6.001.01 You Agni, are the first of the gods; a deity to whom their minds are 
devoted; pleasing of aspect, you arethe invoker of the deities at this rite; 
showerer (of benefits), bestow upon us unsurpassable strength, where withto 
sustain all (hostile) prowess. [tvam hi agne prathamo manota_: manota_ is 
interpreted as deva_n a_m mano yatrotam, sambaddham, where,on whom, the mind of 
the gods is attached; or, deva_na_m mana_m.si eta_ni dr.d.hapravis.t.a_ni 
yasya_mdevata_ya_m sa manota_, the divinity on whom the minds of the gods are 
fastened, that is, firmly concentrated,he is called manota_: Agnih sarva_ 
manota_gnau manota_h sam.gacchante (Aitareya Bra_hman.a 2.10)].

6.001.02 Offerer of the oblation, frequent celebrator of sacrifice, now sit down 
on the foot-m ark of Il.a_,accepting the (sacrirficial) food, and being 
glorified; devout men, expectant of great riches, have recourse to youas to the 
first (of the gods).

6.001.03 Those who are assiduous in (worshipping) you for riches follow you, 
going with many Vasus by the path(of the firmament); you, the radiant Agni, of 
goodly aspect, mighty, fed with burnt-offerings, and blazing everyday.

6.001.04 Men desirous of food obtain abundance unopposed when repairing to the 
station of the divinity withoblations; and when delighting, Agni, in your 
auspicious presence, they repeat those your names which are to beuttered at 
sacrifices. [They repeat those your names: na_ma_ni cid dadhire yajn~i_ya_ni, 
that is, suchappellations as ja_tavedas, vais'va_nara, and means of adoration, 
stotra_n.i namanasa_dhana_ni].

6.001.05 Men exalt you upon earth; they exalt you for both kinds of affluence, 
(cattle and treasure, which youbestow upon) men; you who extricate (us from 
evil) are to be known as our preserver, as the unfailing father andmother of 
mankind. [Which you bestow upon, men: jana_na_m may also mean, for the gift of 
men, that is, of maleposterity].

6.001.06 Agni, who is adorable, affectionate, the offerer of oblations among 
men, the giver of delight, thecelebrator of worship, has sat down (upon the 
altar); let us approach you, kindled in our dwellings, on bendedknees, with 

6.001.07 Intelligent, hoping for happiness, and devout, we glorify you, adorable 
Agni; do you, shining withexceeding lustre, lead men to heaven.

6.001.08 (We glorify) the lord of men of ever-existing men; the wise, the 
destroyer (of foes) the showerer (ofbenefits) on mankind, the moving, the 
bestower of food, the purifier, the resplendent, Agni, who is worshipped for(the 
sake of) riches. [The lord of men: vis'patim vis'a_m s'as'vati_na_m: the epithet 
is explained, nitya_na_m r.tvigyajama_na laks.an.a_na_m, i.e., their regular and 
perpetual observance of religious institutes].

6.001.09 The man, Agni, who worships you, who praises you, who offers oblations 
to you with kindled fuel, whopresents burnt-offerings to you with prostrations, 
he verily, protected by you, obtains all desired wealth.

6.001.10 To you, mighty Agni, we offer exceeding adoration with prostrations, 
with fuel, with oblations; (we glorifyyou) on the altar, son of strength, with 
hymns and with prayers; may we be successful in our efforts (to gain) 
youauspicious favour.

6.001.11 Do you, Agni, who have spread heaven and earth with light, who are the 
preserver (of man), and (whoare) to be glorified with praises, shine brightly 
upon us with abundant food, and with substantial riches.

6.001.12 Possessor of wealth, bestow upon us at all times opulence conjoined 
with dependants, and (grant)abundance of cattle to our sons and grandsons; may 
therefore be to us abundant food, satisfying our wishes,and free from blame; and 
may there be auspicious and reputable (means of subsistence).

6.001.13 Royal Agni, may I obtain from you your many and various treasures 
whereby to be enriched; for, Agni,who are the desired of multitudes, infinite 
are the riches (aggregated) in you, fit, monarch, for your worshipper.6.002.01 
You alight, Agni, like Mitra, upon the oblation offered with the dry fuel; 
therefore, beholder of all,possessor of riches, you cherish us with food and 

6.002.02 Men verily worship you with sacrifice and with praises; the inoffensive 
sun, the sender of rain, thebeholder of the universe, proceeds to you. [It is 
said that the sun, at the evening enters into fire, therefore thelatter is 
visible throughout the night; the term for sun in the text is, va_jin, he who 
goes swiftly; this is anappellative also of fire and wind: Agnirva_yuh su_ryas 
te vai va_jinah, fire, wind, the sun, they verily are va_jins(Taittiri_ya 

6.002.03 The offerers of praise, sympathizing in satisfaction, kindle you the 
banner of the sacrifice, when man,the descendant of Manu, desiring happiness, 
invokes you to the rite.

6.002.04 May the mortal prosper who propitiates you (his) benefactor, by holy 
rites; through the protection of youwho are resplendent, he overcomes those who 
hate him, as if they were mortal sins.

6.002.05 The mortal who feeds your consecrated burnt offering with fuel enjoys, 
Agni, a dwelling peopled withdescendants, and a life of a hundred years.

6.002.06 The pure smoke of you the resplendent spreads through the firmament, 
matures (in clouds), and you,the purifier, shine with radiance like the sun, 
when propitiated by praise. [Shine with radiance: dyuta_ tvamkr.pa_ rocase, you 
shine with light by praise; kr.pa_ may also denote di_ptya_, with lustre; here, 
it is explained asstutya_, by praise, by that which is able to compel the 
presence of a deity, abhimukhi_karan.a sa_marthya(Nirukta 6,8); kr.p also means 
to be able or capable, sa_marthyena, diptya_ va_, by ability, power, or by 

6.002.07 You are now to be praised among the people, for you are our well 
beloved guest, venerated like anelder in the city, and to be cherished like a 
son. [Venerated like an elder in a city: ran.vah puri_va ju_ryah su_nurna 
trayaya_yyah; the first part is interpreted nagarya_m vr.ddho hitopades.t.a_ 
ra_ja_ iva raman.i_yah, to be hadrecourse to as to an old ra_ja_ giving good 
council in a city; the second half, putra iva pa_lani_yah, to becherished like a 
son; or, trayaya_yya may be explained as endowed with three merits, learning, 
penance,devotion; or one having had three births, the natural, investiture with 
the sacred string, and initiation orpreparation for sacred rites, di_ks.a_: 
ma_turagredhijananam dviti_yam bhaunjibandhana_t tr.ti_yam yajn~adi_ks.a_ya_ iti 
janmatrayam smr.tam (Manu. 2.169)].

6.002.08 You are manifested in the timber, Agni, by the act of attrition; you 
are the bearer (of the oblation) as ahorse (is of his rider); you are like the 
circumsambient wind; you are food and dwelling; you are like a (newborn)babe, 
and variable (in movement) as a horse. [You are food and dwelling: svadha_ gayah 
= annam gr.ham ca;bhavasi, you are is supplied].

6.002.09 You consume Agni, the unfallen (trees) as an animal (feeds) upon 
pasture, when, undecaying deity, theflames of you who are resplendent shear the 

6.002.10 You enter as the ministrant priest into the habitations of men who wish 
to perform sacrifice; render themprosperous, benefactor of mankind; be 
propitiated, an:giras, by the oblation.

6.002.11 Divine Agni, reverenced as a friend, who are abiding in heaven and 
earth, communicate our praise tothe gods; conduct the offerer of adoration to 
domestic felicity; and may we overcome our adversaries, ouriniquities, our 
difficulties; may we overcome those (sins of a prior existence); may we overcome 
them by yourprotection. [May we overcome those (sins): the text has ta_ tarema, 
may we cross over those, this is interpretedas: janma_ntarakr.ta_ni 
pa_pa_ni].6.003.01 The offerer of sacrifice, born for religious rites, who lives 
devoted, Agni, to you, obtains abundant light,and is a man whom you, 
sympathizing in satisfaction with Mitra and Varun.a, protect by your shield from 
iniquity.[By your shield, tvajasa_: tva_Janasa_dhanena a_yudhena, by a weapon 
which is the instrument of causingabandonment or escape].

6.003.02 He who has presented (oblations) to Agni, the possessor of desired 
(wealth), sacrifices with (all)sacrifices, and is sanctified by (all) holy acts; 
him, the wand of excellent (posterity) does not afflict, nor does sinor pride 
affect a mortal.

6.003.03 When the fearful flames of you, whose appearance is (as) faultless as 
(that of) the sun, spread onevery side as (if they were) the lowing heifers of 
the night, then this Agni, the asylum of all, generated in thewoods, is 
everywhere beautiful. [Spread on every side...: hes.asvatah s'urudho na ayam 
aktoh kutra_ cidran.vah: s'urudhah = obstructors, or removers of sorrow, i.e., 
cows; s'okasya rodhayitr. ga_h; aktu = night; pur =night-walkers, ra_ks.asas 
ra_ks.asa_deh svabhu_ta_ dada_ti: she, night, gives them their properties; 
ran.vah =an epithet of ayam, this, Agni, raman.i_ya = agreeable, beautiful].

6.003.04 Sharp is his path, and his vast body shines like a horse champing 
fodder with his mouth, darting forthhis tongue like a hatchet, and burning 
timber to ashes, like a goldsmith who fuses (metal). [Like a goldsmith:dravir na 
dra_vayati da_ru dhaks.at = as a melter causes to melt, he burns the timber; 
yatha_ svarn.aka_rahsvarn.a_dikam dra_vayati tatha_gnir vanam bhasmasa_t karoti, 
as a goldsmith fuses gold and the res, so Agnireduces the wood to ashes; this 
may imply something more than mere fusion of metals; the alchemical calciningor 
permutation of the metals would be more akin to the burning of timber, or 
reducing the metals to ashes.]

6.003.05 He casts (afar his flames) as an archer (his arrows), and sharpens when 
about to dart his radiance, as(a warrior whets) the edge of his metal (weapons), 
he who, variously moving, passes through the night, like thelight-falling foot 
of a bird perched upon a tree. [The edge of his metal: ayaso na dha_ra_m].

6.003.06 Like the adorable sun, he clothes himself with brilliant (rays); 
diffusing friendly light, he crackles with(his fame); (he it is) who is luminous 
by night, and who lights men (to their work) by day; who is immortal andradiant; 
who lights men by day.

6.003.07 Of whom a sound is heard when scattering his rays like (that) of the 
sun; the brilliant showerer (ofbenefits) clamours among the (burning) plants; he 
who, moving not with a shifting, variable motion, but, humbling(our foes), fills 
the well-wedded earth and heaven with wealth. [Fills the well-wedded: a_ rodasi_ 
vasuna_supa_tni_, s'obhanapatika_ dya_va_ pr.thivyau dhanena pu_rayati = he 
fills with wealth heaven and earth, bothhaving a brilliant husband or lord; may 
be a reference to Agni or Indra].

6.003.08 He who (goes) with sacred (rays), as if with self-harnessed, well-
governed (steeds), who shines likelightning with his own scorching (flames), who 
impairs the vigour of the Maruts, he glows radiant and rapid as thewide-shining 
sun. [r.bhur-na = uru bha_sama_na su_rya iva, i.e. as the wide-shining 
sun...]6.004.01 Son of strength, invoker (of the gods), in like manner as at the 
worship of the gods by Manu, you didoffer worship with sacrifice; so now, Agni, 
with willing mind, worship for us the assenting deities, regarding themas your 

6.004.02 May that Agni, who, like the illuminator of the day, is resplendent and 
cognizable (by all), gran uscommendable food; he who is the life of all, 
immortal, who knows all that exists, who is our guest, waking amongmen at dawn.

6.004.03 Whose great deeds his worshipers now celebrate, who is clothed with 
light, radiant as the sun, exemptfrom decay, the purifier, he illumes (all 
things), and destroys the ancient cities of the dispersed (evil 
beings).[as'nasys cid = from as', to pervade, vya_panas'i_lasya, of the 
pervader, i.e. ra_ks.asa_deh, of the ra_ks.asasand the like].

6.004.04 Sons of strength, you are to be praised; Agni, sitting upon the 
(sacrificial) viands, has given (to hisworshippers), from their birth, 
habitation and food giver of strength, bestow strength upon us; triumph like a 
prize,so that you may abide in our unassailed (dwelling).

6.004.05 He who whets his (gloom) dispersing (radiance), who eats the (offered) 
oblation, a soverign like va_yu,overcomes the nights; may we prevail (over him) 
who is not a donor of the oblations that are due; (Agni), to you,and do you, 
(swift) as a horse be the destroyer of the foes assailing (us).

6.004.06 You over spread, Agni, heaven and earth with radiance, like the sun 
with his lustrous rays; thewonderful Agni disperses the glooms like the adored 
(sun) moving on his path, imbued with light.

6.004.07 We celebrate you, who are most adorable, with sacred praises; hear, 
Agni, our laudation; the leaders(of rites) earnestly honour you with offerings, 
you, who are divine like Indra, and like va_yu in strength. [Withsacred praises: 
arkas'okaih, pras'asyair di_tikaran.aih stotraih = with excellent ilustrating 
praises, or an epither ofAgni (yukta, endowed with, or possessed of excellent 
radiance, pras'asuyair di_ptibhir yuktam Agnim); yajurveda,33.13: arkavat 
s'ucante, which shine like the sun; arkas'okaih = mantraih, with prayers].

6.004.08 Quickly conduct us, Agni, by unmolested paths, to riches and 
prosperity; (convey us) beyond sin; thosedelights which you give to your adorers 
(extend) to him who (now) glorifies you, and may we, living for a 
hundredwinters, and blessed with excellent posterity, be happy.6.005.01 I invoke 
you, Agni, the son of strength, the youthful, the irreproachable, the very 
young; you who arewise, the sought of many, the merciful, who bestows treasures 
acceptable to all.

6.005.02 Bright blazing Agni, invoker of the gods, to you the adorable deities 
have appropriated, by night andday, the riches (on the oblation); they have 
deposited in the purifer (Agni) all good things (agnau va_mam vasusam 
nyadadhata: Taittiri_ya Sam.hita_, as they have placed all beings upon 
earth. [The adorable deities:yajn~iya_sah, entitled to sacrifices, i.e. devas or 
yajama_nah, the sacrificers].

6.005.03 You, abide from of old in these people, and by your deeds have been (to 
them) the conveyer of goodthings; thence, sage ja_tavedas, you bestow 
continually wealth upon the sacrificer.

6.005.04 Do you, protector of (your) friends, who are most resplendent, blazing 
with radiance, consume with yourown imperishable flames him who injures us 
abiding in secret, or when near to us design us harm.

6.005.05 He who propitiates you, son of strenght, with sacrifice, with fuel, 
with prayers, with praises, shinesimmortal amongst men, eminent in wisdom and 
possessed of splendid opulence and (abundant) food.

6.005.06 Accomplish quickly, Agni, that for which you are solicited; endowed 
with strength, oppose by strengthour adversaries; be pleased, you are anointed 
with radiance, by loud vociferation of your worshipper, by whomyou are adored 
with hymns.

6.005.07 May we obtain through your protection, Agni, that which we desire; 
giver of riches, may we obtain ofyour riches and descendants; desiring food, may 
we obtain food; may we obtain, imperishable Agni, imperishablefame (through 
you). [Yajrveda, 18.74].6.006.01 He who is desirous of food has recourse with a 
new sacrifice, approachable son of strength (Agni), toyou the consumer of 
forests, the dark-pathed, the bright shining, the ministrant (to the gods) of 
(sacrificial) food,the divine.

6.006.02 (You who are) white-hued, vociferous, abiding in the firmament, 
(associated) with the imperishable,resounding (winds), the youngest (of the 
gods), Agni, who, purifying and most vast, proceeds, feeding uponnumerous and 
substantial (forests).

6.006.03 Pure Agni, your bright flames, fanned by the wind, spread wide in every 
diection, consuming abundant(fuel); divine, fresh-rising, they play upon the 
woods, enveloping them in lustre.

6.006.04 Resplendent Agni, your bright rays, horses let loose (from the rein), 
shear the earth; your (band offlame), mounting above the high-lands of the many-
tinted (earth), blazes fiercely. [Shear the earth: ks.a_mvapanti, mun.d.ayanti = 
shave the earth, the plants of which constitute the hair; mounting above the 
highlands:ya_tayama_no adhi sa_nu pr.s'neh, bhumer-upari parvata_gra_dikam prati 
svaki_yam agram vya_pa_rayan,displaying its own point of flame upon the summit, 
and the like, of the mountains upon the earh; volcaniceruptions are, perhaps, 
alluded to]

6.006.05 The flame of the showerer (Agni), repeatedly descends like the hurled 
thunderbolt of the rescuer of thecattle; like the prowess of a hero is the 
destroying (energy) of Agni; irresistible and fearful, he consumes theforests.

6.006.06 You overspread the accessible places of the earth with light by the 
energy of you powerful, exciting(influence); do you disperse all perils, and, 
baffing (our) adversaries by your mighty (powers), destroy (our) foes.

6.006.07 Wonderful Agni, of wonderful strength, bestower of delight, grant to 
us, and to him who praises you withgratifying (praises), wonderful, most 
wonderful riches, conferring fame, supplying food, comprehending 
maledescendants,d electable and infinite. [Not the repetition of the word citra 
(wonderful) and candra (delightful)].6.007.01 The gods have generated 
vas'va_nara Agni, as the brow of heaven, the unceasing pervader of earth,born 
for (the celebration of) sacrifice, wise, imperial, the guest of men, in whose 
mouth (is) the vessel (thatconveys the oblation to the gods). [Sa_maveda 
67,1140; Yajurveda 7.24; the gods: deva = priests who generateAgni by attrition; 
vais'va_nara = what or who belongs to or is beneficial to, all (vis'va) men 

6.007.02 (The worshippers) glorify together, (Agni), the bond of sacrifices, the 
abode of riches, the greatreceptacle of burnt-offerings; the gods generate 
vas'va_nara, the conveyer of oblations, the emblem of sacrifice.[The bond of 
sacrifices: na_bhim yan~a_na_m: na_bhi = vahanam, bandhakam, the connecting link 
or binding ofdiffering rites].

6.007.03 The offerer of (sacrificial) food becomes wise, Agni, from you heroes 
become the vanquishers of foes;therefore, do you, royal vais'va_nara, bestow 
upon us enviable riches.

6.007.04 All the worshippers together praise you, immortal, Agni, when born like 
an infant; when you shinevais'va_nara, between the parental (heaven and earth) 
they obtain immortality through your (sacred) rites.

6.007.05 Agni, vais'va_nara, these your mighty deeds no one can resist; when 
born on the lap of your parents,you have stationed the banner of the days on the 
paths of the firmament. [Lap of your parents: i.e., antarks.a, orfirmament].

6.007.06 The summits of the firmament are measured by the light of vais'va_nara, 
the manifester of ambrosial(rain); all the regions are overspread (by the 
vapour) on his brow, and the seven gliding (streams) spring fromthence like 
branches. [All the regions: i.e., the smoke that rises from sacrificial fires 
become clouds in theatmosphere, whence the rain falls and rivers are filled].

6.007.07 Vais'va_nara, the performer of sacred acts, is he who made the regions; 
foreseeing (he has made) theluminaries of heaven, and has spread throughout all 
worlds; the irresistibel guardian (of all), the protector ofambrosial 
(rain).6.008.01 I commemorate promptly at the holy ceremony the might of the 
all-pervading ja_tavaedasa, theshowerer, the radiant; new, pure, and graceful 
praise issues (from me) like the soma juice (from the filter), to 

6.008.02 That Agni who, as soon as born in the highest heaven, the protector of 
sacred rites, protects the piousacts (of men), he has made he manifold 
firmament; vais'va_nara, the performer of good deeds, has attainedheaven by his 

6.008.03 The friend (of all), the wonderful (agni), has upheld heaven and earth; 
he has hidden darkness withinlight; he has spread out the two sustaining 
(worlds, heaven and earth), like two skins; vais'va_nara comprehendsall 
(creaive) energy.

6.008.04 The mighty maruts have seized upon him on the lap of the waters (in 
firmament), and men haveacknowledged him as their adorable sovereign; 
ma_taris'van, the messenger of the gods, has brought Agnivais'va_nara (hither) 
from the distant (sphere of the) sun.

6.008.05 To those, Agni, who repeat new (praises) to you, the object of their 
worship from age to age, grantriches and famous (posterity); strike don, 
undecaying, sovereign, the sinner with your blaze like the thunderbolt,as if he 
were a tree.

6.008.06 Grant, Agni, to us who are affluent in (offerings), wealth that cannot 
be taken away, that is exempt fromdecay, and that comprehends excellent male 
descendants may we obtain, Agni vais'va_nara, hundreds andthousands of viands 
through your protection.

6.008.07 Adored Agni, present in the three worlds, protect your worshippers with 
your irresistible protections,preserve the strength of us who offer (oblations); 
glorified (by us), Agni vais'va_nara, transport us (beyond evil).6.009.01 The 
dark day and the light day revolve alternate, affecting (the world) by their 
recognizable (properties);Agni vais'va_nara, manifested like a prince, dispels 
darkness by his lustre.

6.009.02 I understand not the threads (of the warp), nor the threads of the 
woof, nor that (cloth) which those whoare assiduous in united exertion weave; of 
what (man) may the son declare the words that are to be spoken inthe next world, 
(instructed) by a father abiding below. [According to those who know 
tradition,samprada_yavidah, the reference to tantum... is a figurative allusion 
to the mysteries of sacrifice; the threads ofthe warp, tantu, are the metres of 
the vedas, those of the woof, otu, the liturgic prayers and ceremonial, 
thecombination of which two is the cloth, or sacrifice; the a_tmavidah or 
veda_ntins understand it as an allusion tothe mysteries of creation, the threads 
of the warp are the subtle elements, those of the woof are the grosselements; 
the elements combine to form the universe. In the second half of the r.ca, putra 
= manus.ya, a man;vaktva_ni = vaktavya_ni; para = parasta_t or amus.min; 
vartama_no yah su_ryah, the sun who is abiding in theother or future world, he 
being instructed, anus'is.t.ah san, by the father abiding below, or in this 
world, pitra_avasta_t asmin loke vartama_nena, i.e., by Agni vais'va_nara 
(vais'va_nara Agnina_); vais'va_narasya putroca_sau parasta_d divi yah sthitah = 
he is the son of vais'va_nara, who is stationed above, or in heaven. Nohuman can 
explain the mysteries of the sacrifice, perhaps the sun may be able to do so, 
instructed by Agni, hisparent or source].

6.009.03 He verily knows the threads of the warp and or the woof, he speaks in 
due season what is to be said,who comprehends all this (universe); who is the 
protector of ambrosial water, sojourning both above and below,and contemplating 
(the world) under a different (manifestation). [Contemplatingthe worlds: or, as 
the sun, whileupon earth Agni or vais'va_nara is manifest as fire].

6.009.04 This vais'va_nara is the first offerer of burnt offerings; behold him; 
this is the light immortal amongmortals; he has been born in a bodily shape, 
immoveable, all-pervading, immortal, ever increasing.

6.009.05 A steady light, swifter than thought, stationed among moving beings to 
show (the way) to happiness allthe gods being of one mind, and of like wisdom, 
proceed respectfully to the presence of the one (chief) agent(vais'va_nara). [A 
steady light: According to the veda_ntins, the light is brahma, seated 
spontaneously in theheart as the means of true knowledge, to which all the 
senses, together with the mind and consciousness, refer,as to the one cause of 
creation, or parama_tma_, supreme spirit].

6.009.06 My ears are turned (to hear him), my eyes (to behold him); this light 
that is placed in the heart (seeks toknow him); my mind, the receptable of 
distant (objects) hastens (towards him); what shall I declare him? Howshall I 
comprehend him?

6.009.07 All the gods, alarmed, venerate you, Agni, abiding in darkness; may 
vais'va_nara preserve us with hisprotection; may the immortal Agni preserve us 
with his protection.6.010.01 Place before you at the progressive, uninterrupted 
sacrifice, the divine, adorable, perfect Agni, withprayers; for he, the 
resplendent ja_tavedas, makes us prosperous in sacred rites.

6.010.02 Brilliant, may-rayed Agni, invoker of the gods, kindled with many 
fires, (hear) this (praise) of men; whichdelightful praise, pure as the 
clarified butter (that has been filtered), his worshippers offer unto him as 
mamata_(formerly offered it).

6.010.03 He thrives in abundance among men, who, pious, presents to Agni 
(oblations) with prayers; thewonderfully radian Agni places him with marvellous 
protection in the enjoyment of pasturage full of herds ofcattle.

6.010.04 The dark-pathed, as soon as generated, filled with his afar-seen light 
the two spacious (worlds); he, thepurifer, is now beheld dispersing with his 
radiance the thick glooms of night.

6.010.05 Bestow quickly, Agni, upon us who are affluent (in oblations), wondrous 
wealth), with abundant viandsand protections, such as enrich other men with 
wealth with food, and with male descendants.

6.010.06 Agni desirous (of the offering), accept this sacrifice, this food which 
the presenter (of the oblation),sitting down (before you), offers unto you; 
accept the blameless (praises) of the bha_radva_ja (race), and favourthem that 
they may obtain many sorts of food.

6.010.07 Scatter (our enemies); augment our abundance; and may we, blessed with 
virtuous male descendants,enjoy happiness for a hundred winters.6.011.01 Agni, 
invoker of the gods, do you who are adorable, being instigated by us, worship at 
our present ritethe foe-repelling (troop) of the Maruts, and bring to our 
sacriice Mitra and Varun.a, the Na_satyas, and Heavenand Earth.

6.011.02 You are amidst mortals at the celebration (of sacrifice), the invoker 
of the gods, you who are) mostdeserving of praise, a divinity doing us no harm; 
the bearer (of the oblations) offers (the gods), Agni, your ownbody with 
purifying flame as if with their mouth.

6.011.03 Praise solicitous of wealth, is ever addressed, Agni, to you, inasmuch 
as your manifestation (enables)the worshipper to sacrifice to the gods, when the 
pious sage, the most earnest adorer among the An:girasas, thereciter (of the 
hymns), repeats at the ceremony the gratifying measure.

6.011.04 The brilliant Agni, mature in wisdom, has shone resplendently; offer 
worship to the wide-spread heavenand earth, you whom, well-fed, the five races 
of men, bearing oblations, propitiate, with (sacrificial) food, as if youwere a 
mortal guest.

6.011.05 When the holy grass has been cut, (to be presented) to Agni, with the 
oblation; when the well-trimmedladle, filled with butter, has been lifted up; 
then your receptacle, (the altar), has been prepared on the surface ofthe earth, 
and the sacred rite is had recourse to, as light (concentrates) in the sun.

6.011.06 Agni, many-rayed, invoker of the gods, blazing with brilliant fires, 
bestow upon us riches; and may we,Son of strength, clothing you with oblations, 
overcome iniquity (like) a foe.6.012.01 Agni, the invoker of the gods, the lord 
of sacrifice, abides in the dwelling of the institutor of the rite, tooffer 
sacrifice to heaven and earth; he, the son of strength, the observer of truth, 
has overspread (the world) fromafar, like the sun, with light. [Of the 
institutor: todasya, from tud, to torment or distress; he who is distressed 
byascetic devotion, tapasa_ pi_d.yate, i.e. the yajama_na].

