Names: Proto-Germanic: *Erþo ("Earth"), *Frijo ("Wife")
Northern Germanic: Frigg, Frigga, Frija, Hel(?), Hlodyn(?), Jord(?), Saga
Western Germanic: Berchta, Berchte, Berta, Brecht, Erda, Ertha, Frea, Freek, Freke, Frîa, Frick, Fricka, Frija, Fru Gauden, Gwode, Harke, Hel, Hella, Herke, Herta, Hertha, Hludana(?), Holda, Holde, Holl, Holle, Frau Holle, Holla, Hretha(?), Hulda, Nerthus(?), Perahta, Perchta, Urd(?), Urth(?), Waud, Wode, Wolke, Wolle
Anglo-Saxon: Eortha, Erce, Frige
Goddess of: Earth, Fertility, Weather, Death, the Afterlife, Childbirth, Children, Spinning
Appearance: This goddess was depicted as a good wife and mother, in some sources (Grimm's fairy tales) she is a wise old woman but in most other sources she is a middle-aged woman.

In Germanic mythology the earthgoddess is the wife of the high god Wodan/Odin, these days she is mainly known under her northern Germanic name "Frigg", which is actually a title that describes some of her characteristics, just like her other names Holda and Berchta.
It is difficult to refer to this goddess with a specific name because this name varied in many places, on this page I shall use the name "Frija" because it was used in one form or another in both continental Europe and in Scandinavia (Frigg).
Frija was associated with Life and Death, childbirth and the afterlife, she could also influence the weather and had strong associations with the earth.

The goddess of many names:
The Germanic earthgoddess was known under many different names and titles that varied in each community, which still causes a lot of confusion today because many sources use different names for this goddess and sometimes even interpret her names as referations to multiple individual goddesses, ignoring the fact that our ancestors often used several kennings and titles for the same person.
I have been criticized in the past for saying that some of the Germanic goddesses we know are basically titles for one and the same earthgoddess, even though these goddesses have so many similarities that it is hard not to see them as the same character, therefor I shall try explaining what I mean in a more thorough way.

(Frigg, Frick, Frija, Frea, and similar names:)
In Scandinavia the Earthgoddess is mainly known as Frigg (*Frijo = "Wife"), we can find this same title in western Germanic myths where the Earthgoddess is sometimes referred to as Frick, similar names are Frija and Frea, which are mentioned in the second Merseburgian charm and the Origo gentis Langobardorum (also known as Historia Langobardorum).
Both names also have similarities with Freya's title (Freya means "Lady"), which implicates that certain titles may have been commonly used for gods and goddesses.

(Eortha, Erce, Erda, Ertha, Nerthus, Hertha, Jord:)
Another name that was used to refer to the earthgoddess was simply "Earth", like the Anglo-Saxon Eortha or Erce who is mentioned in some magical charms.
In his opera "der Ring des Nibelungen" the German composer Richard Wagner used the name Erda to refer to the earthgoddess, of course Wagner's romanticized and partially fictionalized opera can hardly be considered a reliable source but he did base his work on historical sources and the name Erda does appear in some local German myths and fairy tales, as well as the names Erde and Ertha, all three names are old-fashioned words for "Earth" that were used in Germany, the Alps, and the Low countries.

Some other goddesses whose names mean Earth are Nerthus, Hertha, and Jord.
The name Nerthus is mentioned in Tacitus' first century work "Germania" and in the translations it is simply taken over in that form, however; Tacitus' work is in Latin so the name Nerthus is most probably a Latinized form of a Germanic name like Erþuz or Ertha.
For the Romans words in a foreign language were often unpronouncable so they had a habit of bending them to fit the Latin pronunciation, something that is known as the "Interpretatio Romana".
So a word with an initial vowel like the name "Ertha" may have easily become "Nerthus" in Latin speech by adding an initial N and the typically Latin -us ending.
In some Germanic dialects adding initial consonants may have resulted in similar name bendings, in that case the Scandinavian name Njord makes Jord (Earth) and the western Germanic name Hertha makes Ertha (Earth).

