gumbaz or the Rauza of Muhammad Adil Shh.
(xii) JoD-Gumbad.
(xiii) Nau-Gumbad.
(xiv) Dargh of Shh Ms Qdiri.
(xv) Gagan Mahal.
(xvi) Mihtar Mahal.
(xvii) Asar Mahal.
(xvii) Anand Mahal and Masjid (1495).
(xviii) St Manzil.
(xix) rk or citadel.
(xx) Mazr of Pr Mabar Khandyat.
(xxi) Mazr of Pr Jumn.
(xxii) Dargh of Shh Mrnji Shamsul-Haq Chisht on Shahpur Hill.

5. Hadginhali, Dargh. Temple materials used.
6. Horti, Masjid. Temple materials used.
7. Inglesvara, Muhiud-Dn Shib-k-Masjid. Munip Samdhi materials used.
8. Jirankalgi, Masjid. Temple materials used.
9. Kalleeri, Masjid near the village Chawdi. Keavadeva Temple materials used.
10. Mamdapur

(i) Jmi Masjid. Temple site.
(ii) Mazr of Kaml Shib. Temple site.
(iii) Mazr of Sadle Shib of Makka. Temple site.

11. Naltvad, Masjid (1315). Temple materials used.
12. Pirapur, Dargh. Temple site.
13. Salvadigi, Masjid. Temple materials used.
14. Sarur, Masjid. Temple materials used.
15. Segaon, Dargh. Temple site.
16. Takli, Masjid. Temple materials used.
17. Talikota

(i) Jmi Masjid. Jain Temple materials used.
(ii) PNch Pr-k-Masjid and Ganji-i-Shah dn. Temple site.

18. Utagi, Masjid (1323). Temple site.


VI. Chickmanglur District.

Baba Budan, Mazr of Dd Hayt Mr Qalandar. Datttreya Temple site.


VII. Chitaldurg District.

Harihar, Masjid on top of Harharevara Temple.


VIII. Dharwad District.

1. Alnavar, Jmi Masjid. Jain Temple materials used.
2. Bankapur

(i) Masjid (1538-39). Temple site.
(ii) Jmi Masjid (1602-03). Temple site.
(iii) Graveyard with a Masjid. Temple site.
(iv) Dongar-k-Masjid. Temple site.
(v) Dargh of Shh Alud-Dn-Qdir . Temple site.
(vi) Fort (1590-91). Temple materials used,

3. Balur, Masjid. Temple materials used.
4. Dambal, Mazr of Shh Abdullh Wal. Temple materials used.
5. Dandapur, Jmi Masjid. Temple materials used.
6. Dharwad, Masjid on Mailarling Hill. Converted Jain Temple.
7. Hangal

(i) Jmi Masjid. Temple site.
(ii) Masjid in the Fort. Temple site.

8. Hubli, 17 Masjids built by Aurangzeb in 1675 and after Temple sites.
9. Hulgur

(i) Dargh of Sayyid Shh Qdir. Temple site.
(ii) Masjid near the above Dargh. Temple site.

10. Lakshmeshwar, Kl Masjid. Temple site.
11. Misrikot, Jmi Masjid (1585-86). Temple site.
12. Mogha, Jmi Masjid. dityadeva Temple materials used.
13. Ranebennur, Qal, Masjid (1742). Temple site.
14. Savanur

(i) Jmi Masjid reconstructed in 1847-48. Temple site.
(ii) Dargh of Khairullh Shh Bdshh. Temple site.
(iii) Dargh and Masjid of Shh Kaml. Temple site.


IX. Gulbarga District.

1. Chincholi, Dargh. Temple site.
2. Dornhalli, Masjid. Temple site.
3. Firozabad

(i) Jmi Masjid (1406). Temple site.
(ii) Dargh of Shh Khalfatur-Rahm n Qdir (d. 1421). Temple site.

4. Gobur, Dargh. Ratnarya Jinlaya Temple materials used.
5. Gogi

(i) Arabaa Masjid (1338). Temple site.
(ii) Dargh of Pr Chand, Husain (1454). Temple site.
(iii) Chill of Shh Habbullh (1535-36). Temple site.

6. Gulbarga, Ancient Hindu city converted into a Muslim capital and the following among other monuments built on temple sites and/or with temple materials:

(i) Kaln Masjid in Mahalla Mominpura (1373).
(ii) Masjid in Shah Bazar (1379).
(iii) Jmi Masjid in the Fort (1367).
(iv) Masjid-i-Langar in the Mazr of Hj Zaida.
(v) Masjid near the Farman Talab (1353-54).
(vi) Dargh of Sayyid Muhammad Husain Band, Nawz Ges Darz Chisht, disciple of Shykh Nasrud-Dn Mahmd ChrAgh-i-Dihl .
(vii) Mazr of Shykh Muhammad Sirjud-Dn Junaid.
(viii) Mazr of Hj Zaida of Maragh (1434)
(ix) Mazr of Sayyid Husainud-Dn Tigh-i-Barhna (naked sword).
(x) Fort Walls and Gates.

7. Gulsharam, Dargh and Masjid of Shh Jall Husain (1553). Temple site.
8. Malkhed, Dargh of Sayyid Jafar Husain in the Fort. Temple site.
9. Sagar

(i) Dargh of Sf Sarmast Chisht, disciple of Nzmud-Dn Awlya of Delhi. Temple site.
(ii) Dargh of Munawwar Bdshh. Temple site.
(iii) shur Khna Masjid (1390-91). Temple site.
(iv) Fort (1411-12). Temple materials used.

10. Seram, Jmi Masjid. Temple materials used.
11. Shah Bazar, Jmi Masjid. Temple site.
12. Shahpur

(i) Dargh of Ms Qdir (1667-68). Temple site.
(ii) Dargh of Muhammad Qdir (1627). Temple site.
(iii) Dargh of IbrAhIm Qdir. Temple site.

13. Yadgir

(i) thn Masjid (1573). Temple site.
(ii) Jmi Masjid. Temple site.


X. Kolar District.

1. Mulbagal, Dargh of Hyder Wal. Temple site.
2. Nandi, Masjid east of the village. Temple site.


XI. Mandya District.

1. Pandavapur, Masjid-i-Ala. Temple site.
2. Srirangapatnam, Jmi Masjid built by Tp Sultn (1787). Stands on the site of the janeya Temple.


XII. Mysore District.

Tonnur, Mazr said to be that of Sayyid Slr Masd (1358). Temple materials used.


XIII. North Kanara District.

1. Bhatkal, Jmi Masjid (1447-48). Temple site.
2. Haliyal, Masjid in the Fort. Temple materials used.


XIV. Raichur District.

1. Jaladurga, Dargh of Muhammad Sarwar. Temple site.
2. Kallur, Two Masjids. Temple sites.
3. Koppal

(i) Jmi Masjid. Temple site.
(ii) Arabo-k-Masjid. Temple site.
(iii) Dargh of Sailn Psh. Temple site.

4. Manvi, Masjid (1406-07). Temple materials used.
5. Mudgal

(i) Masjid at Kati Darwaza of the Fort. Temple materials used.
(ii) Na Masjid (1583-84). Temple site.
(iii) Two Ashur Khnas built by Ali I Adil Shah. Temple site.
(iv) Fort (1588). Temple materials used.

6. Raichur

(i) Yak Mnr Masjid in the Fort (1503). Temple site.
(ii) Daftar Masjid in the Fort (1498-99). Temple materials used.
(iii) Hazr Baig Masjid (1511-12). Temple site
(iv) Jmi Masjid in the Fort (1622-23). Temple materials used.
(v) Jmi Masjid in Sarafa Bazar (1628-29). Temple site.
(vi) Kl Masjid in the Fort. Temple materials used.
(vii) Masjid inside the Naurangi. Temple materials used.
(viii) Chowk-k-Masjid. Temple site.
(ix) Jahniy Masjid (1700-01). Temple site.
(x) Dargh of Shh Mr Hasan and Mr Husain. Temple materials used.
(xi) Dargh of Sayyid Abdul Husain at Sikandari Gate. Temple site.
(xii) Pch Bb Dargh at Bala Hissar. Temple materials used.
(xiii) Mazr of Pr Sailn Shh in the Fort. Temple materials used.
(xiv) Fort. Temple materials used.

7. Sindhanur, lamgr Masjid near the Gumbad. Temple site.
8. Tawagera, Dargh of Band Nawz. Temple site.


XV. Shimoga District.

1. Almel, Mazr of Ghlib Shh. Temple site.
2. Basavpatna, Masjid near the Fort. Temple site.
3. Nagar, Masjid built by Tp Sultn. Temple materials used.
4. Sante Bennur, Randhull Khn-k-Masjid (1637). Materials of the Ragantha Temple used.
5. Sirajpur, Masjid built on top of the Chhinnakeava Temple for housing Prophet Muhammads hair.  Images defaced and mutilated. Part of the temple used as a laterine.


XVI. Tumkur District,

1. Sira

(i) Ibrhm Rauza with many Mazrs and a Jmi Masjid. Converted temples.
(ii) Dargh of Malik Rihn. Temple site.

2. Sirol, Jmi Masjid (1696). Temple site.


 

KASHMIR

1. Amburher, Zirat of Farrukhzd Shib. Temple materials used.
2. Badgam

(i) Zirat of Abban Shh in Ghagarpur. Temple site.
(ii) Zirat of Sayyid Swlia Shh in Narbai. Temple site.

3. Bijbehra, Masjid. Temple site.
4. Bumzu

(i) Zirat of Bb Bmdn. Converted Bhmakeava. Temple.
(ii) Zirat of Ruknud-Dn Rish. Converted temple.
(iii) Zirat farther up the valley. Converted temple.

5. Gulmarg, Zirat of Bb Imm Dn Rish. Temple materials used.
6. Gupkar, Zirat of Jyesther and other monuments. Temple materials used.
7. Hutmar, Jmi Masjid. Temple materials used.
8. Khonmuh, Several Zirats. Temple materials used.
9. Kitshom, Two Masjids. Stand amidst temple ruins.
10. Loduv, Zirat. Temple materials used.
11. Lohar, Zirat of Sayyid Chnan Ghz. Temple site.
12. Lokbavan, Garden Pavilion. Temple materials from Lokabhavana Trtha used.
13. Marsus, Zirat of Shh Abdullh. Temple site.
14. Pampor

(i) Zirat of Mr Muhammad Hamadni. VishNusvmin Temple materials used.
(ii) Several other Zirats. Temple materials used.

15. Pandrethan, Masjid. Meruvardhanasw min Temple materials used.
16. Sangar, Zirat. Temple materials used.
17. Sar, Zirat of Khwja Khzr. Temple materials used.
18. Shalmar Garden, Pavilion on the 4th terrace. Temple materials used.
19. Srinagar, Ancient Hindu city converted into a Muslim capital. The following monuments stand on temple sites and most of them have been constructed with temple materials.

(i) Zirat of Bahud-Dn SAhib. Jayasvmin Temple converted.
(ii) Graveyard and its Gate below the 4th Bridge.
(iii) Dargh and Masjid of Shh-i-Hamadn in Kalashpura. On the site of the Kl Temple.
(iv) Nau or Patthar-k-Masjid built by Nr Jahn.
(v) Graveyard near the Nau Masjid.
(vi) Zirat of Malik Shib in Didd Mar. On the site of Didd Matha.
(vii) Masjid and Madrasa and Graveyard near Vicharnag. On the site and from materials of the Vikramevara Temple.
(viii) Madn Shib-k-Masjid at Zadibal.
(ix) Zirat south-west of Madn Shib-k-Masjid.
(x) Jmi Masjid originally built by Sikandar Butshikan and reconstructed in later times.
(xi) Zirat named Nr Pirastn. NarendrasAmin Temple converted.
(xii) Maqbara of Sultn Zainul-Abidin.
(xiii) Maqbara of Zainul-bidins mother, queen of Sikandar Butshikan.
(xiv) Zirat of Pr Hj Muhammad Shib, south-west of the Jmi Masjid. VishNu RaNasvmin Temple converted.
(xv) Zirats of Makhdm Shib and Akhun Mulla on Hari Parbat. Bhmasvamin Temple converted.
(xvi) Masjid of Akhun Mulla built by Dr Shikoh.
(xvii) Zirat of Pr Muhammad Basr in Khandbavan. On the site of Skandabhavana Vihra.
(xviii) Graveyard north-east of Khandbavan.
(xix) Dargh of Pr Dastgr.
(xx) Dargh of Naqshband.
(xxi) Ramparts and Kathi Gate of the Fort built by Akbar.
(xxii) Stone embankments on both sides and for several miles of the Jhelum river as its passes through Srinagar.
(xxiii) Astna of MIr Shamsud-Dn Syed Muhammad Irq.

20. Sudarbal, Zirat of Hazrat Bl. Temple site.
21. Tapar, Bund from Naidkhai to Sopor built by Zainul-bidin. Materials from Narendrevara Temple used.
22. Theda, Zirat near Dampor. Temple materials used.
23. Vernag, Stone enclosure built by Jahngr. Temple materials used.
24. Wular Lake

(i) Suna Lanka, pleasure haunt built by Zainul-bidn in the midst of the Lake. Temple materials used.
(ii) Dargh of Shukrud-DIn on the western shore. Temple site.

25. Zukur, Several Zirats and Maqbaras. Temple materials used.
 
 

KERALA

1. Kollam, (Kozhikode District), Jmi Masjid. Temple materials used.
2. Palghat, Fort built by Tp Sultn. Temple materials used.
 
 

LAKSHADWEEP

1. Kalpeni, Muhiud-Dn-Pall Masjid. Temple site.
2. Kavarati, Prot-Pall Masjid. Temple site.
 
 

MADHYA PRADESH

I. Betul District.

1. Pattan, Dargh of Sulaimn Shh. Temple site.
2. Umri, Dargh of Rahmn Shh. Temple site.


II. Bhopal District.

1. Berasia, Masjid (1716). Temple site.
2. Bhopal, Jmi Masjid built by Qudsia Begum. SabhmaNDala Temple site.


III. Bilaspur District.

Khimlasa

(i) Dargh of Pch Pr. Temple site.
(ii) Nagn Mahal. Temple site.
(iii) Idgh. Temple site.
(iv) Masjid with three domes. Temple site.


IV. Damoh District.

(i) Dargh of Ghz Min. Temple site.
(ii) Fort. Temple materials used.


V. Dewas District.

1. Dewas

(i) Masjid (1562). Temple site.
(ii) Masjid (1705). Temple site.
(iii) Masjid (1707). Temple site.

2. Gandhawal, Graveyard inside the village. Jain Temple materials used.
3. Sarangpur

(i) Madrasa (1493). Temple site.
(ii) Jmi Masjid (1640). Temple site.
(iii) Pr Jn-k-Bht Masjid. Temple site.
(iv) Fort. Temple materials used.

4. Unchod, Idgh (1681). Temple site.


VI. Dhar District.

1. Dhar, Capital of Rj Bhoja Paramra converted into a Muslim capital. The following Muslim monuments tell their own story:

(i) Kaml Maul Masjid. Temple materials used.
(ii) Lt Masjid (1405). Jain Temple materials used.
(iii) Mazr of Abdullh Shh Changl. Temple site.

2. Mandu, An ancient Hindu city converted into a Muslim capital and the following monuments built on the sites of and/or with materials from temples

(i) Jmi Masjid (1454).
(ii) Dilwar Khn-k-Masjid (1405).
(iii) ChhoT Jmi Masjid.
(iv) Pahredro-k-Masjid (1417).
(v) Malik Mughs-k-Masjid.
(vi) Maqbara of Hushng Shh.
(vii) Jahz Mahal.
(viii) Tawl Mahal.
(ix) Nhar Jharokh.
(x) Hindol Mahal.
(xi) Rupmat Pavilion.
(xii) Ashraf Mahal.
(xiii) D-k-Chhot Bahen-k-Mahal.
(xiv) Bz Bahdur-k-Mahal.
(xv) Nlkanth Mahal.
(xvi) Chhappan Mahal.
(xvii) Fort and Gates.
(xviii) Gad-Shh-k-Mahal.
(xix) Hammm Complex.


VII. Dholpur District.

Bari, Masjid (1346 or 1351). Temple site.


VIII. East Nimar District.

1. Bhadgaon, Jmi Masjid (1328). Temple site.
2. Jhiri, Masjid (1581). Temple site.
3. Khandwa, Masjid (1619-20). Temple site.


IX. Guna District.

1. Chanderi, Muslim city built from the ruins of the old or Budhi Chanderi nearby. The following monuments stand on the sites of temples and/or have temple materials used in them:

(i) Masjid (1392).
(ii) Mot Masjid.
(iii) Jmi Masjid.
(iv) PchmhD Masjid.
(v) Qurbni Chabtr.
(vi) Dargh of Mew Shh.
(vii) Mazr known as BaD Madrasa.
(viii) Mazr known as ChhoT Madrasa.
(ix) Rj-k-Maqbara.
(x) Rn-k-Maqbara.
(xi) Batts BoD Masjid (1488).
(xii) Hthpur-k-Masjid (1691).
(xiii) Mazr of Shykh Burhanud-Dn.
(xiv) Fort.
(xv) Kushk Mahal.
(xvi) Idgh (1495).

2. Pipari, Masjid (1451). Temple site.
3. Shadoragaon, Jmi Masjid (1621-22). Temple site.


X. Gwalior District.

1. Gwalior

(i) Dargh of Muhammad Ghaus. Temple site.
(ii) Jmi Masjid near Gjar Mahal. Temple site.
(iii) Masjid near Ganesh Gate. Gawlp Temple site.
(iv) Graveyards on east and west of the Fort. Temple sites.

2. Jajao, Ll Patthar-k-Masjid, Temple materials used.
3. Mundrail, Several Masjids (1504). Temple sites.
4. Sipri, Several Masjids and Mazrs. Temple materials used.


XI. Indore District.

1. Depalpur, Masjid (1670). Temple site.
2. Maheshwar

(i) ShhI Masjid. Temple site.
(ii) Fort. Temple materials used.

3. Mehdipur

(i) Mazr of Godr Shh. Temple site.
(ii) Fort. Temple materials used.

4. Sanwar, Masjid (1674). Temple site.


XII. Mandsaur District.

1. Kayampur

(i) Masjid (1676). Temple site.
(ii) Idgh (1701-02). Temple site.

2. Mandsaur

(i) Jmi Masjid. Temple materials used.
(ii) Fort. Temple materials used.

3. Rampura, Pdshh BoDi. Temple materials used.


XIII. Morena District.

Alapur

(i) Masjid (1561-62). Temple site.
(ii) Masjid (1586-87). Temple site.
(iii) Masjid (1697-98). Temple site.


XIV. Panna District.

1. Ajaigarh, Fort. Temple materials used.
2. Nachna, Masjid. Converted temple.


XV. Raisen District.

Palmyka Mandir-Masjid. Temple materials used.


XVI. Rajgarh District.

Khujner, Mazr of Dwal Shh.  Temple materials used.


XVII. Ratlam District.

Barauda, Masjid (1452-56). Temple site.


XVIII. Sagar District.

1. Dhamoni, Dargh of Bl Jat Shh (1671). Temple site.
2. Kanjia

(i) Khn Shib-k-Masjid (1594-95). Temple site.
(ii) Idgh (1640). Temple site.
(iv) Alamgr Masjid (1703). Temple site.
(iii) Qal-k-Masjid (1643). Temple site.

3. Khimlasa, Pch Pr. Temple site.


XIX. Sehore District.

Masjid (1332). Temple site.


XX. Shajapur District.

Agartal, Masjid. Temple site.


XXI. Shivpuri District.

1. Narod, Zanzr Masjid. Temple site.
2. Narwar

(i) Dargh of Shh Madr. Temple site.
(ii) Jmi Masjid (1509). Temple materials used.
(iii) Masjid inside Havapaur Gate (1509). Temple site.

3. Pawaya

(i) Fort. Temple materials used.
(ii) Several other Muslim monuments. Temple materials used.

4. Ranod

(i) Masjid (1331-32). Temple site.
(ii) Masjid (1441). Temple site.
(iii) Masjid (1633). Temple site.
(iv) Masjid (1640). Temple site.

5. Shivpuri, Jmi Masjid (1440). Temple site.


XXII. Ujjain District.

1. Barnagar, Masjid (1418). Temple site.
2. Ujjain,

(i) Jmi Masjid known as Bin-nv-k-Masjid (1403-04). Temple site.
(ii) Masjid unearthed near Chaubis Khamba Gate. Temple materials used.
(iii) MochI Masjid. Converted temple.


XXIII. Vidisha District.

1. Basoda, Masjid (1720-21). Temple site.
2. Bhonrasa,

(i) Qalandar Masjid. Temple materials used.
(ii) Jgrdr-k-Masjid (1683). Temple site.
(iii) BaD Masjid in Bada Bagh (1685). Temple site.
(iv) Bandi Bagh-k-Masjid. Temple site.
(v) Br-Khamb Masjid. Temple site.
(vi) Ek-Khamb Masjid. Temple site.
(vii) Bin-nv-k-Masjid. Temple site.
(viii) Graveyard in Bandi Bagh. Amidst temple ruins.
(ix) Idgh. Temple site.
(x) Fort (1594). Temple materials used.

3. Parasari, Masjid (1694-95). Temple site.
4. Renkla, Masjid. (1647-48). Temple site.
5. Shamsabad, Masjid (1641). Temple site.
6. Sironj

(i) lamgr Masjid (1662-63). Temple site.
(ii) Masjid in Mahalla Rakabganj (1657-58). Temple site.
(iii) DargAh of Shykh Shib (d. 1657). Temple site.

7. Tal, Masjid (1644-45). Temple site.
8. Udaypur

(i) Masjid (1336). Temple materials used.
(ii) Masjid built by Aurangzeb. Temple materials used.
(iii) Mot Masjid (1488-89). Temple site.
(iv) Masjid (1549). Temple site.
(v) Two Masjids of Shh Jahn. Temple sites.
(vi) Masjid of Jahngr. Temple site.

9. Vidisha

(i) lamgr or VijaimaNDal Masjid (1682). Converted temple.
(ii) Masjid on Lohangi Hill (1457). Temple site.
(iii) Shh Jahni Masjid (1650-51). Temple site.
(iv) City Wall. Temple materials used,


XXIV. West Nimar District.

1. Asirgarh

(i) Jmi Masjid (1584). Temple site.
(ii) Masjid built in the reign of Shh Jahn. Temple site.
(iii) Idgh (1588-89). Temple site.
(iv) Fort. Temple materials used.

2. Bhikangaon, Idgh (1643-44). Temple site.
3. Baidia, Masjid (1456-57). Temple site.
4. Burhanpur

(i) Jmi Masjid (1588-89). Temple site.
(ii) Bb Shib-k-Masjid. Temple site.
(iii) Shh Masd-k-Masjid (1582-83). Temple site.
(iv) Dargh and Masjid of Shh Bahud- Dn Bjan. Temple site.
(v) Dargh of Sfi Nr Shh. Temple site.


 

MAHARASHTRA

I. Ahmadnagar District.

1. Amba Jogi, Fort. Temple materials used.
2. Bhingar, Mulla Masjid (1367-68). Temple site.
3. Gogha

(i) Idgh (1395). Temple site.
(ii) Morakhwada Masjid (1630). Temple site.

4. Jambukhed, Jmi Masjid (1687-88). Temple site.
5. Madhi, Dargh of Ramzn Shh Mah Sawr. Temple site.


II. Akola District.

1. Akot, Jmi Masjid (1667). Temple site.
2. Balapur, Masjid (1717-18). Temple site.
3. Basim, Kk Shh-k-Masjid. Temple site.
4. Jamod

(i) Masjid. Temple site.
(ii) Dargh of Pr Pauld Shh. Temple site.

5. Karanj

(i) Astn Masjid (1659). Temple site.
(ii) Masjid (1669-70). Temple site.
(iii) Masjid (1698-99). Temple site.

6. Manglurpir

(i) Qadm Masjid. Temple materials used.
(ii) Dargh of Pr Hayt Qalandar (d. 1253). Temple site.
(iii) Dargh of Sanam Shib. Temple site.

7. Narnala

(i) Jmi Masjid (1509). Temple site.
(ii) lamgr Masjid. Temple site.

8. Patur, Dargh of Abdul Azz alias Shykh Bb Chisht (d. 1388). Temple site.
9. Uprai, Dargh of Shh Dwal. Temple site.


III. Amravati District.

1. Amner, Masjid and Mazr of Ll Khn (1691-92). Temple site.
2. Ellichpur

(i) Jmi Masjid reconstructed in 1697. Temple site.
(ii) Drushifa Masjid. Temple site.
(iii) Chowk-k-Masjid. Temple site.
(iv) Idgh. Temple site.
(v) Mazr of Shh Ghulm Husain. Temple site.
(vi) Mazr of Abdul Rahmn Ghz known as Dlh Shh. Temple site.

3. Ritpur, Aurangzebs Jmi Masjid (reconstructed in 1878). Temple site.


IV. Aurangabad District.

1. Antur Fort, Qal-k-Masjid (1615). Temple site.
2. Aurangabad

(i) Jmi Masjid. Temple site.
(ii) Ll Masjid. Temple site.
(iii) Maqbara of Aurangzeb. Temple site.

3. Daulatabad

(i) Jmi Masjid (1315). Converted lain Temple.
(ii) Yak Minr-k-Masjid in the Fort. Temple site.
(iii) Masjid-i-Hauz at Kazipura (1458). Temple site.
(iv) Idgh (1359). Temple site.
(v) Dargh of Pr Kd Shib. Converted temple.
(vi) Fort. Temple materials used.

4. Gangapur, Masjid (1690-91). Temple site.
5. Kaghzipura, Dargh of Shh Nizmud-Dn. Temple site.
6. Khuldabad

(i) Dargh of Hazrat Burhnud-Dn Gharb Chisht (d. 1339). Temple site.
(ii) Dargh on Pari-ka-Talao. Converted temple.
(iii) Mazr of Halm Kk Shib. Converted temple.
(iv) Mazr of Jallul-Haqq. Temple site.
(v) Brdar in Bani Begums Garden. Temple site.

7. Paithan

(i) Jmi Masjid (1630). Converted temple.
(ii) Maulna Shib-k-Masjid. Converted ReNukdev Temple.
(iii) Alamagr Masjid. Temple materials used.
(iv) Dargh of Makhdm Husain Ahmad (1507). Temple site.

8. Taltam Fort, Fort. Temple materials used.
9. Vaijapur

(i) Mazrs in Nau Ghazi. Temple site.
(ii) Mazr of Syed Ruknud-Dn. Temple site.


V. Bid District.

Bid

(i) Jmi Masjid. Temple site.
(ii) Qz Shib-k-Masjid (1624). Temple site.
(iii) Masjid in Mahalla Sadr (1704-05). Temple site.
(iv) Masjid and Dargh of Shhinshh Wal. Temple site.
(v) Idgh (1704). Temple site.


VI. Bombay District.

(i) Jmi Masjid. Temple site.
(ii) Mazr at Mahim. Temple site.
(iii) Mazr of Main Hajjm. Converted Mhlakshm Temple.


VII. Buldana District.

1. Fathkhelda, Masjid (1581). Temple site.
2. Malkapur, Masjid near Qazis house. Temple site.


VIII. Dhule District.

1. Bhamer

(i) Masjid (1481-82). Temple site.
(ii) Masjid (1529-30). Temple site.

2. Erandol, Jmi Masjid in Pandav-vada. Temple materials used.
3. Nandurbar

(i) Manyr Masjid. Siddhevaradeva Temple materials used.
(ii) Dargh of Sayyid Alud-Dn. Temple site.
(iii) Several Masjids amidst ruins of Hindu temples.

4. Nasirabad, Several old Masjids. Temple sites.
5. Nizamabad, Masjid. Temple site.


IX. Jalgaon District.

1. Jalgaon. Masjid. Temple site.
2. Phaskhanda, Masjid. Temple site.
3. Shendurni, Masjid-i-Kab r (1597). Temple site.


X. Kolhapur District.

1. Bhadole, Masjid (1551-52). Temple site.
2. Kagal, Dargh of Ghaib Pr. Temple site.
3. Kapshi, Masjid-e-Husain . Temple site.
4. Panhala

(i) Jmi Masjid. Temple site.
(ii) Dargh of Shykh Saidud-DIn. Temple site.
(iii) Dargh of BaD Imm in the Fort. Temple site.
(iv) Mazr of Sdob Pr. Parara Temple site.

5. Shirol, Jmi Masjid (1696). Temple site.
6. Vishalgarh, Mazr of Malik Rihn Pr. Temple site.


XI. Nagpur District.

Ramtek, Masjid built in Aurangzebs reign. Converted temple.


XII. Nanded District.

1. Bhaisa

(i) Jmi Masjid. Temple site.
(ii) Three Darghs. Temple sites.

2. Deglur, Mazr of Shh Ziud-Dn Rifai. Temple site.
3. Kandhar

(i) Jmi Masjid (1606). Temple site.
(ii) Masjid and Dargh inside the Fort. Temple materials used.
(iii) Causeway of the Fort. Temple materials used.

4. Nanded, Idgh in Khas Bagh. Temple site.


XIII. Nasik District.

1. Galna

(i) Dargh of Pr Pld (1581). Temple site.
(ii) Fort. Temple materials used.

2. Gondengaon, Jmi Masjid (1703). Temple site.
3. Malegaon, Dargh of Khk Shh. Temple site.
4. Nasik, Jmi Masjid in the Fort. Converted Mhlakshm Temple.
5. Pimpri, Mazr of Sayyid Sadraud-Dn. Temple site.
6. Rajapur, Masjid (1559). Temple site.


XIV. Osmanabad District.

1. Ausa, Masjid (1680). Temple site.
2. Naldurg, Masjid (1560). Temple site.
3. Parenda

(i) Masjid inside the Fort. Built entirely of temple materials.
(ii) Namzgh near the Talav. Converted Mnakevara Temple.


XV. Parbhani District.

1. Khari, Mazr of Ramzn Shh. Temple site.
2. Latur

(i) Dargh of Mabs Shib. Converted Minapur Mt Temple.
(ii) Dargh of Sayyid Qdir. Converted Somevara Temple.

3. Malevir, KhaDu Jmi Masjid. Converted temple.


XVI. Pune District.

1. Chakan, Masjid (1682). Temple site.
2. Ghoda, Jmi Masjid. Built in 1586 from materials of 33 temples.
3. Junnar

(i) Jmi Masjid. Temple Site.
(ii) Diwn Ahmad-k-Masjid (1578-79). Temple site.
(iii) GunDi-k-Masjid (1581). Temple site.
(iv) MadAr Chill-k-Masjid. (1611-12). Temple site.
(v) Kamni Masjid on Shivneri Hill (1625). Temple site.
(vi) Fort. Temple materials used.

4. Khed, Masjid and Mazr of Dilwar Khn. Temple site.
5. Mancher, Masjid at the South-Western Gate. Temple site.
6. Sasvad, Masjid. Built entirely of Hemadapant temple materials.


XVII. Ratnagiri District.

1. Chaul

(i) Mazr of Pr Sayyid Ahmad. Converted Smba Temple.
(ii) Maqbara near Hinglaj Spur. Temple site.
(iii) Graveyard. Temple site.

2. Dabhol, Patthar-k-Masjid. Temple site.
3. Rajpuri, Aidrusia Khnqh. Temple site.
4. Yeshir, Jmi Masjid (1524). Temple site.


