5.001.01 Agni is awakened by the fuel (supplied) by the priests at the dawn, 
approaching like a cow (to pasture);his flames rise up to the sky like stately 
(trees) throwing aloft their branches. [Yajus. 15.24; alternativeexplanations: 
prati dhenu a_yatim us.a_sam = as the cow awakenedin the morning by the calf, 
and men byday-break; yahva iva pra vayam ujjiha_nah = as large (birds) springing 
from the branches of the trees, or as thelargest birds from their nests]. 

5.001.02 The offer of the oblation is awakened for the worship of the gods; 
favourably minded, Agni has rise upwith the dawn; the radiant vigour of the 
kindled (fire) is manifested; the great deity has been liberated from 

5.001.03 When Agni has seized upon the (confining) girdle of the aggregated 
(world), then, bright-shining, hemakes all manifest with brilliant rays; 
thereupon the precious food-desiring (oblations) is added (to the flame),and 
Agni, soaring aloft, drinks it as it is (spread out) recumbent by the ladles. 
[The confining girdle of theaggregated world: yadi_m gan.asya ras'ana_m aji_gah 
= when he has seized the rope of the company, i.e., thedarkness encompassing the 
world, like a cord or rope, obstructing all active exertion, jagato 
rajjurivavya_pa_rapratibandhakam tamas; recumbent: utta_nam = vistr.tam, an 
epithet of a_jya_dha_ram, stream ofghi_]. 

5.001.04 The minds of the devout turn to Agni, as the eyes (of men) look towards 
the sun; when the multiform(heaven and earth) bring him forth along with the 
dawn, he is born as a white courser in the beginning of thedays. [The multiform 
(heaven and earth): the text has viru_pe, various-formed; it is applied to 

5.001.05 (Agni), capable of birth, is born in the beginning of the days; 
radiant, he is deposited in the friendlywoods, and then the adorable Agni, the 
offerer of the oblation, displaying seven precious (rays), is seated inevery 

5.001.06 The adorable Agni, the offerer of the oblation, has sat down in a 
fragrant place on the top of his mother(earth); youthful, wise, many-stationed, 
the celebrator of sacrifice, the sustainer (of all), kindled (he abides)among 
men. [In a fragrant place: surabha = surabhau loke, fragrant with the odour of 
ghi_ and other offerings,the altar]. 

5.001.07 They glorify at present withhymns that Agni who is intelligent, the 
fulfiller (of desires) at sacrifices, theoffer of oblations, who has charged 
heaven and earth with water, and whom they always worship with clarifiedbutter 
as the bestower of food. 

5.001.08 Entitled to worship, he is worshipped in his own (abode); humble-
minded, eminent among sages, ourauspicious guest, the thousand-rayed, the 
showerer (of benefits), of well-known might, you, Agni, surpass allothers in 
strength. [Of well-known might: tad ojah = lit., having that strength; tad, 
that, implying that which isnotorious, yat prasiddham balam]. 

5.001.09 (Too) quickly, Agni, do you pass to others from him to whom you have 
been manifest; most beautiful,adorable, radiant, many-shining, the loved of 
people, the guest of men. 

5.001.10 To you, young (of the gods), men present oblations, whether nigh or 
from far; accept the praise of himwho most extols you; for the felicity (which 
you confer). Agni is great, vast, auspicious. 

5.001.11 Ascend today, radiant Agni, your resplendent, well-conducted chariot, 
together with the adorable(gods), cognizant of the ways (of worship), bring 
hither, by the vast firmament, the gods to partake of theoblation. [Cognizant of 
the ways of worship: vidva_n pathi_na_m: vidva_n = yas.t.avya deva 
parijn~a_nava_n,having knowledgeof the gods who are to be worshipped; pathi_na_m 
= with regard to the ways of worshippingthem, devayajn~ama_rga_n prati]. 

