7.001.01 Men generate the excellent, far-gleaming maser of the mansion, the 
accessible Agni, present in the twosticks by attrition with their fingers. 
[atharya: a_gamya atanavat, not spreading or dispersing]. 

7.001.02 The dwellers have placed in the mansion, for its constant protection, 
that visible Agni, who has beenfrom ever, who is to be honoured in every house. 

7.001.03 Well-kindled, youthful Agni, shine before us with undecaying radiance; 
to you abundant sacrificialviands proceed. [With undecaying radiance: ajasraya_ 
su_rmya_: surmi = samitka_s.t.ham, kindled wood; or itmay mean a metal stake or 
post, red hot; therefore, figurately, it denotes a flame]. 

7.001.04 Those radiant fires, at which the well-bon sacrificers assemble, shine 
more brightly, and are morebountiful bestower of progeny (and other blessings), 
than the fires (of common life). 

7.001.05 Vigorous Agni, grant to us, (in requital) of our praises, excellent 
riches, worthy male offspring, anddescendants; (wealth), which an enemy 
attemptin to assail, may not despoil. 

7.001.06 Whom vigorous, the young damsel (the ladle) charged with the oblation, 
presenting the melted butter,day and night approaches; him, his own lustre 
approaches, favourable to (the bestowal of) wealth. 

7.001.07 Consume, Agni, all enemies; with the same flames with which you have 
consumed Jaru_tha, drive awayfebrile disease. [Jaru_tha: the harsh-voiced, or 
the threatening, ra-ks.asam parus.as'abdaka_rin.am]. 

7.001.08 Eminent, pure, radiating purifier, Agni, be present (at the sacrifice) 
of him who lights up your blaze, andat ours, (who address you) with these 

7.001.09 Patriarchal mortals, leaders or rites have shared, Agni, your radiance 
in many places; (propitiated) bythese our (praises, as by theirs), be present at 
this sacrifice. 

7.001.10 May those men who commend this my sacred rite, heroes, in battles with 
foes, overcome all impiousdevices. 

7.001.11 Let us not sit down, Agni, in an empty dwelling, (nor in those) of 
(other) men; let us not be withoutsuccessors; or, being without male posterity, 
let us, friend of dwellings, (by) worshipping you, (come to abide) inhouses 
filled with progeny. 

7.001.12 To whatsoever sacrifice the lord of horses regularly repairs, render, 
(Agni), our dwelling blessed withprogeny, with excellent posterity, prospering 
with lineal successors. 

7.001.13 Protect us, Agni, from the odious ra_ks.asas; protect us from the 
malignant, the illiberal, the iniquitous;may I, with you for my ally, triumph 
over the hostile. 

7.001.14 May that fire (kindled by me) surpass all other fires, at which a 
vigorous son, firm-handed, possessing athousand means (of living), co-operates 
in imperishable (praise). 

7.001.15 Verily is he Agni, who defends from the malevolent and from heinous sin 
(the worshipper) kindling (thefire); he (it is) whom the well-born worshippers 

7.001.16 This is the Agni invoked in many places; whom the prince, presenting 
oblations to, kindles, whom theministrant priest circumambulates at sacrifices. 

7.001.17 To you, Agni, may we, who are of exalted rank, offer many perpetual 
oblations, (employing) means,(prayer and praise), attracting you to the 

7.001.18 Do you, who are imperishable, bear these most acceptable oblations to 
the presence of the assembly ofthe gods; and may our fragran (offering) gratify 
them severally. 

7.001.19 Relinquish us not, Agni, to the want of male offspring; nor to 
deficient clothing; nor to such desruction;leave us not to hunger, not to the 
ra_ks.asas; expose us not, observer of truth, to evil, whether in the house or 
inthe forest. 

7.001.20 Bestow upon me, Agni, quickly, abundant wholesome food; send 
sustenance, divine Agni, to those whoare opulent in oblations; may we, both 
(priests and employer), be comprehended in your munificence; do youever cherish 
us with blessings. [yu_yam pa_ta svastibhih sada_ nah; yu_yam = tvam (i.e. the 
su_ktas and r.cas);or, you and your atendants, yu_yam tvat pariva_ra_s'ca 

7.001.21 Shine wih bright lustre, Agni, son of strength, you who are earnestly 
invoked, and of pleasant aspect;consume not the begotten son with whom you are 
associated; let not our male offspring, beneficial to man,perish. 

7.001.22 Command not the fires kindled by the priests with which you are united 
to work as evil; let not thedispleasure, even in error, of you, the son of 
strength, who are divine, fall upon us. 

7.001.23 Radiant Agni, the mortal who offers oblations to the immortal becomes 
affluent; that deity (Agni) favoursthe presenter of (sacrificial) wealth, to 
whom the devout solicitant inquiring applies. [yam su_rir arthi_pr.cchama_na: 
the inquirer is supposed to ask, either where is the liberal giver of the wealth 
for which he prays,or who is that Agni to whom the petition is to be addressed. 

7.001.24 Agni, who are cognizant of our solemn and auspicious (worship), bring 
to the worshippers abundantriches, whereby, mighty Agni, we, blessed with 
uncontracted life, and excellent male desendants, may be happy. 

7.001.25 Bestow upon me, Agni, quickly, abundant wholesome food; send 
sustenance, divine Agni, to those whoare opulent in oblaions; may we, both 
(priests and employer), be comprehended in your munificence; do you evercherish 
us with blessings. [Repeat of verse 20].

7.002.01 Be gratified, Agni, by the (sacred fire) kindled by us today, emitting 
abundant adorable smoke; touchwith your scorching flames the celestial summit; 
combine with the rays of the sun. [Kindled: samiddham; impliesone of the A_pris, 
or forms of fire, although used as an epithet]. 

7.002.02 We celebrate with sacrifices the greatness of the adorable Nara_s'am.sa 
among those who aredivinities, the performers of good works, the bright-shining, 
the upholders of rites, who partake of both kinds ofoblations. [Oblations of 
ghi_ and libations of Soma, or other offerings: Nirukta viii.6]. 

7.002.03 Let us ever worship the Agni who is to be adored by us; the mighty, the 
dextrous, the messengerpassing between heaven and earth, the speaker of truth, 
kindled (of old) by Manu, as now by men, that (he maycome) to the solemnity. 
[Tanu_napa_t, is omitted; the su_kta is called an A_pri_ su_kta, apra 
s'abdoktatva_nidam tanu_napa_d rahitam; Agni who is to be adored by us: 
i_l.enyam agnim is the i_l.ita of the other a_pri_su_ktas; mahema = to you 
(priests) worship]. 

7.002.04The worshippers bearing the sacred grass offer it with reverence, upon 
their knees, to Agni; worshiphim, priests, with oblations, invoking him to (sit 
down) on the spotted (grass), smeared with clarified butter. 

7.002.05 The devout performers of holy rites, desirous of chariots, have had 
recourse to the doors (of thesacrificial chamber); (the ladles), placed to the 
east, are plying the fire with ghee at sacrifices, as the mothercows lick the 
calf, or as rivers (water the fields). [The doors: among the A_pris; pu_rvi_ 
s'is'um na ma_tarariha_n.e samagruvo na samanes.u an~jan = the prio (or eastern) 
calf like two mothers licking rivers, like insacrifices tey anoint = pu_rvi_ 
pra_gagre juhu_pabhr.tau, the two ladles -- the juhu and upabhr.t-- placed 
atsacrifices with their ends to the east]. 

7.002.06 May the two youthful females, the divine and mighty day and night, the 
invoked of many, the possessedof wealth, seated on the sacred grass, enitled to 
adoration, be with us like an easily-milked cow for our welfare. 

7.002.07 I am minded to adore you two sages, the ministrants at sacrifices of 
men, from celebrated, convey ouroffspring aloft, and acquire (for our use) the 
precious (treasures preserved) among the gods. 

7.002.08 May Bharati, associated with the Bharatis; Il.a_ with gods and men; and 
Agni and Sarasvati_ with theSa_rasvatas; may the three goddesses sit down before 
us upon this sacred grass. [Il.a_ with gods and man: il.a_devabhir manus.yebhir 
agnih; Il.a_ is associated with men; Agni is associated with the goddesses. This 
and thethree following verses are repeated from the second as.t.aka]. 

7.002.09 Divine Tvas.t.a_, being well-pleased, give issue to our procreative 
vigour, whence (a son) manly,devout, vigorous, wielder of the Soma-bruising 
stone, and reverencing the gods, may be born. 

7.002.10 Vanaspati, bring the gods night; may Agni, the immolator, prepare the 
victim; let him who is truthofficiate as the ministering priest, for verily he 
knows the birth of the gods. 

7.002.11 Agni, kindled (into flame), come to our presence in the same chariot 
with Indra, and with the swiftmoving gods; may Aditi, the mother of excellent 
sons, sit down on the sacred grass, and may the immortal godsbe satisfied with 
the reverentially-offered oblation.

7.003.01 Appoint (gods) the most adorable, divine Agni, consentient with (all 
other) fires, your messenger at thesacrifice; him who is permanently present 
among men, the observer of truth, who is crowned with flame, thepurifier, whose 
food is butter. 

7.003.02 When, like a neighing steed about to feed upon the forage, (Agni) 
springs up from the vast-enclosing(forest) then the wind fans his flame; and 
black, (Agni), is your course. 

7.003.03 The kindled undecaying flames of you, the newly born, the showerer, 
rise up; the luminous smokespreads along the sky; and you, Agni, proceed as 
their messenger to the gods. 

7.003.04 The light of whom quickly spreads over the earth when with his teeth 
(of flame) he devours his food;your blaze rushes along like a charging host, 
when Agni, of goodly aspect, you spread with your flame (amongthe trees) as if 
(they were) barley. [You spread with your flame: yavam na dasma juhva_ = 
dars'ani_ya_gnertvam yavam iva jva_laya_ ka_s.tha_di_ni bhaks.ayasi, when you 
eat wood and other things like barley, withflame]. 

7.003.05 Men cherish that youthful Agni at evening and at dawn, as (they tend) a 
horse; lighting him as a guestin his proper station; the radiance of the 
showerer (of benefits), to whom the oblation is offered, shines brightly. 

7.003.06 Resplendent Agni, when you shine nigh at hand like gold, your 
appearance is beautiful; your mightissues like the thunderbolt from the 
firmament, and like the wonderful sun, you display your lustre. 

7.003.07 When we present to you, Agni, the sacred offerings with oblations mixed 
with butter and milk, thenprotect us with those vast unbounded, innumerable 
golden cities and metals. 

7.003.08 Son of strength, Ja_tavedas, with those unobstructed (splendours) which 
belong to you, a munificentdonor, and with those praises wherewih you protect 
people with their posterity, do you protect us yourworshippers and praisers. 

7.003.09 When the bright Agni, radiant with his own diffusive lustre, issues 
(from the touchwood) like asharpened axe; and he who is desirable, the doer of 
great deeds, the purifier, is born of his two parents; (heappears) for the 
worship of the gods. 

7.003.10 Illumine for us, Agni, these auspicious (riches); may we possess (a 
son) intelligent, the celebrator ofsacred rites; may all (good things) be your 
praisers, and to him who eulogizes (you); and do you ever cherish uswith 

7.004.01 Offer your sacred oblation, and praise the bright and radiant Agni, who 
passes with wisdom between alldivine and human beings. 

7.004.02 May the sagacious Agni be our conductor from the time that he is orn, 
most youthful, of his mother; hewho, bright-toothed, attacks the forest, and 
quickly devours his abundant food. 

7.004.03 Whom mortals apprehend as white (shining) in the principal station of 
that divinity; he who assents tomanly adoration, and blazes for the good of man, 
and the discomfiture (of his foes).  

7.004.04 This far-seeing, sagacious, immortal Agni, has been stationed among 
short-sighted mortals; harm usnot, vigorous Agni, in this world, that we may 
ever be devoted to you. 

7.004.05 The herbs, and the trees, and the earth, contain as a germ that all-
supporting Agni, who occupies aplace provided by the gods, that by his functions 
he may convey (the offerings) to the immortals. 

7.004.06 Agni has power to grant abundant food; he has power to grant riches 
with male posterity; vigorous Agni,let us not sit down before you devoid of 
sons, of beauty, of devotion. [Devoid of beauty: ma_sava_h ru_parahitah: apsas = 
ru_pa (apsa iti ru_pa na_ma: Nirukta 5.13)]. 

7.004.07 Wealth is competent to the acquittance of debt; may we be masters of 
permanent riches; that is notoffspring which is begotten by another; alter not 
the paths (of the generation) of a blockhead. [Wealth iscompetent: paris.adyam 
hi aran.asya rekn.as = anr.n.asya dhanam parihartavyam, the wealths of one 
notindebted is to be accepted; Alter not the paths: aceta_nasya ma_ patho 
viduks.a = consume not the paths of theuniverse; following Nirukta iii.2, 
avidus.ah putrotpa_da_na pramukha_n ma_rga_n ma_ vidudus.ah, change not(dus., 
vaikr.tye) the principal paths of begetting a son of the unwise]. 

7.004.08 One not acquitting debts, although worthy of regard, yet begotten of 
another, is not to be contemplatedeven in the mind (as fit) for acceptance; for 
verily he returns to his own house; therefore let there come to us (ason) new-
born, possessed of food, victorious over foes. [One not acquitting debts: aran.a 
= aramama_n.a, onenot pleasing or delighting; in the previous verse, it is 
rendered as anr.n.a, one free from debt, i.e. obligations dueto men, progenitors 
and gods]. 

7.004.09 Do you, Agni, defend us against, the malignant; do you, who are endowed 
with strengt, (preserve us)from sin; may the (sacrificial) food come to you free 
from defect; may the riches that we desire come to us bythousands. 

7.004.10 Illumine for us, Agni, these auspicious (riches); may we possess (a 
son) intelligent, the celebrator ofsacred rites; may all (good things) be to 
your praisers and to him who eulogizes (you); and do you ever cherishus with 

7.005.01 Offer praise to the strong Agni, traversing without hindrance heaven 
and earth; he who (as)Vais'va_nara prospers at the sacrifices of all the 
immortals, being associated with the awaking divinities. 

7.005.02 Agni, the leader of the rivers, the showerer of the waters, the 
radiant, has been stationed in thefirmament and upon earth; Vis'va_nara 
augmenting with the most excellent (oblation) shines upon human beings. 

7.005.03 Through fear of you, Vais'va_nara, the dark-complexioned races, 
although of many minds, arrived,abandoning their possessions, when, Agni, 
shining upon Puru, you have blazed, consuming the cities of his foe.[Puru: In 
RV. 1.67.3, Purave occurs as an epithet of Suda_sa, one who fills or satisfies 
with offerings.  

7.005.04 Vais'va_nara Agni, the firmament, the earth, the heaven, combine in 
your worship; shining withundecaying splendour, you overspread heaven and earth 
with light. [tridha_tu = antariks.am]. 

7.005.05 The horses (of Indra), full of ardour, worship you, Agni; the praises 
(of men), dispersers (of iniquity),accompanied by oblations, (honour you), the 
lord of men, the conveyer of riches, the Vais'va_nara of dawns, themanifester of 

7.005.06 Reverencer of friends, Agni, th Vasus have concentrated vigour in you; 
they have been propitiated byyour acts; generating vast splendour for the Arya, 
do you, Agni, expel the Dasyus from the dwelling. 

7.005.07 Born in the highest heaven, you ever drink (Soma) like Va_yu; 
generating the waters, you thunder,granting (his wishes) to your offspring, the 
worshipper. [Drink (Soma): In the cups dedicated to two deities thelibation is 
offered first to Va_yu or to Vais'va_nara; or, you drink or dry up water like 
the wind]. 

7.005.08 Send to us, Agni, (who are) Vais'va_nara Ja_tavedas, that brilliant 
sustenance whereby you conferwealth, and (grant), all-desired Agni, abundant 
food to the mortal, the donor (of the oblation). 

7.005.09 Bestow upon us who are affluent (in offerings), Agni, ample riches and 
renowned strength; associatedwith the Rudras, with the Vasus, grant us, Agni 
Vais'va_nara, infinite happiness.

7.006.01 I salute the demolisher (of cities), glorifying the excellence of the 
powerful male, the universal sovereignwho is the reverenced of all men; I 
proclaim his exploits (which are) like those of the mighty Indra. [Demolisher 
ofcities: da_rum vande = puram bhetta_ram]. 

7.006.02 They propitiate the wise, the manifesting, the sustaining,t he 
enlightener of the pious, the giver ofhappiness, the sovereign of heaven and 
earth; I glorify the ancient and mighty works of Agni, the demolisher ofcities. 

7.006.03 May Agni utterly confound those Dasyus who perform no (sacred) rites, 
who are babblers defective inspeech, niggards, unbelievers; not honouring 
(Agni), offering no sacrifice; Agni preceding, has degrated thosewho institute 
no sacred ceremonies. 

7.006.04 The chief of leaders has, by the benefits (bestowed upon them), guided 
those praising (him) throughthe accumulated gloom (of night); I glorify that 
Agni, the unbending lord of wealth, the tamer of adversaries.[Guided those: 
pu_rvas' caka_ra aparam ayayitun = agnir mukhyah san ayajama_na_n apara_n 
jaghanya_ncaka_ra; he who enlightens by the manifestation of dawn those praising 
him in the night]. 

7.006.05 The mighty Agni, who by his fatal (weapons) has baffled the devices (of 
the asuras), who has createdthe lawns, the birds of the sun, having coerced the 
people by his strength, has made them the tributaries ofNahus.a. [Baffled: dehyo 
anamayat, has bowed or hukbled; dehyah dehairu_pacita, connected with, or 
collectedbodies; a_suri_ vidya_, the learning or science of the asuras]. 

7.006.06 Agni Vais'va_nara, whom all men approach with pious offerings, 
soliciting his favour for the sake of(obtaining felicity), has come to the 
excellent station (intermediate) between his parents, heaven and earth. 

7.006.07 The divine Agni Vais'va_nara has removed from the firmament the 
investing (glooms) at the rising of thesun; he has removed them from the lower 
firmament of the earth, from the upper firmament of heaven. [From thefirmament: 
a_ samudra_d avara_d, a_ parasma_d diva a_ pr.thivya_h: or, it might be from the 
lower firmament,from the higher, from heaven, from earth].

7.007.01 I propitiate with oblations the divine, vigorous Agni, rapid as a 
horse; do you, knowing (our desires), beour messenger of the sacrifice; he, the 
consumer of forests, is known spontaneously among the gods. 

7.007.02 Come, Agni, rejoicing by thine own paths, gratified by the friendship 
of the gods; roarind with witheringflames above the high places of the earth; 
threatening to consume all the forests. 

7.007.03 The sacrifice is presen; the sacred grass is strewn; Agni lauded is 
satisfied, and is the ministrant priestinvoking the all-desired parents of whom 
you, honoured Agni, the youngest (of the gods), are born. 

7.007.04 Judicious men promptly generate at the sacred rite the directing 
(Agni), who (may convey) their(oblations); Agni, the lord of men, the giver of 
delight, the swee-spoken, the celebrator of sacrifices, has beenestablished in 
the dwelling of the people.  

7.007.05 Invester (with the priestly office), the bearer (of the oblation), 
Agni, the directing priest, the sustainer (ofall), is seated in the house of 
man, he whom heaven and earth extol, and whom, the desired of all, the 
ministrantpriests worship. 

7.007.06 These men nourish the universe with viands who offer (to Agni) fitting 
commendation; those people alsowho eagerly listen (to his laudation) augment 
(the plenty of the world), as do these my (associates), who areglorifiers of 
this truthful (duty). 

7.007.07 We Vasis.t.has implore you, Agni, son of strength, the lord of 
treasures, that you will quickly bestowfood upon thine adorers who are affluent 
(in oblations), and do you ever cherish us with blessings.

7.008.01 The royal (Agni), the mater (of the sacrifice), is kindled with 
praises, he whose person is invoked with(offerings of) butter, whom men 
associated worship with oblations, Agni, who is lighted before the dawn. 

7.008.02 This great Agni has been known among men as invoker (of the gods), the 
giver of deligh, the mighty; hehas spread (in the firmament), he, the darkpathed 
at large upon the earth, is nourished by the plants. 

7.008.03 By what oblation, Agni, do you clothe our praise? What offering do you, 
when glorified, accept? When,giver of good, may we be the possessors and 
enjoyers of perfect and unmolested riches? 

7.008.04 This Agni is greatly celebrated by the institutor of the rite when he 
shines resplendent as the sun; hewho overcame Puru in battle, and shone glorious 
as the guest of the gods. [Is greatley celebrated: bharasyas'r.n.ve, 
yajama_nasya prathito bhavati; or, yajama_nasya a_hva_nam s'r.n.oti, he hears 
the invocation of theworshipper]. 

7.008.05 In you, Agni, are many offerings; do you with all your flames be 
propitious; favourably hear (the praises)of the worshipper; and do you of 
auspicious manifestation being glorified, spontaneously magnify (your) person. 

7.008.06 Vasi.s.t.ha illustrious in both heaven and earth, rich with a hundred 
and a thousand (head of cattle), hasaddressed this hymn to Agni, that such fame-
conferring disease-removing, fiend-destroying (laudation) may be(the means of) 
happiness to the eulogists and their kindred. [Illustrious: dvibarhah dvayoh 
stha_nayor maha_n(Ya_ska); vidya_karma_bhya_m br.hana, eminent in both wisdom 
and devotion]. 

7.008.07 We Vasis.t.has implore you, Agni, son of strength, the lord of 
treasures, that you will quickly bestowfood upon thine adorers, who are affluent 
(in oblations), and do you ever cherish us with blessings.

7.009.01 The waster away (of living creatures), the invoker (of the gods), the 
giver of delight, the wisest of thewise, the purifier, (Agni), has been 
manifested from the lap of the dawn; he gives consciousness to both classesof 
beings (men and animals), oblations to the gods, and wealth to the pious. 

7.009.02 He, the doer of great deeds, who forced open the doors of the Pan.is, 
recovered for us the sacredfood-bestowing (herd of kine), he who is the invoker 
of the gods, the giver of delight to the lowly-minded, is seenof all people 
dissipating the gloom of the nights. 

7.009.03 Unperplexed, far-seeing elevated, resplendent, right-directing, a 
friend, a guest, the bestower ofprosperity upon us, the wonderfully radiant he 
shines before the dawns, the embryo of the waters, he hasentered into the 
nascent plants. [prasva a vives'a = jayamana os.adhih]. 

7.009.04 You, Agni, are to be glorified in (all) the ages of men; you, 
Ja_tavedas, who are illustrious whenengaged in battle; our praises wake up the 
kindling (Agni), him who shines with conspicuous splendour. 

7.009.05 Repair, Agni, to the presence of the gods in your office of messenger, 
(sent) by the assembly engagedin prayer; neglect us not; offer worship to 
Sarasvati, the Maruts, the As'vins, the waters, the universal gods, thatthey may 
bestow treasures (upon us). 

7.009.06 Vasis.t.ha is kindling you, Agni; destroy the malignant; worship the 
object of many rites, (the company ofthe gods), on behalf of the wealthy 
(institutor of the sacrifice), praise (the gods), Ja_tavedas, with 
manifoldpraises, and do you ever cherish us with blessings.

7.010.01 Agni, like the lover of the dawn (the sun), radiant, bright, 
resplendent, displays extensive lustre, theshowerer (of benefits), the receiver 
(of oblations), he shines with splendour, encouraging holy rites; he 
arouses(mankind), desiring (his presence). 

7.010.02 Agni, preceding the dawn, is radiant by day as the sun, and the priests 
celebrating the sacrifice repeathis praise; the divine, munificent Agni, the 
messenger (of the gods), cognizant of their birth, repairing to thedeities, 
hastens in various directions. 

7.010.03 Devout praises and hymns, soliciting riches, proceed to Agni, who is of 
pleasant aspect, agreeableform, of graceful movement, the bearer of oblations, 
the ruler of men. 

7.010.04 Consentient with the Vasus, Agni, bring hither Indra, with the Rudras, 
the benevolent Aditi, with theA_dityas and Br.haspati, the desired of all, with 
the adorable (An:girasas). 

7.010.05 Men desiring him celebrate at sacrifices the youthful Agni, the giver 
of delight, the invoker of the gods;he, the ruler of the night, has been the 
diligent envoy of the opulent (institutors of sacrifices) for the worship ofthe 

7.011.01 Great are you, Agni, the manifester of the solemnity without you the 
immortals do not rejoice; come inthe same chariot with all the gods; sit down 
here the chief, the ministrant priest. 

7.011.02 Men offering oblations, ever solicit you the quick-going (to undertake) 
the office of their messenger, forto him, on whose sacred grass you sit with the 
gods, the days are prosperous. 

7.011.03 In you, Agni, thrice in the day, (the priests) make manifest the 
treasures (of the oblation) for (the benefitof the) mortal donor; worship the 
gods on this occasion, Agni, as (you did) for Manu; be our messenger, 
ourprotector against malignity. 

7.011.04 Agni presides over the solemn rite, over every consecrated oblation; 
the Vasus approved of his acts;the gods have made him the bearer of the 

7.011.05 Agni, bring the gods to eat of the oblation; may they, of whom Indra is 
the chief, be delighted on thisoccasion; convey this sacrifice to the deities in 
heaven, and do you ever cherish us with blessings.

7.012.01 Let us approach with profound reverence the youngest (of the gods), who 
shines when kindled in hisown abode; who is blazing wonderfully between heaven 
and earth, and, piously invoked, is coming from everyquarter. 

7.012.02 May that Agni who by his greatness is the overcomer of all evils, who 
is praised as Ja_tavedas in the(sacrificial) chamber, protect us, glorifying 
him, and affluent (in oblations), from all sin and reproach. 

7.012.03 You are Varun.a, you are Mitra, Agni; the Vasis.t.has augment you with 
praises; may liberally distributedriches be (extant) in you, and do you ever 
cherish us with blessings.

7.013.01 Offer praise and worshp to Agni, the enlightener of all, the accepter 
of pious rites, the destroyer of theAsuras; propitiating him, I now present the 
oblation on the sacred grass to Vais'va_nara, the granter of riches. 

7.013.02 You, Agni, radiant with lustre, fill the heaven and earth (with light) 
as soon as born; you, Vais'va_nara,from whom wealth proceeds, has by your might 
liberated the gods from malevolent (foes). 

7.013.03 When you are born, Agni, the lord, the circumambient, you watch over 
all creatures as a herdsman overhis cattle; be willing, Vais'va_nara, to requite 
our praise, and do you cherish us with blessings. [Watch over:Vais'va_nara 
brahman.e vinda ga_tum, know, or find, to go according to the prayer or praise].

7.014.01 Let us, laden with oblations, offer worship with fuel and invocations 
of the gods to the divineJa_tavedas, to the purely lustrous Agni. 

7.014.02 May we perform your rites, Agni, with fuel; may we offer you, adorable 
Agni, pious praises; may we(gratify you), ministrant of the sacrifice, with 
clarified butter; divine Agni, of auspicious lustre, may we (worshipyou) with 

7.014.03 Come to our sacrifice, Agni, with the gods, propitiated by the 
sanctified oblations; may we be theofferers (of worship) to you who are divine, 
and do you ever cherish us with blessings.

7.015.01 Offer the oblation to the present Agni, the showerer (of benefits); 
pour into the mouth of him who(bears) to us the nearest relationship. 

7.015.02 Who, juvenile, wise, the lord of the dwelling, abides with the five 
classes of men in every dwelling. 

7.015.03 May he defend for us the wealth that has been acquired, and preserve us 
from iniquity. 

7.015.04 May Agni, to whom as to a (swift) hawk in heaven, I address this new 
hymn, bestow upon us amplewealth. 

7.015.05 Of whom, blazing in the front of the sacrifice, the enviable honours 
are to be seen, like the riches of aman having male offspring. 

7.015.06 May that most adorable Agni, the bearer of oblations, accept our 
offering, gratified by our praises. 

7.015.07 Divine Agni, the approachable; the lord of men, the invoked of all, we 
set you down (upon the altar), theresplendent, the righteously glorified. [The 
approachable: naks.ya upagantavya: naks.ati = vya_pti karma_, fromnaks., to 
pervade; the righteously glorified: suvi_ram = kalya_n.astotr.kam, the object of 
auspicious or piouspraise]. 

7.015.08 Blaze, Agni, night and day, that by you we may be possessed of sacred 
fires; may you, friendly to us,be righteously praised. 

7.015.09 Wise men approach with sacred rites for the acquisition of riches; 
perpetual, infinite (praise isaddressed to you); [Praise is addressed: 
upa_ks.ara_ sahasrin.i_ = imperishable, thousand-fold, near; thesubstantive is: 
va_k, speech or praise; prefix upa = upayati, approaches]. 

7.015.10 May the bright, radiant, immortal, pure, purifying, adorable Agni, keep 
off the ra_ks.asas]. 

7.015.11 Son of strength, who are the lord (of all), bestow riches upon us; and 
may Bhaga give us wealth. 

7.015.12 Do you, Agni, give us food along with male issue, and may the divine 
Savita_, Bhaga and Diti, give uswealth. 

7.015.13 Preserve us, Agni, from sin; divine (Agni), who are exempt from decay, 
consume (our) foes with (your)hottest flames. 