6.012.02 Adorable and resplendent Agni, to whom, mature in wisdom, the 
worshipper offers oblations at everysacred rite, do you, who are present in the 
three (worlds), move with the speed of the traverser (of the sky, thesun), to 
convey the valuable oblations of men (to the gods).

6.012.03 He, whose pure and spreading flame blazes in the forest, shines with 
increasing intensity, like the sunon his (celestial) path; rushing like the 
innoxious (wind) among the plants, immortal, unimpeded, he lights up (allthings) 
by his own (lustre). [Like the sun: todo adhvan: todo = the sun, sarvasya 
preraka, the urger, impeller, oranimator of all. Like the innoxious winds: 
adroha na = as of one not liable to be oppressed or harmed,adrogdhavya; or, it 
may mean the vital air, the non-injurer, the sustainer of all, pra_naru_pen.a 
sarves.a_madrogdha, i.e. the wind, va_yuh.

6.012.04 Agni, who knows all that exists, is propitiated in our dwelling by our 
praises, like those gratifying(commendations which proceed) from one soliciting 
(a favour); feeder upon trees, consumer of forests,impetuous in act as the bull, 
the (progenitor of calves), he is glorified by the celebration of sacrifices. 
[From onesoliciting favour: etari no etari = gantari, a goer; ya_cama_ne purus.e 
vidyama_na_ni stotra_n.i atyantam sukhakara_n.i, like praises which being 
present in a man soliciting, going, or applying to another, are the yielders 
ofvery great pleasure.

6.012.05 They glorify his flames in this world; when, easily thinning the woods, 
they spread over the earth; he,who glides along unarrested, and rapid in 
movement as a fast flying thief, shines over the desert.

6.012.06 Quick-moving Agni, kindled with all (your) fires, (guard) us from 
reproach; you bestow rices, youscattered adversaries; may we, blessed with 
excellent male descendants, enjoy happiness for a hundred winters.6.013.01 
Auspicious Agni, all good things proceed from you like branches (from the trunk) 
of a tree, renownedrices, vigour for the destruction of foes, the rain of 
heaven; you are to be glorified the sender of the waters.

6.013.02 Do you, who are adorable, bestow upon us precious wealth; beautiful 
with radiance, you pass (around)like the circumambient (wind); you, divine Agni, 
are like mitra, the giver of abundant water and ample wealth.[Who are adorable: 
tvam bhago na = you like bhaga; bhago, as an adjective, bhajani_ya, to be 
worshipped orpropitiated; na = nah, us].

6.013.03 That man, the protector of the virtuous, destroys, Agni, his enemy by 
his strength, and baffles,intelligent, the might of (the asura) pan.i, whom you, 
the wise, the parent of the sacrifice, consentient with thegrandson of the 
waters, encourage (in the hope of) riches. [Consentient with the grandson of the 
waters:sajos.a_ naptra_pa_m, the grandson of the waters = the lightning, 
vidyutagnina_ san:gata_s tvam, youassociated with the lightning-fire].

6.013.04 The mortal who by praise, by prayers, by sacrifices, attracts, son of 
strength, your heightened(radiance) to the altar, enjoys all-sufficiency and 
corn, and abounds in wealth.

6.013.05 Grant, son of strength, to men (who praise you), those abundant viands 
and excellent descendants,(that may contribute) to their prosperity; grant also 
that copious sustenance from cattle, which by your strengthyou take away from a 
churlish and malignant adversary.

6.013.06 Agni, son of strength, do you who are mighty be our councillor; give us 
sons and grandsons, togetherwith food; may I, by all my praises, obtain the 
fulfilment of my desires; may we, blessed with excellent maledescendants, enjoy 
happiness for a hundred winters. [Same as in RV. 3.005.11].6.014.01 May the 
mortal who propitiates Agni by devotion and worship, together with praises, 
quickly becomedistinguished as first (among men), and acquire ample food for the 
support (of his children).

6.014.02 Agni verily is most wise; he is the chief performer of religious rites, 
a holy sage; the progeny of menglorify Agni as the invoker of the gods at 

6.014.03 The manifold treasures of the enemy (detached from them) are emulous, 
Agni, for the preservation (ofyour worshippers); men who worship you, triumphing 
over the spoiler, seek to shame him who celebrates nosacred rite by (their) 

6.014.04 Agni bestows (upon his worshippers) a male descendant, (the performer 
of good) works, the subduer offoes, the protector of the virtuous, at whose 
appearance his enemies tremble through fear of his prowess.

6.014.05 The mighty and divine Agni, endowed with knowledge, protects the mortal 
from reproach whose rich(offerings) are unobstructed (by evil spirits), and 
unshared by other (offerers) at sacrifices.

6.014.06 Divine Agni, revered as a friend, who, abiding in heaven and earth, 
communicates our praise to thegods, conduct the offerer of adoration to domestic 
felicity, and may we overcome our adversaries, our iniquities,our difficulties; 
may we overcome them by your protection.6.015.01 Propitiate by praises this 
guest who wakes at dawn, the cherisher of all people, who on every 
occasiondescends, pure of origin, from heaven, and, present as the embryo (in 
the wood of attrition), consumesimmediately the offered (oblation).

6.015.02 Wonderful Agni, whom, adorable and upward flaming, the bhr.gus regard 
as a friend, deposited in thewood of (attrition), be pleased with vi_tahavya, 
since you are glorified by (his) praise everyday. [vi_tahavya: ifapplied to 
bharadva_ja, it will be an appellation, he by whom oblations are offered].

6.015.03 Do you, who are unresisted, become the benefactor of him who is skilled 
(in sacred rites), his defenderagainst a near of distant enemy; son of strength, 
who are ever renowned, grant wealth and a dwelling tovi_tahavya, the offerer of 
the oblation. [vi_tahavya, the bearer, bharat, of the oblation; va_ja = 
bharadva_ja, bywhom is offered, vi_ta, the oblation, havya].

6.015.04 Propitiate with pious praises the radiant Agni, your guest, the guide 
to heaven, the invoker of the gods(at the sacrifice) of manu, the celebrator of 
holy rites, the speaker of brilliant words like a learned sage, the bearerof 
oblations (to the gods), the lord, the divine.

6.015.05 (Propitiate him) who shines upon the earth with purifying and 
enlightening lustre, as the dawns with ligt;him, who like (a warrior) 
discomfiting (his foes) quickly blazed forth in the contest in defence of 
etas'a; him, who issatiated (with food), exempt from decay. [In defence of 
etas'a; etas'a = a horse?]

6.015.06 Worship repeatedly the adorable Agni with fuel (him) who is ever your 
dear friend, your guest; approachthe immortal Agni with praises, for he, a god 
among gods, accepts our homage.

6.015.07 I glorify with praise the kindled Agni, pure purifying, permanent, 
(placed) before (us) at the sacrifice; letus celebrate with pleasant (hymns) the 
wise Agni, the invoker of the gods, the adored of many, the benevolent,the far-
seeing, him who knows all that exists.

6.015.08 You, Agni, have gods and men in every age retained as their messenger, 
immortal bearer of oblations,beneficent, adorable; they have placed him with 
reverence (upon the altar), vigilant, pervading, the protector ofmankind.

6.015.09 Showing grace, Agni, to both (gods and men), and at each sacred rite 
the messenger of the gods, youtraverse earth and heaven; inasmuch as we offer 
you worship and praise, therefore do you, who are theguardian of the three 
(regions), be auspicious to us.

6.015.10 We of little wisdom adore the most wise Agni, the well-formed, the 
well-looking the graceful-moving;may Agni, who knows all things that are to be 
known offer the sacrifice; may he announce the oblation to theimmortals.

6.015.11 You cherish, you protect, Agni, that may who offers worship, hero, to 
you, the far-seeing; you rewardwith strength and with riches him (who 
undertakes) the institution, (who effects) the accomplishments of thesacrifice. 
[Who effects: yan~asya va_ nis'itim va_ uditim va_: sam.ska_ra, perfection, 
accomplishment;udgamanam, going up or over, perhaps, finishing].

6.015.12 Protect us, Agni, from the malignant, preserve us, mighty one, from 
wickedness; may the offering cometo you free from defects; may desirable riches, 
by your sands, (reach us).

6.015.13 Agni, is the invoker of the gods, the lord of the house, the ruler, who 
knows all that is, knows all existingbeings; he is the mos assiduous worshipper 
among gods or men; let him who is observant of truth offer worship.

6.015.14 Agni, minister of the sacrifice, bright wiht purifying lustre, approve 
of that (worship) which is this daycelebrated by the institutor of the rite; you 
verily are the sacrificer, therefore address the worship (to the gods);and since 
by your greatness you are all-pervading, therefore, youngest (of the gods), 
accept the oblations whichare today (presented) to you.

6.015.15 Look, Agni, upon the (sacrificial) viands duly deposited (upon the 
altar); heaven and earth detain you tosacrifice (to the gods); opulent Agni, 
protect us in battle, whereby we may pass safe over all evils; may we passover 
those of a prior existence; may we pass over them by your protection.

6.015.16 Bright-rayed Agni, sit down first with all the gods, upon the altar 
lined with wool, a nest (of perfumes)and suffused with ghee, and rightly convey 
(to the deities) the sacrifice of the institutor of the rite, of thepresenter of 
the oblation. [Lined with wool: urn.a_vantam, kula_yinam ghr.tavantam; the r.ca 
is quoted inAitareya Bra_hman.a; the altar is bult up like the nest of a brid, 
kulaya, with circles, padhayah, of the wood of thekhayar or devada_ru, in which 
avis.ambandah romavis'es.ah, sheep's wool; and fragran resins, the materials 
ofincense (guggulu dhupa_t dhanam) are placed, ete uttaravedya_m stha_pitah, 
these appurtenances are placedin the northern altar. Of the protector of 
oblation: savitre yajama_na_ya = (in genitive case) s.as.tyarthecaturthyes.a; 
anus.t.a_tre yajama_na_ya tadupaka_ra_rtham, for the sake of the benefit of the 
sacrificinginstitutor of the ceremony].

6.015.17 The priests churn you, Agni, as was done by atharvan, and bring him 
from the glooms of nightwandering deviously, but not bewildered. [Wandering 
deviously, but not bewildered: an:kuyantam amuram: thereference is to a legent 
of Agni's attempting at first to run away from the gods, devebhyah 

6.015.18 Be born, Agni, at the sacrifice, for the welfare of the offerer (of 
oblation) to the gods; bring hither theimmortal deities, the augmenters of the 
(sacred) rite present our sacrifice to the gods.

6.015.19 Lord of the house, Agni, we, among men, promote your increase by soma 
or fuel; may our domesticfires be supplied with all that is essential; enliven 
us with brilliant radiance. [With all that is essential: asthu_ri =asthu_rin.a 
ga_rhapatya_ni santu; isthu_ri is properly a one-horse car or waggon which bring 
either the soma orfuel; with negative prefix asthu_ri, it implies a non-one-
horse cart, that is a cart with a full team, andmetonymically, its contents, or 
a full supply of what is wanted for a perfect sacrifice, such as children, 
cattle,riches, asthu_rin.i putra-pas'u-dhana_dibhih sam.pu_rn.a_ni].6.016.01 
You, Agni, have been appointed by the gods, the ministrant fo men, the 
descendants of manu, at allsacrifices.

6.016.02 Therefore do you at our sacrifice offer oblations to the great deities 
with exhilarating flames; bring hitherthe gods; offer them worship.

6.016.03 Agni, doere of great deeds, creator, you know (how to travel over) with 
speed (great) roads and (little)paths at sacrifices. [adhvanah pathas'ca = 
maha_ma_rga_n, great roads; ks.udra ma_rga_ms'ca, little roads orpaths; i.e. put 
the sacrificer into the right way when he is going wrong in the ceremonial or 

6.016.04 Bharata, with the presenters of the oblation, has joyfully praised you 
in your (two-fold capacity), andhas worshipped you, the adorable, with 
sacrifices. [Bharata: the ra_ja_, the son of Dus.yanta; in your two-
foldcapacity: in the character of bestowing what is wished for and removing wht 
is undesired; is.t.a pra_ptyanis.t.apariha_raru_pen.a_gnir dvidha_].

6.016.05 As you have conferred these many blessings upon Divoda_sa when 
presenting libations, (so now grantthem) to the (actual) offerer, Bharadva_ja.

6.016.06 Hearing the adoration of the sage, do you, who are the immortal 
messenger, bring hither the celestialpeople.

6.016.07 Pious mortals invoke you, divine Agni, at sacrifices, to convey their 
(sacrificial) food to the gods.

6.016.08 I glorify your splendour and the acts of you the liberal giver all who, 
(through your favour) enjoy theirdesires, glorify you.

6.016.09 You have been appointed by manu, the invoker of the gods, the most wise 
bearer of oblations (to them)by your mouth; worship, Agni, the people of heaven.

6.016.10 Come, Agni, to the (sacrificial) fod; being lauded, (come) to convey 
the oblation (to the gods); sit downas the ministrant priest upon the sacred 

6.016.11 We augment you, An:giras, with fuel and with butter; blaze fiercely, 
youngest (of the gods).

6.016.12 Divine Agni, bestow upon us (wealth), excellent, great and 
(comprehending) worthy male descendants.[suvi_ra = suvi_rya, male descendants].

6.016.13 The sage, Atharvan, extracted you from upon the lotus-leaf, the head, 
the support of the universe. [tvampus.kara_d adhi atharvo nirmanthata, murdhno 
vis.vasya va_ghatah: pus.kara_dadhi = pus.karaparn.e,lotus-leaf; pus.kara parn.e 
praja_patir bhu_mim aparthayat = upon the lotus-leaf praja_pati made manifest 
theearth, a probable acount of the creation in Manu; since it supported the 
earth, it may be termed the head,mu_rdhan, or the bearer, va_ghata for va_haka, 
of all things; atharvan means pra_n.a, vital air extracted fire oranimal heat 
from the water, pra_n.a udakasaka_s'a_d Agnim nis'es.an.a mathitava_n; va_ghata 
= r.tvij, theministrant priest; so the sentence is explained: all the priests 
churned you out of the head or top of the wood ofattrition].

6.016.14 The r.s.i, Dadhyan~c, the son of Atharvan, kindled the slayer of 
Vr.tra, the destroyer of the cities ofAsuras.

6.016.15 (The r.s.i) Pa_thya, the showerer, kindled you the destroyer of the 
Dasyu, the winner of spoil in battle.

6.016.16 Come, Agni, that I may address to you other praises in this manner; 
augment with these libations.[Other praises in this maner: ittthetara_ girah = 
ittha, anena praka_ren.a, thus, in this manner; also, offered byothers, or by 
the asuras, asuraih kr.ta_; Aitareya Bra_hman.a 3.49 cites this r.ca: other than 
those offered to thegods, or adverse to the gods, propitiatory of the asuras, 
asurebhyah hitah devava_kya_ditara devavirodhinyaityarthah].

6.016.17 Wheresoever, and upon whatsoever your mind is directed, you bestow 
uncommon vigour, and thereyou make your abode.

6.016.18 Let not your full (blaze) be distressing to the eye, giver of dwellings 
to your humble votaries, andtherefore accept our worship. [Distressing to the 
eye: nahi pu_rtam aks.ipadbhuvat = aks.ipat aks.n.o pata_kamvina_s'akam, the 
offender or destroyer of the eye].

6.016.19 Agni, the bearer, (of oblations), the destroyer of the enemies of 
Divopa_sa, the cognizant of many, theprotector of the good, has been brought 
hither (by our praises).

6.016.20 Surpassing all earthly things, may he bestow upon us riches, destroying 
his enemies by his greatness,unresisted, unassailed.

6.016.21 You, have overspread, Agni, this vast (firmament) with radiant 
concentrated lustre, recent like that ofold.

6.016.22 Sing praise and offer sacrifice, my friends, to the foe-discomfiting, 
the creator, Agni.

6.016.23 May that Agni indeed sit down (at our sacrifice), who in every age of 
man has been the invoker of thegods, doer of wise deeds, the messenger of the 
gods, the bearer of oblations.

6.016.24 Giver of dwellings, worship on this occasion, the two regal divinities, 
Mitra and Varun.a, whose acts areholy, the A_dityas, the company of the Maruts, 
and heaven.

6.016.25 Son of strength, Agni, the glorious radiance of you who are immortal, 
bestows food upon (your) mortalworshipper.

6.016.26 May the donor (of the oblation), propitiating you by his acts today, be 
exalted, and (rendered) veryopulent; may (such) mortal be diligent in (your) 

6.016.27 Those, Agni, who are protected by you, wishing for the whole (term of) 
life (obtain it), overcominghostile assailants, destroying hostile assailants.

6.016.28 May Agni, with his sharp flame, demolish the devourer (of the 
oblation); may Agni grant us riches.

6.016.29 Ja_tavedas, all-beholdeer, bring us wealth with good posterity; doer of 
good deeds, destroy thera_ks.asas.

6.016.30 Preserve us, Ja_tavedas, from sin; enunciator of prayer, protect us 
from the malevolent. [Enunciator:brahman.askave = mantrasya s'abdayita_, sounder 
or articulator of prayer; for Agni, it is said, generatedarticulate sound, and 
the Smr.ti is cited as authority; manah ka_ya_gnim ahanti, sa prerayati 
manutam,marutas-tu urasi caran mandiam janayati svaram, mind excites the fire of 
the body, that excites the collective vitalairs, and they, passing into the 
breast, engender agreeable, articulate sound.

6.016.31 The malevolent mortal who threatens us with murderous weapon; defend us 
from him, and also fromsin.

6.016.32 Scatter, divine Agni, by your flame, that evil-doer, the man who seeks 
to kill us.

6.016.33 Subduer of foes, grant to Bharadva_ja infinite happiness and desirable 

6.016.34 May Agni, propitiated by praise, desirous of (sacrificial) affluence, 
kindled, bright, and fed withburnt-offerings, destroy all adversaries. 
[Alternative interpretation: Agni entirely destroys all by manifold worship].

6.016.35 Radiant in the embryo of the maternal (earth), on the imperishable 
(altar); the cherisher of the paternal(heaven), sitting on the seat of 
sacrifice. [The cherisher: he ma_tuh, putus.pita_: the mother of Agni is the 
earth,the father is heaven; Agni is said to be the father or fosterer of his 
parent heaven, by transmitting to it the flameand smoke of burnt-offerings].

6.016.36 Bring to us, Ja_tavedas, all-beholder, food with progeny; such (food) 
as is brilliant in heaven.

6.016.37 Strength-begotten Agni, we, offering (sacrificial) food, address 
praises to you who are of pleasingaspect.

6.016.38 We have recourse, Agni, to the shelter of you, the lustrous, the 
golden-feathered, as to the shade (of atree).

6.016.39 You, Agni, who are like a fierce archer, or like a sharp-horned bull, 
have destroyed the cities (of theasuras). [Agni is identified with Rudra as the 
destoyer of the cities of Tripura: rudro va_ es.o yad agnih].

6.016.40 (Worship) that Agni whom (the priests) bear in their hands like a new-
born babe; the devourer (of theoblation), the (conveyer of the) holy sacrifices 
of men.

6.016.41 Conduct the divine (Agni), the bestower of infinite wealth, to (receive 
charge of) the food of the gods; lethim sit down on his appropriate seat.

6.016.42 (Welcome him) as soon as born, like a beloved guest, and place the lord 
of the mansion upon thesacred (altar) whence wisdom is derived. [This and 
previous r.ca are recited when the fire that has beenproduced by attrition is 
applied to kindle the a_havani_ya, or fire of burnt-offerings; Aitareya 
Bra_hman.a 1.16;Agni is the guest, not the sacriicer, of the a_havani_ya fire; 
ja_tavedasi is applied to the latter, as knowing thebirth of the churned fire, 
to whom it is a giver of delight, s'yona, sukhakara, by giving him a welcome 

6.016.43 Harness, divine Agni, your well-trained horses, who bear you quickly to 
the sacrifice. [manyave =yajn~aya, manyur ya_hah; Yajus. 13.36].

6.016.44 Come, Agni, to our presence, bring hither the gods to partake of the 
(sacrificial) viands, to drink theSoma.

6.016.45 Blaze up, Agni, bearer of oblations; shine, undecaying Agni, radiant 
with undecaying lustre.

6.016.46 Whatever mortal, offering oblations, worships a deity with 
(sacrificial) food, let him at the ceremony alsoworship Agni, the invoker of 
heaven and earth, the sacrificer with truth; let him adore (Agni) with uplifted 

6.016.47 We offer to you, Agni, the oblation sanctified by the heart, and 
(identified) with the sacred verse may thevigorous bulls and the cows be (as 
such an oblation) to you. [May the vigorous bulls and the cows: te tebhavantu 
u_ks.an.a rs.abha_so vas'a_ uta, may these vigorous bulls or the cows be for 
you; an intimation of theirbeing offered to Agni as victims 
rs.abhavas.a_ru_pen.a parin.atam san tvabhaks.a n.a_ya (havir) bhavatu, let 
theoblation, matured in the form of bulls or cows, be for your food].

6.016.48 The gods kindle Agni as the chief (of them); as the especial desroyer 
of Vr.tra; by whom the treasures(of the asuras) are carried off; by whom the 
ra_ks.asas are destroyed.6.017.01 Fierce Indra, glorified by us, drink of the 
Soma, (animated) by which you have discovered the vast herdof cattle (stolen by 
Pan.is), and, overcomer of enemies, wielder of the thunderbolt, you have slain, 
by yourstrength all opposing foes.

6.017.02 Drink it, Indra, you who enjoy the flavourless Soma; you who are the 
preserver, the handsome-chinned,the showerer (of benefits) on those who praise 
you; who are the breaker of mountains, the wielder of thethunderbolt, the curber 
of steeds, do you bestow upon us various food.

6.017.03 Drink it as of old, and may it exhilarate ou; hear our prayer, and be 
exalted by our praises; make the sunvisible, nourish us with food, destroy our 
enemies, rescue the cattle.

6.017.04 Abounding in food, Indra, let these exhilarating draughts copiously 
bedew you, the resplendent; let theinebriating juices delight you who are 
mighty, deficient in no (excellence), powerful, manifold, the overcomer offoes.

6.017.05 By which (juices) being exhilarated you have appointed the sun and the 
dawn (to their offices), drivingaway the solid (glooms); you have penetrated, 
Indra, the mountain, unmoved from its own seat, concealing thecattle.

6.017.06 By your wisdom, by your deeds, through your power, you have developed 
the mature (milk) in theimmature (udders), you have opened the strong doors for 
the cattle (to come forth); associated with An:girasas,you have liberated the 
cows from their fold.

6.017.07 You have filled the wide earth, Indra. With (the power of) your deeds; 
you, the mighty one, havepropped up the vast heaven; you have sustained the 
heaven and earth, whose children are the gods, (and whoare) the old and mighty 
parents of sacrifice. [The old and mighty: pratne ma_tara_ yahvir r.tasya = the 
ancientparents, the offspring or Brahma_; r.tasya, brahman.a yahvi purtyau yahu 
= A_patya (Nighan.t.u 2.2)].

6.017.08 All the gods then placed you, Indra, as their mighty chief in front for 
battle; when the impious (asuras)assailed the deities; the Maruts supported 
Indra in the conflict. [The Maruts: according to the legent the gods ranaway, 
the Maruts alone stood by Indra].

6.017.09 The heaven bowed down in the two-fold dread of your thunderbolt, and 
your individual wrath, whenIndra, the giver of food, struck to the sleep (of 
death) the assailing Ahi.

6.017.10 Fierce Indra, Tvas.t.a_ constructed for you, the mighty one, the 
thousand-edged, the hundred-angledthunderbolt, wherewith you have crushed the 
ambitious audacious, loud-shouting Ahi.

6.017.11 For you, Indra, whom all the Maruts, alike pleased, exalt, may Pu_s.an 
and Vis.n.u dress for you ahundred buffaloes, and to him may the three streams 
flow with the inebriating, foe-destroying Soma. [Dress foryou a hundred 
buffaloes: pacat s'atam mahis.a_n tubyam, may he cook for you a hundred male 
animals;pum-pas'u_n pacet; three streams: trin.i sara_m.si = three cups or 
vessels called a_havanis, holding the somawhich has been purified or filtered 
into the pitcher, the dron.akalas'a].

6.017.12 You have set free the greatly obstructed and arrested water of the 
rivers, the flux of the waters; youhave directed them, Indra, upon their 
downward paths; you have sent them rapidly down to the ocean.

6.017.13 May our new prayer bring to our protection you, Indra, who are the 
maker of all these (things that exist);who are mighty, fierce, undecaying, the 
giver of strength, having excellent descendants, the Maruts, well-armed,the 
bearer of the thunderbolt.

6.017.14 Do you, resplendent Indra, uphold us who are devout, for (the obtaining 
of) food, of sustenance, ofnourishment, of wealth; bestow upon Bharadva_ja pious 
posterity, with numerous attendants; be with us, Indra,every future day. [For 
food: va_ja_ya, s'aravase, is.e ca ra_ye, the first three are synonyms, meaning 

6.017.15 May we, by this (praise), obtain food granted by the deity; may we, 
blessed with excellent maledescendants, be happy for a hundred winters.6.018.01 
Praise him who is Indra, the invoker of many, endowed with overpowering vigour, 
the destroyer (offoes), unharmed by them; exalt with these praises the 
irresistible, fierce, victorious Indra, the showerer (ofbenefits) upon mankind.

6.018.02 He is ever the combatant, the donor, the engaged in battle, the 
sympathizer (with the sacrificer), thebenefactor of many, the loud-sounding, the 
partaker of the stale libation, the stirrer up of dust (in strife), the 
chiefprotector of men the descendants of Manu, the endowed with strength.

6.018.03 You are he who has quickly humbled the Dasyus; you are the chief one 
who has given posterity to theArya;but, Indra, is not verily your power such? If 
it be not, then in due season confess. [Not beholding Indra, ther.s.i began to 
question his attributes and power; next verse explains his belief in these 
attributes and power].

6.018.04 Yet, most mighty one, I believe that powre is verily always in you, who 
are manifest at many rites, andare the enemy of (our) enemies; (the power) that 
is fierce in the fierce one, most mighty in the mighty one, mostunassailable in 
the subduer (of foes).

6.018.05 May that our ancient friendship with you ever endure; as when, along 
with the An:girasas, celebratingyour praises, you, beautiful Indra, caster down 
of the immoveable (roks), did verily slay Bala, hurling (his dartsagainst you), 
and force open his cities, and all his gates.

6.018.06 Fierce Indra, maker of rules you are he who is to be invoked with 
praise in a great conflict; you are he(who is to be invoked) for sons and 
grandsons, he, the wielder of the thunderbolt, who is to be especially 
glorifiedin battles.

6.018.07 With immortal, foe-humiliating might he has promoted the (multiplied) 
birth of mankind; he, the chief ofleaders, dwells in the same dwelling with 
fame, with strength, with riches, with heroism.

6.018.08 He who is never perplexed, who is no engenderer of that which is in 
vain, whose name is renowned,who promptly (exerts himself) for the overturning 
of the cities (of the asuras), and for the destruction (of his foes);you, 
(Indra), have indeed slain Cumuri, Dhuni, Pipru, S'ambara, and S'us.n.a.

