Manipur lies between 23.80 degree N and 25.68
degree N latitude and 93.030 E and 940780 E. The Geographical
location and climate have great influence to the living
conditions and habits of the people of general.
are tough and heavy so they are suitable more for slower
games like football, shotput, boxing, etc. whereas the people
of valley are lighter and faster suitable for games like
hockey, race and fancing etc.
2. Mukna Kangei (Wrestling Hockey)
3. Sagol Kangei (Polo)
4. Yubi Lakpi (Capture of Coconut)
6. Hiyangtanaba (Boat race)
7. Arambai Hunba
MUKNA ( Manipuri
Mukna, generally regarded
as one of the manliest of sports has been perhaps with Manipuris
from time immemorial. It is very popular game of two persons
who are trained by the village 'Ojha'(Master) who received
the title of 'Jatra'(unbeaten) person. It has fundamental
rules agreed by the All Mukna Organisation and Royal consent.
Traditionally the game is controlled and organized by Pana
loisang of the ruler of the state and village organization.
There are four Panas 1. Ahallup Pana 2. Naharup Pana 3.
Khabam Pana and 4.Laipham pana who control all the fixtures
and times for the games and state meet in which final is
invariably graced by the rulers and presents the title of
Jatra (Champion) for the year along with reward of Thumpon
Nama ( A full bag of salt ) and Ngabong Phi (hand made of
cloth of cotton yearn) , exemption all of state duties and
Ningkham Samjin (Traditional).
The game has two categories
1. Takhatnabi ( League)
2. Naitom (Knockout)
The young talented and work
and play all the year round with dedication title of Jatra
(Champion) of Mukna of Manipur.
KANGJEI (wrestling Hockey):
Manipiuris play, Mukna Kangjei,
agame combined the art of Mukna ( westling) and Kangjei
( cane stick), to play the ball mad of season bamboo roots.
The origin of game goes back
well to Aniconic worship. People celebrate ' Lai Haraoba'
(Festival of please traditional deities) and include this
item to mark the end of the festival. Pandit believe that
Khagemba king (1597-1652) patronised this game. In later
genaration, the game is organized are formed in Panas with
rules and regulations for the Mukna Kangjei.
The game is played by two
teams each consisting 7(seven) players hold a natural cane
stick with root, gradually inceasing the size of the root,
to a length of about 7(seven) inch to play the ball, made
out of seasonal bamboo roots of approximately diameter for(four)
The players put on Mukna
Kishi Phijet(dress of cloth knot) to secure protection and
holding each other. At present, a short pant is added below
Kisi(like cloth belt with knot).
The game started by throwing
ball in the front of Panjenba(leader) of the teams standing
facing each other on line. If possible they can pick up
the ball and run. The process of running and obstructing
each other to put the ball on the goal line of the ground
is allowed. Pun Onba(change of side) and each of the game
is given by command of the umpire. The rulers for the game
is known as kangjeilon.
YUBI LAKPI(Capture of coconut):
The game of Yubi lakpi(capturing of coconut) is tough individual
game. Maximum 10(ten) players allowed participating the
game at a time. Before the start of game, players rub their
bodies with mustard oil and water to make slippery to catch
each other. The coconut properly soaked with oil is placed
in the front of chief Guest of the function.
The players put on kisi (langot)
on an underpant properly tied in front. A senior Jatra is
the umpire of the game to start and to check fouls of the
players. Officially game is held on the occasion of holy
festival of Shri Govindajee at the Palace ground and Royal
presence. The game is closely organized for the religious
holy festival of Manipur.
To Manipuries according to
Cheitharol Kumbaba a Royal Chronicle of Manipur King Kangba
who rule Manipur much earlier than Nongda Lairel Pakhangba
(33A.D) introduced Sagol Kangjei. Futher regular playing
of this game commenced in 1606 during the Reign of King
Khagemba under newly framed rules of the game.
The game requires perfect
control of the pony, the stick and the ball with proficiency
of riding. The sense of fair play was the main guided factor
of this game.