7.015.14 Do you, who are irresistibel, be to us, for the protection of our 
posterity, like the vast spacious,metal-walled cities (of the ra_ks.asas). 

7.015.15 Uninjurable Agni, dispeller of darkness, preserve us night and day from 
sin, and from the malevolent.

7.016.01 I invoke for you with this hymn, Agni, the son of strength, the kind, 
the most knowing, the unobstructed;the fit object of sacred rites, the messenger 
of all the immortals. [The unobstructed: aratim ganta_ram = the goer,or 
sva_minam, lord; or, either having sufficient understanding, parya_pta matim, or 
one never desisting fromactivity, uparamarahitam sadodyamayutam; Yajus. 15.32]. 

7.016.02 May he harness his brilliant protecting (steeds to his car), when 
earnestly invoked; may he hasten (tobring the gods); may the sacrificial wealth 
of the worshippers (proceed to) that deity who is the giver of abundantfood, the 
adorable, the doer of great deeds. [vasuna_m devan ra_dho jana_na_m = tam 
dhana_na_m madhyedevam atayantoparaks.ama_n.am dhanam yajama_na_na_m, may Agni, 
who harnesses, etc. be regardful of thebrilliant wealth of the worshippers; 
alternative: Agni goes quickly where the worship of the Vasus, Rudras,A_dityas 
is celebrated, and the sacrificial wealth of the worshippers is offered]. 

7.016.03 The radiance of that showerer (of benefits), repeatedly invoked, rises 
up, as does the fiery sky-lambentsmoke when men kindle Agni. 

7.016.04 We constitute you our most renowned messenger; bring the gods to 
partake (of the oblations); bestowupon us, son of strength, all human blessings; 
whatsoever we solicit of you. 

7.016.05 All-desired Agni, you are the lord of the mansion; you are the invoker 
of the gods; you are the assistantpriest; do you, who are wise, present (the 
oblation to the gods), and partake (of it yourself). [Assistant priest:pota_: he 
had just been called the hota_]. 

7.016.06 Doer of good deeds, bestow treasure upon the institutor of the 
solemnity, for you are the bestower oftreasure; inspire all the priests at our 
sacrifice; (prosper him) who, offering worthy praise, is prosperous.[sus'anso 
yas'ca daks.ate, offering good praise, may indicate either a son or the hotri; 
yo vardhate tam vardhaya,increase him who increases]. 

7.016.07 Agni, piously invoked, may those devout worshippers be dear to you, who 
are liberal, opulent, and thebestowers upon man of herds of cattle. [Who are 
liberal: yanta_ro ye maghava_no jana_na_m u_rva_n dayantagona_m = may those who, 
among men, are self-restrained, opulent, and donors of butter and offerings; 
u_rva_nannavis'es.am purod.a_s'a_di_n; gona_m = products of the cow; Yajus. 

7.016.08 Strength-bestowing Agni, protect from the oppressor and the revilers 
those in whose dwelling Il.a_,butter-handed, sits down satisfied, and grant to 
us felicity long renowned; Il.a_, butter-handed: il.a_ ghr.tahasta_= annaru_pa 
havirlaks.an.a_ devi_, a goddess, the impersonation of food, that is, of 
sacrificial food, or theoblation personified]. 

7.016.09 The most wise Agni is the bearer (of oblations), as the mouth of the 
gods with his graceful tongue (offlame); bring riches, Agni, to the affluent (in 
sacrifices); encourage the donor of the oblation. 

7.016.10 Youngest (of the gods), protect with your protections from iniquity, 
(and reward) with numerous citiesthose who, through the desire of extended fame, 
bestow riches, comprehending horses and treasure. 

7.016.11 The divine Agni, the giver of wealth, desires the ladle filled full. 
Pour out (the contents), and replenish(the vessel), and then the deity bears 
(your oblations to the gods). [Pour out the contents: udva sin~cadhvan upava_ 
pr.n.adhvam, sprinkle and fill up; the first is a reference to the vessel, and 
the second to Agni: dhruva_grahen.a hotr. tve tvayi camasam pu_rayata s'a agnaye 
somam yacchata ityarthah: the meaning is, both fill thevessel with the 
dhruva_graha and present Soma to Agni]. 

7.016.12 The gods have made the wise (Agni) the ministrant priest, and bearer of 
the sacrifice. Agni giives to theman who performs the prescribed rite and 
presents (the offering), wealth, with virtuous male posterity.

7.017.01 Be kindled, Agni, with suitable fuel; let the (priest) strew the 
plentiful sacred grass. 

7.017.02 Let the willing doors and the chamber of sacrifice be thrown open; 
bring hither the willing gods. 

7.017.03 Agni Ja_tavedas, repair to the gods, worship them with the oblation, 
render them pleased by thesacrifice. 

7.017.04 May Ja_tavedas render the immortal gods, pleased by the sacrifice; let 
him sacrifice (to them), andgratify them (with praise). 

7.017.05 Bestow upon us, sage, Agni, all desirable (riches); may the blessings 
(vouchsafed) to us this day besacrificed. 

7.017.06 The gods have made you, Agni, who are the son of strength, the bearer 
of the oblation. 

7.017.07 May we be the presenters (of offerings) to you who are divine; and you, 
the mighty one, being solicited,bestow upon us treasures.

7.018.01 Our forefathers, Indra, glorifying you, have obtained all desirable 
(riches); in your gift are cows easy tobe milked, and horses, and you are the 
liberal donor of wealth to the devout. [tve = tvayi, in you]. 

7.018.02 You dwell with your glories like a ra_ja_ with his wives; Maghavan, who 
are wise and experienced,(reward our) praises with the precious metals, with 
cows, with horses; conduct us who are dependent on yourriches. [With the 
precious metals: pis'a_, silver or gold, and the like; ru_pen.a hiran.ya_dina_ 
va_; ru_pa mayalso mean beauty]. 

7.018.03 These gratifying and pious hymns, emulous (in earnestness), are 
addressed on this occasion to you,may the path of your riches lead downwards; 
may we, Indra, (diligent) in your praise, enjoy felicity. 

7.018.04 Desirous of milking you like a milch cow at pasture, Vasis.t.ha has let 
loose his prayers to you; everyone of my people proclaims you the lord of 
cattle; may Indra be present at our praises. 

7.018.05 The adorable Indra made the well-known deep waters (of the Parus.n.i) 
fordable for Suda_sa, andconverted the vehement awakening imprecation of the 
sacrificer into the calumnation of the rivers. [Convertedthe vehement: 
sardhantam s'imyum uchahasya s'a_pam sindhu_na_m akr.n.od as'asti_h = 
utsahma_na_mbodhma_na_m stotuh s'a_pam abhis'asti_h sindhu_na_m akarot, he made 
the exerting awakening curse of thepraiser the imprecations of the rivers; 
vis'varu_podbhavam a_tmano abhis'a_pam, the imprecation on his (Indra)has its 
birth in vis'varu_pa]. 

7.018.06 Turvas'a, who was presiding (at solemn rites), diligent in sacrifice, 
(went to Suda_sa) for wealth; but likefishes restricted (to the element of 
water), the Bhrigus and Druhyus quickly assailed them; of these twoeverywhere 
going the friend (of Suda_sa, Indra) rescued his friend. [The legend: Indra 
saves one of the two,Suda_sa (and perhaps slays the other), turvas'am avadhi_t; 
matsyaso nis'itah, fishes limited to water; the peopleof the country Matsya were 
attacked by Turvas'a, tena matsyajanapada ba_dhitah; s'rus.t.im cakruh (applied 
tothe Bhrigus) = as'upra_ptim cakruh; sukham turvas'asys cakruh-- making the 
Bhrigus and Druhyus the allies ofTurvas'a]. 

7.018.07 Those who dress the oblation, those who pronounce auspicious words, 
those who abstain frompenance, those who bear horns (in their hands), those who 
bestow happiness (on the world by sacrifice), glorifythat Indra, who recovered 
the cattle of the Arya from the plunderers, who slew the enemies in battle. 
[Those whodress: Denominations of the persons assisting at religious rites are: 
1. paktha_sah, havis.am pa_cakah, cooks ofthe butter offered in oblation; 2. 
bhala_nasah, bhadra va_cinah, speakers of that which is lucky; 3. 
alina_sah,tapobhir apravr.ddhah, not eminent by austerities; 4. vis.a_n.inah, 
having black horns in their hands for thepurpose of scratching 
kan.d.uyana_rtham, the same as di_ks.itah, having undergone the preliminary 
purificationcalled di_ks.a; 5. s'iva_sah, ya_ga_dina_ sarvasya lokasya 
s'ivakarah, the makers happy of all people bysacrifice and the like]. 

7.018.08 The evil-disposed and stupid (enemies of Suda_sa), crossing the humble 
Parus.n.i river, have brokendown its banks; but he by his greatness pervades the 
earth, and Kavi, the son of Ca_yamana, like a fallingvictim, sleeps (in death). 
[Sleeps in death: killed Suda_sa]. 

7.018.09 The waters followed their regular course to the Parus.n.i, nor 
(wandered) beyond it; the quick courser(of the king) came to the accessible 
places, and Indra made the idly-talking enemies, with their numerousprogeny, 
subject among men (to Suda_sa). [Indra is said to have repaired the banks of the 
river so that thewaters -- iyur artham na nyartham-- went to their object, that 
is, their former bed, not below or beyond it; theenemies Amitra_n are called 
vadhriva_cah or jalpaka_n]. 

7.018.10 They who ride on particoloured cattle, (the Maruts), despatched by 
Pr.s.n.i and recalling theengagement made by them with their friend (Indra), 
came like cattle from the pasturage, when left without aherdsman; the exulting 
Niyut steeds brought them quickly (against the foe). 

7.018.11 The hero Indra created the Maruts (for the assistance of the ra_ja_), 
who, ambitious of fame, slewone-and-twenty of the men on the two banks (of the 
Parus.n.i), as a well-looking priest lops the sacred grass inthe chamber of 

7.018.12 You, the bearer of the thunderbolt, did drown S'ruta, Kavas.a, Vr.ddha 
and afterwards Druhyu, in thewaters; for they, Indra, who are devoted to you, 
and glorify you, preferring your friendship, enjoy it. 

7.018.13 Indra, in his might, quickly demolished all their strongholds, and 
their seven (kinds of) cities; he hasgiven the dwelling of the son of Anu to 
Tr.tsu; may we, (by propitiating Indra), conquer in battle the ill-speakingman. 
[Seven kinds of cities: purah sapta, seven cities; nagai_h sapta praka_rah or 
pra_ka_ra_h, seven-walled;conquer in battle: jes.ma pu_rum manus.yam 
mr.dhrava_cam, speaking imperfectly or barbarously; orbaddhava_cam, whose speech 
is threatening, obstructing or adverse]. 

7.018.14 The warriors of the Anus and Druhyus, intending (to carry off the) 
cattle, (hostile) to the pious(Suda_sa) perished to the number of sixty-six 
thousand six hundred and sixty; such are all the glorious acts ofIndra. [Sixty-
thousand: s.as.t.ih s'ata s'at. sahasra s.as.t.ir adhi s'at. = sixty hundreds, 
six thousands, sixty, withsix more; s'ata_ni = thousands, sahasra_ni_tyartham]. 

7.018.15 These hostile, Tr.tsus, ignorantly contending with Indra, fled routed 
as rapidly as rivers on a downwardcourse, and being discomfited, abandoned all 
their possessions to Suda_sa. 

7.018.16 Indra has scattered over the earth the hostile rival of the hero 
(Suda_sa), the senior of Indra, theappropriator of the oblation; Indra has 
baffled the wrath of the wratfhful enemy, and the (foe) advancing on theway 
(against Suda_sa) has taken the path of flight. 

7.018.17 Indra, has effected a valuable (donation) by a pauper; he has slain an 
old lion by a goat; he has cut theangles of the sacrificial post with a needle; 
he has given all the spoils (of the enemy) to Suda_sa. [Indra haseffected: the 
three impossible acts are illustrative of the wonderful power of Indra]. 

7.018.18 Your numerous enemies, Indra, have been reduced to subjection, effect 
at some time or other thesubjugation of the turbulent Bheda, who holds men 
praising you as guilty of wickedness; hurl, Indra, your sharpthuderbolt against 
him. [Bheda: one who breaks or separates; may mean an unbeliever, a na_stika; 
or, the nameof the enemy of Suda_sa]. 

7.018.19 The dwellers on the Yamuna and the Tr.tsus glorified Indra when he 
killed Bheda in battle; the Ajas, theS'igrus, the Yaks.as, offered him as a 
sacrifice the heads of the horses (killed in the combat). [Offered to him:balim 
s'i_rs.a_n.i jabhrur as'vya_ni : they represented the best horses, taken; bali 
may also have the import of asacrifice]. 

7.018.20 Your favours, Indra, and your bounties, whether old or new, cannot be 
counted like the (recurring)dawn; you have slain Devaka, the son of Ma_nyama_na, 
and of thine own will, has cast down S'ambara from thevast (mountain). 

7.018.21 Para_s'ara, the destroyer of hundreds (of ra_ks.asas), and Vasis.t.ha 
they who, devoted to you, haveglorified you in every dwelling, neglect not the 
friendship of you (their) benefactor; therefore prosperous daysdawn upon the 
pious. [The destroyer: s'ataya_tu, that is, s'akti, the son of Vasis.t.ha, the 
father of Para_s'ara(Vis.n.u Pura_n.a 8.4)]. 

7.018.22 Praising the liberality of Suda_sa, the grandson of Devavat, the son of 
Paijavana, the donor of twohundred cows, and of two chariots with two wives, I, 
worthy (of the gift), circumambulate you, Agni, like theministrant priest in the 
chamber (of sacrifice). 

7.018.23 Four (horses), having golden trappings, going steadily on a difficult 
road, celebrated on the earth, theexcellent and acceptable gifts (made) to me by 
Suda_sa, the son of Paijavana, bear me as a son (to obtain) foodand progeny. 
[The excellent: smaddis.t.ayah, an epithet of as'vah: 
prasa'sta_tisarjana_s'raddha_dida_na_n:gayukta_, being or having part of a 
donation made in the belief of presenting what isexcellent]. 

7.018.24 The seven worlds praise (Suda_sa) as if he were Indra; him whose fame 
(spreads) through thespacious heaven and earth; who, munificent, has distributed 
(wealth) on every eminent person, and (for him) theflowing (rivers) have 
destroyed Yudhyamadhi in war. 

7.018.25 Maruts, leaders (of rites), attend upon this (prince) as you did upon 
Divoda_sa, the father of Suda_sa;favour the prayers of the devout son of 
Pijavana, and may his strength be unimpaired, undecaying].

7.019.01 Indra, who is formidable as a sharp-horned bull, singly expels all men 
(from their stations); you who arethe despoiler of the ample wealth of him who 
makes no offerings are the giver of riches to the presenter offrequent 

7.019.02 Aiding him with your person, Indra, you had defended Kutsa in combat 
when you had subjugatedDa_sa, S'us.n.a and Kuyava, giving (their spoil) to that 
son of Arjuni. 

7.019.03 Undaunted (Indra), you had protected with all your protections Suda_sa, 
the offerer of oblations; youhave protected in battles with enemies for the 
possession of the earth Trasadasyu, the son of Purukutsa, andPuru. 

7.019.04 You, the lord of horses, who are honoured by men, have destroyed, along 
with the Maruts, numerousenemies at the sacrifice of the gods; you have put to 
sleep with the thunderbolt the Dasyus, Chumuri, and Dhuni,on behalf of Dabhi_ti. 

7.019.05 Such, wielder of the thunderbolt, are your mighty powers, that when you 
had quickly destroyed ninetyand nine cities, you have occupied the hundredth as 
a place of abode; you have slain Vr.tra, you have also slainNamuci. 

7.019.06 Your favours, Indra, to Suda_sa, the donor (of offerings), the 
presenter of oblations, are infinite;showerer (of benefits), I yoke for you 
(your vigorous) steeds; may our prayers reach you who are mighty, towhom many 
rites are addressed. 

7.019.07 Powerful Indra, lord of horses, let us not be exposed at this ceremony, 
addressed to you, to themurderous despoiler; protect us with impregnable 
defences; may we be held dear among your worshippers. 

7.019.08 May we, Maghavan, leaders in your adoration, regarded as dear friends, 
be happy in our homes; aboutto bestow felicity upon Atithigvan, humiliate 
Turvas'a; (humiliate) the son of Yadu. 

7.019.09 The leader (of rites), reciters of prayers, offer, Maghavan, prayers 
devoutly for your adoration; they bytheir praises have appropriated the wealth 
of the niggards; select us (as the objects) of your friendship. [By 
theirpraises: ye te havebhir vi pa_n.in adas'an: aprada_nas'i_la_n van.ijo api 
dhana_ni vis'es.en.ada_payan, theyhave made to give, or have mulched, especially 
in their riches, those traders who are not donors of offerings]. 

7.019.10 Chief leader (of rites), these praises of man addressed to you revert 
to us, who are the offerers of(sacrificial) riches; do you be propitious to such 
men, (Indra), in conflicts with enemies; be their friend, their hero,and 

7.019.11 Hero, Indra, glorified on the present occasion, and propitiated by 
praise, be amplified in your person forour protection; bestow upon us food and 
habitations; and do you ever cherish us wiht blessings.

7.020.01 The fierce and powerful (Indra) has been born for heroic (deeds); 
friendly to man, he is theaccomplisher of whatever act he undertakes to perform; 
ever youthful, he invests the (sacrificial) hall withdefences (against 
interruption); be our preserver, Indra, from heinous sin. 

7.020.02 Indra, dilating in bulk, is the slayer of Vr.tra; the hero defends his 
worshipper promptly with hisprotection, whether he be the giver of dominion to 
Suda_sa, or the donor repeatedly of wealth to the offerer (ofoblations). 

7.020.03 A warrior who turns not back in battle, a combatant, one engaged in 
tumults, a hero, victorious over(his) foes from birth, invincible, of great 
vigour, this Indra scatters (hostile) hosts and slays all (his) adversaries. 

7.020.04 Opulent Indra, you have filled both heaven and earth with your 
magnitutde, your energies; Indra, thelord of horses, brandishing the 
thunderbolt, is gratified at sacrifices by the (sacrificial) food. 

7.020.05 (His) progenitor begot Indra, the showerer (of benefits) for (the 
purpose of) war; his mother brought himforth the benefactor of man; the leader 
of armies who is chief over men, he is the lord, the conqueror, therecoverer of 
the kine, the subduer of foes. 

7.020.06 He who devotes his mind to the terrible Indra never falls (from his 
condition), nor will he perish; theprotector of sacred rites, the progeny of 
sacrifice, bestows riches on him who offers to Indra praises and prayerswith 

7.020.07 That (wealth) Indra, which the prior has given to the posterior; which 
the elder may accept from theyounger; with which (the son) yet living dwells far 
away (separated from his father), confer, wonderful Indra, suchprecious riches 
upon us. [Which the prior: yad indra purvo aparaya siks.an, what the father has 
given to the son,or the elder to the younger brother... that which the father 
receives from the son or the elder brother from theyounger]. 

7.020.08 May the man who is dear to you, Indra, present (oblations); may he be 
your friend, wielder of thethunderbolt, he (assiduous) in donations; may we be 
abounding in food through this favour of you who aredevoid of cruelty, (may we 
be in the enjoyment of) a dwelling giving shelter to men. 

7.020.09 For you, Maghavan, this showering Soma (libation) cries aloud; to you 
the worshipper has recitedpraises; the desire of riches has fallen upon thine 
adorer, do you, therefore, S'akra, bestow quickly upon uswealth. 

7.020.10 Enable us, Indra, (to partake of) food granted by you, as well as those 
who, opulent (in sacrificialpresentations), spontaneously offer (you oblations); 
may there be power in thine adorer (to repeat) manylaudations; and do you ever 
cherish us with blessings. [May there be power: vasvi s.u te jaritre astu 
s'aktih =atyanta pras'astasu stutis.u tava stotre samarthyam astu].

7.021.01 Bright sacrificial food mixed with curds and milk has been poured out; 
Indra delights in it from his birth;lord of bay horses, we wake you up with 
sacrifices, acknowledge our praises in the exhilaration of the Soma. 

7.021.02 They repair to the sacrifice, they strew the sacred grass; the 
(grinding) stones at the ceremony are ofdifficulty suppressed noise; famous 
priests, whose voices are heard far off, bring the stones from the interior 
ofthe dwelling. 

7.021.03 You, hero, have enabled the many waters arrested by Ahi to flow; by you 
the rivers rushed forth likecharioteers; all created worlds trembled through 
fear of you. 

7.021.04 The formidable (Indra), knowing all actions beneficial to man, 
intimidated those (asuras) by hisweapons; Indra, exuling shook their cities; 
armed with his thunderbolt he slew them in his might. 

7.021.05 Let not th ra_ks.asas, Indra, do us harm; let not the evil spirits do 
harm to our progeny, most powerful(Indra); let the sovereign lord, (Indra), 
exert himself (in the restraint) of disorderly beings, so that the unchastemay 
not disturb our rite. [Let not the ra_ks.asas: na vandana vedyabhih = 
vandana_ni, ra_ks.a_m.si, prajabhyah;the unchaste: s'is.nadevah, abrahmacharya 
ityarthah (Yaska 4.19); or, may be those who hold the lin:ga for adeity]. 

7.021.06 You, Indra, by your function, preside over the beings (of earth); all 
the regions (of the world) do notsurpass your magnitude; by thine own strength 
you have slain Vr.tra; no enemy has effected your destruction inbattle. 

7.021.07 The older deities have confessed your vigour superior to their 
destructive strength, Indra havingsubdued his foes, gives the rich spoils (to 
his worshippers); they invoke Indra to obtain food. [The older deities:devas 
chit purve, the asuras are older than the gods. asu_rya_ya ks.atra_ya anumamire 
saha_m.si: anu, theyhave confessed inferiority to your strength; tava balebhyo 
hina mamire; asu_rya_ya = bala_ya, to strength;ks.atra_ya: from ks.adi, to 
injure, him.sayam]. 

7.021.08 The worshipper has invoked you the sovereign Indra, for protection; 
protector of many, you have beento us the guardian of great fortune; be our 
defender against every overpowering (assailant). 

7.021.09 May we, daily increasing in reverence, be (regarded), Indra, (as) your 
friends; through the protection ofyou, surpasser in greatness, may (your 
worshippers) repulse the attack of the foe in battle, the strength of 

7.021.10 Enable us, Indra, (to partake of) food granted by you, as well as those 
who, opulent (in sacrificialpresentations), spontaneously offer the (oblations); 
may there be ability in thine adorer (to repeat) my laudations;and do you ever 
cherish us wih blessings.

7.022.01 Drink, Indra, the Soma; may it exhilarate you, that which the stone 
tightly held like a horse (by thereins), by the arms of the grinder, has 
expressed, lord of bay horses for you. 

7.022.02 May the exhilarating Soma which is fit for and suitable to you, by 
which, lord of bay horses, you slayVr.tra, exhilarate you, Indra, abounding in 

7.022.03 Understand thoroughly, Maghavan, this my speech, this praise of you, 
which Vasis.t.ha recites; bepleased by these prayers at the sacrifice. 

7.022.04 Hear the invocation of the (grinding) stone, (of me) repeatedly 
drinking (the Soma), comprehend thehymn of the adoring sage, and, friendly (with 
us), take to your near consideration these adorations. [Of merepeatedly drinking 
the Soma: s'rudhi havam vipipanasya adrah: mama pipipana: pa, to drink, 
vipitavat or vipivat;take to your near consideration: kris'va duvansi antama 
sachema = mani paricharana_ni antikatama_nibuddhistha_ni saha_ya bhu_ta san 

7.022.05 Knowing of your strength, I refrain not from the praise nor from the 
glorification of you, the destroyer (offoes), but ever proclaim your especial 

7.022.06 Many are the sacrifices offered, Maghavan, to you among mankind; 
constantly does worshipper indeedinvoke you; therefore be not far nor be a long 
time from us. 

7.022.07 To you, hero, I indeed offer these sacrifices, to you I address these 
elevating praises; you are to be inall ways invoked by the leaders (of rites). 

7.022.08 Indra, of goodly aspect, none attain the greatness of you who are to be 
honoured, nor, fierce Indra, yourheroism, nor your wealth. 

7.022.09 May your auspicious regards, Indra, be directed towards us, as they 
have been to those pious sages,ancient or recent, who have originated (your) 
praises, and do you ever cherish us with blessings.

7.023.01 (The sages) have offered prayers to (Indra) for food, worship Indra, 
Vasis.t.ha at the sacrifice; may thatIndra who has spread out all (the regions) 
by his might, be the hearer of my words when approaching him. 

7.023.02 When, Indra, the plants grow up, the sound (of praise) acceptable to 
the gods, (uttered) by theworshipper, has been raised; by no one among men, is 
his own life understood; convey us beyond all those sins(by which life is 
shortened). [When the plants grow up: yacchurudho irajyanta = os.adhyo 
varddhante; s'urudh =a cow]. 

7.023.03 I harness (by praises) the kine-bestowing chariot (of Indra) with his 
horses; (my) prayers have reachedhim who is pleased (by devotion); he has 
surpassed in magnitude heaven and earth, slaying the unresistingenemies. 
[vritranyaprati jaghanva_n: aprati = dvandva_ni, two-fold, doubled]. 

7.023.04 May the waters increase like young; may your worshippers, Indra, 
possess water (in abundance); comelike the wind with the Niyut steeds, for you, 
(propitiated) by holy rites, verily bestow upon us food. 
[Alternativeinterpretation: apaschit pipyuh staryo na gavah = the waters augment 
the Soma as those Vaidik texts by whichthe Soma is effused; Yajus. 33.18]. 

7.023.05 May these inebriating draughts exhilarate you, Indra; bestow upon the 
praiser (a son vigorous andwealthy); for you alone among the gods are 
compassionate to mortals; be exhilarated here at this sacrifice. 

7.023.06 In this manner the Vasis.t.has glorify with hymns Indra, the showerer, 
the bearer of the thunderbolt; mayhe so glorified grant us wealth, comprising 
male posterity and cattle; and do you ever cherish us with blessings.[pa_ta 
svastibhih sada_ nah: addressed to the priests, yuyam ritvijah: Yajus. 20.54].

7.024.01 A place has been prepared for you in the sacrificial chamber; proceed 
to it, invoked of many, along withthe leaders (of rites the Maruts), inasmuch as 
you are our protector, (promote our) prosperity; grant us riches; beexhilarated 
by the Soma. 

7.024.02 Your purpose, Indra, is apprehended, you who are mighty in the two 
(worlds); the Soma is effused; thesweet juices are poured (into the vessels); 
this perfect praise uttered with loosened tongue propitiates Indra withrepeated 
invocations. [Mighty in the two worlds: dvibhara = dvibarhasah, agreeing with te 
dvayoh sthanayoh parivr.d.hasya tava mana gr.hitam, the mind of you who are 
enlarged in both is apprehended; the places may beheaven and earth]. 

7.024.03 Come, Rijishin, from the sky, or from the firmament, to this sacred 
gras, to drink the Soma; let yourhorses bear you who are vigorous to my presence 
to (receive my) praise and for (thine) exhilaration. 

7.024.04 Lord of bay steeds, propitiated by our praise, come to us with all your 
protections, sharing insatisfaction, handsome-chinned, with the ancient 
(Maruts), overthrowing repeatedly (your) foes, and granting usa strong and 
vigorous (son). 

7.024.05 This invogorating praise, like a horse attached, to car, has been 
addressed to you who are mighty andfierce, the up-bearer (of the world); this 
thine adorer desires of you, Indra, riches; do you grant us sustenancenotorious 
as the sky in heaven. [divi_va dyam adhi na s'romatam dha_h: s'romatam = 
s'ravan.i_yam, applicableeither to food or fame]. 

7.024.06 In this manner, Indra, satisfy us (with the gift) of desirable 
(wealth); may we repeatedly experience yougreat giver; bestow upon us who are 
opulent (in offerings) food with male descendants; do you ever cherish uswith 

7.025.01 Fierce Indra, when animated by like fierce armies, encounter them; let 
the bright (weapon) wielded bythe arms of you who are mighty and the friend of 
man descend for our protection; let not your all-pervading mindwander (away from 

7.025.02 Destroy, Indra, our adversaries in battle, those men who overpower us; 
remove far from us the calumnyof the reviler; bring to us abundance of 

7.025.03 May hundreds of your protections, handsome-chinned, be (secured) to the 
liberal donor (of oblations);may thousands of blessing be bestowed (upon me) as 
well as wealth; cast the fatal weapon on the mischievousmortal; grant us food 
and wealth. [dyumnam = either food or fame: Nirukta. 5.5]. 

7.025.04 I am (in dependence), Indra, upon the acts of such as you are, upon the 
liberality of a protector, hero,such as you; vigorous and fierce Indra, give us 
a dwelling for all our days; lord of bay steeds, do us no harm. 