XVIII. Sangli District.

1. Mangalvedh, Fort. Temple materials used.
2. Miraj

(i) Masjid (1415-16). Temple site.
(ii) Jmi Masjid (1506). Temple site.
(iii) Kl Masjid. Temple site.
(iv) Namzgh (1586-97). Temple site.
(v) Dargh of BaD Imm. Temple site.


XIX. Satara District.

1. Apti, Masjid (1611-12). Temple site.
2. Karad

(i) Jmi Masjid (1575-76). Temple materials used.
(ii) Qadamagh of Al (1325). Temple site.

3. Khanpur, Jmi Masjid (1325). Temple materials used.
4. Rahimatpur,

(i) Masjid. Temple site.
(ii) Maqbara known as that of Jahngrs Mother (1649). Temple site.


XX. Sholapur District.

1. Begampur, Maqbara near Gadheshvar. Temple site.
2. Sholapur, Fort, Temple materials used.


XXI. Thane District.

1. Kalyan

(i) Dargh of Hazrat Yqb, Temple site.
(ii) Makka Masjid (1586). Temple site.

2. Malanggadh, Mazr of Bb MalaNg. Temple site.


XXII. Wardha District.

1. Ashti

(i) Jmi Masjid (1521). Temple site.
(ii) Lod Masjid (1671-72). Temple site.

2. Girad, Mazr of Shykh Fard.  Converted temple.
3. Paunar, Qadm Masjid. Converted Rmachandra. Temple.


 

ORISSA

I. Baleshwar District.

Jmi Masjid in Mahalla Sunhat (163-74). r ChanD Temple site.


II. Cuttack District.

1. Alamgir Hill, Takht-i-Sulaim n Masjid (1719). Temple materials used.
2. Cuttack

(i) Shh Masjid. Temple site.
(ii) Masjids in Oriya Bazar. Temple sites.
(iii) Qadam Rasl Masjid. Temple site.
(iv) Masjid (1668-69). Temple site.
(v) Masjid (1690-91). Temple site.

3. Jajpur

(i) DargAh of Sayyid Bukhri. Materials of many temples used.
(ii) Jmi Masjid built by Nawwb Abu Nsir. Temple materials used.

4. Kendrapara, Masjid. Temple site.
5. Salepur, Masjid. Temple site.


III. Ganjam District.

Lalapet, Masjid (1690). Temple site.


 

PUNJAB

I. Bhatinda District.

Mazr of Bb Hj Rattan (1593). Converted temple.


II. Gurdaspur District.

Batala, Jmi Masjid. Temple site.


III. Jalandhar District.

Sultanpur, Bdshhi Sarai. Built on the site of a Buddhist Vjhra.


IV. Ludhiana District.

(i) Dargh and Masjid of Al Sarmast (1570). Temple site.
(ii) Qz-k-Masjid (1517). Temple site.


V. Patiala District.

1. Bahadurgarh, Masjid in the Fort (1666). Temple site.
2. Bawal, Masjid (1560). Temple site.
3. Samana

(i) Sayyido-k-Masjid (1495). Temple site.
(ii) Jmi Masjid (1614-15). Temple site.
(iii) Masjid near Immbra (1637). Temple site.
(iv) Przda-k-Masjid (1647). Temple site.


VI. Ropar District.

Jmi Masjid. Temple site.


VII. Sangrur District.

Sunam

(i) Qadm Masjid (1414). Temple site.
(ii) Ganj-i-Shahd n. Temple site.


 

RAJASTHAN

I. Ajmer District.

It was a Hindu capital converted into a Muslim metropolis. The following monuments stand on the site of and/or are built with materials from temples.

1. ADh-Dn-kA-Jho pr (1199).
2. Qalandar Masjid at Taragarh.
3. Ganj-i-Shahd n at Taragarh.
4. Dargh of Muinud-Dn Chist (d. 1236).
5. Chilia-i-Chisht near Annasagar Lake.
6. Dargh and Mazr of Sayijid Husain at Taragah.
7. Jahngr Mahal at Pushkar.
8. Shhjahn Masjid (1637).
9. Annasagar Brdari.


II. Alwar District.

1. Alwar, Mazr of Makhdm Shh. Temple site.
2. Bahror

(i) Dargh of Qdir Khn. Temple site.
(ii) Masjid near the Dargh. Temple site.

3. Tijara

(i) Bhartari Mazr. Converted temple.
(ii) Masjid near the Dargh. Temple site.


III. Bharatpur District.

1. Barambad, Masjid (1652-53). Temple site.
2. Bari

(i) Graveyard of Arabs and Pathans. Temple site.
(ii) Masjid (1510). Temple site.

3. Bayana

(i) kha or Nohra Masjid. Converted sh Temple.
(ii) Qazpr Masjid (1305). Temple materials used.
(iii) Faujdr Masjid. Temple materials used.
(iv) Syyidpr Masjid. Temple materials used.
(v) Muffonk Masjid. Temple materials used.
(vi) Pillared Cloister at Jhlar Bol. Temple materials used.
(vii) Idgh near Jhlar Bol. Temple site.
(viii) Talet Masjid in the Bijayagarh Fort. Converted temple.
(ix) Abu Qandahr Graveyard. Temple site.
(x) Masjid in Bhitari-Bahari Mahalla. VishNu Temple materials used.

4. Etmada, Pirastn. Temple site.
5. Kaman

(i) Chaurs Khamb Masjid. Converted Kmyakesvara Temple.
(ii) Fort. Temple materials used.


IV. Chittaurgarh District.

1. Mazr of Ghib Pr and the surrounding Graveyard. Temple sites.
2. Qant Masjid in the same area. Temple site.


V. Jaipur District.

1. Amber, Jmi Masjid (1569-70). Temple site.
2. Chatsu

(i) Chhatr of Gurg Al Shh (d. 1571). Temple materials used.
(ii) Nilgaro-k-Masjid (1381). Temple site.

3. Dausa, Jmi Masjid (1688-89). Temple site.
4. Naraina

(i) Jmi Masjid (1444). Temple materials used.
(ii) Tripolia Darwaza. Temple materials used.

5. Sambhar

(i) Ganj-i-Shahd n. Temple site.
(ii) DargAh of Khwja Hismud-Dn Jigarsukhta. Temple site.
(iii) Masjid in Mahalla Nakhas (1695-96). Temple site.
(iv) Masjid in Rambagh (1696-97). Temple site.

4. Tordi, Khri Bol. Temple materials used.


VI. Jaisalmer District.

1. Jaisalmer, Faqiron-k-Takiy . Temple site.
2. Pokaran, Masjid (1704-05). Temple site.


VII. Jalor District.

1. Jalor

(i) Shh or Topkhn Masjid (1323). Prvantha Temple materials used.
(ii) Idgh (1318). Temple site.
(iii) Boliwli Masjid (1523). Temple site.

2. Sanchor, Jmi Masjid (1506). Temple site.


VIII. Jhalawar District.

Sunel, Masjid (1466-67). Temple site.


IX. Jhunjhunu District.

Narhad, Jmi Masjid. Temple materials used.


X. Jodhpur District.

1. Jodhpur, Yak-Minr-k-Masjid (1649). Temple site.
2. Mandor

(i) Shh Masjid. Temple materials used.
(ii) Ghulm Khn-k-Masjid. Temple materials used.
(iii) Dargh of Tann Pr. Temple materials used.

3. Pipar City, Jmi Masjid (1658). Temple. site.


XI. Kota District.

1. Baran, Masjid (1680). Temple site.
2. Bundi, Mrn Masjid on the hill east of the town. Temple site.
3. Gagraun

(i) Jmi Masjid (1694). Temple site.
(ii) Dargh of Hazrat Hamdud-Dn known as Mitth Shah. Temple site.

4. Shahabad

(i) Sher Shh Sr-k-Masjid. Temple site.
(ii) Jmi Masjid. (1671-72). Temple site.
(iii) Dargh of Rahm Khn Dt (1534-35). Temple site.

5. Shergarh, Fort of Sher Shh Sr. Brhmanical, Buddhist and Jain temple materials used.


XII. Nagaur District.

1. Amarpur, Masjid (1655). Temple site.
2. Bakalia, Masjid (1670). Temple site.
3. Balapir, Masjid. Temple site.
4. Badi Khatu

(i) Shh Masjid (around 1200). Temple materials used.
(ii) Qant Masjid (1301). Temple site.
(iii) Pahriyo-k-Masjid and Chheh Shahd Mazrs. Temple materials used.
(iv) Jliybs-k-Masjid (1320). Temple site.
(v) BaD and ChhoT Masjid in Mahalla Sayiddan. Temple site.
(vi) Khnzdo-k-Masjid (1482). Temple site.
(vii) Masjid and Dargh of Muhammad Qattl Shahd (1333). Temple materials used.
(viii) Dhobiyo-k-Masjid. Temple site.
(ix) Masjid-i-Sangatr shn (1639). Temple site.
(x) Dargh of Bb Ishq Maghrib (1360). Temple site.
(xi) Dargh of Samman Shh. Temple sites.
(xii) Ganj-i-Shahd n. Temple site.
(Xiii) Momino-k-Masjid (1667). Temple site.
(xiv) Fort. Temple materials used.

4. Basni, BaD Masjid (1696). Temple site.
5. Chhoti Khatu, Dargh of Shh Nizm Bukhr (1670). Temple site.
6. Didwana

(i) Qzio-k-Masjid (1252). Temple site.
(ii) Masjid in Gudri Bazar (1357). Temple site.
(iii) Band (closed) Masjid (1384). Temple site.
(iv) Shaiko-k-Masjid (1377). Temple site.
(v) Jmi Masjid. Temple site.
(vi) Ql-k-Masjid. Temple site.
(vii) Havl Masjid. Temple site.
(viii) Sayyido-k-Masjid. Temple site.
(ix) Takiy-k-Masjid (1582-83). Temple site.
(x) Kachahr Masjid (1638). Temple site.
(xi) Dhobio-k-Masjid (1662).
(xii) Julho-k-Masjid (1664). Temple site.
(xiii) Lohro-k-Masjid (1665). Temple site.
(xiv) Bistiyo-k-Masjid (1675-76). Temple site.
(xv) Mochio-k-Masjid (1686). Temple site
(xvi) Shh Chng Madr Masjid (1711). Temple site.
(xvii) Idgh. Temple site.
(xviii) Graveyard near Delhi Darwaza. Temple site.
(xix) Dn Darwaza (1681). Temple site.
(xx) Mazr of Rashdud-Dn Shahd. Temple site.

7. Kathoti, Masjid (1569-70). Temple site.
8. Kumhari

(i) Masjid and Dargh of Bl Pr (1496-97). Temple site.
(ii) Qalandar Masjid. Temple site.

9. Ladnun

(i) Jmi Masjid (1371). Temple materials used.
(ii) Hazirawl or Khalj Masjid (1378-79). Temple site.
(iii) Shh Masjid. Temple materials used.
(iv) Dargh of Umro Shahd Ghz (1371). Temple site.
(v) Graveyard near the above Dargh. Temple site.
(vi) Mazr-i-Murd- i-Shahd. Temple site.

10. Loharpura

(i) Dargh of Pr Zahrud-Dn. Temple site.
(ii) ChhoT Masjid (1602). Temple site.

11. Makrana

(i) Jmi Masjid. (Sher Shh). Temple site.
(ii) Masjid near Pahar Kunwa (1653). Temple site.
(iii) Masjid in Gaur Bas (1678). Temple site.
(iv) Masjid (1643). Temple site.

12. Merta

(i) Masjid in Salawtan (1625-26). Temple site.
(ii) Masjid in Gaditan (1656). Temple site.
(iii) Jmi Masjid. (1665). Temple site.
(iv) Mochiyo-k-Masjid (1663). Temple site.
(v) Ghosiyo-k-Masjid (1665). Temple site.
(vi) Momino-k-Masjid (1666). Temple site.
(vii) Masjid in Mahrj-k-Jgr (1666). Temple site
(viii) Chowk-k-Masjid (1670). Temple site.
(ix) Hajjmo-k-Masjid (1686-87). Temple site.
(x) Miyj-k-Masjid (1690-91). Temple site.
(xi) Sabungaro-k- Masjid. Temple site.
(xii) Dargh of Ghaus Pr. Temple site.
(xiii) Takiy Kaml Shh. Temple site.

13. Nagaur

(i) Mazr of Pr Zahrud-Dn. Temple site.
(ii) Dargh of Bb Badr. Temple site.
(iii) Dargh of Sf Hamdud-Dn Nagauri Chisht. Temple site.
(iv) Dargh of Shykh Abdul Qdr Jiln. Temple site.
(v) Dargh of Makhdm Husain Ngaur. Temple site.
(vi) Dargh of Ahmad Al Bpj. Temple site.
(vii) Dargh of Sayyid Imm Nr (1527). Temple site.
(viii) Dargh of Shh Abdus-Salm. Temple site.
(xi) Dargh of Mrn Shib. Temple site.
(xii) Shams Khn Masjid near Shamsi Talav. Temple materials used.
(xiii) Jm Masjid (1553). Temple site.
(xiv) Ek Mnr-k-Masjid (1505-06). Temple site.
(xv) Dhobiyo-k-Masjid (1552). Temple site.
(xvi) Chowk-k-Masjid (1553). Temple site.
(xvii) Mahawato-k-Masjid (1567-68). Tempe site.
(xviii) Hamalo-k-Masjid (1599-1600). Temple site.
(xix) Shh Jahn Masjid at Surajpole. Converted temple.
(xx) Masjid outside the Fort (1664). Temple site.
(xxi) Khardiyo-k-Masjid( 1665). Temple site
(xxii) Ghosiyo-k-Masjid (1677). Temple site.
(xxiii) Masjid near Maya Bazar (1677). Temple site.
(xxiv) Qalandro-k-Masjid. Temple site.
(xxv) Kanehri Julho-k-Masjid (1669). Temple site.
(xxvi) Sayyido-k-Masjid (1433-34). Temple site.
(xxvii) AkhDewl Masjid (1475). Temple site.

14. Parbatsar, Mazr of Badrud-Dn Shh Madr. Temple site.
15. Ren, Masjid (1685). Temple site.
16. Rohal, Qzioy-k-Masjid (1684). Temple site.
17. Sojat, Masjid (1680-81). Temple site.


XIII. Sawai Madhopur District.

1. Garh, Qal-k-Masjid (1546-47). Temple site.
2. Hinduan

(i) Rangrezo-k-Masjid (1439). Temple site.
(ii) Masjid in the Takiy of Khwja Al. Temple site.
(iii) Kachahr Masjid (1659-60). Temple site.
(iv) Br Khamb Masjid (1665). Temple site.
(v) Graveyard east of the Talav. Temple site.
(vi) Masjid and Mazr of Rasl Shh. Temple site.

3. Ranthambor, Qal-k-Masjid. Temple materials used.


XIV. Sikar District.

Revasa, Masjid. Temple materials used.


XV. Tonk District.

Nagar, Ishkhn Bol. Temple materials used.


XVI. Udaipur District.

Mandalgarh, Ali Masjid. Converted Jain Temple.


 

TAMIL NADU

I. Chingleput District.

1. Acharwak, Mazr of Shh Ahmad. Temple site.
2. Kanchipuram

(i) Large Masjid. Temple site.
(ii) Eight other Masjids. Temple sites.
(iii) Gumbad of Bab Hamd Wal. Temple site.

3. Karkatpala, Mazr of Murd Shh Mastn. Temple site.
4. Kovalam, Dargh of Malik bin Dinr (1593-94). Temple site.
5. Munropet

(i) Masjid. Temple site.
(ii) Mazr of Shh Al Mastn. Temple site.

6. Pallavaram

(i) Hill of Panchapandyamalai renamed Maula Pahad and central hall of an ancient Cave Temple turned into a Masjid for worshipping a panj (palm).
(ii) Mazr of Shykh Husain Qdir alias Bd ShahId. Temple site.
(iii) Poonmalle, Mr Jumlas Masjid (1653). Temple materials used.

7. Rajkoilpetta, Mazr of Hji Umar. Temple site.
8. Rampur, Takiy of the Tabqt order of Faqirs. Temple site.
9. Rayapeta, Waljh Masjid. Temple site.
10. Walajahbad, Masjid. Temple site.


II. Coimbatore District.

1. Annamalai, Fort. Repaired by Tp Sultn with temple materials.
2. Coimbatore, Large Masjid of Tp Sultn. Temple site.
3. Sivasamudram, DargAh of Pr Wal. Temple site.


III. Madras District.

Jmi Masjid. Temple site.


IV. Madura District.

1. Bonduvarapetta, Masjid. Temple materials used.
2. Devipatnam, Large Masjid. Temple site.
3. Goripalaiyam, Dargh of Khwja Alud-Dn. Temple site.
4. Madura, Dargh of Khwza Alud-Dn. Temple site.
5. Nimarpalli

(i) Masjid. Temple materials used.
(ii) Dargh of Makhdm Jallud-Dn. Temple materials used.

6. Puliygulam, Masjid. Temple site.
7. Soravandam, Masjid. Temple site.
8. Tiruparankunram, Sikandar Masjid on top of the Hill. Stands admist ruins of Brahmanical, Buddhist and Jain temples.


V. North Arcot District.

1. Arcot, A city of temples before its occupation by Muslims.

(i) Jmi Masjid. Temple site.
(ii) Tomb of Sadatullah Khn. Atreya Temple materials used.
(iii) Masjid and Mazr of Tp Awliy. Temple site.
(iv) Dargh of Sayyid Husain Shh. Temple site.
(v) Qal-k-Masjid. Temple site.
(vi) Masjid of Shh Husain Chisht. Temple site.
(vii) Masjid and Gumbad of Pp ShahId. Temple site.
(viii) Gumbad of Shh Sdiq with a graveyard. Temple site.
(ix) Masjid and Mazr of Shh Azmatullh Qdir. Temple site.
(x) Masjid of Shykh Natthar. Temple site.
(xi) Masjid of Murd Shh. Temple site.
(xii) Masjid of Mr Asadullh Khn. Temple site.
(xiii) Masjid of Maulaw Jaml Al. Temple site.
(xiv) Masjid and Gumbad of Sayyid Ahmad alias Yr Pr. Temple site.
(xv) Masjid of Chand Shib. Temple site.
(xvi) Masjid of Miskn Shh with Gumbad of Amn Pr. Temple site.
(xvii) Masjid and Mazr of Hazrat Usmn Khn Sarwar. Temple site.
(xviii) Masjid in the Maqbara of Mughln. Temple site.
(xix) Masjid of GhulAm Rasl Khn. Temple site.
(xx) Masjid of Shh Ghulam Husain Darghi. Temple site.
(xxi) Masjid of Hfiz Abdul Azz. Temple site.
(xxii) Masjid of Hfiz Karmullh. Temple site.
(xxiii) Masjid and Gumbad in Tajpura. Temple site. Outside the city
(xxiv) Takiy of Qtil Pnd Sarguroh. Temple site.
(xxv) Masjid and Gumbad of Ahmad Thir Khn. Temple site.
(xxvi) Masjid, Khnqh, Graveyard and Gumbad in Hasanpura. Temple site.
(xxvii) Gumbad of Hazrat Antar Jmi with the Idgh. Temple site.
(xxviii) Takiy, of Sbit Al Shh. Temple site.
(xxix) Masjid and Mazr of Sayyid KarIm Muhammad. Qdir. Temple site.
(xxx) Masjid of Sdatmand Khn. Temple site.
(xxxi) Masjid of Abul-Hasan Zkir. Temple site.
(xxxii) Masjid of Dad Beg. Temple site.
(xxxiii) Masjid and Gumbad of Hazrat Shh Nsir. Temple site.
(xxxiv) Masjid of Punj. Temple site.
(xxxv) Mazr of Yadullh Shh. Temple site.
(xxxvi) Rangn Masjid. Temple site.
(xxxvii) House of Relic which has a footprint of the Holy Prophet. Converted temple.

2. Arni

(i) Two Masjids. Temple sites.
(ii) Dargh of Seven Shahds. Temple site.

3. Kare, Naulakh Gumbad. Converted Gautama and Vivamitra. Temple
4. Kaveripak

(i) Idgh. Temple site.
(ii) Takiy. Temple site.
(iii) Three Masjids. Temple sites.

5. Nusratgarh, Many Masjids and Mazrs in the ruined Fort. Temple sites.
6. Pirmalipak, Mazr of Wjid Shh Champr Posh. Temple site.
7. Ramna

(i) Masjid of Kamtu Shh. Temple site.
(ii) Takiy of Shh Sdiq Tabqti. Temple site.

8. Vellore

(i) Jmi Masjid. Temple site.
(ii) ChhoT Masjid. Temple site.
(iii) Mazr of Nr Muhammad Qdir who laid waste many temples. Temple site.
(iv) Mazr of Shh Abul-Hasan Qdir.
(v) Mazr of Abdul Latf Zauq. Temple site.
(vi) Mazr of Al Husain Chisht. Temple site.
(vii) Mazr of Hazrat Al Sultn. Temple site.
(viii) Mazr of Amn Pr. Temple site.
(ix) Mazr of Shah Lutfullah Qdir. Temple site.
(x) Mazr of Shib Pdshh Qdir. Temple site.

9. Walajahnagar, Masjid and Mazr of Pr Shib on the Hill. Temple site.
10. Wali-Muhammad- Petta, Masjid. Temple site.


VI. Ramanathapuram District.

1. Eruvadi

(i) Dargh of Hazrat Ibrhm Shahd. Temple site.
(ii) Mazr of Hazrat Fakhrud-Dn Shahd alias Ktbb Shib. Temple site.

2. Kilakari

(i) Jmi Masjid. Temple site.
(ii) Dargh of Muhammad Qsim App. Temple site.
(iii) Apparpall Masjid. Temple site.

3. Periyapattanam, Dargh of Sayyid Sultn Wal. Temple site.
4. Valinokkam

(i) Pallvsal Masjid (1417-18). Temple site.
(ii) Dargh of Katupalli (1425). Temple site.

5. Ramanathapuram, Old Masjid. Temple site.


VII. Salem District.

Sankaridurg, Masjid on the ascent to the Fort. Temple site.


VIII. South Arcot District.

1. Anandapur, Masjid. Temple site.
2. Chidambaram

(i) Llkhn Masjid. Temple materials used.
(ii) Nawal Khn Masjid. Temple materials used.
(iii) Idgh. Temple site.
(iv) Mazr of Amnud-Dn Chisht. Temple site.
(v) Mazr of Sayyid Husain. Temple site.

3. Gingee

(i) Masjid (1718). Temple site.
(ii) Masjid (1732). Temple site.
(iii) Masjid in the Fort. Temple site.

4. Kawripet, Mazr of Qalandar Shh. Temple site.
5. Manjakupham, Mazr of Shh Abdur-Rahm. Temple site.
6. Mansurpeta, Itibr Khn-k-Masjid. Temple site.
7. Nallikuppam

(i) Masjid. Temple site.
(ii) Mazr of Shykh Mrn Shib. Temple site.

8. Pannuti

(i) Masjid. Temple site.
(ii) Gumbad of Nr Muhammad Qdir. Temple site.

9. Swamiwaram, Masjid. Temple site.
10. Tarakambari

(i) Masjid. Temple site.
(ii) Mazr of Shykh Ismil Shib. Temple site.

11. Tirumalarayanapatna m, Mazr of Abdul Qdir Yamn. Temple site.
12. Warachkuri, Mazr of Shh Jall Husain. Temple site.


IX. Thanjavur District.

1. Ammapettah

(i) Masjid. Temple site.
(ii) Mazr of Munud-Dn Husain Qdir. Temple site.
(iii) Mazr of Shah Jfar. Temple site.

2. Ilyur

(i) Masjid. Temple site.
(ii) Mazr of Inyatullh Dirwesh. Temple site.
(iii) Mazr of Muhammad Mastn. Temple site.
(iv) Mazr of Mrn Husain. Temple site.

3. Karambari

(i) Mazr of Arab Shib. Temple site.
(ii) Mazr of Mubtal Shh. Temple site.

4. Kurikyalpalayam

(i) Masjid. Temple site.
(ii) Mazr of Makhdm Hj. Temple site.
(iii) Mazr of Makhdm Jahn Shh. Temple site.

5. Kurkuti, Gumbad of Hasan Qdir alias Ghyb Shib. Temple site.
6. Kushalpalayam

(i) Mazr of Hazrat Tj Firq Badanshh. Temple site.
(ii) Mazr of Hidyat Shh Arzn. Temple site.
(iii) Mazr of Yr Shh Husainshh. Temple site.

7. Nagur

(i) Masjid. Temple site.
(ii) Dargh of Qdir Wal Shh. Temple site.

8. Urancheri, Mazr of Pr Qutbud-Dn. Temple site.
9. Vijayapuram, GumbaD of Sultn Makhdm. Temple site.
10. Wadayarkari, MazAr of Bw SAhib Shhid. Temple site.


X. Tiruchirapalli District.

1. Puttur, Mazr. Temple materials used.
2. Tiruchirapalli

(i) Dargh of NtThr Shh Wal. Converted iva Temple. Lingam used as lamp-post.
(ii) Masjid-i-Muhammad . Temple site.
(iii) Mazr of Bb Muhiud-Dn Sarmast. Temple site.
(iv) Mazr of Hazrat Fathullh Nr. Temple site.
(v) Mazr of Shams Parn. Temple site.
(vi) Mazr of Sayyid Abdul Wahhb. Temple site.
(vii) Mazr of Shh Fazlullah Qdir. Temple site.
(viii) Mazr of Shh Nasrud-Dn. Temple site.
(ix) Mazr of Fardud-Dn Shahd. Temple site.
(x) Mazr of Hazrat Chnd Mastn. Temple site.
(xi) Mazr of Sayyid Zainul-bidn at Tinur. Temple site.
(xii) Mazr of Sayyid Karmud-Dn Qdir. Temple site.
(xiii) Mazr of Almullh Shh Qdir called Barhana Shamsr (Nked Sword). Temple site.
(xiv) Mazr of Shh Imamud-Dn Qdir. Temple site.
(xv) Mazr of Kk- Shh. Temple site.
(xvi) Mazr of Khwja Aminud-Dn Chist. Temple site.
(xvii) Mazr of Khwja Ahmad Shh Husain Chisht. Temple site.
(xviii) Mazr of Shh Bhek. Converted temple.
(xix) Mazr of Shh Jamlud-Dn Husain Chisht. Temple site.
(xx) Mazr of Qyim Shh who destroyed twelve temples. Temple site.
(xxi) Mazr of Munsif Shh Suhrawardyya. Temple site.
(xxii) Mazr of Itiffq Shh. Temple site.
(xxiii) Mazr of Sayyid Jall Qdir. Temple site.
(xxiv) Mazr of Mahtab Shah Shirz Suhrawardyya. Temple site.
(xxv) Masjid of Hj Ibrhm where NTThr Shh Wal (see i above) stayed on his arrival. Temple site.

3. Valikondapuram

(i) Masjid opposite the Fort. Converted temple.
(ii) Mazr near the Masjid. Converted temple.
(iii) Sher Khn-k-Masjid (1690). Temple site.
(iv) Old Jmi Masjid. Temple site.


XI. Tirunelvelli District.

1. Ambasamudram, Mazr of Hazrat Rahmtullh near the ruined Fort. Temple site.
2. Kayalpattanam

(i) Periyapall Masjid (1336-37).
(ii) Sirupall Masjid. Temple site.
(iii) Dargh of Nainr Muhammad. Temple site.
(iv) Marukudiyarapall Masjid. Temple site.

3. Tirunelvelli, Jmi Masjid. Temple materials used.


 

UTTAR PRADESH

I. Agra District.

1. Agra

(i) Kaln Masjid in Saban Katra (1521). Temple materials used.
(ii) Humyn-k-Masjid at Kachhpura (1537-38). Temple site.
(iii) Jmi Masjid of Jahnr (1644). Temple site.
(iv) Dargh of Kaml Khn Shahd in Dehra Bagh. Temple material uses.
(v) Riverside part of the Fort of Akbar. Jain Temple sites.
(vi) Chn k Rauz. Temple site.

2. Bisauli, Masjid (1667-68).  Temple site.
3. Fatehpur Sikri

(i) Anbiy Wl Masjid and several others in Nagar.  Converted temples.
(ii) Jmi Masjid. Temple materials used.
(iii) Dargh of Shykh Salm Chisht. Temple site.
(iv) Fatehpur Sikri Complex. Several temple sites.


4. Firozabad, Qadm Masjid. Temple site.
5. Jajau, Masjid. Temple site.
6. Rasulpur, Mazr of Makhdm Shah. Temple site.
7. Sikandra

(i) Maqbara of Akbar. Temple site.
(ii) Masjid in the Mission Compound. Temple site.


II. Aligarh District

1. Aligarh

(i) Idgh (1562-63). Temple site.
(ii) Dargh of Shykh Jallud-Dn Chisht Shamsul-Arif n. Temple site.
(iii) Graveyard with several Mazrs. Temple site.
(iv) Shershh Masjid (1542). Temple site.
(v) Masjid (1676). Temple site.

2. Pilkhana, Bbar or Jmi Masjid (1528-29). Temple: materials used.
3. Sikandara Rao, Jmi Masjid (1585). Temple site.


III. Allahabad District.

1. Allahabad

(i) Fort of Akbar. Temple sites.
(ii) Khusru Bagh. Temple sites.
(iii) Dargh of Shh Ajmal Khn with a Graveyard. Temple site.
(iv) Masjid (1641-22). Temple site.
(v) Gulabbari Graveyard.  Temple site.

2. Koh Inam, Jmi Masjid (1384). Temple site.
3. Mauima, Qadm Masjid. Temple site.
4. Shahbazpur, Masjid (1644-45). Temple site.


IV. Azamgarh District.

1. Dohrighat, Kaln Masjid. Temple site.
2. Ganjahar, Masjid (1687-88). Temple site.
3. Mehnagar, Tomb of Daulat or Abhimn. Temple site.
4. Nizambad

(i) Jmi Masjid. Temple site.
(ii) Mazr of Min Maqbl and Husain Khn Shahd (1562).  Temple sites.

5. Qasba, Humyns Jmi Masjid (1533-34). Temple site.


V. Badaun District.

1. Alapur, lamgr Masjid. Temple materials used.
2. Badaun

(i) Shams or Jmi Masjid (1233). Temple materials used.
(ii) Shams Idgh (1209). Temple materials used.
(iii) Hauz-i-Shams (1203). Temple materials used.
(iv) Dargh of Shh Wilyat (1390). Temple site.
(v) Several other Masjids and Mazrs. Temple sites.

3. Sahiswan, Jmi Masjid (1300). Temple site.
4. Ujhani, Abdullh Khn-k-Masjid. Temple site.


VI. Bahraich District.

DargAh of Slr Masd Ghz. Sryadeva Temple site.


VII. Ballia District. 

Kharid

(i) Jmi Masjid. Temple site.
(ii) Dargh of Ruknud-Dn Shh. Temple site.


VIII. Banda District.

1. Augasi, Masjid (1581-82). Temple site.
2. Badausa, Masjid (1692). Temple site.
3. Kalinjar

(i) Masjid in Patthar Mahalla (1412-13). Converted Lakshm-NryaNa Temple.
(ii) Masjid (1660-61). Temple site.
(iii) Several other Masjids and Mazrs. Temple sites.

4. Soron, Dargh of Shykh Jaml. Temple site.


IX. Bara Banki District.

1. Bhado Sarai, Mazr of Malmat Shh. Temple site.
2. Dewa

(i) Dargh of Hj Wris Al Shh. Temple site.
(ii) Masjid (1665). Temple site.