6.018.09 (Endowed) with upward-rising, foe-thinning, and glorified (vigour), 
ascend your car for the destruction ofVr.tra; take the thunderbolt in your right 
hand, giver of wealth, baffle the devices (of the asuras).

6.018.10 In like manner as Agni consumes the dry forest, so, Indra, your weapon 
(destroys your enemies); as(formidable as you) fearful shaft, consume the 
ra_ks.asas; you who have shouted aloud (in the combat) anddemolished all evil 

6.018.11 Opulent, Indra, son of strength, the invoker of many, whose union (with 
energy) the impious is unable todisjoint, come down to us with thousands of 
riches by very powerful conveyances. [potobhistuvi va_jebhih: i.e.va_haih, 
vehicles, or sometimes horses; the epithet is: ba_hubalaih, very storng or 

6.018.12 The vastness of the affluent, ancient (Indra), the demolisher (of 
foes), exceeds that of the heaven andthe earth; there is no antagonist, no 
counterpart, no recipient of him abounding in wisdom, victorious (in war).

6.018.13 That exploit is celebrated in the present day (which you have) achieved 
for Kutsa, for A_yu, forAtithigvave; to him you have given many thousands (of 
riches), and you have quickly elevated Turvaya_n.a overthe earth by your power. 
[Turvay_n.a: same as Divoda_sa, to whom Indra gave the spoils of S'ambara].

6.018.14 Divine Indra, all the gods have glorified you, the wisest of the wise, 
for the destruction of Ahi; whenpropitiated, you have given wealth to the 
distressed worshipper, and to his posterity. [When propitiated: yatravarivo 
ba_dhita_ya dive jana_ya tanve gr.n.ah karah = yasmin ka_le piditya stotre 
jana_ya tat tanaya_ya cadhanam stu_yama_n.o adadah = when being praised, you 
have given ease to the celestial people through therelief, tanve, s'obha_yai, 
caused by the demolition of Ahi].

6.018.15 The heaven and earth, and the immortal gods, acknowledge your might; 
doer of many deeds, do thatwhich is yet undone by you, give birth to a new hymn 
at (your) sacrifice.6.019.01 May the great Indra, who is as a monarch the 
fulfiller (of the desires) of men, come hither; may he whois mighty over the two 
(realms of space), uninjurable by (hostile) offers, increase (in capacity) for 
heroism in ourpresence; may he who is great (in body), eminent (in qualities), 
be honoured by the performers (of pious acts).

6.019.02 Our praise encourages Indra o munificence, the vast, quick-moving, 
undecaying, ever-youthful Indra,mighty with unsurpassable strength, who rapidly 
grows to greatness.

6.019.03 Extend towards us your long, active, and bountiful hands, (to bring us) 
food; be abot us, lowly-mindedIndra, in battle, as a herdsman (tends) the herds 
of cattle.

6.019.04 Desiring sustenance, we invoke you, the renowned Indra, on this 
occasion, the destroyer (of enemies),together with his powerful allies (the 
Maruts); as his ancient adorers have been, (may we be), exempt fromblame, 
irreproachable, unharmed.

6.019.05 In him who is observant of pious rites, who is a giver of wealth, who 
is exalted by the Soma, the (lord) ofdesirable riches, the distributor of food, 
(in him) the treasures fit (for his worshippers) congregate like riversflowing 
into ocean.

6.019.06 Bestow upon us, hero Indra, most vigorous vigour; subduer (of enemies, 
bestow upon us) mostenergetic and fierce energy; grant, lord of steeds, all the 
bright and invigorating (treasures) fit for men, to makeus happy.

6.019.07 Impart to us, Indra, that your invigorating exultatio which overcomes 
enemies, and is irresistible, whereby, protected by you, triumphant we may 
glorify you for the sake of (obtaining) sons and grandsons.

6.019.08 Bestow upon us, Indra, vigorous strenght, the realizer of wealth, great 
and propitious, wherewith,thorugh your protection, we may destroy our enemies in 
battles, whether they be kinsmen or strangers.

6.019.09 May your invigorating srength come from the west, from the north, from 
the south, from the east; may itcome to us from every quarter; grant us riches 
combined with felicity.

6.019.10 We enjoy, Indra, through your guiding protection, desirable affluence 
along with descendants andreputation; grant us, sovereign, who rule over 
(earthly and heavenly) riches, vast, desirable and infinitetreasures.

6.019.11 We invoke on this occasion for his present protection, that Indra who 
is attended by the Maruts; who isthe showerer (of benefits); augmenting (in 
prowess); the unreviled of foes, radiant, ruling, all-subduing, fierce, thegiver 
of strength.

6.019.12 Wielder of the thunderbolt, humble that man who looks upon himself as 
the greatest among those menof whom I am; we invoke you now to (ascend) upon the 
earth at the time of battle, and for (the sake of obtaining)sond and grandsons.

6.019.13 Invoked of many, may we, through these your friendly (praises), ever be 
superior to successive foes,destroying, oh hero, both (classes of) enemies, 
(kindred or unallied); and may we, protected by you, be happywith abundant 
riches.6.020.01 Indra, son of strength, grant us (a son), the possessor of 
thousands, the owner of cultivated lands, theusbduer of foes, the riches that 
may overcome men in battles by strength, as the radiant (sun) overspreads 
theearth by his rays. [Grant us a son: the epithets seem to refer to a son, 
putram, who is metaphorically the riches ofa family, and its defence againstt 
enemies, putraru_pam dhanam yo s'avasa_ s'atru_n a_kramet].

6.020.02 To you, Indra, as to the sun, all strength has verily been given by the 
gods; so that, drinker of the staleSoma, associated with Vis.n.u, you mightiest 
slay the hostile Ahi obstructing the waters. [Given by the gods:devebhih = 
stotr.bhih; stotraih stuyama_na_ devata_ balavati_, a deity becomes strong, 
being praised withpraises; the hostile Ahi: ahim vr.tram = hanta_ram, Vr.tra, 
the destroyer Vr.tra].

6.020.03 When Indra, the destroyer, the most mighty, the strongest of the 
strong, the giver of food, the possessorof vast splendour, received (the 
thunderbolt), the shatterer of all the cities (of the asuras), he became the 
lord ofthe sweet Soma.

6.020.04 The Pan.is, Indra, fled, with hundres (of asuras), from the sage, your 
worshipper (and ally) in battle;neither did e, (Indra), suffer the deceptions of 
the powerful S'us.n.a to prevail over his weapons, nor did he (leavehim) any of 
his sustenance. [From the sage: das'on.aye kavaye = bahu kavis.ka_t medha_vinah, 
from the wiseman offeing many oblations, that is tvatsaha_yakutsa_t, from Kutsa, 
your ally; elsewhere Das'on.i is the name ofan asura].

6.020.05 When S'us.n.a passed away upon the falling of the thunderbolt, then the 
universal strength of the greatoppressor was annihilated, and Indra enlarged 
their common car for (the use of) his charioteer Kutsa, for (thesake of) the 
worship of the sn. [su_ryasya sa_tau bha_hane nimittabhu_te; uru s.a saratham 
kar =sama_nuratham vistirn.am akarot; Kuts is the reputed author of the hymns to 
Su_rya and Us.as: RV. 1.113 and115].

6.020.06 And the hawk bore to Indra the exhilarating Soma, when, bruising the 
head of the oppressor Namuci,and protecting the slumbering Nami, the son of 
Sapya, he provided, for the weeell-being (of the sage), riches andfood.

6.020.07 You have scatered by force, wielder of the thunderbolt, the strong 
cities of the deadly-deluding Pipru;you have given, bountiful Indra, uninjurable 
wealh to rijis.vat, the donor of sacrificial gifts.

6.020.08 Indra, the granter of wished-for felicity, compelled the many-
fraudulent Etas'a and Dason.i, Tu_tuji,Tugra and Ibha, always to come 
submissively to (the ra_ja_) Dyotana, as a son (comes before a mother).

6.020.09 Bearing in his hand the foe-destroyig thunderbolt, Indra, unresisted, 
demolishing those his adversaries;he mounts his two-horse (car), as a warrior 
(ascends) his chariot; harnessed at a word, his steeds, convey themigty Indra.

6.020.10 (Favoured) by your proection, Indra, we solicit new (wealth); by this 
adoration men glorify you atsacrifices, for that you have shattered with your 
bolt the seven cities of S'arat, killing the opponents (of sacredrites), killing 
the opponents (of sacred rites), and giving (their spoils) to Purukutsa. [Men: 
puravah = manus.yah;S'arat = name of an asura].

6.020.11 Desirous of opulence, you, Indra, have been an ancient benefactor of 
Us'anas, the son of Kavi; havingslain Navava_stva, you have given back his own 
grandson, who was (fit) to be restored o the grandfather.

6.020.12 You, Indra, who make (your enemies) tremble, have caused the waters, 
detained by Dhuni, to flow likerushing rivers; so, hero, when, having crossed 
the ocean, you have reached the shore, you have brought over insafety Turvas'a 
and Yadu. [samudram atiprapars.i = samudram atikramya pratirn.o bhavasi = when 
you arecrossed, having traversed the ocean, you have brought across Turvas'a and 
Yadu, both standing on the futureshore, samudrapa_re tis.t.hantau apa_rayah].

6.020.13 All this, Indra, has been your work in war; you have put to sleep, (in 
depth), the slumbering Dhuni_ andCumuri_; and thereupon Dabhi_ti, pouring the 
libation, preparing the oblation, and supplying the fuel, hasglorified you with 
Soma offerings.6.021.01 These earnest adorations of the much-desiring worshipper 
glorify you, hero, Indra, who are adorable;mounted on your car, undecaying, ever 
new, and to whom the wealth (of sacrifice), the most excellent 

6.021.02 I glorifyi that Indra who is propitiated by praises, exalted by 
sacrifices, who knows all things; themagnitude of whom, the possessor of various 
wisdom, exceeds in vastness (that of) heaven and earth.

6.021.03 He who made the indistinct, wide-spreading darkness distinct with the 
sun; whenever, possessor ofstrength, mortals are seeking to adore the dwelling 
of you who are an immortal, they harm not (any living being).[na minanti na 
him.santi = the object is: kim api pran.ija_tam].

6.021.04 What is he, the Indra who has done these deeds? What region does he 
frequent? Amog what people(does he abide)? What worship, Indra, gives 
satisfaction to your mind? What praise is able to gratify you? Whichof your 
invokers (is most acceptable to you)?

6.021.05 Doer of many deeds, these adders, born in former times, engaged in 
sacred rites, have been, as theyare now, your friends; so have those of 
mediaeval and those of recent (date); therefore, invoked of many, takenotice of 
your (present) humble (adorer).

6.021.06 Humble (worshippers), adoring him, commemorate, Indra, your excellent, 
ancient, and glorious (deeds);so, hero, who are attracted by prayer, we praise 
you who are mighty, for those great actions with which we areacquained. [Who are 
attracted by prayer: brahmava_hah = mantrairvahani_ya, to be borne or conveyed 

6.021.07 The strength of the ra_ks.asas is concentrated against you; bear up 
well against that mighty manifested(effort); scatter them, valiant (Indra), with 
your old associate, your friend, the thunderbolt.

6.021.08 Supporter of (your) worshippers, hero, Indra, listen (to the praises) 
of your present adorer, for you havealways attended to invocations at sacrifices 
in ancient times, as the kinsman of our forefather. [pitr.n.a_m a_pih =bandhuh; 
an:girasas are intended].

6.021.09 Propitiate today, for our protection and preservation, Varun.a, Mitra, 
Indra and the Maruts, Pu_s.an,Vis.n.u, Agni, of many rites, Savita_, the herbs, 
the mountains.

6.021.10 Indra, of great power, and to be devoutly worshipped, these your 
adorers glorify you with hymns; doyou, who are invoked, hear the invocation of 
(him) invoking you, for there is no other divinity than you, immortal(Indra), 
such as you are.

6.021.11 Come quickly, son of strength, you who know (all things), upon my 
prayer; together with all the adorable(divinities); they who, with the tongue of 
Agni, are partakers of the sacrifice, who rendered Manu (victorious) overhis 
adversaries. [Ye manum cakrur uparam dusa_ya s'atru_n.a_m or dasyu_na_m 
uparibhavam = who madeManu the ra_jars.i, manum ra_jars.im, over or the 
overcomer of enemies, or the Dasyus].

6.021.12 Constructor of paths, who are cognizant (of all things), be our 
preceder, whether in easy or difficult(ways); bring to us food, Indra, with 
those your (steeds), who are unwearied, large, and bearers of great 
burdens.6.022.01 I glorify with these praises, Indra, who alone is to be invoked 
by man; who comes (to his worshippers)the showerer (of benefits), the vigorous, 
the observer of truth, the subduer of foes, the possessor of manifoldknowledge, 
the mighty.

6.022.02 To him the seven sages, our ancient progenitors, performing the nine 
days' rite, were offerers of(sacrificial) food, celebrating with hymns the very 
strong (Indra), the humiliator of foes, the traverser of theheavens, he dweller 
in the clouds, whose commands are not to be disobeyed.

6.022.03 We solicit that Indra for wealth, comprehending numerous descendants, 
followers and much cattle, andwhich is undisturbed, imperishable, and the source 
of felicity, such riches, lord of steeds, bestow upon us tomake us happy.

6.022.04 If, Indra, your worshippers have formerly obtained felicity, confer 
that also upon us; irresistible Indra,subduer of foes, invoked of many, 
abounding in wealth, what is the portion, what the offering (due) to you whoare 
the slayer of the asuras?

6.022.05 He whose ceremonial and eulogistic hymn is commemorating Indra, the 
holder of the thunderbolt,seated in his car, the accepter of many, the doer of 
many great deeds, the bestower of strength, proceedspromptly to acquire 
happiness, and encounters (with confidence) the malevolent.

6.022.06 Self-invigorated Indra, you have crushed by your knotted (thunderbolt), 
quick as thought, that Vr.tra,growing in strength by this cunning; very radiant 
and mighty (Indra), you have demolished by (your) irresistible(shaft) the 
unyielding, compact, and strong (cities of the asuras). [Growing in strength: 
aya_ ma_yaya_va_vr.dha_nam, by this guile or deception].

6.022.07 (I have undertaken) to spread around with a new hymn, as i was done of 
old, (the glory of) you, theancient and most mighty (Indra); may that Indra, who 
is illimitable, and is a sure conveyance, bear us over alldifficulties.

6.022.08 Make hot the regions of earth, of heaven, of mid air, for the 
oppressive race (of the ra_ks.asas);showerer (of benefits), consume them 
everywhere with your radiance, make the heaven and the firmament (too)hot for 
the impious. [brahmadvis.e = bra_hman.a dves.t.re, the hater of bra_hman.as; 
perhaps, a reference to theenemy or hater of the veda or of prayer].

6.022.09 Bright-flaming Indra, you are the king of the people of heaven, and of 
the moving races of earth; graspin your right hand the thunderbolt, wherewith, 
Indra, who are beyond all praise, you baffle all the devices (of theasuras).

6.022.10 Brin to us, Indra, concentrated, vast and unassailable prosperity 
beyond the reach of enemies, and bywhich, wielder of the thunderbolt, you have 
rendered human enemies, whether Da_sas or A_ryas, easy to beovercome.

6.022.11 Invoked of many, creator, object of sacrifices, come to us with your 
all-admired steeds, whom neitherasura nor deity arrests; come with them quickly 
to our presence.6.023.01 Indra, when the Soma is being effused, the sacred hymn 
chanted, the prayer recited, be you prepared(to harness your horses), or, 
Maghavan, with your horses ready harnessed, come (hither), bearing 
thethunderbolt in your hand.

6.023.02 Or as, although engaged in heaven in the hero-animating conflict with 
foes, you protect the offerer ofthe libation, and humblest, undaunted Indra, the 
Dasyus, the disturbers of the pious and terrified worshipper, (sodo you come 
when the soma is effused. [There is no verb in the text; 'come' is assumed from 
the previous r.ca:so, the reading is: when the soma is poured forth].

6.023.03 May Indra be the drinker of the effused soma, he who is the fierce 
conductor of the worshipper tosecurity; may he be the donor of the world to the 
presenter of the libation, the giver of wealth to the man whoadores him.

6.023.04 May Indra, with his steeds, come o us as many (daily) rites (as may be 
celebrated), bearing thethundeerbolt, drinking the soma, bestowing cattle, 
granting manly and multiplied posterity, hearing the invocationof his adorer, 
and being the accenter of (our) praises.

6.023.05 To that Indra, who of old has rendered us good offices, we address (the 
praise) that he is pleased by;we celebrate him when the soma is effused, 
repeating the prayer that the (sacrificial) food (offered) to Indra maybe for 
his augmentation.

6.023.06 Since, Indra, you have made the (sacred) prayers (the means of) your 
augmentation, we address suchto you, along with our praises; may we offer 
gratifying and acceptable eulogies to the drinker of the effusedlibation, with 
(our) sacrifices.

6.023.07 Accept, Indra, who are condescending, our cakes and butter; drink the 
soma mixed with curds; sit downupon this sacred grass (strewn by) the 
worshipper; grant ample possessions to him who depends on you.

6.023.08 Rejoice, fierce Indra, according to your pleasure; let these libations 
reach you; invoked of many, maythese our invocations ascend to you; may this 
praise influence you for our protection.

6.023.09 Friends, when the libations are effused, do you satisfy that liberal 
Indra with the soma; let there beplenty for him, that (he may provide) for our 
nourishmen; Indra never neglects the care of him who presentscopious oblations.

6.023.10 Thus has Indra, the lord of the opulent, been glorified by the 
Bhaa_radva_jas, upon the libation beingeffused, that he may be th director of 
his eulogist (to virtue), that Indra may be the giver of all desirable 
riches.6.024.01 At the rites at which soma (is offered) the exhilaration 
(produced) in Indra is a shower (of benefits to theofferer); so is the chanted 
hymn with the (recited) prayer, therefore the drinker of the soma, the partaker 
of thestale soma, Maghavan, is to be propitiated by men with praises; dweller in 
heaven, he is the lord of sacredsongs, unwearied in the protection (of his 

6.024.02 The surpasser (of foes), a hero, the friend of man, the discriminator, 
the hearer of the invocation, thegreat protector of his adorers, the giver of 
dwelings, the ruler of men, the cherisher of his worshippers, thebestower of 
food, grants us, when glorified at the sacrifice, (abundant) sustenance.

6.024.03 Mighty hero, by your magnitude, (the exten) of heaven and earth is 
exceeded, as the axle by the(circumerfence of the) wheels; invoked of many, your 
numerous benefits, Indra, spread out like the branches of atree.

6.024.04 Accomplisher of many acts, the energies of you who are (ever) active 
(congregate from all directions),like the converging tracks of cattle; they are 
the bonds (of foes), themselves unfettered, munificent Indra, like thetethers of 
(many) calves. [The energies: s'a_ka_h s'aktayah, abilities, energies; the verb 
is added: sarvatahsam.caranti_, come together from all sides; gava_m iva 
srutayah san~caran.i_h = dhenu_na_m ma_rga_hyatha_ sarvatra san~ca_rin.o 
bhavanti, as the paths of milch kine are everywhere going together; the 
translationis: vatsa_na_m na tantayah, like long ropes used to tie a number of 
calves together, like the tethers of manycalves].

6.024.05 Indra achieves one act today, another tomorrow, evil and good 
repeatedly; may he, and Mitra, Varun.a,Pu_s.an, Arya, be on this occasion 
promoters of the desired result.

6.024.06 By praises and by sacrifices, Indra, (men) bring down (what they 
desire) from you, as the waters(descend) from the top of the mountain; desirous 
of food, they approach you, who are accessible to praise, withthese their 
eulogies, as (eagerly as) coursers rush to battle. [The same verse is addressed 
to Agni inSa_maveda].

6.024.07 May the person of that vast Indra, celebrated by praises and prayers, 
ever increase; Indra, whomneither years nor months make old, nor days enfeeble.

6.024.08 Glorified by us, he bows not down to the robust, nor to the resolute, 
nor to the persevering (worshipper)who is instigated by the (irreligious) 
Dasyus; the lofty mountains are easy of access o Indra; to him there is abottom 
in the (lowest) deep.

6.024.09 Powerful Indra, drinker of the soma, (actuated) by a profound and 
comprehensive (purpose), grant usfood and strength; be ever diligent, benevolent 
Indra, for our protection by day and by night.

6.024.10 Accompany, Indra, the leader in battle for his protection; defend him 
against a near (or distant) foe;protect him from an enemy, whether in (his) 
house or in a forest, and may we, blessed with excellent maledescendants, be 
happy for a hundred winters.6.025.01 Powerful Indra, with these (your 
protections), whether the protection be little, great or middlin, defend usfor 
the destruction of our foes; supply us, fierce Indra, who are mighty, with those 
viands (that are needed).

6.025.02 (Induced) by these (praises), protecting our assailing host, baffle, 
Indra, the wrath of the enemy;(induced) by them, overthrow, on the part of the 
A_rya, all the servile people everywhere abiding.

6.025.03 Annihilate, Indra, the strength of those who, whether kinsmen or 
unrelated, present themselves beforeus, exerting themselves as adversaries; 
enfeeble their prowess, put them to fight.

6.025.04 The hero, (favoured by you), assuredly slays the (hostile) hero by his 
bodily prowess, when, bothexcelling in personal strength, they strive together 
in conflict, or when, clamorous, they dispute for (the sake of)sons, of 
grandson, of cattle, of water, of land.

6.025.05 But you (no one) resists, neither the hero, nor the fleet runner, nor 
the resolute, nor the combatantconfiding (in his valour); neither of these, 
Indra, is a match for you; you are superior to all these persons.

6.025.06 Of both these (disputants), that one acquires wealth whose priests 
invoke (Indra) at the sacrifice,whether the conten emulous for (the overthrow 
of) a powerful enemy, or for a dwelling peopled with dependants.

6.025.07 Therefore, Indra, when your people tremble (with fear), protect them; 
be to them a defender; may thosewho are our chief leaders be enjoyers (of your 
favour), as well as those (your) worshippers who have placed usforemost (to 
perform the sacrifice).

6.025.08 All (power) has been successively conceded verily to you, Indra, who 
are mighty, for the destruction ofthe foe; suitable vigour, suitable strength in 
battle (has been given) to you, adorable Indra, by the gods.

6.025.09 So (glorified by us), Indra, animate us (to overcome) our enemies in 
battle; overthrow our pious,malevolent (foes), and may we, Bha_radva_jas, 
praising you, assuredly possess habitations, with (abundant)food.6.026.01 Hear 
us, Indra, when, offering libations, we call  upon you for obtaining abundant 
food; grant us decidedprotection when on a future day men are assembling for 

6.026.02 The son of Va_jini, (Bharadva_ja), offering (sacrificial) viands, 
invokes you for (the sake of) acquiringobtainable and abundant food; (he 
invokes) you, Indra, the preserver of the good, the defender (from thewicked), 
when enemies (assail him); he depends upon you when, lifting up his fist, he is 
fighting for (his) cattle.

6.026.03 You have animated the sage with (the hope of) obtaining food; you have 
cut to pieces S'us.n.a forKutsa, the donor of the oblation; you have struck off 
the head (of S'ambara), imagining himself invulnerable,intending to give 
pleasure to Atithigvan. [Imagining himself invulnerable: amarman.ah = 
marmahi_nama_tma_nam manyama_nasya, of him thinking himself devoid of any 
fatally vulnerable part].

6.026.04 You have brought to Vr.s.abha a great war-chariot; you have protected 
him warring for ten days; youhave slain Tugra along with Vetasa; you have 
exalted Tuji glorifying you. [vetasave saca_: vetasa (in RV. 10.4.4)is the name 
of an asura; may be, it is the name of a ra_ja_, of whom Indra is the ally 
against Tugra, whom he hasslain for the sake of Vetasa; Vr.s.abha is also said 
to be the name of a prince].

6.026.05 Indra, who are the subduer (of foes), you have achieved a glorious 
(deed), inasmuch as you havescatered, hero, the hundreds and thousands (of the 
host of S'ambara), have slain the slave S'ambara (whenissuing) from the 
mountain, and have protected Divoda_sa with marvellous protections.

6.026.06 Delighted by libations offered wih faith, you have consigned Cumuri to 
the sleeop (of death) on behalfof Dabhi_ti, and bestowing (the maiden) Raji upon 
Pit.hi_nas, you have, by your contrivance, destroyed sixtythousand (warriors) at 
once. [Pit.hi_nas: rajim pit.hi_nase das'asyan: raji = etada_khya_m kanya_m, a 
maidencalled; it may also be a synonym of ra_jyam, kingdom, dominion; by your 
contrivance: s'acya_ = prajn~a_ya_; itmay also import karman.a_, by act or 

6.026.07 May I, with my fellow-worshippers, obtain that your most excellent 
felicity and vigour, which, mostmighty Indra, associate of heroes, the pious 
celebrate (as bestowed) by you, who are the humiliator (of foes), theprotector 
of the three (worlds).

6.026.08 May we, adorable Indra, your friends, at this your worship, offered for 
(the acquisiiton of) wealth, beheld most dear to you; may Ks.atras'ri_, the son 
of Pratardana, (my patron), by most illustrious through thedestruction of foes, 
and the attainment of riches.6.027.01 What has Indra done in the exhilaration of 
this (Soma)? What has he done on quaffing this (libation)?What has he done in 
friendship for this (Soma)? What have former, what have recent adorers obtained 
from youin the chamber of this (libation)? [The r.s.i is expressing his 
impatience at the dealing of the reward of his praises;in the next stanza, he 

6.027.02 Verily, in the exhilaration of this (Soma) Indra has done a good deed; 
on quaffing the libation (he hasdone) a good deed; (he has done) a good deed in 
friendship for this Soma; former as well as recent adorershave obtained good of 
you in the chamber (of the libation).

6.027.03 We acknowledge no one, Maghavan, of greatness equal to yours, nor one 
of like affluence, nor one ofequally glorifiable riches, none has (such as) your 
power been ever seen (in any other).

6.027.04 Such as your power (is) it has been comprehended (by us) as that 
wherewith you have slain the race ofVaras'ikha, when the boldest (of them) was 
demolished by the noise of your thunderbolt hurled with (all your)force. 
[varas'ikha: name of an asura; or, perhaps, the name of a people].

6.027.05 Favouring Abhya_vartin, the son of Ca_yama_na, Indra destroyed the 
varas'ikha (people), killng thedescendants of Vr.ci_vat, (who were stationed) on 
the Hariyu_pi_ya, on the eastern part, while the western(troop) was scattered 
through fear. [Abhya_vartin, Ca_yama_na: names of ra_ja_s. Vr.ci_vat is the 
first-born ofthe sons of varas'ikha, thereafter others are named. Hariyu_pi_ya 
is the name of either a river or a city].

6.027.06 Indra, the invoked of many, thirty hundred mailed warriors (were 
collected) together on the Yavya_vati_,to acquire glory, but the Vr.ci_vats 
advancing in a hostile manner, and breaking the sacrificial vessels, went 
to(their own) annihilation. [Thirty hundred: trim.s'ac chatam varmin.ah = 
trim.s'ada dhikas'atam, one hundred andthirty; kavacabhr.tas, wearers of 
breasplates or armour; yavya_vati_ = same as hariyu_pi_ya].