5.001.12 We have uttered aloud this encomiastic praise to the wise, holy, 
vigorous (Agni), the showerer (ofbenefits); Gavis.t.hira offers with reverence 
(this) praise to Agni like the wide-sojourning (sun), effulgent in thesky.

5.002.01 The young mother cherishes her mutilated boy in secret, and gives him 
not up to the father; men beholdnot his mutilated form, but (see him) when 
placed before (them) in an unresting (position). [A metaphoricallyobscure 
allusion to the lighting of the sacrificial fire; the mother is the two pieces 
of torch-wood, which retain thefire, the child, and will not spontaneously  give 
it up to the father, the yajama_na, until forced by attrition; till then,also, 
people, the priests, do not behold it, but they see it when bursting into 
ignition. Legend from S'a_t.ya_yanaBra_hman.a: Ra_ja_ Trayarun.a, the son of 
Trivr.s.n.a, of the lineageof Iks.va_kus had Vr.s.a,  son of Ja_ra, ashis 
purohit. When the Ra_ja_ and his purohit went out in the same chariot, the 
latter driving. The chariot ran overa bra_hman.a boy who was playing on the road 
and killed the boy. A dispute arose as to who was the murderer;Ra_ja_ accused 
the purohit because the latter was the driver; the purohit retorted that the 
chariot-owner was theRa_ja_ and hence the latter became responsible. The dispute 
was referred to an assembly of Iks.va_kus, whodecided that the purohit was the 
murderer. Vr.s.a restored the boy to life by the prayer hence-forth called 
theVars.a-sa_man. Offended by the biased verdict of the Iks.va_kus, the fire 
ceased to perform its functions in thedwellings of the iks.va_kus; thus cooking 
of food ceased in the iks.va_ku households. The iks.va_kusrespectfully invoked 
the presence of the r.s.i; using the same mantra, the r.s.i prayed that the 
energy of fire berestored to them; this energy or activity is designated by the 
unusual term: haras = agner haras. So singing, theR.s.i, having seen distinctly 
the brahmanicide became the wife of king Trasadasyu, in the garb of a 
pis'a_ci_;she, having taken the Haras away from the fire-chamber, was concealing 
it in her regal clothing (kas'ipau) he,having propitiated that Harasby the 
Vars.a Sa_ma, reunited it with Agni, upon which the offices of fire, in 
cookingand the like, were discharged as before. A variant version of the legend 
also occurs in the Br.haddevata_]. 

5.002.02 Young mother, what boy is this whom you, (become) a malevolent spirit, 
foster? The mighty (queen)has given him birth; the embryo has thrived through 
many years; I have seen him born as the mother brought himforth. [The allusion 
to the product of fire by attrition is blended with reference to the 
circumstances narrated in thelegend described in the notes of the previous 

5.002.03 I have seen him from a near place, golden-toothed, bright-coloured, 
wielding (flames like) weapons,(when) offering to him the ambrosial, all-
diffusing (oblation); what can those who acknowledge not Indra, whorepeat not 
his praise, do unto me. 

5.002.04 I have seen him passing secretly from place (to place) like a herd (of 
cattle), shining brightly of his ownaccord; they apprehended not those (flames 
of his), but he has (again) been born, and they who had becomegrey-haired are 
(once more) young. [Passing like a herd of cattle: going from pasture to 
pasture; grey-haired areyoung: palikni_r id yuvatayobhavanti: the flames which 
had so often produced may be considered as aged;or lit.,grey-headed; or, an 
allusion is intended to the suspension of the functions of fire, as in the 

5.002.05 Who have disunited my people from the cattle? was there not for them an 
invincible protector? may theywho have seized upon that (people) perish, for he 
who knows (our wishes) approaches to (protect) the cattle.[Who have disunited my 
people from the cattle: ke me maryakam viyavanta gobhih = what enemies 
havedespoiled my kingdom; an invincible protector: Agni]. 