7.025.05 These (Vasis.t.has) are offering grateful (adoration) to the lord of 
bay steeds, soliciting the strengthassigned by the gods to Indra; make our 
enemies, Indra, easy to be overcome, and may we, safe from peril,enjoy 

7.025.06 In this manner, Indra, satisfy us with the gift of desirable (wealth); 
may we repeatedly experience yourgreat favour; bestow upon us who are opulent in 
offerings food with male descendants; do you ever cherish uswith blessings.

7.026.01 The Soma uneffused delights not Indra; the effused juices please not 
Maghavan, unaccompanied byprayer; therefore, I offer to him praise that he may 
be pleased with; that, like a prince, he may listen to a novel(strain). 

7.026.02 The Soma effused with reiterated prayer delights Indra; the effused 
juices, (offered) with repeatedpraise, (exhilarate) Maghavan; therefore, (the 
priests), combining together and making like exertion, invoke Indrafor 
protection, as sons (apply) to a father. 

7.026.03 Such exploits as his worshippers, when the Soma is effused, proclaim 
that he has achieved, let himnow perform; may Indra, equal (to the task) and 
unaided, possess all the riches (of the asuras) as a husband hiswives. 

7.026.04 Such have they proclaimed him; Indra is still celebrated as the 
distributor of riches, the transporter(beyond calamity), of whom many and 
emulous are the protections; may acceptable benefits attend us. 

7.026.05 Thus does Vasis.t.ha glorify Indra, the showerer (of benefits) upon the 
worshippers for the preservationof mankind; bestow upon us, (Indra), thousands 
of viands; do you ever cherish us with blessings.

7.027.01 Men invoke Indra in battle when those actions which lead to victory are 
performed; do you who arehero, the benefactor of man, the desirer of prowess, 
place us in possession of pastures abounding with cattle. 

7.027.02 Indra, who are the invoked of many, give to those men who are your 
friends that strength which,Maghavan, is thine; you, Maghavan (has forced open) 
the firm (shut, gates of cities); discover, discrimiantor (oftruth), the 
treasure now concealed. [Has forced open: tvam hi dridha maghavan = you, 
Maghavan, verily the firm(pl. acc.fem.)]. 

7.027.03 Indra is lord of the earth and of men; (his is) the various wealth that 
exists upon the earth; thence hegives riches to the donor (of oblations); may 
he, glorified by us, bestow upon us wealth. 

7.027.04 May the affluent and liberal, Indra, upon being invoked together (with 
the Maruts), quickly bestow foodfor our reservation, he whose unlimited, 
experienced liberality yields desirable (wealth) to those men (who arehis) 

7.027.05 Indra, grant quickly wealh for our enricment; may we attract your 
favour by our adoration; granting us(riches), comprising cattle and horses and 
chariots; do you ever cherish us with blessings.

7.028.01 Indra, who are wise, come to our adoration; let your horses harnessed 
be before us; gratified of all(men), all mortals severally invoke you; hear, 
therefore, our (invocation). 

7.028.02 Endowed with strength, since you grant the prayers of the R.s.is, let 
your greatness, Indra, extend tothine invoker; and as, fierce deity, you hold 
the thunderbolt in your hand, then formidable by your exploits youhave become 

7.028.03 Since, Indra, by your guidance, you have conducted men, your zealous 
worshippers, over heaven andearth, you are born to (bestow) great wealth and 
strength, whence the presenter of offerings overcomes him whooffers them not. 
[Have conducted men: nriti na rodasi san ninetha: the verb is san:gamayasi, you 
bring together;divi pr.thivyam ca stotrin pratis.t.ha_payasi, you establish the 
worshippers in heaven and earth; the particle na, isignored]. 

7.028.04 Grant us, Indra, with these days, (wealth), for unfriendly men 
approach; may the untruth which the wiseand sinless Varun.a observes in us, 
(through your favour, Indra), doubly disappear. [dvita avasat: the verb 
isvimochana, loosing, setting free; dvita, dvidha: twofold, may mean now and 
hereafte, or body and mine, or wordand deed]. 

7.028.05 Let us glorify that opulent Indra, that he may give us great and 
valuable riches, he who is the chiefprotector of the pious rites of the 
worshipper; do you ever cherish us with blessings.

7.029.01 This Soma is poured out, Indra, for you; come, lord of bay steeds, to 
that dwelling (where it isprepared), drink of the plentifully-effused and 
grateful (libation), give us, Maghavan, when solicited for them,riches. 

7.029.02 Magnified hero, Indra, approving of the sacred rite, come to us 
speedily with your steeds; be exhilaratedat this sacrifice; hear these our 
prayers. [In the variously flamorous strife: viva_ci_: vividha va_co 
yasminpra_durbhavanti tasmin yuddhe, in that war or combat in which many words 
are manifested; s'u_ra =heroes; forthe  enjoyment of the sun: su_ryasya satum, 
ciraka_la pra_ptyartha, for the sake of having long life; a_yur atrasu_rya 
vivaks.itah: su_rya here expresses life]. 

7.029.03 What satisfaction is there to you from our hymns? When, Maghavan, may 
we indeed present to you(oblations)? I expatiate in all praises addressed to 
you; hear, Indra, these my invocations. 

7.029.04 Friendly to man were those ancien R.s.is whose praise you have listened 
to; therefore, I repeatedlyinvoke you, Maghavan; you, Indra, are well affected 
towards us as a parent. 

7.029.05 Let us glorify that opulent Indra, that he may give us vast and 
valuable riches, he who is the chiefprotector of the religious rites of the 
worshippers; do you ever cherish us with blessings.

7.030.01 Divine and powerful (Indra), come to us with your strength; be the 
augmenter of our riches; be to us,king of men, wielder of the thunderbolt, for 
(a source of) vigour, of great prowess, hero, of manhood. 

7.030.02 Warriors invoke you, worthy to be invoked, in the variously clamorous 
(strife), for (the safety of their)persons, and for the (long) enjoyment of the 
sun; you are a fit leader over all men; humble our enemies by thefatal (bolt). 

7.030.03 When, Indra, fortunate days arise, when you advance your emblem in 
battles, the strong Agni, theinvoker of the gods, summoning the gods hither for 
our benefit, sits down on the sacred grass. 

7.030.04 We, divine Indra, who are yours, are they, hero, who are praising you 
and offering rich libations; grantto (your) pious (worshippers) an excellent 
abode; and may they, prosperous, attain old age. 

7.030.05 Let us glorify the opulent Indra, that he may give us vast and valuable 
riches; he who is the chiefprotector of the religious rites of the worshippers; 
do you ever cherish us with blessings.

7.031.01 Sing, friends, an exhilarating hymn to Indra, the lord of bay steeds, 
the drinker of the Soma. 

7.031.02 Repeat to the liberal Indra such brilliant praise as other (men 
repeat); let us offer it to him who is affluentin truth. 

7.031.03 Do you, Indra, be willing to give us food; be willing, S'atakratu, to 
give us cattle; be willing, donor ofdwelling, to us gold. 

7.031.04 Devoted to you, showerer (of benefits), we glorify you; be cognizant, 
giver of dwellings, of this ourpraise. 

7.031.05 Indra, who are lord, subject us not to the reviler, to the abuser, to 
the withholder of offerings; may myworship verily (find favour) with you. [May 
my worship verily find favour with you: tve api kratur mama, in you evermy act, 
means, says, Sa_yan.a, asmadi_yam stotram bhavacchitte pravis'atu, may my praise 
enter into yourheart]. 

7.031.06 Slayer of enemies, you, Indra, are our armour, vast and our preceder in 
battle; with you for my ally I defy(the foe). 

7.031.07 You verily are great; and heaven and earth abounding with food, 
respect, Indra, your strength. 

7.031.08 May the praises of your adorers, accompanying you (wherever you go), 
such as you are, and spreadingaround with radiance, reach you. 

7.031.09 The ascending libations proceed, Indra, to you, abiding in heaven, of 
goodly aspect; men bow inreverence before you. 

7.031.10 Bring (libations) to the great (Indra), the giver of great (wealth); 
offer praise to the wise Indra; fulfiller (ofthe desires) of men, come to the 
people offering many (oblations). 

7.031.11 The sages engender sacred praise and (sacrificial) food for the wide-
pervading, mighty Indra; theprudent impede not his functions. 

7.031.12 Praises truly enable the universal monarch, Indra, whose wrath is 
irresistible, to overcome (his foes);urge your kinsmen, (worthippers, to 
glorify) the lord of bay steeds.

7.032.01 Let not, Indra, (other) worshippers detain you far from us; come from 
whatever distance to ourassembly; present at this ceremony, hear our (prayers). 

7.032.02 When the libation is effused for you, these offerers of sacrifice swarm 
like flies around honey; the piouspraisers, desiring riches, fix their hope upon 
Indra, like a foot upon a chariot. 

7.032.03 Desirous of riches, I call upon the benevolent wielder of the 
thunderbolt, as a son upon a father. 

7.032.04 These Soma, mixed with curds, are poured out to Indra; come, wielder of 
the thunderbolt, with yourhorses of our dwelling, to drink there for (your) 

7.032.05 May Indra, whose ear is ready to hear, listen to the suppliant for 
riches, and never disappoint ourprayers; he who is the giver of hundreds and 
thousands; may no one ever hinder him when willing to give. 

7.032.06 Slayer of Vr.tra, the hero who offers sacrifices to you, who eagerly 
approaches you (with praises), he,(protected) by Indra, is unresisted (by 
anyone), and is honoured by men. 

7.032.07 Be a defence, Maghavan, to the wealthy (offerers in oblations), for you 
are the discomfiter of (our)adversaries; may we divide the spoil of the enemy 
slain by you, who are indestructible, bring it to our dwelling. 

7.032.08 Pour out the libation to Indra, the thunderer, the drinker of the Soma; 
prepare the baked (cakes) tosatisfy him; do (what is agreeable to him), for he 
bestows happiness on (the worshipper) who pleases them. 

7.032.09 Offerers of the libation, do not hesitate; be active; sacrifice to the 
mighty benefactor for the sake ofriches; the assiduous worshipper conquers (his 
enemies), dwells in a habitation, and prospers; the gods favournot the imperfect 
rite. [na deva_sah karatnave: karatnuh = kutsita kriya, bad or defective act of 
religion; men donot become gods by such means, deva_ na bhavanti]. 

7.032.10 No one overturns, no one arrests the chariot of the liberal sacrificer; 
he, of whom Indra is the protector,of whom the Maruts (are the defenders), will 
walk in pastures filled with cattle. 

7.032.11 Let the man of whom you, Indra, are the protector, invigorating (you 
with praise), enjoy (abundant) food;be the preserver, hero, of our chariots, 
(the preserver) of our people. [Be the preserver: bodhi avita_: bodhi,second 
person singular imperative of bu (for bhava), b being substituted for bh]. 

7.032.12 Verily (Indra's) share (of the Soma) exceeds (that of other deities) 
like the wealth of the victorious;enemies overcome not him, who is the lord of 
bay steeds, who gives strength to the offerer of the libation. 

7.032.13 Address (to Indra), among the gods, the ample, well-uttered, and 
graceful prayer; many bonds entanglenot him who, by his devotion, abides in 

7.032.14 What mortal, Indra, injures him who has you for his support? He who 
offers you (sacrificial) food,Maghavan, with faith, he obtains food on the day 
of the libation. [pa_rye divi va_ji_ va_jam sis.a_sati = sautyeahani sa 
havis.ma_n annam sevate]. 

7.032.15 Animate (those men) for the destruction of their foes, who offer 
treasures which are dear to you, theabounder in wealth; may we, lord of bay 
steeds, along with (your) worshippers, pass over all difficulties by 

7.032.16 Yours, Indra, is the vast valuable wealth; you cherish the middling; 
you rule over all that which is themost precious; no one opposes you in (the 
recovering of the) cattle. [na kis' tva gos.u vrin.vate = gos.u nimittes.uke api 
tva_m na va_rayanti, none resist or oppose you on account of the cows]. 

7.032.17 You are celebrated as the giver of wealth to all even where battles 
occur; all the people of theearth--desirous of protection, solicit you, the 
invoked of many. [dhanada_ asi s'ruto ya i_m bhavantyaja_yah = yeete a_jayo 
yuddha_ni bhavanti tes.u api dhanada_h s'rutosi]. 

7.032.18 If I were lord of as much (affluence) as you are, Indra, then might I 
support (your) worshippers,dispenser of wealth, and not squander it upon 

7.032.19 May I daily distribute wealth to the venerable wherever abiding; no 
other, Maghavan, than you is to besought by us; (no other is to us) a most 
excellent protector. 

7.032.20 The prompt offers (of praise), with solemn rites combined, acquires 
food; I bend down with adoration toyou, Indra, the invoker of many, as a 
carpenter bends the wooden circumference of the wheel. 

7.032.21 A man acquires not wealth by unbecoming praise; affluence devolves not 
upon one obstructing(sacrifice) in you, Maghavan, is the power whereby bounty 
(may be shown) to such as I am on the day of libation.

7.032.22 We glorify you, hero, (Indra), the lord of all movable and stationary 
things, the beholder of the universe,with ladles filled (with Soma, like (the 
udders of) unmilked kine. [Like udders: adugdha iva dhenavo = we praiseyou as 
unmilked kine praise their calves; the fullness of ladles, yatha_ dhenavah 
ks.irapu_rn.odhastvenavartante tad vat somapu_rn.a camastvena vartama_na_ vayam 
bhr.s'am abhis.-- umah, as the cows remain withthe state of the udders being 
full of milk, so we, abiding with the state of the ladle full of Soma, glorify 
you; Yajus.27.35]. 

7.032.23 No other such as you are, celestial or terrestrial, has been or will be 
born; desirous of horses, of food,of cattle affluent Indra, we invoke you. 

7.032.24 Elder Indra, bring that (wealth to me), being the junior, for, 
Maghavan, you have from the beginningbeen possessed of infinite treasure, and 
are to be adored at repeated sacrifices. 

7.032.25 Drive away, Maghavan, our enemies; render riches easy of acquisition; 
be our preserver in war; be theaugmenter of (the prosperity) of (your) friends. 

7.032.26 Bring to us, Indra, wisdom, as a father (gives knowledge) to his sons; 
bestow wealth upon us on thisoccasion, you the invoked of many, so that we, 
living at the solemnity may (long) enjoy the light (of existence). 

7.032.27 Let no unknown, wicked, malevolent, malignant (enemies) overpower us; 
may we, protected by you,cross over many waters. 

7.033.01 The white-complexioned accomplishers of holy ceremonies, wearing the 
lock of hair on the right side,have afforded me delight, when, rising up I call 
the leaders (of rites) to the sacred grass; the Vasis.t.has, (mysons) should 
never be far from me. [White-complexioned: s'vity an~cah = s'vetavarn.ah, white-
coloured (appliedto the vasis.t.has); wearing the lock of hair on the right 
side: daks.in.atas kaparda_h: kaparda = cu_d.a or singlelock of hair left on the 
top of the head at tonsure; Vasis.t.has wear it on the right of the crown of the 
head,daks.in.e s'iraso bha_ge]. 

7.033.02 Disgracing (Pa_s'adyumna), they brought from afar the fierce Indra, 
when drinking the ladle of Soma athis sacrifice, to (receive) the libation (of 
Suda_sa); Indra hastened from the effused Soma of Pa_s'adumna, theson of 
Va_yata, to the Vasis.t.has. [They brought: A legend is related. The sons of 
Vasis.t.ha had undertaken asoma sacrifice to Indra on behalf of Suda_sa. They 
found that he was present at a similar solemnity instituted bythe ra_ja_ 
Pa_s'adyumna, the son of Va_yata, on which they abused the ra_ja_, broke off his 
sacrifice, and bytheir mantras, compelled Indra to come to that of their 

7.033.03 In the same manner was he, (Suda_sa) enabled by them easily to cross 
the Sindhu river; in the samemanner, through them he easily slew his foe; so in 
like manner, Vasis.t.has, through your prayers, did Indradefend Suda_sa in the 
war with the ten kings. [He easily sle his foe: bhedam jagha_na: bheda may also 
be aproper name; in the war with ten kings: da_s'ara_jn~e = das'abhi_ ra_ja_bhih 
saha yuddhe]. 

7.033.04 By your prayers, leaders (of rites), is effected the gratificcation of 
your progenitors; I have set in motionthe axle (of the chariot); be no you 
intert, for by your sacred metres, Vasis.t.has, (chanted) with a loud voice, 
yousustain vigour in Inda. [Of your rogenitors: pitr.n.a_m, in the gen., pl. 
used honorifically, implying father, i.e.Vasis.t.ha; I have set in motion: 
aks.am avyayam = rathasya aks.am avyaya_mi, ca_laya_mi, I cause to move theaxle 
of the car, ascribing the words to Vasis.t.ha, as announcing his intention to 
return to his hermitage]. 

7.033.05 Suffering from thirst, soliciting (rain), supported (by the Tr.tsus) in 
the war with the ten ra_ja_s, (theVasis.t.has) made Indra radiant as the sun; 
Indra heard (the praises) of Vasis.t.ha glorifying him, and bestowed aspacious 
region on the Tr.tsus. 

7.033.06 The Bharatas, inferior (to their foes), were shorn (of their 
possessions), like he staves for driving cattle,(stripped of their leaves and 
branches); but Vasis.t.ha became their family priest, and the people of the 
Tr.tsusprospered. [People of the Tr.tsus: Tr.tsus are the same as the Bharatas. 
Sam.varan.a, the son of R.ks.a, thefourth in descent from Bharata, the son of 
Dus.yanta, was driven from his kingdom by the Pa_n~ca_las, andobliged to take 
refuge with his tribe among the thickets on the Sindhu until Vasis.t.ha came to 
them andconsented to be the ra_ja_'s purohit, when they recovered their 

7.033.07 Three shed moisture upon the regions, three are their glorious progeny, 
of which the chief is night;three communicators of warmth accompany the dawn; 
verily the Vasis.t.has understand all these. [Three shedmoisture: S'a_tya_ana is 
cited: the three who send rain on the three regions of earth, mid-air, and 
heaven, areAgni, Va_yu and A_ditya; they also diffuse warmth; thei offspring are 
the Vasus, the Rudras, the A_dityas, thelatter of whom are the same as Jyotis., 

7.033.08 The glory of these Vasi.s.t.has is like the splendour of the sun; their 
greatness as profound as (thedepth of) the ocean; your praise, Vasis.t.has, has 
the velocity of the wind; by no other can it be surpassed. 

7.033.09 By the wisdom seated in the heart the Vasis.t.has traverse the hidden 
thousand branched world, andthe Apsarasas sit down wearing the vesture spread 
out by Yama. [The hidden thousand-branched world: nin.yamsahasravals'am 
abhisan~caranti, they completely go over the hidden, tirohitam, or durjn~a_nam, 
ignorant,sahasra vals'am, thousand-branched, that is, sam.sa_ram, the revolving 
world of various living beings, or thesuccession of many births; the allusion is 
to the repeated births of Vasis.t.ha, who is the first of the Praja_patis,or 
mind-born sons of Brahma_, who is the son of Urvas'i_; hr.dayasya praketaih 
prajn~a_naih, internalconvictions or knowledge; this may imply the detachment of 
Vasis.t.ha or his sons from the world. The apsaras sitdown: yamena tatam 
paridhim vayanto apsarasa upasedur vasis.t.ha_h: te vasis.tha_h, those 
vasis.t.has or thatvasis.t.ha; yamena = sarvaniyantra_, by the restrainer or 
regulator of all; ka_ran.a_tmana_, identical with cause,that is, by acts, as the 
causes of vital condition; the garb paridhim, vastram, spread, tatam, by him, is 
herevolution of life and death; janma_diprava_ha_h, weavin, vayantah; connecting 
this with apsarasah, the myphs,or, the nymph Urvas'i_, who sat down or 
approached in the capacity of a mother, jananitvena, wearing thatvesture which 
he was destined by former nets to wear]. 

7.033.10 When Mitra and Varun.a beheld you, Vasis.t.ha, quitting the lustre of 
the lightning (for a different form),then one of your births (took place), 
inasmuch as Agastya bore you from your (former) abode. [Agasya bore you:agastyo 
yat tva_ vis'a_ a_jabha_ra = yada_ purvavastha_na_t tva_m a_jaha_ra, when 
Agastya took you from theformer condition; mitra_varun.au a_va_m janayisya_va, 
we two Mitra and Varun.a, will beget; or, a_va_bhya_mayam ja_yeta iti 
samakalpata_m, the two divinities determined this Vasis.t.ha shall be begotten 
by us]. 

7.033.11 Verily, Vasis.t.ha you are the son of Mitra and Varun.a, born, Brahma_, 
of the will of Urvas'i_, after theseminal effusion; all the gods have sustained 
you, (endowed) with celestial and Vedic vigour in the lake. [Born ofthe will of 
Urvas'i_: Urvas'i_, on seeing the birth of the R.s.i, said to herself, let this 
be my son; Endowed withcelestial and vedic vigour: brahman.a_ daivyena; adding 
an epithet: yuktam, joined with; devasambandhinavedara_s'ina_hambhuva yuktam; 
pus.kara = kumbha, pitcher used at sacrifice, or the vasati_vara, the pool 
ofwater prepared for the same. Vasis.t.ha was born when the vessel, pus.kara, 
was over-filled and some contentsfell upon the earth. Agastya was born of the 
contents in the vessel; the overflowing fluid being collected 
together,Vasis.t.ha remained in the lake, tato apsu gr.hyama_n.a_su vasis.t.ha_h 
pus.kare sthitah; Pus.kara is also thename of a lake in Ajmer; Padma Pura_n.a 
cites it as the hermitage of Agastya (Sr.s.t.i khan.d.a)]. 

7.033.12 He, the sage, cognizant of both worlds, was the donor of thousands; he 
was verily donation; wearingthe vesture spread spread by Yama, Vasis.t.ha was 
born of the Apsaras. 

7.033.13 Consecrated for the sacrifice, propitiated by praises, they, Mitra and 
Varun.a, poured a commoneffusion into the water-jar, from the midst of which 
Ma_na arose, and from which also, they say, Vasis.t.ha wasborn. [Consecrated: 
satre ja_tau = ya_ge di_ks.itau, prepared by preliminary purifications for the 
ceremony;Ma_na: a name of Agastya with reference to his being of the measure of 
a span at his birth; udiya_ya tatoagastyah s'amyama_tro mahitapah ma_nena 
sammito yasma_d ma_nya ihocyate, thence arose the great asceicAgastya of the 
measure of a span, as measured by a measure (ma_na); he is therefore, caled upon 
earthMa_nya. Another legend: Agastya was, in a preceding birth, the son of 

7.033.14 Pratr.ts, Agastya comes to you; welcome him with devoted minds, and he 
in the foremost station directsthe reciter of the prayer, the chanter of the 
hymn, the grinder of the stone, and repeats (what is to be repeated).[Pratr.ts = 
Tr.tsus; in the foremost station: agre, in front, that is, as their Purohita].

7.034.01 May pure and divine praise proceed from us (to the gods) like a swift 
well-constructed chariot. 

7.034.02 The flowing waters having known the origin of earth and heaven; may 
they now hear (our praises).[Waters: an allusion perhaps to the subsequently 
received cosmogony, as in Manu, that water was the first ofcreated things]. 

7.034.03 The vast waters offer nourishment to Indra; fierce warriors (combating) 
with foes, glorify him. 

7.034.04 Yoke for him the horses of his chariot, the Indra is the wielder of the 
thunderbolt, the golden-armed. 

7.034.05 Proceed to the sacrifice like one who goes along the road; proceed of 
your own accord. 

7.034.06 Go of your own accord to battle; celebrate the significant and 
expiatory sacrifice for (the good of)mankind. 

7.034.07 From the force of this (sacrifice) the sun rises; it sustains the 
burden (of the world) as (earth) supportsmany (beings). 

7.034.08 I invoke the gods, Agni, propitiating them by an inoffensive rite, I 
celebrate a pious act. [Inoffensive rite:aya_tuh sa_dhanr.tena: aya_tuh = 
aya_tuna, an epithet of r.tena, ahim.sakena, yajn~ena, intending perhaps 
onewithout animal victims]. 

7.034.09 Offer (worshippers) your heavenly worship; earnestly address your 
praises to the gods. 

7.034.10 The fierce Varun.a, the thousand-eyed, contemplates the water of these 

7.034.11 He is the king of kings; the beauty of the rivers his all-pervading 
strength is irresistible. 

7.034.12 Protect us, gods, among all people; render extinct the calumny of the 

7.034.13 May the blazing (weapons) of foes pass by innocuous; separate, (gods), 
universally (from us) the sin ofour bodies. 

7.034.14 May Agni, the feeder on oblations, propitiated by our homage, protect 
us; to him has our praise beenaddressed. 

7.034.15 Glorify along with the gods our friend, the grandson of the waters; may 
he be propitious to us. 

7.034.16 I glorify with hymns the disperser of the clouds in the firmament; the 
water-born, sitting among thewaters of the rivers. [Disperser of the clouds: 
ahim gr.n.i_se budhne, dividing two words usually put together:ahirbudhna: 
ma_gha_na_ma_hanta_ram, the firmament, or the region in which the waters of 
rains are bound orretained, baddha_ asmin dhr.ta_ a_pa viti vyutpatteh (Nirukta. 
10.44); in the next r.ca the words are united as aname of Agni]. 

7.034.17 Let not Ahirbudhnya be disposed to work us harm; let not the sacrifice 
of the worshipper bedisregarded. 

7.034.18 May (the gods) bestow food upon our people; let foes contending for our 
riches perish. 

7.034.19 Leaders of great armies, by the power of these (divinities), consume 
their foes, as he sun (scorches)the regions. [Of these divinities: es.a_m, of 
these; deva_na_m or maruta_m, of these Maruts]. 

7.034.20 When the wives (of the gods) come before us, may the dextrous Tvas.t.a_ 
grant us male progeny.  

7.034.21 May Tvas.t.a_ be propitiated by this our praise; may he who is of 
comprehensive understanding beinclined to give us wealth. 

7.034.22 May they who are the givers of gifts bestow upon us the treasure (we 
desire); may Rodasi_ andVarun.a_ni_ hear (our supplications); may the generous 
Tvas.t.a_ together with these (our) protectresses, be oursure refuge; may they 
give us riches. 

7.034.23 May the mountains, the waters, the liberal (wives of the gods), the 
plants, also the heaven and theearth, consentient with the forest lords and both 
the heaven and earth, preserve for us those (coveted) riches. 

7.034.24 Let the vast heaven and earth consent, let the brilliant Varun.a, of 
whom Indra is the friend consent; letall the victorious Maruts consent that we 
may be a recepacle for the retention of riches. 

7.034.25 May Indra, Varun.a, Mitra, Agni, the waters, the herbs, the trees, be 
pleased by our (praise); may we,(reclining) on the lap of the Maruts, enjoy 
felicity; and do you ever cherish us with blessings.

7.035.01 May Indra and Agni be (with us) with their protections for our 
hapiness; may Indra and Varun.a, to whomoblations are offered, (be with us) for 
our happiness; may Indra and Soma be (with us) for our happiness, ourprosperity, 
our good; may Indra and Pu_s.an be (with us) in battle for our triumph. [May 
Indra and Agni be wih us:The leading refrain is the same in 13 r.cas: s'am na 
bhavata_m, sometimes slightly varied: may they two be ourhappiness; s'am = 
s'antyai, for our peace of happiness]. 

7.035.02 May Bhaga (promote) our happiness; may S'am.sa be our happiness; may 
Purandhi be (with us for) ourhappiness; may riches be (a source of) happiness; 
may the benediction of the true and virtuous yield ushappiness; may the 
variously-manifested Aryaman be (with us) for our felicity. [S'am.sa = 
Naras'am.sa; purandhi= the possessor of much intelligence]. 

7.035.03 May the creator be to us for happiness; may the discriminator (between 
virtue and vice, Varun.a) be(with us) for our happiness; may the wide earth 
(contribute) with sustenance to our happiness; may the vastheaven and earth be 
(to us for) happiness; may the mountains (yield) us happiness; may our pious 
invocations ofthe gods secure us happiness. 

7.035.04 May Agni, whose countenance is light, be (with us) for our happiness; 
may Mitra and Varun.a, may theAs'vins be (present) for our felicity; may the 
virtuous be (promotive of) our happiness; may the restless wind blowfor our 

7.035.05 May heaven and earth, the first invoked, (promote) our happiness; may 
the firmament be happiness toour view; may the herbs, the trees, (yield) us 
happiness; may the victorious lord of the world, (Indra), be(favourable to) our 

7.035.06 May the divine (Indra), with the Vasus, grant us happiness; may the 
justly-praised Varun.a, with theA_dityas, be (friendly to) our happiness; may 
the grief-assuaging Rudra, with the Rudras, be (for) our happiness;may 
Tvas.t.a_, with the wives of the gods, be (with us) for our happiness, and hear 
us at this solemnity. 