6.027.07 He whose bright prancing horses, delighted with choice fodder, proceed 
between (heaven and earth),gave up Turvas'a to Sr.n~jaya, subjecting the 
Vr.ci_vats to the descendant of Devava_ta (Abhya_vartin).[Sr.n~jaya: there are 
several princes with this name in the pura_n.as; one of them, the son of 
Haryas'va, was oneof the five Pa_n~ca_la princes; the name is also that of a 
people, probably in the same direction, the northwest ofIndia, or towards the 
Punjab (Vis.n.u Pura_n.a)].

6.027.08 The opulent supreme sovereign Abhya_vartin, the son of Ca_yama_na, 
presents, Agni, to me twodamsels riding in cars, and twenty cows; this donation 
of the descendant of Pr.thu cannot be desroyed. [Twodamsels: dvaya_n rathino 
vim.s'ati ga_ vadhu_mantah = rathasahita_n vadhu_matah stri_yukta_n 
dvaya_nmithunabhu_ta_n, being in pairs, having women together with cars; twenty 
animals, pas'u_n; perhaps, the giftcomprised of twenty pairs of oxen yoked two 
and two in chariots; the gift of females to saintly persons; thisdonation: 
du_n.a_s'eyam daks.in.a_ pa_rthava_na_m = na_s'ayitum as'akya_; pa_rthava: 
Abhya_vartin, asdescended from Pr.thu, the plural is used 
honorifically].6.028.01 May the cows come and bring good fortune; let them lie 
down in (our) stalls and be pleased with us;may the many-coloured kine here be 
parboiled milk for Indra on many dawns.

6.028.02 Indra grants the desires of the man who offers to him sacrifice and 
praise; he ever bestows upon himwealth, and deprives him not of that which is 
his own; again and again increasing his riches, he places thedevout man in an 
inaccessible fortress. [abhinna khilye: s'atrubhirabhetavye, not to be breached 
by enemies;khilye = khila, normally wasteland, but here it means 
apratihatastha_nam, an unassailed or unassailable place,one which is 
unapproachable by others, gantumas'akye sthale].

6.028.03 Let not the cows be lost; let no thief carry them away; let no hostile 
weapon fall upon them; may themaster of the cattle be long possessed of hose 
with which he sacrifices, and which he presents to the gods. [Letnot the cows be 
lost: na ta_ nas'anti = na nas'yantu].

6.028.04 Let not the dust-spurning (war) horse reach them nor let them fall in 
the way of sacrificial consecrationlet the cattle of the man who offers 
sacrifice wander about at large and without fear. [Not let them fall: 
nasam.skr.tatram abhyupayanti = vis'asana_disam.ska_disam.ska_ram 
na_bhyupagacchantu, let them not go rightto the consecration of immolation; as 
metonymy, perhaps the cows means their produce, milk and butter, whichare 
constantly offered].

6.028.05 May the cows be (for our) affluence; may Indra grant me cattle; may the 
cows yield the food of the firstlibation; these cows, oh men, are the Indra, the 
Indra whom I desire with heart and mins. [These cows are theIndra: a remarkable 
personation; the cows may be considered as Indra, as they nourish him by their 
milk andbutter presented in sacrifices; ga_va bhayah = mahyam dhanam bhavantu, 
may they be to me affluence; thecows are perhaps bhaga, the deity of good 
fortune and riches].

6.028.06 Do you, cows, give us nourisment; render the emaciated, the unlovely 
body the reverse; do you, whoselowing is auspicious, make my dwelling 
prosperous; great is the abundance that is attributed to you in 
religiousassemblies. [br.had vo vaya ucyate sabha_su, great of you the food is 
said in assemblies; or, great is the foodgiven to you in assemblies, it is given 
by all, sarvair di_yate ityarthah].

6.028.07 May you, cows, have many calves grazing upon good pasture, drinking 
pure water at accessible ponds;may no thief be your master; no beast of prey 
(assail you), and may the (fatal) weapon of Rudra avoid you.[Rudra, the supreme 
being identical with time, ka_la_tmakasya parames'varasya].

6.028.08 Let the nourishment of the cows be solicited, let the vigour of the 
bull (be requested), Indra, for yourinvigoration. [i.e. the milk and butter 
which are required for Indra's nutriment are dependent upon the cowsbearing 
calves].6.029.01 Your priests, (oh worshippers), proppitiate Indra for his 
friendship, offering great (praise), and desirousof his favour; for the wielder 
of the thunderbolt is the giver of vast (wealth); worship him, therefore, who is 
mightyand benevolent, (to obtain) his protection. [Offering great praise: maho 
yantah sumataye caka_na_h = mahatkarma anutis.t.hantah, performing great 
worship; stutim s'abda_yantah, uttering praise].

6.029.02 In whose hand (riches) good for man are accumulated, the chariot-
mounted in a golden car; in whosearms the rays of light (are collected); whose 
vigorous horses, yoked (to his car, convey him) on the road (of thefirmament). 
[In whose hand: yasmin haste; or, in whom, the slayer of foes, yasmin hantari 
(Nirukta 1.7).

6.029.03 They offer adoration at your feet to acquire prosperity, for you are 
the overthrower of enemies by (your)strength, the wielder of the thunderbolt, 
the bestower of donations; leader (of rites), you are like the rolling 
sun,wearing in the sight (of all) a graceful and ever moving form. [vasa_no 
atkam surabhim = satatagamanas'i_lampras'astam ru_pam sarves.a_m dars'ana_rtham 
a_ccha_dayan, putting on, for the sake of the seeing of all, anexcellent form 
endowed with perpetual movement].

6.029.04 That libation is most perfectly mixed when, upon its being effused, the 
cakes are baked, and the barleyis fried, and the priests, glorifying Indra, 
offering the (sacrificial) food, and reciting holy prayers, are approachingmost 
nigh to the gods.

6.029.05 No limit of your strength has been assigned; heaven and earth are 
intimidated by its greatness; thepious worshipper, hastening (to sacrifice), and 
earnestly performing worship, gratifies you with the offering, as(the cow-keeper 
satisfies) the herds with water. [u_ti = u_tya, i.e. tarpakena havis.a_, with 
the satisfyingoblation].

6.029.06 Thus may the mighty Indra be successfully invoked; he, the azure-
chinned, the giver of wealth, whetherby coming or not coming (to the sacrifice); 
and may he who is of unequalled strength destroy, as soon asmanifested, many 
opposing (evil spirits) and (hostile) Dasyus. [The azure-chinned: hiris'ipra = 
haritavarn.ah s'iproyasya, he whose chin or nose is of a green colour, an 
allusion perhaps to the sky, considered as a feature ofIndra; whether by coming 
or not coming: u_ti anu_ti = a_gamanena ana_gamanena, by coming or not 
coming;svayam a_gato ana_gato api stotr.bhyo dhanam prayacchati, whether he may 
have come himself or not, he giveswealth to the praisers]. 

6.030.01 Again has Indra increased (in strength) for (the display of) heroism; 
he, the chief (of all), theundecayable, bestows riches (on his votaries); Indra 
surpasses heaven and earth; a mere portion of him is equalto both earth and 

6.030.02 I now glorify his vast and asura-destroying (vigour); those exploits 
that he has determined (to achieve)no one can resist; (by him) the sun was made 
daily visible; and he, the doer of great deeds, spread out thespacious regions 
(of the universe). [The sun was made visible: an allusion to Indra breaking 
asunder the clouds].

6.030.03 At present, verily as of old, that act, (the liberation) of the rivers, 
is effective; whereby you have directedthem on their course; the mountains have 
settled (at your command) like (men) seated at their meals; doer ofgreat deeds, 
by you have the worlds been rendered stationary.

6.030.04 Verily it is the truth, Indra, that there is no other such as you, no 
god nor mortal is (your) superior; youhave slain Ahi obstructing the waters, you 
have set them free (to flow) to the ocean.

6.030.05 You have set the obstructed waters free o flow in all directions; you 
have fractured the solid (barrier) ofthe cloud; you are lord over the people of 
the world, making manifest together the sun, the sky, and the dawn.6.031.01 You, 
lord of riches, are the chief (soverign) over riches; you hold men in your two 
hands, and menglorify you with various praises for (the sake of obtaining) sons, 
and valiant grandsons, and rain.

6.031.02 Through fear of you, Indra, all the regions of the firmamet cause the 
unfallen (rain) to descend; theheavens, the earth, the mountains, the forests, 
all the solid (universe) is alarmed at your approach.

6.031.03 You, Indra, with Kutsa, have warred against the inexhaustible S'us.n.a; 
you have overthrown Kuyava inbattle; in conflict you have carried off the wheel 
(of the chariot) of the sun; you have driven away the malignant(spirits).

6.031.04 You have destroyed the hundred impregnable cities of the Dasyu, 
S'ambara, when sagacious Indra,you, who are brought by the libation, have 
bestowed in your liberality riches upon Divoda_sa presenting to youlibations, 
and upon Bharadva_ja hymning your praise. [Dasyu, S'ambara: S'ambara is an 
asura; Dasyu andAsura appear to be synonymous].

6.031.05 Leader of true heroes, possessor of infinite wealth, mount your 
formidable car for the arduous conflict;come to me, pursuer of a forward path, 
for my protection; do you who are renowned, proclaim (our renown)among 
men.6.032.01 I have fabricated with my mouth unprecedented, comprehensive, and 
gratifying praises to that mighty,heroic, powerful, rapid, adorable, and ancient 
wielder of the thunderbolt.

6.032.02 He has obtained the parent (worlds, heaven and earth), with the sun, 
for the sake of the sages, (hean:girasas), and, glorified (by them), he has 
shattered the mountain; repeatedly wished for by his adorers intentlymeditating 
(upon him), he has cast off the fetters of the kine.

6.032.03 He, the achiever of many deeds, together with his worshippers ever 
offering oblations upon bendedknees, has overcome (the asuras) for (the rescue 
of) the cows; friendly with his friends (the an:girasas),far-seeing with the 
faqr-seeing, the destroyer of cities has demolished the strong cities (of the 

6.032.04 Showerer (of benefits), propitiated by the praise, come to him who 
glorifies you to make him happyamong men with abundant food, with exceeding 
strength, and with young (mares) with numerous colts.[ni_vya_bhi puruvi_ra_bhih 
= navatara_bhih bahu_na_m vi_rayitribhir vad.ava_bhih, with very new or 
youngmares bearing male progeny of many].

6.032.05 Endowed with natural force possessed of (swift) horses, Indra, the 
overcomer of the adversaries, (setsfree) the waters at the southern 
(declination); thus liberated the waters expand daily to the insatiable 
goalwhence there is no returning. [Southern declination: a_po daks.in.atah, the 
waters from or at the south;daks.in.a_yana may be intended, the sun's course 
south from the northern limit of the tropics; this heralds thecommencement of 
the rainy season].6.033.01 Showerer (of benefits), Indra, grant us a son who 
shall be most vigorous, a delighter (of you by praise),a pious sacrificer, a 
liberal giver, who, mounted on a good steed, shall overthrow numerous good 
steeds, andconquer opposing enemies in combat.

6.033.02 Men of various speech invoke you, Indra, for their defence in war; you, 
with the sages (the an:girasas),have slain the Pan.is; protected by you, the 
liberal (worshipper) obtains food. [viva_cah = vividhastutiru_pa_va_co yes.a_m, 
they of whom the speech has the form of many kinds of praise; or, simply 'of 
various speech'].

6.033.03 You, hero, Indra, destroyed both (classes of) enemies, (both) Da_sa and 
A_rya, adversaries; chiefleader of leaders, you cut your foes in pieces in 
battles with well-plied weapons, as (wood-cutters fell) theforests.

6.033.04 Do you, Indra, who are all-pervading, be a friend, and a protector with 
irreproachable protections for ourprosperity; when warring in number-thinning 
conflicts, we invoke you for the acquisition of wealth. [When warring:yudyanto 
nemadhita_ pr.tsu: nema = ardha, a half; or, some, katipaya_h purus.a_ dhi_yanta 
es.u, in thosebattles, pr.tsu, in which some men are engaged or killed; 
nemadhita_ = nemadhitaya_; for the acquisition ofwealth: svaras.a_ta_ = sus.t.hu 
aran.i_yam dhanam tasya sambhaana_rtham, very precious wealth for the sakeof 
enjoying it, that is, by the spoils of the enemy].

6.033.05 Do you, Indra, now and at (all) other times be verily ours; be the 
bestower of happiness according toour condition; and in this maner, worshipping 
at dawn, and glorifying you, may we abide in the brilliant andunbounded felicity 
of you who are mighty. [Worshipping at dawn: gos.atama_ = vartama_na_ bhavema, 
may webe present; s.yama = may we be, may we abide; gos.a = the dawn].6.034.01 
Many praises, Indra, are concentrated in you; from you abundant comemndations 
diversely proceed; toyou, formerly and at presen, the praises of the sages, 
their prayers and hymns, vie (in glorifying) Indra. [From youabundant 
commendations: vica tvad yanti mani_s.a_h tvattah stotr.n.a_m, approbations of 
the praisers variouslygo forth].

6.034.02 May that Indra ever be propitiated, by us who is the invoked of many, 
mighty and chief, especiallyhonoured by sacrifices, and to whom, as to a 
conveyance, we are attached for (the attainment of) great strength.

6.034.03 All praises contributing to his exaltation proceed to Indra, whom no 
acts, no words can harm, sincehundreds and thousands of adorers glorify him who 
is entitled to praise, and so afford him gratification.

6.034.04 The mixed Soma has been prepared for Indra, (to be offered) on the day 
(of the sacrifice), withreverence-like adoration, when praises, together with 
offerings, yield him increase, as when water (revives) aman in a desert waste. 
[adoration: divyarceva ma_sa_ = divase sautye ahani arcana sa_dhanena 
stotren.evema_nena, with respect, like praise, the instrument of worship on the 
day for the libation; to illustrate: a mantrabeginning Vr.raghna, slayer of 
Vr.tra; divi dyotake arceva arkah su_rya iva ma_sa_ ma_sas candrama_h sa 
iva,which, with the following word, mimiks.a, explained vr.s.t.yudaka_na_m 
sekta_, the sprinkler of rain-waters,applied to Indra: ya indro vartate, that 
Indra who is the shedder of rain, like the sun and the moon in heaven].

6.034.05 To this Indra has this earnest eulogy been addressed by the devout, in 
order that the all-pervadingIndra may be our defender and exalter in the great 
conflict with (our) foes.6.035.01 When may our prayers (be with you) in your 
chariot? When will you grant to your adorer the (means of)maintaining thousands? 
When will you recompense my adoration with riches? When will you render sacred 
ritesproductive of food?

6.035.02 When, Indra, will you bring together leaders with leaders, heroes with 
heroes, and give us victory inbattles? When will you conquer from the enemy the 
threefold-food-supplying cattle? (When will you grant) us,Indra, diffusive 
wealth? [Threefold-food-supplying: tridha_tu ga_h, cows having three elements of 
nutriment, asmilk, curds and butter].

6.035.03 When, most vigorous Indra, will you grant your worshipper that food 
which is all-sufficing? When willyou combine (in yourself) worship and praises? 
When will you render oblations productive of cattle?

6.035.04 Grant, Indra, to your adorer (abundant) food, productive of cattle, 
pleasant with horses, and renownedfor vigour; multiply nourishment, and 
(cherish) the kine easily milked, and render them so that they may 

6.035.05 Direct him who is actually our adversary into a different (course); 
mighty Indra, who are a hero, thedestroyer (of enemies), therefore are you 
glorified; never may I desist from the praise of the giver of pure 
(gifts);satisfy, sage Indra, the an:girasas with food. [Into a different course: 
i.e. consign him to death, a course differentfrom that of living beings; never 
may I desist: ma_ niraram s'ukradughasya dhenoh = may I not cease from thecow 
the yielder of pure milk; dhenoh = vacas, stotrat, from praise; or, may I never 
depart from the milch cowsgiven, Indra, by you].6.036.01 Truly are your 
exhilarations beneficial to all men; truly are the riches which exist on earth 
(beneficial toall men); truly are you the distributor of food; wherefore you 
maintain vigour among the gods.

6.036.02 The worshipper praises especially the strength of that Indra, verily 
they rely upon him for heroic deeds;they offer sacrifices to him as the seizer 
of an uninterrupted series of foes, their assailant, their subduer, and alsofor 
the destruction of Vr.tra. [Seiser of an uninterrupted series of foes: 
syu_magr.bhe = syu_ta_n avicchedenavartama_na_n s'atru_n gr.hn.ate, to him who 
seizes enemies being lines or threads without interruption].

6.036.03 The associated Maruts, heroic energies, virile strength, and the Niyut 
steeds, attend upon Indra, andpraises powerful in sacred song centre in him as 
rivers flow into the ocean.

6.036.04 Glorified by us, Indra, let flow the stream of much delighting, home-
conferring affluence, for you are theunequalled lord of men, the sole sovereign 
of all the world.

6.036.05 Hear, Indra, (the praises) that may be heard (by you), you, who are 
gratified by our adoration, and, likethe sun, (prevail) over the ample riches of 
the enemy; endowed with strength, being glorified in every age,rendered 
comprehensible by (sacrificial) food, be to us no other (than as such as you 
have been). [Like the sun:dyaur na bhu_ma_bhi ra_yo aryah = arer dhna_ni 
bahutara_n.i su_rya iva abhibhavasi; abhi = abhibhu; by to usno other: aso 
yatha_ nah = not he as to us; that is, yena praka_ren.a asma_kam asa_dha_ran.o 
asi sa tatha_sah sya_h, in what manner you are especially of exclusively ours, 
so may you be that, our property or friend].6.037.01 Fierce Indra, let your 
harnessed steeds bring down your all-desired chariot; your devoted adorer 
verilyinvokes you; may we today, partaking of your exhilaration, increase today 
(in prosperity).

6.037.02 The green Soma flows at our sacrifice, and purified, proceed direct 
into the pitcher; may the ancientillustrious Indra, the soverign of the 
exhilarating Soma libation, drink of this our offering.

6.037.03 May the everwhere-going, straight-proceeding, chariot-bearing seeds, 
bring the mighty Indra uin hisstrong-wheeled car to our rite; let not the 
ambrosial Soma waste in the wind. [Soma, it is said, if allowed toremain some 
time in the vessel containing it, may be dried up the air; Indra is therefore 
urged to drink it before itdries up].

6.037.04 The very strong Indra, the performer of many great deeds, instigates 
the donation of this (institutor ofthe ceremony) among the opulent, whereby, 
wielder of the thunderbolt, you remove sin, and, firm of purpose,bestow riches 
upon the worshippers.

6.037.05 Indra is the donor of substantial food; may the very illustrious Indra 
increase (in glory) through ourpraises; may Indra, the destroyer (of enemies), 
be the especial slayer of Vr.tra; may he, the animator thequick-mover, grant us 
those (riches which we desire).6.038.01 May the most marvellous Indra drink from 
this (our cup); may he acknowledge our earnest and brilliantinvocation; may the 
munificent (Indra) accept the offering and the praiseworthy adoration at the 
sacrifice of thedevout worshipper.

6.038.02 Reciting (his praise, the worshipper) calls aloud, that by the sound he 
may reach the ears of Indra,although abiding afar off; may this invocation of 
the deity, inducing, him (to come), bring Indra to my presence.

6.038.03 I glorify you wiht hymns and with pious worship, the ancient undecaying 
Indra, for in him are oblationsand praises concentrated, and great adoration is 
enhanced (when addressed to him).

6.038.04 Indra, whom the sacrifice, whom the libation exalts, whom the oblation, 
the praises, the prayers, theadoration exalt, whom the course of day and night 
exalts, whom months, and years, and days exalt.

6.038.05 So, wise Indra, may we today propitiate you who are manifested, to 
overcome (our foes), you who aregreatly augmenting, mighty and free, for (the 
sake of) wealth, fame, and protection, and for the destruction of(our) 
enemies.6.039.01 Drink, Indra, of that our sweet, exhilarating, inspiring, 
celestial, fruit-yielding Soma, commended by thewise, and entitled to praise and 
preparation; bestow upon him who glorifies you, divine (Indra), food, the 
chiefestof which is cattle. [Sweet, exhilarating...: Several epithets are 
unusual and do not seem to be applicable to abeverage; they are: mandra, 
exhilarating; kavi, explained vikra_nta, heroic; divya, divine; vahni = 
vod.ha_,bearing fruit; vipramanman, of which the sages are the praisers, 
stota_rah; vacana, laudable, stutya; sacana, tobe served or honoured, sevya; the 
chiefest of which is cattle: is.o yuvasva gr.n.ate go agra_h = annamsanyojaya, 
combine or supply food to the praiser; ya_sa_m is.am ga_vo agre, of which 
viands, cows are in thefirs place; metonymically, cows are intended to denote 
their produce, milk and butter].

6.039.02 Determined (to recover) the cattle hidden in the mountain, associated 
with the animated by (their)veracious (praise), this (Indra) fractured the 
infrangible rock of Bala, and overwhelmed the Pan.is withreproaches.

6.039.03 This Soma, Indra, (quaffed by you), has lighted up the unlustrous 
nights, and days and nights, andyears; (the gods) of old have established it as 
the ensign of days, and it he made the dawns generated in light.[This Soma: ayam 
induh = Soma, implying both the moon and the Soma product; Soma is here 
candra_tma_nabhasi vartama_nah, the same as the moon present in the sky, and as: 
candragatya_dhi_natva_ttithivibha_gah, the division of lunar days are dependent 
upon the motions of the moon, it may be said to because of days, weeks, months 
and years, the first term: aktun = fortnights, months and years; or, the 
longestperiods of time; implied terms: tvaya_ pi_yama_nah, to be drunk by you 
(since this interpretation is justified bythe pronoun ayam].

6.039.04 This radiant (Indra) has illumined the non-radiant (worlds); he has 
pervaded many dawns with truelustre the benefactor of men moves in (a chariot) 
drawn by horses, harnessed by praise, laden with riches.

6.039.05 Sovereign of old, do you, when glorified, bestow upon him who praises 
you, and to whom affluence isdue abundant food; grant to the worshipper water, 
plants, inoxious woods, cattle, horses and men.6.040.01 Drink, Indra, (the Soma) 
that is effused for your exhilaration; stop your friendly steeds; let them 
loose;sitting in our society, respond to our hymns; give food to him who lauds 
and worships you. [Sitting in our society:uta pra ga_ya gan.e a_ nis.adya: 
praga_ya = asma_bhih kr.tam stotram upas'lokaya, return verses to the praisemade 
by us].

6.040.02 Drink, Indra, of this (libation), of which you, mighty one, have drunk 
as soon as born, for excitement to(great) deeds; that Soma which the kine, the 
priests, the waters, the stones, combine to prepare for yourdrinking.

6.040.03 The fire is kindled; the Soma, Indra, is effused let your vigorous 
horses bring you hither; I invoke yo,Indra, with a mind wholly devoted to you; 
come for our great prosperity.

6.040.04 You have ever gone (to similar rites); come now with a great mind 
disposed to drink the Soma; hearthese our praises; may the worshipper present to 
you (sacrificial) food for (the nourishment of) your person.

6.040.05 Whether, Indra, you abide in the distant heaven, in any other place, or 
in your own abode, orwhersoever (you may be), from thence do you, who are 
propitiated by praise, putting to your steeds, protect,together with the Maruts, 
well pleased, our sacrifice, for our preservation.6.041.01 Unirascible (Indra), 
come to the sacrifice; the effused Soma is purified for you; they flow, 
thunderer,(into the pitchers), as cows go to their stalls; come, Indra, the 
first of those who are to be worshipped.

6.041.02 Drink, Indra, with that well-formed and expanded tongue wherewith you 
ever quaff the sweet (Soma);before you stands the ministrant priest; let your 
bolt, Indra,  designed (to recover) the cattle, be hurled (againstyour foes).

6.041.03 This dropping, omniform Soma, the showerer (of benefits), has been duly 
prepared for Indra, theshowerer (of rain); lord of steeds, ruler over all, 
mighty (Indra), drink this over which you have of old pressed,which is your 

6.041.04 The effused Soma, Indra, is more excellent than that which is not 
effused; it is better (qualified) to givepleasure to you, who are capable of 
judging; overcomer (of enemies), approach this sacrifice, and therebyperfect all 
your powers.

6.041.05 We invoke you, Indra, come down; may the Soma be sufficient for (the 
satisfaction of) your person;exult S'atakratu with the libations, defend us in 
combats, and against the people. [pra asma_n avapr.tana_su praviks.u: pra = 
prasaks., especially protect us; na kevalam san:gra_mes.u kintu sarva_su 
praja_su, not only inwars, but in or against all people].6.042.01 Offer, 
(priests), the libation to him who is desirous to drink; who knows all things; 
whose movements areall-sufficient; who goes readily (to sacrifices); the leader 
(of holy rites), following no one.

6.042.02 Proceed to the presence of that deep quaffer of the Soma, with the 
Soma; to the vigorous Indra withvessels (filed) with the efused libations.

6.042.03 When, with the effused and flowing Soma, you come into his presence, 
the sagacious (Indra) knowsyour wish, and the suppresser (of enemies) assuredly 
grants it, whateve it may be. [tam tam id es.ate: note therepetition of the 
relative with reference to the antecedent ka_mam].

6.042.04 Offer, priest, to him, and him (only) this libation of (sacrificial) 
food, and may he ever defend us againstthe malignity of every superable 
adversary.6.043.01 This Soma, in the exhilaration of which it is known that you 
have subdued S'ambara for (the sake of)Divoda_sa, is poured out, Indra, for you; 
drink. [It is known: yasya tyacchambaram made: tyat = tat prasiddhamyatha_ 
bhavati tatha_, such as that which is notorious].

6.043.02 This Soma, the exhilarating draught of which, when fresh effused (at 
dawn), or at noon, or at the last (orevening worship), you cherish, is poured 
out, Indra, for you; drink.

6.043.03 This Soma, in the exhilaration of which you have liberated the cattle, 
firm (fastened) within the rock, ispoured out, Indra, for you; drink.

6.043.04 This Soma, exhilarated (by drinking) of which (sacrificial) food you 
possessed the might of Maghavan,is poured out, Indra, for you; drink. [The might 
of Maghavan: ma_ghonam s'avas, the rank of office of Indra, isengendered by the 
Soma, somam indratvam ja_tam].6.044.01 Opulent Indra, the Soma that abounds with 
riches, and is most resplendent with glories, is poured out; itis your 
exhilaration, Indra, lord of the offering. [Lord of the offering: svadha_pati = 
cherisher or protector of theSoma libation, svadha_ya_ annasya somalaks.an.asya 

6.044.02 The Soma, possessor of felicity, which gives you delight, and which is 
the bestower of riches on yourvotaries, is poured out; it is your exhilaration, 
Indra, lord of the offering.

6.044.03 The Soma, whereby you are augmented in strength, and, together with 
your defenders, (the Maruts),are victorious (over your foes), is poured out; it 
is your exhilaration, Indra, lord of the offering.

6.044.04 (Worshippers), for you I glorify that Indra who disappointed not (his 
adorers); the lord of strength, theall-subduing, the leader (of rites), the most 
beautiful, the beholder of the universe.

6.044.05 The divine heaven and earth adore that vigour of his, which our hymns 
augment, the appropriator of theriches of the foe.