3. Fatehpur

(i) Masjid. Temple site.
(ii) Imambr. Temple site.

4. Radauli

(i) Masjid. Temple site.
(ii) Dargh of Shh Ahmad and Zuhr Bb. Temple site.

5. Rauza Gaon, Rauza of Dad Shh. Temple site.
6. Sarai-Akbarabad, Masjid (1579-80). Temple site.
7. Satrikh, Dargh of Slr Sh Ghz. Temple site.


X. Bareilly District.

1. Aonla

(i) Begum-k-Masjid. Temple site.
(ii) Maqbara of Al Muhammad Rohilla. Temple site.

2. Bareilly, Mirzai Masjid (1579-80). Temple site.
3. Faridpur, Fort built by Shykh Fard. Temple materials used.


XI. Bijnor District.

1. Barmih-ka-Khera, Masjid. Temple materials used.
2. Jahanabad, Maqbara of Nawb Shujaat Khn. Temple site.
3. Kiratpur, Fort with a Masjid inside. Temple materials used.
4. Mandawar, Jmi Masjid. Temple materials used.
5. Najibabad, Patthargarh Fort. Temple materials used.
6. Nihtaur, Masjid. Temple site.
7. Seohara, Masjid. Temple site.


XII. Bulandshahar District.

1. Aurangabad Sayyid, All Masjids stand on temple sites.
2. Bulandshahar

(i) Dargh. Temple site.
(ii) Fort. Materials of many temples used.
(iii) Idgh. Temple site.
(iv) Masjid (1311). Temple site.
(v) Masjid (1538). Temple site.
(vi) Masjid (1557). Temple site.

3. Khurja, Mazr of Makhdm Shib. Temple site.
4. Shikarpur, Several Masjids built in Sikandar Lods reign. Temple sites.
5. Sikandarabad, Several Masjids built in Sikandar Lod a reign.  Temple sites.


XIII. Etah District.

1. Atranjikhera, Mazr of Hazrat Husain (or Hasan). Temple site.
2. Jalesar

(i) Mazr of Mrn Sayyid Ibrhm (1555). Temple site.
(ii) Fort. Temple materials used.

3. Kasganj, Jmi Masjid (1737-38). Temple site.
4. Marahra, Masjid and Mazr. Temple site.
5. Sakit

(i) Qadm Masjid (1285). Temple materials used.
(ii) Akbar Masjid (1563). Temple site.


XIV. Etawah District.

1. Auraiya, Two Masjids. Temple sites.
2. Etawah, Jmi Masjid. Converted temple.
3. Phaphund, Masjid and Mazr of Shh Bukhr (d. 1549). Temple site.


XV. Farrukhabad District.

1. Farrukhabad, Several Masjids. Temple materials used.
2. Kannauj

(i) Dn or Jmi Masjid (1406). St-k-Raso. Temple materials used.
(ii) Dargh of Makhdm Jahnin. Temple materials used.
(iii) Dargh of Bb Hji Pr. Temple site.
(iv) Masjid (1663-64). Temple site.
(v) Dargh of Bl Pr. Temple site.

3. Rajgirhar, Mazr of Shykh Akh Jamshed. Temple site.
4. Shamsabad, All Masjids and Mazrs. Temple sites.


XVI. Fatehpur District.

1. Haswa, Idgh (1650-51). Temple site.
2. Hathgaon

(i) Jayachandi Masjid. Temple materials used.
(ii) Dargh of Burhn Shahd. Temple site.

3. Kora (Jahanabad)

(i) Darah of Khwja Karrak. Temple site.
(ii) Jmi Masjid (1688-89). Temple site.

4. Kot, Ldin-ki-Masjid (built in 1198-99, reconstructed in 1296). Temple site.


XVII. Fyzabad District.

1. Akbarpur

(i) Qal-k-Masjid. Temple site.
(ii) Masjid (1660-61). Temple site.

2. Ayodhya

(i) Bbar Masjid. RAma-Janmabh mi Temple site.
(ii) Masjid built by Aurangzeb. Swargadvra Temple site.
(iii) Masjid built by Aurangzeb. Tret-k-Thkur Temple site.
(iv) Mazr of Shh Jurn Ghur. Temple site.
(v) Mazrs of Sr Paighambar and Ayb Paighambar near Maniparvat. On the site of a Buddhist Temple which contained footmarks of the Buddha.

3. Fyzabad, Immbr. Temple site.
4. Hatila, Mazr of a Ghz. Aokantha Mahdeva. Temple site.
5. Kichauchha, Dargh of Makhdm Ashraf in nearby Rasulpur. Temple site.


XVIII. Ghazipur District.

1. Bhitri

(i) Masjid and Mazr. Temple materials used.
(ii) Idgh. Temple site.
(iii) Bridge below the Idgh. Buddhist Temple materials used.

2. Ghazipur

(i) Mazr and Masjid. Temple site.
(ii) Chahal Sitn Palace. Temple site.

3. Hingtar

(i) Qala-k-Masjid. Temple materials used.
(ii) Fort. Temple materials used.

4. Khagrol, Br Khamb or Dargh of Shykh Ambar. Temple site.
5. Saidpur, Two Darghs. Converted Buddhist Temples.


XIX. Gonda District.

Sahet-Mahet (rvast)

(i) Maqbara. On the plinth of Sobhnth Jain Temple.
(ii) Mazr of Mrn Sayyid.  On the ruins a Buddhist Vihra.
(iii) Iml Darwz. Temple materials used.
(iv) Karbal Darwz. Temple materials used.


XX. Gorakhpur District.

1. Gorakhpur, Immbr. Temple site.
2. Lar, Several Masjids. Temple sites.
3. Pava, Karbal. On the ruins of a Buddhist Stpa.


XXI. Hamirpur District

1. Mahoba

(i) Masjid outside Bhainsa Darwaza of the Fort (1322). Converted temple.
(ii) Masjid built on a part of the Palace of Parmardideva on the Hill. Temple materials used.
(iii) Two Maqbaras. Temple materials used.
(iv) Dargh of Pr Muhammad Shh. Converted Siva temple.
(v) Dargh of MubArak Shh and Graveyard nearby. Contain no less than 310 pillar from demolished temples.

2. Rath, Two Maqbaras. Temple materials used.


XXII. Hardoi District.

1. Bilgram

(i) Sayyido-k-Masjid. Temple materials used.
(ii) Jmi Masjid (1438). Temple materials used.
(iii) Several other Masjids and Darghs. Temple materials used.

2. Gopamau, Several Masjids. Temple sites.
3. Pihani

(i) Abdul Gafr-k-Masjid. Temple site.
(ii) Dargh of Sadr-i-Jahn (1647-48). Temple site.

4. Sandila

(i) Qadm Masjid. Temple site.
(ii) Mazr in Brah Khamb. Temple site.


XXIII. Jalaun District.

1. Kalpi

(i) Chaurs Gumbad complex of tombs. Many temple sites.
(ii) Dargh of Shh Abdul Fath Ali Quraishi (1449). Temple site.
(iii) Dargh of Shh Bb Hj Samad (1529). Temple site.
(iv) DeoDhi or Jmi Masjid (1554). Temple site.

2. Katra, Masjid (1649). Temple site.


XXIV. Jaunpur District.

1. Jaunpur

(i) Atl Masjid (1408). Atala DevI Temple materials used.
(ii) Darib Masjid. Vijayachandras Temple materials used.
(iii) Jhjar Masjid.  Jayachandras Temple materials used.
(iv) Ll Darwz Masjid. Temple materials from the Vivevara Temple at Varanasi used.
(v) HammAm Darwz Masjid (1567-68). Temple materials used.
(vi) Ibrhm Brbak-k-Masjid inside the Fort (1360). Temple materials used.
(vii) Jmi Masjid. Ptla Dev Temple site.
(viii) Fort. Temple materials used.
(ix) Akbar Bridge on the Gomat. Temple materials used.
(x) Khlis Mukhlis or Chr Angul Masjid. Temple site.
(xi) Khn Jahn-k-Masjid (1364). Temple site.
(xii) Rauz of Shh Fruz. Temple site.

2. Machhlishahar

(i) Jmi Masjid. Temple site.
(ii) Karbal. Temple site.
(iii) Sixteen other Masjids. Temple sites.

3. Shahganj, Dargh of Shh Hazrat Al. Temple site.
4. Zafarabad

(i) Masjid and Dargh of Makhdm Shah (1311 or 1321). Temple materials used.
(ii) Ibrhm Barbak-k-Masjid. Converted temple.
(iii) Zafar Khn-k-Masjid (1397). Converted temple.
(iv) Ganj-i-Shahd n. Temple materials used.
(v) Fort. Temple materials used.
(vi) Early Sharq buildings including many Maqbaras. Temple materials used.
(vii) Dargh of Asarud-Dn. Temple materials used.


XXV. Jhansi District.

1. Irich, Jmi Masjid (1412). Temple materials used.
2. Lalitpur, Bs Masjid (1358). Materials of four temples used.
3. Talbhat

(i) Masjid (1405). Temple site.
(ii) Dargh of Pr Tj Bj. Temple site.


XXVI. Kanpur District.

1. Jajmau

(i) Dargh of Alud-Dn Makhdm Shh (1360). Temple site.
(ii) Idgh (1307). Temple site.
(iii) Qal-k-Masjid. Temple site.
(iv) Jmi Masjid (renovated in 1682). Temple site.

2. Makanpur, Mazr of Shh Madr. Converted temple.


XXVII. Lucknow District.

1. Kakori, Jhjhar Rauza of Makhdm Nizmud-Dn. Temple materials used.
2. Lucknow

(i) Tlewl. Masjid Temple site.
(ii) safud-Daula Imambara. Temple site.
(iii) Dargh of Shh Muhammad Pr on Lakshmana Tila renamed Pir Muhammad Hill. Temple site.
(iv) Mazr of Shykh Ibrhm Chisht Rahmatullh. Temple materials used.
(v) Nadan Mahal or Maqbara of Shykh Abdur-Rahm. Temple site.
(vi) Machchi Bhavan. Temple sites.

3. Musanagar, Masjid (1662-63). Temple site.
4. Nimsar, Fort. Temple materials used.
5. Rasulpur, Masjid (1690-91). Temple site.


XXVIII. Mainpuri District. 

Rapri

(i) Jmi Masjid. Temple site.
(ii) Idgh (1312). Temple site.
(iii) Dargh of Pr Fadd. Temple site.


XXIX. Mathura District.

1. Mahaban, Ass Khamb Masjid. Converted temple.
2. Mathura

(i) Idgh on the Katr Mound. Kevadeva. Temple site.
(ii) Jmi Masjid built by Abdun-nabi (1662). Temple materials used.
(iii) Mazr of Shykh Fard. Temple materials used.
(iv) Mazr of Makhdm Shh Wilyat at Sami Ghat. Temple materials used.

3. Naujhil, Dargh of Makhdm Shykh Saheti Shib. Temple materials used.


XXX. Mecrut District.

1. Barnawa, Humyuns Masjid (1538-39). Temple site.
2. Garhmuktesar, Masjid (1283). Temple site.
3. Hapur, Jmi Masjid (1670-71). Temple site.
4. Jalali, Jmi Masjid (1266-67). Temple materials used.
5. Meerut

(i) Jmi Masjid. Stands on the ruins of a Buddhist Vihra.
(ii) Dargh at Nauchandi.  Nauchand Dev Temple site.

6. Phalauda, Dargh of Qutb Shh. Temple site.


XXXI. Mirzapur District.

1. Bhuli, Masjid in Dakhni Tola. Temple site.
2. Chunar

(i) Mazr of Shh Qsim Sulaimn. Temple site.
(ii) Fort. Temple materials used.

3. Mirzapur, Several Masjids. Temple sites.


XXXII. Moradabad District.

1. Amroha

(i) Jmi Masjid. Converted temple.
(ii) Dargh and Masjid of Shykh Sadd. Temple site.
(iii) Dargh of Shykh Wilyat. Temple site.
(iv) Masjid (1557-58). Temple site.
(v) Many other Masjids. Temple sites.

2. Azampur, Masjid (1555-56). Temple site.
3. Bachhraon, Several Masjids. Temple sites.
4. Moradabad, Jmi Masjid (1630). Temple site.
5. Mughalpura-Agwanpur, Masjid (1695-96). Temple site.
6. Sirsi, Qadm Masjid. Temple site.
7. Ujhari, Mazr of Shykh Dad. Temple site.
8. Sambhal

(i) Jmi Masjid. Converted VishNu Temple.
(ii) Masjid in Sarai Tarim (1503). Temple site.
(iii) Mazr of Min Htim Sambhali. Temple site.
(iv) Mazr of Shykh Panj. Temple site.


XXXIII. Muzaffarnagar District.

1. Daira Din Panah, Mazr of Sayyid Dn Panh. Temple site.
2. Ghausgah, Fort and Masjid. Temple materials used.
3. Jhinjhana

(i) Dargh (1495). Temple site.
(ii) Masjid and Mazr of Shh Abdul Razzq (1623). Temple site.

4. Kairana

(i) Dargh. Temple site.
(ii) Masjid (1551). Temple site.
(iii) Masjid (1553-54). Temple site.
(iv) Masjid (1617-18). Temple site.
(v) Masjid (1630-31). Temple site.
(vi) Masjid (1651-52). Temple site.

5. Majhera, Masjid and Mazr of Umar Nr. Temple site.
6. Sambhalhera, Two Masjids (1631-32). Temple site.
7. Thana Bhawan, Masjid (1702-03). Temple site.


XXXIV. Pilibhit District.

Jmi Masjid. Temple site.


XXXV. Pratapgarh District.

Manikpur, Many Masjids and Mazrs. On the ruins of demolished temples.


XXXVI. Rampur District.

Jmi Masjid. Temple site.


XXXVII. Rae Bareli District.

1. Datmau

(i) Idgh (1357-58). Temple site.
(ii) Fort. On the ruins of Buddhist Stpas.
(iii) Masjid (1616). Temple site.

2. Jais

(i) Jmi Masjid. Temple materials used.
(ii) Masjid (1674-75). Temple site.

3. Rae Bareli

(i) Jmi Masjid. Temple site.
(ii) Jahn Khn Masjid. Temple site.
(iii) Dargh of Makhdm Sayyid Jfari. Temple site.
(iv) Fort. Temple materials used.


XXXVIII. Saharanpur District. 

1. Ambahata

(i) Masjid (1533-34). Temple site.
(ii) Masjid (1534-35). Temple site.

2. Deoband

(i) Masjid (1510). Temple site.
(ii) Masjid (1557). Temple site.
(iii) Jmi Masjid (1677-78). Temple site.

3. Gangoh

(i) Mazr of Shykh Abdul Qudds. Temple site.
(ii) Three Masjids. Temple sites.

4. Jaurasi, Masjid (1675-76). Temple site.
5. Kaliyar, Dargh of Shykh Alud-Dn Al bin Ahmad Sbr, a disciple of Bb Fard Shakar Ganj of Pak Pattan. Temple site.
6. Manglaur

(i) Masjid (1285). Temple site.
(ii) Dargh of Shh Wilyat. Temple site.

7. Rampur, Mazr of Shykh Ibrhm. Temple site.
8. Saharanpur, Jmi Masjid. Temple site.
9. Sakrauda, Dargh of Shh Ruknud-Dn or Shh Nachchan. Temple site.
10. Sirsawa, Mazr of Pr Kilkil Shh. On top of temples destroyed.


XXXIX. Shahjahanpur District.

1. Kursi, Masjid (1652). Temple site.
2. Shahjahanpur, Bahadur Khn-k-Masjid (1647). Temple site.


XL. Sitapur District.

1. Biswan, Masjid (1637-38). Temple site.
2. Khairabad, Several Masjids. Temple sites.
3. Laharpur, Mazr of Shykh Abdur-Rahmn. Temple site.


XLI. Sultanpur District.

1. Amethi, Mazr of Shykh Abdul Hasan. Temple site.
2. Isuli

(i) Jmi Masjid (1646-47). Temple site.
(ii) Mazr of Sayyid Ashraf Jahngr Simnn. Temple site.


XLII. Unao District.

1. Bangarmau

(i) BaDi Dargh of Alud-Dn Ghanaun (1320). Temple materials used.
(ii) Dargh of Jallud-DIn (d. 1302). Temple site.
(iii) ChhoT Dargh (1374). Temple site.
(iv) Jmi Masjid (1384). Temple site.

2. Rasulabad, Alamgr Masjid. Temple site.
3. Safipur

(i) Dargh of Shh Shaf. Temple materials used.
(ii) Dargh of Qudratullh. Temple materials used.
(iii) Dargh of Fahmullh. Temple materials used.
(iv) Dargh of Hfizullh. Temple materials used.
(v) Dargh of Abdullh. Temple materials used.
(vi) Fourteen Masjids. Temple sites.


XLIII. Varanasi District.

1. Asla, Shh Jahn Masjid. Temple site.
2. Varanasi

(i) Masjid at Gyanavapi. Vivevara Temple material used.
(ii) Masjid at Panchaganga Ghat. KirTavivevara Temple materials used.
(iii) Masjid and Dargh of Sayyid Fakhrud-Dn Shib Alv (1375) Temple site.
(iv) Bindu Madhava Masjid (1669). Converted Bidu-Mdhava Temple.
(v) Masjid and Mazr at Bakariya Kund. Temple materials used.
(vi) ADhi Kgr-k-Masjid in Adampura. Temple site.
(vii) Darhar Masjid. Temple site.
(viii) Mazr of Ll Khn at Rajghat. Temple site.



Footnotes:

1 The word Hindu in the present context stands for all schools of Sanatana Dharma-Buddhism, Jainism, Saivism, Shaktism, Vaishnavism and the rest.

2 History of Aurangzeb, Calcutta, 1925-52.

3 Religious Policy of the Mughal Emperors, Bombay, 1962.

4 Advice tendered to this author by Dilip Padgaonkar, editor of The Times of India, in the context of quoting correct history. Small wonder that he has converted this prestigious daily into a platform for communist politicians masquerading as historians. Perhaps you want, wrote a reader, to invest them with some kind of academic glory by using the legend of JNU, but their best introduction, intellectually speaking, is that they are Stalinist historians Their ideological brothers in the press make sure, through selective reporting and publishing, that their views are properly advertised. The Times of India, too, is in this rank; its editorials, leading articles, special reports-all breathe venom, not just against Ram Janmabhumi but any Hindu viewpoint. Anything in sympathy with this viewpoint is conscientiously kept out (The Times of India, November 11, 1989, Letters).

5 Archaeological Survey of India, Annual Report 1925-26.  Pp. 129-30. 

6 Ibid., p. 129.

7 Ibid., p. l28.

8 Ibid., 1907-08, p. 113.

9 Ibid., Pp. 114.

10 Ibid., p. 114-15.  Technical details have been omitted and emphasis added.

11 Ibid., p. 116.

12 Ibid., p. 120.

13 Ibid., p. 126.

14 Ibid., p. 61.

15 Ibid., 1907-08, Pp. 47, to 72.

16 Ibid., 1903-04, p. 86.

17 Ibid., 1902-3, p. 52.

18 Ibid., 1921-22, p. 83.

19 Ibid., p. 84.

20 Ibid., 1902-03, p. 56.

21 Ibid., 1933-34, Pp. 36-37.

22 Ibid., 1902-03, Pp. 16-17.

23 Ibid., 1993-4, Pp. 31-32.

24 Ibid., 1902-03, Pp. 17-18.

25 Ibid., 1903-04, p. 43.

26 Ibid., p. 63.

27 Ibid., 1904-05, p. 24.

28 Ibid., 1929-30, p. 29.

29 Ibid., 1928-29, Pp. 167-68.

30 Robert Sewell, A Forgotten Empire, New Delhi Reprint, 1962, Pp. 199-200.

31 Archaeological Survey of India, Volume I : Four Reports Made During the Years 1862-63-64-65, Varanasi Reprint, 1972, Pp. 440-41.

32 Ratan Pribhdas Hingorani, Sites Index to A.S.I. Circle Reports New Delhi 1978, Pp. 17-262.

33 A decision to this effect was taken by the Archaeological Survey of India soon after independence, ostensibly under guidelines laid down by an international conference.

34 S.A.A. Rizvi, History of Sufism in India, Volume 1, New Delhi, 1978, P. 189.

35 Ghulm Abdul Qdir Nazr, Bahr-i-Azam or Travels of Azam Shh Nawwb Waljh, 1823, Madras, 1960, p. 128.

36 Ibid., p. 64.

37 Ibid., p. 128.

38 Dates given in brackets refer to the Christian era.

Let the Mute Witnesses Speak
Sita Ram Goel

The cradle of Hindu culture1 on the eve of its Islamic invasion included what are at present the Sinkiang province of China, the Transoxiana region of Russia, the Seistan province of Iran and the sovereign states of Afghanistan, Pakistan, India, Nepal and Bangladesh. The Islamic invasion commenced around 650 A.D., when a Muslim army secured a foothold in Seistan, and continued till the end of the eighteenth century, when the last Islamic crusader, Tipu Sultan, was overthrown by the British. Hordes of Arabs, Persians, Turks, and Afghans who had been successively inspired by the Theology of Islam poured in, in wave after wave, carrying fire and sword to every nook and corner of this vast area. In the process, Sinkiang, Transoxiana region, Seistan and Afghanistan became transformed into darul-Islm where all vestiges of the earlier culture were wiped out.  The same spell has engulfed the areas which were parts of India till 1947 and have since become Pakistan and Bangladesh.

We learn from literary and epigraphic sources, accounts of foreign travellers in medieval times, and modern archaeological explorations that, on the eve of the Islamic invasion, the cradle of Hindu culture was honeycombed with temples and monasteries, in many shapes and sizes.  The same sources inform us that many more temples and monasteries continued to come up in places where the Islamic invasion had yet to reach or from where it was forced to retire for some time by the rallying of Hindu resistance.  Hindus were great temple builders because their pantheon was prolific in Gods and Goddesses and their society rich in schools and sects, each with its own way of worship.  But by the time we come to the end of the invasion, we find that almost all these Hindu places of worship had either disappeared or were left in different stages of ruination.  Most of the sacred sites had come to be occupied by a variety of Muslim monuments-masjids and dghs (mosques), darghs and zirats (shrines), mazrs and maqbaras (tombs), madrasas and maktabs (seminaries) , takiys and qabristns (graveyards) .  Quite a few of the new edifices had been built from the materials of those that had been deliberately demolished in order to satisfy the demands of Islamic Theology.  The same materials had been used frequently in some secular structures as well-walls and gates of forts and cities, river and tank embankments, caravanserais and stepwells, palaces and pavilions.

Some apologists of Islam have tried to lay the blame at the door of the White Huns or Epthalites who had overrun parts of the Hindu cradle in the second half of the fifth century A.D. But they count without the witness of Hiuen Tsang, the famous Chinese pilgrim and Buddhist savant, who travelled all over this area from 630 A.D. to 644. Starting from Karashahr in Northern Sinkiang, he passed through Transoxiana, Northern Afghanistan, North-West Frontier Province, Kashmir, Punjab, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, North-Eastern Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Nepal, Bengal, Assam, Orissa, Mahakosal and Andhra Pradesh till he reached Tamil Nadu. On his return journey he travelled through Karnataka, Maharashtra, Gujarat, Madhya Bharat, Sindh, Southern Afghanistan and Southern Sinkiang. In most of these provinces he found in a flourishing state many Buddhist establishments consisting of vihras (monasteries) , chaityas (temples) and stpas (topes), besides what he described as heretical (Jain) and deva (Brahmanical) temples.  The wealth of architecture and sculptures he saw everywhere confirms what we learn from Hindu literary sources.  Some of this wealth has been recovered in recent times from under mounds of ruins.

During the course of his pilgrimage, Hiuen Tsang stayed at as many as 95 Buddhist centres among which the more famous ones were at Kuchi, Aqsu, Tirmiz, Uch Turfan, Kashagar and Khotan in Sinkiang; Balkh, Ghazni, Bamiyan, Kapisi, Lamghan, Nagarahar and Bannu in Afghanistan; Pushkalavati, Bolar and Takshasila in the North-West Frontier Province; Srinagar, Rajaori and Punch in Kashmir; Sialkot, Jalandhar and Sirhind in the Punjab; Thanesar, Pehowa and Sugh in Haryana; Bairat and Bhinmal in Rajasthan, Mathura, Mahoba, Ahichchhatra, Sankisa, Kanauj, Ayodhya, Prayag, Kausambi, Sravasti, Kapilvastu, Kusinagar, Varanasi, Sarnath and Ghazipur in Uttar Pradesh; Vaishali, Pataliputra, Rajgir, Nalanda, Bodhgaya, Monghyr and Bhagalpur in Bihar; Pundravardhana, Tamralipti, Jessore and Karnasuvarna in Bengal; Puri and Jajnagar in Orissa; Nagarjunikonda and Amaravati in Andhra Pradesh; Kanchipuram in Tamil Nadu; Badami and Kalyani in Karnataka; Paithan and Devagiri in Maharashtra; Bharuch, Junagarh and Valabhi in Gujarat; Ujjain in Malwa; Mirpur Khas and Multan in Sindh. The number of Buddhist monasteries at the bigger ones of these centres ranged from 50 to 500 and the number of monks in residence from 1,000 to 10,000.  It was only in some parts of Eastern Afghanistan and the North-West Frontier Province that monasteries were in a bad shape, which can perhaps be explained by the invasion of White Huns. But so were they in Kusinagar and Kapilavastu where the White Huns are not known to have reached.  On the other hand, the same invaders had ranged over Punjab, Haryana, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh and most of Uttar Pradesh where Hiuen Tsang found the monasteries in a splendid state.  They had even established their rule over Kashmir where Hiuen Tsang saw 500 monasteries housing 5,000 monks. It is, therefore, difficult to hold them responsible for the disappearance of Buddhist centres in areas where Hiuen Tsang had found them flourishing. An explanation has to be found elsewhere. In any case, the upheaval they caused was over by the middle of the sixth century.  Moreover, the temples and monasteries which Hiuen Tsang saw were only a few out of many. He had not gone into the interior of any province, having confined himself to the more famous Buddhist centres.

What was it that really happened to thousands upon thousands of temples and monasteries? Why did they disappear and/or give place to another type of monuments? How come that their architectural and sculptural fragments got built into the foundations and floors and walls and domes of the edifices which replaced them? These are crucial questions which should have been asked by students of medieval Indian history. But no historian worth his name has raised these questions squarely, not to speak of finding adequate answers to them. No systematic study of the subject has been made so far. All that we have are stray references to the demolition of a few Hindu temples, made by the more daring Hindu historians while discussing the religious policy of this or that sultan. Sir Jadunath Sarkar2 and Professor Sri Ram Sharma3 have given more attention to the Islamic policy of demolishing Hindu temples and pointed an accusing finger at the theological tenets which dictated that policy. But their treatment of the subject is brief and their enumeration of temples destroyed by Aurangzeb and the other Mughal emperors touches only the fringe of a vast holocaust caused by the Theology of Islam, all over the cradle of Hindu culture, and throughout more than thirteen hundred years, taking into account what happened in the native Muslim states carved out after the British take-over and the formation of Pakistan after partition in 1947.

Muslim historians, in India and abroad, have written hundreds of accounts in which the progress of Islamic armies across the cradle of Hindu culture is narrated, stage by stage and period by period. A pronounced feature of these Muslim histories is a description- in smaller or greater detail but always with considerable pride-of how the Hindus were slaughtered en masse or converted by force, how hundreds of thousands of Hindu men and women and children were captured as booty and sold into slavery, how Hindu temples and monasteries were razed to the ground or burnt down, and how images of Hindu Gods and Goddesses were destroyed or desecrated. Commandments of Allah (Quran) and precedents set by the Prophet (Sunnah) are frequently cited by the authors in support of what the swordsmen and demolition squads of Islam did with extraordinary zeal, not only in the midst of war but also, and more thoroughly, after Islamic rule had been firmly established. A reference to the Theology of Islam as perfected by the orthodox Imams, leaves little doubt that the citations are seldom without foundation.

The men and women and children who were killed or captured or converted by force cannot be recalled for standing witnesses to what was done to them by the heroes of Islam. The apologists for Islam-the most dogged among them are some Hindu historians and politicians- have easily got away with the plea that Muslim court scribes had succumbed to poetic exaggeration in order to please their pious patrons. Their case is weakened when they cite the same sources in support of their owns speculation or when the question is asked as to why the patrons needed stories of bloodshed and wanton destruction for feeding their piety.  But they have taken in their stride these doubts and questions as well.

There are, however, witnesses who are not beyond recall and who can confirm that the court scribes were not at all foisting fables on their readers. These are the hundreds of thousands of sculptural and architectural fragments which stand arrayed in museums and drawing rooms all over the world, or which are waiting to be picked up by public and private collectors, or which stare at us from numerous Muslim monuments. These are the thousands of Hindu temples and monasteries which either stand on the surface in a state of ruination or lie buried under the earth waiting for being brought to light by the archaeologists spade. These are the thousands of Muslim edifices, sacred as well as secular, which occupy the sites of Hindu temples and monasteries and/or which have been constructed from materials of those monuments.  All these witnesses carry unimpeachable evidence of the violence that was done to them, deliberately and by human hands.

So far no one has cared to make these witnesses speak and relate the story of how they got ruined, demolished, dislocated, dismembered, defaced, mutilated and burnt.  Recent writers on Hindu architecture and sculpture-their tribe is multiplying fast, mostly for commercial reasons-ignore the ghastly wounds which these witnesses show on the very first sight, and dwell on the beauties of the limbs that have survived or escaped injury.  Many a time they have to resort to their imagination for supplying what should have been there but is missing.  All they seem to care for is building their own reputations as historians of Hindu art. If one draws their attention to the mutilations and disfigurements suffered by the subjects under study, one is met with a stunned silence or denounced downright as a Hindu chauvinist out to raise demons from the past4 with the deliberate intention of causing communal strife.

We, therefore, propose to present a few of these witnesses in order to show in what shape they are and what they have to say.

Tordi (Rajasthan)

At Tordi there are two fine and massively built stone baolis or step wells known as the Chaur and Khari Baoris. They appear to be old Hindu structures repaired or rebuilt by Muhammadans, probably in the early or middle part of the 15th century  In the construction of the (Khari) Baori Hindu images have been built in, noticeable amongst them being an image of Kuber on the right flanking wall of the large flight of steps5

Naraina (Rajasthan)

At Naraina is an old pillared mosque, nine bays long and four bays deep, constructed out of old Hindu temples and standing on the east of the Gauri Shankar tank The mosque appears to have been built when Mujahid Khan, son of Shams Khan, took possession of Naraina in 840 A.H. or 1436 A.D To the immediate north of the mosque is the three-arched gateway called Tripolia which is also constructed with materials from old Hindu temples6

Chatsu (Rajasthan)

At Chatsu there is a Muhammadan tomb erected on the eastern embankment of the Golerava tank. The tomb which is known as Gurg Ali Shahs chhatri is built out of the spoils of Hindu buildings On the inside of the twelve-sided frieze of the chhatri is a long Persian inscription in verse, but worn out in several places. The inscription does not mention the name of any important personage known to history and all that can be made out with certainty is that the saint Gurg Ali (wolf of Ali) died a martyr on the first of Ramzan in 979 A.H. corresponding to Thursday, the 17th January, 1572 A.D.7

SaheTh-MaheTh (Uttar Pradesh)

The ruined Jain temple situated in the western portion of MaheTh derives the name Sobhnth from Sambhavantha, the third TrthaMkara, who is believed to have been born at rvast8

Let us now turn our attention to the western-most part of Sobhnth ruins. It is crowned by a domed edifice, apparently a Muslim tomb of the Pathn period9

These remains are raised on a platform, 30 square, built mostly of broken bricks including carved ones This platform, no doubt, represents the plinth of the last Jain temple which was destroyed by the Muhammadan conquerors It will be seen from the plan that the enclosure of the tomb overlaps this square platform. The tomb proper stands on a mass of debris which is probably the remains of the ruined shrine10

3. Sculpture of buff standstone, partly destroyed, representing a TrthaMkara seated cross-legged in the attitude of meditation on a throne supported by two lions couchant, placed on both sides of a wheel

4. Sculpture of buff sandstone, partly defaced, representing a TrthaMkara seated cross-legged (as above)

8. Sculpture of buff sandstone, defaced, representing a TrthaMkara standing between two miniature figures of which that to his right is seated.

