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Manipur literally means "The land of Jewels" nested deep within a lust green corner of the North East India.

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Manipur lies between 23.80 degree N and 25.68 degree N latitude and 93.030 E and 940780 E. The Geographical location and climate have great influence to the living conditions and habits of the people of general.

Hill people are tough and heavy so they are suitable more for slower games like football, shotput, boxing, etc. whereas the people of valley are lighter and faster suitable for games like hockey, race and fancing etc.

1. Mukna (Manipuri wrestling)
2. Mukna Kangei (Wrestling Hockey)
3. Sagol Kangei (Polo)
4. Yubi Lakpi (Capture of Coconut)
5. Woolaubi
6. Hiyangtanaba (Boat race)
7. Arambai Hunba
8. Kang


MUKNA ( Manipuri Wrestling):

Mukna, generally regarded as one of the manliest of sports has been perhaps with Manipuris from time immemorial. It is very popular game of two persons who are trained by the village 'Ojha'(Master) who received the title of 'Jatra'(unbeaten) person. It has fundamental rules agreed by the All Mukna Organisation and Royal consent. Traditionally the game is controlled and organized by Pana loisang of the ruler of the state and village organization. There are four Panas 1. Ahallup Pana 2. Naharup Pana 3. Khabam Pana and 4.Laipham pana who control all the fixtures and times for the games and state meet in which final is invariably graced by the rulers and presents the title of Jatra (Champion) for the year along with reward of Thumpon Nama ( A full bag of salt ) and Ngabong Phi (hand made of cloth of cotton yearn) , exemption all of state duties and Ningkham Samjin (Traditional).

The game has two categories

1. Takhatnabi ( League)
2. Naitom (Knockout)

The young talented and work and play all the year round with dedication title of Jatra (Champion) of Mukna of Manipur.

MUKNA KANGJEI (wrestling Hockey):

Manipiuris play, Mukna Kangjei, agame combined the art of Mukna ( westling) and Kangjei ( cane stick), to play the ball mad of season bamboo roots.

The origin of game goes back well to Aniconic worship. People celebrate ' Lai Haraoba' (Festival of please traditional deities) and include this item to mark the end of the festival. Pandit believe that Khagemba king (1597-1652) patronised this game. In later genaration, the game is organized are formed in Panas with rules and regulations for the Mukna Kangjei.

The game is played by two teams each consisting 7(seven) players hold a natural cane stick with root, gradually inceasing the size of the root, to a length of about 7(seven) inch to play the ball, made out of seasonal bamboo roots of approximately diameter for(four) inch.

The players put on Mukna Kishi Phijet(dress of cloth knot) to secure protection and holding each other. At present, a short pant is added below Kisi(like cloth belt with knot).

The game started by throwing ball in the front of Panjenba(leader) of the teams standing facing each other on line. If possible they can pick up the ball and run. The process of running and obstructing each other to put the ball on the goal line of the ground is allowed. Pun Onba(change of side) and each of the game is given by command of the umpire. The rulers for the game is known as kangjeilon.


YUBI LAKPI(Capture of coconut):

Yubi(Coconut) lakpi(capturing). The game of Yubi lakpi(capturing of coconut) is tough individual game. Maximum 10(ten) players allowed participating the game at a time. Before the start of game, players rub their bodies with mustard oil and water to make slippery to catch each other. The coconut properly soaked with oil is placed in the front of chief Guest of the function.

The players put on kisi (langot) on an underpant properly tied in front. A senior Jatra is the umpire of the game to start and to check fouls of the players. Officially game is held on the occasion of holy festival of Shri Govindajee at the Palace ground and Royal presence. The game is closely organized for the religious holy festival of Manipur.

SAGOL KANGJEI(Polo)

To Manipuries according to Cheitharol Kumbaba a Royal Chronicle of Manipur King Kangba who rule Manipur much earlier than Nongda Lairel Pakhangba (33A.D) introduced Sagol Kangjei. Futher regular playing of this game commenced in 1606 during the Reign of King Khagemba under newly framed rules of the game.

The game requires perfect control of the pony, the stick and the ball with proficiency of riding. The sense of fair play was the main guided factor of this game.