6.044.06 (Worshippers), the efficacy of your eulogy is to be manifested to that 
Indra, whose protections, like(those) of a sensible man, are displayed as 
abiding along with him. [vipo na, medha_virat iva, that is, theprotective 
measures or expedients of a sensible or wise man are capable for all affairs, 
sarva ka_ryakus'alah].

6.044.07 Indra, appreciates him who is skilled (in holy rites); a recent friend, 
quaffing (the libation), he heapsexcellent (wealth) upon the devout; partaking 
of (the sacrificial) food, (and brought) by his robust agitators (of theearth, 
his steeds), he, through his benevolence, is a protector to his friends. [By his 
robust: sthaula_bhirdhautari_bhih = sthu_la_bhih kampanaka_rin.i_bhih, with the 
stout causers of trembling; implied: vad.ava_bhihyuktah, joined with such mares; 
epithets, though feminine, may apply to the Maruts].

6.044.08 The Soma, creator (of all), on the path of sacrifice, has been drunk; 
the worshippers have presented itto gratify the mind (of Indra); may he, the 
humiliator (of his foes), possessing a vast body, propitiated by ourpraises, 
become manifest to our view.

6.044.09 Bestow upon us most brilliant vigour; oppose the numerous enemies of 
your worshippers; gran us, forour pious acts, abundant food; secure us in the 
enjoyment of wealth.

6.044.10 Indra, possessor of affluence, we have recourse to you, the bountiful, 
lord of steeds, be notunfavourable to us; no other kinsman is beheld (by us) 
among men; who else have they called yo the bestower ofwealth?

6.044.11 Give us not up, showerer (of benefits), to the obstructor (of our 
rites); relying upon the friendship of you,lord of riches, may we be unharmed; 
many are the hindrances (opposed) to you among men; slay those whomake no 
libations, root out those who present no offerings.

6.044.12 As Indra, when thundering rases the clouds, so he (heaps upon his 
worshippers) riches of horses andcattle; yo, Indra, are he ancient upholder of 
the sacrificer; let not the opulent wrong you, not presenting(oblations).

6.044.13 Ministrant priests offer libations to the mighty Indra, for he is their 
king, he who has been exalted by theancient and recent hymns of adoring sages.

6.044.14 In the exhilaration of this Soma, the wise Indra, irresistible, has 
destroyed numerous opposing enemies;offer the sweet-flavoured beverage to that 
hero, the handsome-chinned, to drink.

6.044.15 May Indra be the drinker of this effused Soma, and, exhilarated by it, 
become the destroyer of Vr.tra bythe thunderbolt; may he come, although from 
afar, to our sacrifice, (he who is) the giver of dwellings, theupholder of the 
celebrator (of religious).

6.044.16 May this ambrosia, the appropriate beverage of Indra, of which is fond, 
be quaffed (by him), so that itmay inspire the divinity with favourable feelings 
(towards us), and that he may remove from us our adversaries,and (all) iniquity.

6.044.17 Exhilarated by it, valiant Maghavan, slay our unfriendly adversaries, 
whether kinsman or unrelated (tous); put to flight, Indra, hostile armies 
menacing us (with their weapons), and slay them.

6.044.18 Affluent Indra, facilitate to us (the acquisition of) vast riches in 
these our battles; (enable us) to gain thevictory; make us prosperous with rain, 
and with sons and grandsons.

6.044.19 Let your vigorous steeds, harnessed of their own will, drawing your 
wish-bestowing chariot, guided byshower-yielding reins, quick-moving, hastening 
towards us, youthful, thunder-bearing, well-yoked, bring you tothe hountiful, 
exhilarating (libation).

6.044.20 Showerer (of benefits), your vigorous water-shedding steeds, like the 
waves (of the sea), exulting, areharnessed to your car; for they, (the priests), 
offer to you, the showerer (of benefits), ever youthful, the libation ofthe Soma 
expressed by the stones.

6.044.21 You, Indra, are the showerer of heaven, the bearer of earth, the feeder 
of the rivers, the supplier of theaggregated (waters); for you, showerer (of 
benefits), who are the most excellent shedder of rain, the sweetSoma, the honey-
flavoured, is ready to be quaffed. [Note the use of derivative of vr.s.a, to 
sprinkle, to rain;Indra's horses are vr.s.an.a; they draw a vr.s.a ratha; and 
are guided by vr.s.arasmayah; again, the steeds arevr.s.an.a = nityata_run.nu, 
always young, and Indra is vr.s.an, vr.s., and vr.s.abha, the showerer of rain 
or ofbenefits; perhaps, in all these metaphors, a grosser sense is perhaps 

6.044.22 This divine Soma, with Indra for its ally, crushed, as soon as 
generated, Pan.i by force; this Somabaffled the devices and the weapons of the 
malignant secreter of (the stolen) wealth, (the cattle).

6.044.23 This Soma made the dawns happily wedded to the sun; this Soma placed 
the light within the solar orb;this (Soma) has found the threefold ambrosia 
hidden in heaven in the three bright regions. [ayam tridha_tu divirocanes.u, 
trites.u, trites.u vindat amr.tam nigu_l.ham = Soma becomes as it were ambrosia 
when received orconcealed in the vessels at the three diurnal ceremonies, which 
ambrosia is properly deposited with the godsabiding in the third bright sphere, 
or in heaven].

6.044.24 This (Soma) has been fixed heaven and earth; this has harnessed the 
seven-rayed chariot (of the sun);this Soma has developed of its own will the 
mature deeply-organized secretion in the kind. [This has fixedheaven: these 
functions are ascribed to the Soma as being the source of the energies of Indra, 
who is the realagent, both in this and the preceding verse; this Indra has made 
the heavens etc.; deeply-organized secretion:das'ayantram utsam = a well with 
ten machines; utsa = utsaran.as'i_lam, having the property of flowing 
forth,payas, milk; the epithet das'ayantram is intriguing: it may imply 
aggregated bodily existence, or organs andfunctions of the body, which are the 
result of the nutriment furnished to the child by the matured milk agreeably toa 
khila, or caks.us'ca s'rotram ca manas'ca pra_n.a_panau, deha, idam s'ari_ram 
dvau prat yan~ca_vanulomauvisarga_v-etam tam manye dis'ayantram utsam, I 
consider the eye, the ear, the mind, the speech, the two vitalairs, the form, 
the body, the two creations inverted and direct, as the tenfold utsa, or state 
of being; or, perhapsSoma is being offered with nine texts to Indra and other 
deities at the morning sacrifice (Aitareya Bra_hman.a3.1)].6.045.01 May that 
youthful Indra, who, by good guidance, brought Turvas'a and Yadu from afar, (be) 
our friend. 2 Indra gives sustenance, even to the undevout he is the conqueror 
of wealh accumulated (by enemies) though(going against) them with a slow-paced 

6.045.03 Vast are his designs, manifold are his praises, his protections are 
never withdrawn.

6.045.04 Offer worship and praises, friends, to him who is to be attracted by 
prayers; for he verily is our greatintelligence.

6.045.05 Slayer of Vr.tra, you are the protector of one (adorer), or of two, and 
of such as we are.

6.045.06 You remove (far from us) those who hate us; you prosper hose who repeat 
your praise; bestower ofexcellent male descendants, you are glorified by man 
[Bestower: suvi_ra = s'obhanai vi_raih putrapautra_dibhirda_tavyair upetah, 
endowed with or possessed of sons, grandsons, and the like to be given].

6.045.07 I invoke with hymns Indra, our friends, who is Brahma, who is attracted 
by prayer and entitled toadoration, to milk him as a cow. [Brahma: brahma_n.am = 
parivr.d.ham, great, mighty].

6.045.08 In the hands of whom, the eroic subduer of hostile armies, (the sages) 
have declared, are all thetreasures in both (heaven and earth).

6.045.09 Wielder of the thunderbolt, lord of S'aci, demolish the strong (cities) 
of men; (battle), unbending (Indra)their devices.

6.045.10 Veracious Indra, drinker of the Soma, provider of sustenance, we, 
desirous of food, invoke such as youare. [Such as you are: tam tva_ ahu_mahi, we 
invoke you (who are) that, or such as has been described in thepreceding 

6.045.11 (We invoke) you, such as you are, you who have been invocable of old, 
and who are now to be invokedfor the wealth held (by the foe); hear our 

6.045.12 (Favoured) by you, Indra, (who are propitiated), by our hymns, (we 
ovecome) with our steeds thesteeds (of the enemy), and we conquer abundant food, 
and the wealth held (by the foes). [Literally, with praises,by horses, horses 
food, excellent Indra by you, we conquer deposited wealth].

6.045.13 Heroic and adorable Indra, verily you are mighty in battle, and victor 
of the wealth held (by the enemy).

6.045.14 Destroyer of enemies with that your velocity, which is of exceeding 
swiftness, impel our chariots(against the foe).

6.045.15 Victorious Indra, who are the chief off charioteers, conquer the wealth 
that is held (by the enemy) withour assailing car.

6.045.16 Praise that Indra who alone has been born the supervisor (of all), the 
lord of men, the giver of rain.

6.045.17 Indra, who has ever been the friend of those who praise you, and the 
insurer of their happiness by yourprotection, grant us felicity.

6.045.18 Wielder of the thunderbolt, take the bolt in your hands for the 
destruction of ra_ks.asas, and uttelyoverthrow those who defy you.

6.045.19 I invoke the ancient Indra, the giver of iches, (our) friend, the 
encourager of his adorers, who is to bepropitiated by prayer.

6.045.20 He alone rules over all terrestrial riches, he who is entitled to 
especial praise, he who is irresistible.

6.045.21 Lord of cattle, (coming) with your mares, saisfy our desires completely 
with (abundant) food, withhorses, and with kine.

6.045.22 Sing praises, when your libation is poured out, to him who is the 
invoked of many, the subduer (of foes),giving him gratification, like (fresh 
pasture) to cattle.

6.045.23 The giver of dwellings verily withholds not the gift of food conjoined 
with cattle, when he hears ourpraises.

6.045.24 Then the desroyer of the Dasyus, proceeds to the cattl-crowded folds of 
Kuvitsa, and by his acts opensthem for us. [Kuvitsa, a person who does much 
(kuvit) harm (syati)].

6.045.25 Indra, performer of many exploits, these our praises repeatedly recur 
to you as parent (cows) to theiryoung.

6.045.26 Your friendship, Indra, is not easily lost; you, hero are (the giver 
of) cattle to him who desires cattle (of)horses him who desires horses.

6.045.27 Delight your person with the libation (offered) for the sake of 
treasure; subject not your worshipper tohis reviler.

6.045.28 These our praises tend, as the libationsa are repeatedly poured out, 
eagerly to you who are gratified bypraise, as the milch kine (hasten) to their 

6.045.29 May the praises of many worshippers offered at the sacrifice, 
(accompanied) by (sacrificial) viands,invigorate you, destroyer of multitudes. 
[At the sacrifice: viva_ci, at the sacrifice called Vivac, because 
variouspraises and prayers are hen repeated].

6.045.30 May our most elevating praise be near, Indra, to you, and urge us to 
(the acquisition of) great riches.[Most elevating praise: stomo va_his.t.hah = 
vod.hr.tama, most bearing, uplifting, elevating].

6.045.31 Br.bu presided over the high places of the Pan.is, like the elevated 
bank of the Ganges. [br.bupan.i_na_m vars.is.t.he mu_rdhan adhyastha_t = he 
stood over upon the high place, as if it were on the foreheadof the Pan.is; 
mu_rdhavat ucchrite sthale; the Pan.is may be either merchants or traders, or 
asuras, so termed;like the elevated bank of the Ganges: uruh kaks.o na ga_n:gyah 
= gan:ga_ya_h kule visti_rn.e iva_, as on thebroad bank of the Ganges, that is, 
as the bank is above the bed of the river.

6.045.32 Of whom, prompt as the wind, the liberal donation of thousands (of 
cattle) has been quickly given to(me) soliciting a gift.

6.045.33 Whom, therefore, we all, who are the profferers and bestowers of praise 
ever commend, as the piousBr.bu, the donor of thousands (of cattle), the 
receiver of thousands (of laudations). [Br.bu is called Taks.a_ thecarpenter or 
artificer of the Pan.is; the legend is preserved by Manu (10.107) and Ni_ti 
Man~jari_: the illustriousBharadva_ja, with his son, distressed by hunger in a 
lonely forest, accepted many cows from the carpenterBr.bu; the r.ca is 
attributed to Sayu, the son of Bharadva_ja; ja_tito hino api da_tr.tva_t 
sarvatra s'res.t.hobhavati, a person inferior by caste becomes everywhere 
distinguished by generosity].6.046.01 We worshippers invoke you for the 
acquisition of food; you, Indra, the protector of the good, (do) men(invoke for 
aid) against enemies, and in places where horses (encounter). [ka_s.t.ha_su 
arvatah, in the quartersor regions of the hors, where horses are engaged, or, 
according to Sa_yan.a, the field of battle; or, as meninvoke you for victory].

6.046.02 Wonderful wielder of the thunderbolt, Indra, the lord of clouds, mighty 
in resolution, being glorified byus, grant us cattle, and horses fit for 
chariots, as (you grant) abundant food to him who is victorious (in battle).[The 
lord of clouds: adrivas = wielder of the thunderbolt; abundant food to him who 
is victorious: satra_ va_jamna jigyus.e: satra_ = prabhu_tam, abundant; jigyus.e 
= valorous, not as applicable to a man, purus.a_ya, but to ahorse or elephant, 
as'va_ya hastine va_].

6.046.03 We invoke that Indra who is the desroyer of mighty foes, the supervisor 
(of all things); do you, the manyorganed, the protector of the good, the 
distributor of wealth, be unto us (the insurer of) success in combats.

6.046.04 Such, Indra, as you are represented in holy texts, assail (our) 
adversaries with fierceness like (that of) abull in close conflict; regard 
yourself as our defender in war, (that we may long enjoy) posterity, water, and 
thesight of the) sun. [Represented in holy texts: r.ci_s.ama = r.gya_dr.s'am 
ru_pam pratipa_dayati ta_dr.gru_pendrah, such form as the R.c exhibits, such in 
form is Indra; posterity, water and sun: tanus.u, apsu, su_rye= in descendants, 
in waters, in the sun; connecting this what precedes: asma_kam bodhi avita_ 
maha_dhane,know yourself to be our protector in battle, in descendants, etc., 
that is in securing to us these good things andlong life].

6.046.05 Indra, bring to us most excellent, most invigorating and nutritious 
food, wherewith, wonderful wielder ofthe thunderbolt, the handsome-chinned, you 
sustain both heaven and earth.

6.046.06 We invoke for protection you, royal Indra, who are mighty among the 
gods, tthe subduer of men; granterof dwellings, repel all evil spirits, and 
render our enemies easy of discomfiture.

6.046.07 Whatever strength and opulence (exist) among human beings, whatever be 
the sustenance of the fiveclasses of men, bring Indra to us, as well (as) all 
great manly energies.

6.046.08 Whatever vigour, Maghavan, (existed) in Tr.ks.u, in Druhyu, in Puru, 
bestow fully upon us in conflictswith foes, so that we may destroy our enemies 
in war.

6.046.09 Give, Indra, to the affluent, and to me also, a sheltering and 
prosperous dwelling combining threeelements, and defending in three ways and 
keep from them the blazing (weapon of our foes).

6.046.10 Affluent Indra, propitiated by praise, be nigh o us, as the defender of 
our persons (against those) whoassail (us as) enemies, with a mind bent upon 
carrying off (our) cattle, or who assault us with arrogance.

6.046.11 Indra, be (favourable) at present to our success; protect our leader in 
battle when the feathered,sharp-pointed, shining shafts fall from the sky.

6.046.12 When heroes rest their persons (until abandoning) the pleasant abodes 
of their progenitors; grant us,for ourselves and our posterity, an unsuspected 
defence, and scatter our enemies. [The pleasant abode of theirprogenitors: 
priya_ s'arma pitr.n.a_m = priya_n.i stha_na_ni janaka_na_m sambandhini_, the 
beloved places inrelation with progenitors; tanvo vitanvate, they spread out or 
rest their persons; or, they spread out before theenemy the sites won by their 
forefathers until they abandon them, parityajanti ya_vat; i.e. until they, the 
enemy,desis fom the attack; an unsuspected defence: chardiracittam = kavacam 
s'atrubhir ajn~a_tam, armour unknownby the enemies].

6.046.13 (At the time) when, in the effort (made) in an arduous conflict, you 
urge our horses over an unevenroad, like falcons darting upon their food through 
the difficult path (of the firmament).

6.046.14 Rushing rapidly like rivers in their downward course and although 
neighing loudly through trro, they yet,tight-girthed, return repeatedly (to the 
conflict) for cattle, like birds darting on their prey.6.047.01 Savoury indeed 
is this (Soma); sweet is it, sharp, and full of flavour; no one is able to 
encounter Indra inbattles after he has been quaffing this (Soma).

6.047.02 The savoury Soma, drunk on this occasion, has been most exhilarating; 
by drinking of it Indra has beenelevated to the slaying of Vr.tra, and it has 
destroyed the numerous hosts of S'ambara and the ninetynine cities.[dehyah = 
dehih; digdhah = smeared or plastered, implying purih, cities, as if thy 
consisted of stucoed orplastered houses].

6.047.03 This Soma inspires my speech; this develops the desired intelligence; 
this sagacious (Soma) hascreated the six vast conditions, from which no creature 
is distinct. [Six vast conditions: heaven, earth, day, night,water, and plants].

6.047.04 This it is which formed the expanse of the earth, the compactness of 
the heaven; this Soma hasdeposited the ambrosia in its three principal 
(receptacles), and has upheld the spacious firmament. [Threeprincipal 
receptacles: plant, water and cows; has upheld the spacious: Soma as the moon 
and Soma as aproduct; cf. svamima_ os.adhi_h vis'va_stva_mapo ajanayastvam ga_h 
tvama_ tatanthorvantariks.am: RV1.091.22].

6.047.05 This makes known the wonderfully beautiful and inspiring (solar) 
radiance) at the appearance of thedawns, whose dwelling is the firmament; this 
mighty (Soma) has sustained the heaven with a powerful support, thsender of 
rain, the leader of the winds.

6.047.06 Hero, Indra, who are the slayer of foes in contests for (the 
acquisition of) treasures, drink boldly fromthe pitcher; drink copiously at the 
noonday rite; receptacle of rices, bestow riches upon us.

6.047.07 Like one who goes before us, Indra, (on the road), look out, bring 
before us infinite wealth; be ourconductor beyond the bounds (of want), convey 
us safely over (peril); be our careful guide, our gude to desirable(affluence). 
[Look out: pra n.ah pura eteva pas'ya, like one who is preceding us, look; look 
after the travellersunder the charge of the ma_rgaraks.aka, the protector of the 
road, an escort, or perhaps, the leader of aka_fila_].

6.047.08 Do you, Indra, who are wise, conduct us to the spacious world (of 
heaven), to a blessed state ofhappiness, light, and safety; may we recline in 
the graceful, protecting, and mighty arms of you the ancient one.

6.047.09 Place us, possessor of riches, in your ample chariot, (behind) your 
powerful horses; bring to us fromamong all viands the most excellent food; let 
not, Maghavan, any opulent man surpass us in wealth.

6.047.10 Make me happy, Indra; be pleased to prolong my life; shapen my 
intellect like the edge of a metalsword; whatsoever, desirous (of propitiating) 
you, I may utter, be pleased by it; render me the object of divineprotection.

6.047.11 I invoke, at repeated sacrifice, Indra, the preserver, the protector, 
the hero, who is easily propitiated,Indra, the powerful, the invoked of many; 
may Indra, the lord of affluence, bestow upon us prosperity.

6.047.12 May the protecting, opulent Indra be the bestower of felicity by his 
protections; may he, who isall-knower of felicity by his protections; may he, 
who is all-knowing, foil our adversaries; may he keep us out ofdanger, and may 
we be the possessors of excellent posterity.

6.047.13 May we continue in the favour of that adorable (deity) even in his 
auspicious good-will; may thatprotecting and opulent Indra drive far from us, 
into extinction, all those who hate us.

6.047.14 To you the praises and prayers of the worshipper hasten like a torrent 
down a declivity; and youthunderer, aggregate the immense wealth (of sacrificial 
offerings), copious libations, and milk, and the Soma.[apo ga_h yuvase 
samindu_n: apo = vasati_vari_ which is said by Ka_tya_yana Su_tra 8.9.7-10 to be 
portions ofwater taken from a running stream on the evening previous to the 
ceremony, and kept in jars in different parts ofthe sacrificial chamber, to be 
mixed with the Soma; cf. Taittiri_ya Yajus. , Prapa_t.haka III. Anuva_ka XII).

6.047.15 Who may (adequately) praise him? Who may satisfy him? Who offer worthy 
adoration? Since Maghavais daily conscious of his own terrible (power); by his 
acts he makes first one and then the other precede andfollow, as (a man) throws 
out his feet (alternately in walking). [Make first one and then: that is, Indra, 
at hispleasure, makes the first of his worshippers the last, and the last the 

6.047.16 The hero Indra is renowned; humiliating every formidable (foe), and 
repeatedly changing the place ofone (worshipper) with that of another; Indra, 
the enemy of the arrogant, the soverign of both (heaven and earth),calls again 
and again (to encourage) the men who are his worshippers.

6.047.17 Indra rejects the friendship of those who are formost (in pious acts), 
and, depositing them, associateswith (their) inferiors; or (again) shaking off 
those who neglect his worship, Indra abides many years with thosewho serve him.

6.047.18 Indra, the prototype, has assumed various forms, and such is his form 
as that which (he adopts) for hismanifestation; Indra, multiform by his 
illusion, proceeds (to his many worshippers), for the horses, yoked to hiscar 
are a thousand. [Indra has assumed: Indra presents himself as Agni, Vis.n.u, or 
Rudra, or any other deity whois the actual object of worship, and is really the 
deity tobe adored; he is identifiable with each; Horses yoked:Indra's chariots 
and horses are multiplied according to the forms in which he manifests himself; 
Indra is hereidentified with Parames'vara, the supreme first cause, identical 
with creation].

6.047.19 Yoking his horses to his car, Tvas.t.a_ shines in many places here in 
the three worlds; who (else),sojourning daily among his present worshippers, is 
their proector against adversaries? [In this r.ca,Tvas.t.a_ isan appellative of 
Indra, the ancient artificer!].

6.047.20 We have wandered, gods, into a desert where there is no track of 
cattle; the vast extant earth hasbecome the protectress of murderers; direct us, 
Br.haspati, in our search for cattle; show the path, Indra, to yourvotary being 
astray. [Garga, the author of this su_kta, is said to have lost his way in a 
desert; he repeated thisr.ca to Br.haspati and Indra, who enabled him to regain 
his road; no track of cattle: agavyu_ti ks.etram =gosan~cararahitam des'am, a 
place devoid of the grazing of cattle].

6.047.21 Indra, becoming manifest from his abode (in the firmament), dissipates, 
day by day, the resemblingglooms, (so that he may distinguish) the other 
portion, (or the day); and the showerer has slain the twowealth-seeking slaves, 
Varcin and S'ambara, in (the country of) Udavraja. [udavraja, des'a vis'es.ah, a 
sort ofcountry, one into which the waters flow, udaka_ni vrajantyasmin].

6.047.22 Prastoka has given to your worshipper, Indra, ten purses of gold, and 
ten horses, and we haveaccepted this treasure from Divoda_sa, the spoil won by 
Atithigva from S'ambara. [Ten purses of gold: das'akos'aih suvarn.a pu_rn.am 
das'akos'a_n, the ten bags or chests full of gold; atithigva: prastoka, 
divoda_sa andatithigva, are different names of the same person, a ra_ja_, the 
son of Sr.n~jaya].

6.047.23 I have received ten horses, ten purses, clothes, and ample food and ten 
lumps of gold from Divoda_sa.

6.047.24 As'vattha has given to Pa_yu ten chariots with their horses, and a 
hundred cows to the priests. [To thepriests: atharvabhyah = r.s.is of the 
atharvagotra; pa_yu is the brother of Garga; As'vattha = Prastoka].

6.047.25 The son of Sr.n~jaya has reverenced the Bharadva_jas who have accepted 
such great wealth for thegood of all men.

6.047.26 (Chariot made of the) forest lord, be strong of fabric; be our friend; 
be our protector, and be manned bywarriors; you are wrapped with cow-hides; keep 
us steady; and may he who rides in you be victorious overconquered (foes). [Be 
manned by warriors: suvi_ro bhava = s'u_rabhat.t.aih putra_dibhir va_ yuktah, 
joined withwarriors, or with sons and the rest; you are wrapped with cow-hides: 
gobhih sannaddhosi = you are boundtogether by cow; govika_raih, by what are 
formed from cattle; in the next r.ca, gobhira_vr.tam = carmabhih 
paritaaves.t.itam, encompassed round with hides, as if the exterior of the war-
chariot especially were so strengthened;or, encompassed with rays of light, or 
with splendours, gobhih, tejobhih].

6.047.27 Worship with oblations the chariot constructed of the substance of 
heaven and earth, the extractedessence of the forest lords; the velocity of the 
waters; the encompassed with the cow-hide; the thunderbolt (ofIndra).

6.047.28 Do you, divine chariot, who are the thunderbolt of Indra, the precursor 
of the Maruts, the embryo ofMitra, the navel of Varun.a, propitiated by this our 
sacrifice, accept the oblation. [The precursor of Maruts:maruta_m ani_kam 
mitrasya garbho varun.asya na_bhih: ani_kam = agrabhu_tam, being before, out-
stripping inspeed; or, mukhyam, principal or leader; garbha of Mitra: the car is 
said to be contained by Mitra, the ruler of theday, as moving by day; na_bhi of 
Varun.a: it is a fixed point or centre for the deity ruling over the night, when 
thecar of Indra or Su_rya stands still; another interpretation: garbha is from 
gr., to praise; mitrasya garbha =su_ryen.a stu_yama_na, to be praised by the 
sun; na_bhi is from na_bh, to injure; hence, the weapon ofVarun.a].

6.047.29 War-drum, fill with your sound both heaven and earth; and let all 
things, fixed or moveable, be aware ofit; do you, who are associated with Indra 
and the gods, drive away our foes to the remotest distance.

6.047.30 Sound loud against the (hostile) host; animate our prowess; thunder 
aloud, terrifying the evil-minded;rapid, drum, those whose delight is to harm 
us; you are the fist of Indra; inspire us with fierceness.

6.047.31 Recover these our cattle, Indra; bring them back; the drum sounds 
repeatedly as a signal; our leaders,mounted on their steeds, assemble; may our 
warriors, riding in their cars, Indra, be victorious. [Yajus. 29, 55-57has this 
and thr preceding two r.cas].6.048.01 At every sacrifice (honour) the mighty 
Agni with your reiterated praise, while we glorify him, theimmortal, who knows 
all things, our dear friend.

6.048.02 The son of strength, for he verily is propitious to us, to whom let us 
offer oblations as to the conveyer ofthem (to the gods); may he be our defender 
in battles; may he be our benefactor and the grandsire of ouroffspring.

6.048.03 Agni, who are the showerer (of benefits), mighty, and exempt from 
decay, you shine with (great)splendour; you are resplendent, brilliant (Agni), 
with unfading lustre; shine forth with glorious rays.