9. Sculpture of buff standstone, defaced, representing a TrthaMkara, standing under a parasol

12.  Sculpture of buff standstone, much defaced, representing a male and a female figure seated side by side under a palm tree.

13.  Sculpture of buff standstone, broken in four pieces, and carved with five figurines of TrthaMkaras seated cross-legged in the attitude of meditation.  The central figure has a Nga hood. The sculpture evidently was the top portion of a large image slab.11

Coming to the ruins of a Buddhist monastery in the same complex, the archaeologist proceeds:

In the 23rd cell, which I identify with the store-room, I found half-buried in the floor a big earthen jar This must have been used for storage of corn

This cell is connected with a find which is certainly the most notable discovery of the season. I refer to an inscribed copper-plate of Govindachandra of Kanauj The charter was issued from Vrnas on Monday, the full moon day of shDha Sam. 1186, which corresponds to the 23rd of June, 1130. The inscription records the grant of six villages to the Community of Buddhist friars of whom Buddhabhattraka is the chief and foremost, residing in the great convent of the holy Jetavana, and is of a paramount importance, in as much as it conclusively settles the identification of MaheTh with the city of rvast12

He describes as follows some of the sculptures unearthed at SrAvastI:

S.1. Statuette in grey stone of Buddha seated cross-legged in the teaching attitude on a conventional lotus.  The head, breast and fore-arms as well as the sides of the sculpture are broken.

S.2. Lower portion of a blue schist image of Avalokitevara in the sportive attitude (llsana) on a lotus seat.

S. 3. Image of Avalokitevara seated in ardhaparyanka attitude on a conventional lotus The head and left arms of the main figure are missing.13

Sarnath (Uttar Pradesh)

The report of excavations undertaken in 1904-05 says that the inscriptions found there extending to the twelfth century A.D. show that the connection of Sarnath with Buddhism was still remembered at that date. It continues that the condition of the excavated ruins leaves little doubt that a violent catastrophe accompanied by willful destruction and plunder overtook the place.14 Read this report with the Muslim account that Muhammad GhurI destroyed a thousand idol-temples when he reached Varanasi after defeating Mahrj Jayachandra of Kanauj in 1193 A.D. The fragments that are listed below speak for themselves. The number given in each case is the one adopted in the report of the excavation.

a 42. Upper part of sculptured slab

E.8. Architectural fragment, with Buddha (?) seated cross-legged on lotus

a.22. Defaced standing Buddha, hands missing.

a.17. Buddha head with halo.

a. 8. Head and right arm of image.

E.22. Upper part of image.

E.14. Broken seated figure holding object in left hand.

a.11. Fragment of larger sculpture; bust, part of head, and right overarm of female chauri-bearer.

E.25. Upper part of female figure with big ear-ring.

E.6. Fragment of sculpture, from top of throne (?) on left side.

n.19. Seated figure of Buddha in bhmisparamudr, much defaced.

n.221. Torso, with arms of Buddha in dharmachakramudr.

n.91. Lower part of Buddha seated cross-legged on throne. Defaced.

n.142. Figure of Avalokitevara in relief. Legs from knees downwards wanting.

n.1.  Relief partly, defaced and upper part missing. Buddha descending from the TryastriM Heaven Head and left hand missing.

i.50. Lower half of statue. Buddha in bhmisparamudr seated on lotus.

i.17. Buddha in attitude of meditation on lotus. Head missing.

i.46. Head of Buddha with short curls.

i.44. Head of Avalokitevara, with Amitbha Buddha in headdress.

n.10. Fragment of three-headed figure (? Mrch) of green stone.

i.49. Standing figure of attendant from upper right of image. Half of face, feet and left hand missing.

i.1. Torso of male figure, ornamented.

i.4. Female figure, with lavishly ornamented head. The legs from knees, right arm and left forearm are missing. Much defaced.

i.105. Hand holding Lotus.

n.172. Torso of Buddha.

n.18. Head of Buddha, slightly defaced.

n.16. Female figure, feet missing.

n.97. Lower part of female figure. Feet missing.

n.163. Buddha, seated.  Much defaced.

K.4. Fragment of seated Buddha in blue Gay stone.

K.5. Fragment of large statue, showing small Buddha seated in bhmisparamudr

K.18. Fragment of statue in best Gupta style.

J.S.18. 27 and 28.  Three Buddha heads of Gupta style.

J.S.7. Figure of Kubera in niche, with halo behind head.  Partly defaced.

r.67. Upper part of male figure, lavishly adorned.

r.72.  a and b. Pieces of pedestal with three Buddhas in dhynamudr.

r.28. Part of arm, adorned with armlet and inscription in characters of 10th century, containing Buddhist creed.

B.22. Fragment of Bodhi scene (?); two women standing on conventional rock. Head and right arm of left hand figure broken.

B.33. Defaced sitting Buddha in dhynamudr.

B.75. Lower part of Buddha in bhmisparamudr seated cross-legged on lotus.

B.40. Feet of Buddha sitting cross-legged on lotus on throne.

B.38. Headless defaced Buddha seated cross-legged on lotus in dharmachakramudr.

Y.24. Headless Buddha stated cross-legged on throne in dharmachakramudr.

B.52. Bust of Buddha in dharmachakramudr.  Head missing.

B.16. Standing Buddha in varadamudr; hands and feet broken.

Y.34. Upper part of Buddha in varadamudr.

B.24. Bust of standing Buddha in abhayamudr; left hand and head missing.

B.31. Defaced standing Buddha in abhayamudr. Head and feet missing.

B.48. Feet of standing Buddha with red paint.

B.15. Lower part of AvalokiteSvara seated on lotus in llsana.

Y.23. Bust of figure seated in llsana with trace of halo.

B.59. Legs of figure sitting cross-legged on lotus.

B.7. Female bust with ornaments and high headdress. Left arm and right forearm missing.15

Vaishali (Bihar)

In the southern section of the city the fort of Rj Bisl is by far the most important ruin South-west of it stands an old brick Stpa, now converted into a Dargh The name of the saint who is supposed to have been buried there was given to me as Mrn-J16

Gaur and Pandua (Bengal)

In order to erect mosques and tombs the Muhammadans pulled down all Hindu temples they could lay their hands upon for the sake of the building materials

The oldest and the best known building at Gaur and Pandua is the dna Masjid at Pandua built by Sikandar Shh, the son of Ilys Shh. The date of its inscription may be read as either 776 or 770, which corresponds with 1374 or 1369 A.D The materials employed consisted largely of the spoils of Hindu temples and many of the carvings from the temples have been used as facings of doors, arches and pillars17

Devikot (Bengal)

The ancient city of Kotivarsha, which was the seat of a district (vishaya) under Pundra-vardhana province (bhukti) at the time of the Guptas is now represented by extensive mounds of Bangarh or Ban Rajar Garh The older site was in continuous occupation till the invasion of the Muhammadans in the thirteenth century to whom it was known as Devkot or Devikot. It possesses Muhammadan records ranging from the thirteenth to the sixteenth century18

The Rajbari mound at the South-east corner is one of the highest mounds at Bangarh and. must contain some important remains.  The Dargah of Sultan Pir is a Muhammadan shrine built on the site of an old Hindu temple of which four granite pillars are still standing in the centre of the enclosure, the door jambs having been used in the construction of the gateway.

The Dargah of Shah Ata on the north bank of the Dhal-dighi tank is another building built on the ruins of an older Hindu or Buddhist structure The female figure on the lintels of the doorway now, fixed in the east wall of the Dargah appears to be Tara, from which it would appear that the temple destroyed was Buddhist19

Tribeni (Bengal)

The principal object of interest at Tribeni is the Dargh of Zafar Khn Ghz. The chronology of this ruler may be deduced from the two inscriptions of which one has been fitted into the plinth of his tomb, while the other is inside the small mosque to the west of the tomb. Both refer to him and the first tells us that he built the mosque close to the Dargh, which dates from A.D. 1298; while the second records the erection by him of a Madrasah or college in the time of Shamsuddn Froz Shh and bears a date corresponding to the 28th April, 1313 A.D. It was he who conquered the Hindu Rj of Panduah, and introduced Islam into this part of Lower Bengal The tomb is built out of the spoils taken from Hindu temples20

The eastern portion of the tomb was formerly a maNDapa of an earlier Krishna temple which stood on the same spot and sculptures on the inner walls represent scenes from the RmyaNa and the Mahbhrata, with descriptive titles inscribed in proto-Bengali characters The other frieze shows Vishnu with Lakshm and Sarasvat in the centre, with two attendents, and five avatras of VishNu on both flanks Further clearance work has been executed during the year 1932-33 and among the sculptures discovered in that year are twelve figures of the Sun God, again in the 12th century style and evidently reused by the masons when the Hindu temple was converted into a Muslim structure21

Mandu (Madhya Pradesh)

MND became the capital of the Muhammadan Sultns of Mlv who set about buildings themselves palaces and mosques, first with material pilfered from Hindu temples (already for the most part desecrated and ruined by the iconoclastic fury of their earlier co-religionists) , and afterwards with their own quarried material.  Thus nearly all the traces of the splendid shrines of the ParamAras of MAlvA have disappeared save what we find utilized in the ruined mosques and tombs22

The date of the construction of the Hindola Mahall cannot be fixed with exactitude There can, however, be no doubt that it is one of the earliest of the Muhammadan buildings in MND. From its outward appearance there is no sign of Hindu workmanship but the repairs, that have been going on for the past one year, have brought to light a very large number of stones used in the structure, which appear, to have been taken from some pre-existing Hindu temple. The facing stones, which have been most accurately and smoothly cut on their outer surfaces, bear in very many cases on their inner sides the under faced images of Hindu gods, or patterns of purely Hindu design, while pieces of Hindu carving and broken parts of images are found indiscriminately mixed with the rubble, of which the core of the walls is made.23

Dhar (Madhya Pradesh)

The mosque itself appears from local tradition and from the numerous indications and inscriptions found within it to have been built on the site of, and to a large extent out of materials taken from, a Hindu Temple, known to the inhabitants as Rj Bhojas school. The inference was derived sometime back from the existence of a Sanskrit alphabet and some Sanskrit grammatical forms inscribed in serpentine diagrams on two of the pillar bases in the large prayer chamber and from certain Sanskrit inscriptions on the black stone slabs imbedded in the floor of the prayer chamber, and on the reverse face of the side walls of the mihrb.24

The Lt Masjid built in A.D. 1405, by Dilwar Khn, the founder of the Muhammadan kingdom of Mlv is of considerable interest not only on account of the Iron Lt which lies outside it but also because it is a good specimen of the use made by the Muhammadan conquerors of the materials of the Hindu temples which they destroyed25

Vijayanagar (Karnataka)

During the construction of the new road-some mounds which evidently marked the remains of destroyed buildings, were dug into, and in one of them were disclosed the foundations of a rectangular building with elaborately carved base. Among the debris were lumps of charcoal and calcined iron, probably the remains of the materials used by the Muhammadans in the destruction of the building. The stones bear extensive signs of having been exposed to the action of fire. That the chief buildings were destroyed by fire, historical evidence shows, and many buildings, notably the ViThalaswAmin temple, still bear signs, in their cracked and fractured stone work, of the catastrophe which overtook them26

The most important temple at Vijayanagar from an architectural point of view, is the ViThalaswmin temple. It stands in the eastern limits of the ruins, near the bank of the TuNgabhadra river, and shows in its later structures the extreme limit in floral magnificence to which the Dravidian style advanced This building had evidently attracted the special attention of the Muhammadan invaders in their efforts to destroy the buildings of the city, of which this was no doubt one of the most important, for though many of the other temples show traces of the action of fire, in none of them are the effects so marked as in this.  Its massive construction, however, resisted all the efforts that were made to bring it down and the only visible results of their iconoclastic fury are the cracked beams and pillars, some of the later being so flaked as to make one marvel that they are yet able to bear the immense weight of the stone entablature and roof above27

Bijapur (Karnataka)

No ancient Hindu or Jain buildings have survived at Bijapur and the only evidence of their former existence is supplied by two or three mosques, viz., Mosque No. 294, situated in the compound of the Collectors bungalow, Krimud-d-din Mosque and a third and smaller mosque on the way to the Mangoli Gate, which are all adaptations or re-erections of materials obtained from temples. These mosques are the earliest Muhammadan structures and one of them, i.e., the one constructed by Karimud-d-din, must according to a Persian and Nagari inscription engraved upon its pillars, have been erected in the year 1402 Saka=A.D. 1324, soon after Malik Kafurs conquest of the.  Deccan.28

Badami (Karnataka)

Three stone lintels bearing bas-reliefs were discovered in, course of the clearance at the second gateway of the Hill Fort to the north of the Bhtnth tank at Badami These originally belonged to a temple which is now in ruins and were re-used at a later period in the construction of the plinth of guardroom on the fort.

The bas-reliefs represent scenes from the early life of KRISHNA and may be compared with similar ones in the BADAMI CAVES29

The Pattern of Destruction

The Theology of Islam divides human history into two periods-the Jhiliyya or the age of ignorance which preceded Allahs first revelation to Prophet Muhammad, and the age of enlightenment which succeeded that event. It follows that every human creation which existed in the age of ignorance has to be converted to its Islamic version or destroyed. The logic applies to pre-Islamic buildings as much as to pre-Islamic ways of worship, mores and manners, dress and decor, personal and place names. This is too large a subject to be dealt with at present. What concerns us here is the fate of temples and monasteries that existed on the eve of the Islamic invasion and that came up in the course of its advance.

What happened to many abodes of the infidels is best described by a historian of Vijayanagar in the wake of Islamic victory in 1565 A.D. at the battle of Talikota. The third day, he writes, saw the beginning of the end. The victorious Mussulmans had halted on the field of battle for rest and refreshment, but now they had reached the capital, and from that time forward for a space of five months Vijayanagar knew no rest. The enemy had come to destroy, and they carried out their object relentlessly. They slaughtered the people without mercy; broke down the temples and palaces, and wreaked such savage vengeance on the abode of the kings, that, with the exception of a few great stone-built temples and walls, nothing now remains but a heap of ruins to mark the spot where once stately buildings stood. They demolished the statues and even succeeded in breaking the limbs of the huge Narsimha monolith. Nothing seemed to escape them. They broke up the pavilions standing on the huge platform from which the kings used to watch festivals, and overthrew all the carved work. They lit huge fires in the magnificently decorated buildings forming the temple of Vitthalswamin near the river, and smashed its exquisite stone sculptures. With fire and sword, with crowbars and axes, they carried on day after day their work of destruction. Never perhaps in the history of the world has such havoc been wrought, and wrought so suddenly, on so splendid a city: teeming with a wealthy and industrious population in the full plenitude of prosperity one day, and on the next seized, pillaged, and reduced to ruins, amid scenes of savage massacre and horrors beggaring description30

The Muslim victors did not get time to raise their own structures from the ruins of Vijayanagar, partly because the Hindu Raja succeeded in regrouping his forces and re-occupying his capital and partly because they did not have the requisite Muslim population to settle in that large city; another invader, the Portuguese, had taken control of the Arabian Sea and blocked the flow of fresh recruits from Muslim countries in the Middle East. What would have happened otherwise is described by Alexander Cunningham in his report on Mahoba. As Mahoba was, he writes, for some time the headquarters of the early Muhammadan Governors, we could hardly expect to find that any Hindu buildings had escaped their furious bigotry, or their equally destructive cupidity. When the destruction of a Hindu temple furnished the destroyer with the ready means of building a house for himself on earth, as well as in heaven, it is perhaps wonderful that so many temples should still be standing in different parts of the country. It must be admitted, however, that, in none of the cities which the early Muhammadans occupied permanently, have they left a single temple standing, save this solitary temple at Mahoba, which doubtless owed its preservation solely to its secure position amid the deep waters of the Madan-Sagar. In Delhi, and Mathura, in Banaras and Jonpur, in Narwar and Ajmer, every single temple was destroyed by their bigotry, but thanks to their cupidity, most of the beautiful Hindu pillars were preserved, and many of them, perhaps, on their original positions, to form new colonnades for the masjids and tombs of the conquerors.  In Mahoba all the other temples were utterly destroyed and the only Hindu building now standing is part of the palace of Parmal, or Paramarddi Deva, on the hill-fort, which has been converted into a masjid. In 1843, I found an inscription of Paramarddi Deva built upside down in the wall of the fort just outside this masjid. It is dated in S. 1240, or A.D. 1183, only one year before the capture of Mahoba by Prithvi-Raj Chohan of Delhi. In the Dargah of Pir Mubarak Shah, and the adjacent Musalman burial-ground, I counted 310 Hindu pillars of granite. I found a black stone bull lying beside the road, and the argha of a lingam fixed as a water-spout in the terrace of the Dargah. These last must have belonged to a temple of Siva, which was probably built in the reign of Kirtti Varmma, between 1065 and 1085 A.D., as I discovered an inscription of that prince built into the wall of one of the tombs.31

Many other ancient cities and towns suffered the same tragic transformation. Bukhara, Samarkand, Balkh, Kabul, Ghazni, Srinagar, Peshawar, Lahore, Multan, Patan, Ajmer, Delhi, Agra Dhar, Mandu, Budaun, Kanauj, Biharsharif, Patna, Lakhnauti, Ellichpur, Daulatabad, Gulbarga, Bidar, Bijapur, Golconda-to mention only a few of the more famous Hindu capitals-lost their native character and became nests of a closed creed waging incessant war on a catholic culture. Some of these places lost even their ancient names which had great and glorious associations. It is on record that the Islamic invaders coined and imposed this or that quranic concoction on every place they conquered. Unfortunately for them, most of these impositions failed to stick, going the way they came. But quite a few succeeded and have endured till our own times. Reviving the ancient names wherever they have got eclipsed is one of the debts which Hindu society owes to its illustrious ancestors.

On the other hand, a large number of cities, towns and centres of Hindu civilization disappeared from the scene and their ruins have been identified only in recent times, as in the case of Kpi, Lampaka, Nagarahra, Pushkalvat, UdbhNDapura, Takshil, lor, Brhmanbd, Debal, Nandana, Agroh Virtanagara, Ahichchhatra, rvast, Srnth, Vail, Vikramla, Nland, KarNasuvarNa, PuNDravardhana, Somapura, Jjanagar, DhnyakaTaka, Vijayapur, Vijayanagara, Dvrasamudra. What has been found on top of the ruins in most cases is a mosque or a dargh or a tomb or some other Muslim monument, testifying to Allahs triumph over Hindu Gods. Many more mounds are still to be explored and identified. A survey of archaeological sites in the Frontier Circle alone and as far back as 1920, listed 255 dheris32 or mounds which, as preliminary explorations indicated, hid ruins of ancient dwellings and/or places of worship. Some dheris, which had been excavated and were not included in this count, showed every sign of deliberate destruction.  By that time, many more mounds of a similar character had been located in other parts of the cradle of Hindu culture. A very large number has been added to the total count in subsequent years. Whichever of them is excavated tells the same story, most of the time. It is a different matter that since the dawn of independence, Indian archaeologists functioning under the spell or from fear of Secularism, record or report only the ethnographical stratifications and cultural sequences.33

Muslim historians credit all their heroes with many expeditions each of which laid waste this or that province or region or city or countryside. The foremost heroes of the imperial line at Delhi and Agra such as Qutbud-Dn Aibak (1192-1210 A.D.), Shamsud-Dn Iltutmish (1210-36 A.D.), Ghiysud-Dn Balban (1246-66 A D.), Alud-Dn Khalj (1296-1316 A.D.), Muhammad bin Tughlaq (1325-51 A.D.), Fruz Shh Tughlaq (135188 A.D.) Sikandar Lod (1489-1519 A.D.), Bbar (1519-26 A.D.) and Aurangzeb (1658-1707 A.D.) have been specially hailed for hunting the peasantry like wild beasts, or for seeing to it that no lamp is lighted for hundreds of miles, or for destroying the dens of idolatry and God-pluralism wherever their writ ran. The sultans of the provincial Muslim dynasties-Malwa, Gujarat, Sindh, Deccan, Jaunpur, Bengal-were not far behind, if not ahead, of what the imperial pioneers had done or were doing; quite often their performance put the imperial pioneers to shame. No study has yet been made of how much the human population declined due to repeated genocides committed by the swordsmen of Islam. But the count of cities and towns and villages which simply disappeared during the Muslim rule leaves little doubt that the loss of life suffered by the cradle of Hindu culture was colossal.

Putting together all available evidence-literary and archaeological- from Hindu, Muslim and other sources, and following the trail of Islamic invasion, we get the pattern of how the invaders proceeded vis-a-vis Hindu places of worship after occupying a city or town and its suburbs. It should be kept in mind in this context that Muslim rule never became more than a chain of garrison cities and towns, not even in its heyday from Akbar to Aurangzeb, except in areas where wholesale or substantial conversions had taken place.  Elsewhere the invaders were rarely in full control of the countryside; they had to mount repeated expeditions for destroying places of worship, collecting booty including male and female slaves, and for terrorising the peasantry, through slaughter and rapine, so that the latter may become a submissive source of revenue.  The peasantry took no time to rise in revolt whenever and wherever Muslim power weakened or its terror had to be relaxed for reasons beyond its control.

1. Places taken by assault: If a place was taken by assault-which was mostly the case because it was seldom that the Hindus surrendered- it was thoroughly sacked, its surviving population slaughtered or enslaved and all its buildings pulled down. In the next phase, the conquerors raised their own edifices for which slave labour was employed on a large scale in order to produce quick results. Cows and, many a time, Brahmanas were killed and their blood sprinkled on the sacred sites in order to render them unclean for the Hindus for all time to come. The places of worship which the Muslims built for themselves fell into several categories. The pride of place went to the Jmi Masjid which was invariably built on the site and with the materials of the most prominent Hindu temple; if the materials of that temple were found insufficient for the purpose, they could be supplemented with materials of other temples which had been demolished simultaneously. Some other mosques were built in a similar manner according to need or the fancy of those who mattered. Temple sites and materials were also used for building the tombs of those eminent Muslims who had fallen in the fight; they were honoured as martyrs and their tombs became mazrs and rauzas in course of time. As we have already pointed out, Hindus being great temple builders, temple materials could be spared for secular structures also, at least in the bigger settlements. It can thus be inferred that all masjids and mazrs, particularly the Jmi Masjids which date from the first Muslim occupation of a place, stand on the site of Hindu temples; the structures we see at present may not carry evidence of temple materials used because of subsequent restorations or attempts to erase the evidence. There are very few Jmi Masjids in the country which do not stand on temple sites.

2. Places surrendered: Once in a while a place was surrendered by the Hindus in terms of an agreement that they would be treated as zimmis and their lives as well as places of worship spared. In such cases, it took some time to eradicate the emblems of infidelity. Theologians of Islam were always in disagreement whether Hindus could pass muster as zimmis; they were not People of the Book. It depended upon prevailing power equations for the final decision to go in their favour or against them. Most of the time, Hindus lost the case in which they were never allowed to have any say. What followed was what had happened in places taken by assault, at least in respect of the Hindu places of worship. The zimmi status accorded to the Hindus seldom went beyond exaction of jizya and imposition of disabilities prescribed by Umar, the second rightly-guided Caliph (634-44 A.D.).

3. Places reoccupied by Hindus: It also happened quite frequently, particularly in the early phase of an Islamic invasion, that Hindus retook a place which had been under Muslim occupation for some time. In that case, they rebuilt their temples on new sites. Muslim historians are on record that Hindus spared the mosques and mazrs which the invaders had raised in the interregnum. When the Muslims came back, which they did in most cases, they re-enacted the standard scene vis-a-vis Hindu places of worship.

4. Places in the countryside: The invaders started sending out expeditions into the countryside as soon as their stranglehold on major cities and towns in a region had been secured.  Hindu places of worship were always the first targets of these expeditions. It is a different matter that sometimes the local Hindus raised their temples again after an expedition had been forced to retreat. For more expeditions came and in due course Hindu places of worship tended to disappear from the countryside as well. At the same time, masjids and mazrs sprang up everywhere, on the sites of demolished temples.

5. Missionaries of Islam: Expeditions into the countryside were accompanied or followed by the missionaries of Islam who flaunted pretentious names and functioned in many guises. It is on record that the missionaries took active part in attacking the temples. They loved to live on the sites of demolished temples and often used temple materials for building their own dwellings, which also went under various high-sounding names. There were instances when they got killed in the battle or after they settled down in a place which they had helped in pillaging. In all such cases, they were pronounced shahds (martyrs) and suitable monuments were raised in their memory as soon as it was possible. Thus a large number of gumbads (domes) and ganjs (plains) commemorating the martyrs arose all over the cradle of Hindu culture and myths about them grew apace. In India, we have a large literature on the subject in which Sayyid Slr Masd, who got killed at Bahraich while attacking the local Sun Temple, takes pride of place. His mazAr now stands on the site of the same temple which was demolished in a subsequent invasion. Those Muslim saints who survived and settled down have also left a large number of masjids and dargAhs in the countryside. Almost all of them stand on temple sites.

6. The role of sufis: The saints of Islam who became martyrs or settled down were of several types which can be noted by a survey of their zirats and mazrs that we find in abundance in all lands conquered by the armies of Islam. But in the second half of the twelfth century A.D., we find a new type of Muslim saint appearing on the scene and dominating it in subsequent centuries. That was the sufi joined to a silsila. This is not the place to discuss the character of some outstanding sufis like Mansr al-Hallj, Byazd Bistm, Rm and Attr. Suffice it to say that some of their ancestral spiritual heritage had survived in their consciousness even though their Islamic environment had tended to poison it a good deal. The common name which is used for these early sufis as well as for the teeming breed belonging to the latter-day silsilas, has caused no end of confusion. So far as India is concerned, it is difficult to find a sufi whose consciousness harboured even a trace of any spirituality. By and large, the sufis that functioned in this country were the most fanatic and fundamentalist activists of Islamic imperialism, the same as the latter-day Christian missionaries in the context of Spanish and Portuguese imperialism.

Small wonder that we find them flocking everywhere ahead or with or in the wake of Islamic armies. Sufis of the Chishtyya silsila in particular excelled in going ahead of these armies and acting as eyes and ears of the Islamic establishment. The Hindus in places where these sufis settled, particularly in the South, failed to understand the true character of these saints till it was too late. The invasions of South India by the armies of Alud-Dn Khalj and Muhammad bin Tughlaq can be placed in their proper perspective only when we survey the sufi network in the South. Many sufis were sent in all directions by Nizmud-Dn Awliy, the Chistyya luminary of Delhi; all of them actively participated in jihds against the local population.  Nizmud-Dns leading disciple, Nasrud-Dn Chirg-i-Dihl , exhorted the sufis to serve the Islamic state.  The essence of sufism, he versified, is not an external garment. Gird up your loins to serve the Sultn and be a sufi.34 Nasrud-Dns leading disciple, Syed Muhammad Husain Banda Nawz Gesdarz (1321-1422 A.D.), went to Gulbarga for helping the contemporary Bahmani sultan in consolidating Islamic power in the Deccan. Shykh Nizmud-Dn Awliys dargh in Delhi continued to be and remains till today the most important centre of Islamic fundamentalism in India.

An estimate of what the sufis did wherever and whenever they could, can be formed from the account of a pilgrimage which a pious Muslim Nawwb undertook in 1823 to the holy places of Islam in the Chingleput, South Acort, Thanjavur, Tiruchirapalli and North Arcot districts of Tamil Nadu. This region had experienced renewed Islamic invasion after the breakdown of the Vijayanagar Empire in 1565 A.D. Many sufis had flocked in for destroying Hindu temples and converting the Hindu population, particularly the Qdiryyas who had been fanning out all over South India after establishing their stronghold at Bidar in the fifteenth century. They did not achieve any notable success in terms of conversions, but the havoc they wrought with Hindu temples can be inferred from a large number of ruins, loose sculptures scattered all over the area, inscriptions mentioning many temples which cannot be traced, and the proliferation of mosques, darghs, mazrs and maqbaras.

The pilgrim visited many places and could not go to some he wanted to cover. All these places were small except Tiruchirapalli, Arcot and Vellore. His court scribe, who kept an account of the pilgrimage, mentions many masjids and mazrs visited by his patron. Many masjids and mazrs could not be visited because they were in deserted places covered by forest. There were several graveyards, housing many tombs; one of them was so big that thousands, even a hundred thousand graves could be there. Other notable places were takiys of faqirs, saris, darghs, and several houses of holy relics in one of which a hair of the Holy Prophet is enshrined. The account does not mention the Hindu population except as harsh kafirs and marauders. But stray references reveal that the Muslim population in all these places was sparse. For instance, Kanchipuram had only 50 Muslim houses but 9 masjids and 1 mazr.

The court scribe pays fulsome homage to the sufis who planted firmly the Faith of Islam in this region. The pride of place goes to Hazrat Natthar WalI who took over by force the main temple at Tiruchirapalli and converted it into his khnqh. Referring to the destruction of the Sivalinga in the temple, he observes: The monster was slain and sent to the house of perdition.  His image namely but-ling worshipped by the unbelievers was cut and the head separated from the body. A portion of the body went into the ground. Over that spot is the tomb of WalI shedding rediance till this day.35 Another sufi, Qyim Shh, who came to the same place at a later stage, was the cause of the destruction of twelve temples.36 At Vellore, Hazrat Nr Muhammad Qdir, the most unique man regarded as the invaluable person of his age, was the cause of the ruin of temples which he laid waste. He chose to be buried in the vicinity of the temple which he had replaced with his khnqh.37

It is, therefore, not an accident that the masjids and khAnqAhs built by or for the sufis who reached a place in the first phase of Islamic invasion occupy the sites of Hindu temples and, quite often, contain temple materials in their structures. Lahore, Multan, Uch, Ajmer, Delhi, Badaun, Kanauj, Kalpi, Biharsharif, Maner, Lakhnauti, Patan, Patna, Burhanpur, Daulatabad, Gulbarga, Bidar, Bijapur, Golconda, Arcot, Vellor and Tiruchirapalli- to count only a few leading sufi center-shave many darghs which display evidence of iconoclasm.  Many masjids and darghs in interior places testify to the same fact, namely, that the sufis were, above everything else, dedicated soldiers of Allah who tolerates no other deity and no other way of worship except that which he revealed to Prophet Muhammad.