The name of the Scandinavian goddess Jord, who is the mother of the god Thor, also means "Earth", this word was already used in Old Norse and is still used today in the Scandinavian languages, there is also an etymological link to western Germanic names like Erda, Ertha, and Erce.
Does this mean that Jord can be equalled to Frigg and her western Germanic counterparts? perhaps, but what about the Eddas in which they are named as separate goddesses with separate genealogical connections within the divine family?
My answer to this is that the Eddas are not a "bible" nor an absolute truth, the Edda is a collection of saga's that were written down in a period when the Germanic culture and religion were no longer a unity and its myths were degraded to local legends and fairy tales.
Apart from that the people writing the saga's down were Christians who were not raised within the old traditions, so there is a very high possibility that they have misinterpreted the lore and not always understood what they were writing about, the genealogy of the gods as it is described in the Eddas has some similarities here and there but there are probably many connections between the gods that are unclear or even completely made up to fill in the gaps in the fragmentary folklore that was collected throughout the country.
Another thing that supports this theory is that the origins of Jord are fairly unknown and on the genealogy of the Germanic gods it looks as if she has been "added" to the list without having any clear bloodlines to the other gods.
In the Eddas the god Thor is mentioned as the son of Odin and Jord, but Odin is already married to Frigg so the Eddas turn Jord into Odin's mistress, making her someone without any clear links or origins who is simply "pasted" into the genealogy list, could it be that Jord and Frigg are two names for the same goddess who were later mistaken for two separate goddesses by writers who tried to transform all the different saga's into a coherent story?

Another theory also suggests a connection between Freya and Frigg that is based on their similar names and characteristics, but I'm still a bit sceptical about that one.
The arguments for this theory are that the names of Freya and Frija/Frea (the western Germanic earthgoddess and wife of Wodan) both have the same meaning.
Another argument is that both Frigg and Freya own a falconskin and are associated with fertility, marriage, and children.
The name of Odr ("Rage"), the mysterious husband of Freya, almost means the same as Odin ("Raging One") which also implies a connection, it may be possible that both Frigg and Freya have common origins but another explanation is that aspects of Frigg and Freya were mixed up in later legends.

(Hludana, Holda, Hulda, Hel, Hol, Holle:)
The goddess Hludana (*Hludanaz = "Loud One") is mentioned on several altar stones from the Roman period and has much in common with the Scandinavian name Hlodyn, which is a title of the goddess Jord.
The names Hulda and Holda often appear in myths and fairy tales as the name of the earthgoddess, especially in local legends from the continental Germanic lands.
Both names mean "Well-disposed One" or "Merciful One" though there may also be a connection to the German/Dutch word "hulde" (homage).
Other names that appear in many legends are Hol, Holle, and Frau Holle, the exact meaning of these names is unknown but there is a connection to German "höhle" and Dutch "hol" (hole, cave, cavern, hollow), trees dedicated to this goddess were often called "hollow trees" and the cavities within these hollow trees were believed to contain children who were waiting for new parents or the goddess herself who spun wool and gave advice to people passing by.
Another name that appears in Frisian legends as well as in Germany and some other places is Hel or Hella, which has a connection to German "Hölle", Dutch "Hel", Scandinavian "Helvete", and English "Hell", which all refer to the Christian Gehenna but was originally a name for the goddess of the afterlife.
This goddess of the afterlife is known as the evil Hel from the Eddan saga's, but outside the Edda no such goddess appears and in most legends only the earthgoddess and her husband Wodan have a connection to death and the afterlife, the same earthgoddess who is called "Hel" in some legends, because of this many scholars believe that the Hel from the Eddas is a demonized form of the earthgoddess and her afterlife.

(Berchta, Berta, Perchta:)
The names Berchta, Berta, and Perchta mean "Bright One" and are names that mainly appear in southern Germany and the Alps.
Berchta has many similarities with Holda and she also has a strong connection which death, together with her husband Wodan she leads the evil spirits of the Wild Hunt, who are called Perchten in some areas, in some places in Austria the people still hold Perchtenlaufen in which they dress up as Perchten and scare eachother, similar to Halloween.