7.035.07 May the Soma be (offered for) our happiness; may the prayer be (uttered 
for) our happiness; may thestones (grind the Soma), the sacrifice be (solemnized 
for) our happiness; may the measured lengths of thesacrificial posts be 
(conducive to) our felicity; may the sacred grass be (strewn) for our happiness; 
may the altarbe (raised for) our happiness. 

7.035.08 May the wide-seeing sun rise (for) our happines; may the four quarters 
of the horizon (exist for) ourfelicity; may the firm-set mountains be (for) our 
happiness; may the rivers, may the waters, be (diffused) for ourhappiness. 

7.035.09 May Aditi, with holy observances, be (for) our happiness; may the 
glorified Maruts be (friendly to) ourfelicity; may Vis.n.u, may Pu_s.an, be 
(promoters of) our happiness; may the firmament be propitious to us; mayVa_yu 
(blow for) our happiness. 

7.035.10 May the divine preserving Savita_ be (radiant for) our happiness; may 
the opening dawns (break for)our happiness; may Parjanya be (the granter of 
happiness) to our posterity; may S'ambhu, the lord of strength,be (the conferrer 
of) happiness upon us. [S'ambhu = sukhasya bha_vayita_, the cause of the 
condition ofpleasure; ordinarily, it is a name of S'iva]. 

7.035.11 May the divine universal gods be (favourable) to our felicity; may 
Sarasvati_, with holy rites, behappiness; may those who assist at sacrifices, 
those who are liberal of gifts. Be (conducive to) our happiness;may celestial, 
terrestrial and aquatic things be (subservient to) our happiness. 

7.035.12 May the lords of truth be (propitious to) our happiness; may horses, 
may cattle, (contribute to) ourhappiness; may the virtuous, the dexterous 
R.bhus, be to us (for) felicity; may the progenitors be (promoters of)our 
happiness at the seasons of worship. 

7.035.13 May the divine Aja-Ekapa_d be (favourable to) our happiness; may 
Ahirbudhnya, may the firmament, be(promotive of) our happiness; may the grandson 
of the waters, the protector, be (the securer of) our felicity; mayPr.s'ni, of 
whom the gods are the guardians, be to us (a granter of) happiness. 

7.035.14 May the A_diyas, the Rudras, the Vasus, be gratified by this new and 
now repeated praise; maycelestial and terrestrial (beings), the progeny of the 
cow, (Pr.s'ni), and those who were entitled to worship, hearour (invocations). 

7.035.15 May those who are the most adorable divinities, those who were the 
adored of Manu, those who areimmortal, the observers of truth, bestow upon us 
this day (a son), of wide-spread renown; and do you evercherish us with 


7.036.01 Let the prayer proceed from the nail of the sacrifice, for Su_rya with 
his rays lets loose the waters; thespacious earth spreads (studded) with 
mountains, and Agni blazes on the extensive plains.[ya_bhira_dityastapati 
ras'mibhista_bhih parjanyo vars.anyo vars.ati: Taittiri_ya A_ran.yaka 10.63); 
Agni blazes:pr.tha_ prati_kam adhyedhe agnih: prati_kam = pr.thivya_ avayavam, a 
portion or member of the earth]. 

7.036.02 Powerful Mitra and Varun.a, to you I offer this new praise as if it 
were (sacrificial) food; one of you,(Varun.a). The invincible lord, is the guide 
to the path (of virtue) Mitra when praised animates men to exertion.[janam ca 
mitro yatati bruva_n.ah: a repetition of the phrase in RV 3.59.1]. 

7.036.03 The movements of the restless wind sport around; the milk-yielding kine 
are in good condition; theshowerer generated in the dwelling of the mighty sun 
has cried aloud in that his place of abiding, (the firmament).[The showerer: 
acikradad vr.s.abhah sasmin u_dham: parjanya has cried n that firmament, tasmin 

7.036.04 Hero, Indra, (come to the sacrifice of the man) who, by his adoration, 
has harnessed (to your car) theseyour favourite, graceful and vigorous horses; 
may I bring hither Aryaman, the doer of good deeds, who baffles thewrath of the 

7.036.05 Let the offerers of adoration, engaging (in pious acts), worship 
(Rudra) in their own hall of sacrifice,(solicitous) of his friendship; praised 
by the leaders (of rites), he lavishes food (upon them); this most 
acceptableadoration is addressed to Rudra. 

7.036.06 May the seventh (stream), Sarasvati_, the mother of the Sindhu and 
those rivers that flow copious andfertilizing, bestowing abundance of food, and 
nourishing (the people) by their waters come at once together. [Themother of the 
Sindhu: sindhu ma_ta_ = apam ma_tr.bhu_ta_, being the mother of the waters]. 

7.036.07 May these joyous and swift-going Maruts protect our sacrifice and our 
offspring; let not the imperishablegoddess of speech, deserting us, speak 
(kindly) to our (adversaries); and may both (she and the Marut)associated 
augment our riches. [Let not the imperishable goddess of speech: ma_ nah 
parikhyad aks.ara_caranti = aks.ara_ vya_pta_ caranti va_gdevata_ asma_n 
parityaktva_ asma_d vyatirikta_ ma_ dra_ks.i_t, let notthe diffusive deity of 
speech, having abandoned us, look upon our opponents]. 

7.036.08 Invoke, (worshippers), the unresisting earth, and the adorable hero, 
Pu_s.an; (invoke) Bhaga, theprotector of this our sacrifice, and Va_ja, the 
sustainer of old, the liberal of gifts to our solemnity. 

7.036.09 May this praise come, Maruts, before you; (may it come) before Vis.n.u, 
the guardian of the embryo,with his protecting faculties; may they both bestow 
upon (me), their adorer, progeny and food; and do you evercherish us with 

7.037.01 Va_jas, possessors of energy, let your capacious, commendable, and 
unobstructed chariot bring you(hither); be satiated, handsome-chinned, with the 
copious triply-combined libation (poured out) for yourexhilaration at our 
sacrifices. [With the copious: tripr.s.t.haih somaih, with Soma mixed with milk 
curds and meal]. 

7.037.02 For you, R.bhuks.ins, beholders of heaven, preserve unmolested the 
precious (treasure) for us who areaffluent (in sacrificial offerings); do you 
who are possessed of strengh, drink fully at (our) solemnities, and 
with(favourable) minds bestow upon us riches. 

7.037.03 You, Maghavan, have determined what is to be given in the apportionment 
of much or of little wealth,for both your hands are full of treasure, and your 
sincere (promises) of riches do not restrain them. 

7.037.04 Do you, Indra, who are R.bhuks.in, and of especial renown, who, like 
food, are the fulfiller (of wants),come to the dwelling of the worshipper; lord 
of bay horses, may we, Vasis.t.has, be today the donors (of theofferings) to yo, 
the celebrators of your praise. 

7.037.05 Lord of bay horses, you are the giver of descending (wealth) to the 
donor (of the oblation), by whosesacred rites you are magnified; when may you 
bestow upon us riches; when may we be secure by yourappropriate protections. 

7.037.06 When, Indra, will you appreciate our praise; at present you establish 
us (your) adorers in our dwelling;let your swift horse, (influenced) by our 
protracted solemnity, convey to our abode riches, male offspring, andfood. [You 
establish: va_sayasi_va vedhasas tvam nah = asma_n stotr.n ida_ni_m svaki_ye 
stha_neavastha_payasi: svakiye, own, may refer to Indra in his own dwelling, 
that is, in Svarga]. 

7.037.07 Indra, the upholder of the three regions, whom the divine Nirr.ti 
acknowledges as ruler, whom abundantyears pass over, whom mortals detain from 
his own abode, approaches to (recruit) his decaying strength. [Theupholder: upa 
tribandhu jaradas.t.im eti: traya_n.a_m loka_na_m bandhaka; jaradas.t.im = 
ji_rn.am ras'anamyasya balasya hetubhu_tam tad balam upagacchati, he approaches 
that strength of which or of whose strength itis the cause; Nirr.ti = the 

7.037.08 May riches worthy of laudation come, Savita_, to us; riches that are in 
the bestow of Parvata; may theheavenly protector (of all) preserve us; and, do 
you (Universal gods), ever cherish us with blessings.

7.038.01 The divine Savita_ has diffused the golden radiance on high, of which 
he is the asylum; verily Bhaga isto be absorbed by men who, abounding in wealth, 
distributes treasures (among them). 

7.038.02 Rise up Savita_; hear (our solicitations) upon the celebration of this 
ceremony, (you who are) diffusinglight over the spacious earth, and bestowing 
human enjoyment upon men. 

7.038.03 Glorified be the divine Savita_, whom all the gods praise; may that 
adorable (diviniy) require our praises(with) food; may he always protect the 
devout with all his protections. [Whom all the gods praise: yam vis'vevasavo 
grn.anti, whom all the Vasus praise; here vasavah = deva_h]. 

7.038.04 Whom the divine Aditi, delighting at the birth of the divine Savitr., 
glorifies, whom the supremesoverigns, Varun.a, Mitra, A_ryaman, (and other gods) 
adore. [Mitra and other gods: Mitra occurs in the pluralmitra_sah, i.e. Mitra 
and others]. 

7.038.05 Whom those solicitous for wealth those enjoying (it), mutually worship, 
the benefactor of heaven andearth; may Ahirbudhnya hear us; may the protectress 
(the goddess of speech), cherish us with excellen cattle.[Ahirbudhnya = a name 
of Agni, of the middle region or firmament; the protectress: varutra = 

7.038.06 May the protector of progeny, when solicited, consent to bestow upon us 
the precious (wealth of thedivine Savita_; the ardent (adorer) invokes 
repeatedly Bhaga for protection; the less ardent solicits Bhaga forwealth. 

7.038.07 May the Va_jins, with slackened speed, bringing excellent food, be 
(disposed) for our happiness, uponour invocations at the worship of the gods; 
destroying the murderer, the robber, the ra_ks.asas, and keepingfrom us ancient 
maladies. [Va_jins: etadabhidha_yaka_devatah, divinities so denominated; or 
as'vah, horse; themurderer: jambhayanto ahim vr.kam = destroying the snake, the 
wolf; or, hanta_ram coram; va_je va_je haves.uyuddhes.u = sarvasmin anne 
upasthite, when all food is near]. 

7.038.08 Wise, immortal Va_jins, observers of truth, defend us in every 
conflict, and for the sake of wealth; drinkof this sweet (Soma), be exhilarated 
(thereby) and satisfied; proceed by the paths traversed by the gods.


7.039.01 Let Agni, risen on high, accept the praise of the worshipper; she who 
makes (all creatures) old, lookingto the west, goes to the sacrifice; the pious 
pair, like two riders in a chariot, follow the path (of the ceremony); letthe 
Hota_, as enjoined, celebrate the rite. [She who makes all creatures old: 
prati_ci_ devata_tim eti =sarves.a_m praja_na_m jarayitri_, the cause of the 
decay or age of all progeny, i.e. uso.devata_, the dawn,whose successive 
revolutions constitute old age; the pious pair: bheja_te adri: a_driyantau 
s'raddha_vantau, thetwo reverencing or believing, i.e. the yajama_na and his 

7.039.02 The food-bestowing sacred grass of these (the worshippers) is strewn; 
may the two lords of people,Va_yu with the Niyut steeds, and Pu_s.an, invoked 
before the dawn upon the close of the night, appear now inthe firmament for the 
welfare of mankind. [The two lords of people: vis'pai_ve vi_rite iya_te 
antariks.ea_gacchata_m: iva = idani_m, now; it may also connote a comparison, 
comparing Va_yu and Pu_s.an to twora_ja_s appearing among a crowd of attendants, 
yatha_ manus.aya_n.a_m gan.e ra_ja_nau; cf. Yaska Nirukta.5.28; upon the close 
of the night: aktor us.asah pu_rvahu_tau = ra_treh sam.bandhinya_ us.asah 
saka_s'a_tpu_rvasmin a_hva_ne sate, there being the invocation preceding the 
proximity of the dawn in connection with thenight. Another interpretation: 
Pu_s.an as the sun, appears after the prior invocation of the dawn upon the 
lightingof the sacrificial fire; Va_yu connotes Agni, of whom he is the friend; 
and who is the divinity of the nocturnalsacrifice]. 

7.039.03 May the divine Vasus sport on this occasion upon the earth; the 
brilliant (Maruts) in the expansivefirmament are being worshipped; swift-moving 
deities, direct your paths towards us; hear (the words) of this ourmessenger, 
(Agni), approaching you. 

7.039.04 These universal adorable guardian deities occupy a common station at 
sacrifices; worship, Agni, thosedivinities, deservers (of oblations) at the 
ceremony, the swift Bhaga, the Na_satya_s and Purandhi. [Purandhi =Indra]. 

7.039.05 Bring Agni, whether from heaven or earth, the adorable deities Mitra, 
Varun.a, Indra and Agni,A_ryaman, Aditi and Vis.n.u (for the good) of these 
(worshippers); and may Sarasvati_ and the Maruts bedelighted (by our offerings). 

7.039.06 The oblation is offered together with praises to the adorable deities; 
may (Agni), unaverse to the desireof mortals, be present; bestow (upon us gods), 
unwasting, all-benefiting riches; and may we today be associatedwith the 
assembled deities. 

7.039.07 Heaven and earth are now glorified by the Vasis.t.has, as are Varun.a, 
the objec of worship, and Mitraand Agni; may they, the conferrers of joy, bestow 
upon us excellent food; and do you (all) ever cherish us withblessings.


7.040.01 May the satisfaction derived from pious rites come to us as we 
contemplate the glorification of the swiftmoving (divinities); may we be 
included in the apportionment by that wealth-bestowing deity (of the riches) 
whichthe divine Savita_ goday distributes. 

7.040.02 May Mitra and Varun.a, heaven and earth, Indra and A_ryaman, give us 
that (wealth) which is meritedby brilliant (laudations); may the divine Aditi be 
disposed to give us riches, which Va_yu and Bhaga may preserveever in our 

7.040.03 Maruts, whose steeds are the spotted deer, may the mortal whom you 
protect the resolute, be strong,for him Agni and Sarasvati_ also defend, and 
there be no despoiler of his riches. 

7.040.04 This Varun.a, the leader of the rite, and the royal Mitra and A_ryaman, 
uphold my acts, and the divineunopposed Aditi, earnestly invoked; may they 
convey us safe beyond evil. 

7.040.05 I propitiate with oblations the ramifications of that divine attainable 
Vis.n.u, the showerer of benefits;Rudra, bestow upon us the magnificence of his 
nature; the As'vins have come to our dwelling abond with(sacrificial) food. 
[Ramifications: vaya_h, branches; all other deities, as it were, branches of 
Vis.n.u: anye deva_hs'a_kha_ iva bhavanti; citing a text: vis.n.u is all 
divinities, vis.n.uh sara_ devata_ iti s'ruteh: vis.nuh sarva_devata_h (Aitareya 
Bra_hman.a 1.1)]. 

7.040.06 Resplendent Pu_s.an, oppose not (hindrance) on this occasion; may the 
protectress, (Sarasvati_) andthe liberal (wives of the gods), grant us wealth; 
may the ever-moving deities, the sources of happiness, protectus; may the 
circumambient Va_ta send us rain. 

7.040.07 Heaven and earth are now glorified by the Vasis.t.has, as are Varun.a 
the object of worship, and Mitraand Agni; may they, the conferrers of joy, 
bestow upon us excellent food; and do you (all) ever cherish us withblessings.


7.041.01 We invoke at dawn Agni; at dawn Indra; at dawn Mitra and Varun.a; at 
dawn the As'vins; at dawnBhaga, Pu_s.an, Brahman.aspati; at dawn Soma and Rudra. 

7.041.02 We invoke at dawn fierce Bhaga, the son of Aditi, who is the sustainer 
(of the world), to whom the poorman praising him applies, saying, give (me 
wealth), to whom the opulent prince (addresses the same prayer). [Towhom the 
poor man: a_dhras'cid yam manya ma_nas turascid ra_ja_ cid yam bhagam bhaks.ity 
aha: the a_dhra= unsatisfied, hungry, or poor; ura = atura, sick, or yama]. 

7.041.03 Bhaga, chief leader of rites, Bhaga, faithful granting (our wishes), 
fructify ceremony, enrich us withcattle and horses; may we Bhaga, be eminent 
with male descendants and followers. 

7.041.04 May we now have Bhaga (for our lord), whether in the forenoon or mid-
day, or at sun-rise; may we,Maghavan, enjoy the favour of the gods. [Bhaga: 
utedanim bhagavantah sya_ma, may we be now possessors ofBhaga; or, may we be 
possessors of wealth; bhagavantah = also, possessors of knowledge, 
jn~a_navantah; atsunrise: prapitve = purva_hne; alternative meaning: su_ryasya 
prapatane, astomaye, sun-down, sunset]. 

7.041.05 May Bhaga, gods, be the possessor of opulence, and, through him, may we 
be possessed of wealth,every one verily repeatedly invokes you, Bhaga; do you, 
Bhaga, be our preceder at this solemnity. [Bhaga:Bhaga eva bhagava_n astu 
dhanava_n, having wealth; pura eta = puro ganta, one who goes before; may 
mean,purohita, or family priest]. 

7.041.06 May the dawn come to our sacrifice as a horse to a suitable station; as 
rapid steeds convey a chariot,so may the dawns bring to us Bhaga, down-
descending, charged with riches. [Station: s'ucaye pada_ya =gamanayogya_ya 
stha_na_ya; or, agnya_dhana_rtham s'ucai padam, a pure place for the receptacle 
of the fire;dadhikra = as've, the horse intended for sacrifice].


7.042.01 May the bra_hman.as, the An:girasas, be everywhere present; may 
Krandanu be conscious of (our)adoration; may the rivers glide along, 
distributing water; may the pious couple (the yajama_na and his wife),conjointly 
appreciate the beauty of the sacrifice. [Krandanu = Parjanya; the rivers: 
dhenavah = nadyah,consistent with the phrase udapruto navantah]. 

7.042.02 Pleasant, Agni, by your long-familiar path, invoke the libation; the 
bay, the ruddy horses, who, brilliantshining, are the conveyers of (you), the 
hero, to the hall of sacrifice, where seated, I invoke the companies of thegods. 

7.042.03 The (worshippers) offer you, (gods), this sacrifice, with prostrations; 
the ministrant priest, who is nearus repeating pious praise, excels (all 
others); worship well the gods; resplendent (Agni), make the venerableearth 

7.042.04 When Agni, reposing at his ease in the dwelling of the liberal 
worshipper, is welcomed as a guest, thussuitable placed in the hall of 
sacrifice, he gives well-pleased, desirable (wealth) to the people who approach 

7.042.05 Be gratified, Agni, by this our sacrifice; render our (worship) 
renowned among Indra and the Maruts; letthe days and nights sit down on the 
sacred grass; worship (Agni), at this rite, Mitra and Varun.a, desiring 

7.042.06 Thus has Vasis.t.ha wishing for riches, glorified the vigorous Agni for 
the sake of every sort of wealth;may he bestow upon us food, rices, strength; 
and do you, (gods), ever cherish us with blessings.


7.043.01 Devout worshippers seek to attain you, gods, by praises at sacrifices; 
they (worship) the heaven andearth, they of whom the divesified adorations 
spread everywhere like th ebranches of trees. 

7.043.02 Let the sacrifice proceed like a swift course (tot he gods); elevate, 
(priests), with one occurred, yourladles, charged with butter; spread for the 
solemnity the sacred grass;le the flames (of the burnt-offering) to thegods 
ascend on high. 

7.043.03 Let the gods sit down on the summit of the sacred grass, like children 
nursed on the (lap of the) mother;let the full ladle, Agni, pour (the oblaion) 
on the sacrificial flame; give us not up to your adversaries in battle. 

7.043.04 May the adorable deities, who are the bestowers of water, the shedders 
of showers, be fully propitiated(by our praises); may the most precious and 
commendable of your treasure (be ours) today; and do you with oneaccord come 
hither. [a_gantana samanasah: yatis.t.ha -- s.t.ha may be the second pers. pl. 
pres. of as, to be;yati = yadi, if; if you are of one mind]. 

7.043.05 Be glorified Agni; grant us (wealth) among the people; may we, vigorous 
Agni, ever be undeserted byyou, but always be rejoicing and unmolested in the 
possession of riches; and do you, (gods), ever cherish uswith blessings.

7.044.01 For your preservation, (worshippers), I invoke, first, Dadhikra_, then 
the As'vins, the Dawn, the kindledAgni, Bhaga, Indra, Vis.n.u, Pu_s.an, 
Brahman.aspati, the A_dityas, heaven and earth, the waters, the sun. 

7.044.02 Arousing and animating Dadhikra_, proceeding diligently with the 
sacrifice; seating the divine Il.a_ onthe sacred grass, let us invoke the 
intelligent and worthily-invoked As'vins. 

7.044.03 Propitiating Dadhikra_van, I glorify Agni, Us.as, the sun, the earth, 
the great brown horse of Varun.a,who is mindful of his adorers; may they put far 
away from us iniquities. 

7.044.04 Dadhikra_van, the swift steed, the first (of horses), knowing (his 
office), is in the front of the chariots (ofthe gods), consentient with Us.as, 
with Su_rya, wih the A_dityas, with the Vasus, with the An:girasas. 

7.044.05 May Dadhikra_ sprinkle our path (with water), that we may follow the 
road of sacrifice; may Agni, thestrength of the gods, here our (invocation); may 
the mighty, unperplexed, universal deities hear it.

7.045.01 Borne by his steeds, may the divine Savita_, who is possessed of 
precious treasure, and filling thefirmament (with radiance), come hither, 
holding in his hands many things good for man, and (both) tranquilizingand 
animating living beings. [nives'ayan ca prasuvan ca bhu_ma = bhu_ta_ni ra_tris.u 
sve stha_payanscaahahsu prerayansca, placing beings at night in their own 
stations, and urging them on by day]. 

7.045.02 May the outspread, vast, and golden arms of Savita_ extend to the ends 
of the sky; verily his greatnessis glorified (by us); may the sun impart energy 
unto him. [suras'cid asma_ anuda_d apasya_m = su_ryo asminsavitre karmeccha_m 
anudada_tu, may Su_rya subsequently give to that Savita_ the desire for acts. 

7.045.03 May the divine Savita_, who is endowed with energy, the lord of 
treasure, bestow treasures upon usconcentrating infinite lustre; may he bestow 
upon us wealh, the source of the enjoyment of mortals. [Appeaser ofthe wind: 
svapitva_: svapi = derived from svap, to sleep; vata, is the mind; or, it may 
mean disorders arising fromthe windy humour which Rudra, as the deity of 
medicines, may be supposed to allay]. 

7.045.04 These praises glorify the eloquent-tongued, dextrous-handed, whose 
hands are full (of wealth); may hebestow upon us manifold and abundant food; and 
do you, (gods), ever cherish us with blessings.

7.046.01 Offer these praises to the divine Rudra, armed with the strong bow and 
fast-flying arrows, the bestowerof food, the invincible, the conqueror, the 
creator, the wielder of sharp weapons; may he hear our (praises). 

7.046.02 He is known by his rule over those of terrestrial birth, by his 
sovereignty over those of celestial (origin);protecting our progeny, Rudra, 
propitiating you (by praise), come to our dwellings, and be to them a 
guardianagainst disease. 

7.046.03 May your blazing (weapon), which, discharged from heaven, traverses the 
earth, avoid us; thine,appeaser of the wind, are a thousand medicaments; inflict 
not evil upon our sons and grandsons. 

7.046.04 Harm us not, Rudra; abandon us not; let us not fall under the bondage 
of you when displeased; makeus partakers of the life-promotion sacrifice; and do 
you, (gods), ever cherish us with blessings.

7.047.01 We solicit from you, Waters, today, that pure, faultless, rain-
shedding, sweet essence of the earth,which devout have first consecrated as the 
Soma for Indra. [Sweet essence: prathamam u_rmimakr.n.vata il.ah:u_rmi is said 
to imply the Soma, bhu_mya_h sam.bhu_tam, produced from the earth]. 

7.047.02 May the swift-moving grandson of the Waters protect, Waters, your most 
sweet essence, wherewih mayIndra and the Vasus be delighted; and may we, devoted 
to the gods, partake (of it). 

7.047.03 The divine Waters, the purifiers of many, gratifying men with food, 
pursue the paths of the gods; theyimpede not the sacred rites of Indra; offer, 
(priests), the butter-charged oblation to the rivers. 

7.047.04 Waters, whom the sun has evaporized by his rays, for whom Indra has 
opened a path by which toissue, bestow upon us wealth; and do you (also) ever 
cherish us with blessings. [Indra: the sun having convertedthe waters of the 
earth into clouds, Indra, by his thunderbolt, cleaves the latter, and the water 
condensed falls asrain.


7.048.01 R.bhu, (Vibhu), and Va_ja, leaders of rites, possessors of opulence, be 
exhilarated by our effused(libation); may your active and powerful (horses) 
bring to our presence your chariot, beneficial to mankind.[r.bhuks.an.o va_jah, 
the use of the plural implies that the three brothers are intended]. 

7.048.02 Mighty with the R.bhus, opulent with the Vibhus, may we overcome by 
strength, the strength (of ourfoes); may Va_ja defend us in battle; with Indra, 
our ally, may we destroy the enemy. [R.bhus: r.bhur r.bhubhihvibhvo vibhubhih: 
r.bhu and uru = great; vibhu vibhvah = rich or powerful]. 

7.048.03 They verily, (Indra and R.bhus), overcome multitudes by their prowess; 
they overcome all enemies inthe missile conflict; may Indra, Vibhvan, R.bhuks.in 
and Va_ja, the subduers of foes, annihilate by their wrath thestrength of the 
enemy. [Missile: uparata_ti: upara = upala, a stone; upalaih 
pa_s.a_n.asadr.s'air a_yudhaita_yate yuddham, war that is waged with weapons 
like stones, is uparatati]. 

7.048.04 Grant us, deities, this day opulence; may you all, may you all, well-
pleased alike, be (ready) for ourprotection; may the exalted (R.bhus) bestow 
upon us food; and do you (all) ever cherish us with blessings.[R.bhus: vasavah = 
Vasus; pras'asyah, an epithet of R.bhavah].

7.049.01 The waters, with their ocen-chief, proceed from the midst of the 
firmament, purifying (all things), flowingunceasingly; may the divine waters, 
whom the thunder-bearing Indra, the showerer, sent forth, protect me here(on 
earth). [From the midst: samudrajyes.t.ha_ salilasya madhya_t: salila = 

7.049.02 May the waters that are in the sky, or those that flow (on the earth), 
those (whose channels) have beendug, or those that have sprung up spontaneously, 
and those that seek the ocean. All pure and purifying, maythose divine waters 
protect me here (on earth). [Those whose channels have been dug: khanitrima_ = 
khanenanivr.ttah, formed, or perhaps stopped by digging, canals or reservoirs. A 
possible indication of irrigation systemsin use]. 

7.049.03 Those whose sovereign, Varun.a, passes in the middle sphere, 
discriminating the truth and falsehod ofmankind; those shedding sweet showers, 
pure and purifying; may those divine waters protect me here (on earth).

7.049.04 May they in which their king, Varun.a, in which Soma, abides, in which 
the gods delight (to receive) thesacrificial food, into which Agni Vais'va_nara 
entered, may those diine waters protect me here (on earth).

7.050.01 Mitra and Varun.a, protect me here (in this world) let not the 
insidious and spreading (poison) reach me;may the equally malignant and 
undiscernible (venom) disappear; let not the tortuous (snake) recognize me by 
thesound of my footsteps. [Poison: kula_yayat vis'vayat ma_ na a_ gan: stha_nam 
kurvat, making a place or a nest;vis'es.ena vardhama_nam, especially increasing; 
the substantive is vis.am; venom: ajaka_vam, durdr.s'i_kam arethe epithets used: 
ajaka_ na_ma rogavis'es.ah tad vat = ajaka_ is the name of a disease like that, 
a malignantpoison; durdarsa'anam = difficult or disagreeable to be seen; 
tortuous snake: tsarus chadmaga_mi_ jihmagahsarpa ityarthah: tsaru = what goes 
stealthily or crookedly, i.e., a snake]. 

7.050.02 May the brilliant Agni counteract that poison which is generated in the 
manifold knots (of trees) and thelike, or which is smeared upon the knees of 
ankles; let not the tortuous snake recognize me by the sound of myfootsteps. 
[Knots of trees: yad vija_man parus.i vandanam = vandanam etat sanjn~akam 
vis.am: vandana is apoison so named; yad vividha janmani vr.ks.a_di_na_m 
parvan.i udbhavet, which may originate in thevariously-born joints of trees and 
others; Smeared upon knees: as.t.hi_vantau parikulphau ca dehat: paridehat 
=upacitam kurya_t, let him smear]. 

7.050.03 The poison that is in the S'almali_ tree, in the rivers, or which is 
generated from plants, may theuniversal gods remove from hence; let not the 
tortuous (snake) recognize me by the sound of my footsteps. 

7.050.04 May the divine rivers, whether flowing down declivities, in hollow 
places, or upwards, whether filled withwater or dry, nourishing all with their 
water, be auspicious to us communicating not disease; may all the rivers 
beunproductive of harm. [Communicating not disease: as'ipada_ bhavantu: name of 
a malady; may they beunproductive of the s'ipada complaint; unproductive of 
harm: as'imida_ bhavantu: s'imi = vadha, killing; ahim.saprada, not doing harm 
or injury].