7. Particularly pious sultans: Lastly, we have to examine very closely the monuments built during the reigns of the particularly pious sultans who undertook to cleanse the land from the vices of infidelity and God-pluralism that had cropped up earlier, either because Islamic terror had weakened under pressure of circumstances or because the proceeding ruler (s) had wandered away from the path of rectitude. Fruz Shh Tughlaq, Sikandar Lod and Aurangzeb of the Delhi-Agra imperial line belonged to this category.  They had several prototypes in the provincial Muslim dynasties at Ahmadabad, Mandu, Jaunpur, Lakhnauti, Gulbarga, Bidar, Ahmadnagar, Bijapur and Golconda. There is little doubt that all masjids and mazrs erected under the direct or indirect patronage of these sultans, particularly in places where Hindu population predominates, stand on the sites of Hindu temples.

A Preliminary Survey

We give below, state-wise and district-wise, the particulars of Muslim monuments which stand on the sites and/or have been built with the materials of Hindu temples, and which we wish to recall as witnesses to the role of Islam as a religion and the character of Muslim rule in medieval India. The list is the result of a preliminary survey. Many more Muslim monuments await examination. Local traditions which have so far been ignored or neglected, have to be tapped on a large scale.

We have tried our best to be exact in respect of locations, names and dates of the monuments mentioned.  Even so, some mistakes and confusions may have remained. It is not unoften that different sources provide different dates and names for the same monument. Many Muslim saints are known by several names, which creates confusion in identifying their mazrs or darghs. Some districts have been renamed or newly, created and a place which was earlier under one district may have been included in another. We shall be grateful to readers who point out these mistakes so that they can be corrected in our major study. This is only a brief summary.
 
 

ANDHRA PRADESH

I. Adilabad District.

Mahur, Masjid in the Fort on the hill. Temple site.


II. Anantpur District.

1. Gooty, Gateway to the Hill Fort. Temple materials used.
2. Kadiri, Jmi Masjid.  Temple site.
3. Konakondla, Masjid in the bazar. Temple materials used.
4. Penukonda

(i) Fort. Temple materials used.
(ii) Masjid in the Fort. Converted Temple.
(iii) Sher Khns Masjid (1546).38 Converted Temple.
(iv) Dargh of Babayya. Converted vara Temple.
(v) Jmi Masjid (1664-65). Temple site.
(xi) Dargh of Shh Fakbrud-Dn (1293-94). Temple site.

5. Tadpatri

(i) Jmi Masjid (1695-96). Temple site.
(ii) Idgh completed in 1725-26. Temple site.

6. Thummala, Masjid (1674-75). Temple site.


III. Cuddapah District

1. Cuddapah

(i) Bhp Shib-k-Masjid (1692). Temple site.
(ii) Idgh (1717-18). Temple site.
(iii) Bahdur Khn-k-Masjid (1722-23). Temple site.
(iv) Dargh of Shh Amnud-Dn Ges Darz (1736-37). Temple site.

2. Duvvuru, Masjid. Temple site.
3. Gandikot, Jmi Masjid (1690-91). Temple site.
4. Gangapuru, Masjid. Temple site.
5. Gundlakunta, Dastgr Dargh. Temple site.
6. Gurrumkonda, Fort and several other Muslim buildings. Temple materials used.
7. Jammalmaduguu, Jmi Masjid (1794-95). Temple site.
8. Jangalapalle, Dargh of Dastgr Swm. Converted Jangam temple.
9. Siddhavatam

(i) Qutb Shh Masjid (restored in 1808). Temple materials use.
(ii) Jmi Masjid (1701). Temple materials used.
(iii) Dargh of Bismillh Khn Qdir. Temple materials used.
(iv) Fort and Gateways. Temple materials used.
(v) Chowk-k-Masjid. Temple site.

10. Vutukuru

(i) Masjid at Naligoto. Temple site.
(ii) Masjid at Puttumiyyapeta. Temple site.


IV. East Godavari District.

Bikkavolu, Masjid. Temple materials used.


V. Guntur District.

1. Nizampatnam, Dargh of Shh Haidr (1609). Temple site
2. Vinukonda, Jmi Masjid (1640-41). Temple site.


VI. Hyderabad District.

1. Chikalgoda, Masjid (1610). Temple site.
2. Dargah, Dargh of Shh Wal (1601-02). Temple site.
3. Golconda

(i) Jmi Masjid on Bl Hissr. Temple site.
(ii) Trmat Masjid. Temple site.

4. Hyderabad

(i) Dargh of Shh Ms Qdir. Temple site.
(ii) Masjid on the Pirulkonda Hill (1690). Temple site.
(iii) Tol Masjid (1671). Temple materials used.
(iv) Dargh of Min Mishk (d. 1680). Temple site.
(v) Dargh of Mumin Chup in Aliybd (1322-23). Temple site.
(vi) Hj Kaml-k-Masjid (1657). Temple site.
(vii) Begum Masjid (1593). Temple site.
(viii) Dargh of Islm Khn Naqshband. Temple site.
(ix) Dargh of Shh Dd (1369-70). Temple site.
(x) Jmi Masjid (1597). Temple site.

4. Maisaram, Masjid built by Aurangzeb from materials of 200 temples demolished after the fall of Golconda.
5. Secunderabad, Qadam RasUl. Temple site.
6. Sheikhpet

(i) Shaikh-k-Masjid (1633-34). Temple site.
(ii) SariwAl Masjid (1678-79). Temple tite.


VII. Karimnagar District.

1. Dharampuri, Masjid (1693). TrikTa Temple site.
2. Elangdal

(i) Mansr Khn-k-Masjid (1525). Temple site.
(ii) Alamgr Masjid (1696). Temple site.

3. Kalesyaram, lamgr Masjid. Temple site.
4. Sonipet, lamgr Masjid. Temple site.
5. Vemalvada, Mazr of a Muslim saint. Temple site.


VIII. Krishna District.

1. Gudimetta, Masjid in the Fort, Temple materials used.
2. Guduru, Jmi Masjid (1497). Temple materials used.
3. Gundur, Jmi Masjid. Converted temple.
4. Kondapalli

(i) Masjid built in 1482 on the site of a temple after Muhammad Shh BahmanI had slaughtered the Brahmin priests on the advice of Mahmd Gawn, the great Bahman Prime Minister, who exhorted the sultan to become a Ghz by means of this pious performance.
(ii) Mazr of Shh Abdul Razzq. Temple site.

5. Kondavidu

(i) Masjid (1337). Temple materials used.
(ii) Dargh of Barandaula. Temple materials used.
(iii) Qadam Sharf of dam. Converted temple.

6. Machhlipatnam

(i) Jmi Masjid. Temple site.
(ii) Idgh. Temple site.

7. Nandigram, Jmi Masjid. Temple site.
8. Pedana, Iamail-k-Masjid. Temple site.
9. Rajkonda, Masjid (1484). Temple site.
10. Tengda, Masjid. Temple site.
11. Turkpalem, Dargh of Ghlib Shahd. Temple site.
12. Vadpaili, Masjid near NarsiMhaswmn Temple. Temple materials used.
13. Vijaywada, Jmi Masjid. Temple site.


IX. Kurnool District.

1. Adoni

(i) Jmi Masjid (1668-69). Materials of several temples used.
(ii) Masjid on the Hill. Temple materials used.
(iii) Fort (1676-77). Temple materials used.

2. Cumbum

(i) Jmi Masjid (1649). Temple site.
(ii) Gachinl Masjid (1729-30). Temple site.

3. Havli, Jmi Masjid. Temple materials used.
4. Karimuddula, Dargh. Akkadevi Temple materials used.
5. Kottakot, Jmi Masjid (1501). Temple site.
6. Kurnool

(i) Pr Shib-k-Gumbad (1637-38). Temple site.
(ii) Jmi Masjid (1667). Temple site.
(iii) Ll Masjid (1738-39). Temple site.

7. Pasupala, Kaln Masjid. Temple site.
8. Sanjanmala, Masjid. Temple sites.
9. Siddheswaram, Ashurkhna. Temple materials used.
10. Yadavalli, Mazr and Masjid. Temple sites.
11. Zuhrapur, Dargh of Qdir Shh Bukhr. Temple site.


X. Mahbubnagar District.

1. Alampur, Qal-k-Masjid. Temple materials used.
2. Jatprole, Dargh of Sayyid Shh Darwish. Temple materials used.
3. Kodangal

(i) Dargh of Hazrat Nizmud-DIn. Temple site.
(ii) Jmi Masjid. Temple site.

4. Kundurg, Jmi Masjid (1470-71). Temple site.
5. Pargi, Jmi Masjid (1460). Temple site.
6. Somasila, Dargh of Kamlud-Dn Baba (1642-43) Temple site.


XI. Medak District.

1. Andol, Old Masjid. Temple site.
2. Komatur, Old Masjid. Temple site.
3. Medak

(i) Masjid near Mubrak Mahal (1641). VishNu Temple site.
(ii) Fort, Temple materials used.

4. Palat, Masjid. Temple site.
5. Patancheru

(i) Jmi Masjid. Temple materials used.
(ii) Dargh of Shykh Ibrhm known as Makhdmji (1583). Temple site.
(iii) Ashrufkhna. Temple site.
(iv) Fort (1698). Temple materials used.


XII. Nalgonda District.

1. Devarkonda

(i) Qutb Shh Masjid. Temple materials used.
(ii) Dargh of Sharfud-Din (1579). Temple site.
(iii) Dargh of Qdir Shh Wal (1591). Temple site.

2. Ghazinagar, Masjid (1576-77). Temple site.
3. Nalgonda

(i) Garh Masjid. Temple site.
(ii) Dargh of Shh Latf. Temple site.
(iii) Qutb Shh Masjid (Renovated in 1897). Temple site.

4. Pangal, lamgr Masjid. Temple site.


XIII. Nellore District.

1. Kandukuru, Four Masjids. Temple sites.
2. Nellore, Dargh named Dargmitt. Akkaslvara Temple materials used.
3. Podile, Dargh. Temple site.
4. Udayagiri

(i) Jmi Masjid (1642-43). Temple materials used.
(ii) Chhot Masjid (1650-51). Temple materials used.
(iii) Fort. Temple materials used.


XIV. Nizambad District.

1. Balkonda

(i) Patthar-k-Masjid. Temple site.
(ii) Idgh. Temple site.

2. Bodhan

(i) Deval Masjid. Converted Jain temple.
(ii) Patthar-k-Masjid. Temple site.
(iii) lamgr Masjid (1654-55). Temple site.

3. Dudki, Ashrufkhna. Temple materials used.
4. Fathullapur, Muaskar Masjid (1605-06). Temple site.


XV. Osmanabad District.

Ausa, Jmi Masjid (1680-81). Temple site.


XVI. Rangareddy District.

Maheshwar, Masjid (1687).  Madanna Pandits Temple site.


XVII. Srikakulam District

1. Icchapuram, Several Masjids. Temple sites.
2. Kalingapatnam, DargAh of Sayyid Muhammad Madn Awliy (1619-20). Temple materials used.
3. Srikakulam

(i) Jmi Masjid (1641- 42). Temple site.
(ii) Dargh of Bande Shh Wal (1641- 42). Temple site.
(iii) Atharwl Masjid (1671-72). Temple site.
(iv) Dargh of Burhnud-Dn Awliy. Temple site.


XVIII. Vishakhapatnam District.

1. Jayanagaram, Dargh. Temple site.
2. Vishakhapatnam, Dargh of Shh Madn. Temple site.


XIX. Warangal District.

Zafargarh, Jmi Masjid. Temple site.


XX. West Godavari District.

1. Eluru

(i) Fort. Temple materials used.
(ii) Sawi Masjid. Converted temple.
(iii) Qzis House. Somevara Temple materials used.

2. Nidavolu, Masjid. Mahdeva Temple materials used.
3. Rajamundri, Jmi Masjid (1324). Converted VeNugoplaswmin Temple.


 

ASSAM

District Kamrup
Hajo

(i) Po Masjid (1657). Temple site.
(ii) Mazr of a Muslim saint who styled himself Sultn Ghiysud-Dn Balban. Temple site.


 

BENGAL

I. Bankura District.

Lokpura, Mazr of Ghz Ismil. Converted Venugopala temple.


II. Barisal District.

Kasba, Masjid. Temple site.


III. Birbhum District.

1. Moregram, Mazr of Sayyid Bb. Temple materials used.
2. Patharchapuri, Maz of Dt, or Mahbb Shib. Temple site.
3. Rajnagar, Several Old Masjids. Temple sites.
4. Sakulipur, Jmi Masjid. Temple site.
5. Siyan, Dargh of Makhdm Shh (1221). Materials of many temples used.


IV. Bogra District.

Mahasthan

(i) Dargh and Masjid of Shh Sultn Mahswr. Stands on the ruins of a temple.
(ii) Majid on ildev Ghat. Temple materials used.


V. Burdwan District.

1. Inchalabazar, Masjid (1703). Temple site.
2. Kasba, Rj, Masjid. Temple materials used.
3. Kalna

(i) Dargh of Shh Majlis (1491-93). Temple site.
(ii) ShhI Masjid (1533). Temple site.

4. Mangalkot, Jmi Masjid (1523-24). Temple site.
5. Raikha, Talb-wl Masjid. Temple site.
6. Suata

(i) Dargh of Sayyid Shh Shahd Mahmd Bahman. Buddhist Temple materials site.
(ii) Masjid (1502-02). Temple site.


VI. Calcutta District.

Bania Pukur, Masjid built for Alud-Dn Alul Haqq (1342). Temple materials used.


VII. Chatgaon District.

Dargh of Badr Makhdm. Converted Buddhist Vihra.


VIII. Dacca District.

1. Dacca

(i) Tomb of Bb Par. Temple materials used.
(ii) Saif Khn-k-Masjid. Converted temple.
(iii) Churihatt Masjid. Temple materials used.

2. Narayanganj, Qadam Rasl Masjid. Temple site.
3. Rampal

(i) Masjid. Converted temple.
(ii) Dargh of Bb. Adam Shahd (1308). Temple materials used.

4. Sonargaon, Old Masjid. Temple materials used.


IX. Dinajpur District.

1. Basu-Bihar, Two Masjids. On the ruins of a Buddhist Vihra.
2. Devatala

(i) Dargh of Shykh Jallud-Dn Tabrizi, Suhrawardyyia sufi credited in Muslim histories with the destruction of many, temples. Temple site.
(ii) Jmi Masjid (1463). VishNu Temple site.

3. Devikot

(i) Dargh and Masjid of Pr Atullah Shh (1203). Temple materials used.
(ii) Dargh of Shh Bukhr. Temple materials used.
(iii) Dargh of Pr Bahud-Dn. Temple materials used.
(iv) Dargh of Shh Sultn Pr. Temple materials used.

4. Mahisantosh, Dargh and Masjid. On the site of a big VishNu Temple.
5. Nekmard, Mazr of Nekmard Shh. Temple site.


X. Faridpur District.

Faridpzir, Mazr of Fard Shh. Temple site.


XI. Hooghly District.

1. Jangipura, Mazr of Shahd Ghz. Temple materials used.
2. Pandua

(i) Masjid. Temple materials used.
(ii) Mazr of Shh Safiud-Dn. Temple site.
(iii) Fath Minr. Temple materials used.

3. Santoshpur, Masjid near Molla Pukur (153-310). Temple site.
4. Satgaon, Jmi Masjid. Temple materials used.
5. Tribeni

(i) Zafar Khn-k-Masjid (1298). Temple materials used.
(ii) Dargh of Zafar Khn. Temple materials used.
(iii) Masjid (1459). Temple site.


XII. Howrah District.

Jangalvilas, Pr Shib-k-Masjid. Converted temple.


XIII. Khulna District.

1. Masjidkur

(i) Sht Gumbaz. Temple materials used.
(ii) Mazr of Khanj Ali or Khn Jahn. Temple site.

2. Salkhira, Dargh of Ma Chmp. Temple materials used.


XIV. Malda District.

1. Gangarampur

(i) Dargh of Shh At. iva Temple site.
(ii) Masjid on the river bank (1249). Temple site.

2. Gaur, Muslim city built on the site and with the ruins of LakshmaNvat, Hindu capital destroyed by the Muslims at the end of the twelfth century A.D. Temple materials have been used in the following monuments:

(i) Chhot Son Masjid.
(ii) Qadam Rasl Masjid (1530)
(iii) Tntipr Masjid (1480)
(iv) Lttan Masjid (1475)
(v) Bad Son Masjid (1526)
(vi) Dargh of Makhadm Akh Sirj Chisht, disciple of Nizmud-Dn Awliya of Delhi (1347)
(vii) Darsbr or College of Theology.
(viii) Astn of Shh Nimatullh.
(ix) Chmkatt Masjid (1459).
(x) Chikk Masjid.
(xi) Gunmant Masjid.  Converted temple.
(xii) Dkhil Darwz.
(xiii) Kotwl Darwz.
(xiv) Fruz Minr.
(xv) ChaNDipur Darwz.
(xvi) Brdur Masjid.
(xvii) Lukchuri Masjid.
(xviii) Gumt Darwz.

3. Malda

(i) Jmi Masjid (1566). Temple materials used.
(ii) Sak Mohan Masjid (1427). Temple site.

4. Pandua, Another Muslim city built with the ruins of LakshmaNvat. Temple materials have been used in the following monuments.

(i) dina Masjid (1368)
(ii) Yaklakh Masjid.
(iii) Chheh Hazri or Dargh of Nr Qutb-i-lam (1415).
(iv) Bis Hazr or Khnqh of Jallud-Dn Tabriz (1244).
(v) Son Masjid.
(vi) Barn-like Masjid.
(vii) Qadam Rasl.


XV. Midnapur District.

1. Gagneswar, Karambera Garh Masjid (1509). iva Temple site.
2. Hijli, Masnad-i-l-k -Masjid. Temple site.
3. Kesiari, Masjid (1622). Mahdeva Temple materials used.
4. Kharagpur, Mazr of Pr Lohni. Temple site.


XVI. Murshidabad District.

1. Chuna Khali, Barbak-k-Masjid. Temple site.
2. Murshidabad, Temple materials have been used in the following monuments:

(i) Katr Masjid.
(ii) Motjhl Lake Embankments.
(iii) Sang Dln.
(iv) Mahal Sar.
(v) Alvard Khn-k-Masjid.
(vi) Hazrdur Mahal.

3. Rangamati, Dargh on the Rkshas DNg. Stands on the ruins of a Buddhist Vihra.


XVII. Noakhali District.

Begamganj, Bajr Masjid. Converted temple.


XVIII. Pabna District.

Balandu, Madrasa. Converted Buddhist Vihra.


XIX. Rajshahi District.

1. Bhaturia, Masjid. iva Temple materials used.
2. Kumarpura, Mazr of Mukarram Shh. Converted temple.
3. Kusumbha, Old Masjid (1490-93). Constructed entirely of temple materials.


XX. Rangpur District.

Kamatpur

(i) BaD Dargh of Shh Ismil Ghz. Temple site.
(ii) Idgh on a mound one mile away. Temple materials used.


XXI. Sylhet District.

1. Baniyachung, Famous Masjid. Temple site.
2. Sylhet

(i) Masjid of Shh Jall. Temple site.
(ii) Mazrs of Shh Jall and many of his disciples. Temple sites.


XXII. 24-Parganas District.

1. Barasat, Mazr of Pr Ekdil Shib. Temple site.
2. Berchampa, Dargh of Pr GorchNd. Temple site.


 

BIHAR

I. Bhagalpur District.

1. Bhagalpur

(i) Dargh of Hazrat Shhbz (1502). Temple site.
(ii) Masjid of Mujahidpur (1511-15). Temple site.
(iii) Dargh of Makhdm Shh (1615). Temple site.

2. Champanagar

(i) Several Mazrs. On ruins of Jain temples.
(ii) Masjid (1491). Jain Temple site.

3. Sultanganj, Masjid on the rock on the river bank. Temple site.


II. Gaya District.

1. Amthua, Masjid (1536). Temple site.
2. Gaya, Shh Masjid in Nadirganj (1617). Temple site.
3. Kako, Dargh of Bb Kamlo. Temple site.


III. Monghyr District.

1. Amoljhori, Muslim Graveyard. VishNu Temple site.
2. Charuanwan, Masjid (1576). Temple site.
3. Kharagpur

(i) Masjid (1656-57). Temple site.
(ii) Masjid (1695-96). Temple site.

4. Monghyr

(i) Fort Gates. Temple materials used.
(ii) Dargh of Shh Nafa Chisht (1497-98). Temple site.


IV. Muzaffarpur District.

Zaruha, MamN-BhNj-k- Mazr. Temple materials used.


V. Nalanda District.

1. Biharsharif, Muslim capital built after destroying UdaNDapura which had a famous Buddhist Vihra. Most of the Muslim monuments were built on the site and from materials of temples. The following are some of them:

(i) Dargh of Makhdmul Mulk Sharfud-Dn. (d. 1380).
(ii) BaD Dargh.
(iii) Chhot Dargh.
(iv) Brdar.
(v) Dargh of Shh Fazlullh GosN.
(iv) Mazr of Malik Ibrhim Bayy on Pr PahD.
(vii) Kabriud-Dn-k -Masjid (1353).
(viii) Mazr of Sayyid Muhammad Siwistni.
(ix) Chhot Takiy containing the Mazr of Shh Dwn Abdul Wahhb.
(x) Dargh of Shh Qumais (1359-60).
(xi) Masjid in Chandpur Mahalla.
(xii) Jmi Masjid in Paharpur Mahalla.

2. Parbati, Dargh of Hj Chandar or ChNd Saudgar. Temple materials used.
3. Shaikhupura, Dargh of Shykh Shib. Temple materials used.


VI. Patna District.

1. Hilsa

(i) Dargh of Shh Jumman Madryya (repaired in 1543). Temple site.
(ii) Masjid. (1604-05). Temple site.

2. Jana, Jmi Masjid (1539). Temple site.
3. Kailvan, Dargh and Masjid. Temple site.
4. Maner, All Muslim monuments stand on temple sites. The following are prominent among them:

(i) BaD Dargh of Sultnul Makhdm Shh Yhy Maner.
(ii) Dargh of Makhdm Daulat Shh.
(iii) Jmi Masjid.
(iv) Mazr of Hj Nizmud-Dn.

5. Muhammadpur, Jmi Masjid (1510-11). Temple site.
6. Patna

(i) Patthar-k-Masjid (1626). Temple materials used.
(ii) Beg Hajjm-k-Masjid (1510-11). Temple materials used.
(iii) Muslim Graveyard outside the Qiladari. On the ruins of Buddhist Vihras.
(iv) Dargh of Shh Mr Mansr. On the ruins of a Buddhist Stpa.
(v) Dargh of Shh Arzni. On the site of a Buddhist Vihra.
(vi) Dargh of Pr Damariy. On the site of a Buddhist Vihra.
(vii) Mirza Msm-k-Masjid (1605). Temple materials used.
(viii) Meetan Ght-k-Masjid (1605). Temple site.
(ix) Katr Masjid of Shista Khn. Temple site.
(x) Khwja Ambar Masjid (1688-89). Temple site.
(xi) Bbuganj Masjid (1683-86). Temple site.
(xii) Sher-Shh Masjid near Purab Darwaza. Temple site.
(xiii) Chamn Ght-k-Masjid. Temple site.

7. Phulwarisharif

(i) Dargh of Shh Pashmnposh. Temple site.
(ii) Dargh of Minhjud-Dn Rast. Temple site.
(iii) Dargh of Ll Min. Temple site.
(iv) Sang Masjid (1549-50). Temple site.


VII. Purnea District.

1. Hadaf, Jmi Masjid. Temple site.
2. Puranea, Masjid in Keonlpura. Temple site.


VIII. Saran District.

1. Chirand, Masjid (1503-04). Temple site.
2. Narhan, Jmi Masjid. Temple site.
3. Tajpur-Basahi Mazr of Khwja Bdshh. Temple materials used.


IX. Shahabad District.

1. Rohtasgarh

(i) Masjid of Aurangzeb. Part of a temple converted.
(ii) Mazr of Sq Sultn. Temple site.

2. Sasaram, Mazr of Chandan Shahd Pr. Temple site.


X. Vaishali District.

1. Amer, Mazr of Pr Qattl. Temple materials used.
2. Chehar

(i) Fort. Temple materials used.
(ii) Jmi Masjid. Temple materials used.

3. Hajipur

(i) Hj Ilys-k- Masjid. Converted temple.
(ii) Dargh of Barkhurdr Awliy. Temple site.
(iii) Dargh of Pr Shattr. Temple site.
(iv) Dargh of Hjul Harmain. Temple site.
(v) Dargh of Pr Jallud-Dn. Temple site.

4. Basarh

(i) DargAh of Pr Mrn. On top of a Buddhist Stpa.
(ii) Mazr of Shykh Muhammad Faizullh Ali alias Qzin Shattr. Temple site.
(iii) Graveyard. Many tombs built with temple materials.
(iv) Masjid. Temple site.


XI. District to be determined.

1. Hasanpura, Mazr of Makhdm Hasan. On the site of a Buddhist Stpa,
2. Jhangira, Jmi Masjid. Temple site.


 

DELHI

Islamic invaders destroyed the Hindu cities of Indarpat and Dhillik with their extensive suburbs and built seven cities successively. The following Muslim monuments stand on the site of Hindu temples; temple materials can be seen in some of them.

I. Mehrauli

1. Quwwatul Islm Masjid (1198).
2. Qutb Mnr.
3. Maqbara of Shamsud-Dn Iltutmish (1235.)
4. Dargh of Shykh Qutbud-Dn Bakhtyr Kk (d. 1236).
5. Jahz Mahal.
6. AlI Darwz.
7. AlI Mnr.
8. Madrasa and Maqbara of Alud-Dn Khalj.
9. Maqbara of Ghiyud-Dn Balban.
10. Masjid and Mazr of Shykh Fazlullh known as Jaml-Kaml.
11. MaDh Masjid.


II. Sultan Ghari

Maqbara of Nsirud-Dn, son of Sultn Shamsud-Dn Iltutmish (1231).


III. Palam

Bbr (Ghazanfar) Masjid (1528-29).


IV. Begumpur

1. Masjid.
2. Bijai Mandal.
3. Klu Sari-k-Masjid.
4. Mazr of Shykh Najbud-Dn Mutwakkal Chisht (d. 1272).


V. Tughlaqabad

Maqbara of Ghiysud-Dn Tughlaq.


VI. Chiragh-Delhi

1. Dargh of Shykh Nasrud-Dn Chirgh-i-Dehl (d. 1356).
2. Maqbara of Bahlul Lod.


VII. Nizamud-DIn

1. Dargh and Jamat-Khna Masjid of Shykh Nizmud-Dn Awliy (d. 1325).
2. Kaln Masjid.
3. ChauNsaTh-Khamb .
4. Maqbara of Khn-i-Jahn Tilangn.
5. Chill of Nizmd-Dn Awliy.
6. Ll Mahal.


VIII. Hauz Khas

1. Maqbara and Madrasa of Fruz Shh Tughlaq.
2. Dd-Pot-k-Maqbara.
3. Biran-k-Gumbad.
4. Chhot and Sakr Gumt.
5. Nl Masjid (1505-06).
6. Idgh (1404-00).
7. Bgh-i-lam-k- Gumbad (1501).
8. Mazr of Nrud-Dn Mubrak Ghaznaw (1234-35).


IX. Malviyanagar

1. Ll Gumbad or the Mazr of Shykh Kabrud-Dn Awly (1397).
2. Mazr of Shykh Alud-Dn (1507).
3. Mazr of Shykh Ysuf Qattl (d. 1527).
4. Khirk Masjid.


X. Lodi Gardens

1. Maqbara of Muhammad Shh.
2. BaD Gumbad Masjid (1494).
3. Shsh Gumbad.
4. Maqbara of Sikandar Lod.


XI. Purana Qila

1. Sher Shh Gate.
2. Qal-i-Kuhna Masjid.
3. Khairul Manzil Masjid.


XII. Shahjahanabad

1. Kl Masjid at Turkman Gate.
2. Maqbara of Razi Sultn.
3. Jmi Masjid on Bhojala PahD.
4. Ghat or Zainatul Masjid.
5. Dargh of Shh Turkmn (1240).


XIII. Ramakrishnapuram

1. Tn Burj Maqbara.
2. Malik Munr-k-Masjid.
3. Wazrpur-k-Gumbad.
4. Mund Gumbads.
5. Bar-Lo-k-Gumbad.
6. Barje-k-Gumbad.


XIV. The Ridge

1. Mlch Mahal,
2. Bhl Bhatiyri-k-Mahal.
3. Qadam Sharf.
4. Chauburz Masjid.
5. Pr Ghaib.


XV. Wazirabad

Masjid and Mazr of Shh lam.


XVI. South Extension
1. Kle Khn-k-Gumbad.
2. Bhre Khn-k-Gumbad.
3. Chhote Khn-k-Gumbad.
4. BaDe Khn-k-Gumbad.

XVII. Other Areas

1. Maqbara of Mubrak Shh in Kotla Mubarakpur.
2. Kushk Mahal in Tin Murti.
3. Sundar Burj in Sundarnagar.
4. Jmi Masjid in Kotla Fruz Shh.
5. Abdun-Nab-k- Masjid near Tilak Bridge.
6. Maqbara of Raushanra Begum.


 

DIU

Jmi Masjid (1404). Temple site.


 

GUJARAT

I. Ahmadabad District.

1. Ahmadabad, Materials of temples destroyed at Asaval, Patan and Chandravati were used in the building of this Muslim city and its monuments. Some of the monuments are listed below :

(i) Palace and Citadel of Bhadra.
(ii) Ahmad Shh-k-Masjid in Bhadra.
(iii) Jmi Masjid of Ahmad Shh.
(iv) Haibat Khn-k-Masjid.
(v) Rn Rpmat-k-Masjid.
(vi) Rn B Harr-k-Masjid.
(vii) Malik SraNg-k-Masjid.
(viii) Mahfz Khn-k-Masjid.
(ix) Sayyid lam-k-Masjid.
(x) Pattharwli or Qutb Shh-k-Masjid.
(xi) Sakar Khn-k-Masjid.
(xii) Bb Ll-k-Masjid.
(xiii) Shykh Hasan Muhammad Chisht-k-Masjid.
(xiv) Masjid at Isnpur.
(xv) Masjid and Mazr of Malik Shabn.
(xvi) Masjid and Mazr of Rn Spr (Sabarai).
(xvii) Masjid and Mazr of Shh lam at Vatva.
(xviii) Maqbara of Sultn Ahmad Shh I.

2. Dekwara, Masjid (1387). Temple site.
3. Dholka

(i) Masjid and Mazr of Bahlol Khn Ghz. Temple site.
(ii) Mazr of Barkat Shahd (1318). Temple site.
(iii) Tanka or Jmi Masjid (1316). Temple materials used.
(iv) Hilll Khn Qz-k-Masjid (1333). Temple materials used.
(v) Khrn Masjid (1377). Converted Bvan Jinlaya Temple.
(vi) Kl Bazar Masjid (1364). Temple site.

4. Isapur, Masjid. Temple site.
5. Mandal

(i) Sayyid-k-Masjid (1462). Temple site.
(ii) Jmi Masjid. Temple site.

6. Paldi, Patthar-k-Masjid. Temple site.
7. Ranpur, Jmi Masjid (1524-25). Temple site.
8. Sarkhej

(i) Dargh of Shykh Ahmad Khatt Ganj Baksh (d. 1445). Temple materials used.
(ii) Maqbara of Sultn Mahmd BegaD. Temple materials used.

9. Usmanpur, Masjid and Mazr of Sayyid Usmn. Temple site.


II. Banaskantha District.

1. Haldvar, Mazr of Ln Shh and Gjar Shh. Temple site.
2. Halol

(i) Ek Mnr-k-Masjid. Temple site.
(ii) PNch MuNhD-k-Masjid. Temple site.
(iii) Jmi Masjid (1523-24). Temple site.