5.002.06 Enemies have secreted amongmortals, the king of living beings, the 
asylum of men; may the prayers ofAtri set him free; may those who revile be 

5.002.07 You have liberated the fettered S'unahs'epa from a thousand stakes, for 
he was patient in endurance;so Agni, free us from our bonds, having sat down 
here (at our sacrifice), intelligent offerer of oblations.[S'unahs'epa: the text 
divides the two parts of the name, as s'unas'cicchepa, interposing cit, a 
general particle]. 

5.002.08 When angered, (Agni), depart from me; the protector of the worship of 
the gods, (Indra), has spoken tome; the wise Indra has looked upon you, and 
instructed by him, I have come, Agni, to you. 

5.002.09 Agni, shines with great and varied radiance; he makes all things 
manifest by his might; he overcomesundivine malignant delusions; he sharpens his 
horns for the destruction of the ra_ks.asas. 

5.002.10 My roaring (flames), Agni, be manifest in the sky as sharp weapons 
wherewith to slay the ra_ks.asas; inhis exhilaration his shining (rays) inflict 
(destruction), and undivine opposing (hosts) arrest him not. 

5.002.11 This praise have I, a devout worshipper, composed for you, (Agni), who 
are born with many (faculties),as a steady dexterous (artisan fabricates) a car; 
if, divine Agni, you approve of it, then may we obtain abundantflowing water. 

5.002.12 The many-necked, the showerer (of benefits), ever increasing, collects 
together the wealth of theenemy without opposition; the immortals have enjoined 
Agni that he will bestow happiness on the man who offerssacrifice; that he will 
bestow happiness on the man who offers oblations. [That he will bestow 
happiness:barhis.mate manave s'arma yam.sat is repeated with a slight variation 
of the first word, havis.mate].

5.003.01 You, Agni, are born Varun.a, you become Mitra when kindled; in you, son 
of strength, are all the gods;you are Indra, son of strength, to the mortal who 
presents (oblations). 

5.003.02 You are Aryaman in relation to maidens; you bear, enjoy of sacrificial 
food, a mysterious name; theyanoint you, like a welcome friend, with milk and 
butter, when you make husband and wife of one mind. [You areAryaman in relation 
to maidens: tvam aryama_ yat kani_na_m: as regulator of the ceremony the nuptial 
fire maybe regarded as Aryaman; a mysterious name: that of Vais'va_nara, the 
friend of all, vis'va, men, nara; with milkand butter: an~janti mitram sudhitam 
na gobhih: gobbhih: lit., with cows, used by metonymy for the products ofthe 

5.003.03 For your glory the Maruts sweep (the firmament), when your birth, 
Rudra, is beautiful and wonderful;the middle step of Vis.n.u has been placed, so 
you cherish the mysterious name of the waters. [Your birth isbeautiful and 
wonderful: Agni as the lightning; cherish the mysterious name of the waters: 
pa_si guhyam na_magona_m = udaka_na_m guhyam na_ma_ni ra_ks.asi]. 

5.003.04 Divine (Agni), gods, (made) comely by your glory, and bearing (the) 
great (affection), sip the ambrosia;men adore Agni, the conveyer of theburnt-
offering, presenting oblations on behalfof the institutor of the rite,desirous 
of (its) reward. 

5.003.05 There is no more venerable offerer of oblation, Agni, than you, nor 
(one) prior to you; neither, giver offood, is any one subsequent (tobe more 
glorified by hymns); the man of whom you are the guest destroys hostilemen by 

5.003.06 May we, desirous of wealth, Agni,and arousing you by oblations, secure 
in your protection, acquire(riches); may we (be victorious) in battle, 
(successful) in sacrifices every day; and may we, son of strength,obtain with 
riches male (descendants). 

5.003.07 May Agni inflict (evil) upon the evil-doer, who commits offence, or 
wickedness against us; destroy,sagacious Agni, the calumniator who injures us in 
these two ways. [The calumniator: abhis'astim etam = thiscalumny; the antecent 
of yah, he who, is in the masculine, hence abhis'astri = accuser or calumniator 
isidentified; in these two ways: offence, a_gas or apara_dha, and sin or 
wretchedness, enas or pa_pa]. 

