Refuting Racial Myths
mtDNA haplogroup L3
Refuting Racial Myths writes
The "doubt" was expressed about "some" of the L3* lineages that "might" have non-African origin:
"With respect to the L sequences, it is widely accepted that they have a sub-Saharan origin, excepting some L3* lineages that, as analysis of Figure 4 suggests, might indeed have a non-African origin... However, it seems more likely that most of the L lineages found nowadays in Portugal have been carried by African slaves . . .
Nine out of 17 L sequences found in this study showed matches with widespread African sequences, and with regard to the 8 remaining sequences the absence of matches can be due to the present bias in the description of sub-Saharan mtDNA variability. Broad areas corresponding to Ivory Coast, Angola and Mozambique, which represented very important sources of African slaves, remain uncharacterised. (Pereira et al. 2000)"
The truth
Pereira et al. 's conclusions about slave admixture in Portugal are completely outdated. When they wrote this study, the only admissible source of Negroid admixture in Europe was through the XV and XVI century slave trade. Thanks to Gonzalez et al. (2003) we now know that it wasn't so. Even in Southern Portugal the impact of the slave trade was completely negligible considering that many of the African genes have a Neolithic origin. Therefore, conclusions like  "it seems more likely that most of the L lineages found nowadays in Portugal have been carried by African slaves" are now known to be inaccurate.
Refuting Racial Myths writes
It is true that there may be some L3* lineages in Europe that aren't of recent African origin. However, a later paper should clear up any "doubt" that Portugal has sub-Saharan L3 lineages.
The truth
Actually, that "later paper" - Gonzalez et al. 2003 - did clear all the doubts not only about Portugal but about the rest of Europe as well. It just weren't the conclusions Anon was hoping for... Studies like Passarino et al. (2002) even found L2 in a Norwegian sample. I suppose that it is "healthier" for white supremacists in denial to "forget" what tables like these mean:
Refuting Racial Myths writes
L3 is also found in Mozambique, another former Portuguese colony in sub-Saharan Africa:
"Here, we present hypervariable region I (HVRI) and II (HVRII) data for Mozambique, a south-east African population which was a Portuguese colony between 1752 and 1975...
All well-characterised African L3 clusters are present in Mozambique, as well as one less well characterised group...
As possible remnants of the Bantu expansion through east towards south Africa, we detected all the haplogroups that have been implicated in this expansion, that is L3b, L3e1a and a subset of L1a sequences. A tentative dating of some L2a sequences, the most frequent haplogroup in the Mozambique sample, by postulating two founder types, as suggested by their low diversity and star-like phylogenies, displayed an age range overlapping the Bantu expansion, although an earlier arrival of these types cannot be excluded. Recent gene flow from Atlantic Africa seems the most probable explanation for the detection of one L1b and one L3e4 sequence in Mozambique. (Pereira et al. 2001)"
The truth
The above is why some people should stick to what they are good at (in Refuting Racial Myths' case, who knows what!). Quoting one of his own sources:
"The relatively high frequency of L3e in the Brazilian mtDNA pool may then be explained by the fact that the majority of the slaves that arrived in Brazil came from Bantu groups, mainly from Angola (...) (Pereira et al. 2000)"
There are several reasons why most of the slaves came from Angola (namely Luanda):
1) it was cheaper to transport slaves from Angola to Brazil than from Mozambique to Brazil (shorter journey)
2) it was
safer for the ship to avoid the dangerous Cape of the Good Hope
3) the
death toll was smaller the shorter the journey
As a result, Mozambican slaves supplied the Arabian and Asian slave market, not the Atlantic.
This site shows quite clearly the huge death toll in slave trading ships. Here are some quotes:
"A third way by which slaves were procured at the Cape was from foreign ships who were on their way to Barbados, Beunos Aires and later Virginia. Some of the weaker slaves were sold at the Cape just in case they did not survive across the Atlantic."
" The food was mainly salted meat, pork, as well as gray and white peas. The latter became sour and musty. This diet led to scurvy, the result was loss of appetite, blue knobs and blotches appeared over the body, gums rotted and their teeth were very loose, the victim became shivery and feverish. This led many to commit suicide others suffered the sickness and ultimately died. Those who did make it to the Cape would have looked more dead than alive. They would have greeted their new home country, with relief at being back on land and surviving the ordeal. On the other hand the fear of the new and unknown must have been present in the bosom of each of these people. The uncertainty of what will be done to them next must have pressed heavy on their heart and spirit.
With ridicule South Africans refer to the establishment of Australia by convicts, whereas South Africa was established not only by free burghers but by these banished and encaptured slaves."
" Once reaching the Cape [from the Indian Ocean] they suffered from contagious diseases; smallpox, dysentery, measles, and infectious diseases. The ship Joanna Cathaerina in 1673 brought 221 slaves and within fourteen months 129 slaves had died. The ship Voorhout brought 257 slaves, mainly children in 1676 and within three and a half months 92 were dead."
This valuable source also explains some things about the questionable racial "purity" of some white (?) South Africans like Arthur Kemp. Ironic (to say the very least) and definitely worth checking.
Refuting Kemp
Hosted by