3. Malan, Jmi Masjid (1462). Temple materials used.


III. Baroda District.

1. Baroda

(i) Jmi Masjid (1504-05) Temple site.
(ii) Dargh of Pr Amr Thir with its Ghz Masjid. Temple site.
(iii) Mazr of Pr GhoD (1421-23). Temple site.

2. Dabhoi

(i) Dargh of PNch Bb. Temple materials used.
(ii) Mazr of M Dhokr. Temple materials used.
(iii) Fort. Temple materials used.
(iv) Hira, Baroda, MabuDa and NandoDi Gates. Temple materials used.
(v) MahuNDi Masjid. Temple materials used.

3. Danteshwar, Mazr of Qutbud-Dn. Temple site.
4. Sankheda, Masjid (1515-16). Temple site.


IV. Bharuch District.

1. Amod, Jmi Masjid. Temple materials used.
2. Bharuch

(i) Jmi Masjid (1321). Brahmanical and Jain temple materials used.
(ii) Ghaznav Masjid (1326). Temple site.
(iii) Idgh (1326). Temple site.
(iv) ChunwD Masjid (1458). Temple site.
(v) Qz-k-Masjid (1609). Temple site.
(vi) Mazr of Makhdm Sharfud-Dn (1418). Temple site.

3. Jambusar, Jmi Masjid (1508-09). Temple site.
4. Tankaria, BaD or Jmi Masjid (1453). Temple site.


V. Bhavnagar District.

1. Botad, Mazr of Pr Hamr Khan. Temple site.
2. Tolaja, Idgh and Dargh of Hasan Pr. Temple site.
3. Ghoda, Masjid (1614). Temple site.


VI. Jamnagar District.

1. Amran, Dargh of Dawal Shh. Temple materials used.
2. Bet Dwarka, Dargh of Pr Kirmn. Temple site.
3. Dwarka, Masjid (1473). Temple site.


VII. Junagarh District.

1. Junagarh

(i) BorwD Masjid (1470). Temple site.
(ii) Jmi Masjid in Uparkot. Jain Temple site.
(iii) Masjid at M GaDhech. Converted Jain temple.

2. Loliyana, Dargh of Madr Shh. Temple site.
3. Kutiana, Jmi Masjid. Temple site.
4. Mangrol

(i) Rahmat Masjid. Temple materials used.
(ii) Jmi Masjid (1382-83). Temple materials used.
(iii) JnI Jail-k-Masjid (1385-86). Temple site.
(iv) Revl Masjid (1386-87). Temple materials used.
(v) Masjid at Bandar. Temple materials used.
(vi) Dargh near Revli Masjid. Temple materials used.
(vii) Mazr of Sayyid Sikandar alias Makhdm Jahniy (1375). Temple materials used.
(viii) GaDhi Gate. Temple materials used.

5. Somnath Patan

(i) Bzr Masjid (1436). Temple site.
(ii) Chndn Masjid (1456). Temple site.
(iii) Qz-k-Masjid (1539). Temple site.
(iv) PathnwaDi Masjid (1326). Temple site.
(v) Muhammad Jamdr-k-Masjid (1420). Temple site.
(vi) MiThshh Bhang-k-Masjid (1428). Temple site.
(vii) Jmi Masjid. Temple materials used.
(viii) Masjid made out of the SomanAtha Temple of Kumrapla.
(ix) Masjid at the back of the Somantha Temple. Converted temple.
(x) Mot Darwza. Temple materials used.
(xi) Mpur Masjid on the way to Veraval. Temple materials used.
(xii) Dargh of Manglri Shh near Mpur Masjid. Temple materials used.
(xiii) Shahd Mahmd-k-Masjid (1694). Temple site.

6. Vanasthali, Jmi Masjid. Converted VAmana Temple.
7. Veraval

(i) Jmi Masjid (1332). Temple site.
(ii) Nagna Masjid (1488). Temple site.
(iii) Chowk Masjid. Temple site.
(iv) MNDv Masjid. Temple site.
(v) Mazr of Sayyid Ishq or Maghrib Shh. Temple site.
(vi) Dargh of Muhammad bin Hj Giln. Temple site.


VIII. Kachchh District.

1. Bhadreshwar

(i) Solkhamb Masjid. Jain Temple materials used.
(ii) ChhoT Masjid. Jain Temple materials used.
(iii) Dargh of Pr Ll Shhbz. Jain Temple materials used.

2. Bhuj

(i) Jmi Masjid. Temple site.
(ii) Gumbad of Bb Guru. Temple site.

3. Munra or MunDra, Seaport built from the materials of Jain temples of Bhadreshwar which were demolished by the Muslims; its Safed Masjid which can be seen from afar was built from the same materials.


IX. Kheda District.

1. Kapadwani

(i) Jmi Masjid (1370-71). Temple site.
(ii) Sm Shahd-k-Masjid (1423). Temple site.

2. Khambhat

(i) Jmi Masjid (1325). Jain Temple materials used.
(ii) Masjid in Qaziwara (1326). Temple site.
(iii) Masjid in Undipet (1385). Temple site.
(iv) Sadi-i-Awwal Masjid (1423). Temple site.
(v) Fujr-k-Masjid (1427). Temple site.
(vi) Mazr of Umar bin Ahmad Kzrn. Jain Temple materials used.
(vii) Mazr of Qbil Shh. Temple site.
(viii) Mazr of Shykh Al Jaulq known as Parwz Shh (1498). Temple site.
(ix) Mazr of Shh Bahlol Shahd. Temple site.
(x) Maqbara of Ikhtyrud-Daula (1316). Temple site.
(xi) IdgAh (1381-82). Temple site.

3. Mahuda, Jmi Masjid (1318). Temple site.
4. Sojali, Sayyid Mubrak-k-Masjid. Temple site.


X. Mehsana District.

1. Kadi

(i) Masjid (1384). Temple site.
(ii) Masjid (1583). Temple site.

2. Kheralu, Jmi Masjid (1409-10). Temple site.
3. Modhera, Rayadi Masjid. Temple site.
4. Munjpur, Jmi Masjid (1401-02). Temple site.
5. Patan

(i) Jmi Masjid (1357). Temple materials used.
(ii) Pht Mahalla or Pinjar Kot-k-Masjid (1417). Temple site.
(iii) Bzr-k-Masjid (1490). Temple site.
(iv) Masjid in a field that was the Sahasralinga Talav. Temple materials used.
(v) Masjid and Dargh of Makhdm Husmud-Dn Chisht, disciple of Shykh Nizmud-Dn Awliya of Delhi. Temple materials used.
(vi) GmD Masjid (1542). Temple site.
(vii) RangrezoN-k- Masjid (1410-11). Temple site.
(viii) Dargh of Shykh Muhammad Turk Kshgar (1444-45). Temple site.
(ix) Dargh of Shykh Fard. Converted temple.

6. Sami, Jmi Masjid (1404). Temple site.
7. Sidhpur, Jmi Masjid. Built on the site and with the materials of the Rudra-mahlaya Temple of Siddharja JayasiMha.
8. Una, Dargh of Hazrat Shh Pr. Temple site.
9. Vijapur

(i) Kaln Masjid (1369-70). Temple site.
(ii) Mansr Masjid. Temple site.


XI. Panch Mahals District.

1. Champaner

(i) Jmi Masjid (1524). Temple site.
(ii) Bhadra of Mahmd BegD. Temple site.
(iii) Shahr-k-Masjid.  Temple site.

2. Godhra, Masjid. Temple site.
3. Pavagadh

(i) Masjid built on top of the Dev Temple.
(ii) PNch MuNhD Masjid. Temple site.
(iii) Jmi Masjid. Temple site,

4. Rayania, Masjid (1499-1500). Temple site.


XII. Rajkot District.

1. Jasdan, Dargh of Kl Pr. Temple materials used.
2. Khakhrechi

(i) Jmi Masjid. Temple site.
(ii) Dargh of Kaml Shh Pr. Temple site.

3. Mahuva, Idgah (1418). Temple site.
4. Malia, Jmi Masjid. Temple site.
5. Morvi, Masjid (1553). Temple site.
6. Santrampur, Masjid (1499-1500). Temple site.


XIII. Sabarkantha District.

1. Hersel, Masjid (1405). Temple site.
2. Himmatnagar, Moti-Mohlat Masjid in Nani Vorwad (1471). Temple site.
3. Prantij

(i) Fath or Tekrewl Masjid (1382). Temple site.
(ii) Dargh of Sikandar Shh Shahd (d. 1418). Temple materials used.


XIV.  Surat District.

1. Navasari

(i) Jmi Masjid (1340). Temple site.
(ii) Shh Masjid. Temple site.

2. Rander, The Jains who predominated in this town were expelled by Muslims and all temples of the former were converted into mosques. The following mosques stand on the site of and/or are constructed with materials from those temples:

(i) Jmi Masjid.
(ii) Nit Naur Masjid.
(iii) Min-k-Masjid.
(iv) Khrw Masjid.
(v) Munsh-k-Masjid.

3. Surat

(i) Mirz Smi-k-Masjid (1336). Temple site.
(ii) Nau Sayyid Shib-k-Masjid and the nine Mazrs on Gopi Talav in honour of nine Ghzs. Temple sites.
(iii) Fort built in the reign of Farrukh Siyr. Temple materials used.
(iv) Gopi Talav (1718). Temple materials used.

4. Tadkeshwar, Jmi Masjid (1513-14). Temple site.


XV. Surendranagar District.

1. Sara, DarbargaDh-k -Masjid (1523). Temple site.
2. Vad Nagar, Masjid (1694). Stands on the site of the Htakevara Mahdeva temple.
3. Wadhwan, Jmi Masjid (1439). Temple site.


 

HARYANA

I. Ambala District.

1. Pinjor, Temple materials have been used in the walls and buildings of the Garden of Fidi Khn.
2. Sadhaura

(i) Masjid built in Khalj times. Temple materials used.
(ii) Two Masjids built in the reign of Jahngr. Temple materials used.
(iii) QzioN-k-Masjid (1640). Temple site.
(iv) Abdul Wahb-k-Masjid. Temple site.
(v) Dargh of Shh Qumais. Temple site.


II. Faridabad District.

1. Faridabad, Jmi Masjid (1605). Temple site.
2. Nuh, Masjid (1392-93). Temple materials used.
3. Palwal

(i) Ikrmwl or Jm Masjid (1221). Temple materials used.
(ii) Idgh (1211). Temple material Is used.
(iii) Mazr of Sayyid Chirgh. Temple site.
(iv) Mazr of Ghz Shihbud-Dn. Temple site.
(v) Mazr of Sayyid Wrah. Temple site.


III. Gurgaon District.

1. Bawal, Masjid (1560). Temple site.
2. Farrukhnagar, Jmi Masjid (1276). Temple site.
3. Sohna

(i) Masjid (1561). Temple site.
(ii) Mazrs known as Kl and Ll Gumbad. Temple sites.


IV. Hissar District.

1. Barwala, Masjid (1289). Temple site.
2. Fatehabad

(i) Idgh of Tughlaq times. Temple materials used.
(ii) Masjid built by Humnyn (1539). Temple site.

3. Hansi

(i) Idgh built in the reign of Shamsud-Dn Iltutmish. Temple site.
(ii) JulhoN-k-Masjid built in the same reign. Temple site.
(iii) B Al Baksh Masjid (1226). Temple site.
(iv) dina Masjid (1336). Temple site.
(v) Masjid in the Fort (1192). Temple site.
(vi) Shahd-Ganj Masjid. Temple site.
(vii) Humyn-k-Masjid. Temple materials used.
(viii) Dargh of Nimatullh Wal with adjascent Brdar. Temple materials used.
(ix) Dargh of B Al Qalandar (1246). Temple site.
(x) Dargh of Shykh Jallud-Dn Haqq (1303). Temple site.
(xi) Dargh of Mahammad Jaml Shh. Temple site.
(xii) Dargh of Wilyat Shh Shahd (1314). Temple site.
(xiii) Chahr Qutb and its Jmi Masjid. Temple materials used.
(xiv) Fort and City Gates. Temple materials used.

4. Hissar, This city was built by Fruz Shh Tughlaq with temple materials brought mostly from Agroha which had been destroyed by Muhammad Ghur in 1192.

(i) Lt-k-Masjid. Temple materials used.
(ii) Humayns Jmi Masjid (1535). Temple site.
(iii) Masjid and Mazr of Bahlul Lod. Temple site.
(iv) Humyns Masjid outside Delhi Gate (1533). Temple site.
(v) Dargh of Bb Prn Pr Pdshh. Temple materials used.
(vi) Fort of Fruz Shh Tughlaq. Temple materials used.
(vii) Jahz Mahal. Converted Jain Temple.
(viii) Gjar Mahal. Temple materials used.

5. Sirsa

(i) Masjid in the Mazr of Imm Nsir (1277). Temple materials used.
(ii) Bbar Masjid in the Sarai (1530). Temple site.
(iii) QzIzda-k-Masjid (1540). Temple site.


V. Karnal District.

Panipat

(i) Masjid opposite the Mazr of B Al Qalandars mother (1246). Temple site.
(ii) Bbar Masjid in Kbul Bgh (1528-29). Temple site.
(iii) Mazr of Shykh Jallud-Dn (1499). Temple site.
(iv) Mazr of B Al Qalandar (1660). Temple site.


VI. Kurukshetra District.

1. Kaithal

(i) Dargh of Shykh Salhud-Dn Abul Muhammad of Balkh (d. 1246). Temple materials used.
(ii) Shh Wilyat-k-Masjid (1657-58). Temple site.
(iii) Jmi Masjid. Temple materials used.
(iv) Madrasa. Temple materials used.

2. Kurukshetra, Madrasa on the Tila. Temple site.
3. Thanesar

(i) Dargh and Madrasa of Shykh Chill or Chehal Bannur. Temple materials used.
(ii) Pathari Masjid near Harsh-k-Tl. Temple materials used.
(iii) Chnwl Masjid. Temple materials used.


VII.  Mahendergarh District.

Narnaul, Mazar of Pr Turk Shahd or Shh Wilyat (d. 1137). Temple site.


VIII. Rohtak District.

1. Jhajjar, Kl Masjid (1397). Temple site.
2. Maham,

(i) PirzdoN-k-Masjid built in Bbars reign (1529). Temple site.
(ii) Humyns Jmi Masjid (1531). Temple site.
(iii) QasiyoN-k-Masjid. Temple site.
(iv) Masjid (1669). Temple site.
(v) Daulat Khn-k-Masjid (1696). Temple site.

3. Rohtak

(i) Dn Masjid (1309). Temple materials used.
(ii) Masjid in the Fort (1324). Temple site.
(iii) Bbars Masjid-i-Khurd (1527-28). Temple site.
(iv) Bbars RjptoN-k-Masjid. (1528). Temple site.
(v) Second or Humyns Masjid in the Fort (1538). Temple site.
(vi) Masjid at Gokaran (1558). Temple site.
(vii) DogroN Wl Masjid (1571). Temple site.
(viii) Mast Khn-k-Masjid (1558-59) Temple site.


IX. Sonepat District.

1. Gohana, Dargh of Shh Ziud-Dn Muhammad. Temple site.
2. Sonepat

(i) Masjid and Mazr of Imm Nsir (renovated in 1277). Temple site.
(ii) Bbars ShykhzdoN-k- Masjid (1530). Temple site.
(iii) Mazr of Khwja Khizr. Temple site.
(iv) Humyn's Masjid (1538). Temple site.


 

HIMACHAL PRADESH

Kangra, Jahngr Gate. Temple materials used.


 

KARNATAKA

I. Bangalore District.

1. Dodda-Ballapur, Dargh of Muhiud-Dn Chisht of Ajodhan (d. 1700). Temple materials used.
2. Hoskot

(i) Dargh of Saball Shib. Temple site.
(ii) Dargh of Qsim Shib. Converted temple.


II. Belgaum District.

1. Belgaum

(i) Masjid-i-Safa in the Fort (1519). Temple site.
(ii) Jmi Masjid (1585-86). Temple site.
(iii) Mazr of Badrud-Dn Shh in the Fort (1351-52). Temple site.

2. Gokak, Masjid. Temple site.
3. Hukeri

(i) Mn Sahib-k-Darg h (1567-68). Temple site.
(ii) Kl Masjid (1584). Temple materials used.

4. Kudachi

(i) Dargh of Makhdm Shh Wal. Temple site.
(ii) Mazr of Shykh Muhammad Sirjud-Dn Prdd. Temple site.

5. Madbhavi, Masjid. iva Temple materials used.
6. Raibag, Jmi Masjid. Temple site,
7. Sampgaon, Masjid. Temple site.


III. Bellary District.

1. Bellary, Masjid built by Tp Sultn (1789-90). Temple site.
2. Hampi, Masjid and Idgh in the ruins of Vijayanagar. Temple materials used.
3. Hospet, Masjid in Bazar Street built by Tp Sultn (1795-96). Temple site.
4. Huvinhadgalli, Fort. Temple materials used.
5. Kanchagarabelgallu, Dargh of Husain Shh. Temple site.
6. Kudtani, Dargh. Durgevara Temple materials used.
7. Sandur, Jmi Masjid. Temple site.
8. Siruguppa, Ld Khn Masjid (1674). Temple site.
9. Sultanpuram, Masjid on the rock. Temple site.


IV. Bidar District.

1. Bidar, Ancient Hindu city transformed into a Muslim capital. The following monuments stand on temple sites and/or temple materials have been used in their construction:

(i) Sol Khamb Masjid (1326-27).
(ii) Jmi Masjid of the Bahmans.
(iii) Mukhtr Khn-k-Masjid (1671).
(iv) Kl Masjid (1694).
(v) Masjid west of Kl Masjid (1697-98).
(vi) Farrah-Bgh Masjid, 3 km outside the city (1671).
(vii) Dargh of Hazrat Khallullh at Ashtr (1440).
(viii) Dargh of Shh Shamsud-Dn Muhammad Qdir known as Multn Pdshh.
(ix) Dargh of Shh Waliullh-al- Husain.
(x) Dargh of Shh Zainul-Dn Ganj Nishn.
(xi) Dargh and Masjid of Mahbb Subhn.
(xii) Mazr of Ahmad Shh Wal at Ashtr (1436).
(xiii) Mazr of Shh Abdul Azz (1484).
(xiv) Takht Mahal.
(xv) Gagan Mahal.
(xvi) Madrasa of Mahmd Gawn.

2. Chandpur, Masjid (1673-74). Temple site.
3. Chillergi, Jmi Masjid (1381). Temple site.
4. Kalyani, Capital of the Later Chlukyas. All their temples were either demolished or converted into mosques.

(i) Jmi Masjid (1323). Temple site.
(ii) Masjid (1406). Temple site.
(iii) Masjid in Mahalla Shahpur (1586-87). Temple site.
(iv) Dargh of Maulna Yqb. Temple site.
(v) Dargh of Sayyid Pr Psh. Temple site.
(vi) Fort Walls and Towers. Temple materials used.
(vii) Nawbs Bungalow. Temple materials used.

5. Kohir

(i) Jmi Masjid. Temple site.
(ii) Darghs of two Muslim saints. Temple sites.

6. Shahpur, Masjid (1586-87). Temple site.
7. Udbal, Jmi Masjid (1661-62). Temple site.


V. Bijapur District.

1. Afzalpur, Mahal Masjid. Trikta Temple materials used.
2. Badami, Second Gateway of the Hill Fort. VishNu Temple materials used.
3. Bekkunal, Dargh outside the village. Temple materials used.
4. Bijapur, Ancient Hindu city transformed into a Muslim capital. The following monuments are built on temple sites and/or temple materials have been used in their construction:

(i) Jmi Masjid (1498-99).
(ii) Karmud-Dn-k- Masjid in the rk (1320-21).
(iii) ChhoT Masjid on way to Mangoli Gate.
(iv) Khwja Sambal-k-Masjid (1522-13).
(v) Makka Masjid.
(vi) AnD Masjid.
(vii) Zangr Masjid.
(viii) Bukhr Masjid (1536-37).
(ix) Dakhn Idgah (1538-39).
(x) Masjid and Rauza of Ibrhm II Adil Shh (1626).
(xi) Gol Gumbaz or the Rauza of Muhammad Adil Shh.
(xii) JoD-Gumbad.
(xiii) Nau-Gumbad.
(xiv) Dargh of Shh Ms Qdiri.
(xv) Gagan Mahal.
(xvi) Mihtar Mahal.
(xvii) Asar Mahal.
(xvii) Anand Mahal and Masjid (1495).
(xviii) St Manzil.
(xix) rk or citadel.
(xx) Mazr of Pr Mabar Khandyat.
(xxi) Mazr of Pr Jumn.
(xxii) Dargh of Shh Mrnji Shamsul-Haq Chisht on Shahpur Hill.

5. Hadginhali, Dargh. Temple materials used.
6. Horti, Masjid. Temple materials used.
7. Inglesvara, Muhiud-Dn Shib-k-Masjid. Munip Samdhi materials used.
8. Jirankalgi, Masjid. Temple materials used.
9. Kalleeri, Masjid near the village Chawdi. Keavadeva Temple materials used.
10. Mamdapur

(i) Jmi Masjid. Temple site.
(ii) Mazr of Kaml Shib. Temple site.
(iii) Mazr of Sadle Shib of Makka. Temple site.

11. Naltvad, Masjid (1315). Temple materials used.
12. Pirapur, Dargh. Temple site.
13. Salvadigi, Masjid. Temple materials used.
14. Sarur, Masjid. Temple materials used.
15. Segaon, Dargh. Temple site.
16. Takli, Masjid. Temple materials used.
17. Talikota

(i) Jmi Masjid. Jain Temple materials used.
(ii) PNch Pr-k-Masjid and Ganji-i-Shah dn. Temple site.

18. Utagi, Masjid (1323). Temple site.


VI. Chickmanglur District.

Baba Budan, Mazr of Dd Hayt Mr Qalandar. Datttreya Temple site.


VII. Chitaldurg District.

Harihar, Masjid on top of Harharevara Temple.


VIII. Dharwad District.

1. Alnavar, Jmi Masjid. Jain Temple materials used.
2. Bankapur

(i) Masjid (1538-39). Temple site.
(ii) Jmi Masjid (1602-03). Temple site.
(iii) Graveyard with a Masjid. Temple site.
(iv) Dongar-k-Masjid. Temple site.
(v) Dargh of Shh Alud-Dn-Qdir . Temple site.
(vi) Fort (1590-91). Temple materials used,

3. Balur, Masjid. Temple materials used.
4. Dambal, Mazr of Shh Abdullh Wal. Temple materials used.
5. Dandapur, Jmi Masjid. Temple materials used.
6. Dharwad, Masjid on Mailarling Hill. Converted Jain Temple.
7. Hangal

(i) Jmi Masjid. Temple site.
(ii) Masjid in the Fort. Temple site.

8. Hubli, 17 Masjids built by Aurangzeb in 1675 and after Temple sites.
9. Hulgur

(i) Dargh of Sayyid Shh Qdir. Temple site.
(ii) Masjid near the above Dargh. Temple site.

10. Lakshmeshwar, Kl Masjid. Temple site.
11. Misrikot, Jmi Masjid (1585-86). Temple site.
12. Mogha, Jmi Masjid. dityadeva Temple materials used.
13. Ranebennur, Qal, Masjid (1742). Temple site.
14. Savanur

(i) Jmi Masjid reconstructed in 1847-48. Temple site.
(ii) Dargh of Khairullh Shh Bdshh. Temple site.
(iii) Dargh and Masjid of Shh Kaml. Temple site.


IX. Gulbarga District.

1. Chincholi, Dargh. Temple site.
2. Dornhalli, Masjid. Temple site.
3. Firozabad

(i) Jmi Masjid (1406). Temple site.
(ii) Dargh of Shh Khalfatur-Rahm n Qdir (d. 1421). Temple site.

4. Gobur, Dargh. Ratnarya Jinlaya Temple materials used.
5. Gogi

(i) Arabaa Masjid (1338). Temple site.
(ii) Dargh of Pr Chand, Husain (1454). Temple site.
(iii) Chill of Shh Habbullh (1535-36). Temple site.

6. Gulbarga, Ancient Hindu city converted into a Muslim capital and the following among other monuments built on temple sites and/or with temple materials:

(i) Kaln Masjid in Mahalla Mominpura (1373).
(ii) Masjid in Shah Bazar (1379).
(iii) Jmi Masjid in the Fort (1367).
(iv) Masjid-i-Langar in the Mazr of Hj Zaida.
(v) Masjid near the Farman Talab (1353-54).
(vi) Dargh of Sayyid Muhammad Husain Band, Nawz Ges Darz Chisht, disciple of Shykh Nasrud-Dn Mahmd ChrAgh-i-Dihl .
(vii) Mazr of Shykh Muhammad Sirjud-Dn Junaid.
(viii) Mazr of Hj Zaida of Maragh (1434)
(ix) Mazr of Sayyid Husainud-Dn Tigh-i-Barhna (naked sword).
(x) Fort Walls and Gates.

7. Gulsharam, Dargh and Masjid of Shh Jall Husain (1553). Temple site.
8. Malkhed, Dargh of Sayyid Jafar Husain in the Fort. Temple site.
9. Sagar

(i) Dargh of Sf Sarmast Chisht, disciple of Nzmud-Dn Awlya of Delhi. Temple site.
(ii) Dargh of Munawwar Bdshh. Temple site.
(iii) shur Khna Masjid (1390-91). Temple site.
(iv) Fort (1411-12). Temple materials used.

10. Seram, Jmi Masjid. Temple materials used.
11. Shah Bazar, Jmi Masjid. Temple site.
12. Shahpur

(i) Dargh of Ms Qdir (1667-68). Temple site.
(ii) Dargh of Muhammad Qdir (1627). Temple site.
(iii) Dargh of IbrAhIm Qdir. Temple site.

13. Yadgir

(i) thn Masjid (1573). Temple site.
(ii) Jmi Masjid. Temple site.


X. Kolar District.

1. Mulbagal, Dargh of Hyder Wal. Temple site.
2. Nandi, Masjid east of the village. Temple site.


XI. Mandya District.

1. Pandavapur, Masjid-i-Ala. Temple site.
2. Srirangapatnam, Jmi Masjid built by Tp Sultn (1787). Stands on the site of the janeya Temple.


XII. Mysore District.

Tonnur, Mazr said to be that of Sayyid Slr Masd (1358). Temple materials used.


XIII. North Kanara District.

1. Bhatkal, Jmi Masjid (1447-48). Temple site.
2. Haliyal, Masjid in the Fort. Temple materials used.


XIV. Raichur District.

1. Jaladurga, Dargh of Muhammad Sarwar. Temple site.
2. Kallur, Two Masjids. Temple sites.
3. Koppal

(i) Jmi Masjid. Temple site.
(ii) Arabo-k-Masjid. Temple site.
(iii) Dargh of Sailn Psh. Temple site.

4. Manvi, Masjid (1406-07). Temple materials used.
5. Mudgal

(i) Masjid at Kati Darwaza of the Fort. Temple materials used.
(ii) Na Masjid (1583-84). Temple site.
(iii) Two Ashur Khnas built by Ali I Adil Shah. Temple site.
(iv) Fort (1588). Temple materials used.

6. Raichur

(i) Yak Mnr Masjid in the Fort (1503). Temple site.
(ii) Daftar Masjid in the Fort (1498-99). Temple materials used.
(iii) Hazr Baig Masjid (1511-12). Temple site
(iv) Jmi Masjid in the Fort (1622-23). Temple materials used.
(v) Jmi Masjid in Sarafa Bazar (1628-29). Temple site.
(vi) Kl Masjid in the Fort. Temple materials used.
(vii) Masjid inside the Naurangi. Temple materials used.
(viii) Chowk-k-Masjid. Temple site.
(ix) Jahniy Masjid (1700-01). Temple site.
(x) Dargh of Shh Mr Hasan and Mr Husain. Temple materials used.
(xi) Dargh of Sayyid Abdul Husain at Sikandari Gate. Temple site.
(xii) Pch Bb Dargh at Bala Hissar. Temple materials used.
(xiii) Mazr of Pr Sailn Shh in the Fort. Temple materials used.
(xiv) Fort. Temple materials used.

7. Sindhanur, lamgr Masjid near the Gumbad. Temple site.
8. Tawagera, Dargh of Band Nawz. Temple site.


XV. Shimoga District.

1. Almel, Mazr of Ghlib Shh. Temple site.
2. Basavpatna, Masjid near the Fort. Temple site.
3. Nagar, Masjid built by Tp Sultn. Temple materials used.
4. Sante Bennur, Randhull Khn-k-Masjid (1637). Materials of the Ragantha Temple used.
5. Sirajpur, Masjid built on top of the Chhinnakeava Temple for housing Prophet Muhammads hair.  Images defaced and mutilated. Part of the temple used as a laterine.


XVI. Tumkur District,

1. Sira

(i) Ibrhm Rauza with many Mazrs and a Jmi Masjid. Converted temples.
(ii) Dargh of Malik Rihn. Temple site.

2. Sirol, Jmi Masjid (1696). Temple site.


 

KASHMIR

1. Amburher, Zirat of Farrukhzd Shib. Temple materials used.
2. Badgam

(i) Zirat of Abban Shh in Ghagarpur. Temple site.
(ii) Zirat of Sayyid Swlia Shh in Narbai. Temple site.

3. Bijbehra, Masjid. Temple site.
4. Bumzu

(i) Zirat of Bb Bmdn. Converted Bhmakeava. Temple.
(ii) Zirat of Ruknud-Dn Rish. Converted temple.
(iii) Zirat farther up the valley. Converted temple.

5. Gulmarg, Zirat of Bb Imm Dn Rish. Temple materials used.
6. Gupkar, Zirat of Jyesther and other monuments. Temple materials used.
7. Hutmar, Jmi Masjid. Temple materials used.
8. Khonmuh, Several Zirats. Temple materials used.
9. Kitshom, Two Masjids. Stand amidst temple ruins.
10. Loduv, Zirat. Temple materials used.
11. Lohar, Zirat of Sayyid Chnan Ghz. Temple site.
12. Lokbavan, Garden Pavilion. Temple materials from Lokabhavana Trtha used.
13. Marsus, Zirat of Shh Abdullh. Temple site.
14. Pampor

(i) Zirat of Mr Muhammad Hamadni. VishNusvmin Temple materials used.
(ii) Several other Zirats. Temple materials used.

15. Pandrethan, Masjid. Meruvardhanasw min Temple materials used.
16. Sangar, Zirat. Temple materials used.
17. Sar, Zirat of Khwja Khzr. Temple materials used.
18. Shalmar Garden, Pavilion on the 4th terrace. Temple materials used.
19. Srinagar, Ancient Hindu city converted into a Muslim capital. The following monuments stand on temple sites and most of them have been constructed with temple materials.