7.051.01 May we, through the protection of the A_dityas, be in the enjoyment of 
a new and comfortable dwelling;may the swift-moving A_dityas, listening to our 
praises, preserve this their worshipper in sinlessness andindependence. 

7.051.02 May the A_dityas and Aditi, and the upright Mitra, A_ryaman, and 
Varun.a, be exhilarated (by thelibation); may the guardians of the world be ours 
also; may they drink the Soma today for our preservation. 

7.051.03 All the A_dityas, all the Maruts, all the gods, all the R.bhus, Indra, 
Agni, and the As'vins, (have been)glorified (by us), do you all ever cherish us 
with blessings.

7.052.01 A_dityas, may we be independent; Vasus, (dwelling) among the gods, may 
your protection (extend) tomortals; offering (oblations to you), Mitra and 
Varun.a, may we partake (of your bounty); may we, heaven andearth exist (through 
your favour). 

7.052.02 May Mitra and Varun.a bestow upon us felicity; (may they), the 
guardians (of all men, bestow felicity)upon our sons and grandsons; let us not 
suffer (gods), for offences committed by another; let us not, Vasus, doany act 
by which you may be offended. 

7.052.03 The An:girasas, prompt (in worship), soliciting him obtain preious 
(wealth) from Savita_; may the mightyadorable parent, and the universal god 
alike favourable minded, approve (of the donation). [Parent: pita may beVarun.a, 
the father of Vasis.t.ha, or Praja_pati, the father of all].

7.053.01 Attended by a concourse (of priests) I worship the adorable and mighty 
Heaven and Earth withsacrifices and praises, those wo great ones of whom the 
gods are the sons, whom ancient sages glorifying haveformerly detained. 

7.053.02 Place before (us) in the hall of sacrifice, with new songs, the ancient 
parents (of all beings); come to us,Heaven and Earth, with the celestial people, 
for vast is your protecting (wealth). 

7.053.03 Many, Heavan and Earth, are the treasures fit to be given to the pious 
donor (of the oblation); give to usthat wealth which is unlimited; and do you 
ever cherish us with blessings.


7.054.01 Protector of the dwelling, recognize us; be to us an excellent abode 
the non-inflicter of disease;whatever we ask of you, be pleased to grant; be the 
bestower of happiness on our bipeds and quadrupeds.[Protector: vastos.pati: 
pati, lord or protector of the Vastu, the foundation of a house, put for the 
house itself; cf.Colebrooke, Asiatic Researches, Vol. VIII, p. 390]. 

7.054.02 Protector of the dwelling, be our preserver and the augmenter of our 
wealth; possessed of catle andhorses, Indra, may we, through your friendship, be 
exempt from decay; be favourable to us, like a father to hissons. 

7.054.03 Protector of the dwelling, may we be possessed of a comfortable, 
delightful, opulent abode, bestowedby you; protect our wealth, whether in 
possession or expectaion; and do you, (gods), ever cherish us withblessings. 
[Opulent: gatumatya = melodious; from ga, to sing; or, dhanavati_, having 
wealth; and do you god:yuyam = tvam, do you Va_stos.pati etc.]


7.055.01 Protector of the dwelling, remover of disease, assuming all (kinds of) 
forms, be to us a friend, thegranter of happiness. 

7.055.02 White offspring of Sarama_, with tawny limbs, althogh barking you 
display your teeth against me,bristling like lances in your gums, nevertheless, 
to quietly to sleep. [White offspring: sa_rameya, progeny ofSa_rma_, bitch of 
Indra; he is called arjuna, white, as well as pin:gala, tawny; the latter, in 
some members,kes.ucidan:ges.u]. 

7.055.03 Offspring of Sarama_, returning (to the charge), attack the pilferer or 
the thief; why do you assail theworshippers of Indra? Why do you intimidate us? 
Go quietly to sleep. [Pilferer: senam taskaram ca: he who stealsprivatey or 
hidden proverty; the latte carries it off openly]. 

7.055.04 Do you rend the hog; let the hog rend you; why do you assail the 
worshippers of Indra? Why do youintimidate us? Go quietly to sleep. 

7.055.05 Let the mother sleep let the father sleep, let the dog sleep, let the 
son-in-law sleep, let all the kindredsleep, let the people (who are stationed) 
around sleep. [Let the son-in-law: sastu vis'pati: ja_ma_tr., the master ofall; 
gr.hi, the householder]. 

7.055.06 The man who sits, or he who walks, or he who sees us, of these we shut 
up the eyes, so that they maybe as unconscious as the mansion. 

7.055.07 We put men to sleep through the irresisible might or the bull with a 
thousand horns, who rises out of theocean. [The bull: saharas'r.n:go vr.s.abho 
yah samudra_d uda_carat, the sun with a thousand rays; through theworship of the 
sun, at a later date, Kuma_ra was the patron of house-breakers]. 

7.055.08 We put to sleep all those women are lying in the courtyard in litter on 
the bed, the wom who aredecorated with holiday perfumes. [striyo ya_h 
pun.yagandha_h man:galya gandha_h, wearing garlands offragrant flowers on 
festival occasions, as at marriages].

7.056.01 Who are these resplendent chiefs, the dwellers in one abode, the sons 
of Rudra, friends of man, atpresent well-mounted? 

7.056.02 No one indeed knows their origin, they alone respectively know their 

7.056.03 They go together by their own pure paths; roaring like the wind, and 
fleet as falcons, they mutually rivaleach other. 

7.056.04 The sage may know those white-complexioned beings (the Maruts), whom 
the vast Pr.s.n.i born at herudder. [White-complexioned: eta_ni ninya = s'veta 
varn.a_ni bhu_ta_ni maruta_tmaka_ni, white-coloured beings,identical with the 
Maruts; bore at her udder: udho babha_ra: udhas = firmament of the womb]. 

7.056.05 May the people, through (the favours of) the Maruts, always victorious, 
possessed of male posterity,and in the enjoyment of wealth. 

7.056.06 The Maruts rapidly repair to the place (of their destination), richly 
decorated with ornaments, investedwith beauty, terrible by their strength. 

7.056.07 Terrible be your strength, steadfast your energies, prosperous be the 
company of the Maruts. 

7.056.08 Glorious is your vigour, unrelenting are your minds; (the exertion) of 
your irresistible force, the agitator(of the trees), is like (the manifold tone 
of the prayers of) a muni. [Manifold tone: dhuni muniriva = the agitationlike a 
muni; the sounds produced by the shaking of the trees are like the varied 
intonations of a reciter ofpraises]. 

7.056.09 Withhold from us your ancient blazing (weapon) let not your displeasure 
light upon us at this sacrifice. 

7.056.10 I invoke your beloved names, Maruts, destroyers (of foes), that they 
who are desirous of the offeringmay be satisfied. 

7.056.11 Bearers are (the Maruts) of bright weapons, rapid are they in motion, 
wearers of brilliant ornaments,and self-radiators of their persons. 

7.056.12 Pure oblations be offered, Maruts, to you who are pure; the shedders of 
water proceed by truth to truth,pure, purifying, of pure birth. 

7.056.13 Bright ornaments, Maruts, are on your shoulders, shining (necklaces) 
are pendant on your breasts,glittering with rain, like lightnings, you are 
distributing the waters with your weapons. [Bright ornaments:kha_dayo alan:ka_ra 
vis'es.ah: kha_di, a guard of the hand (RV.; Maruts are bearers of 
lances on theirshoulders; shining necklaces: rukma = rocama_na, shining; 
elsewhere Maruts are said to have golden cuirasseson their breasts; possibly 
rukma may mean the same]. 

7.056.14 Your celestial splendours, Maruts, spread wide; objects of worship, you 
send down (the waters) thatbeat down (the dust); accept Maruts, this your 
portion of the domestic worship of the household multiplied athousand-fold. 
[Waters that beat down the dust: na_ma_ni tiradhvam pa_m.su_n namayanti na_ma_ni 
udaka_ni:na_ma_ni = waters, for they bend down the dust; multipled a thousand-
fold: How can one portion become athousand? The quantity of an offering is 
computed, not by its actual number, but by that assigned to it by thedivinity to 
whom it is offered, ya_vad eka_ devata_ ka_mayate ya_vadeka ta_vad a_hutih 

7.056.15 If, Maruts, you justly appreciate the praise of the devout offerer of 
(sacrificial) food, conjoined withoblations, then promptly bestow (upon us) 
riches, comprehending excellent male posterity, such as no unfriendlyman can 
take away. 

7.056.16 The swift-moving Maruts are like rapid horses, shining like men gazing 
at a festival innocent as childrenin the (paternal) mansion, frolicsome as 
calves, they are the dispensers of water. 

7.056.17 May the munificent Maruts, filling the beautiful heaven and earth with 
their glory, make us happy; yourfatal weapon, the render of clouds, the 
destroyer of men, be far from us; bend down to us, Vasus, with blessings. 

7.056.18 Praising your universal liberality, Maruts, the ministrant priest 
repeatedly worships you, seated (in thesacrificial chamber); he, showerers (of 
benefits), who is the guardian of the zealous (worshipper), he (the priest),who 
is void of insincerity, glorifies you with hymns. 

7.056.19 These, Maruts, give pleasure to the zealous (worshipper); these humble 
the strength of the strong man;they entertain severe displeasure towards the 
withholder of offerings. 

7.056.20 These, Maruts, encourage the prosperous man; they encourage the (poor) 
wanderer; they, as Vasus,are pleased (with you); showerers (of benefits), 
dissipate the darkness; grant us many sons and grandsons. 

7.056.21 Never, Maruts, may we be excluded from your bounty; let us not, lords 
of chariots, be last in itsapportionment; make us sharers in that desirable 
opulence which, showerers (of benefit), is born of you. 

7.056.22 When heroic men, filled with wrath, assemble for (the sake of 
conquering) many plants and people;then, Maruts, sons of Rudra, be our defenders 
in battles against our enemies. [Many plants: bahvis.u os.adhis.uviks.u = 
mahati_s.u os.adhis.u praja_su jetavya_su, in great plants and people to be 
subdued; by planta orvegetables, os.adhi, the reference is, perhaps, to 
cultivated lands]. 

7.056.23 You have bestowed, Maruts, many (benefits) on our forefathers, which 
praiseworthy (benefits) havebeen celebrated in former times; by the (favour of 
the) Maruts the fierce (warrior) is victorious in combats; by the(favour of the) 
Maruts the worshipper ever obtains food. [marudbhir it sanita_ va_jam arva_: 
arva_ = stotrairabhiganta_, one who overcomes by praises; or, a horse; through 
the Maruts a horse is the obtainer (of success)in war]. 

7.056.24 May our male progeny, Maruts, be vigorous, one who is intelligent, the 
scatterer of (hostile) men, bywhom we may cross the water (of enmity) to a 
secure dwelling; may we, your (servants), dwell in our own abode. 

7.056.25 May Indra, Varun.a, Mitra, Agni, the waters, the plants, the trees, be 
pleased with us; may we recline inhappiness upon the lap of the Maruts; and do 
you ever cherish us with blessings.


7.057.01 Adorable (Maruts), the worshippers vigorously celebrate at sacrifices 
your appellation of company ofthe Maruts, they who cause the spacious heaven and 
earth to tremble, the clouds to rain, the move everywhereterrible. 

7.057.02 The Maruts verily are the benefactors of him who praises them, the 
gratifiers of the wishes of theinstitutor of the solemnity; do you, being 
pleased, sit down today upon the grass at our ceremony, to partake (ofthe 
sacrificial food). 

7.057.03 No other (deities give) such (good things) as the Maruts, as they shine 
with brilliant (ornaments),weapons and persons; illumining heaven and earth, 
wide-radiating, they heighten their common lustre for (our)good. 

7.057.04 May that blazing (weapon) of your, Maruts, be far from us, although, 
through human infirmities, we offeryou offence; let us not, adorable Maruts, be 
exposed to your (shaft); may your favour the source of abundance,ever be shown 
to us. 

7.057.05 May the Maruts, who are irreproachable, pure, and purifying, delight in 
this our ceremony; protect us,adorable Maruts, with favourable thoughts; be ever 
anxious to sustain us with food. 

7.057.06 May the glorified Maruts partake of the oblations, they who, 
accompanied by the bending waters, arethe leaders of rites; bestow water, 
Maruts, upon our progeny, return suitable opulence for (the donation 
ofsacrificial) riches. 

7.057.07 Glorified Maruts, do you all come at the time of sacrifice to the 
presence of the worshippers along withyour protections, for you are they who, of 
your own will, multiply our hundreds; do you ever cherish us withblessings. 
[Multiply our hundreds: ye nas tmana_ s'atino vardhayanti, who increase us, that 
with sons, grandsonsand the like, we may become hundreds].


7.058.01 Offer worship to the company (of the Maruts), the associated dispensers 
of moisture, which is powerfulover the celestial region; the Maruts, by their 
greatness, oppress both heaven and earth; they spread from theearth and the 
firmament to heaven. [They spread: naks.ante na_kam nirr.ti avam.sa_t: nir.r.ti 
= bhu_mi; avam.sa= antariks.a]. 

7.058.02 Formidable, high-spirited, quick-moving Maruts, your birth is from the 
illustrious Rudra; every gazer onthe sun is alarmed with the course of you who 
are pre-eminent in lustre and strength. [Ever gazer: vis'vahsvardr.k = all 
living creatures; or, what looks up to the sky, that is, a tree; trees are 
alarmed at the approach ofthe wind]. 

7.058.03 Grant, Maruts, to us who are affluent (in sacrificial offering) 
abundant food; accept complacently ourearnest praise; the path you follow is not 
hurtful to living beings; may it increase our (prosperity) by (your)desirable 

7.058.04 The pious man protected, Maruts, by you, is the possessor of hundreds; 
the assailant, overcomer (ofhis foes), protected by you, is the possessor of 
thousands; protected by you, the emperor slays his enemy; maythe wealth that is 
given, agitators, by you ever be abundant. 

7.058.05 I adore those sons of the showerer, Rudra; may the Maruts, repeatedly 
invoked, again come to us; maywe expiate (by praise) whatever we have committed 
secretly or openly against the swift-moving Maruts, by whichthey are displeased. 

7.058.06 The pious praise of the opulent Maruts has been recited; may the Maruts 
be gratified by this hymn;remove far from us, showerers (of benefits), those who 
hate us; and do you ever cherish us with blessings.

7.059.01 Agni, Varun.a, Mitra, Maruts, grant happiness, gods, to him whom you 
preserve from (the perils of) this(world), whom you guide here (to the paths of 
virtue). [From this world: yam tra_yadhvam idam idam yam canayatha: idam = itas, 
from this, bhayahetoh, cause of peril; idam = sanma_rgam, road of virtue]. 

7.059.02 Through your protection, gods, the man who worships on an auspicious 
day overcomes hisadversaries; he who offers abundant (sacrificial) food to you 
to detain you (at his rite) enlarges his habitation. 

7.059.03 Vasis.t.ha overlooks not the very lowest among you; Maruts, who are 
desirous (of the libation), do youall drink together today of our effused Soma. 

7.059.04 Your protection, leaders (of rites), yields no detriment to him whom 
you defend in battles; may yourlatest favour return to us; come quickly, eager 
to drink the Soma. 

7.059.05 Do you whose riches are connected together come to partake of the 
(sacrificial) viands, for Maruts, Ioffer to you these oblations, therefore go 
not away to any other (sacrifice). 

7.059.06 Sit down on our sacred grass; come to bestow upon us desirable riches; 
doing no harm, Maruts delightin the sweet Soma libation presented at this 

7.059.07 May the Maruts yet unrevealed, decorating their persons, descend like 
black-backed swans; let theentire company gather round me like happy men 
rejoicing together at a solemn rite. 

7.059.08 The man, Maruts, who wounds our feelings, he who, rebuked by all, yet 
seeks, Vasus, to kill us, hewoudl bind us in the wounds of (Varun.a), the 
avenger (of iniquity), such a man do you destroy with a consumingfatal weapon. 

7.059.09 Maruts, desroyers of foes, this oblaion is designed for you; do you, 
who are the devourers of enemies,(coming) with your protections, graciously 
accept it. 

7.059.10 Objects of domestic worship, munificent Maruts, come with your 
protections; go not away. 

7.059.11 Maruts, of independent strength, who are far-seeing, glorious as the 
sun, come hither, come hither, Iinvoke you to the sacrifice. [Glorious as the 
sun: su_rya vacas = sun-skinned]. 

7.059.12 We worship Tryambaka, whose fame is fragrant, the augmenter of 
increase; may I be liberated fromdeath, and, like the urva_ruka from its stalk, 
but not to immortality; let us worship Trayambaka, whose fame isfragrant, the 
augmenter of increase; may I be liberated from death like the urva_ruka from its 
stalk, but not untoimmortality. [Tryambaka: the father, ambuka of the three 
deities, Brahma, Vis.n.u and Rudra; also identified withmahatva (R.gvidha_na); 
whose fame is fragrant: sugandhim = prasa_ritapun.ya ki_rtim, whose fame of 
virtue isspread; in like manner as the fragrance of a tree full in flower sheds 
sweetness, so spreads the fragrance of holyactions; the augmenter of increase: 
pus.t.i vardhanam, the augmenter of nutrition, jagad-vi_jam, the seed of 
theworld; or, the multiplier of good things subservient to objects of bodily 
enjoyment, wealh,s'ari_radhana_divis.aya_n vardhayati yah; may I be liberated: 
mr.tyor maks.iya = may I be liberated from theworld, or the revolutions of life 
and death; may I attain moks.a; urva_ruka = karkat.i, a species of cucumber; 
or,karkandhu, which, when ripe falls of itself from its stalk; but not to 
immortality: ma_mr.ta_t ma_ a_ amr.ta, not toor until the immortal or 
immortality; either the long life of the gods or svarga paradise; tryambaka 
=na_tratrayopeta_m rudram, the triocular rudra; sugandhim = divya gandhopetam, 
of celestial fragrance (yatha_vr.ks.asya sampus.pitasya du_ra_dgandho va_tyevam 
pun.yasya kr.rman.o du_ra_dgandho va_ti: Taittiri_yaA_ran.yaka)].

7.060.01 Su_rya, when rising today, declare the truh to Mitra and Varun.a, that 
we are void of sin; may we, Aditi,be (approved of) among the gods; praising you, 
Aryaman, may we be dear to you. 

7.060.02 This Su_rya, the beholder of man, rises, Mitra and Varun.a, upon both 
(heaven and earth), moving (inthe sky); he who is the preserver of all that is 
stationary or moveable, witnessing the upright acts or the sins ofmortals. 

7.060.03 He has harnessed his seven bay steeds, Mitra and Varun.a, (to come) 
from your commondwelling-place, (the firmament); the horses that, shedding 
water, convey that Su_rya who, friendly to you both,(contemplates all) regions, 
and looks carefully upon living creatures as (a herdsman) upon the herd. 

7.060.04 For yo, (Mitra and Varun.a), the sweet-flavoured viands have been 
prepared; the sun has ascended theshining firmament, for whom the A_dityas and 
the consentient Mitra, Varun.a, Aryaman make ready paths. 

7.060.05 These (deities), Mitra, Aryaman, Varun.a, are the detecters of much 
untruth; these unconquered sons ofAditi, dispensers of happiness, are magnified 
in the hall of sacrifice. 

7.060.06 These, the unsubdued Mitra, Varun.a and Aryaman, animate with energies 
the unconscious (sleepers);repairing tot he intelligent performer (of pious 
acts), they lead (him), by safe pahs (to heaven), removing alliniquity. 

7.060.07 (Beholding) with unclosing eyes, and cognizant (of the things) of 
heaven and earth, they conduct theignorant man (to duty); in the lowes depth of 
the river, (through them), there is a bottom; may they lead us to theopposite 
shore of the vast expanse. [To the opposite shore: vis'pitasya pars.am: 
vya_pitasya, edpanded; theimplied substantive: karman.ah, act, duty]. 

7.060.08 Including our sons and grandsons in that preserving and auspicious 
felicity which Aditi, Mitra andVarun.a confer upon the liberal donor (of the 
oblation), may we never, acting precipitately, incur the displeasureof the 

7.060.09 Let my adversary desecrate the altar by (ill-expressed) praises; 
repelled by Varun.a, may he (undergo)various sufferings; may Aryaman defend us 
from those who hate us; confer, showerers (of benefits), a vastregion upon the 
liberal donor (of oblations). 

7.060.10 The association of these (three deities) is of mysterious lustre; by 
their secret strength they overcome(all enemies); showerers (of benefits), 
through fear (of you our opponents) are trembling; have mercy upon us inthe 
mightiness of your strength. 

7.060.11 These munificent (deities) conjointly accept the praise of the 
worshipper, and bestow a spaciousmansion for a dwelling upon him who, for the 
sake of food and excellent riches, devotes his mind to yourglorification. [yo 
brahman.e sumatim a_yaja_te = yo yajama_no dada_ti s'obhana_m buddhim 
yus.matstoktru_pa_ya, the institutor of the rite, who gives pure or pious 
understanding tot he nature or form of yourpraise]. 

7.060.12 Excellent Mitra and Varun.a, to you this adoration at sacrifices is 
addressed; remove from us alldifficulties, and ever cherish us with blessings.

7.061.01 Spreading arond the beautiful light, Mitra and Varun.a, of you two 
divinities, Su_rya rises; he whobeholds all existing beings apprehends the acts 
of mortals. 

7.061.02 The sage, the solemnizer of sacrifice, the ancient hearer (of holy 
prayer), earnestly repeats, Mitra andVarun.a, your praises; he whose prayers, 
doers of good deeds, you favour, whose acts (of worship) yourecompense not for 
years. [The ancient hearer: di_rghas'rut = ciraka_lam s'rota_, a hearer for a 
long time, anepithet of Vasis..ha; you recompense not: a_ yatkratva_ na s'aradah 
pr.naithe = yat karma bahu_nsam;vatsara_n apu_rayethe, whose act you fill or 
fulfil many years; na = and, also, negative not; the merit of theworship is so 
great that it cannot be adequately rewarded except after a long period]. 

7.061.03 You are vaster, Mitra and Varun.a, than the ample earth, vaster, 
bounteous donors, than the gloriousand expansive heaven; you maintain beauty in 
plants and in people, diligent observers of truth, and vigilantlyprotecting 
(us). [You are vaster: pra = praririca_te]. 

7.061.04 Praise the splendour of Mitra and Varun.a, whose strength, by its 
might, keeps heaven and earthasunder; may the days of those who differ not 
worship pass without male descendants; amy he who delights insacrifice increase 
in prosperity. 

7.061.05 Unperplexed, all-pervading showerers (of benefits), these (praises) are 
for you, in which nothingsurprising, no adoration (worthy of you) is beheld; the 
insincere commendations of men serve as offences;eulogies of you, althogh 
offered in secret, are not unappreciated. 

7.061.06 I offer sacrifice to you two with praises, I invoke you, Mitra and 
Varun.a, when in trouble; may thepresent hymns be capable of gratifying you; may 
these (my) prayers be acceptable to you both. 

7.061.07 To you, divine Mitra and Varun.a, to you this adoration at sacrifices 
is addressed; remove from us alldifficulties, and ever cherish us with 


7.062.01 Su_rya spreads his vast and numerous rays over all the crowds of men; 
shining bright by day, he isbeheld (by all) the same, the creator, the created, 
he is glorified by his worshippers. [The creator: kratva_ kr.tah= sarvasya 
karta_ praja_patina_ sam;pa_ditah, the maker of all produced by Praja_pati]. 

7.062.02 Rise up before us, Su_rya, with your glorious white horses; declare us 
free from sin to Mitra, Varun.a,Aryaman, and Agni. 

7.062.03 May Varun.a, Mitra and Agni, the alleviators of pain, the observers of 
truth, bestow upon us thousands(of riches); may they, the givers of delight, 
grant us excellent (food); glorified by us, many they fulfil our desires. 

7.062.04 Indivisible and mighty heaven and earth protect us who, of fortunate 
birth, have knowledge of you both;let us not incur the displeasure of Varun.a, 
or of Va_yu, or of Mitra, the best beloved of men. 

7.062.05 Stretch forth your arms for the prolongation of our existence, bedew 
with water the pastures of ourcattle, render us honoured among men; ever 
youthful Mitra and Varun.a, hear these my invocations. 

7.062.06 May Mitra, Varun.a, Aryaman grant affluence to us and to our posterity; 
may all paths be easy of accessunto us; and do you ever cherish us with 

7.063.01 The auspicious Su_rya rises, the eye of all, the common (parent) of 
men; the divine eye of Mitra andVarun.a, who breaks through the glooms as 
through (investing) skin. 

7.063.02 The animator of men arises, the great rain-shedding banner of Su_rya 
rolling on the universal wheel,which the white steeds yoked to his car drag 
along. [Great rain-shedding: maha_n ketur arn.avah su_ryasya, thebanner or 
emblem of Su_rya is Su_rya; su_ryasya = suryah]. 

7.063.03 Delighted by the praises (of his worshippers), the radiant sun rises 
from the lap of the dawns; thatdivine sun gratifies my desires, who limits not 
the lustre that is common (to all). 

7.063.04 The bright and glorious sun rises from the firmament far-going, 
traversing (the heavens), diffusing light;verily all beings animated by Su_rya 
proceed and execute their assigned labours. 

7.063.05 He travels the path which the immortals have prepared for his course, 
darting along like a hawk; weworship you, Mitra and Varun.a, when the sun has 
risen, with praises and oblations. 

7.063.06 May Mitra, Varun.a and Aryaman grant affluence to us and to our 
posterity; may all paths be easy ofaccess to us, and do you ever cherish us with 

7.064.01 Ruling over the water that are in heaven and earth, impelled by you, 
(the clouds) assume the form ofrain may the auspiciously manifested Mitra, the 
royal Aryaman, the powerul Varun.a, accept our oblation.[Impelled by you the 
clouds: pra va_m ghr.tasya nirn.ijo dadi_ran = yuva_bhya_m prerita_ megha_ 
udakasyaru_pa_n.i prayacchanti, impelled by you the clouds give the forms of 
water; or, ghr.ta keeps its ordinary sense,the forms of butter, i.e., oblations, 
are given to you]. 

7.064.02 Sovereigns, mighty preservers of water, powerful lords of rivers, come 
to our presence; send down tous munificent Mitra and Varun.a, from the 
firmament, sustenance and rain. 

7.064.03 May Mitra, Varun.a, the divine Aryaman, conduct us by the most 
practicable paths, then, (when wedesire their guidance), accordingly as Aryaman 
promises to the liberal donor (of oblations), may we, enjoying theprotection of 
the gods, rejoice in abundance, together with posterity. [Rejoice: is'a madema 
saha, with foodrejoice, together with posterity, putra_dibhih]. 

7.064.04 Mitra and Varun.a, bedew with water him who fabricates your chariot in 
his mind, offering high praise,the people well affected towards him. 

7.064.05 Varun.a and Mitra, this praise, pure as the Soma libation, has been 
offered to you, and also, Aryaman,(to you); protect our rites; be awake to our 
praises; and do you ever cherish us with blessings. [To Aryaman:va_yave = 


7.065.01 When the sun has risen, I invoke Mitra and you, Varun.a, of pure 
vigour, whose imperishable andsuperior might is triumphant in the crowded 
conflict over all enemies. 

7.065.02 They verily are mighty among the gods; they are rulers; they bestow 
upon us a numerous posterity;may we obtain from you, Mitra and Varun.a, whether 
on earth or in heaven, and whereever the (passing) daysmay preserve us. 

7.065.03 Holders are you of many fetters, barriers against the irreligious, 
invincible by hostile mortals; may wecross over all the danger, Mitra and 
Varun.a, by the path of sacrifice, to you, as (we cross over) water by a boat. 

7.065.04 Come, Mitra and Varun.a, to our offered oblation sprinkle our place of 
sacrifice with water and withviands (who) in this world (may present to you 
such) excellent (donations) that you may (thereby be induced to)gratify mankind 
with celestial and beautiful water. [Lit. = toward you two here an excellent to 
man bestow of watercelestial, beautiful (or flowing): prati va_m atra varama_ 
jana_ya pr.n.i_tam udnah divyasya caroh]. 

7.065.05 Varun.a and Mitra, this praise, pure as the Soma libation, has been 
offered to you, and also, Aryaman(to you); protect our rites; be awake to our 
praises; and do you ever cherish us with blessings.

7.066.01 May this our propitiatory praise, accompanied by oblations, proceed to 
you, Mitra and Varun.a, ofreiterated manifestations. [tuvija_tayoh, repeatedly 
born, as presiding over day and night they may be said to bemanifest repeatedly 
in daily succession]. 

7.066.02 You whom the gods uphold for their invigoration, both mighty, masters 
of strength and of diffusiveradiance. 

7.066.03 Protectors of our dwellings, protectors of our persons, Mitra and 
Varun.a, perfect the rites of youradorers. 

7.066.04 May Mitra, the destroyer of sin, Aryaman, Savita_, Bhaga, bestow (upon 
us), today at sun-rise what (wepray for). 