This is play between the
two teams of 7(seven) players a side. During the time of
Late Chandrakirti Singh, KCSI, Maharaj of Manipur introduced
regular game at Mapal Kangjeibung(now near Tikendrajit park)
on the ground of (sana lamjei) long 160 and 80 wide being
on lamjei equal to 6th feets. The game can be play in a
smaller ground also if occasion demands under existing rules
except restriction adopted by the Late Maharaj Chandrakirti
Singh, KCSI,CBE. "Tupnaba Yadaba" crossing line
of approach of the player there was no definite rules of
foul in traditional Sagol Kangjei.
Manipur Has produced players
of outstanding calibers like Yubraj Bir Tikendrajit (Senapati
of Manipur) as legendary player described by Mrs. Grimwood(1887-90).
After 1891 Manipur produced outstanding players like Late
Ojha Tombi, Shyamjai Sharma who never had chance to play
international fact and accepted that Manipur is the birth
place of Polo in the World.
People of Manipur are very
fond of riding horse specially those who are in village
the breathing area. Since the ponies are available easily,
the young boys get the chance of ridding ponnies without
saddle or horse back. Sometimes they ride hose using a rope
in place of regular Bridles throwing branches of tree in
place of Arambai. This practice held the Manipur Arambai
Force as Martial Art, which was very much required during
advance and withdrawal of forces.
This Art is very popular
as an indigenous game of the youth of Manipur. This game
is displayed even now during the festival of "Kwak
Jatra" after Dugra Puja.
Woolaobi is an outdoor game
mainly played by the female/girls. Meitei mythology believe
that Umang Lai Hetloi Taret(seven deities seven sisters)
play time game on the courtyard of the temple of Umang Lairembi.
Numbers of participants are
not fixed but divided the participants into two groups(size
as now per agreement). Players are divided as
Action of Raider:
Say 'woo' without stopping
as long as they can continue and try to touch the avoiders.
If raider touch an Avoider then Avoider is out. This process
goes on till Avoiders out or surrender.
If a Raider fails to say
'woo' or out of breath, Raider is out. Points are counted
on the elimination Raider/ Defender.
Change of side:
If Raiders are tired they
declare for change. Now time limit is decided fro change.The
outline principles of woolaubi is very much similar to that
of Kabaddi. The ground is not marked, normally open space
available within the premises of house, temple for the game.
This is very much liked by the girls. Become a source of
talents in Kabaddi.
Hiyang Tanaba(Boat race)
is a traditional function of Panas. This is held during
the month of November. This was introduce during the time
of King Khunjaoba, the second son of Khagemba, dug the Kangla
Moat around the Place to make it impregnable in the year
of 1600 after he ascended the throne in 1632.
In tradition two boats "TANAHI"(race
boat) are detailed for leader known as "TENGMAI LEPPA".
In each boat forty(40) Hiroy (Boats man) operate the boat.
Hiyang hiren(main boat) is meant for Bishnu DebaNingthou
(the king) and follow the two race boats. The boat which
reaches the finish line first is the winner and all the
boat man raise their (nows) oars high in the air as the
sign of reaching the finish line first and thus the winner
of the race is declared. The leader pay his respect to the
deities Bishnu Deva and King of Manipur.
Kang is played both the male
and female of Manipuri Meitei. Manipuries believe that Kang
is played by deity "Panthoibi". It is also believed
that Manipuri began to play this game well before Vaishnavism
It is culturally a fine game
of Manipurspecially of Meiteis. It is played under a shed
of building on an earth ground smooth leveled to suit the
course of the Kang during the game. It is well marked for
the respective positions of the players of both to hit the
target the court. It has rules and regulations formed by
the associations to suit the occasion of the game either
for the tournament and friendly. The dignitaries of the
Palace even Maharani and Maharaj also participated on socialfunctions.
In old days Kang is played during summer starting from Cheiraoba
to Kang Chingba( Rath Jatra). Presently, the game is played
in several tournaments through out the year organized by
the association. Rules and Regulation have been modified
to suit the improved process of the game. It is popular
indoor game of Manipur.