(i) Zirat of Bahud-Dn SAhib. Jayasvmin Temple converted.
(ii) Graveyard and its Gate below the 4th Bridge.
(iii) Dargh and Masjid of Shh-i-Hamadn in Kalashpura. On the site of the Kl Temple.
(iv) Nau or Patthar-k-Masjid built by Nr Jahn.
(v) Graveyard near the Nau Masjid.
(vi) Zirat of Malik Shib in Didd Mar. On the site of Didd Matha.
(vii) Masjid and Madrasa and Graveyard near Vicharnag. On the site and from materials of the Vikramevara Temple.
(viii) Madn Shib-k-Masjid at Zadibal.
(ix) Zirat south-west of Madn Shib-k-Masjid.
(x) Jmi Masjid originally built by Sikandar Butshikan and reconstructed in later times.
(xi) Zirat named Nr Pirastn. NarendrasAmin Temple converted.
(xii) Maqbara of Sultn Zainul-Abidin.
(xiii) Maqbara of Zainul-bidins mother, queen of Sikandar Butshikan.
(xiv) Zirat of Pr Hj Muhammad Shib, south-west of the Jmi Masjid. VishNu RaNasvmin Temple converted.
(xv) Zirats of Makhdm Shib and Akhun Mulla on Hari Parbat. Bhmasvamin Temple converted.
(xvi) Masjid of Akhun Mulla built by Dr Shikoh.
(xvii) Zirat of Pr Muhammad Basr in Khandbavan. On the site of Skandabhavana Vihra.
(xviii) Graveyard north-east of Khandbavan.
(xix) Dargh of Pr Dastgr.
(xx) Dargh of Naqshband.
(xxi) Ramparts and Kathi Gate of the Fort built by Akbar.
(xxii) Stone embankments on both sides and for several miles of the Jhelum river as its passes through Srinagar.
(xxiii) Astna of MIr Shamsud-Dn Syed Muhammad Irq.

20. Sudarbal, Zirat of Hazrat Bl. Temple site.
21. Tapar, Bund from Naidkhai to Sopor built by Zainul-bidin. Materials from Narendrevara Temple used.
22. Theda, Zirat near Dampor. Temple materials used.
23. Vernag, Stone enclosure built by Jahngr. Temple materials used.
24. Wular Lake

(i) Suna Lanka, pleasure haunt built by Zainul-bidn in the midst of the Lake. Temple materials used.
(ii) Dargh of Shukrud-DIn on the western shore. Temple site.

25. Zukur, Several Zirats and Maqbaras. Temple materials used.
 
 

KERALA

1. Kollam, (Kozhikode District), Jmi Masjid. Temple materials used.
2. Palghat, Fort built by Tp Sultn. Temple materials used.
 
 

LAKSHADWEEP

1. Kalpeni, Muhiud-Dn-Pall Masjid. Temple site.
2. Kavarati, Prot-Pall Masjid. Temple site.
 
 

MADHYA PRADESH

I. Betul District.

1. Pattan, Dargh of Sulaimn Shh. Temple site.
2. Umri, Dargh of Rahmn Shh. Temple site.


II. Bhopal District.

1. Berasia, Masjid (1716). Temple site.
2. Bhopal, Jmi Masjid built by Qudsia Begum. SabhmaNDala Temple site.


III. Bilaspur District.

Khimlasa

(i) Dargh of Pch Pr. Temple site.
(ii) Nagn Mahal. Temple site.
(iii) Idgh. Temple site.
(iv) Masjid with three domes. Temple site.


IV. Damoh District.

(i) Dargh of Ghz Min. Temple site.
(ii) Fort. Temple materials used.


V. Dewas District.

1. Dewas

(i) Masjid (1562). Temple site.
(ii) Masjid (1705). Temple site.
(iii) Masjid (1707). Temple site.

2. Gandhawal, Graveyard inside the village. Jain Temple materials used.
3. Sarangpur

(i) Madrasa (1493). Temple site.
(ii) Jmi Masjid (1640). Temple site.
(iii) Pr Jn-k-Bht Masjid. Temple site.
(iv) Fort. Temple materials used.

4. Unchod, Idgh (1681). Temple site.


VI. Dhar District.

1. Dhar, Capital of Rj Bhoja Paramra converted into a Muslim capital. The following Muslim monuments tell their own story:

(i) Kaml Maul Masjid. Temple materials used.
(ii) Lt Masjid (1405). Jain Temple materials used.
(iii) Mazr of Abdullh Shh Changl. Temple site.

2. Mandu, An ancient Hindu city converted into a Muslim capital and the following monuments built on the sites of and/or with materials from temples

(i) Jmi Masjid (1454).
(ii) Dilwar Khn-k-Masjid (1405).
(iii) ChhoT Jmi Masjid.
(iv) Pahredro-k-Masjid (1417).
(v) Malik Mughs-k-Masjid.
(vi) Maqbara of Hushng Shh.
(vii) Jahz Mahal.
(viii) Tawl Mahal.
(ix) Nhar Jharokh.
(x) Hindol Mahal.
(xi) Rupmat Pavilion.
(xii) Ashraf Mahal.
(xiii) D-k-Chhot Bahen-k-Mahal.
(xiv) Bz Bahdur-k-Mahal.
(xv) Nlkanth Mahal.
(xvi) Chhappan Mahal.
(xvii) Fort and Gates.
(xviii) Gad-Shh-k-Mahal.
(xix) Hammm Complex.


VII. Dholpur District.

Bari, Masjid (1346 or 1351). Temple site.


VIII. East Nimar District.

1. Bhadgaon, Jmi Masjid (1328). Temple site.
2. Jhiri, Masjid (1581). Temple site.
3. Khandwa, Masjid (1619-20). Temple site.


IX. Guna District.

1. Chanderi, Muslim city built from the ruins of the old or Budhi Chanderi nearby. The following monuments stand on the sites of temples and/or have temple materials used in them:

(i) Masjid (1392).
(ii) Mot Masjid.
(iii) Jmi Masjid.
(iv) PchmhD Masjid.
(v) Qurbni Chabtr.
(vi) Dargh of Mew Shh.
(vii) Mazr known as BaD Madrasa.
(viii) Mazr known as ChhoT Madrasa.
(ix) Rj-k-Maqbara.
(x) Rn-k-Maqbara.
(xi) Batts BoD Masjid (1488).
(xii) Hthpur-k-Masjid (1691).
(xiii) Mazr of Shykh Burhanud-Dn.
(xiv) Fort.
(xv) Kushk Mahal.
(xvi) Idgh (1495).

2. Pipari, Masjid (1451). Temple site.
3. Shadoragaon, Jmi Masjid (1621-22). Temple site.


X. Gwalior District.

1. Gwalior

(i) Dargh of Muhammad Ghaus. Temple site.
(ii) Jmi Masjid near Gjar Mahal. Temple site.
(iii) Masjid near Ganesh Gate. Gawlp Temple site.
(iv) Graveyards on east and west of the Fort. Temple sites.

2. Jajao, Ll Patthar-k-Masjid, Temple materials used.
3. Mundrail, Several Masjids (1504). Temple sites.
4. Sipri, Several Masjids and Mazrs. Temple materials used.


XI. Indore District.

1. Depalpur, Masjid (1670). Temple site.
2. Maheshwar

(i) ShhI Masjid. Temple site.
(ii) Fort. Temple materials used.

3. Mehdipur

(i) Mazr of Godr Shh. Temple site.
(ii) Fort. Temple materials used.

4. Sanwar, Masjid (1674). Temple site.


XII. Mandsaur District.

1. Kayampur

(i) Masjid (1676). Temple site.
(ii) Idgh (1701-02). Temple site.

2. Mandsaur

(i) Jmi Masjid. Temple materials used.
(ii) Fort. Temple materials used.

3. Rampura, Pdshh BoDi. Temple materials used.


XIII. Morena District.

Alapur

(i) Masjid (1561-62). Temple site.
(ii) Masjid (1586-87). Temple site.
(iii) Masjid (1697-98). Temple site.


XIV. Panna District.

1. Ajaigarh, Fort. Temple materials used.
2. Nachna, Masjid. Converted temple.


XV. Raisen District.

Palmyka Mandir-Masjid. Temple materials used.


XVI. Rajgarh District.

Khujner, Mazr of Dwal Shh.  Temple materials used.


XVII. Ratlam District.

Barauda, Masjid (1452-56). Temple site.


XVIII. Sagar District.

1. Dhamoni, Dargh of Bl Jat Shh (1671). Temple site.
2. Kanjia

(i) Khn Shib-k-Masjid (1594-95). Temple site.
(ii) Idgh (1640). Temple site.
(iv) Alamgr Masjid (1703). Temple site.
(iii) Qal-k-Masjid (1643). Temple site.

3. Khimlasa, Pch Pr. Temple site.


XIX. Sehore District.

Masjid (1332). Temple site.


XX. Shajapur District.

Agartal, Masjid. Temple site.


XXI. Shivpuri District.

1. Narod, Zanzr Masjid. Temple site.
2. Narwar

(i) Dargh of Shh Madr. Temple site.
(ii) Jmi Masjid (1509). Temple materials used.
(iii) Masjid inside Havapaur Gate (1509). Temple site.

3. Pawaya

(i) Fort. Temple materials used.
(ii) Several other Muslim monuments. Temple materials used.

4. Ranod

(i) Masjid (1331-32). Temple site.
(ii) Masjid (1441). Temple site.
(iii) Masjid (1633). Temple site.
(iv) Masjid (1640). Temple site.

5. Shivpuri, Jmi Masjid (1440). Temple site.


XXII. Ujjain District.

1. Barnagar, Masjid (1418). Temple site.
2. Ujjain,

(i) Jmi Masjid known as Bin-nv-k-Masjid (1403-04). Temple site.
(ii) Masjid unearthed near Chaubis Khamba Gate. Temple materials used.
(iii) MochI Masjid. Converted temple.


XXIII. Vidisha District.

1. Basoda, Masjid (1720-21). Temple site.
2. Bhonrasa,

(i) Qalandar Masjid. Temple materials used.
(ii) Jgrdr-k-Masjid (1683). Temple site.
(iii) BaD Masjid in Bada Bagh (1685). Temple site.
(iv) Bandi Bagh-k-Masjid. Temple site.
(v) Br-Khamb Masjid. Temple site.
(vi) Ek-Khamb Masjid. Temple site.
(vii) Bin-nv-k-Masjid. Temple site.
(viii) Graveyard in Bandi Bagh. Amidst temple ruins.
(ix) Idgh. Temple site.
(x) Fort (1594). Temple materials used.

3. Parasari, Masjid (1694-95). Temple site.
4. Renkla, Masjid. (1647-48). Temple site.
5. Shamsabad, Masjid (1641). Temple site.
6. Sironj

(i) lamgr Masjid (1662-63). Temple site.
(ii) Masjid in Mahalla Rakabganj (1657-58). Temple site.
(iii) DargAh of Shykh Shib (d. 1657). Temple site.

7. Tal, Masjid (1644-45). Temple site.
8. Udaypur

(i) Masjid (1336). Temple materials used.
(ii) Masjid built by Aurangzeb. Temple materials used.
(iii) Mot Masjid (1488-89). Temple site.
(iv) Masjid (1549). Temple site.
(v) Two Masjids of Shh Jahn. Temple sites.
(vi) Masjid of Jahngr. Temple site.

9. Vidisha

(i) lamgr or VijaimaNDal Masjid (1682). Converted temple.
(ii) Masjid on Lohangi Hill (1457). Temple site.
(iii) Shh Jahni Masjid (1650-51). Temple site.
(iv) City Wall. Temple materials used,


XXIV. West Nimar District.

1. Asirgarh

(i) Jmi Masjid (1584). Temple site.
(ii) Masjid built in the reign of Shh Jahn. Temple site.
(iii) Idgh (1588-89). Temple site.
(iv) Fort. Temple materials used.

2. Bhikangaon, Idgh (1643-44). Temple site.
3. Baidia, Masjid (1456-57). Temple site.
4. Burhanpur

(i) Jmi Masjid (1588-89). Temple site.
(ii) Bb Shib-k-Masjid. Temple site.
(iii) Shh Masd-k-Masjid (1582-83). Temple site.
(iv) Dargh and Masjid of Shh Bahud- Dn Bjan. Temple site.
(v) Dargh of Sfi Nr Shh. Temple site.


 

MAHARASHTRA

I. Ahmadnagar District.

1. Amba Jogi, Fort. Temple materials used.
2. Bhingar, Mulla Masjid (1367-68). Temple site.
3. Gogha

(i) Idgh (1395). Temple site.
(ii) Morakhwada Masjid (1630). Temple site.

4. Jambukhed, Jmi Masjid (1687-88). Temple site.
5. Madhi, Dargh of Ramzn Shh Mah Sawr. Temple site.


II. Akola District.

1. Akot, Jmi Masjid (1667). Temple site.
2. Balapur, Masjid (1717-18). Temple site.
3. Basim, Kk Shh-k-Masjid. Temple site.
4. Jamod

(i) Masjid. Temple site.
(ii) Dargh of Pr Pauld Shh. Temple site.

5. Karanj

(i) Astn Masjid (1659). Temple site.
(ii) Masjid (1669-70). Temple site.
(iii) Masjid (1698-99). Temple site.

6. Manglurpir

(i) Qadm Masjid. Temple materials used.
(ii) Dargh of Pr Hayt Qalandar (d. 1253). Temple site.
(iii) Dargh of Sanam Shib. Temple site.

7. Narnala

(i) Jmi Masjid (1509). Temple site.
(ii) lamgr Masjid. Temple site.

8. Patur, Dargh of Abdul Azz alias Shykh Bb Chisht (d. 1388). Temple site.
9. Uprai, Dargh of Shh Dwal. Temple site.


III. Amravati District.

1. Amner, Masjid and Mazr of Ll Khn (1691-92). Temple site.
2. Ellichpur

(i) Jmi Masjid reconstructed in 1697. Temple site.
(ii) Drushifa Masjid. Temple site.
(iii) Chowk-k-Masjid. Temple site.
(iv) Idgh. Temple site.
(v) Mazr of Shh Ghulm Husain. Temple site.
(vi) Mazr of Abdul Rahmn Ghz known as Dlh Shh. Temple site.

3. Ritpur, Aurangzebs Jmi Masjid (reconstructed in 1878). Temple site.


IV. Aurangabad District.

1. Antur Fort, Qal-k-Masjid (1615). Temple site.
2. Aurangabad

(i) Jmi Masjid. Temple site.
(ii) Ll Masjid. Temple site.
(iii) Maqbara of Aurangzeb. Temple site.

3. Daulatabad

(i) Jmi Masjid (1315). Converted lain Temple.
(ii) Yak Minr-k-Masjid in the Fort. Temple site.
(iii) Masjid-i-Hauz at Kazipura (1458). Temple site.
(iv) Idgh (1359). Temple site.
(v) Dargh of Pr Kd Shib. Converted temple.
(vi) Fort. Temple materials used.

4. Gangapur, Masjid (1690-91). Temple site.
5. Kaghzipura, Dargh of Shh Nizmud-Dn. Temple site.
6. Khuldabad

(i) Dargh of Hazrat Burhnud-Dn Gharb Chisht (d. 1339). Temple site.
(ii) Dargh on Pari-ka-Talao. Converted temple.
(iii) Mazr of Halm Kk Shib. Converted temple.
(iv) Mazr of Jallul-Haqq. Temple site.
(v) Brdar in Bani Begums Garden. Temple site.

7. Paithan

(i) Jmi Masjid (1630). Converted temple.
(ii) Maulna Shib-k-Masjid. Converted ReNukdev Temple.
(iii) Alamagr Masjid. Temple materials used.
(iv) Dargh of Makhdm Husain Ahmad (1507). Temple site.

8. Taltam Fort, Fort. Temple materials used.
9. Vaijapur

(i) Mazrs in Nau Ghazi. Temple site.
(ii) Mazr of Syed Ruknud-Dn. Temple site.


V. Bid District.

Bid

(i) Jmi Masjid. Temple site.
(ii) Qz Shib-k-Masjid (1624). Temple site.
(iii) Masjid in Mahalla Sadr (1704-05). Temple site.
(iv) Masjid and Dargh of Shhinshh Wal. Temple site.
(v) Idgh (1704). Temple site.


VI. Bombay District.

(i) Jmi Masjid. Temple site.
(ii) Mazr at Mahim. Temple site.
(iii) Mazr of Main Hajjm. Converted Mhlakshm Temple.


VII. Buldana District.

1. Fathkhelda, Masjid (1581). Temple site.
2. Malkapur, Masjid near Qazis house. Temple site.


VIII. Dhule District.

1. Bhamer

(i) Masjid (1481-82). Temple site.
(ii) Masjid (1529-30). Temple site.

2. Erandol, Jmi Masjid in Pandav-vada. Temple materials used.
3. Nandurbar

(i) Manyr Masjid. Siddhevaradeva Temple materials used.
(ii) Dargh of Sayyid Alud-Dn. Temple site.
(iii) Several Masjids amidst ruins of Hindu temples.

4. Nasirabad, Several old Masjids. Temple sites.
5. Nizamabad, Masjid. Temple site.


IX. Jalgaon District.

1. Jalgaon. Masjid. Temple site.
2. Phaskhanda, Masjid. Temple site.
3. Shendurni, Masjid-i-Kab r (1597). Temple site.


X. Kolhapur District.

1. Bhadole, Masjid (1551-52). Temple site.
2. Kagal, Dargh of Ghaib Pr. Temple site.
3. Kapshi, Masjid-e-Husain . Temple site.
4. Panhala

(i) Jmi Masjid. Temple site.
(ii) Dargh of Shykh Saidud-DIn. Temple site.
(iii) Dargh of BaD Imm in the Fort. Temple site.
(iv) Mazr of Sdob Pr. Parara Temple site.

5. Shirol, Jmi Masjid (1696). Temple site.
6. Vishalgarh, Mazr of Malik Rihn Pr. Temple site.


XI. Nagpur District.

Ramtek, Masjid built in Aurangzebs reign. Converted temple.


XII. Nanded District.

1. Bhaisa

(i) Jmi Masjid. Temple site.
(ii) Three Darghs. Temple sites.

2. Deglur, Mazr of Shh Ziud-Dn Rifai. Temple site.
3. Kandhar

(i) Jmi Masjid (1606). Temple site.
(ii) Masjid and Dargh inside the Fort. Temple materials used.
(iii) Causeway of the Fort. Temple materials used.

4. Nanded, Idgh in Khas Bagh. Temple site.


XIII. Nasik District.

1. Galna

(i) Dargh of Pr Pld (1581). Temple site.
(ii) Fort. Temple materials used.

2. Gondengaon, Jmi Masjid (1703). Temple site.
3. Malegaon, Dargh of Khk Shh. Temple site.
4. Nasik, Jmi Masjid in the Fort. Converted Mhlakshm Temple.
5. Pimpri, Mazr of Sayyid Sadraud-Dn. Temple site.
6. Rajapur, Masjid (1559). Temple site.


XIV. Osmanabad District.

1. Ausa, Masjid (1680). Temple site.
2. Naldurg, Masjid (1560). Temple site.
3. Parenda

(i) Masjid inside the Fort. Built entirely of temple materials.
(ii) Namzgh near the Talav. Converted Mnakevara Temple.


XV. Parbhani District.

1. Khari, Mazr of Ramzn Shh. Temple site.
2. Latur

(i) Dargh of Mabs Shib. Converted Minapur Mt Temple.
(ii) Dargh of Sayyid Qdir. Converted Somevara Temple.

3. Malevir, KhaDu Jmi Masjid. Converted temple.


XVI. Pune District.

1. Chakan, Masjid (1682). Temple site.
2. Ghoda, Jmi Masjid. Built in 1586 from materials of 33 temples.
3. Junnar

(i) Jmi Masjid. Temple Site.
(ii) Diwn Ahmad-k-Masjid (1578-79). Temple site.
(iii) GunDi-k-Masjid (1581). Temple site.
(iv) MadAr Chill-k-Masjid. (1611-12). Temple site.
(v) Kamni Masjid on Shivneri Hill (1625). Temple site.
(vi) Fort. Temple materials used.

4. Khed, Masjid and Mazr of Dilwar Khn. Temple site.
5. Mancher, Masjid at the South-Western Gate. Temple site.
6. Sasvad, Masjid. Built entirely of Hemadapant temple materials.


XVII. Ratnagiri District.

1. Chaul

(i) Mazr of Pr Sayyid Ahmad. Converted Smba Temple.
(ii) Maqbara near Hinglaj Spur. Temple site.
(iii) Graveyard. Temple site.

2. Dabhol, Patthar-k-Masjid. Temple site.
3. Rajpuri, Aidrusia Khnqh. Temple site.
4. Yeshir, Jmi Masjid (1524). Temple site.


XVIII. Sangli District.

1. Mangalvedh, Fort. Temple materials used.
2. Miraj

(i) Masjid (1415-16). Temple site.
(ii) Jmi Masjid (1506). Temple site.
(iii) Kl Masjid. Temple site.
(iv) Namzgh (1586-97). Temple site.
(v) Dargh of BaD Imm. Temple site.


XIX. Satara District.

1. Apti, Masjid (1611-12). Temple site.
2. Karad

(i) Jmi Masjid (1575-76). Temple materials used.
(ii) Qadamagh of Al (1325). Temple site.

3. Khanpur, Jmi Masjid (1325). Temple materials used.
4. Rahimatpur,

(i) Masjid. Temple site.
(ii) Maqbara known as that of Jahngrs Mother (1649). Temple site.


XX. Sholapur District.

1. Begampur, Maqbara near Gadheshvar. Temple site.
2. Sholapur, Fort, Temple materials used.


XXI. Thane District.

1. Kalyan

(i) Dargh of Hazrat Yqb, Temple site.
(ii) Makka Masjid (1586). Temple site.

2. Malanggadh, Mazr of Bb MalaNg. Temple site.


XXII. Wardha District.

1. Ashti

(i) Jmi Masjid (1521). Temple site.
(ii) Lod Masjid (1671-72). Temple site.

2. Girad, Mazr of Shykh Fard.  Converted temple.
3. Paunar, Qadm Masjid. Converted Rmachandra. Temple.


 

ORISSA

I. Baleshwar District.

Jmi Masjid in Mahalla Sunhat (163-74). r ChanD Temple site.


II. Cuttack District.

1. Alamgir Hill, Takht-i-Sulaim n Masjid (1719). Temple materials used.
2. Cuttack

(i) Shh Masjid. Temple site.
(ii) Masjids in Oriya Bazar. Temple sites.
(iii) Qadam Rasl Masjid. Temple site.
(iv) Masjid (1668-69). Temple site.
(v) Masjid (1690-91). Temple site.

3. Jajpur

(i) DargAh of Sayyid Bukhri. Materials of many temples used.
(ii) Jmi Masjid built by Nawwb Abu Nsir. Temple materials used.

4. Kendrapara, Masjid. Temple site.
5. Salepur, Masjid. Temple site.


III. Ganjam District.

Lalapet, Masjid (1690). Temple site.


 

PUNJAB

I. Bhatinda District.

Mazr of Bb Hj Rattan (1593). Converted temple.


II. Gurdaspur District.

Batala, Jmi Masjid. Temple site.


III. Jalandhar District.

Sultanpur, Bdshhi Sarai. Built on the site of a Buddhist Vjhra.


IV. Ludhiana District.

(i) Dargh and Masjid of Al Sarmast (1570). Temple site.
(ii) Qz-k-Masjid (1517). Temple site.


V. Patiala District.

1. Bahadurgarh, Masjid in the Fort (1666). Temple site.
2. Bawal, Masjid (1560). Temple site.
3. Samana

(i) Sayyido-k-Masjid (1495). Temple site.
(ii) Jmi Masjid (1614-15). Temple site.
(iii) Masjid near Immbra (1637). Temple site.
(iv) Przda-k-Masjid (1647). Temple site.


VI. Ropar District.

Jmi Masjid. Temple site.


VII. Sangrur District.

Sunam

(i) Qadm Masjid (1414). Temple site.
(ii) Ganj-i-Shahd n. Temple site.


 

RAJASTHAN

I. Ajmer District.

It was a Hindu capital converted into a Muslim metropolis. The following monuments stand on the site of and/or are built with materials from temples.

1. ADh-Dn-kA-Jho pr (1199).
2. Qalandar Masjid at Taragarh.
3. Ganj-i-Shahd n at Taragarh.
4. Dargh of Muinud-Dn Chist (d. 1236).
5. Chilia-i-Chisht near Annasagar Lake.
6. Dargh and Mazr of Sayijid Husain at Taragah.
7. Jahngr Mahal at Pushkar.
8. Shhjahn Masjid (1637).
9. Annasagar Brdari.


II. Alwar District.

1. Alwar, Mazr of Makhdm Shh. Temple site.
2. Bahror

(i) Dargh of Qdir Khn. Temple site.
(ii) Masjid near the Dargh. Temple site.

3. Tijara

(i) Bhartari Mazr. Converted temple.
(ii) Masjid near the Dargh. Temple site.


III. Bharatpur District.

1. Barambad, Masjid (1652-53). Temple site.
2. Bari

(i) Graveyard of Arabs and Pathans. Temple site.
(ii) Masjid (1510). Temple site.

3. Bayana

(i) kha or Nohra Masjid. Converted sh Temple.
(ii) Qazpr Masjid (1305). Temple materials used.
(iii) Faujdr Masjid. Temple materials used.
(iv) Syyidpr Masjid. Temple materials used.
(v) Muffonk Masjid. Temple materials used.
(vi) Pillared Cloister at Jhlar Bol. Temple materials used.
(vii) Idgh near Jhlar Bol. Temple site.
(viii) Talet Masjid in the Bijayagarh Fort. Converted temple.
(ix) Abu Qandahr Graveyard. Temple site.
(x) Masjid in Bhitari-Bahari Mahalla. VishNu Temple materials used.

4. Etmada, Pirastn. Temple site.
5. Kaman

(i) Chaurs Khamb Masjid. Converted Kmyakesvara Temple.
(ii) Fort. Temple materials used.


IV. Chittaurgarh District.

1. Mazr of Ghib Pr and the surrounding Graveyard. Temple sites.
2. Qant Masjid in the same area. Temple site.


V. Jaipur District.

1. Amber, Jmi Masjid (1569-70). Temple site.
2. Chatsu

(i) Chhatr of Gurg Al Shh (d. 1571). Temple materials used.
(ii) Nilgaro-k-Masjid (1381). Temple site.

3. Dausa, Jmi Masjid (1688-89). Temple site.
4. Naraina

(i) Jmi Masjid (1444). Temple materials used.
(ii) Tripolia Darwaza. Temple materials used.

5. Sambhar

(i) Ganj-i-Shahd n. Temple site.
(ii) DargAh of Khwja Hismud-Dn Jigarsukhta. Temple site.
(iii) Masjid in Mahalla Nakhas (1695-96). Temple site.
(iv) Masjid in Rambagh (1696-97). Temple site.

4. Tordi, Khri Bol. Temple materials used.


VI. Jaisalmer District.

1. Jaisalmer, Faqiron-k-Takiy . Temple site.
2. Pokaran, Masjid (1704-05). Temple site.


VII. Jalor District.

1. Jalor

(i) Shh or Topkhn Masjid (1323). Prvantha Temple materials used.
(ii) Idgh (1318). Temple site.
(iii) Boliwli Masjid (1523). Temple site.

2. Sanchor, Jmi Masjid (1506). Temple site.


VIII. Jhalawar District.

Sunel, Masjid (1466-67). Temple site.


IX. Jhunjhunu District.

Narhad, Jmi Masjid. Temple materials used.


X. Jodhpur District.

1. Jodhpur, Yak-Minr-k-Masjid (1649). Temple site.
2. Mandor

(i) Shh Masjid. Temple materials used.
(ii) Ghulm Khn-k-Masjid. Temple materials used.
(iii) Dargh of Tann Pr. Temple materials used.

3. Pipar City, Jmi Masjid (1658). Temple. site.


XI. Kota District.

1. Baran, Masjid (1680). Temple site.
2. Bundi, Mrn Masjid on the hill east of the town. Temple site.
3. Gagraun

(i) Jmi Masjid (1694). Temple site.
(ii) Dargh of Hazrat Hamdud-Dn known as Mitth Shah. Temple site.

4. Shahabad

(i) Sher Shh Sr-k-Masjid. Temple site.
(ii) Jmi Masjid. (1671-72). Temple site.
(iii) Dargh of Rahm Khn Dt (1534-35). Temple site.

5. Shergarh, Fort of Sher Shh Sr. Brhmanical, Buddhist and Jain temple materials used.


XII. Nagaur District.

1. Amarpur, Masjid (1655). Temple site.
2. Bakalia, Masjid (1670). Temple site.
3. Balapir, Masjid. Temple site.
4. Badi Khatu

(i) Shh Masjid (around 1200). Temple materials used.
(ii) Qant Masjid (1301). Temple site.
(iii) Pahriyo-k-Masjid and Chheh Shahd Mazrs. Temple materials used.
(iv) Jliybs-k-Masjid (1320). Temple site.
(v) BaD and ChhoT Masjid in Mahalla Sayiddan. Temple site.
(vi) Khnzdo-k-Masjid (1482). Temple site.
(vii) Masjid and Dargh of Muhammad Qattl Shahd (1333). Temple materials used.
(viii) Dhobiyo-k-Masjid. Temple site.
(ix) Masjid-i-Sangatr shn (1639). Temple site.
(x) Dargh of Bb Ishq Maghrib (1360). Temple site.
(xi) Dargh of Samman Shh. Temple sites.
(xii) Ganj-i-Shahd n. Temple site.
(Xiii) Momino-k-Masjid (1667). Temple site.
(xiv) Fort. Temple materials used.

4. Basni, BaD Masjid (1696). Temple site.
5. Chhoti Khatu, Dargh of Shh Nizm Bukhr (1670). Temple site.
6. Didwana

(i) Qzio-k-Masjid (1252). Temple site.
(ii) Masjid in Gudri Bazar (1357). Temple site.
(iii) Band (closed) Masjid (1384). Temple site.
(iv) Shaiko-k-Masjid (1377). Temple site.
(v) Jmi Masjid. Temple site.
(vi) Ql-k-Masjid. Temple site.
(vii) Havl Masjid. Temple site.
(viii) Sayyido-k-Masjid. Temple site.
(ix) Takiy-k-Masjid (1582-83). Temple site.
(x) Kachahr Masjid (1638). Temple site.
(xi) Dhobio-k-Masjid (1662).
(xii) Julho-k-Masjid (1664). Temple site.
(xiii) Lohro-k-Masjid (1665). Temple site.
(xiv) Bistiyo-k-Masjid (1675-76). Temple site.
(xv) Mochio-k-Masjid (1686). Temple site
(xvi) Shh Chng Madr Masjid (1711). Temple site.
(xvii) Idgh. Temple site.
(xviii) Graveyard near Delhi Darwaza. Temple site.
(xix) Dn Darwaza (1681). Temple site.
(xx) Mazr of Rashdud-Dn Shahd. Temple site.

7. Kathoti, Masjid (1569-70). Temple site.
8. Kumhari

(i) Masjid and Dargh of Bl Pr (1496-97). Temple site.
(ii) Qalandar Masjid. Temple site.

9. Ladnun

(i) Jmi Masjid (1371). Temple materials used.
(ii) Hazirawl or Khalj Masjid (1378-79). Temple site.
(iii) Shh Masjid. Temple materials used.
(iv) Dargh of Umro Shahd Ghz (1371). Temple site.
(v) Graveyard near the above Dargh. Temple site.
(vi) Mazr-i-Murd- i-Shahd. Temple site.

10. Loharpura

(i) Dargh of Pr Zahrud-Dn. Temple site.
(ii) ChhoT Masjid (1602). Temple site.

11. Makrana

(i) Jmi Masjid. (Sher Shh). Temple site.
(ii) Masjid near Pahar Kunwa (1653). Temple site.
(iii) Masjid in Gaur Bas (1678). Temple site.
(iv) Masjid (1643). Temple site.