7.066.05 May this our dwelling be well protected, liberal deities, on your 
departure, you who purify us from sin. 

7.066.06 And who are sovereign over all, and, with Aditi, preside over this 
unobstructed and great ceremony. [utasvara_jo aditiradabdhasya vratasya ye maho 
ra_ja_na is'ate: aditis tes.a_m ma_ta_, of them Aditi is the mother,or 
mitra_dayo aditis'ca = Mitra and the rest and Aditi]. 

7.066.07 I glorify you, Mitra and Varun.a, and Aryaman, the consumer of enemies 
when the sun has risen. 

7.066.08 May this praise (be effective) for unimpeached strength, alone with 
golden treasure; may it (beeffective), sages, for the fulfilment of (the objects 
of) the sacrifice. 

7.066.09 May we be thine, divine Varun.a; may we, along with pious worshippers, 
be, Mitra, thine; may we obtainfood and water. [is.am svas ca dhi_mahi = annam 
udakam ca dha_raya_mahe, may we retain food and water;the tr.ca, i.e. this and 
the two preceding r.ca's are repeated at the morning sacrifice]. 

7.066.10 Manifold radiant as the sun, Agni-tongued augmenters of sacrifice, you 
who have limited the threeuniversal sacrifices with comprehensive rites. 
[Limited: tri_n.i ye yemuh vidatha_ni dhi_tibhih vis'va_niparibhu_tibhih = ye 
tri_n.i vya_pta_ni ks.itya_distha_na_ni paribha_vukaih karmaih prayacchanti, who 
give thethree spread places, earth and the rest, with overcoming acts; Mitra and 
the rest are worshipped as the objectsof three rites, with definite ceremonies 
or at definite seasons]. 

7.066.11 Who have established the year, and then the month and the day, the 
sacrifice, the night, and the holytext, they, the royal deities, Varun.a, Mitra, 
Aryaman, enjoy unrivalled might. 

7.066.12 Therefore today at sunrise we solicit you with hymns for (wealth), 
which Varun.a, Mitra, Aryaman,bearers of water, you convey. 

7.066.13 Accepters of rites, generated for rites, augmenters of rites, fierce 
enemies of the neglecter of rites, maywe, as well as those men who are your 
adorers, be in (the enjoyment of) the highest felicity, all confirmed by 
you.[Those men who are: tes.a_m vah sumne succharidis.t.ame = of those of you in 
the most blissful opulence, or inhappiness, united with a most delightful 
dwelling, sukhatame dhane atyantaraman.i_ya gr.hayukte sukhe va_]. 

7.066.14 That beautiful orb (of the sun) rises on the near margin of the sky as 
the swift, divine, white-coloured(steed) bears it along for the beholding of all 

7.066.15 The seven gliding steeds convey the sun, the lord of every individual 
moving or stationary thing,traversing the whole world in his chariot for the 
good (of all). [The lord: s'i_rs.n.ah s'i_rs.n.o jagatastasthus.aspatim. the 
lord of stationary and moveable head by head; s'iras is connected with the 
horses of thesun: s'irasa svasvas'ira sa vahanti su_ryam, they bear the sun by 
his own head; head = a being with a head,s'irah s'abdena tad van pada_rthah, 
that is to say, the whole of such objects, tasya kartsnyam, or the best of 
all,sarvasya s'res.t.ham; it thus implies only each or individual]. 

7.066.16 That pure eye (of the universe), beneficial of the gods, rises; may we 
behold it for a hundred years; maywe live a hundred years. [Yajus. 36.24 adds: 
s'r.n.uya_ma s'aradah s'atam, prabrava_ma s'aradah s'atam,adi_nah sya_ma 
s'aradah s'atam, bhu_ya_s'ca s'aradah s'atam, may we hear, may we speak, may we 
beindependent, for a hundred years or more]. 

7.066.17 Unconquerable, resplendent Varun.a and Mitra, (induced) by our praises, 
come to drink the Soma. 

7.066.18 Gentle Mitra and Varun.a, destroyers of foes, come from heaven with 
your glories, and drink the Soma. 

7.066.19 Come, Mitra and Varun.a, leaders of rites, propitiated by the oblation, 
and drink the Soma, augmentersof the sacred rite.

7.067.01 Lords of men, (I approach) to adore your chariot with devout praise and 
oblation, I address it as if itwere a messenger to awaken you, adorable deities, 
as a son (addresses) his parents. 

7.067.02 Kindled by us, Agni blazes, the extremities of the darkness are seen 
near at hand, the banner (of thesun) is perceived rising with the glory on the 
east of the dawn, the daughter of heaven. 

7.067.03 Verily, As'vins, the pious priest repeating (your praises) glorifies 
you, Na_satya_s with hymns; cometherefore by formerly-trodden paths to our 
presence with your chariot, familiar with heaven, laden with treasure. 

7.067.04 Relying on you, As'vins, as protectors, desirous of wealth, Ma_dhvis, I 
invoke you when the Soma iseffused; may your stout horses bring you (hither); 
drink the sweet Soma poured out by us. 

7.067.05 Divine As'vins, render my sincere and undisturbed adoration, offered 
for the sake of riches, (efficacious)for their acquisition; preserve all my 
caculties in (the time of) battle; protectors of pious acts (influenced) by 
ouracts, bestow upon us (wealth). 

7.067.06 Protect us, As'vins, in these pious acts, may our procreative power 
fail not; but (through your favour)possessing sons and grandsons, distributing 
desired riches and enjoying ample wealth, may we accomplish theworship of the 

7.067.07 This treasure given by us has been placed, Ma_dhvis, before you, like 
(an envoy) who has come to thepresence (of a prince) for (acquiring his) 
friendship; come to our presence with benevolent thoughts, acceptingthe 
oblations offered among human beings. 

7.067.08 Nourishers of all, the chariot of you two, who are associated in a 
common purpose, traverses the sevenflowing (streams); the excellent horses 
harnessed by the gods, who bear you rapidly, careering in the car, arenever 

7.067.09 Be propitious to those who are affluent (in oblations), who offer the 
wealth that is to be offered for thesake of riches; they who encourage a kinsman 
with kind commendations, distributing wealth of cattle and ofhorses. [Be 
propitious: asas'cata_ bhu_tam = anuraktau bhavata_m; kutrapi asajyama_nau, 
being anywhereunoccupied, unattached; i.e., be unattached to, or uninterested 
in, any except the present worshippers; akinsman: bandhu = adhvaryu, or 
ministrant priest, phalena badhna_ti, one who binds by a reward]. 

7.067.10 Ever youthful As'vins, hear today my invocation; come As'vins, to the 
dwelling where the oblation isprepared; grant wealth (to the offerer); elevate 
the worshipper and to you ever cherish us with blessings.

7.068.01 Illustrious As'vins, lords of handsome horses, come hither, 
propitiated; Dasrasa_, by the praises of youradorer, and partake of our 
consecrated oblations. 

7.068.02 The exhilarating viands have been prepared for you; come quickly to 
partake of my oblation;disregarding the invocations of an adversary, listen to 

7.068.03 Your chariot, As'vins, in which you ride with Su_rya, hastens towards 
us at our solicitations, traversingthe regions as swift as thought, and laden 
with a hundred blessings. 

7.068.04 When the stone, seeking to propitiate you two divinities, is raised 
aloft, and loudly sounds, expressingfor you the Soma, then the pious worshipper 
brings you back, beautiful divinities, by his oblations. 

7.068.05 Wonderful, verily, is the wealth that is yours; you have liberated from 
the cave Atri, who is dear to you,and enjoys your protection. [You have 
liberated: nyatraye mahis.vantam yuyotam = you separated the mahis'vatfrom Atri; 
mahis.vat = ribisa; ribise = apagatapraka_s.e pi_d.ayantragr.he, in a dark house 
of implements oftorture; ribisa = agni, tus.a_gni, fire of chaff; Legend: Atri 
was thrown into a machine-room with a hundred doors,where he was roasted; 
s'atadva_re pi_d.ayantragr.he... tus.a_gnim s'i_tenodakena avarayetham, 
youextinguished with cold water the chaff fire by which Atri was burnt when 
thrown into the house of machines oftorture with a hundred doors; cf. RV. 10. 

7.068.06 Such was your benevolence, As'vins, to Cyavana, praising and offering 
oblations, that you in requitalrescued his body from departure. 

7.068.07 When faithless friends had abandoned Bhujyu in the midst of the ocean, 
you brought him to shore,devoted to and relying upon you. 

7.068.08 You have granted (his desires) to Vr.ka, exhausted by his devotions; 
when called upon you havelistened to S'ayu; you are they who have filled the 
barren cow (with milk) as (a river) with water; you have(endowed her) with 
strength, As'vins, by your deeds. 

7.068.09 This your devoted worshipper, wwaking before the dawn, praises with 
hymns; nourish him with food,and let the cow (nourish him) with her milk; and do 
you ever cherish us with blessings.

7.069.01 May your golden chariot, drawn by your vigorous horses, blocking up 
heaven and earth, come to us,following the track of the waters, radiant with 
(glowing) wheels, laden with viands, the protector of men, thereceptacle of 

7.069.02 Renowned among the five orders of beings, furnished with three benches, 
harnessed at will, may itcome hither; that (vehicle) wherewith you repair to 
devout mortals, whatsoever, As'vins, directing your course. 

7.069.03 Well-horsed and celebrated, come, As'vins, to our presence; drink, 
Dasras, the sweet pledge; yourchariot, conveying you, with your spouse, furrows 
with its two wheels the extremities of the sky. 

7.069.04 The daughter of Su_rya made choice of your chariot at the approach of 
night; you defend the devoutworshipper by your deeds, when the resplendent 
(sacrificial) food proceeds to you to secure your protection. 

7.069.05 Riders in the chariot, As'vin, come for our participation and welfare 
to this our sacrifice, at the dawn ofday, with that chariot which is clothed in 
radiance, and which, when harnessed, traverses its (appointed) road. 

7.069.06 Leaders of rites, like (thirsty) cattle, thirsting for the radiant 
(Soma), hasten today to our sacrifice; inmany ceremonies do the pious propitiate 
you with praises; let not other devout worshippers detain you. 

7.069.07 You bore up Bhujyu, As'vins, from the waters, when cast into the sea, 
bearing him to shore by yourexertions with your undecaying, unwearied, 
unharassed horses. 

7.069.08 Ever youthful As'vins, hear today this my invocation; come, As'vins, to 
the dwelling where the oblation isprepared, grant wealth (to the offerer), 
elevate the worshipper, and do you ever cherish us with blessings.

7.070.01 All-adored As'vins, come to our (sacrifice), to that place on earth 
which has been designated yours,which, like a swift, broad-backed horse, awaits 
you, and on which you are seated as firmly as in a dwelling. [Likea... broad-
backed horse: s'una-pr.s.t.hah = sukhakara, pleasant, delightful, vipulatva_t, 
from its breadth; as firmlyas in a dwelling: a yat sadhatur dhruvase na yonik: 
dhruva_ya niva_sa_ya stha_nam iva, like a place for adurable soil]. 

7.070.02 This excellent praise, redolent of food, propitiates you; the ewer has 
been heated in the dwelling of theworshipper, which, reaching you, fills the 
ocean and the rivers (through the rain it obtains), associating you (inthe 
rite), like two well-matched horses in a chariot. [The ewer: gharma = pravarga; 
gharmah pravargas'ca]. 

7.070.03 To whatever places you may descend, As'vins, from heaven, whether 
amidst the spreading plants, oramong men, or sitting on the summit of the 
clouds, be the bearers of food to the man, the donor (of the oblation). 

7.070.04 Inasmuch, divine As'vins, as you accept that which is most acceptable 
in the plants and in the waters,and those (things) which are most suitable to 
you, (the offerings) of the R.s.is, therefore, bestowing upon usample riches, 
(favour us) as you have favoured, bestowing former couples. [That which is most 
acceptable: i.e.the cakes of meal and the Soma offered in sacrifices; former 
couples: sacrifiers, or institutors of sacrifices,yajama_nas, and their wives]. 

7.070.05 As'vins, hearing the many prayers of the R.s.is, you look (favourably) 
upon (us); come to the sacrifice ofthis man, and may your desired favour be 
(shown) him. 

7.070.06 Come, Na_satya_s, to the excellent Vasis.t.ha, the worshiper who, 
accompanied by the priests, ispresent, offering oblations and repeating praises; 
these prayers are recited to (bring) you (hither). 

7.070.07 This adoration, As'vins, this praise (is for you) be gratified, 
showerers (of benefits), by this laudationmay these eulogies, addressed to you, 
reach you; and do you ever cherish us with blessing.

7.071.01 Night retires before the dawn, the sister (of the As'vins); the dark 
night leaves the path clear for theradiant (sun); upon you, who are affluent in 
horses, affluenet in cattle, we call day and night; keep away from usthe 

7.071.02 Come to the mortal, the donor (of oblations) bringing desired wealth in 
your chariot; keep afar from usfamine and sickness; day and night, Ma_dhvis, 
protect us. 

7.071.03 May your docile and vigorous (horses) bring hither your chariot at the 
approaching dawn; conducthither, As'vins, your radiating, wealth-laden chariot, 
with your rain-bestowing steeds. 

7.071.04 With that chariot, lords of men, which is your vehicle, which has three 
benches, is laden with wealth,and is the precursor of day, come Na_satya_s, to 
us; with that chariot which traverses (the sky) as yourall-pervading form. [Lord 
of men: nr.pati_ nr.n.a_m yajama_na_na_m pa_lakau; with that chariot: abhi yad 
vamvis'vapsnyo jiga_ti = yo ratho vam vya_ptaru_po abhigacchati; or, since 
Vasis.t.ha praises you, vis'vapsnyah =vasis.t.ha]. 

7.071.05 You exempted Cyavana from decay; you mounted Pedu upon a swift charger; 
you extricated Atri fromtorture and darkness; you replaced Ja_hus.a in his 
rebellious kingdom. [Mounted Pedu: niramhasastamasahspartam atrim = amhasah: 
ribisat tus.agneh saka_s'a_t tamasas'ca guhantah sthitaccha]. 

7.071.06 This adoration, As'vins, this praise (is for you), be gratified, 
showerer (of benefits), by this laudation;may these eulogies, addressed to you, 
reach you; and do you ever cherish us with blessings.

7.072.01 Come, Na_satya_s, with your cattle-giving, horse-bestowing, wealth-
yielding chariot; all praises gatherround you, who are resplendent with 
admirable beauty of a person. [All praises: vis'va niyutah: niyutah = 

7.072.02 Sharing in satisfaction with the gods, come to our presence, 
Na_satya_s, with your chariot, for thefriendship (that prevails) between you and 
us is from our forefathers; a common ancestor (is ours); acknowledgehis 
affinity. [A common ancestor: vivasvat and varun.a were both sons of Ka_s'yapa 
and Aditi; A_dityas are hesons of the former, Vasis.t.ha of the latter, making 
them first cousins]. 

7.072.03 Praises wakn up the As'vins, kindred adorations (arouse them) and the 
celestial dawns; the sage,addressing these laudations to the adorable heaven and 
earth glorifies the Na_satya_s in their presence. 

7.072.04 When the dawns arise, your worshippers, As'vins, profer you praises; 
the divine Savita_ casts hissplendours on high; the fires, with their (kindled) 
fuel, greatly glorify you. 

7.072.05 Come, Na_satya_s, from the west, from the east; (come), As'vins, from 
the south, from the north, comefrom every quarter with riches beneficial for the 
five classes of men; and do you ever cherish us with blessings.

7.073.01 Devoted to the gods, and hymning their praise, we have crossed to the 
opposite shore of this (state of)darkness; the worshipper invokes the As'vins, 
the doers of many deeds, the most mighty, the first born, theimmortal. 

7.073.02 The man who is dear to you, Na_satya_s, the invoker of the gods, has 
taken his seat, he who offersworship and repeats praise; be near, As'vins, and 
partake of the libation; supplied with food, I address you atsacrifices. 

7.073.03 Praising (the gods), we preparers the sacrifice for their coming; 
showerers (of benefits), be propitiatedby this pious laudation; despatched like 
a swift messenger, Vasis.t.ha arouses you, glorifying you with hymns. 

7.073.04 May those two, the bearers (of oblations), approach our people, 
destroyers of ra_ks.asas,well-nourished, strong-handed; accept our exhilarating 
(sacrificial) viands; injure us not, but come with goodfortune. 

7.073.05 Come, Na_satya_s, from the west, from the east; come, As'vins, from the 
south, from the north, comefrom every quarter with riches beneficial for the 
five classes of men; and do you ever cherish us with blessings.

7.074.01 These pious praises glorify you, radiant As'vins; I call upon you, who 
are rich, in acts of preservation,for you reach out to every individual. 

7.074.02 You are possessed, leaders (of rites), of marvellous wealth; bestow 
upon him who sincerely praisesyou; alike favourable-minded, direct your chariot 
to our presence; drink the sweet Soma. 

7.074.03 Come, As'vins, tarry near us, drink of the sweet libation; showerers 
(of benefits), by whom riches arewon, milk the rain (from the firmament); harm 
us not; come hither. 

7.074.04 Yours are the horses that, conveying you, bring you to the dwelling to 
the donor (of the oblation); divineleader (of rites), favourable inclined 
towards us, come with your rapid steed 

7.074.05 The pious worshippers now approaching you unite to offer (you 
sacrificial) food; do you two,Na_satya_s, grant to us who are affluent (in 
offerings) enduring fame and dwelling. 

7.074.06 Those worshippers, the benefactors of men, doing injury to none who go 
to you, like chariots (to thefarm), either prosper by their own strength, or 
inhabit an excellent abode. [Like chariots: ratha iva, like chariots:vr.hya_di 
pu_rn.a yatha_ pra_pnuvanti sva_migr.ham, loaded with rice and the like, arrive 
at the house of theowner].

7.075.01 The Dawn, the daughter of heaven, has risen; she comes, manifesting her 
magnificence in light; shescatters our foes as well as the odious darkness, and 
re-illuminates the paths thaat are to be trodden (by livingbeings). [Re-
illuminates: an:girastama_ pathya_ aji_gah =  gantritama padavir udgirati, she 
throws up the pathsthat are to be most traversed, i.e., pra_n.ina_m 
vyavaha_ra_ya praks.ayati, she gives light for the transactions ofliving 

7.075.02 Be unto us today the cause of great felicity; bestow, Us.as, (what is 
promotive) of great prosperity; giveus wonderful riches and reputation; grant, 
divine benefactrss of men, to mortals flourishing male posterity.[s'ravasyum = 
wishing for food; annavantam putram, a son having food]. 

7.075.03 These wonderful, immortal rays of the beautifu Dawn appear, giving 
birth to the pious rites of divineworship, and filling the firmament, they 
spread around. 

7.075.04 Exerting herself, she approaches rapidly from afar (to give light) to 
the five classes of men, witnessingthe thoughts of men, the daughter of heaven, 
the benefactress of living beings. 

7.075.05 The bride Su_rya, the distributress (of food), the possessor of 
wonderful wealth, she rules overtreasures (of every kind) of riches; hymned by 
the r.s.is, the waster away of life, the mistress of opulence, sherises 
glorified by the offerers (of oblations). 

7.075.06 The bright and wondrous steeds, conveying the resplendent Us.as, are 
visible; she advances, radiantin her every-way-moving chariot; she bestows 
wealth upon the man who practises sacred rites. 

7.075.07 True with the truthful, great with the great, divine with the deities, 
adorable with adorable, she dispersesthe solid (glooms), she displays (the 
pastures) of the cattle; all creatures, the cattle especially, are longing for 
theDawn. [True with the truthful: satya satyebhir mahati_ mahadbhir, devi_ 
devebhir yajata_ yajatraih: may apply tokiran.aih, rays-- rays of dawn-- or 
anyair devaih, with other deities, associated with whom the Dawn is true,mighty 
and adorable]. 

7.075.08 Bestow upon us, Us.as, wealth, comprising cattle horses, abundant food, 
and male offspring; let not oursacrifice incur reproach among men; and do you 
(gods), ever cherish us with blessings.

7.076.01 The divine Savita_, the leader of all, sends upwards the immortal, all-
benefiting light; the eye of thegods has been manifested for (the celebration 
of) religious rites; the Dawn has made all creatures visible. 

7.076.02 The paths that lead to the gods are beheld by me, innocuous and 
glorious with light; the banner ofUs.as is displayed in the east, she comes to 
the west, rising above high places. [unnataprades'ah: may alsomean, above the 

7.076.03 Many are the days that have dawned before the rising of the sun, on 
which you, Us.as, have beenbeheld like a wife going to an inconstant husband, 
and not like one deserting him. [Like a wife: yatha_ pari ja_raiva_caranti... na 
punar yati_va_: as in the world a virtuous woman is not seen abandoning a bad 
and vagranthusband, nor herself going astray]. 

7.076.04 Those ancient sages, our ancestors, observant of truth, rejoicing 
together with the gods, discovered thehidden ligh, and, reciters of sincere 
prayers, they generated the Dawn. 

7.076.05 When the common herd (of cattle had been stolen) then, associating, 
they concurred, nor mutuallycontended; they obstructed not the sacrifices of the 
gods, but, unoffending, proceeded with the light (they hadrecovered). [Lit. = in 
the common vast assembled they agree, nor do they strive mutually; they injure 
not theobservances of the gods, not harming, going with treasures, or with the 
vasus; vasubhih = us.asam tejobhih]. 

7.076.06 Auspicious Us.as, the Vasis.t.has, waking at dawn; and praising you, 
glorify you, glorify you with hymns;Us.as, who are the conductress of the cattle 
(to pasture), the bestower of food, dawn upon us; shine, well-bornUs.as, the 
first (of the gods). 

7.076.07 Us.as, the object of the sincere praises of the worshipper, is 
glorified when dawning, by the Vasis.t.hasbestowing upon us far-famed riches; do 
you (gods), ever cherish us with blessings.

7.077.01 Us.as shines radiant in the proximity (of the sun), like a youthful 
wife (in the presence of her husband),animating all existence to activity; Agni 
is to be kindled for the good of men; the light disperses the 

7.077.02 Advancing towards all, and spreading widely, the Dawn has risen; 
clothed in pure and brilliant vesture,she expands; of golden colour and of 
lovely radiance, she shines the parent of sounds, the leader of days. [Theparent 
of sounds: gava_m ma_ta_: go = speech or articulate sound, which at dawn is 
uttered by men and birds;or, as cow, it may refer to the going forth at dawn of 
cattle to pasture; gava_m ma_ta_ = the productress ofsunbeams, ras.mina_m 

7.077.03 The auspicious Us.as, bearing the eye of the gods (the light), leading 
her white and beautiful courser(the sun), is belied, manifested by her rays, 
disributress of wonderful wealth, mighty over all. [Leader her,,,: i.e.making 
the sun manifest; mighty over all: or, risen on account of the whole world, i.e. 
for the good of thetransactions of the world; vis'va_n anu sarvam jagad 
anulaks.ya prabhu_ta pravr.ddha sarvajagadvyavaha_rayetiarthah]. 

7.077.04 Dawn, Us.as, who are the bearer to us of desirable (wealth), and keep 
our adversary from us; renderthe wide earth free from peril; drive away those 
who hate us; bring to us treasures; bestow, opulent goddesswealth upon him who 
praises you. [And keep our adversary from us: yatha_ mitro du_re bhavati tatha_ 
vyucchetiarthah, so as to keep our adversary away from us]. 

7.077.05 Divine Us.as, illumine us with your brightest rays, prolonging our 
existence, bestowing upon us food,(and granting us), you who are adored by all, 
affluence, comprising cattle, horses, and chariots. 

7.077.06 Well-manifested Us.as, daughter of heaven, do you, whom the Vasis.t.has 
magnify with praises, bestowupon us brillian and infinite wealth; and do you, 
(gods), ever cherish us with blessings.

7.078.01 The first signs of the Dawn are visible, her rays are spreading not 
high; you bring us, Us.as, desirable(riches) in your vast, descending and 
resplendent chariot. 

7.078.02 The kindled fire increases everywhere, (and) the priests, glorifying 
(the dawn) with hymns; the divineUs.as comes, driving away all the evil glooms 
by her lustre. 

7.078.03 These luminous (beams of the) dawn are beheld in the east diffusing 
light; (the dawn) enger sacrifice,fire; the odious glooms, descending, 

7.078.04 The affluent daughter of heaven is perceived; all creatures behold the 
luminous dawn; she ascends herchariot laden with sustenance, which her easily-
yoked horses draw. 

7.078.05 Affluent (in sacrificial offerings), actuated by one mind, we and ours 
awaken you, (Us.as), today;luminous dawns, soften (the earth) with unctuous 
(dews) and do you, (gods) ever cherish us with blessings.[Actuated by one mind: 
sumanasam = s'obhanastutikah, having (i.e. offering) excellent praises (or 
hymns); softenthe earth: tilvila_yadhvam: tila = sesamum, or its oil; ila_ = 
earth; anoint or make the world possessed of bland orunctuous soil, jagat 
snigdhabhu_mikam kuruta].



7.079.01 Us.as has dawned upon the paths of men, awaking the five classes of 
human beings; she has shedlight with her lustrous oxen; the sun makes heaven and 
earth manifest with radiance. [Upon the paths: pahya_jana_na_m: pathya_ is taken 
as a nom. sing. agreeing with Us.as: jana_na_m sarvapra_n.ina_m pathya_+ 
pathihita_ us.ah; or, jana_na_m hita_ya, i.e. Us.as had dawned beneficial on the 
path of men, or for the welfare ofmen; she had shed light: bha_num as'ret: she 
has resorted to the sun]. 

7.079.02 The dawns send their rays to the ends of the sky. They advance like 
people arrayed like people (inmartial order); your rays, Us.as, annihilate the 
darkness; they diffuse light as Savita_ (spreads out) his arms. 

7.079.03 The supreme sovereign, the opulent us.as, has risen; she has engendered 
food for our welfare; thedivine daughter of heaven, most prompt in movement, 
bestows treasures upon the pious worshipper. [Mostprominent in movement: 
an:girastama_ = gantritama_, most going; may also be a reference to an:girasas, 
ofwhose race the Bha_radva_jas, a branch, are said to be cognatewith the night: 
an:giro gotrair bha_radva_jaihsaha ratrerutpattih, hence night is elsewhere 
termed bharadva_ji, ra_trirva_ bha_radva_ji (ra_tri_ kus'ikahsaubharo ra_trirva_ 
bha_radva_ji_: RV. 10.127). an:girastama_, most an:girasa, is applied to the 
dawn becauseit is the same thing as the end of the night, ra_tryarasanasyo 
s'aru_patva_t: may be, a reference to the specialseason of fire-worship 
instituted by an:girasa_s]. 

7.079.04 Grant us as much wealth as you have bestowed upon thine adorers when 
(formerly) praised by them;you whom (your worshippers) welcomed with clamour, 
(loud as the bellowing) of a bull, when you had set openthe doors of the 
mountains (where the stolen cattle were confined). 

7.079.05 Inspiring every individual devout (worshipper) with a desire for 
wealth, addressing to us the words oftruth, diffusing the light of morning, 
bestow upon us understanding (fit) for the acquisition of riches; and do 
you,(gods), ever cherish us with blessings. [Addressing to us words of truth: 
asmadryak sunr.ta_ i_rayanti_:asmadryak = asmadabhimukham; sunr.ta_ = vaca_msi; 
i_rayanti_ = prerayanti_, i.e. urging speech (i.e. praises)towards us, i.e. 
awakening our praises].

7.080.01 The pious Vasis.t.has, first (of all worshippers) awaken with prayers 
and praises (each succeeding)dawn spreading over the like-bounded earth and 
heaven making all the regions manifest. 

7.080.02 Bestowing new existence, dispersing the thick darkness by her radiance, 
the Dawn is awakened andlike an immodest dame, she comes before (the sun), and 
makes manifest Su_rya, sacrifice and Agni. 

7.080.03 May the auspicious dawns ever break upon us redolen of horses, of 
cattle, of male posterity, sheddingmoisture, yielding everywhere abundance; and 
do you, (gods), ever cherish us with blessings.

7.081.01 The daughter of heaven is everywhere beheld advancing and shedding 
light; she drives away the deepdarkness that objects may meet the eye; the kind 
guide of man, she diffuses light. 

7.081.02 At the same time the sun sends forth his rays, and, rising, renders the 
planets luminous; so, Us.as,upon your manifestation, and that of Su_rya, may we 
become possessed of sustenance. [Renders the planets:the moon and planets shine 
at night with light derived from the solar ray: saurena tejasa_ hi 
naktamchandraprabhr.ti_ni naks.atra_n.i bhasante]. 

7.081.03 May we, prompt adorers, awaken you, Us.as, daughter of heaven, 
bountiful divinity, who bring ampleand desirable (wealth) and happiness, like 
riches, to the donor (of the oblation). 

7.081.04 Mighty goddess, who, scattering darkness, are endowed with power to 
arouse the world and make itvisible, we pray that we may be dear to you, the 
distributress of wealth, as sons are to a mother. 