6.048.04 You sacrifice to the mighty gods; sacrifice (for us) continually, for 
(sacrifice is perfected) by your wisdomand your acts; bring them down, Agni, for 
our salvation; present (to them) the sacrificial food, partake of ityourself.

6.048.05 (You are he) whom the waters, the mountains, the woods, nourish as the 
embryo of sacrifice; who,churned with strength by the performers (of the rite), 
are generated in the highest place of the earth. [Whom thewaters: yam a_po 
adrayo vana_ piprati: water prepared to mix with the Soma, the vasati_vari_, the 
stones forgrinding the Soma, and the wood for attrition].

6.048.06 He who fills both heaven and earth with light, who mounts with smoke 
into the sky, this radiantshowerer (of benefits) is beheld in the dark nights 
dispersing the gloom; this radiant showerer (of benefits)presides over the dark 

6.048.07 Divine, resplendent Agni, youngest (of the gods), when kindled by 
Bharadva_ja, shines with manyflames, with pure lustre, (conferring) riches upon 
us; shine, resplendent purifier.

6.048.08 You, Agni, are the lord of the dwelling, and of all men the descendants 
of Manu; protect me, youngest(of the gods), when kindling you, with a hundred 
defences against iniquity; (grant me) a hundred winters, (as wellas to those) 
who bestow gifts upon your worshippers. [The lord of the dwelling: gr.hapati, 
master or protector ofthe house].

6.048.09 Wonderful (Agni), giver of dwellings, encourage us by (your) 
protection, and (the gift of) riches, for youare he conveyer, Agni, of this 
wealth; quickly bestow permanence upon our progeny.

6.048.10 You protect with uninjurable, irremovable defences (our) sons and 
grandsons; remove far from uscelestial wrath and human malevolence.

6.048.11 Approach, friends the milk-yielding cow with a new song, and let her 
loose unharmed. [dhenu: this is thefirst of a series of r.cas in which the 
Maruts are the deities, either with reference to the milk which is 
theirappropriate offering at sacrifices, or to Pr.s'ni, the mythological mother 
of the Maruts, in the form of a cow].

6.048.12 She who yields immortal food to the powerful, self-irradiating band of 
the Maruts, who (is anxious) forthe gratiication of the self-moving Maruts, who 
traverse the sky with (the passing waters0, shedding delight.[sumnair 
evaya_vari_: means of happiness, sukhahetubhu_taih; evaya_vari = from eva, who 
or what goes, as ahorse, or the water of mid-air, the rain, and ya_vari_, she 
who gies with, saha ya_ti ya, that is, who proceeds withrains, giving pleasure 
to others, anyes.a_m sukha_rtam vr.s.t.ija_laih saha gacchanti].

6.048.13 Milk for Bharadva_ja the twofold (blessing), the cow that gives milk to 
the universe, food that issufficient for all.

6.048.14 I praise you, the (company of Maruts), for the distribution of wealth; 
(the company that), like Indra, is theachiever of great deeds; sagacious like 
Varun.a; adorable as Aryaman and munificent as Vis.n.u.

6.048.15 I now (glorify) the brilliant vigour of the company of the Maruts, 
loud-sounding, irresistible, cherishing,whereby hundreds and thousands (of 
treasures) are bestowed collectively upon men; may that (company) makehidden 
wealth manifes; may it render the wealth easily accessible to us.

6.048.16 Hasten, Pu_s.an, to me; (repel), bright deity, (all) deadly assailing 
foes; close at your side I repeat yourpraise. [Close at your side: sam.s'is.am 
nu te karn.a = I celebrate your praise quickly at your ear].

6.048.17 Uproot not, Pu_s.an, the forest lord with its progeny of crows; utterly 
destroy those who are my revilers;let not the adversary ensnare me, as (fowlers) 
set snares for birds. [Progeny of cows: ka_kambi_ram vanaspatim:implies 
metaphorically the author of the su_kta, with his children and dependants; as 
fowlers: eva_ cana gri_va_a_dadhate veh, even as sometimes they place snares for 
a bird; gri_va_ = damam, ja_laru_pam, a snare of thenature of a net].

6.048.18 May your friendship be unbroken, like (the surface) of a skin without a 
flaw, containing curds. [Skincontaining curds: said to be always carried in 
Pu_s.an's chariot].

6.048.19 Supreme are you above mortals; equal in glory are you to the gods; 
therefore, Pu_s.an, regard us(favourably) in battles; defend us at present as 
(you have defended) those of old.

6.048.20 Maruts, agitators, especially to be adored, may your kind and true 
speech be our conductress; thatpleasant (speech which is the guide) to desirable 
(wealth) for both gods and sacrificing mortals. [For semant.'agitators' mar.ti 
go.l = churning stick; mar.t- = to turn over (Kota); cf. sindhumathya = produced 
at the churning ofthe ocean (Skt.)]

6.048.21 Whose functions spread quickly round the heavens, like (the light of) 
the divine sun, since the marutspossess brillian, foe-humiliating, and adorable 
foe-destroying strength, most excellent foe-destroying strength.

6.048.22 Once, indeed, was the heaven generated; once was the earth born; once 
was the milk of Pr.s'ni(pr.s'nayai vai payaso maruto ja_ta_h: Taittiri_ya 
Sam.hita_ drawn other than that was not similarlygenerated. [Once 
indeed was the heaven: sakr.d ha dyaur aja_yata utpadyate, once born i is 
permanent, sakr.dutpannaiva sthita_ bhavati, or, being destroyed, no other 
similar heaven is born, na punas-tasya_m nas.t.a_ya_manya tat-sadr.s'i_ dyaur 
ja_yate; other than that was not similarly generated: tadanyo na_nuja_yate = 
tatahparam anyah pada_rthastatsadr.s'o notpadyate, after that another object or 
thing like that (object or thing) is notproduced].6.049.01 I commend with new 
hymns the man observant of his duty, and the beneficent Mitra and Varun.a; 
maythey, the mighty ones, Varun.a, Mitra, and Agni, come to our rite, and listen 
(to our praises). [The man observant:stus.e janam suvratam = daivyam janam, the 
divine people, devasan:gham, the company of the gods].

6.049.02 (I incite the worshipper) to offer worship to Agni, who is to be adored 
at the sacrifices of every ma;whose acts are free from arrogance; the lord of 
the two youthful (brides, heaven and earth); the child of heaven,the son of 
strength, the briliant symbol of sacrifice.

6.049.03 May the two daughters of the radiant (sun) of various form, of whom one 
glitters with stars, the other (isbright) with the sun, mutually opposed, 
proceeding diversely, purifying (all things), and entitled to our laudation,be 
pleased by the praise they hear (from us). [The two daughters: day and night, 
the daughters of the sun,directly or their cause, indirectly].

6.049.04 May our earnest praise proceed to the presence of Va_yu, the possessor 
of vast riches, the desired ofall, the filler of his chariot (with wealth for 
his worshippers); most adorable (Va_yu), who are riding in a radiantcar, and 
driving your Niyut (steeds), do you, who are far-seeing, show favour to the 
sage, (your adorer). [kavimiyaks.asi prayajyo: prayajyo is applied to the 
priest, the adhvaryu; worship, venerable priest, the wise Va_yu...]

6.049.05 May that splendid car of the As'vins, which is harnessed at a thought, 
clothe my form (with radiance);that (car) with which, Na_satya_s, leaders of 
(rites), you go to the dwelling (of the worshipper) to fulfil his desiresfor his 
posterity and himself.

6.049.06 Parjanya and Va_ta, showerers of rain, and from te firmament available 
waters; sage Maruts, hearers ofthe truth, establishers of the world, multiply 
the moveable (wealth of him) by whose praises (you are propitiated).[Multiply: 
jagad a_kr.n.udhvam = jagat: fixed as well as moveable, all living things, jagat 
stha_varajan:gama_tmakam sarvam pra_n.ija_tam].

6.049.07 May the purifying, amiable, graceful Sarasvati_, the bride of the hero, 
favour our pious rite; may she,together with the wives of the gods, well 
pleased, bestow upon him who praises her a habitation free fromdefects and 
impenetrable (to wind and rain), and (grant him) felicity. [Amiable: kanya_ = a 
maiden (gna_hga_yajya_di_ni chanda_m.si, chanda_m.si vai gna_h: Taitiri_ya 
Sam.hita_; kamani_ya_, to be desiredor loved; vi_rapatni_ = the wife of 
the hero (Praja_pati or Brahma_); or, simply, the protectress of heroes or 

6.049.08 May (the worshipper), influenced by the hope (of reward), approach with 
praise the adorable (Pu_s.an),protector of all path; may he bestow upon us cows 
with golden horns; may Pu_s.an bring to perfection our everyrite. [Protector: 
pathaspathah paripatim: Pu_s.an is the lord of the paths].

6.049.09 May the illustrious Agni, the invoker of the gods, worship (with this 
oblation), Tvas.t.a_, the first divider(of forms), the renowned, the giver of 
food, the well-handed, the vast, the adored of householders, the readilyinvoked. 
[The adored: yajatam pastya_na_m: pastyam = house, and by metonymy used for 
householder,gr.hasthair yajani_yam].

6.049.10 Exalt Rudra, the parent of the world, with these hmns by day; (exalt) 
Rudra (with them) by night;animated by the far-seeing, we invoke him, mighty, of 
pleasing aspect, undecaying, endowed with felicity, (thesource of) prosperity.

6.049.11 Ever youthful wise, and adorable Maruts, come to the praise of your 
adorer; thus augmenting, leaders(of rites), and spreading (through the 
firmament), like rays (of light), refresh the scanty woods (with rain). 
[Likerays of light: naks.anto an:girasvat = an:girasah gamanas'i_la_ras'mayah, 
rays endowed with motions; te yathas'i_ghram nabhastalam vya_pnuvanti tad vat, 
as they spread quickly through the sky, so) do the winds; or, ifan:girasa is a 
reference to a r.s.i, the property of rapid movement is assigned to the r.s.is: 
yad va r.s.ayastadvacchi_ghraga_minah].

6.049.12 Offer adoration to the valiant, powerful, swift-movig (company of the 
Maruts), as the herdsman (driveshis) herd to their stall; may that (company) 
appropriate to its own body the praises of the pious worshipper, as thefirmament 
(is studded) with stars.

6.049.13 May we be happy in a home, in riches, in personn, in children, bestowd 
upon us by you, Vis.n.u, whowith three (steps) made the terrestrial reions for 
Manu when harassed (by the asuras).

6.049.14 May Ahirbudhnya (propitiated) by (our) hymns, and Parvata and Savita_ 
give us food with water; maythe bountiful (gods supply us), addition, with 
vegetable (grains); and may the all-wise Bhaga be propitious (to us)for (the 
acquisition of) riches. [Ahirbudhnya: budhna = antariks.a, firmament; budhnya = 
what or who is thereborn; ahi = he who goes, i.e., in the sky; parvata: the 
filler, pu_rayitri_, or the wielder of the thunderbolt,parvavad-vajram tadva_n; 
or, enemy of the mountain, gireh s'atru; in either sense, the reference is to 
Indra; withvegetable grains: tad os.adhibhir abhi = os.adhayas tila 
ma_s.a_dayah, the vegetables are sesamum, pulse andthe like].

6.049.15 Grant us, (universal gods), riches, comprehending chariots, numerous 
dependants, many maleoffspring, (wealth) the giver of efficiency to the solemn 
rite, and a dwelling free from decay, wherewith we mayovercome malevolent men 
and unrighteous (spirits), and afford support to those people who are devoted to 
thegods.6.050.01 I invoke with adorations, for the sake of felicity, the divine 
Aditi ad Varun.a, Mitra and Agni, Aryaman,the overthrower of foes, worthy of 
devotion, Savita_ and Bhaga, and (all) protecting divinities.

6.050.02 Radiant Su_rya, render the luminous deiies, who have Daks.a for their 
progenitor, void of offencetowards us; they who are twice born, desirous of 
sacrifice, observant of truth, possessors of wealth, deserving ofworship, whose 
tongue is Agni. [Who have Daks.a: Daks.apitr.n = daks.ah pita_maho yes.a_m, they 
of whomDaks.a is the grandfather; the grandchildren of Daks.a were sentiments 
and passions; pitara, therefore, isunderstood only in the general sense of 
priority or seniority; they who are twice born: dvijanma_nah, they whohave two 
births, i.e. they who are manifest or present in two spheres, heaven and earth].

6.050.03 Or bestow, Heaven and Earth, vast strength; give us, Earth and Heaven, 
a spacious habitation for ourcomfort; so arrange, that infinite wealth may be 
ours, remove, beneficent deities, iniquity from our abode.

6.050.04 May the sons of Rudra, givers of dwellings, the unsubdued, invoked on 
this occasion, stoop down tous, inasmuch as we call upon the divine Maruts that 
they may be our helpers in difficulty, great or small.

6.050.05 With whom the divine Heaven and Earth are associated; whom Pu_s.an, the 
rewarder (of hisworshippers) with prosperity, honours; when, Maruts, having 
heard our invocation, you come hither, then on yourseveral paths all beings 

6.050.06 Praise, worshipper, with a new hymn, that hero, Indra, who is deserving 
of praise; may he, so glorifiedhear our invocation; may he, so lauded, bestow 
upon us abundant food.

6.050.07 Waters, friendly to mankind, grant uninterrupted (life) preserving 
(food) for (the perpetuation of our)sons and grandsons; grant us security and 
the removal (of all evil), for you are more than maternal physicians;you are the 
parents of the stationary and moveable universe. [Security and the removal of 
all evil: s'am.yoh:s'amanam upadrava_n.a_m, the appeasing of oppressiosn or 
violences; ya_vanam pr.thakkartavya_na_m, themaking separate of those things 
which are to be kept off].

6.050.018 May the adorable, golden-handed Savita_, the preserver, come to us; 
he, the munificent, who, like theopening of the dawn, displays desirable 
(riches) to the offerer of the oblation.

6.050.09 And do you, son of strength, bring back today the deities to this our 
sacrifice; may  I be ever in (theenoyment of) your bounty; may I, through your 
protection, Agni, be blessed with excellent male descendants.

6.050.10 Wise Na_satya_s come quickly to my invocation (united) with holy acts; 
(extricate us) from thickdarkness, as you did extricate Atri; protect us, 
leaders (of rites) from danger in battle.

6.050.11 Be unto us, gods, donors of splendid, invigorating riches, comprising 
male descendants, and celebratedby many; celestial A_dityas, terrestrial Vasus, 
offspring of Pr.s'ni, children of the waters, granting our desires,make us 
happy. [Celestial A_dityas: divya_, the celestial, that is, the A_ dityas; 
pa_rthiva_sa_h, terrestrial, that is,the Vasus; go-ja_ta_h, cow-born, born of 
Pr.s'ni, the Maruts; apya_h, the aquatic, born in the firmament, theRudras].

6.050.12 May Rudra and Sarasvati_, alike well pleased and Vis.n.u and Va_yu, 
make us happy, sending rain;and Ribhuks.in, and Va_ja, and the divine Vidha_ta_; 
and may Parjanya and Va_ta grant us abundant food.

6.050.13 And may the divine Savita_ and Bhaga, and the grandson of the waters, 
(Agni), the prodigal of gifts,preserve us; and may Tvas.t.a_ with the gods, and 
Earth with the seas, (preserve us).

6.050.14 May Ahirbudhnya, Aja-ekapa_d, and Earth and Ocean, hear us; may the 
universal gods, who areexalted by sacrifice, they who are invoked and praised 
(by us), to whom mystical prayers are addressed, andwho have been glorified by 
(ancient) sages, preserve us.

6.050.15 Thus do my sons, of the race of Bharadva_ja, worship the gods with 
sacred rites and holy hymns; andso, adorable (deities), may you, who are 
worshipped and glorified, the givers of dwellings, the invincible,universal 
gods, ever be adored, (together with your) wives.6.051.01 The expansive, 
illuminating, unobstructive, pure, and beautiful radiance of the sun, grateful 
to Mitra andVarun.a, having risen, shines like the ornament of the sky.

6.051.02 He who knows the three cognizable (worlds); the sage (who knows) the 
mysterious birth of the divinities(abiding in them); he who is beholding the 
good and evil acts of mortals, he, the sun, the lord, makes manifesttheir 
intentions. [The divinities abiding in them: Of the Vasus on earth, the Rudras 
in the firmament, the A_dityasin heaven. Vasus are the 'earthly riches'; the 
other divinities are 'instruments' in the process of making wealth].

6.051.03 I praise you, protectors of the solemn sacrifice, the well-born Aditi, 
Mitra and Varun.a and Aryaman andBhaga; I celebrate the gods whose acts are 
unimpeded, the bestowers of wealth, the dispensers of purity.

6.051.04 The scatterers of the malevolent, the defenders of the virtuous, the 
irresistible, the mighty lords, thedonors of good dwellings, ever young, very 
powerful, omnipresent, leader of heaven, the sons of A_ditya; I haverecourse to 
Aditi, who is gratified by mine adoration.

6.051.05 Father Heaven, innocent mother Earth, brother Agni, and you, Vasus, 
grant us happiness; all you sonsof Aditi, and you Aditi, alike well-pleased, 
bestow upon us ample felicity.

6.051.06 Subject us not, adorable (deities), to the robber or his wife; not to 
any one designing us harm; for youare the regulators of our persons, of our 
strength, of our speech. [To the robber: ma_ no vr.ka_ya vr.kyeri_radhata_: 
him.saka_ya, stena_ya, to the injurer, the thief; tasya stiyai, to his woman or 
wife; vr.ka may meanwild-dog or wolf, aran.ya s'va_n; vr.ki is a female wolf].

6.051.07 Let us not suffer for the sin committed by another; let us not do that 
which, Vasus, you prohibit; you ruleuniversal gods, over the universe; (so 
provide that) mine enemy may inflict injury on his own person.

6.051.08 Reverence be to the potent (company of universal gods); I offer (them) 
reverence; reverence sustainsboth earth and heaven; revernce be to the gods; 
reverence is sovereign over them; I expiate by reverencewhatever sin may have 
been committed. [Reverence sustains: earth and heaven, by receiving namas 
ornamaska_ra, the reverential salutation or homage of mortals, continue 
throughout a long period for theirenjoyment].

6.051.09 Adorable (deities), I venerate with reverential salutations all you who 
are mighty, the mighty, theregulators of your sacrifice, of pure vigour, 
dwellers in the chamber of worship, unsubdued, far-seeing, leaders(of rites). 
[The regulator: r.tasya rathyah = yajn~asya ranhitr.n, netr.n, leaders or 
conveyers of the sacrificeoffered to them].

6.051.10 May they, exceeding in splendour, so guide us, that all iniquities may 
disappear, they, the very powerfulVarun.a, Mitra, Agni, practisers of truth, and 
faithful to those who are prominent in (their) praise.

6.051.11 May they, Indra, Earth, Pu_s.an, Bhaga, Aditi and the five orders of 
beings, give increase to ourhabitations; may they be to us granters of 
happiness, bestowers of food, guides to good, our gracious defendersand 

6.051.12 May the preseenter of the oblation, Bharadva_ja, quickly obtain, gods, 
a celestial abode, as he solicitsyour good-will; the institutor of the ceremony, 
together with pious associates, desirous of riches, glorifies theassembly of the 

6.051.13 Drive away, Agni, to a distance the wicked, felonious, malignant enemy; 
grant us felicity, protector ofthe virtuous.

6.051.14 These our grinding stones are anxious, Soma, for your friendship; 
destroy the voracious Pan.i, for verilyhe is a wolf. [jahi_ ninatrin.am pan.im 
vr.ko hi sah: pan.i here means a trader, a greedy trafficker, who gives 
noofferings to the gods, no presents to the priests; hence, he comes to be 
identified with an asura, or enemy of thegods; vr.ka = a robber, an extortioner, 
from the root vr.k, to seize or take away, adane].

6.051.15 You are munificent and illustrious, gods, with Indra for your chief, be 
with us, protectors, on the road,and grant us happiness.

6.051.16 We have travelled along the road prosperously traversed and free from 
evil, and by which (a man)avoids adversaries and acquires wealth.6.052.01 I do 
not regard it as worthy (of the gods) of heaven, or (those) of earth, as (fit to 
be compared) with thesacrifice (I offer) or with these (our) sacred rites; let, 
then, the mighty mountains overhelm him; let the employer ofAtiya_ja be ever 
degraded. [r.jis'van pronounces an imprecation upon Atiya_ja, a rival priest].

6.052.02 Maruts, may the energies of that man be enfeebled; may heaven consume 
that impious adversary whothinks himself superior to us, and who pretends to 
deprecate the worship that we offer. [That impious adversary:brahmadvis.am: the 
next verse has brahmadvis.e; tam s'atrum, that enemy, with reference to the word 
brahma,which has occurred before, religious act or praise, the enemy or 
obstructer of prayer or praise; brahmadvis.e =bra_hamn.a dves.t.a_, the hater or 
enemy of the bra_hman.a].

6.052.03 Why have they called you, Soma, the protector of pious prayer? Why 
(have they called you) ourdefender against calumny? Why do you behold us 
subjected to reproach? Cast your destroying weapon uponthe adversary of the 

6.052.04 May the opening dawns preserve me; may the swelling rivers preserve me; 
may the firm-set mountainspreserve me; may the progenitors (present) at the 
invocation of the gods preserve me.

6.052.05 May we at all seasons be possessed of sound minds; may we ever behold 
the rising sun; such may theaffluent lord of riches, (Agni), render us, ever 
most ready to come (at our invocation), charged with our oblation tothe gods.

6.052.06 May Indra be most prompt to come nigh for our protection, and 
Sarasvati_ dwelling with (tributary)rivers; may Parjanya, with the plants, be a 
giver of happiness; and may Agni, worthily praised and earnestlyinvoked, (be to 
us) like a father.

6.052.07 Come, universal gods, hear this my invocationl; sit down upon this 
sacred grass.

6.052.08 Come, gods, to him who honours you with the butter drippling oblation.

6.052.09 May the sons of the immortal hear our praises, and be to us the givers 
of felicity. [Sons of the immortal:amr.tasya su_navah: sons of Praja_pati, the 
Vis'vadevas; cf. Yajus. 33.77].

6.052.10 Universal gods, augmenters of sacrifice, listening to praises (uttered) 
at due seasons, accept yourappropriate milk-offering. [yuyam payas, a mixture of 
milk and curds, termed a_miks.a_: cf. tapte payasidadhya_nayat 
vais'vadevya_miks.a_, when the milk is boiled he brings the curds, that is, the 
a_miks.a_, properfor the Vis'vadevas.  a_miks.a_: a mixture of boiled and 
coagulated milk , curd AV. x , 9 , 13 TS. VS. S'Br. ]

6.052.11 Indra, with the company of the Maruts, Mitra, with Tvas.t.a_ and 
Aryaman, accept our praise and theseour oblations.

6.052.12 Agni, invoker of the gods, cognizant (which of) the divine assembly (is 
he honoured), offer this oursacrifice according to the proper order.

6.052.13 Universal gods, hear this my invocation, whether you be in the 
firmament or in the heaven; you who(receive oblations) by the tongue of Agni, or 
are to be (otherwise) worshipped; seated on this sacred grass, beexhilarated (by 
the Soma).

6.052.14 May the adorable, universal deities, and both heaven and earth, and the 
grandson, of the waters, hearmy praise; let me not utter words to be 
disregarded, but let us, (brought) most nigh unto you, rejoice in thehappiness 
(you bestow).

6.052.15 May those mighty deities, having power to destroy, whether they have 
been manifested upon earth or inheaven, or in the abode of the waters, bestow 
upon us and our posterity abundant sustenance both by night andday. [Having 
power to destroy: ahima_ya_h = a_hantr. prajn~a_H, having the wisdom or 
knowledge that kills; ourposterity: asmabhyam is.aye: is.i is derived from is., 
to wish, and is explained putra_di, sons and the rest,asmabhya_m tasmai ca, to 
us and to it, that is, posterity, as the object of desire.

6.052.16 Agni and Parjanya, prosper my pious acts; (accept), you who are 
reverently invoked, our praise at thissacrifice; one of you generates food, the 
other posterity; grant us, therefore, food productive of descendants.[One of you 
generates: il.a_m anyo janayat garbham anyah: Parjanya, by sending rain, causes 
the growth ofcorn, and Agni, as the main agent in digestion, produces the vigour 
necessary for procreation].

6.052.17 When the sacred grass is strewn, when the fire is kindled, and when I 
worship (you) with a hymn, andwith profound veneration, then, adorable universal 
gods, rejoice in the oblation (offered) today at this oursacrifice.6.053.01 
Pu_s.an, lord of paths, we attach you to us like a chariot, for (the sake of) 
bringing food, and of(accomplishing our) solemnity. [m. (the {a} not lengthened 
in the strong cases , but acc. {-SANam} , in Ma1rkP.) N. of a Vedic deity 
(originally connected with the sun , and therefore the surveyor of all    things 
, and theconductor on journeys and on the way to the next world , often 
associated with Soma or the Moon as protector ofthe universe ; he is , moreover, 
regarded as the keeper of flocks and herds and bringer of prosperity ; in 
theBra_hman.as he is represented as having lost his teeth and feeding on a kind 
of gruel,  whence he is called%{karambhAd} ; in later times he is one of the 12 
A_dityas and regent of the Nakshatra Revati_ or Paushn.a ; du.`" Pu_shan and 
Aryaman "' VP. Sch.); the sun Ka_d. Ba_lar. ; (?) growth , increase (cf. {pUSa-
rAti}) ; the earth L.(Cologne Sanskrit Dictionary)]

6.053.02 Conduct us to a gracious householder, friendly to men, liberal in 
(bestowing) wealth, the giver of piousdonations. [Liberal: vasuvi_ram, a hero of 
riches, i.e. one who is especially the instigator of poverty to acquirewealth, 
dhanam abhipra_ptum vi_ram da_ridrasya vis'es.ena erayita_ram].

6.053.03 Resplendent Pu_s.an, instigate the niggard to liberality, soften the 
heart of the miser.

6.053.04 Pierce Pu_s.an, select (fit) roads for the passage of provisions; drive 
away all obstructors, (thieves, orthe like), so that our holy rites may be 

6.053.05 Pierce with a goad the hearts of the avaricious, wise Pu_s.an, and so 
render them complacent towardsus. [Pierce with a goad: pari tr.ndhi a_ray_: 
a_ra_ is described as a stick with a slender point of metal; pratoda, agoad; the 
common vernacular derivative, a_ra_h, is a saw. Ara, Ara_: 1 n. brass BhP. x , 
41 , 20 ; iron L. ; a stingComm. on TS. ; an angle ; a corner ; m.    cavity 
Su1ryas. ; N. of a tree L. ; N. of a lake KaushUp. ; the planetMars; the planet 
Saturn L. ; ({A}) f. a shoemaker's awl or knife ; a bore ; a probe RV. Sus3r.&c. 
; an aquatic bird.Ara: n. v.l. for{ara} q.v. , a spoke MBh. i , 1498 (ed. Bomb. 
i , 33 , 4 reads {ara}) (Cologne Sanskrit Dictionary)].

6.053.06 Pierce with a goad, Pu_s.an, the heart of the avaricious; generate 
generosity in his heart, and sorender him complacent towards us.

6.053.07 Abrade, wise Pu_s.an, the hearts of the avaricious; relax (their 
hardness), and so render themcomplacent towards us. [This shows the purpose of 
a_ra_, to abrade, to smoothen, as an abrasive].