12. Merta

(i) Masjid in Salawtan (1625-26). Temple site.
(ii) Masjid in Gaditan (1656). Temple site.
(iii) Jmi Masjid. (1665). Temple site.
(iv) Mochiyo-k-Masjid (1663). Temple site.
(v) Ghosiyo-k-Masjid (1665). Temple site.
(vi) Momino-k-Masjid (1666). Temple site.
(vii) Masjid in Mahrj-k-Jgr (1666). Temple site
(viii) Chowk-k-Masjid (1670). Temple site.
(ix) Hajjmo-k-Masjid (1686-87). Temple site.
(x) Miyj-k-Masjid (1690-91). Temple site.
(xi) Sabungaro-k- Masjid. Temple site.
(xii) Dargh of Ghaus Pr. Temple site.
(xiii) Takiy Kaml Shh. Temple site.

13. Nagaur

(i) Mazr of Pr Zahrud-Dn. Temple site.
(ii) Dargh of Bb Badr. Temple site.
(iii) Dargh of Sf Hamdud-Dn Nagauri Chisht. Temple site.
(iv) Dargh of Shykh Abdul Qdr Jiln. Temple site.
(v) Dargh of Makhdm Husain Ngaur. Temple site.
(vi) Dargh of Ahmad Al Bpj. Temple site.
(vii) Dargh of Sayyid Imm Nr (1527). Temple site.
(viii) Dargh of Shh Abdus-Salm. Temple site.
(xi) Dargh of Mrn Shib. Temple site.
(xii) Shams Khn Masjid near Shamsi Talav. Temple materials used.
(xiii) Jm Masjid (1553). Temple site.
(xiv) Ek Mnr-k-Masjid (1505-06). Temple site.
(xv) Dhobiyo-k-Masjid (1552). Temple site.
(xvi) Chowk-k-Masjid (1553). Temple site.
(xvii) Mahawato-k-Masjid (1567-68). Tempe site.
(xviii) Hamalo-k-Masjid (1599-1600). Temple site.
(xix) Shh Jahn Masjid at Surajpole. Converted temple.
(xx) Masjid outside the Fort (1664). Temple site.
(xxi) Khardiyo-k-Masjid( 1665). Temple site
(xxii) Ghosiyo-k-Masjid (1677). Temple site.
(xxiii) Masjid near Maya Bazar (1677). Temple site.
(xxiv) Qalandro-k-Masjid. Temple site.
(xxv) Kanehri Julho-k-Masjid (1669). Temple site.
(xxvi) Sayyido-k-Masjid (1433-34). Temple site.
(xxvii) AkhDewl Masjid (1475). Temple site.

14. Parbatsar, Mazr of Badrud-Dn Shh Madr. Temple site.
15. Ren, Masjid (1685). Temple site.
16. Rohal, Qzioy-k-Masjid (1684). Temple site.
17. Sojat, Masjid (1680-81). Temple site.


XIII. Sawai Madhopur District.

1. Garh, Qal-k-Masjid (1546-47). Temple site.
2. Hinduan

(i) Rangrezo-k-Masjid (1439). Temple site.
(ii) Masjid in the Takiy of Khwja Al. Temple site.
(iii) Kachahr Masjid (1659-60). Temple site.
(iv) Br Khamb Masjid (1665). Temple site.
(v) Graveyard east of the Talav. Temple site.
(vi) Masjid and Mazr of Rasl Shh. Temple site.

3. Ranthambor, Qal-k-Masjid. Temple materials used.


XIV. Sikar District.

Revasa, Masjid. Temple materials used.


XV. Tonk District.

Nagar, Ishkhn Bol. Temple materials used.


XVI. Udaipur District.

Mandalgarh, Ali Masjid. Converted Jain Temple.


 

TAMIL NADU

I. Chingleput District.

1. Acharwak, Mazr of Shh Ahmad. Temple site.
2. Kanchipuram

(i) Large Masjid. Temple site.
(ii) Eight other Masjids. Temple sites.
(iii) Gumbad of Bab Hamd Wal. Temple site.

3. Karkatpala, Mazr of Murd Shh Mastn. Temple site.
4. Kovalam, Dargh of Malik bin Dinr (1593-94). Temple site.
5. Munropet

(i) Masjid. Temple site.
(ii) Mazr of Shh Al Mastn. Temple site.

6. Pallavaram

(i) Hill of Panchapandyamalai renamed Maula Pahad and central hall of an ancient Cave Temple turned into a Masjid for worshipping a panj (palm).
(ii) Mazr of Shykh Husain Qdir alias Bd ShahId. Temple site.
(iii) Poonmalle, Mr Jumlas Masjid (1653). Temple materials used.

7. Rajkoilpetta, Mazr of Hji Umar. Temple site.
8. Rampur, Takiy of the Tabqt order of Faqirs. Temple site.
9. Rayapeta, Waljh Masjid. Temple site.
10. Walajahbad, Masjid. Temple site.


II. Coimbatore District.

1. Annamalai, Fort. Repaired by Tp Sultn with temple materials.
2. Coimbatore, Large Masjid of Tp Sultn. Temple site.
3. Sivasamudram, DargAh of Pr Wal. Temple site.


III. Madras District.

Jmi Masjid. Temple site.


IV. Madura District.

1. Bonduvarapetta, Masjid. Temple materials used.
2. Devipatnam, Large Masjid. Temple site.
3. Goripalaiyam, Dargh of Khwja Alud-Dn. Temple site.
4. Madura, Dargh of Khwza Alud-Dn. Temple site.
5. Nimarpalli

(i) Masjid. Temple materials used.
(ii) Dargh of Makhdm Jallud-Dn. Temple materials used.

6. Puliygulam, Masjid. Temple site.
7. Soravandam, Masjid. Temple site.
8. Tiruparankunram, Sikandar Masjid on top of the Hill. Stands admist ruins of Brahmanical, Buddhist and Jain temples.


V. North Arcot District.

1. Arcot, A city of temples before its occupation by Muslims.

(i) Jmi Masjid. Temple site.
(ii) Tomb of Sadatullah Khn. Atreya Temple materials used.
(iii) Masjid and Mazr of Tp Awliy. Temple site.
(iv) Dargh of Sayyid Husain Shh. Temple site.
(v) Qal-k-Masjid. Temple site.
(vi) Masjid of Shh Husain Chisht. Temple site.
(vii) Masjid and Gumbad of Pp ShahId. Temple site.
(viii) Gumbad of Shh Sdiq with a graveyard. Temple site.
(ix) Masjid and Mazr of Shh Azmatullh Qdir. Temple site.
(x) Masjid of Shykh Natthar. Temple site.
(xi) Masjid of Murd Shh. Temple site.
(xii) Masjid of Mr Asadullh Khn. Temple site.
(xiii) Masjid of Maulaw Jaml Al. Temple site.
(xiv) Masjid and Gumbad of Sayyid Ahmad alias Yr Pr. Temple site.
(xv) Masjid of Chand Shib. Temple site.
(xvi) Masjid of Miskn Shh with Gumbad of Amn Pr. Temple site.
(xvii) Masjid and Mazr of Hazrat Usmn Khn Sarwar. Temple site.
(xviii) Masjid in the Maqbara of Mughln. Temple site.
(xix) Masjid of GhulAm Rasl Khn. Temple site.
(xx) Masjid of Shh Ghulam Husain Darghi. Temple site.
(xxi) Masjid of Hfiz Abdul Azz. Temple site.
(xxii) Masjid of Hfiz Karmullh. Temple site.
(xxiii) Masjid and Gumbad in Tajpura. Temple site. Outside the city
(xxiv) Takiy of Qtil Pnd Sarguroh. Temple site.
(xxv) Masjid and Gumbad of Ahmad Thir Khn. Temple site.
(xxvi) Masjid, Khnqh, Graveyard and Gumbad in Hasanpura. Temple site.
(xxvii) Gumbad of Hazrat Antar Jmi with the Idgh. Temple site.
(xxviii) Takiy, of Sbit Al Shh. Temple site.
(xxix) Masjid and Mazr of Sayyid KarIm Muhammad. Qdir. Temple site.
(xxx) Masjid of Sdatmand Khn. Temple site.
(xxxi) Masjid of Abul-Hasan Zkir. Temple site.
(xxxii) Masjid of Dad Beg. Temple site.
(xxxiii) Masjid and Gumbad of Hazrat Shh Nsir. Temple site.
(xxxiv) Masjid of Punj. Temple site.
(xxxv) Mazr of Yadullh Shh. Temple site.
(xxxvi) Rangn Masjid. Temple site.
(xxxvii) House of Relic which has a footprint of the Holy Prophet. Converted temple.

2. Arni

(i) Two Masjids. Temple sites.
(ii) Dargh of Seven Shahds. Temple site.

3. Kare, Naulakh Gumbad. Converted Gautama and Vivamitra. Temple
4. Kaveripak

(i) Idgh. Temple site.
(ii) Takiy. Temple site.
(iii) Three Masjids. Temple sites.

5. Nusratgarh, Many Masjids and Mazrs in the ruined Fort. Temple sites.
6. Pirmalipak, Mazr of Wjid Shh Champr Posh. Temple site.
7. Ramna

(i) Masjid of Kamtu Shh. Temple site.
(ii) Takiy of Shh Sdiq Tabqti. Temple site.

8. Vellore

(i) Jmi Masjid. Temple site.
(ii) ChhoT Masjid. Temple site.
(iii) Mazr of Nr Muhammad Qdir who laid waste many temples. Temple site.
(iv) Mazr of Shh Abul-Hasan Qdir.
(v) Mazr of Abdul Latf Zauq. Temple site.
(vi) Mazr of Al Husain Chisht. Temple site.
(vii) Mazr of Hazrat Al Sultn. Temple site.
(viii) Mazr of Amn Pr. Temple site.
(ix) Mazr of Shah Lutfullah Qdir. Temple site.
(x) Mazr of Shib Pdshh Qdir. Temple site.

9. Walajahnagar, Masjid and Mazr of Pr Shib on the Hill. Temple site.
10. Wali-Muhammad- Petta, Masjid. Temple site.


VI. Ramanathapuram District.

1. Eruvadi

(i) Dargh of Hazrat Ibrhm Shahd. Temple site.
(ii) Mazr of Hazrat Fakhrud-Dn Shahd alias Ktbb Shib. Temple site.

2. Kilakari

(i) Jmi Masjid. Temple site.
(ii) Dargh of Muhammad Qsim App. Temple site.
(iii) Apparpall Masjid. Temple site.

3. Periyapattanam, Dargh of Sayyid Sultn Wal. Temple site.
4. Valinokkam

(i) Pallvsal Masjid (1417-18). Temple site.
(ii) Dargh of Katupalli (1425). Temple site.

5. Ramanathapuram, Old Masjid. Temple site.


VII. Salem District.

Sankaridurg, Masjid on the ascent to the Fort. Temple site.


VIII. South Arcot District.

1. Anandapur, Masjid. Temple site.
2. Chidambaram

(i) Llkhn Masjid. Temple materials used.
(ii) Nawal Khn Masjid. Temple materials used.
(iii) Idgh. Temple site.
(iv) Mazr of Amnud-Dn Chisht. Temple site.
(v) Mazr of Sayyid Husain. Temple site.

3. Gingee

(i) Masjid (1718). Temple site.
(ii) Masjid (1732). Temple site.
(iii) Masjid in the Fort. Temple site.

4. Kawripet, Mazr of Qalandar Shh. Temple site.
5. Manjakupham, Mazr of Shh Abdur-Rahm. Temple site.
6. Mansurpeta, Itibr Khn-k-Masjid. Temple site.
7. Nallikuppam

(i) Masjid. Temple site.
(ii) Mazr of Shykh Mrn Shib. Temple site.

8. Pannuti

(i) Masjid. Temple site.
(ii) Gumbad of Nr Muhammad Qdir. Temple site.

9. Swamiwaram, Masjid. Temple site.
10. Tarakambari

(i) Masjid. Temple site.
(ii) Mazr of Shykh Ismil Shib. Temple site.

11. Tirumalarayanapatna m, Mazr of Abdul Qdir Yamn. Temple site.
12. Warachkuri, Mazr of Shh Jall Husain. Temple site.


IX. Thanjavur District.

1. Ammapettah

(i) Masjid. Temple site.
(ii) Mazr of Munud-Dn Husain Qdir. Temple site.
(iii) Mazr of Shah Jfar. Temple site.

2. Ilyur

(i) Masjid. Temple site.
(ii) Mazr of Inyatullh Dirwesh. Temple site.
(iii) Mazr of Muhammad Mastn. Temple site.
(iv) Mazr of Mrn Husain. Temple site.

3. Karambari

(i) Mazr of Arab Shib. Temple site.
(ii) Mazr of Mubtal Shh. Temple site.

4. Kurikyalpalayam

(i) Masjid. Temple site.
(ii) Mazr of Makhdm Hj. Temple site.
(iii) Mazr of Makhdm Jahn Shh. Temple site.

5. Kurkuti, Gumbad of Hasan Qdir alias Ghyb Shib. Temple site.
6. Kushalpalayam

(i) Mazr of Hazrat Tj Firq Badanshh. Temple site.
(ii) Mazr of Hidyat Shh Arzn. Temple site.
(iii) Mazr of Yr Shh Husainshh. Temple site.

7. Nagur

(i) Masjid. Temple site.
(ii) Dargh of Qdir Wal Shh. Temple site.

8. Urancheri, Mazr of Pr Qutbud-Dn. Temple site.
9. Vijayapuram, GumbaD of Sultn Makhdm. Temple site.
10. Wadayarkari, MazAr of Bw SAhib Shhid. Temple site.


X. Tiruchirapalli District.

1. Puttur, Mazr. Temple materials used.
2. Tiruchirapalli

(i) Dargh of NtThr Shh Wal. Converted iva Temple. Lingam used as lamp-post.
(ii) Masjid-i-Muhammad . Temple site.
(iii) Mazr of Bb Muhiud-Dn Sarmast. Temple site.
(iv) Mazr of Hazrat Fathullh Nr. Temple site.
(v) Mazr of Shams Parn. Temple site.
(vi) Mazr of Sayyid Abdul Wahhb. Temple site.
(vii) Mazr of Shh Fazlullah Qdir. Temple site.
(viii) Mazr of Shh Nasrud-Dn. Temple site.
(ix) Mazr of Fardud-Dn Shahd. Temple site.
(x) Mazr of Hazrat Chnd Mastn. Temple site.
(xi) Mazr of Sayyid Zainul-bidn at Tinur. Temple site.
(xii) Mazr of Sayyid Karmud-Dn Qdir. Temple site.
(xiii) Mazr of Almullh Shh Qdir called Barhana Shamsr (Nked Sword). Temple site.
(xiv) Mazr of Shh Imamud-Dn Qdir. Temple site.
(xv) Mazr of Kk- Shh. Temple site.
(xvi) Mazr of Khwja Aminud-Dn Chist. Temple site.
(xvii) Mazr of Khwja Ahmad Shh Husain Chisht. Temple site.
(xviii) Mazr of Shh Bhek. Converted temple.
(xix) Mazr of Shh Jamlud-Dn Husain Chisht. Temple site.
(xx) Mazr of Qyim Shh who destroyed twelve temples. Temple site.
(xxi) Mazr of Munsif Shh Suhrawardyya. Temple site.
(xxii) Mazr of Itiffq Shh. Temple site.
(xxiii) Mazr of Sayyid Jall Qdir. Temple site.
(xxiv) Mazr of Mahtab Shah Shirz Suhrawardyya. Temple site.
(xxv) Masjid of Hj Ibrhm where NTThr Shh Wal (see i above) stayed on his arrival. Temple site.

3. Valikondapuram

(i) Masjid opposite the Fort. Converted temple.
(ii) Mazr near the Masjid. Converted temple.
(iii) Sher Khn-k-Masjid (1690). Temple site.
(iv) Old Jmi Masjid. Temple site.


XI. Tirunelvelli District.

1. Ambasamudram, Mazr of Hazrat Rahmtullh near the ruined Fort. Temple site.
2. Kayalpattanam

(i) Periyapall Masjid (1336-37).
(ii) Sirupall Masjid. Temple site.
(iii) Dargh of Nainr Muhammad. Temple site.
(iv) Marukudiyarapall Masjid. Temple site.

3. Tirunelvelli, Jmi Masjid. Temple materials used.


 

UTTAR PRADESH

I. Agra District.

1. Agra

(i) Kaln Masjid in Saban Katra (1521). Temple materials used.
(ii) Humyn-k-Masjid at Kachhpura (1537-38). Temple site.
(iii) Jmi Masjid of Jahnr (1644). Temple site.
(iv) Dargh of Kaml Khn Shahd in Dehra Bagh. Temple material uses.
(v) Riverside part of the Fort of Akbar. Jain Temple sites.
(vi) Chn k Rauz. Temple site.

2. Bisauli, Masjid (1667-68).  Temple site.
3. Fatehpur Sikri

(i) Anbiy Wl Masjid and several others in Nagar.  Converted temples.
(ii) Jmi Masjid. Temple materials used.
(iii) Dargh of Shykh Salm Chisht. Temple site.
(iv) Fatehpur Sikri Complex. Several temple sites.


4. Firozabad, Qadm Masjid. Temple site.
5. Jajau, Masjid. Temple site.
6. Rasulpur, Mazr of Makhdm Shah. Temple site.
7. Sikandra

(i) Maqbara of Akbar. Temple site.
(ii) Masjid in the Mission Compound. Temple site.


II. Aligarh District

1. Aligarh

(i) Idgh (1562-63). Temple site.
(ii) Dargh of Shykh Jallud-Dn Chisht Shamsul-Arif n. Temple site.
(iii) Graveyard with several Mazrs. Temple site.
(iv) Shershh Masjid (1542). Temple site.
(v) Masjid (1676). Temple site.

2. Pilkhana, Bbar or Jmi Masjid (1528-29). Temple: materials used.
3. Sikandara Rao, Jmi Masjid (1585). Temple site.


III. Allahabad District.

1. Allahabad

(i) Fort of Akbar. Temple sites.
(ii) Khusru Bagh. Temple sites.
(iii) Dargh of Shh Ajmal Khn with a Graveyard. Temple site.
(iv) Masjid (1641-22). Temple site.
(v) Gulabbari Graveyard.  Temple site.

2. Koh Inam, Jmi Masjid (1384). Temple site.
3. Mauima, Qadm Masjid. Temple site.
4. Shahbazpur, Masjid (1644-45). Temple site.


IV. Azamgarh District.

1. Dohrighat, Kaln Masjid. Temple site.
2. Ganjahar, Masjid (1687-88). Temple site.
3. Mehnagar, Tomb of Daulat or Abhimn. Temple site.
4. Nizambad

(i) Jmi Masjid. Temple site.
(ii) Mazr of Min Maqbl and Husain Khn Shahd (1562).  Temple sites.

5. Qasba, Humyns Jmi Masjid (1533-34). Temple site.


V. Badaun District.

1. Alapur, lamgr Masjid. Temple materials used.
2. Badaun

(i) Shams or Jmi Masjid (1233). Temple materials used.
(ii) Shams Idgh (1209). Temple materials used.
(iii) Hauz-i-Shams (1203). Temple materials used.
(iv) Dargh of Shh Wilyat (1390). Temple site.
(v) Several other Masjids and Mazrs. Temple sites.

3. Sahiswan, Jmi Masjid (1300). Temple site.
4. Ujhani, Abdullh Khn-k-Masjid. Temple site.


VI. Bahraich District.

DargAh of Slr Masd Ghz. Sryadeva Temple site.


VII. Ballia District. 

Kharid

(i) Jmi Masjid. Temple site.
(ii) Dargh of Ruknud-Dn Shh. Temple site.


VIII. Banda District.

1. Augasi, Masjid (1581-82). Temple site.
2. Badausa, Masjid (1692). Temple site.
3. Kalinjar

(i) Masjid in Patthar Mahalla (1412-13). Converted Lakshm-NryaNa Temple.
(ii) Masjid (1660-61). Temple site.
(iii) Several other Masjids and Mazrs. Temple sites.

4. Soron, Dargh of Shykh Jaml. Temple site.


IX. Bara Banki District.

1. Bhado Sarai, Mazr of Malmat Shh. Temple site.
2. Dewa

(i) Dargh of Hj Wris Al Shh. Temple site.
(ii) Masjid (1665). Temple site.

3. Fatehpur

(i) Masjid. Temple site.
(ii) Imambr. Temple site.

4. Radauli

(i) Masjid. Temple site.
(ii) Dargh of Shh Ahmad and Zuhr Bb. Temple site.

5. Rauza Gaon, Rauza of Dad Shh. Temple site.
6. Sarai-Akbarabad, Masjid (1579-80). Temple site.
7. Satrikh, Dargh of Slr Sh Ghz. Temple site.


X. Bareilly District.

1. Aonla

(i) Begum-k-Masjid. Temple site.
(ii) Maqbara of Al Muhammad Rohilla. Temple site.

2. Bareilly, Mirzai Masjid (1579-80). Temple site.
3. Faridpur, Fort built by Shykh Fard. Temple materials used.


XI. Bijnor District.

1. Barmih-ka-Khera, Masjid. Temple materials used.
2. Jahanabad, Maqbara of Nawb Shujaat Khn. Temple site.
3. Kiratpur, Fort with a Masjid inside. Temple materials used.
4. Mandawar, Jmi Masjid. Temple materials used.
5. Najibabad, Patthargarh Fort. Temple materials used.
6. Nihtaur, Masjid. Temple site.
7. Seohara, Masjid. Temple site.


XII. Bulandshahar District.

1. Aurangabad Sayyid, All Masjids stand on temple sites.
2. Bulandshahar

(i) Dargh. Temple site.
(ii) Fort. Materials of many temples used.
(iii) Idgh. Temple site.
(iv) Masjid (1311). Temple site.
(v) Masjid (1538). Temple site.
(vi) Masjid (1557). Temple site.

3. Khurja, Mazr of Makhdm Shib. Temple site.
4. Shikarpur, Several Masjids built in Sikandar Lods reign. Temple sites.
5. Sikandarabad, Several Masjids built in Sikandar Lod a reign.  Temple sites.


XIII. Etah District.

1. Atranjikhera, Mazr of Hazrat Husain (or Hasan). Temple site.
2. Jalesar

(i) Mazr of Mrn Sayyid Ibrhm (1555). Temple site.
(ii) Fort. Temple materials used.

3. Kasganj, Jmi Masjid (1737-38). Temple site.
4. Marahra, Masjid and Mazr. Temple site.
5. Sakit

(i) Qadm Masjid (1285). Temple materials used.
(ii) Akbar Masjid (1563). Temple site.


XIV. Etawah District.

1. Auraiya, Two Masjids. Temple sites.
2. Etawah, Jmi Masjid. Converted temple.
3. Phaphund, Masjid and Mazr of Shh Bukhr (d. 1549). Temple site.


XV. Farrukhabad District.

1. Farrukhabad, Several Masjids. Temple materials used.
2. Kannauj

(i) Dn or Jmi Masjid (1406). St-k-Raso. Temple materials used.
(ii) Dargh of Makhdm Jahnin. Temple materials used.
(iii) Dargh of Bb Hji Pr. Temple site.
(iv) Masjid (1663-64). Temple site.
(v) Dargh of Bl Pr. Temple site.

3. Rajgirhar, Mazr of Shykh Akh Jamshed. Temple site.
4. Shamsabad, All Masjids and Mazrs. Temple sites.


XVI. Fatehpur District.

1. Haswa, Idgh (1650-51). Temple site.
2. Hathgaon

(i) Jayachandi Masjid. Temple materials used.
(ii) Dargh of Burhn Shahd. Temple site.

3. Kora (Jahanabad)

(i) Darah of Khwja Karrak. Temple site.
(ii) Jmi Masjid (1688-89). Temple site.

4. Kot, Ldin-ki-Masjid (built in 1198-99, reconstructed in 1296). Temple site.


XVII. Fyzabad District.

1. Akbarpur

(i) Qal-k-Masjid. Temple site.
(ii) Masjid (1660-61). Temple site.

2. Ayodhya

(i) Bbar Masjid. RAma-Janmabh mi Temple site.
(ii) Masjid built by Aurangzeb. Swargadvra Temple site.
(iii) Masjid built by Aurangzeb. Tret-k-Thkur Temple site.
(iv) Mazr of Shh Jurn Ghur. Temple site.
(v) Mazrs of Sr Paighambar and Ayb Paighambar near Maniparvat. On the site of a Buddhist Temple which contained footmarks of the Buddha.

3. Fyzabad, Immbr. Temple site.
4. Hatila, Mazr of a Ghz. Aokantha Mahdeva. Temple site.
5. Kichauchha, Dargh of Makhdm Ashraf in nearby Rasulpur. Temple site.


XVIII. Ghazipur District.

1. Bhitri

(i) Masjid and Mazr. Temple materials used.
(ii) Idgh. Temple site.
(iii) Bridge below the Idgh. Buddhist Temple materials used.

2. Ghazipur

(i) Mazr and Masjid. Temple site.
(ii) Chahal Sitn Palace. Temple site.

3. Hingtar

(i) Qala-k-Masjid. Temple materials used.
(ii) Fort. Temple materials used.

4. Khagrol, Br Khamb or Dargh of Shykh Ambar. Temple site.
5. Saidpur, Two Darghs. Converted Buddhist Temples.


XIX. Gonda District.

Sahet-Mahet (rvast)

(i) Maqbara. On the plinth of Sobhnth Jain Temple.
(ii) Mazr of Mrn Sayyid.  On the ruins a Buddhist Vihra.
(iii) Iml Darwz. Temple materials used.
(iv) Karbal Darwz. Temple materials used.


XX. Gorakhpur District.

1. Gorakhpur, Immbr. Temple site.
2. Lar, Several Masjids. Temple sites.
3. Pava, Karbal. On the ruins of a Buddhist Stpa.


XXI. Hamirpur District

1. Mahoba

(i) Masjid outside Bhainsa Darwaza of the Fort (1322). Converted temple.
(ii) Masjid built on a part of the Palace of Parmardideva on the Hill. Temple materials used.
(iii) Two Maqbaras. Temple materials used.
(iv) Dargh of Pr Muhammad Shh. Converted Siva temple.
(v) Dargh of MubArak Shh and Graveyard nearby. Contain no less than 310 pillar from demolished temples.

2. Rath, Two Maqbaras. Temple materials used.


XXII. Hardoi District.

1. Bilgram

(i) Sayyido-k-Masjid. Temple materials used.
(ii) Jmi Masjid (1438). Temple materials used.
(iii) Several other Masjids and Darghs. Temple materials used.

2. Gopamau, Several Masjids. Temple sites.
3. Pihani

(i) Abdul Gafr-k-Masjid. Temple site.
(ii) Dargh of Sadr-i-Jahn (1647-48). Temple site.

4. Sandila

(i) Qadm Masjid. Temple site.
(ii) Mazr in Brah Khamb. Temple site.


XXIII. Jalaun District.

1. Kalpi

(i) Chaurs Gumbad complex of tombs. Many temple sites.
(ii) Dargh of Shh Abdul Fath Ali Quraishi (1449). Temple site.
(iii) Dargh of Shh Bb Hj Samad (1529). Temple site.
(iv) DeoDhi or Jmi Masjid (1554). Temple site.

2. Katra, Masjid (1649). Temple site.


XXIV. Jaunpur District.

1. Jaunpur

(i) Atl Masjid (1408). Atala DevI Temple materials used.
(ii) Darib Masjid. Vijayachandras Temple materials used.
(iii) Jhjar Masjid.  Jayachandras Temple materials used.
(iv) Ll Darwz Masjid. Temple materials from the Vivevara Temple at Varanasi used.
(v) HammAm Darwz Masjid (1567-68). Temple materials used.
(vi) Ibrhm Brbak-k-Masjid inside the Fort (1360). Temple materials used.
(vii) Jmi Masjid. Ptla Dev Temple site.
(viii) Fort. Temple materials used.
(ix) Akbar Bridge on the Gomat. Temple materials used.
(x) Khlis Mukhlis or Chr Angul Masjid. Temple site.
(xi) Khn Jahn-k-Masjid (1364). Temple site.
(xii) Rauz of Shh Fruz. Temple site.

2. Machhlishahar

(i) Jmi Masjid. Temple site.
(ii) Karbal. Temple site.
(iii) Sixteen other Masjids. Temple sites.

3. Shahganj, Dargh of Shh Hazrat Al. Temple site.
4. Zafarabad

(i) Masjid and Dargh of Makhdm Shah (1311 or 1321). Temple materials used.
(ii) Ibrhm Barbak-k-Masjid. Converted temple.
(iii) Zafar Khn-k-Masjid (1397). Converted temple.
(iv) Ganj-i-Shahd n. Temple materials used.
(v) Fort. Temple materials used.
(vi) Early Sharq buildings including many Maqbaras. Temple materials used.
(vii) Dargh of Asarud-Dn. Temple materials used.


XXV. Jhansi District.

1. Irich, Jmi Masjid (1412). Temple materials used.
2. Lalitpur, Bs Masjid (1358). Materials of four temples used.
3. Talbhat

(i) Masjid (1405). Temple site.
(ii) Dargh of Pr Tj Bj. Temple site.


XXVI. Kanpur District.

1. Jajmau

(i) Dargh of Alud-Dn Makhdm Shh (1360). Temple site.
(ii) Idgh (1307). Temple site.
(iii) Qal-k-Masjid. Temple site.
(iv) Jmi Masjid (renovated in 1682). Temple site.

2. Makanpur, Mazr of Shh Madr. Converted temple.


XXVII. Lucknow District.

1. Kakori, Jhjhar Rauza of Makhdm Nizmud-Dn. Temple materials used.
2. Lucknow

(i) Tlewl. Masjid Temple site.
(ii) safud-Daula Imambara. Temple site.
(iii) Dargh of Shh Muhammad Pr on Lakshmana Tila renamed Pir Muhammad Hill. Temple site.
(iv) Mazr of Shykh Ibrhm Chisht Rahmatullh. Temple materials used.
(v) Nadan Mahal or Maqbara of Shykh Abdur-Rahm. Temple site.
(vi) Machchi Bhavan. Temple sites.

3. Musanagar, Masjid (1662-63). Temple site.
4. Nimsar, Fort. Temple materials used.
5. Rasulpur, Masjid (1690-91). Temple site.


XXVIII. Mainpuri District. 

Rapri

(i) Jmi Masjid. Temple site.
(ii) Idgh (1312). Temple site.
(iii) Dargh of Pr Fadd. Temple site.


XXIX. Mathura District.

1. Mahaban, Ass Khamb Masjid. Converted temple.
2. Mathura

(i) Idgh on the Katr Mound. Kevadeva. Temple site.
(ii) Jmi Masjid built by Abdun-nabi (1662). Temple materials used.
(iii) Mazr of Shykh Fard. Temple materials used.
(iv) Mazr of Makhdm Shh Wilyat at Sami Ghat. Temple materials used.

3. Naujhil, Dargh of Makhdm Shykh Saheti Shib. Temple materials used.


XXX. Mecrut District.

1. Barnawa, Humyuns Masjid (1538-39). Temple site.
2. Garhmuktesar, Masjid (1283). Temple site.
3. Hapur, Jmi Masjid (1670-71). Temple site.
4. Jalali, Jmi Masjid (1266-67). Temple materials used.
5. Meerut

(i) Jmi Masjid. Stands on the ruins of a Buddhist Vihra.
(ii) Dargh at Nauchandi.  Nauchand Dev Temple site.

6. Phalauda, Dargh of Qutb Shh. Temple site.


XXXI. Mirzapur District.