This is play between the two teams of 7(seven) players a side. During the time of Late Chandrakirti Singh, KCSI, Maharaj of Manipur introduced regular game at Mapal Kangjeibung(now near Tikendrajit park) on the ground of (sana lamjei) long 160 and 80 wide being on lamjei equal to 6th feets. The game can be play in a smaller ground also if occasion demands under existing rules except restriction adopted by the Late Maharaj Chandrakirti Singh, KCSI,CBE. "Tupnaba Yadaba" crossing line of approach of the player there was no definite rules of foul in traditional Sagol Kangjei.

Manipur Has produced players of outstanding calibers like Yubraj Bir Tikendrajit (Senapati of Manipur) as legendary player described by Mrs. Grimwood(1887-90). After 1891 Manipur produced outstanding players like Late Ojha Tombi, Shyamjai Sharma who never had chance to play international fact and accepted that Manipur is the birth place of Polo in the World.

ARAMBAI HUNBA

People of Manipur are very fond of riding horse specially those who are in village the breathing area. Since the ponies are available easily, the young boys get the chance of ridding ponnies without saddle or horse back. Sometimes they ride hose using a rope in place of regular Bridles throwing branches of tree in place of Arambai. This practice held the Manipur Arambai Force as Martial Art, which was very much required during advance and withdrawal of forces.

This Art is very popular as an indigenous game of the youth of Manipur. This game is displayed even now during the festival of "Kwak Jatra" after Dugra Puja.


WOOLAOBI

Woolaobi is an outdoor game mainly played by the female/girls. Meitei mythology believe that Umang Lai Hetloi Taret(seven deities seven sisters) play time game on the courtyard of the temple of Umang Lairembi.

Numbers of participants are not fixed but divided the participants into two groups(size as now per agreement). Players are divided as

1. Raider(Attacker)
2. Defender(Avoider)

Action of Raider:

Say 'woo' without stopping as long as they can continue and try to touch the avoiders. If raider touch an Avoider then Avoider is out. This process goes on till Avoiders out or surrender.

If a Raider fails to say 'woo' or out of breath, Raider is out. Points are counted on the elimination Raider/ Defender.

Change of side:

If Raiders are tired they declare for change. Now time limit is decided fro change.The outline principles of woolaubi is very much similar to that of Kabaddi. The ground is not marked, normally open space available within the premises of house, temple for the game. This is very much liked by the girls. Become a source of talents in Kabaddi.

HIYANG TANABA

Hiyang Tanaba(Boat race) is a traditional function of Panas. This is held during the month of November. This was introduce during the time of King Khunjaoba, the second son of Khagemba, dug the Kangla Moat around the Place to make it impregnable in the year of 1600 after he ascended the throne in 1632.

In tradition two boats "TANAHI"(race boat) are detailed for leader known as "TENGMAI LEPPA". In each boat forty(40) Hiroy (Boats man) operate the boat. Hiyang hiren(main boat) is meant for Bishnu DebaNingthou (the king) and follow the two race boats. The boat which reaches the finish line first is the winner and all the boat man raise their (nows) oars high in the air as the sign of reaching the finish line first and thus the winner of the race is declared. The leader pay his respect to the deities Bishnu Deva and King of Manipur.

KANG

Kang is played both the male and female of Manipuri Meitei. Manipuries believe that Kang is played by deity "Panthoibi". It is also believed that Manipuri began to play this game well before Vaishnavism in Manipur.

It is culturally a fine game of Manipurspecially of Meiteis. It is played under a shed of building on an earth ground smooth leveled to suit the course of the Kang during the game. It is well marked for the respective positions of the players of both to hit the target the court. It has rules and regulations formed by the associations to suit the occasion of the game either for the tournament and friendly. The dignitaries of the Palace even Maharani and Maharaj also participated on socialfunctions. In old days Kang is played during summer starting from Cheiraoba to Kang Chingba( Rath Jatra). Presently, the game is played in several tournaments through out the year organized by the association. Rules and Regulation have been modified to suit the improved process of the game. It is popular indoor game of Manipur.

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