6.053.08 Resplendent Pu_s.an, with that food-propelling goad which you bear, 
abrade the heart of every miser,and render it relaxed. [kikira_ = to tear into 
pieces , rend into rags and tatters RV. vi , 53, 7 and 8.]

6.053.09 Resplendent Pu_s.an, we ask of you the service of that your weapon, 
which is the guide of cows, thedirector of cattle.

6.053.10 Make our pious worship productive of cows, of horses, of food, of 
dependants, for our enjoyment.6.054.01 Bring us, Pu_s.an, into communication 
with a wise man who may rightly direct us, who may even say,this is so. [ya 
evedam iti bravat: vidus.a = a wise man, a cunning man, a conurer; one who says, 
this, yourproperty, has been lost, and the preceding paggage directs the way to 
the recovery of the lost or stolen goods;Pu_s.an is thus portrayed as the patron 
of fortune-tellers and recoverers of stolen property].

6.054.02 May we, by the favour of Pu_s.an, come in communication with (the man) 
who may direct us to thehouses (where our goods are secreted), and may say, 
verily these are they.

6.054.03 The discus of Pu_s.an does not destroy; its sheath is not discarded, 
its edge harms not us.

6.054.04 Pu_s.an inflicts not the least injury on the man who propitiates him by 
oblations; he is the first whoacquires wealth.

6.054.05 May Pu_s.an come to (guard) our cattle, ma Pu_s.an protect our horses; 
may Pu_s.an give us food.

6.054.06 Come, Pu_s.an, to (guard) the cattle of the institutor of the rite 
presenting libations, and also of usrepeating (your) praises.

6.054.07 Let not, Pu_s.an, our cattle perish; let them not be injured; let them 
not be hurt by falling into a well;come, therefore, along with them unharmed.

6.054.08 We solicit Pu_s.an, who hears (our eulogies); who is the averter (of 
poverty); the preserver of thatwhich is not lost, the ruler (over all).

6.054.09 May we never suffer detriment when engaged, Pu_s.an, in your worship; 
we are at this time youradorers.

6.054.10 May Pu_s.an put forth his right hand (to restrain our cattle) from 
going astray; may we bring again to usthat which has been lost.6.055.01 Come 
illusrious grandson of Praja_pati to (me your) worshipper); let us two be 
associated; become theconveyer of our sacrifice. [Grandson: vimuco napa_t: 
Praja_pati is who, at the period of creation, lets loose,vimun~catia, visr.jati, 
all creatures from himself, svasak_s'a_t sarva_h praja_h. Come to me: ehi va_m: 
va_ =praiser, from root va, to go, to have odour, va_m ganta_ram stota_ram ma_m, 
ehi a_gaccha].

6.055.02 We solicit riches of our friend, (Pu_s.an), the chief of charioteers, 
the wearer of a braid (of hair), the lordof infinite wealth. [Wearer of a braid 
of hair: kapardinam = kapardas'cu_d.a_ tadvantam; normally an epithet ofS'iva; 
but, cu_d.a_ is the lock left on the crown of the head at tonsure].

6.055.03 Illustrious Pu_s.an, you are a torrent of riches; you, who have a goat 
for your steed, are a heap ofwealth; the friend of every worshipper.

6.055.04 We glorify Pu_s.an, the rider of the goat, the giver of food, him who 
is called the gallant of his sister.[svasur yo ja_ra ucyate, the sister of 
Pu_s.an is the dawn, with whom he, as the sun, may be said to 

6.055.05 I glorify Pu_s.an, the husband of his mother; may the gallant of his 
sister hear us; may the brother ofIndra be our friend. [Husband of his mother: 
ma_tur didhis.um: ra_reh patim, the lord or husband of the night;brother of 
Indra: as one of the A_dityas, or sons of Aditi, he may be called the brother of 
Indra, who is also one ofthe 12 A_dityas].

6.055.06 May the harnessed goats, drawing the deity in his car, bring hither 
Pu_s.an, the benefactor of man.6.056.01 No (other) deity is indicated by him who 
declares the offering of mixed meal and butter to be intendedfor Pu_s.an. 
[karambha_t iti: karambha is said to be a mixture of parched barley-meal and 

6.056.02 He, the chief of charioteers, the protector of the virtuous, Indra, 
destroys his foes, with his friendPu_s.an for his ally.

6.056.03 He, the impeller, the chief of charioteers, (Pu_s.an) ever urges on 
that golden wheel (of his car) for theradiant sun. [parus.e gavi: parvavati, 
bha_svati va_, the period-having or the shining; gavi = A_ditya, he whomoves or 
revolves, gacchati_ti gaur-a_dityah].

6.056.04 Since, intelligent Pu_s.an, of godly aspect, the praised of many, we 
celebrate you today, therefore grantus the desired wealth.

6.056.05 Gratify this our assembly, desirous of cattle, by their acquisition; 
you, Pu_s.an, are renowned afar.

6.056.06 We deserve of your well-being, remote from evil, approximate to wealth, 
both for the sake of generalsacrifice today, for the sake of general sacrifice 
tomorrow. [adya_ ca sarvata_taye: yajn~a which is conducted bythe priest, 
sarvair r.tvigbhis ta_yate; or, it may mean: for the dissemination of all 
enjoyment, sarves.a_mbhoga_na_m vista_ra_ya].6.057.01 We invoke you, Indra and 
Pu_s.an, for your friendship, for our well-being, and for the obtaining of food.

6.057.02 One (of you) approaches to drink the Soma poured out into ladles, the 
other desires the buttered meal.[karambham: see the preceding su_kta].

6.057.03 Goats are the bearers of the one, two well-fed horses of the other, and 
with them he destroys his foes.

6.057.04 When the showerer Indra sends down the falling and mighty waters, there 
is Pu_s.an along with him.

6.057.05 We depend upon the good-will of Pu_s.an, and of Indra, as (we cling) to 
the branches of a tree.

6.057.06 We draw to us, for our great welfare, Pu_s.an and Indra, as a 
charioteer (pulls tight) his reins.6.058.01 One of your forms, (Pu_s.an), is 
luminous, one is venerable; so that the day is variously complexioned;for you 
are like the sun; verily, bestower of food, you protect all intelligence; may 
your auspicious liberality bemanifested on this occasion. [cf. Nirukta, 12.17; 
you are like the sun: Pu_s.an is identified with both day andnight, or is 
considered as their regulator].

6.058.02 The rider of the goat, the protector of animals, in whose dwelling good 
is abundant, the propitiated bysacred rites, who has been placed over the whole 
(world), the divine Pu_s.an, brandishing his loosened goad,proceeds (in the 
sky), contemplating all beings. [Placed over the whole world: placed so by 
Praja_pati, in hiscapacity of nourishing all things, pos.akatvena; proceeds in 
the sky: as identical with the sun].

6.058.03 With thos your golden vessels, which navigate within the ocean-
firmament, you discharge the office ofmessenger of the sun; desirous of the 
sacrificial food, you are propitiated by (that which is) willingly 
offered.[Messenger of the sun: ya_si du_tya_m su_ryasya: a legend is related; on 
one occasion, when Su_rya, with thegods, had set out to fight the asuras, he 
sent Pu_s.an to his abode to console his wife, who was greatly afflictedby his 
going to the wars; for which office Pu_s.an is here commended].

6.058.04 Pu_s.an is the kind kinsman of heaven and earth, the lord of food, the 
possessor of opulence, of goodlyform; whom the gods gave to Su_rya, vigorous, 
well-moving, propitiated by (that which is) willingly offered.[Propitiated: 
ka_mena kr.tah: pas'va_dis.ayena stotr.bhir vas'i_kr.tah, you are subjected or 
propitiated byworshippers by means of the pas'u and other offerings].6.059.01 
When the libation is effused I celebrate, Indra and Agni, your heroic exploits; 
the Pitaras, the enemies ofthe gods, have been slain by you, and you survive. 
[The Pitaras: asuras, as derived from the root pi, to injure,piyatir 

6.059.02 Your greatness, Indra and Agni, is after this fashion, and is most 
deserving of praise; the same is yourprogenitor; twin brethren are you, having a 
mother everywhere present. [ihehama_tarau, of whom the mother ishere and there; 
Aditi is their mother, in common with all the gods, and she is here identified 
with he wideextended earth, visti_rn.a bhu_mih].

6.059.03 You approach together, when the libation is effused, like two fleet 
coursers to their forage; we invoketoday Indra and Agni, deities armed with the 
thunderbolt, to this ceremony for our preservation.

6.059.04 Divine Indra and Agni, augmenters of sacrifice by whom the acclamation 
(of praise) is received, youpartake not of the (Soma) of him who, when the 
libation is effused, praises you (improperly), utteringunacceptable eulogies. 
[Praises you improperly: yo vam stavat, he who may praise you badly, kutsitam 
stu_yat;uttering unacceptable eulogies: jos.ava_kam vadatah: pri_tihetutvena 
kartavyam svay apri_tikaram vacam,speech to be uttered with the design of 
gaining affection, but of itself producing disaffection or dislike; so, 
inNirukta 5.22: ya indragni_ sutes.u va_m somes.u stauti tes.u na tasya 
as'ni_thah, of him who praises you two,Agni and Indra, when the Soma juices are 
effused you do not eat (the offering); the Nirukta has: you eat, omittingthe 
negative; jos.ava_kam: avijn~atana_madheyam jos.ayitavyam bhavati, that being of 
unknown name is to bepropitiated; yo ayam jos.ava_kam vadati vian~japah na tasya 
as'ni_thah, this person who utters, jos.ava_kam,repeating incessantly, or 
silently, propitiatory prayer of various objects, of that man, you two do not 
eat theoffering].

6.059.05 What mortal, divine Indra and Agni, is a judge of that (your act), when 
one of you, harnessing hisdiversely-going horses, proceeds in the common car. 
[One of you: vis.u_co as'va_n yayuja_na i_yate ekahsama_ne rathe: the one is 
Indra, who, as identical with the sun, goes over the world in a car which is 
common tohim and Agni, as being also identical with the sun; Indra yokes the 
multiform horses, months, weeks, days, to amonoform car, or the year].

6.059.06 This footless (dawn), Indra and Agni, comes before the footed sleepers, 
animating the head (of livingbeings with consciousness), causing them to utter 
loud sounds with their tongues, and passing onwards shetraverses thirty steps. 
[Animating the head: hitvi_ s'iras = exciting the head: pra_n.ina_m s'iro 
prerayitri_, urgingor animating the head of living beings; or, it may apply to 
the dawn, as being headless, s'iras tyaktva_ svayamas'iraska_ sati_, she having 
abandoned the head, being of herself headless; cf. Yajus. 33.93: the referene 
toepithets: va_c, speech, a_pad, footless, meaning prose, gadya_tmika_; thirty 
steps: the thirty muhu_rtas, thedivisions of the day and night].

6.059.07 Indra and Agni, men verily stretch their bows with their arms, but do 
not you desert us contending forcattle in the great combat.

6.059.08 Indra and Agni, murderous, aggressive enemies harasss us; drive away 
mine adversaries; separatethem from (sight of) the sun.

6.059.09 Indra and Agni, yours are both celestial and terrestrial treasures; 
bestow upon us, on this occasion,life-sustaining riches.

6.059.10 Indra and Agni, who are to be attracted by hymns; you, who hear our 
invocation (accompanied) bypraise and by all adorations, come hither to drink of 
this Soma libation.6.060.01 He ovecomes his enemy, and acquires food, who 
worships the victorious Indra and Agni, the lords ofinfinite opulence, most 
powerful in strength, desirous of (sacrificial) food.

6.060.02 Indra and Agni, verily you have combated for (the recovery of) the 
cows, the waters, the sun, the dawnsthat had been carried away (by the asuras); 
you reunite, Indra (with the world), the quarters of the horizon, thesun, the 
wonderful waters, the dawns, the cattle and so do you, Agni, who have the Niyut 

6.060.03 Slayers of Vr.tra, Indra and Agni, come down with foe-subduing 
energies, (to be invigorated) by (our)offerings; be manifest to us, Indra and 
Agni, with unblameable and most excellent riches.

6.060.04 I invoke those two, the whole of whose deeds of old have been 
celebrated; Indra and Agni harm us not.

6.060.05 We invoke the fierce Indra and Agni, the slayers of enemies; may they 
give us success in similarwarfare.

6.060.06 Counteract all oppressions (committed) by the pious; counteract all 
oppressions (committed) by theimpious; protectors of the virtuous, destroy all 
those who hate us. [hato vr.tra_n.i a_rya_ hasto da_sa_ni:vr.tra_n.i and 
da_sa_ni are neuter and may not signify a_ryas and da_sas themselves; so, the 
interpretation is:a_ryaih and da_saih kr.ta_ni, things done by them severally, 
that is, upadravaja_ta_ni, things generated byviolence or oppression and the 
like. This is a remarkable equivalence between a_ryas and da_sas].

6.060.07 Indra and Agni, these hymns glorify you both; drink, bestowers of 
happiness, the libation.

6.060.08 Indra and Agni, leaders (of rites), whose Niyut steeds are desired by 
many, come with them to the donor(of the libation).

6.060.09 Come with them, leaders (of rites), to the effused libation drink, 
Indra and Agni, of the Soma. 

6.060.10 Glorify that Agni who envelopes all the forest with flame, who blackens 
them with (his) tongue.

6.060.11 The mortal who presents the gratifying (oblation) to Indra in the 
kindled (fire), to him (Indra grants)acceptable waters for his sustenance.

6.060.12 May those two grant us strengthening food, and swift horses to convey 
(our offerings).

6.060.13 I invoke you both, Indra and Agni, to be present at the sacrifice; and 
both together to be exhilarated bythe (sacrificial) food; for you are both 
donors of food and riches, and therefore I invoke you both for the obtainingof 

6.060.14 Come to us with herds of cattle, with troops of horses, with ample 
treasures, divine friends, Indra andAgni; givers of happiness, we invoke you as 
such for your friendship.

6.060.15 Hear, Indra and Agni, the institutor of the rite as he offers the 
libation; partake of the offering; come,quaff the sweet Soma.6.061.01 She gave 
to the donor of the oblations, Vadhryas'va, a son Divoda_sa endowed with speed, 
andacquitting the debt (due to gods and progenitors), she who destroyed the 
churlis niggard, (thinking) only ofhimself, such are your bounties, Sarasvati_. 
(Divoda_sa: Vis.n.u Pura_n.a makes the father of Divoda_sa,Bahvas'va but this is 
a representation of the nameBandhyas'va; the churlish niggard: Pan.i is the 

6.061.02 With impetuous and mighty waves she breaks down the precipices of the 
mountains, like a digger forthe lotus fibres; we adore for our protection, the 
praises and with sacred rites, Sarasvati_ the underminer of bothher banks. [With 
impetuous and mighty waters: the firs r.ca addresses Sarasvati_ as a goddess; in 
this r.ca, sheis praised as a river; in this entire su_kta, this alternative 
attribution is apparent; like a digger for the lotus-fibres:bisa-kha_ iva bisam 
khanati, who digs the bisa, the long fibres of the stem of the lotus, in delving 
for which hebreaks down the banks of the pond].

6.061.03 Destroy, Sarasvati_, the revilers of the gods, the offspring of the 
universal deluder, Br.saya; giver ofsustenance, you have acquired for men the 
lands (seized by the asuras), and have showered water upon them.[Br.saya: 
Br.saya is a name of Tvas.t.a_, whose son was Vr.tra; Sa_yan.a, provides a 
legend in his introductionto the Black Taittiri_a Yajus., to illustrate te 
importance of correctly accentuating the words of the Veda: Indra,had killed a 
son of Tvas.t.a_, named Vis'varu_pa, in conseqence of which there was enmity 
between them. Uponthe occasion of a Soma sacrifice celebrated by Tvas.t.a_, he 
omitted to include Indra in his invitation to the gods.Indra, however, came an 
uninvited guest, and by force took a part of the Soma libation. With the 
remainderTvas.t.a_ performed a sacrifice for the birth of an individual who 
should avenge his quarrel and destroy hisadversary, directing the priest to 
pray, now let a man be born and prosper, the killer of Indra. In uttering 
themantra, however, the officiating priest made a mistake in the accentuation of 
the term indragha_taka, slayer ofIndra, in which sense as a tatpurus.a compound, 
the acute accent should have been placed upon the lastsyllable. Instead of this, 
the reciter of the mantra placed the acent upon the first syllable, whereby the 
compoundbecame a bahuvri_hi epithet, signifying one of whom Indra is the slayer. 
Consequently, wen by virtue of the rite,Vr.tra was produced, he was fore-doomed 
by the wrong accentuation to be put to death by Indra instead ofbecoming the 
destroyer. You have acquired for men: ks.itibhyo avani_ravindo vis.am abhyo 
asravah = you haveshed poison upon them, or destroyed them].

6.061.04 May the divine Sarasvati_, the acceptress of (sacrificial) food, the 
protectress o her worshippers,sustain us with (abundant) viands.

6.061.05 Divine Sarasvati_, protect him engaged in conflict for the sake of 
wealth, who glorifies you like Indra.

6.061.06 Divine Sarasvati_, abounding in food, protect us in combat, and, like 
Pu_s.an, give us gifts.

6.061.07 May the fierce Sarasvati_, riding in a golden chariot, the destructress 
of enemies, be pleased by ourearnest laudation.

6.061.08 May she whose might, infinite, undeviating, splendid, progressive, 
water-shedding, proceedsloud-sounding.

6.061.09 Overcome all our adversaries, and bring to us her other water-laden 
sisters, as the ever-rolling sun(leads on) the days. [Bring to us: ati 
svasr.ranya_ r.ta_vari_: ati = atini, to lead over or beyond, or ati dvis.ah, 
maythe other sisters overcome those who hate us].

6.061.10 May Sarasvati_, who has seven sisters, who is dearest among those dear 
to us, and is fully propitiated,be ever adorable. [Seven sisters: saptasvasa_: 
either the seven metres of the vedas, or the seven rivers].

6.061.11 May Sarasvati_, filing (with radiance) the expanse of earth and heaven, 
defend us from the reviled.

6.061.12 Abiding in the three worlds, comprising seven elements, cherishing the 
five races (of beings), she isever to be invoked in battle. [Seven elements: 
saptadha_tu: either the metres or the river].

6.061.13 She who is disinguished among them as eminent in greatness and in her 
glories; she who is the mostimpetuous of all other streams; she who as been 
created vast in capacity as a chariot, she, Sarasvati_, is to beglorified by the 
discree (worshippers). [Among them: A_su, among them, divinities, or rivers, 
devata_na_mnadi_na_m madhye; vast in capacity as a chariot: ratha iva br.hati_ 
vibhvane kr.ta, made great in vasness, like achariot created by Praja_pati, so 
created, vibhvane, vibhutva_ya, for greatness or vastness].

6.061.14 Guide us, Sarasvati_, to precious wealth; reduce us no to 
insignificance; overwhelm us not with (excessof) water; be pleased by our 
friendly (services) and access to our habitations, and let us not repair to 
placesunacceptable to you. [Reduce us not: ma_ apa sphari_h: sphara = increase, 
greatness, prosperity; with theprefix, it implies the reverse, apravr.ddha_n ma_ 
ka_rs.i_h, do not make us unimportant or abject].6.062.01 I praise the two 
leaders of heaven, the presiders over this world; I invoke the As'vins, 
glorifying themwith sacred hymns, them, who are ever the discomfiture (of foes), 
who at dawn scatter the investing glooms tothe ends of the earth.

6.062.02 Coming to the sacrifice with their bright splendours, they light up the 
lustre of (their) car; emitting vastand infinite radiance; they drive their 
horses over deserts (refreshing them) with water.

6.062.03 Fierce As'vins, from thhat humble mansion to which (you have repaired), 
you have ever borne with yourdesirable horses, as swift as thought, the pious 
worshippers in some manner (to heaven); let the injurer of theliberal man (be 
consigned by you) to (final) repose.

6.062.04 Harnessing their horses, bringing excellent food, nourishment, and 
strength, they approach (to receive)the adoration of their recent worshipper; 
and may the benevolent ancient invoker of the gods (Agni) sacrifice tothe ever 
youthful (deities).

6.062.05 I worship with a new hymn those two quick-moving good-looking ancient 
(As'vins), the achievers ofmany exploits, who are the givers of great felicity 
to him who prays to (them), or praises (them); the bestowers ofwondrous gifts on 
him who adores (them).

6.062.06 They bore up from te waters, from the ocean, by the winged horses 
attached to their car, (passing) byroads unsoiled by dust, Bhujyu, the son of 
Tugra; they (bore them) from out of the lap of the water. [arn.asonirupastha_t, 
from the womb of the water, jalasya yoneh samudra_d abhyo nir agamayatam].

6.062.07 Riders in your car, you have penetrated the mountain by your triumphant 
chariot; showerers (ofbenefits) you heard the invocation of Vadhrimati_; you 
have nourished, bountiful givers, the cow of S'ayu-- and inthis manner 
displaying benevolence are you everywhere present.

6.062.08 Heaven and Earth, A_diyas, Vasus, Maruts, rende that dread ange of the 
gods which (has) of old (beendirected) against mortals, destructive and fatal to 
him who is associated with the ra_ks.asas. [raks.oyuje =ra_ks.asam sva_mine 
preraka_ya va_; rakso.obhir yukta_ya yajvane, one who sacrifices, assisted or 
joined bythe ra_ks.asas].

6.062.09 Mitra and Varun.a recognize him who of all the world worships the royal 
(As'vins) in due season; hehurls his weapon against the strong ra_ks.asa, 
against the malignant menaces of man. [drogha_ya cid vacasea_nava_ya = 
abhidroha_tmaka_ya manus.yasambhandine vacana_ya eva].

6.062.10 Come with your shining and well-guided chariot, (fitted) with excellen 
wheels, to our dwelling, (tobestow upon us) male offspring; cut off with secret 
indignation the heads of those obstructing (the adoration) ofthe mortal (who 
worships you). [Well-guided chariot: nr.vata rathena, having a leader, a driver; 
or nr. may mean ahorse; with excellen wheels: antarais'cakraih: anikr.s.t.aih, 
with not inferior wheels; with secret indignation:sanutyena tyajasa_ = 
tirohitena krodhena].

6.062.11 Come down, whether with the most excellent, or middling, or inferior 
Niyut steeds; set upon the doors ofthe fast-shut stall of the cattle; eb 
bountiful to him who praises you.6.063.01 Where may our praise and oblations 
find today for a mesenger, those two splendid (As'vins), theinvoked of many, and 
bring the Na_satya_s to our presence? Be propitiated (As'vins) by the adoration 
of this(your worshipper).

6.063.02 Praised, that you may drink the (sacrificial) Soma, you come promptly 
upon this my invocation; keepguard around the dwelling against (all) 
advdrsaries, so that neither one that abides at a distance nor a neighbourmay do 
us harm.

6.063.03 (What is essential) for the copious effusion of the (sacrificial) food 
has been done for you; the verydelicate sacred grass has been strewn; the 
(priest with) uplifted hands desirous o your presence praises you; thestones 
express (the Soma), designing it for you.

6.063.04 Agni is above for you; he is present at (your) sacrifices; the oblation 
flows diffusive and redolent of ghi_;diligent and zealous is the ministrant 
priest who is engaged, Na_satya_s, in your invocation.

6.063.05 Protectors of many, the daughter of Su_rya ascended your chariot the 
defence of hundreds, for refugesagacious leaders and guides, you have excelled 
by your devices (all others) at this appearance of the adorable(deities). 
[Leaders and guides: nara_ nr.tyu = guides and dancers; you have excelled: a 
reference is to thelegend of the As'vins carrying off in their car the daughter 
of Su_rya from the other gods, as narrated in AitareyaBra_hman.a iv.7].

6.063.06 You have provided with these beautiful splendours, gratification for 
the enjoyment of Su_rya, yourhorses have descended for feliciy, deserving of 
praise, the laudation (of the sages) has reached you glorified.

6.063.07 May your rapid burden-bearing steeds bring you Na_satya_s to the 
(sacrificial) food; your chariot swiftas thought has dispensed substantial, 
desirable, abundant food.

6.063.08 Protectors of many, vast (wealth) is to be distributed by you; give us 
then nutritious and invariable food.Givers of delight, there are to you, 
adorers, and fit praise, and libations, which are prepared to acknowledge 
yourliberality. [Nutritious and invariable food: dhenum na is.am pinvatam 
askra_m = give us a cow, food, that doesnot stray; dhenu = pri_n.ayitri_, 
gratifying; is.am may be the adjective for es.an.i_yam, give us a desirable 

6.063.09 May the two straight-going, light-moving, (mares) of Puraya be mine; 
may the hundred cows belongingto Sumi_l.ha, may the dressed viands prepared by 
Peruka be for me; may S.an.d.a bestow upon me tenhandsome golden chariots, and 
obedient, valian, and well-favoured (dependants). [r.jre raghvi_ = twostraight-
right-going (vadave, mares); s'atam = a hundred (gava_m, of cows); pakva = 
pakva_ni (anna_ni, viands);hiran.inah vasma_d dis.t.i_n das'a = ten golden to us 
handsome (i.e., ratha_n, cars); vass'a_sah abis'a_car.s.va_n = obedient, 
valorous, handsome (purus.a_n, men)].

6.063.10 May Purupantha_, Na_satya_s, grant to him who praises you, hundreds and 
thousands of horses; mayhe give them, heroes, to Bharadva_ja; achievers of great 
deeds, may the ra_ks.asas be slain.

6.063.11 May I be associated with the pious in the abundant felicity bestowed by 
you.6.064.01 The white and shining tints of the dawn have spread like the waves 
of the waters, for the beautifying (ofthe world); she renders all good roads 
easy to be traversed; she ho is replete with delight, excellence and 
health.6.064.02 Divine Us.as, you are seen auspicious; you shine afar; your 
bright rays spread over the sky, lovely andradiant with great (splndours), you 
display your person.

6.064.03 Ruddy and resplendent kine bear the auspicious, expanding, illustrious 
dawn; like a warrior, who,casting his darts, or a swift charger scattering 
enemies, she drives away the glooms. [Kine: ga_vah = ras'mayah,rays].

6.064.04 Yours are good roads and easy to be traversed in mountains and 
inaccessible places; you passself-irradiating over the waters; bring to us, 
daughter of heaven, in your spacious and beautiful chariot, desirableriches.

6.064.05 Do you Us.as bring me opulence, for unoposed you bear with your oxen 
(wealth to your worshippers),according to your satisfaction; daughter of heaven, 
you who are divine, who are lovely, are to be worshipped atthe first (daily) 

6.064.06 At your dawning, divine Us.as, the birds spring up from their nests, 
and men who have to gain theirsustenance (arise); you, divine Us.as, bring ample 
wealth to the mortal who is nigh you, the offerer of theoblation.6.065.01 This 
heaven-born daughter (of the sky), driving away the darkness for us, makes 
visible human beings;she who with bright lustre is perceived dissipating the 
glooms, and (extinguishing) the planets (shining) in thenights. [Makes visible: 
udgirati ma_nus.i_h praja_h = vomits them, i.e., brings them up out of darkness 
into light;in the nights: ra_mya_su = ya_mya_su, ra_tris.u].