Frija in Scandinavia:
In Scandinavia the earthgoddess and wife of Odin was called "Frigg", another name of Frigg is "Saga" and she also has similarities with Gefjon, but whether or not she and Gefjon are the same is a topic for debate.
Frigg lives in Fensalir ("Boghalls") and has a connection to bogs and marshes, which played an important role in the Germanic religion and in the pre-Germanic religions like that of the Funnel Beaker culture.
There is even a possibility that the offerings and bog bodies that were found in bogs throughout northwestern Europe were sacrificed to her, but that is of course speculative.
Frigg is also associated with spinning and according to Norse folklore she spins clouds on her spinning wheel, this spinning wheel can also be seen at night as the constellation of Orion (where Freya and Holda also have a connection with), it was forbidden to spin on her holy days, which are Friday and Sunday (including the evenings before).
The heron and stork are also associated with Frigg and she is the only one who is allowed to sit next to Odin on his throne hliðskialf because Odin trusts his wife and knows that she is discreet enough to remain silent about what she sees from his throne.

Frija in the Alps:
In Southern Germany, Switzerland, and Austria Frija was called "Berchta" (the Shining One), although she was first mentioned under this name in the 14th century it is believed to have already been used much earlier, in the Scandinavian Eddas the name "Biort" is mentioned, which is etymologically connected to Berchta.
Just like Holda Berchta is associated with fertility and death, she also has a spinning wheel and at the end of the year she destroys the threads that are not finished.
There is also a possibility that the German city of Berchtesgaden is named after her.

Frija in Germany and the Low Countries:
In many places in Germany and the Low Countries Frija was called "Holda", especially in Saxony (Sachsen) and Thuringia (Thüringen) this name was commonly used.
Holda was both feared and respected because of the fertility she can take or give to both humans and animals, during the 12 nights of Yule that took place after the winter solstice she and her husband Wodan lead the Wild Hunt (an army of destructive spirits) back to their resting places, because of her connection to Wodan she was also nicknamed Waud, Wode, or Gwode.
Holda is also a goddess of childbirth, weather, winter, spinning, and she is the protectress of young children, she is associated with the heron and the stork (who were believed to bring children).
The key is also one of her symbols and in Germanic society keys were associated with family, mothers, and wifes, therefor the keys were often trusted to the lady of the house.
There also seems to be a connection between Holda and the Alfen because one of Holda's titles is "Queen of the Elves", on the Faroer islands the Alfen were called "Huldevolk" (Holda's folk) and the female Alfen in Norway were known as "Huldrer", the actual king of the Alfen is the god Frey but perhaps it was believed that he received assistance from Holda during the Yule period when the Alfen came out of their hiding places to hold dances that fertilized the earth, Holda also played an important role during that period.
Just like her differently named counterparts in the rest of the Germanic lands Holda was also associated with spinning, in folklore Saturday evening (the beginning of Sunday in the Germanic time reckoning) was the holy night of Holda on which it was forbidden to spin.

In Mecklenburg (Germany) Frija is called frau Gauden and the people believe that she especially likes children who sing the following rime:

Fru Gauden hett mi 'n Lämmken gewen,
Dormit sall ik in Freuden lewen.
Lady Gauden has given me a little lamb,
With it I shall live in peace.

During the Middle Ages the people in the German empire and the surrounding areas held processions during carnival, in this processions Wodan, Holda, and the Wild Hunt were also depicted; a lady dressed up as Holda rode on a horse and blew a song on a horn:

Durch Feld und Wald,
Das Horn erschallt.
Frau Holde kommt, hu, hu!
Ihr Schätzlein das bist du!
Through field and wood,
the horn sounds.
Lady Holde comes, hoo, hoo!
Her dear one that is you!

She then started lashing her whip and the people sang:

Trara, trara, frau Holde ist da,
Und kommt ihr das Schätzlein nah,
Das sie mit den Augen ersah
So führt sie ihn mit sich. Trara!
Trara, trara, lady Holde is here,
And if you come closer to this dear one,
That you saw with your eyes
So she will take you with her. Trara!

Frija in Grimm's fairy tales:
These days Frija is mainly known as frau Holle from Grimm's fairy tales, although these fairy tales are mostly mere folklore they still contain many aspects of the old goddess.
One of these aspects is for instance the association with spinning and weather; in one of the fairy tales Frau Holle (lady Holda) shakes out her bedsheets which causes snowfall on earth.
When I was a little boy I very much enjoyed the fairy tales of Frau Holle and during my studies I found many similarities between her and Frija (Holda/Holle), even so many that they brought back childhood memories, one of the fairy tales I was told about Frau Holle is the following:

"A widow had two daughters; one of them was very beautiful and worked hard and the other one was ugly and lazy.
The beautiful hardworking girl was her stepdaughter while the ugly lazy one was her real daughter, therefor the widow loved the ugly lazy one much more, she didn't like the other daughter much so she made her work hard and spin threads on a spinning wheel all day long until her hands bled.
The poor girl had to do this every day and one day her hands bled so much that the bobbin of the spinning wheel had become red from her blood, therefor she went to a well to clean it.