7.081.05 Bring Us.as, such wondrous wealth as may be long renowned; bestow, 
daughter of heaven, thatsustenance which is fit for mortals, such as we may 

7.081.06 Grant to the pious immortal fame, conjoined with affluence; grant to us 
food and cattle; and may Us.as,the encourager of the wealthy (sacrificer) the 
speaker of truth, drive away our foes. [Speaker of truth: sunr.tvati_= 
priyasatya_tmika_ va_k sunr.ta_ tadvati_: may also mean, possessed of kind and 
truthful speech, i.e.possessed of hymns, or hymned, by the pious].


7.082.01 Indra and Varun.a, bestow upon this man, our employer, a spacious 
chamber for (the celebration of) thesacrifice; and may we subdue in conflicts 
such evil-minded persons as may seek to injure him who has been longengaged (in 
your adoration). [A spacious chamber: or, great happiness: mahi, mahat, s'arma, 
gr.ham sukhamva_]. 

7.082.02 One of you it titled supreme monarch, so is the other; mighty and most 
opulent are you, Indra and all thegods in the highest heaven, showerers (of 
benefits), have combined your united strength, (your) maid vigour.[Supreme 
monarch; Varun.a and Indra are called, respectively, samra_j ans svara_j (as 
inferred from RV2.041.06; and RV. 1.061.09); samjra_j = samyag rajama_nah, i.e. 
thoroughly splendent; svara_j = sur_ryamevanyanirapeks.ayaive rajama_nah i.e. 
self-splendent, or not dependent for his lustre on anyone else]. 

7.082.03 Indra and Varun.a, you have forced open by your strength the barriers 
of the waters; you haveestablished Su_rya as the lord in heaven; in the 
exhilaration of the inspiring (Soma) you have replenished the dry(beds of the 
rivers); do you also fulfil the objects of our sacred rite. 

7.082.04 The bearers (of offerings) invoke you, Indra and Varun.a, in wars, in 
battles; on banded knees (theAn:girasas invoke you) for the begetting of 
prosperity; and we, your worshippers, invoke you, who are entitled torespectful 
homage, the lords of both celestial and terrestrial treasures. [In battles: 
priyasat = s'atrusena_su,among hostile armies; respectful homage: suhasva = 
sukhena hvatavyau, easily accessible to invocation, easilyinvoked]. 

7.082.05 Indra and Varun.a, inasmuch as you have created by your might all these 
beings of the world, thereforeMitra worships Varun.a for prosperity, while the 
other, the fierce Indra, associated with the Maruts, acquiresglory. [Therefore 
Mitra worships Varun.a: ks.emen.a mitro varun.am duvasyati marudbhir ugrah 
s'ubham anyai_yate: the last clause: along with the Maruts the powerful Indra 
sends down rain]. 

7.082.06 In honour of (Indra and Varun.a) the sacrificer and his wife for (the 
obtaining of) great wealth, confer (bytheir praises) that strength which is 
peculiar to each of them, and ever-enduring; one of them, (Varun.a), destroysthe 
unfriendly man neglecting (his worship); the other, (Indra), with scanty 
(means), discomfits numerous(enemies). [Discomfits: pravr.n.oti bhu_yasah: he 
exalts many worshippers, bahun yajama_nan utkr.s.t.an karoti].

7.082.07 Sin contaminates not, difficulties assail not, nor distress at any time 
afflicts the mortal, Indra andVarun.a, to whose sacrifices you, deities, go, and 
of which you approve; such a man ruin never destroys.[Contaminates: nas'ate = 
vya_pnoti, encompasses, takes hold of]. 

7.082.08 Leaders of rites, come to our presence with divine protection; if you 
have any regard for me, hear myinvocation; verily your friendship, your 
affinity, is the source of happiness; grant them, Indra and Varun.a (untous). 

7.082.09 Indra and Varun.a, of irresistible strength, be our preceders in every 
encounter, for both (past andpresent) worshippers invoke you to defend them iin 
war, or for the acquisition of sons and grandsons. 

7.082.10 May Indra, Varun.a, Mitra and Aryaman grant us wealth and a large and 
spacious habitation; may thelustre of Aditi, the augmentress of sacrifice, be 
innoxious to us; we recite the praise of the divine Savita_.


7.083.01 Indra and Varun.a, leaders (of rites), contemplating your affinity, and 
desirous of cattle, the worshippers,armed with large sickles, have proceeded to 
the east (to cut the sacred grass); destroy, Indra and Varun.a, yourenemies, 
whether Da_sa_s or A_rya_s and defend Suda_sa with yor protection. [Sickles: 
pr.thupars'avah =visti_rn.a s'vapars'u hasta, holding large rib-bones of horses; 
as'vapars'u = an implement for cutting the kus'agrass (as'vapars'va_ 
barhiracchaiti: Taittiri_ya Bra_hman.a, either the rib of a horse, or 
an instrumentlike it; it is frequently alluded to in the Bra_hman.as and 
Su_tras; Taittiri_ya Sam.hita_ 1.1.2: ghos.ad asi:Baudha_yana says that this is 
addressed to the As'vapars'u; you are the implement, the priest having taken it 
inhis hand; as'vapars'u as'vapars'vasthi, the rib-bone of a horse, the edge of 
which is as sharp as a sword, and fitfor cutting; tac ca khad.gavat 
ti_ks.n.adbaratvat lavane samarthah]. 

7.083.02 Where men assemble with uplifted banners, in whatever conflict, there 
is something unfavourable;where living beings, looking to heaven, are in fear, 
there, Indra and Varun.a, speak tous (encouragement).[There is something 
unfavourable: 'everything is evil'; yatra ca yuddhe bhuvana_, bhuvana_ni, 
bhu_taja_ta_nisvardr.s'ah, s'ari_rapatad u_rdhvam svargasya dras.t.a_ro vitas' 
ca bhayante, bibhyati, tatra, tadris'e san:gra_mehe indra_varun.au no'sman 
adhivocatam, asmatpaks.apa_tavacanau bhavata_m = in whatever (battle) 
livingbeings and those seeing heaven (i.e. gone to heaven, departed) are in 
fear, there, Indra and Varun.a, plead ourcause]. 

7.083.03 The ends of the earth are beheld laid waste; the clamour has ascended, 
Indra and Varun.a, to heaven;the adversaries of my people approach me; having 
heard my invocation, come for my defence. 

7.083.04 Indra and Varun.a, you protected Suda_sa, overwhelming the yet 
unassailed Bheda with your fatalweapons; here the prayers of threse Tr.tsus in 
time of battle, so that my ministration may have borne them fruit. 

7.083.05 Indra and Varun.a, the murderous (weapons) of my enemy distressme; foes 
among the malignant(assail me); you two are sovereigns over both (celestial and 
terrestrial) wealth; protect us therefore, onthe day ofbattle. 

7.083.06 Both (Suda_sa and the Tr.tsus) call upon you two (Indra and Varun.a), 
in combats for the acquisition ofwealth, when you defend Suda_sa, together with 
Tr.tsus, when attacked bythe ten ra_ja_s. 

7.083.07 The ten confederated irreligious ra_ja_s did not prevail, Indra and 
Varun.a, against Suda_sa; the praiseof the leaders (of rites), the offerers of 
sacrificial food, was fruitful; the gods were present at their sacrifices. 

7.083.08 You gave vigour, Indra and Varun.a, to Suda_sa when surrounded on all 
sides by the ten ra_ja_s (inthe country) where the pious Tr.tsus, walking in 
whiteness, and wearing braided hair, worshipped with oblationsand praise. 
[Walking in whiteness: s'vit yan~cah kapardinas tr.tsavah: the epithes are 
explained: svaityamnairma_lyam gacchantah, going in, or to, whiteness, or 
freedom from soil; and jat.ilah, having braided hair. TheTr.tsus are the pupils 
of Vasis.t.ha, Vasis.t.has'is.ya_h etasanjn~a_h r.tvija_h]. 

7.083.09 One of you destroys enemies inbattle, the other ever protects religious 
observances; we invoke you,showerers (of benefits), with praises; bestow upon 
us, Indra and Varun.a, felicity. 

7.083.10 May Indra, Varun.a, Mitra, Aryaman grant us wealth and a large and 
spacious mansion; may the lustreof Aditi, the augmentress (of sacrifice), be 
innoxious to us; we recite the praise of the divine Savita_.


7.084.01 Royal Indra and Varun.a, I invite you to the sacrifice with oblations 
and with praise; the butter-dropping(ladle), held in our hands, offers 
spontaneously (the oblation) to you who are of many forms. 

7.084.02 Your vast kingdom of heaven gratifies (the world with rain), you who 
bind (the sinner) with bonds notmade of rope; may the wrath of Varun.a pass away 
from us; may Indra prepare for us a spacious region. 

7.084.03 Render the sacrifices offered inour dwelling fruitful, the prayers 
uttered by the worshippers successful;may riches come to us sent by the gods; do 
you two give us increase by you desirable protections. 

7.084.04 Bestow upon us, Indra and Varun.a, riches desirable to all, together 
with a dwelling and abundant food,for the hero, A_ditya, who punishes beings 
devoid of truth, gives (to the devout) unbounded treasures. [A_ditya:or the son 
of Aditi = Varun.a]. 

7.084.05 May this my praise reach Indra and Varun.a, and, earnestly offered (by 
me), preserve sons andgrandsons; let us, possessed of affluence, present (their) 
food to the gods; and do you, (duties), ever cherish uswith blessings.

7.085.01 I offer to you both adoration, uninterrupted by ra_ks.asas, presenting 
the Soma to Indra and to Varun.a,-- (adoration), of which the members are 
radiant as the celestial dawn; may these two protect us at the time ofgoing to 

7.085.02 In the conflict where (combatants) strive against us, in those 
(contests) in which bright (weapons) fallupon the banners, do you two, Indra and 
Varun.a, slay with your shaft those enemies who have been routed, andare 
scattered in various directions. 

7.085.03 The divine Soma, flowing like water, self-renowned, (offered) at 
religious assemblies, supoort Indra andVarun.a; of whom one regulates mankind, 
distinguished (as good or bad), and the other slays unresisted foes.[Support 
Indra and Varun.a: somena_pya_yita_ hi devata_h sve sve stha_ne avatis.t.hante, 
nourished by theSoma, the gods abide in their own several stations]. 

7.085.04 May the devout worshipper derive benefit from sacrifice when offering 
adoration to you both, sons ofAditi (involved) with strength; he who, liberal of 
oblations invites you for your satisfaction, may he, possessingabundance, be in 
the enjoyment of happiness. 

7.085.05 May this my praise reach Indra and Varun.a; and earnestly offered (by 
me), preserve sons andgrandsons; let us, possessed of affluence, present (their) 
food to the gods; and do you, (deities), ever cherish uswith blessings.

7.086.01 Permanent in greatness are the births of that Varun.a who propped up 
the vast heaven and earth, whoappointed to (their) two-fold (task) the glorious 
sun and beautiful constellations, who spread out the earth. [Theirtwo-fold task: 
dvita_: of giving light by day and by night]. 

7.086.02 When may I in my person converse with the deity? When may I (be 
admitted) to the heart of Varun.a?By what means may he, without displeasure, 
accept my oblation? When may I, rejoicing in mind, behold thatgiver of felicity? 

7.086.03 Desirous of beholding you, Varun.a, I inquire what is my offence; I 
have gone to make inquiry of thewise; the sages verily have said the same thing 
to me: -- this Varun.a is displeased with you. 

7.086.04 What has that great wickedness been, Varun.a, that you should seek to 
destroy the worshiper, yourfriend? Insuperable, resplendent Varun.a, declare it 
to me, so that, freed from sin, I may quick approach you withveneration. 

7.086.05 Relax (the bonds) imosed by all the ill deeds of our fore-fathers, and 
those incurred (by the sins) whichwe have committed in our persons; liberate, 
royal Varun.a, like a calf from its tether, Vasis.t.ha like a thiefnourishing 
the animal (he has stolen). [Like a calf: there are two comparisons: liberate 
Vasis.t.ha (i.e., me) like asa thief (is liberated), who (having performed his 
penance for the theft he has committed, at its termination) feedsthe animals 
(with food), and (i.e., or) like a calf from its tether: pas'utr.pam na ta_yum 
stainyapra_yas'cittamkr.tva_vasa_ne gha_sa_dibhih pas'u_na_m tarpayita_ram stena 
iva damno rajjoh vatsam na vatsam iva cavasis.t.ham ma_m bandhaka_t pa_pa_t 
avasr.ja vimun~ca]. 

7.086.06 It is not our own choice, Varun.a, not our condition, (that is the 
cause of our sinning); it is that which isintoxication, wrath, gambling, 
ignorance; there is a senior in the proximity of the junior; even a dream is 
aprovocation to sin. [Our condition: na sa svo daks.o dhrutih = the condition 
appointed by destiny at the time ofbirth is the cause of the committal of sin, 
not our own power or will, dhrutih stirotpattisamaye nirmita_ 
daivagatihpa_papravr.ttau ka_ran.am na svabhu_tam balam; intoxication: sura_ = 
wine; gambling: vibhi_daka, dice, amaterial of gambling; there is a senior: asti 
jya_ya_n kani_yasa upa_re = by the junior, means, man little andhelpless; by the 
senior, his superior, God, exercising near at hand the restraining faculty, 
sami_pe niyantr.tvenasthito jya_ya_n adhika i_s'varo sti; who impels man to 
wickedness, sa eva tam pa_pe pravartayati: a text is cited:es.a_ hyeva_sa_dhu 
karma ka_rayati tam yam adho nini_s.ate, him whom he wishes to lead downwards 
hecauses to do evil acts: Kau. U. 3.8; even a dream is a provocation to sin: 
anr.tasya prayota_, promoter of theuntrue; if so, how much more likely are we to 
commit sin when awake]. 

7.086.07 Liberated from sin, I may perform diligent service, like a slave, to 
the divine showerer (of benefits), thesustainer of the world; may he, the divine 
lord, give intelligence to us who are devoid of understanding; may hewho is most 
wise, guide the worshipper to wealth. 

7.086.08 May this laudation, food-conferring Varun.a, be taken to your heart; 
may success be ours in retainingwhat we have, and in acquiring more; and do you, 
(deities), ever cherish us with blessings.

7.087.01 Varun.a prepared a path for the sun; he set free the waters of the 
rivers generated in the firmament;hastening (to his task), as a horse let loose 
rushes to (a flock of) mares, he divided the great nights from thedays. [He 
divided: varun.a = the setting sun, by whose departure day ends and night 

7.087.02 Your spirit is the wind; he sends abroad the waters; he, the cherisher 
of the world, is the feeder on(ssacrificial) food, like an animal upon fodder; 
all your glories, Varun.a, manifested between the vast andspacious heaven and 
earth, give delight (to all). [The spirit is the wind: a_tma_ te va_tah: the 
wind being sentabroad by you is the support of all living beings, in the form of 

7.087.03 The excellent spies of Varun.a behold the beautiful heaven and earth, 
as well as those (men) who, thecelebrators of rites, constant in sacrifice, wise 
and intelligent address (to him their) praise. [The excellent spies:spas'ah 
smadis.t.a_h: ca_ra_h, spies; pras'astagatya_h, of excellent movement; 
sahapres.ita_h, despatchedtogether; spas'ah = ras'mayah, rays, or reins]. 

7.087.04 Varun.a thus spoke to me, possessed of understanding; the cow (speech) 
has thrice sevenappellations; the wise and intelligent Varun.a, giving 
instruction to me, his worthy disciple, had declared themysteries of the place 
(of Brahma). [The cow: aghnya_ = va_k, speech; gauh = aghnya_; the twenty-
oneappellations are the seven metres of the Veda, as corresponding with the 
breast, throat, or head; or speech maymean the Veda; gauh may also mean, 
pr.thivi_, earth, having also 21 synonyms]. 

7.087.05 In him are deposited the three heavens, the three earths with their six 
seasons are shown in him; themost adorable, royal Varun.a has made this golden 
sun undulating in the sky, he has made it to diffuse light. [Thethree earths: 
best, middle most, worst; tisro bhu_mi_rdha_rayan cf. RV. 2.027.08: trayo va_ 
ime trivr.to loka_h(Aitareya Bra_hman.a 2.17); he has made it to diffuse light: 
s'ubhe kam = di_ptyartham; kam = sukham]. 

7.087.06 (Radiant) as the sun, Varun.a placed the ocean (in its bed) white as a 
drop (of water), vigorous as anantelope, objects of profound praise, distributor 
of water, the powerful transporter beyond sin, the ruler of thisexisting 
(world). [White as a drop of water: drapso na s'veto mr.gas tuvis.ma_n: s'veta 
is attached to mr.ga:drapso na dravan.as'i_la udabindur iva s'vetah s'ubhravan.o 
mr.gah gauramr.ga iva tuvis.ma_n balava_n;distributor of water: nirma_ta_, 

7.087.07 May we be free from sin against that Varun.a, who has compassion upon 
him who commits offence, wewho are duly observing the rites of the son Aditi; 
and do you, (gods), ever cherish us with blessings. [Of the sonof Aditi: aditer 
= adi_nasya, of the mighty (Varun.a) or, akhan.d.ani_ya].

7.088.01 Offer pure and acceptable praise, Vasis.t.ha to the showerer, Varun.a, 
he who makes the adorable(sun), the donor of thousands, the showerer (of 
benefits), the vast, manifest before (us). 

7.088.02 Hastening into his sight, may I (worthily) glorify the aggregated 
radiance of Varun.a, when he is theimbiber of the exhilarating beverage 
(expressed) by the stones; may he render my person of goodly aspect. 
[Theaggregated radiance of Varun.a: agner ani_kam varun.asya = varun.asya 

7.088.03 When (I, Vasis.t.ha) and Varun.a ascend the ship together when we send 
it forth into the midst of theocean, when we proceed over the waters with swift 
(sailing vessels), then may we both undulate happily in theprosperous swing. 
[With swift sailing vessels: snubhis' cara_va gantri_bhir naubhih: with going, 
viz., ships; thenmay we both undulate: pra pren:kha i_n:khaya_vahai s'ubhe kam: 
pren:khe nauru_pa_ya_m dola_ya_m evapren:khaya_vahai nimnonnatais taran:gair 
itas' cetas'ca pravicalantau san:kri_d.a_vahai, let us both sport, beingtossed 
here and there by the up and down waves, as it were in a swing, in the form of a 

7.088.04 So Varun.a placed Vasis.t.ha in the ship, and by his mighty protection 
made the r.s.i a doer of goodworks; the wise Varun.a placed his worshipper in a 
fortunate day of days, he extended the passing days, thepassing nights. [In a 
fortunate day: sudinatve: state or property of a lucky day by its being 
fruitful, phalatvena; heextended: ya_n nu dya_vas tatanan ya_dus.a_sah: varun.a 
= the sun; us.a_sah = ra_trih, nights; yat = yatahgacchatah]. 

7.088.05 What has become of those our ancient friendships? Let us preserve them 
unimpaired as of old;food-bestowing Varun.a, may I go to your vast comprehensive 
thousand-doored dwelling. 

7.088.06 May he your unvarying kin, who was ever dear, though committing 
offences against you, still be yourfriend; adorable Varun.a, offending you, let 
us not enjoy (happiness); but do you, who are wise, bestow on yourworshipper a 
secure abode. [The unvarying kin: vasis.t.ha is the son of Varun.a; let us not 
enjoy happiness: ma_ta enasvanto bhujema: let not us, offending you, enjoy; 
being freed from sin through your favour, let us enjoyenjoyments, tvatprasa_da_t 
pa_parahita_ eva santo bhoga_n bhun~ja_mahai]. 

7.088.07 While dwelling in these durable worlds, may Varun.a loose our bonds; 
may we be enjoyers of theprotection (which has been given by him) from the lap 
of Aditi, and do you (gods) ever cherish us with blessings.[Aditi = Pr.thivi_, 

7.089.01 May I never go, royal Varun.a, to a house made of clay; grant me 
happiness, possessor of wealth, grantme happiness. [May I never: mo s.u gr.ham 
mr.n.mayam gamam: (implied) tvadi_yam, your; s.u he =sus'obhanam suvarn.amayam, 
very handsome, made of gold; s.u = but to your beautiful house, i.e. one made 
ofgold; grant me happiness: mr.l.aya = show mercy]. 

7.089.02 When, Varun.a, I am throbbing as if (with awe) like an inflated skin, 
grant me happiness, possessor ofwealth, grant me happiness. [When I am 
throbbinga: (an epithet added): adrivas = armed with stones for slinging;the 
allusion seems to be to varun.a pa_s'a, a kind of dropsy; cf. Aitareya 
Bra_hman.a vii.15]. 

7.089.03 Opulent and pure (Varun.a), if through infirmity I have done what is 
contrary (to the law), yet grant mehappiness, possessor of wealth, grant me 

7.089.04 Thirst distresses (me) your worshipper in the midst of the waters; 
grant me happiness, possessor ofwealth, grant me happiness. [Thirst: an allusion 
to Vasis.t.ha's sea voyage; he is thirsty amid the waters becausethe water of 
the ocean is saline and unfit for drinking: lavan.otkat.asya samudrajalasya 

7.089.05 Whatever the offence which we men commit Varun.a against divine beings, 
whatever law of yours wemay through ignorance violate, do not you, divine 
Varun.a, punish us on account of that iniquity.


7.090.01 The sweet and pure Soma is offered to you, the hero Va_yu, by the 
priests; therefore, harness yourNiyut steeds, come hither and drink of effused 
Soma for your exhilaration. [Yajus. 33.70: alternativeinterpretation: pra 
vi_raya_ dadrire va_m adhvaryubhih; vi_raya_ = vi_raya; va_m = te; or, vi_raya_ 
= vi_ra;va_m = of you two, to the sacrificer and his wife, he patinyajama_nau 
yuvayoh soma dadrire, your Somalibations, wife and sacrificer, are being effused 
by the priests]. 

7.090.02 Drinker of the Soma, Va_yu, you elevate him who among mortals offers to 
you who are the lord anexcellent oblation, the pure Soma; repeatedly born, he is 
born for the acquisition of wealth. [ja_yate va_jyasya =dhanasya pra_ptaye]. 

7.090.03 His own Niyut steeds bear to the place of poverty the white-
complexioned dispenser of wealth, Va_yu,whom heaven and earth bore for the sake 
of riches, whom the divine language of praise sustains as a deity forthe sake of 
riches. [nireke = da_ridryam from nitara_m riktata_; or, alternative 
interpretation: a place crowdedwith people, bahujana_ki_rn.e stha_ne; from nir = 
nirgata; reka = s'u_nyata_, emptiness]. 

7.090.04 The blameless dawns (ushering) bright days have broken, and, shining 
radiantly, (the An:girasas) haveobtained the vast light (the sun); desirous (to 
recover it) they have obtained their wealth of cattle and the ancientwaters have 
subsequently issued for their good. [An:girasas: by their praise of Va_yu the 
dawn broke, the stolencattle were rescued and the obstructed rain set at 

7.090.05 Those (worshippers) illustrious by sincere adoration, assiduous in the 
discharge of their own duties,bring to you, Indra and Va_yu, a hero-bearing 
chariot, and present to you, two soverigns, (sacrificial) food.[Hero-bearing 
chariot: vi_rava_ham ratham = as'vai vahani_yam, to be borne by your steeds, or 
stotr.bhihpra_pan.i_yam, to be obtained by the worshippers; ratham = yajn~am, 
the sacrifice]. 

7.090.06 May those munificent princes who confer upon us prosperity by gifts of 
cattle, horses, treasure, gold,overcome, Indra and Va_yu, the entire existence 
(of their enemies) in contests with horses and with heroes.[Treasure: vasubhih = 
hiran.yaih, gold causing us to be settled, niva_sakaih]. 

7.090.07 We, Vasis.t.ha, (bearing oblation) like horses (bearing burdens), 
soliciting food, desiring strength,invoke with praises Indra and Va_yu for (our) 
sure defence; do you ever cherish us with blessings.


7.091.01 Those venerable worshippers, who by prompted and frequently (adoring 
Va_yu) with reverence wereformerly free from reproach, have now illumined Us.as 
and the sun for sacrificing to Va_yu and (the preservationof) embarrassed 
mankind. [manave ba_dhita_ya = as sons etc., manus.ya_na_m ba_dhita_na_m 
putra_di_na_mraks.an.a_rtham; or, with the preceding va_yave, to give oblations 
to Va_yu at the sacrifice of the hindered manu,ba_dhitasya manoh praja_pater 
ya_ge va_yave havim.s.i da_tum]. 

7.091.02 Desiring (adoration), proceeding (in the sky), preservers of mankind, 
be not disposed, Indra and Va_yu,to do us harm; protect us through many months 
and years; our sincere praise, addressed to you both, solicitshappiness and 
excellent wealth. 

7.091.03 The white-complexioned Va_yu, intelligent, glorious with the Niyut 
steeds, favours those men who arewell fed, abounding in riches, for they with 
one mind stand everywhere, ready to (worship) him, and leaders ofrites, they 
perform all the ceremonies, that are productive of excellent offspring. 
[Glorious with the Niyut steeds:niyutam abhis'rih is the resort or lord of the 
Niyuyt steeds, niyhutam abhis'rayan.i_ya_h; those men who arewell-fed: the 
epithets are alternatively applied to the Niyuts or to adhyajana_n, wealthy 

7.091.04 As much as is your rapidity of body, as much as is your vigour, as much 
as the leaders (of rites) areilluminated by wisdom, (to such extent), drinkers 
of the pure (Soma) Indra and Varun.a., drink this our pure Soma,and sit down 
upon this sacred grass. 

7.091.05 Harnessing the Niyuts, whom the devout (worshippers) desire, to your 
common car, come, Indra andVa_yu, hither; this the first (cup) of the sweet Soma 
is prepared for you; and then, delighted (by the draught),liberate us (from 
sin). [Whom the devout worshipers desire: or, whose worshippers are objects of 

7.091.06 Come to our presence, Indra and Va_yu, with those munificent Niyut 
steeds, who, the desired of all,wait upon you both by hundreds and thousands; 
drink, leaders (of rites), of the sweet Soma placed near (thealtar). 

7.091.07 We, Vasis.t.has (bearing oblations) like horses (bearing burdens), 
soliciting food, desiring strength,invoke with praises Indra and Va_yu for our 
sure defence; do you ever cherish us with blessings.


7.092.01 Drinker of the pure (Soma), Va_yu, come to us as your Niyut are 
thousands; oh, you who are desired ofall, I offer you, the exhilarating 
(sacrificial) food, of which you, deity, have the prior drinking. [Offer you: 
upaya_mi:as applied to Soma, which is brought in a vessel called upaya_ma, 
upaya_tam pa_tre gr.hi_tam]. 

7.092.02 The prompt effuser of the libation offers the Soma to Indra and to 
Va_yu to drink at the sacrifices, atwhich devout priests, according to their 
functions, bring to you two the first (portion) of the Soma. 

7.092.03 With those Niyut steeds, with which you go, Va_yu, to the donor (of the 
libation), waiting in this hall tooffer sacrifice, (come to us), and bestow upon 
us enjoyable riches, bestow male progeny, and wealth,comprehending cattle, and 

7.092.04 Overcoming our enemies in war by our warriors, may we be the slayers of 
foes, through the pious(worshippers) who are the exhilarators of Indra and 
Va_yu, the reciters of divine hymns, the destroyers of theadversary. 

7.092.05 Come Va_yu, to our imperishable sacrifice, with hundreds and thousands 
of Niyut steeds, and beexhilarated at this ceremony; do you (gods) ever cherish 
us with blessings. [Do you gods: (added) r.tvijah,priests].

7.093.01 Slayers of enemies, Indra and Agni, be pleased today by this pious and 
newly recited praise; repeatedlydo we invoke you both, who are worthy of 
invocation; you are the chief bestowers of food promptly upon him whosolicits 
(it of you). 

7.093.02 You two are desired of all, the demolishers of (hostile) strength, 
augmenting together, increasing invigour, lords of the wealth of corn; do you 
grant us substantial invigorating food. [Demolishers: s'avasa_na_ hibhu_tam = 
you acted like an army breaking enemies; do you grant: pr.n:ktam va_jasya 
sthavirasya ghr.s.veh =annasya, sthu_lasya, s'atru_n.a_m ghars.akasya, i_dr.s'am 
annam prayacchata_m, give us such food as iscoarse, the destroyer of enemies]. 

7.093.03 Those sage offerers of oblations, who, desiring your favour, celebrate 
the sacrifice with holy rites,hasten to worship you, like horse to battle, 
repeatedly invoking Indra and Agni. 

7.093.04 The pious sage, desiring your favour, glorifies you with praises for 
the sake of formerly enjoyed riches,accompanied by celebrity; Indra and Agni, 
slayers of Vr.tra, bearers of the thunderbolt, exalt us with preciousdonations. 
[Formerly enjoyed riches: i.e. riches desirable even in older time, pu_rvam eva 

7.093.05 As two large, mutually defiant (armies), emulous in corporal vigour, 
may contend in war, so do youdestroy, by the devout, those who are not devoted 
to the gods in sacrifice, and, by the man who presentslibations, (him who does 
not offer). [As two large: sam yan mahi_ mithati spardhama_ne tanu_ruca_ 
s'u_rasa_ta_yataite: lit. two large reviling rivalling may strive together]. 