6.065.02 The DWns in beautiful chariots drawn by purple steeds in pairs, shine 
gloriously as hey proceed (alongthe heaven); bringing on the commencement of the 
great (morning) sacrifice, they disperse the darkness of thenight.

6.065.03 Dawns, bringing fame, and food, sustenance, and strength to the mortal, 
the donor (of the oblation),abonding in wealth, and proceeding (through the 
sky), bestow upon the worshiper today food, with maledescendants and riches.

6.065.04 Verily, Dawns, there is at present wealth to give to your worshiper, to 
the man offering (oblations) to thesage repeating your praise; if the praises 
(are accepted), then bring to him who is like me such wealth as hasbeen formerly 
bestowed (upon myself).

6.065.05 Verily, Dawns, there is at presen wealh to give to your worshipper, to 
the man offering (oblations) to thesage repeating your praise; if the praises 
(are accepted), then bring to him who is like me such wealth as hasbeen formerly 
bestowed (upon myself).

6.065.06 Verily, Us.as, the An:girasas through your (favour) recover the herd of 
cattle from the summit of themountain; by adoration and by prayer they have 
divided (the rock); unfailing was the praise of the gods utteredby the oleaders 
(of rites).

6.065.07 Daughter of heaven, draw us upon those of old; possessor of riches 
(down) upon the worshipper, as(you have done upon) Bharadva_a; grant to him who 
glorified you, wealh with male descendants; give to us foodhat may be 
distributed to many.6.066.01 May the like-formed, benevolent, all-pervading, all 
humiliating troop (of the Maruts) be promptly with theprudent man; the troop 
that ever cherishes all that among mortals is designed to yield (them) 
advantage; and (atwhose wil) Pr.s'ni gives milk from (her) bright udder once (in 
the year). [That ever cherishes: marttes.u anyaddohase pi_pa_ya = tad ru_pam 
(maruta_m), martyaloke anyad os.adhi vanaspatya_dikam ka_ma_n 
dogdhuma_ya_yagoti, that form of the Maruts cause one or other thing in the 
world, herbaceous plants, forest trees, andthe like, of flourish, so as to milk 
or yield wht is desired; Pr.s'ni: implies the firmament, which, by the influence 
ofthe winds, sends down its milk, i.e. rain, once, i.e. at the rainy season].

6.066.02 Unsoiled by dust the golden chariots of those Maruts, who are shining 
like kindled fires, enlargingthemselves (at will) twofold and threefold, and 
(charged) with riches and virile energies, are manifest.

6.066.03 They (who are) the sons of the showerer Rudra, whom the nursing 
(firmamen is able) to sustain, and ofwhom, the mighty ones, it is known that the 
great Pr.s'ni has received the germ for the benefit (of man).

6.066.04 They who approach not to men any conveyance, being already in their 
hearts, purifying their defects;when brilliant they supply their milk (the rain) 
for the gratification (of their worshippers); they are watering theearth 
(manifesting their collective); from with splendour. [Being already in their 
hearts: the Maruts are regardedas identical wit the Pra_n.a_h, vital airs].

6.066.05 Approaching nigh to whom, and repeating the mighty name of the Maruts, 
(the worshipper is able)quickly to obtain (his wishes); the liberal donor 
pacifies the angry Maruts, who are otherwise in their might theresistless 
plunderers (of their wealth). [He pacifies those na ye stauna_ aya_so mahna_ nu 
cid, who now arethieves going with greatness verily ever].

6.066.06 THose fierce and powerfully arrayed (Maruts) unite by their strength 
the two beautiful (regions) heavenand earth; in them, the self-radiant, heaven 
and earth abide; the obstruction (of light) dwells not in those mightyones. 
[Unite by their strength: by the rain, which may be said to form a bond of union 
between heaven and earth].6.066.07 May your chariot, Maruts, be devoid of 
wickedness; that which (the worshipper) impels, and whichwithout driver, without 
horses, without provender, without traces, scattering water and accomplishing 
(desires),traverses heaven and earth and the paths (of the firmament).

6.066.08 There is no propeller, no obstructer, of him, whom, Maruts, you protect 
in battle; he whom (you prosper)ith sons, grandsons, cattle, and water, is in 
war the despoiler of the herds of his ardent (foes). [Despoiler of theherds: sa 
vrajam darta_ pa_rye adha dyoh = sa gava_m san:gham da_rayita_ san:gra_me dyoh; 
dyoh = vijigis.orva_ s'atroh, of one desirous to overcome, or an enemy].

6.066.09 Offer to the loud-sounding, quick-moving, self-invigorating company of 
the Maruts, excellent (sacrificial)food; (to them) who overcome strength by 
strength; the earth trembles, Agni, at the adorable (Maruts).

6.066.10 The Maruts are resplendent as if iluminators of the sacrifice, (bright) 
as he flames of Agni; entitled arethey to donation, and like heroes making 
(adversaries) tremble; brilliant are they from birth, and invincible.

6.066.11 I worship with oblations that exalted company of the Maruts, the 
progeny of Rudra, armed with shininglances; the pure and earnest praises of the 
devout (adorer) are emulous in the invigoration (of the Maruts), asthe clouds 
(vie in the emission of the rain). [The pure and earnest praises: divah 
s'ardha_ya s'ucayo manis.a_girayo na_pa ugra_ aspr.dhran = of heaven of the 
strength pure praises mountains like waters fierce have vied;divah = stotuh, of 
the praiser or worshipper; s'ardha_ya = ma_ruta_ya, for the strength of the 
Maruts; giri =megha, a cloud].6.067.01 (I proceed) by my praises to exalt you, 
Mira and Varun.a, the eldest of all existing things; you two,though not the 
same, are the irmest resrainers with your arms, and hold men back (from eil) as 
they check(horses) with reins.

6.067.02 This my praise is addressed to you both, and proceeds to you beloved 
(deities) together with theoblation; the sacred grass is spread before you; 
grant us, Mitra and Varun.a an unassailable dwelling, thatthrough your favour, 
munificent divinities, may be a (secure) shelter.

6.067.03 Come, Mitra and Varun.a, beloved by all, and invoked with reveence to 
the propitious ite, you who byyour bounty support men labouring for sustenance 
as a work man (maintains himself) by work.

6.067.04 Who (are) strong as horses, accepters or pious praise, observers of 
truth, whom Aditi conceived; whom,mighty of the mighty at your birth and 
formidable to mortal foes, she bore.

6.067.05 Inasmuch as all the gods equally pleased and rejoicing in your 
greatness conferred strength upon you,and since you are pre-eminen over the wide 
heaven and earth, your courses are unobstructed, unimpeded. [Yourcourses: spas'o 
adabdha_so amu_ra_: spas'ah = ras'mayas ca_ra va_, rays, or perhaps, reins, or 
goings, whichare ahisita, uninjured, amu_d.ha, not bewildered].

6.067.06 You manifest vigour daily, you strengthen the summit of the sky as if 
with a pillar; the solid firmamenand the universal deity (the sun) replenish 
earth and heaven with the food of man. [As if with a pillar: upama_diva: upama_t 
= sthu_n.a, a post or pillar-- the post to which a calf is tied].

6.067.07 You two support the sage (worshipper), filling his belly when he and 
his dependants fill the sacrificialchamber; when sustainers of all, the rain (is 
sent down by you), and the young (rivers) are not obstructed, but,undried, 
diffuse (fertility) around.

6.067.08 The wise man always (solicits) you his prayers for this (supply of 
water), when approaching you sincerin sacrifice; may your magnanimity be such 
that you, the feeders upon ghi_, may exterminate sin in the donor (ofthe 
oblation); [With his prayers: with his tongue, jihvaya_].

6.067.09 (Exterminate also), Mitra and Varun.a those who emulously contending, 
disturb the rites that areagreeable and beneficial to you both; those 
divinities, those mortals, who are not diligent in adoration, those 
whoperforming works perform not sacrifices, those who do not propitiate you. 
[Exterminate also: na ye deva_saohasa_ na marta_ ayajn~asa_co apyo na putra_h: 
ohasa_ = vahanasa_dhanena, by the means of conveying--perhaps wishes, i.e. 
stotren.a, by praise; apyah = karmavantah, doing acts, from apas, but not 
sacrificin osacrificing in vain, vr.tha_ karma_n.i kurvantah; na putra_H = not 
sons, apr.n.antah, not pleasing, or satisfying].

6.067.10 When the intelligent (priests) offer praise, then some of them, 
glorifying (Agni and other deities), recitethe Nivid hymns; such being the case, 
we address to you sincere adoration, for in consequence of yourgreatness you do 
not associate with (other) divinities. [na kir devebhir yatathah, you do not go, 
gacchathah, withother gods, anyair devaih saha, you are not associated with them 
at sacrifice].

6.067.11 Upon your approach, Mitra and Varun.a, protectors of the dwelling, your 
(bounty) is unlimited; when(your) praises are uttered, and the sacrificers add 
in the ceremony the Soma that inspires straightforwardnessand resoluion, and is 
the showerer (of benefits). [Your bounty: yuvor askr.dhoyu: yuva_bhya_m 
deyamgr.ha_dikam avicchinnam bhavati, that which is to be given by you, as 
houses and the like, is unchecked;askr.dhoyu = long-lived, akr.dhva_yuh kr.dhu 
meaning short, or nikr.ttam, cut off; there is also association withajara as in: 
yo askr.dhoyur ajarah svarva_n, who is long-lived, free from decay, an occupant 
of heaven(askr.dhoyurakr.dhva_yuh kr.dhviti hasvana_ma nikr.ttam bhavati: 
Nirukta 6.3)].6.068.01 Mighty Indra and Varun.a, promptly has the Soma returned, 
engaged conscientiously (with the priests)to offer sacrifice to you to obtain 
food for him by whom, like Manu, the sacred grass has been clipped; he 
who(invited you hither) today for exceeding happiness.

6.068.02 You two are the principal (divinities) at the worship of the gods; the 
distributors of wealth; the mostvigorous of heroes; the most liberal among the 
opulent; possessed of vast strength; destroyers of foes by truth;entire hosts 
(of yourselves).

6.068.03 Praise Mitra and Varun.a, renowned or all glorious energies and 
enjoyment; one of whom slays Vr.trawith the thunderbolt, the other, intelligent 
by his might, comes to the aid (of the pious when) in difficulties.

6.068.04 When among mankind, both males and females, and when all the gods 
spontaneously striving glorifyyou, Indra and Varun.a, you become pre-eminent in 
greatness over them, as do you, wide heaven and earth(surpass them also).

6.068.05 He who spontaneously presents you, Indra and Varun.a (oblations), is 
liberal, wealthy and upright; hehas to prosper with the food of his adversary, 
and possess riches, and opulent descendants.

6.068.06 May that opulence comprising treasure and abundant food, which you 
besow, deities, upon the donor(of the oblation), that, Indra and Varun.a, which 
baffles the calumnies of the malevolent, be ours.

6.068.07 May that opulence, Indra and Varun.a, which is a sure defence, and of 
which the gods are theguardians, be ours, celebrating our praise, whose 
destroying prowess in battles victorious (over foes) speedilyobscures (their) 

6.068.08 Divine and glorified Indra and Varun.a, quickly bestow upon us wealth 
for our felicity; and thuseulogising he strength of you two, mighty (deities), 
may we pass over all difficulties as (we cross) the waters witha boat.

6.068.09 Repeat acceptable and all-comprehensive praise to the imperial mighty 
divine Varun.a, he who,endowed with greatness, with wisdom, and with splendour, 
illumines the spacious (heaven and earth).

6.068.10 Indra and Varun.a, observant of holy duties, drinkers of the Soma, 
drink this exhilarating effusedlibation; your chariot approaches along the road 
to the sacrifice, (that you may partake) of the food of the godsand drink (the 

6.068.11 Drink, Indra and Varun.a, showerers (of benefits), of the most sweet 
Soma, the shedder (of blessings);this your Soma, is poured forth by us; sitting 
on the sacred grass, be exhilarated (by the draught).   

6.069.01 I earnestly propitiate you, Indra and Vis.n.u, by worship and 
(sacrificial) food; upon the completion of theite, accept the sacrifice, and 
grant us wealth, conducting us by safe path.

6.069.02 May the prayers that are prepared to you reach you, Indra and Vis.n.u; 
may the praises that arechanted reach you; you are the generators of all 
praisses, pitchers recipient of the Soma libation.

6.069.03 Indra and Vis.n.u, lords of the exhilaration, of the exhilarating Soma, 
come to (drink) the Soma, bringing(with you) wealth; may the encomiums of the 
praises repeated along with the prayers anoint you completely withradiance.

6.069.04 May your equaly-spirited steeds, Indra and Vis.n.u, the triumphant over 
enemies, bear you hither, bepleased with all the invocations of your 
worshippers; hear my prayers and praises.

6.069.05 Indra and Vis.n.u, that (exploit) is to be glorified, by which, in the 
exhilaration of the Soma, you havestrode over the wide (space); you have 
traversed the wide firmament; you have declared the worlds (fit) for 

6.069.06 Indra and Vis.n.u, feeders upon clarified butter, drinkers of he 
fermented Soma, thriving upon oblations,accepting them offered with reverence, 
bestow upon us wealth; for you are an ocean, a pitcher, the receptacle ofthe 

6.069.07 Indra and Vis.n.u, agreeable of aspect, drink of this sweet Soma; fill 
with it your bellies; may theinebriating Soma reach you; hear my prayers, my 

6.069.08 You have both (ever) been victorious; never have been conquered; 
neither of you two has beenvanquished; with whomsoever you have contended you 
have thrice conquered thousands. [tredha_ sahasram vitad airayetha_m 
vyakrametha_m: the treble manner of kinds mean: the world, the vedas, and 
speech;lokavedava_ga_tmana_ tridha_ sthitam, being in three ways, consisting of 
speech, the vedas, the world;sahasram = amitam, unmeasured, infinite; Aitareya 
Bra_hman.a vi.15: After Indra and Vis.n.u had overcome theasuras, Indra said to 
them, we will divide he universe with you; whatever Vis.n.u traverses with three 
steps shallbe ours the rest shall be for you, to which the asuras consented. 
With his first step Vis.n.u traversed the threeworlds; with his second he 
traversed, vicakrame, the vedas; and with the third he crossed over all 
speech:sarvasya va_co upari tr.i_yam pa_dam prakr.ptava_n, so that, in fact, 
nothing was left for the asuras. What issahasram? It implies infinite, or the 
whole, which is by combining all worlds, all vedas, all modes of 
speech.Taittiri_ya, seventh ka_n.d.a is cited: sahasra = sarvam jagat, the whole 
world].6.070.01 Radiant Heaven and Earth, the asylum of created beings, you are 
spacious, manifold, water-yielding,lovely, separately fixed by the functions of 
Varun.a, undecaying, many-germed.

6.070.02 Uncollapsing, many-showering, water retaining, yielding moisture, 
beneficent, pure in act; do you two,Heaven and Earth, rulers over created 
beings, grant us vigour, that may be favourable to (the increase of)mankind.

6.070.03 Firm-set Heaven and Earth, the mortal who has offered (oblations) for 
your straight-forward course,accomplishes (his objects), he prospers with 
progeny, and invigorated by your operation, many beings of variousforms, but 
similar functions, are engendeed.

6.070.04 You are surrounded, Heaven and Earth, by water; you are the asylum of 
water; imbued with water; theaugmenters of water; vast and manifold; you are 
first propitiated in the sacrifice; the pious pray to you forhappiness, that the 
sacrifice (may be celebrated). [Pray to you: i_l.ate sumnam is.t.aye, ask 
happiness for thesacrifice; for, where there is happiness, sacrifices proceed, 
sukhe sati ya_gah pravartante].

6.070.05 May Heaven and Earth, the effusers of water, the milkers of water, 
dischargers of the functions ofwater, divinities, the promoters of sacrifice, 
the bestowers of wealth, of renown, of food, of male posterity,combine together.

6.070.06 May father Heaven, may mother Earth, who are all-knowing, and doers of 
good deeds, grant ussustenance; may Heaven and Earth, mutually co-operating and 
promoting the happiness of all, bestow upon usposterity, food, and riches.  

6.071.01 The divine and benevolent Savita_ puts forth his golden arms for 
(making) donations; the adorable,youthful, sagacious (deity), stretches out his 
hands, filled with water, in the various services of the world.

6.071.02 May we be among the progeny of the divine Savita_, and (have power) to 
offer him most excellentdonations; for you are he who (are absolute) in the 
procreation and perpetuation of many (living beings), bipedsand quadrupeds.

6.071.03 Do you, Savita_, posper today our dwelling with uninjurable 
protections, confirming happiness; do you,who are golden-tongued, (be vigilant) 
for our present prosperity; protect us; let not any calumniator have power(to 
harm) us. [Golden-tongued: hiran.yajihva = one whose speech is pleasant and 
beneficial, hita raman.i_yava_k (Nirukta 2.10: hitaraman.am bhavai_ti va_); 
jihva_ may also imply jva_la_, flame, i.e. he whose light or heatis beneficial; 
Yajus. 33,69].

6.071.04 May the divine, munificent, golden-handed, golden-jawed, adorable, 
sweet-spoken Savita_, riseregularly at the close of night; when he besows 
abundant and desirable (food) upon the donor of the oblation.

6.071.05 May Savita_ put forth like an orator his golden well-formed arms; (he 
who), from the ends of the earth,ascends to the summit of the sky, and, moving 
along, delights every thing that is. [Like an orator: upavakta_ iva,like one who 
addresses or advises].

6.071.06 Beget for us, Savita_, wealth today, wealth tomorrow, wealth day by 
day; you are the giver of amplewealth, of a (spacious) mansion; may we, by this 
praise, become partakers of wealth. [Yajus. 8.6: va_ma =dhanam; or, karmaphalam, 
the reward of holy acts or sacrifice, i.e. vamani_yam, that which is desirable 
to obtain,and which will apply equally to wealth or reward; ks.aya = residence; 
bhu_reh = bahuka_linasya, long protracted,that is, residence in heaven, 
svarganiva_sah].6.072.01 Great, Indra and Soma, is that your greatness, for you 
have made great and principal (beings); youhave made known (to men) Su_rya and 
the waters; you have dissipated the glooms and (desroyed) the revilers.

6.072.02 Indra and Soma, you have led on the dawns; you have upraised the sun 
with his splendour, you havepropped up the sky with he supporting pillar (of the 
firmament); you have spread out the earth, the mother (of all).6.072.03 Indra 
and Soma, you slew Ahi and Vr.tra; the obstructer of the water; for which the 
heaven veneratesyou both; you have urged on the waters of the rivers until they 
have replenished numerous oceans.

6.072.04 Indra and Soma, you have deposited the mature (milk) in the immature 
udders of the kine; you haveretained the white (secretion), although not shut up 
within those may-coloured cattle.

6.072.05 Indra and Soma, do you promptly bestow upon us preservative, renowned 
(riches), accompanied byoffspring; for you, fierce (divinities), have 
disseminated among men, strength, useful to man, victorious overhostile 
acts.6.073.01 Br.haspati, who is the breaker of the mountain, the first-born (of 
Praja_pati), the observer of truth, thedescendant of An:girasa, the partaker of 
the oblation, the traverser of two worlds, abiding in the region of light, isto 
us a father; he, the showerer, hunders and in heaven and earth. [Br.haspati was 
born the seed of Praja_pati;then he was born from An:girasas. Aitareya 
Bra_hman.a iii.34: A legend of the origin of various deities from theseed of 
Praja_pati converted into burning coals is narrated: from some of the cinders 
proceeded, it is said, theAn:girasas; and then, from other cinders, not yet 
cool, Br.haspati].

6.073.02 Br.haspati, who has appointed a region for the man who attends 
diligently at divine worship, destroyingimpediments, conquering foes, overcoming 
enemies, demolished various cities (of the asuras).

6.073.03 This Br.haspati has conquered the treasures (of the enemy), and the 
spacious pastures with the cattle;purposing to appropriate he waters (of the 
firmament), he destroys with sacred prayers the adversary of heaven.6.074.01 
Soma and Rudra, confirm (in us the strength) of asuras may sacrifices in every 
dwelling adequatelyreach you; do you, possessors of the seven precious things, 
besow happiness upon us; happiness upon ourbipeds and quadrupeds. [Possessors of 
seven precious things: sapta ratna_ dadha_na; perhaps a reference toseven 
dha_tus or seven elements].

6.074.02 Soma and Rudra, expel the widespread sickness that has entered into our 
dwellings; keep off Nirr.ti, sothat she may be far away, and may prosperous 
means of sustenance be ours. [Nirr.ti = alaks.mi_, misfortune andpoverty].

6.074.03 Soma and Rudra, grant all these medicamens for (the ailments of) our 
bodies; detach, set free, theperpetrated iniquity that has been bound up in our 
persons. [i.e. disease regarded as the consequence andevidence of some committed 
sn; and the removal of the malady is proof of its expiation].

6.074.04 Sharp-weaponed, sharp-arrowed,  profoundly-honoured Soma and Rudra, 
grant us happiness in thisworld; propitiated by our praise, preserve us; 
liberate us from the bonds of Varun.a.  

6.075.01 When the mailed warrior advances in the front of battles, his form is 
like that of a cloud; with his bodyunwounded do you conquer; may the strength of 
the armous defend us. [In the front of battles: prati_kamru_pam: Yajus. 29.58; 
front of the army, sena_mukham].

6.075.02 May we conquer the cattle (of the enemies) with the bow; with the bow 
may we be victorious in battlemay we overcome our fierce-exulting (enemies) with 
the bow; may the bow disappoint the hope of the foe; maywe subdue with the bow 
all (hostile) countries. [Exulting: samadah: sa, with; amda, exhilaration; or, 
sam, entirely;ad, who devours (Nirukta 9.17, 9.18)].

6.075.03 This bowstring, drawn tight upon the bow, and making way in battle, 
repeatedly approaches the ear (ofthe warrior), as if embracing its friend (the 
arrow), and proposing to say something agreeable, as a womanwhispers (to her 

6.075.04 May the two extremities of the bow, acting in concert, like a wife 
sympathizing (with her husband),uphold (the warrior), as a mother nurses her 
child upon her lap; and may they, moving concurrently, andharassing the foe, 
scatter his enemies. [Like a wife: bibhr.ta_m = ra_ja_nam dha_rayeta_m; or, 
dha_rayata_msamam, support the arrow; samaneva yos.a_ (a singular used for the 
dual), the two extremities drawing close tothe archer, like two women to their 
lover, stiyau yatha_ ka_ntam a_gacchatah].

6.075.05 The quiver, the parent of many, of whom many are the sons, clangs as it 
enters into the battle; slung atthe back (of the warrior), prolific (of its 
shafts), it overcomes all shouting hosts. [Shouting hosts: san:ka_hpr.tana_h: 
san:ka_ = sounding together, sam ka_yanti; Ya_ska, Nirukta 9.14: san:ka_: from 
sac, to be assembledor sam, with; kr., to be renowned, armies in which there are 
assembled, or celebrated warriors].

6.075.06 The skilful charioteer, standing in the car, derives his horses before 
him whatsoever he will; praise theefficacy of the reins, for the reins from the 
back (of the car compel the steeds) to follow the intention (of thedriver).

6.075.07 The horses raising the dust with their hoofs, rushing on with the 
chariots, utter loud neighings,retreating not (from the charge), but trampling 
with their fore feet upon the enemies, they destroy them. [Thehorses raising: 
vr.s.apa_n.ayo as'vah = pa_m.suna_m vars.akakhura, with hoofs the showerers of 
dust;as'vava_ra = riders: vr.s.ab as'va_h haste yes.a_m te as'vava_rah; this is 
the nominative of kr.n.vate ghos.a_n,calling out, jaya, jaya; a_s'eva, the 
horses make a noise; hes.a_di s'abda_n, neighing, and the like].

6.075.08 The spoil borne off in his car, in which his weapons and armour are 
deposited, is the appropriateoblation of the warrior; therefore let us, 
exulting, daily do honour to the joy-bestowing car. [rathava_hanam: anas,a car 
or truck on which the car is placed].

6.075.09 The guards (of chariot), revelling in the savoury (spoil), distributors 
of food, protecors in calamity, armedwith spears, resolute, beautifully 
arranged, strong in arrows, invincible, of heroic valour, robust, and 
conquerorsof numerous hosts. [The guards of the chariot: pitarah is the only 
substanive: pa_layita_rah, guards, defenders, abody of spearmen, s'aktivantah: 
attendants on the war chariot of the chief].

6.075.10 May the bra_hman.as, the progenitors presenters of the Soma, the 
observers of truth, protect us; maythe faultless heaven and earth be propitious 
to us; may Pu_s.an preserve us from misfortune, let no calumniatorprevail over 
us. [The observers of truth: r.ta_vr.dhah raks.a_: of deities, deva, 
raks.atasma_n, protect us; raks.a= raks.ata].

6.075.11 The arrow puts on a (feathery) wing; the (horn of the) deer is its 
point; it is bound with the sinews of thecow; it alights where directed; 
whenever men assemble or disperse, there may the shafts fall for an 
advantage.[Deer is its poit: mr.go asya_ danta: the deer is its tooth; i.e. the 
horn of the deer; or, mr.ga, an adjective, thatwhich seeks or reaches the enemy 
(Nirukta 9.19); with the sinews of the cow: gobhih sannaddha = 
govika_raihsna_yubhih, with tendons derived from the cow].

6.075.12 Straight-flying (arrow), defend us; may our bodies be stone; may Soma 
speak to us encouragement;may Aditi grant us success.

6.075.13 Whip, with which the skilful (charioteers) last their thighs and 
scourge their flanks, urge the horses inbattles. [Skilful carioteers: pracesah, 
applied to as'va_n, the intelligent horses].

6.075.14 The ward of the fore-arm protecting it from the abrasion of the bow-
string, surrounds the arm like asnake with its convulutions; may the brave man, 
experienced in the arts of war, defend a combatant on everyside. [hastaghna = a 
shield, as well as the guard of the fore-arm; with its convolutions: ahiriva 
bhogaih =s'ari_rena, with the body].

6.075.15 This praise (be offered) to the large celestial arrow, the growth of 
Parjanya, whose point is anointedwith venom, whose blade is iron. [The growh of 
Parjanya: the stem of the arrow formed of the s'ara reed or grassgrowing in the 
rainy season].

6.075.16 Arrow, wheted by charms, fly when discharged; go light among the 
adversaries, spare not one of theenemy.

6.075.17 Where arrows alight like shaven-headed boys may brahman.aspati, may 
Aditi, grant us happiness everyday. [Like shaven-headed boys: kuma_ra_ vis'ikha_ 
iva, like boys without the lock of hair left at shaving;mun.d.ita_ mun.d.ah, 
shorn-headed; the arrows fall where they like, as boys before they are left with 
the lock ofhair, before the religious tonsure, play about where they like].

6.075.18 I cover your vital parts with armour; may the royal Soma invest you 
with ambrosia; may Varun.a amplifyyour ample felicity; may the gods rejoice (at 
beholding you) triumphant. [May Varun.a amplify: uror vari_yovarun.as te 
kr.n.otu, may Varun.a make the increase of the large; that is, sukham, 

6.075.19 Whoever, whether an unfriendly relative or a stranger, desires to kill 
us, may all the gods destroy him;prayer is my best armour. [Sa_maveda: brahma 
varma mama_ntaram, s'arma varma mama_ntaram, my besthappiness my 
armour].1RigVeda - Mandala 6

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