(In Germanic religion wells were seen as entrances to other worlds)
When washing the bobbin the girl accidentally dropped it into the well, she feared that her stepmother would punish her for losing the bobbin so she decided to jump into the well and get it back.
Suddenly the girl was in a beautiful place where everything shined and blossomed, she couldn't get out of the well anymore so she started exploring the new land and she ended up at the house of lady Holle.
Lady Holle welcomed her in and asked her if she wanted to do some chores for her, the girl agreed and lady Holle asked her to shake out her bedsheets, when the girl did this it started snowing on earth.
The girl worked hard for lady Holle but eventually she wanted to go home again, so lady Holle brought her to a big gate and told her that this was the exit back to earth, the girl stepped through the gate and lady Holle rewarded her for her work by raining pure gold upon her.
Suddenly the girl was home again and she had lots of gold with her, she told the stepmother and her daughter what had happened and the lazy and ugly daughter became so greedy that she jumped into the well to get more gold.
But she was too lazy to work and lady Holle was not satisfied with the poor jobs she had done, so when the girl went home through the big gate lady Holle rained sticky black pitch on her that could never be removed again, and that is how lady Holle reflects the way you treat her.

Frija on Rügen island:
In Jasmund on Rügen island in Germany one can find the remains of Hertha castle, which has stood there since heathen times and was the center of worship of the goddess Hertha.
In the castle there used to be an idol of Mother Earth, whom the heathens on the island called Hertha.
Near the place where the castle stood is a deep lake where Hertha sometimes bathed, she rode there in a wagon pulled by two cows while wearing a special veil and being accompanied by her own priest.
The goddess also brought slaves with her to lead the animals, upon arrival these slaves were drowned in the lake because nobody was allowed to see the goddess, only the priest and other people dedicated to her could.
The Roman historian Tacitus describes a similar custom amongst many 1st century Germanic tribes, but he calls their goddess "Nerthus".

These days there are still many legends about the lake, most of them are eerie stories about the devil or some ancient queen or princess who was banished to this place.
Another legend says that on certain evenings, especially at full moon, a beautiful woman and her female servants emerge from the woods near Hertha castle wearing long white veils, they then bathe in the lake and can be heard splashing through the water but are invisible to the observer, after a while they become visible again and disappear into the woods.
People observing this are in great danger because a mysterious force will try to lure them to the lake where the women are bathing and when they touch the water they will become powerless and drown, it is believed that the woman has to drown at least one person a year in this way.
Nobody living near the lake will use boats or nets there because the spirits of the place dislike it, there were once some people who used a boat there and left it in the water when they returned home, the next morning the boat was found back in the top of a beech tree where it was hung by the spirits, when the people tried to take it down they heard an angry voice from the lake saying "My brother Nickel and I did it!"

Frija in Tacitus' work:
The Roman historian Tacitus mentions an ancient custom in his "Germania" that has much in common with the one on Rügen island:

"...After them come the Reudigni, Aviones, Anglii, Varini, Eudoses, Suarines, and Nuitones, all of them safe behind ramparts of rivers and woods. There is nothing noteworthy about these tribes individually, but they share a common worship of Nerthus, or Mother Earth. They believe that she takes part in human affairs, riding in a chariot among her people. On an island of the sea stands an inviolate grove, in which, veiled with a cloth, is a chariot that none but the priest may touch. The priest can feel the presence of the goddess in this holy of holies, and attends her with deepest reverence as her chariot is drawn along by cows. Then follow days of rejoicing and merrymaking in every place that she condescends to visit and sojourn in. No one goes to war, no one takes up arms; every iron object is locked away. Then, and then only, are peace and quiet known and welcomed, until the goddess, when she has had enough of the society of men, is restored to her sacred precinct by the priest. After that, the chariot, the vestments, and (believe it if you will) the goddess herself, are cleansed in a secluded lake. This service is performed by slaves who are immediately afterwards drowned in the lake. Thus mystery begets terror and a pious reluctance to ask what that sight can be which is seen only by men doomed to die."