7.093.06 Come with gracious minds, Indra and Agni, to this our Soma libation; 
you are never regardless of us,therefore, I propitiate you with constant 
(sacrificial) viands. 

7.093.07 Kindled, Agni, by this adoration, do you recommend us to Mitra, 
Varun.a, and Indra; whatever sin wemay have committed, do you expiate, and may 
Aryaman, Aditi (and Mitra) remove it (from us). 

7.093.08 Diligently celebrating these rites, may we, Agni, (and Indra), at once 
arrive at your food; let not Indra,Vis..u, the Maruts, abandon us; and do you 
(gods) ever cherish us with blessings.


7.094.01 This chief praise, Indra and Agni, proceeds (copiously) from me your 
worshipper, like rain from a cloud. 

7.094.02 Hear, Indra and Agni, the invocation of the worshipper; accept his 
adoration. Recompense, lords, hispious acts. 

7.094.03 Leaders of (rites), Indra and Agni, subject us not to wickedness, nor 
to calumny, nor to the reviler. 

7.094.04 Desiring protection, we offer copious oblations and praise to Indra and 
Agni, and prayers with holy rites.

7.094.05 Many are the sages who propitiate (Indra and Agni) in this manner for 
(their) protection, mutuallystriving for the acquisition of food. 

7.094.06 Eager to offer praise, bearing (sacrificial) food, desirous of wealth, 
we invoke you, Indra and Agni, withpraises, in the celebration of holy acts. 

7.094.07 Overcomers of (hostile) men, Indra and Agni, come wih food (to be 
bestowed) upon us; let not themalevolent have power over us. 

7.094.08 Let not the malice of any hostile mortal reach us; gran us, Indra and 
Agni, felicity. 

7.094.09 We solicit you both for wealth, comprising cattle, gold and horses; may 
we obtain it for you, Indra andAgni. [Gold: hiran.yavat = suvarn.air yuktam]. 

7.094.10 When adoring leaders (of rites), invoke you two, lords of horses, on 
the Soma being offered, (comehither). 

7.094.11 Utter destroyers of Vr.tra, exhilarated (by the Soma), you who are 
worshipped with prayers and hymnsand songs, (come hither). [Uttter destroyers of 
Vr.tra: vr.tra hantama_ = a_varaka_n.a_m hantr.tamau,pa_pma_nam; with prayers: 
an:gu_s.air = a_ghos.air anyais stotraih, with clamours, with other praises; 
or,laukikava_kstomaih, with praises in worldly or vernacular speech, not that of 
the Veda]. 

7.094.12 Destroy with your fatal (weapons) the mortal who is malignant, 
ignorant, strong, rapacious; destroy himlike a water jar, with your weapons. 
[Rapacious: a_bhogam = he who enjoys good things taken from theworshippers].

7.095.01 This Sarasvati_, firm as a city made of metal, flows rapidly with all 
sustaining water, sweeping away inits might all other waters, as a charioteer 
(clears the road). [Firm as a city: dharun.am a_yasi pu_h = ayasanirmita 
puri_va; dharun.am = dharun.a, dha_rayitri_, supporter]. 

7.095.02 Sarasvati_, chief and pure of rivers, flowing from the mountains to the 
ocean, understood the request ofNahus.a, and distributing riches among the many 
existing beings, milked for him butter and water. [Milked for him:the legend is 
that king Nahus.a, before performing a sacrifice for a thousand years, prayed to 
Sarasvati_, whogave him butter and water, or milk, sufficient for that period]. 

7.095.03 The showerer Sarasvat, the friend of man, a showerer (of benefits), 
even while yet a child, continuallyincreases among his adorable wives (the 
rains); he bestows upon the affluent (worshippers) a vigorous son; hepurifies 
their persons (to fit them) for the reception (of his bounties). [Sarasvat: 
Sarasvat is the wind Va_yu in thefirmament, madhyastha_no va_yuh sarasvat]. 

7.095.04 May the auspicious and gracious Sarasvati_ hear (our praises) at this 
sacrifice, approached as she iswith reverence and with bended knees, and most 
liberal to her friends with the riches she possesses. 

7.095.05 Presenting to you, Sarasvati_, these oblations with reverence (may we 
receive from you affluence); begratified by our praise and may we, being 
retained in your dearest felicity, ever recline upon you, as on asheltering 
tree. [May we receive: yus.mad a: a = also; adadi_mahi, may we receive]. 

7.095.06 Auspicious Sarasvati_, for you Vasis.t.ha has set open the two doors 
(the east and west) of sacrifice;white-complexioned (goddess), be magnified; 
bestow food on him who glorifies you; and do you (gods) evercherish us with 

7.096.01 You chant, Vasis.t.ha a powerful hymn to her who is the most mighty of 
rivers; worship, Vasis.t.ha withwell-selected praises, Sarasvati_, who is both 
in heaven and earth. [Who is both in heaven and earth: as agoddess, or as 
eloquence or as river]. 

7.096.02 Beautiful Sarasvati_, inasmuch as by your might men obtain both kinds 
of food, do you, our protectress,regard us; do you, the friend of the Maruts, 
bestow riches upon those who are affluent (in oblations). [Both kindsof food: 
ubhe andhasi_ = fires celestial and terrestrial; or if the reference is to food: 
gra_myam a_ran.yam va_,domestic and wild]. 

7.096.03 May the auspicious Sarasvati_ bestow auspicious fortune upon us; may 
the faultless-movingfood-conferring (goddess) think of us; glorified (as you 
have been) by Jamadagni_, (be now) glorified byVasis.t.ha. 

7.096.04 Desiring wives, desiring sons, liberal of donations, approaching him, 
now worship Sarasvat. 

7.096.05 With those your waves Sarasvat, which are sweet-tasted, the 
distributors of water, be our protector. 

7.096.06 May we recline upon the protuberant breast of Sarasvati. Which is 
visible to all; that we may possessprogeny and food. [May we recline: 
pi_piva_m.sam sarasvatas stanam: bhaks.i_mahi and stanam = means ofcloud, megha; 
so, the r.ca is rendered: may we obtain the distend and loud-thundering (of 
breast-like) cloud ofSarasvat. Which is visible to all; (may we obtain) progeny 
and food].


7.097.01 At the sacrifice in the dwellings of man upon earth, where the devout 
leaders of (rites) rejoice, wherethe libations to Indra are poured out, there 
may he descend before (other gods) from heaven for his exhilaration;(may his) 
swift (horses approach). [In the dwellings: at the sacrifice which is the home 
of the priests upon earth]. 

7.097.02 Let us solicit, friends divine protections, for Br.haspati accepts our 
(oblations); so may we be withoutoffence towards that showerer (of benefits) 
whois our benefactor from afar, as a father (of a son). 

7.097.03 I glorify with homage and with oblations that most excellent and 
beneficent Brahman.aspati; may mypraise worthy of the deity, attain to the 
mighty Indra, who is the lord of the prayers offered by the devout. 

7.097.04 May that best beloved Br.haspati, who is the desired of all sit down in 
our hall of sacrifice; may hegratify our desire of riches and of male posterity. 
Transporting us (at present) embarrassed uninjured beyond(the assaults of 

7.097.05 May the first-born immortals (by his command) bestow upon us the food 
that is necessary for existence;let us invoke the unresisted Br.haspati, to whom 
pure praises are addressed, he adored of householder. [Thefirst-born: born of 
yore, pura_ ja_tah, pura_ja_; the adored: pastya_na_m yajatam = the adorable of 
houses, i.e.by metonymy householders]. 

7.097.06 May his powerful brilliant horses, wearing a lustrous form like (that 
of) the sun, acting together, bring(hither) that Br.haspai, in whom strength 
abides like that of a substantial mansion. [In whom strength abides: or,to whom 
belongs strenght, and whose friendship bestows a dwelling]. 

7.097.07 He verily is pure, borne by numerous conveyances, he is the purifier 
armed with golden weapons, theobject of desire, the enjoyer of heaven; he, 
Br.haspati is well domiciled, of goodly aspect, a most bountiful giverof ample 
food to his friend. [Armed with golden weapons: hiran.yava_s'i_h = he whose 
speech is benevolent,hitaraman.i_ya va_k]. 

7.097.08 The divine heaven and earth, the generatrices of the deity have by 
their might, given growth toBr.haspati; magnify, friends, the magnifiable, and 
may he render (the waters) easy to be crossed and forded for(the attainment of) 

7.097.09 This praise has been offered as prayer to you both, Brahman.aspati and 
Indra, the wielder of thethunderbolt; protect our ceremonies; hear our manifold 
praise; annihilate the assailing adversaries of yourworshippers. [Prayer: iyam 
suviktir brahma = iyam mantraru_pa stutih, this praise in the form of a mantra, 
asacred text or prayer]. 

7.097.10 You two, Br.haspati and Indra are lords of both celestial and 
terrestrial treasure; grant riches to theworshipper who praises you; and do you 
(gods) ever cherish us with blessings.

7.098.01 Offer, priests, the shining effused Soma o him who is eminent (among) 
men; knowing better than theGaura where his distant drinking-place (is to be 
found). Indra comes daily seeking for the offerer of the libation.[Knowing 
better: gaura_d vedi_ya_n avapa_nam = avakramya sthitam du_rastham pa_tavyam 
somamgauramr.ga_d api atis'ayena = knowing the Soma that is to be drunk, though 
placed afar off, better than an ox ora deer knows the drinking place of pond]. 

7.098.02 The pleasant Soma that you, Indra, have quaffed in former days, you 
still desire to drink of daily;gratified in heart and mind, and wishing (our 
good), drink, Indra the Soma, that is placed before (you). 

7.098.03 As soon as born, Indra you have drunk the Soma for your invigoration; 
your mother (Aditi) proclaimedyour greatness; hence you have filled the vast 
firmament. Indra, you have gained in battle treasure for the gods.[Your mother: 
a reference to Aditi's speech; cf. RV 4.018.04]. 

7.098.04 When you enable us to encounter mighty and arrogant (enemies), we are 
competent to overcome themalignant by our (unarmed) hands alone; and when you, 
Indra, surrounded by your attendants (Maruts), fightagainst them, we shall 
triumph, aided by you (in) that glorious war. 

7.098.05 I proclaim the ancient exploits of Indra the recent deeds that Maghavan 
has achieved; when indeed hehad overcome the undivine illusion, thenceforth the 
Soma became his exclusive. [i.e. the relation between theSoma and Indra 
thenceforth became uncommon or special, peculiar; tada_ prabhr.tyeva somasya 
indrasya caasa_dha_ran.as sambandho ja_tah; though, soms is often presented to 
Agni and other deities]. 

7.098.06 Thine is all this animal world around you, which you illumine with the 
light of the sun; you, Indra, are theone lord of cattle, thence may we possess 
wealh bestowed by you. 

7.098.07 You two Br.haspati and Indra are lords of both celestial and 
terrestrial treasure; grant riches to theworshipper who praises you; and do you 
(gods) ever cherish us with blessings.

7.099.01 Expanding with a body beyond all measure, Vis.n.u men comprehend not 
your magnitude; we knowthese your two worlds (computing) from the earth, but 
you, divine Vis.n.u, are cognisant of the highest. [Your twoworlds: i.e. the 
earth and the firmament, which are visible; cf. RV. 10.082.05]. 

7.099.02 No being that is or that has been born, divine Vis.n.u, has attained 
the utmost limit of your magnitude bywhich you have upheld the vast and 
beautiful heaven, and sustained the eastern horizon of the earth. 
[Easternhorizon = the entire earth; Vis.n.u's upholding the three worlds has 
been mentioned more than once; cf. RV.1.154.4]. 

7.099.03 Heaven and earth, abounding with food, abounding with cattle, yielding 
abundant fodder, you aredisposed to be liberal to the man (who praises you); 
you, Vis.n.u, have upheld these two heaven and earth, andhave secured the earth 
around with mountains. [To the man who praises you: manus.e stuvate; Yajus. 
5.16reads: manave = yajama_na_ya, to the institutor of the rite; have secured 
the erth: da_dartham pr.thivi_mmayu_khaih: parvataih, by mountains; or, by his 
incarnations displaying his glory, tejoru_pair avata_raih; cf. Tai.S.]. 

7.099.04 You two, Indra and Vis.n.u, have made the spacious world for the sake 
of sacrifice, generating the sun,the dawn, Agni; you leaders (of rites) have 
baffled the devices of the slave Vr.sas'ipra in the conflict of hosts. 

7.099.05 Indra and Vis.n.u, you have demolished the ninety-nine strong cities of 
S'ambara; you have slain atonce, without resistance, the hundred thousand heroes 
of the Asura Varcin. [Varcin: cf. RV. 2.146.6]. 

7.099.06 The ample laudation is magnifying you two, who are mighty, wide-
striding, endowed with strength; toyou two, Vis.n.u and Indra, I offer praise at 
sacrifices; grant us food (won) in battles. 

7.099.07 I offer, Vis.n.u, the oblation placed before you with the exclamation 
Vas.a: be pleased, S'ipivis.t.a, withmy offering; may my laudatory hymns magnify 
you; and do you (gods) ever cherish us with blessings.

7.100.01 The mortal desirous of wealth quickly obtains it who presents 
(offerings) to the widely-renownedVis.n.u, who worships him with entirely 
devoted mind, who adores so great a benefactor of mankind. [Withentirely devoted 
mind: i.e. with united praise, sahan~cata_ stotren.a]. 

7.100.02 Vis.n.u, granter of desires, show to us that favourable disposition 
which is benevolent to all, unmixed(with exception), so that there may be to us 
the attainment of easily-acquire, ample, steed-comprising,all-delighting riches. 
[Granter of desires: evaya_van: from eva = obtainable, desires; ya_van = who 
enables toobtain]. 

7.100.03 This deity, by his great power, traversed with three (steps) the many-
lustrous earth; may Vis.n.u, themost powerful of the powerful rule over us, for 
illustrious is the name of the mighty one. [Earth: pr.thivi_ =pr.thivya_di_n, or 
the three worlds]. 

7.100.04 This Vis.n.u traversed the earth for a dwelling which he was desirous 
of giving to his eulogist; firm arethe people who are his praisers; he who is 
the engenderer of good has made a spacious dwelling (for hisworshippers). [Which 
he was desirous of giving: manus.e das'asyan = stuvate devagan.a_ya, to the 
company ofgods praising him-- Vis.n.u having taken the three worlds from the 
Asuras to give to them; the engenderer ofgood: or, to whom belong fortunate 

7.100.05 Resplendent Vis.n.u, I, the master of the offering, knowing the objects 
that are to be known, glorifytoday your name; I who am feeble, praise you who 
are powerful, dwelling in a remote region of this world.[na_ma_ryah s'am.sa_mi = 
I the lord, praise your name; Sa_maveda has a different reading: pra tat te 
adyahavyam a_ryah s'am.sa_mi = I the lord, offer you today an oblation; su_rya = 
sva_mi_ stutina_m havis.a_m va_,you master of the praises or of the oblation 
which may mean Vis.n.u or perhaps, the yajama_na]. 

7.100.06 What is to be proclaimed, Vis.n.u, of you, when you save. I am 
S'ipivis.t.a? Conceal not from us yourreal form, although you have engaged under 
a different form in battle. [Vis.n.u is said to have aided Vasis.t.ha inbattle 
under an assumed form, and, when questioned, is reported to have said: I am 
S'ipivis.t.a (s'ipayotrarasmaya ucyate taira_vis.t.o bhavati: Nirukta 5.7-8). 
S'ipivis.t.a = objectionable or unobjectionable. In thepreceding r.ca and the 
r.ca 7 of the preceding su_kta, the world is explained: penetrated, or clothed 
with rays oflight, ras'mibhir aris.t.a, the radiant, the splendid; it normally 
means, a man naturally without prepuce; just as aman is so denuded, so is 
Vis.n.u, according to his own declaration, uncovered by radiance-- 

7.100.07 I offer, Vis.n.u, the oblation placed before you with the exclamation 
Vas.at.; be pleased, S'ipivis.t.a, withmy offering; may my laudatory hymns 
magnify you and do you (gods) ever cherish us with blessings.

7.101.01 Recite the three sacred texts, preceded by light, which milk the water-
yielding udder; for he, theshowerer, (thereby) becoming quickly manifest, loudly 
roars, engendering the (lightning) infant, the embryo of theplants. [Three 
sacred texts: three vedas, preceded by Om; water-yielding udder: the cloud; the 
showerer:parjanya, pleased with the hymns, and in consequence, sending rain]. 

7.101.02 May he who is the augmenter of plants, the increase of the waters, who 
rules divine over the wholeearth, bestow upon us a three-storied dwelling and 
felicity; may he grant us the desired light (of the sun) at thethree (bright) 
seasons. [Three-storied dwelling: tridha_tu s'aran.am = tribhu_mikam gr.ham, a 
house with threeearths, either chambers or floors; tri_n.i va_ a_dityasya 
teja_m.si pra_tagri_s.me madhyandines'aradyapara_hne: Taittiri_ya Sam.hita_; the desired light: the rays of the sun are said to be mostpowerful at 
dawn in the spring, at noon in the hot season, and in the afternoon in autumn]. 

7.101.03 One form of Parjanya is like a barren cow the other produces offspring, 
he takes whichever form hepleases; the mother receives the milk from the father 
thence the father, thence the son is nourished. [He takeswhichever form he 
pleases: the firmament withholds or sends down rain at will; the mother receives 
the milk: thefather is the sky, earth the mother, who receives the rain from the 
former, which, producing the means of offeringlibations and oblations, returns 
again to the parent heaven, as well as suppports his offspring-- all 

7.101.04 In whom all beings exist; the three worlds abide; from whom the waters 
flow in three directions (east,west, and south); the three water-shedding masses 
of clouds (east, west, and north) pour the waters round themighty (Parjanya). 

7.101.05 This praise is addressed to the self-irradiating Parjanya; may it be 
placed in his heart; may he begratified by it; may the joy-diffusing rains be 
ours; may the plants cherished by the deiy be fruitful. 

7.101.06 May he, the bull, be the impregnator of the perpetual plans, for in him 
is the vitality of both the fixed andmoveable (world); may the rain sent by him 
preserve me for a hundred years; and do you (gods) ever cherish uswith 
blessings. [May he: atas = he is, instead of: for he has; in him is the 
vitality: tasminna_tma_ = deha, body;perhaps the life of the vegetable world 
depending upon the rain, and that of animals upon corn and the rest].

7.102.01 Sing aloud to the son of heaven, Parjanya, the sender of rain; may he 
be pleased (to grant) us food. 

7.102.02 He who is the cause of impregnation of plants, of cows, of mares, of 

7.102.03 Offer verily to him by the mouth (of the gods, Agni), the most savoury 
oblation, so that he may yield usfood unfailingly.

7.103.01 The frogs, like Bra_hman.as, observant of their vows, practising 
penance throughout the year, utteraloud praises agreeable to Parjanya. 
[Vasis.t.ha, having praised Parjanya, in order to procure rain, observing 
thefrogs to be delighted by his praises, addressed them in this hymn. Practising 
penance = lit. lying still, i.e.performing penance for rain]. 

7.103.02 When the waters of the sky fall upon (the troop of frogs) sleeping in 
the (exhausted) lake like a drywater-skin; then rises together the croaking of 
the frogs, like the bellowing of cows when joined by their calves. 

7.103.03 When the rainy season has arrived, and (Parjanya) has sent the rain 
upon them, thirsty and longing (forits coming), then one frog meets another 
croaking (his congratulations) as a child (calls to) its father withinarticulate 
ejaculations. [akhkhali_kr.tya_ = makingn the imitative sound akhkhala, i.e. 
with inarticulateejaculations]. 

7.103.04 One of these two congratulates the other as they are both delighting in 
the forthcoming of rain; thespeckled frog, leaping up repeatedly when moistened 
(by the shower), joins greetings with the green one. 

7.103.05 When one of you imitates the croaking of another as a learner 
(imitates) his teacher, when, loud crying,you converse (leaping) upon the 
waters, then the enire body is as it were developed. [During the dry weather,the 
frogs shrink like a lump of clay; in the rains they expand to their full size]. 

7.103.06 One frog has the bellowing of a cow, another the bleating of a goat; 
one of them is speckled, one isgreen; designated by a common appellation, they 
are of various colours and croaking, show themselves innumerous places. 

7.103.07 Like Bra_hman.as at the Soma libation, at the Atira_tra sacrifice, you 
are now croaking around thereplenished lake (throughout the night), for on that 
day of the year you frogs are everywhere about, when it is theday of the serving 
of the rains. [Croaking: ra_trau s'abdam kurva_n.ah; the atira_tra rite is a 
noctural ceremony,when the priests recite the hymns at night; ra_trim ati_tya 
vartate ityatira_trah yatha_tira_tra_khye somaya_gebra_hman.a_ ra_trau 
stutas'a_stra_n.i parya_yen.a s'am.santi]. 

7.103.08 They utter a loud cry, like bra_hman.as when bearing the Soma libation, 
and reciting the perennialprayer; like ministrant priests with the gharma 
offering, they hid (in the hot weather) perspiring (in their holes), butnow some 
of them appear. [The perennial prayer: or, the year-long prayer, a reference to 
gava_m ayanam,sacrificial session, which commences and ends with the atira_tra 
and lasts a whole year; perspiring: adhvaryavogharmin.ah sis.vida_na_h: 
gharmin.ah = having or bearing the vessel, or performing the rite so termed; 
or,suffering from gharma, heat or the hot season; the epithet is applied to the 
adhvaryus and also to the frogs]. 

7.103.09 These leaders of rites observe the institutes of the gods and disregard 
not the (appropriate) season ofthe twelve month; as the year revolves, and the 
rains return then, scorched and heated, they obtain freedom(from their hiding-

7.103.10 May the cow-toned, the goat-toned, the speckled, the green (frog, 
severally) grant us riches! May thefrogs in the fertilizing (season of the 
rain), bestowing upon us hundreds of cows, prolong (our) lives! [In 
thefertilizing season of the rain: sahasrasa_ve = the generator of thousands of 
plants, grains and the like].

7.104.01 Indra and Soma, afflict, destroy the ra_ks.asas; showerers (of 
benefits) cast down those who delight indarkness; put to flight the stupid 
(spirits); consume, slay, drive away, utterly extermiante the cannibals. 

7.104.02 Indra and Soma, fall upon the destructive (ra_ks.asa) and the performer 
of unprofitable acts, so that,consumed (by your wrath), he may perish like the 
offering cast into the fire; retain implacable hatred to the haterof 
bra_hman.as, the cannibal, the hideous, the vile (ra_ks.asa). [Peformer of 
unprofitable acts: aghas'am.sa =malignant; hater of brahman.as: brahmadvis.e = 
bra_hman.ebhyo asmabhyam dves.t.re; hideous: ghoracaks.ase= rude in speech; vile 
ra_ks.asa: kimi_dine = kimi_da_ni_m iti carate, to one who goes saying, What 
now? Thatis, pis'una_ya, a spy, an informer; or cruel, vile]. 

7.104.03 Indra and Soma, chastise the malignant (ra_ks.asas), having plunged 
them in surrounding andinextricable darkness, so that not one of them may again 
issue from it; so may your wrathful might be triumphantover them. [Inextricable: 
bottomless a_lambana-rahita]. 

7.104.04 Indra and Soma, disperse from heaven your fatal (weapon), the 
extirpator from earth of the malignant(ra_ks.asas) put forth from the clouds the 
consuming, (thunderbolt), wherewith you slay the increasing ra_ks.asarace. 

7.104.05 Indra and Soma, scatter around (your weapons) from the sky, pierce 
their sides with fiery searchingadamantine (weapons), so that they depart 
without a sound. [Scorching: ajarebhih, ageless, undecaying]. 

7.104.06 May the praise invest you, Indra and Soma, who are mighty, on every 
side, as a girth (encompasses) ahorse, that praise which I offer to you both 
with pure devotion; do you, like two kings, accept this my homage. 

7.104.07 Come with rapid steeds, slay the oppressive mischievous ra_ks.asas; let 
there be no happiness, Indraand Soma, to the malignant, who harasses us with his 

7.104.08 May he who with false calumnies maligns me behaving with a pure heart, 
may such a speaker offalsehood Indra, cease to be, like water held in the hand. 

7.104.09 May Soma give to the serpent, or toss upon the lap of Nirr.ti, those 
who with designing (accusations)persecute me, a speaker of sincerely, and those 
who by spiteful (calumnies) vilify all that is good in me. [Thosewho by spiteful 
calumnies: or, those who with violence vilify me, acting uprightly]. 

7.104.10 May he, Agni, who strives to destroy the essence of our food, of our 
horse, of our cattle, of our bodies--the adversary, the thief, the robber-- go 
to destruction, and be deprived both of person and of progeny. 

7.104.11 May he be deprived of bodily (existence) and of posterity; may he be 
cast down below all the threeworlds; may his reputation, Gods, be blighted who 
seeks our destruction by day or by night. [May he be deprived:or, may he exist 
after his body and progeny, i.e. continue severed from them]. 

7.104.12 To the understanding man there is perfect discrimination, the words of 
truth and falsehood are mutuallyat variance; of these two, Soma verily cherishes 
that which is true and right; he destroys the false. [Thepreceding verses are 
considered to be malediction upon the ra_ks.asas by the r.s.i. A legend from 
theMaha_bha_rata is recounted: king kalmas.apa_da was transformed into a 
ra_ks.asa when he devoured the 100sons of Vasis.t.ha. Thereafter, the ra_ks.asa 
assumed the shape of the r.s.i and said to him: "I am Vasis.t.ha, youare the 
ra_ks.asa". Vasis.t.ha replied by repeating this verse declaratory of his 
discriminating between truth andfalsehood; to the understanding man = to the 
understanding man truth and falsehood are easily discriminate,their words are 
mutually at variance]. 

7.104.13 Soma instigates not the wicked; he instigates not the strong man 
dealing in falsehood; he destroys thera_ks.asa, he destroys the speaker of 
untruth; and both remain in the bondage of Indra. 

7.104.14 If I am one following false gods, if I approach the gods in vain, then 
Agni (punishes me). If (we be notsuch, then) why, Ja_tavedas, are you angry with 
us? Let the utterers of falsehood incur your chastisement. 

7.104.15 May I this day die if I am a spirit of ill, or if I have ever injured 
the life of any ma; may you be deprived(ra_ks.asa) of your ten sons, who have 
falsely called me by such an appellation. 

7.104.16 May Indra slay with his mighty weapon him who calls me the Ya_tudha_na, 
which I am not, thera_ks.asa, who says (of himself), I am pure; may he, the 
vilest of all beings, perish. 

7.104.17 May the cruel female fiend who, throwing off the concealment of her 
person, wanders about at night likean owl, fall headlong down into the unbounded 
caverns; may the sones that grind the Soma destroy thera_ks.asas by their noise. 

7.104.18 Stay, Maruts, among the people, desirous (of protecting them); seize 
the ra_ks.asas, grind them intopieces; whether you fly about like birds at 
night, or whether they have offered obstruction to the sacred 
sacrifice.[Desirous of protecting them: or, be pleased (to destroy the 

7.104.19 Hurl, Indra, your thunderbolt from heaven; sanctify, Maghavan, (the 
worshipper) sharpened by theSoma; slay with the thunderbolt the ra_ks.asas, on 
the eas, on the west, on the south, on the north. 

7.104.20  They advance, accompanied by dogs; desirous to destroy him, they 
assail the indomitable Indra;S'akra whets his thunderbolt for the miscreants; 
quickly let him hurl the bolt upon the fiends. 

7.104.21 Indra has ever been the discomfiter of the evil spirits coming to 
obstruct (the rites of) the offerers ofoblations; S'akra advances, crushing the 
present ra_ks.asas, as a hatchet cuts down (the trees of) a forest, as (amallet 
smashes) the earthen vessels. 

7.104.22 Destroy the evil spirit, whether in the form of an owl, or of an owlet, 
of a dog, or of a duck, of a hawk orof a vulture; slay the ra_ks.asas, Indra, 
(with the thunderbolt) as with a stone. [A duck: a ruddy goose,cakrava_ka]. 

7.104.23 Let not the ra_ks.asas do us harm; let the dawn drive away the pairs of 
evil spirits exclaiming, "Whatnote is this"; may the earth protect us from 
terrestrial, the firmament protect us from celestial, wickedness.[Exclaiming: 
"What now is this?" kimi_dina]. 

7.104.24 Slay, Indra, the Ya_tudha_na, whether in the form of a man, or of a 
woman doing mischief by herdeceptions; may those who sport in murder perish 
dissipated; let them not behold the rising sun. [Ya_tudha_na =ra_ks.asa]. 

7.104.25 Soma, do you and Indra severally watch (the ra_ks.asas), be vary, be 
vigilant; hurl the thunderbolt atthe malignant ra_ks.asas.

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