5.003.08 Former (worshippers) constituting you, divine (Agni), the messenger (of 
the gods), have worshippedyou with oblations at the dawn of day; when you 
proceed to the place (of the aggregation) of the wealth (ofsacrifice), bright-
shining, kindled by the mortals who have given you an abode. [Proceed to the 
wealth ofsacrifice: sam.sthe yad agni iyase rayi_n.a_m = lit.,to the heap of 
riches, but the riches here are those of theoblation, havirlaks.ana_na_m; 
kindled by mortals: martair vasubir idhyama_nah: the second is an epithet of 
thefirst, meaning, vasakih, placing or fixing in an abode or place of the 
dwelling, i.e., either the altar, or the chamberof sacrifice]. 

5.003.09 Convey him (to safety) in war, son of strength, who like a wise son 
offers to you (reverence) as to afather; when, sagacious Agni do you look upon 
us; when, director of sacrifice, do you direct us (to good ways).[As to a 
father: may the bearer of the oblation, the undecaying Agni, be a father to us; 
or, the relationship may bereversed; protect him, Agni, who, like a father, 
cherishes you as a son, Agni being generated and maintained bythe sacrificer]. 

5.003.10 Glorifying you, he offers the copious oblation, if, bestower of 
dwellings, you as a father are pleased toaccept it; Agni, ever augmenting, and 
desirous (to be friend), by hismight, the devout (worshipper, offering)copious 
oblations, bestows upon him happiness. [He offers the copious oblation: bhu_ri 
na_ma vandama_nodadha_ti: na_ma may mean oblation, havis; or, the rendering may 
be: praising your many names he offersoblations]. 

5.003.11 Agni, young (of the gods), verily you bear your adorer (safe) beyond 
all calamities; thieves have beendetected, and hostile men with cover evil 
intentions, have been avoided (by us). 

5.003.12 These (encomiums) are directed towards you, but perhaps an offence has 
thereby been uttered to(you), the giver of dwellings;may Agni,augmenting (by our 
praise), yield us not up to the maligner or themalevolent. [Perhaps an offence 
has: vasave va_ tadid a_go ava_ci = that which is an offensive expression 
hasbeen spoken to Vasu, giver of dwellings, by our saying or intimating, idam 
dehi, give this; or, this offence whichhas been offered to us by our enemies, 
has been reported to Agni].

5.004.01 Royal Agni, I glorify at sacrifices you who are the lord of vast 
riches; may we who are in want of foodobtain food through you, and (through you) 
may we overcome hosts of (hostile) men. 

5.004.02 May the undecaying Agni, the bearer of oblations, be a father to us, 
all-pervading and resplendent (mayhe be) to us of pleasing aspect; supply us 
plentifully with food in return for our well-maintained household firegrant us 
viand abundantly. 

5.004.03 You (priests) possess the wise lord of human beings, the pure, the 
purifying, Agni, cherished withoblations of butter, the offer of the burnt-
offering, the all-knowing; he among the gods bestows desirable (riches).[The 
wise lord of human beings: in the first verse, the term used is: vasupatim 
vasuna_m, the lord of riches; here,we have vis'a_m vis'patim, the lord of men, 
of men]. 

5.004.04 Be propitiated, Agni, sharing in satisfaction with Il.a_, viewing with 
the rays of the sun; be gratified,Ja_tavedas, by our fuel, and bring the gods to 
partake of the oblation. 

5.004.05 Proppitiated, lowly-minded, a guest in the dwelling, come, you who are 
wise, to this our sacrifice; havingdestroyed Agni, all our adversaries, bring 
off the possessions of those who bear us enmity. [Guest:atithirabhyatito gr.ha_n 
bhavati (Nirukta 4.5)]. 

5.004.06 Demolish, Agni, with your weapon, the Dasyu, appropriating the 
sustenance to your own person; andinasmuch, son of strength, as you satisfy the 
gods, so do you, Agni, chief of leaders, protect us in battle.[Appropriating the 
sustenance of your person: vayah kr.n.va_nas tanve s'va_yai: tanu = putra, a 
son; oryajama_na]. 

5.004.07 We worship you, Agni, with hymns; we (worship you), purifier, and of 
auspicious lustre, with oblations;bestow upon us all desired riches; bestow upon 
us all sorts of wealth. 

5.004.08 Accept, Agni, our sacrifice; son of strength, the abider in the three 
regions, (accept our) oblation; maywe be (regarded) among the goddess doers of 
good; cherish us with triply-protected felicity. [Cherish us: tvivaru_thena 
s'arman.a_, with three defended, i.e., preserved by act, thought and speech; or, 
rendering s'arman ashouse, gr.ha: protect us by or in a three-roofed or three-
storied dwelling, i.e. tricchadis'kena gr.hena, i.e., aspacious mansion]. 

5.004.09 You convey us, Ja_tavedas, across all intolerable evils, as (people are 
carried) over a river by a boat;Agni, who are glorified by us with reverence, 
such as (that shown) by Atri, know yourself the protector of ourpersons. 

5.004.10 Inasmuch as I who am a mortal earnestly invoke you who are an immortal, 
praising you with a devotedheart; therefore, Ja_tavedas, grant us food, and may 
I obtain immortality through my posterity. [Immortality: anunbroken succession 
of descendants, amr.tatvam santatyaviccheda laks.an.am (amr.tatvam = tadu 
tepartya_mr.tam : Taittiri_ya Bra_hman.a; another text may be cited: 
praja_m anu praja_yate tad u temartyamr.tam, when progeny is born after progeny, 
that verily is the immortality of your mortality]. 

5.004.11 Upon whatsoever performer of good works you, Agni, who are Ja_tavedas, 
cast a favourable regard, heenjoys welfare, and riches, comprehending horses, 
cattle, sons and male descendants.

5.005.01 Offer abundant butter to the replendent Susamiddha, to Agni, to 
Ja_tavedas. [Susamiddha, an epithetof Agni]. 

5.005.02 Nara_s'am.sa animates this sacrifice he who is uninjurable, who verily 
is wise and sweet-handed. 

5.005.03 Agno, who are I_l.ita, bring hither the wonderful and friendly Indra, 
with his easy going chariots for ourprotection. 

5.005.04 (Grass), soft as wool, be spread; the worshippers praise you; be to us 
radiant (grass the source of)liberality. [(Grass): the barhis]. 

5.005.05 Open divine doors, our passages to preservation; fill full the 
sacrifice (with its rewards). 

5.005.06 We glorify the evening and the morning lovely, food-bestowing, mighty, 
the mothers of sacrifice. 

5.005.07 Praised (by us), divine invokers of the gods, come moving on the path 
of the wind, to this sacrifice ofour patron. [On the path of the wind: va_tasya 
patman = with the swiftness of the wind, or through the firmament;to this 
sacrifice of our patron: manus.o no yajn~am = lit., to the sacrifice of our man, 
i.e. of the yajama_na]. 

5.005.08 May Il.a_, Sarasvati_, Mahi_, the three goddesses who are the sources 
of happiness, sit down,benevolent, upon the sacred grass. 

5.005.09 Tvas.t.a_, being propitious, you who are diffusive in kindness, come to 
your own accord protect us inrepeated sacrifices. 

5.005.10 Wherever you know, Vanaspati, the secret forms of the gods to be, 
thither convey the oblations. [yatravettha deva_na_m guhya_ na_ma_ni: na_ma_ni = 
ru_pa_n.i, forms; it is not soecufued as a faculty of vanaspatiin any preceding 
hymn to the a_pris, although vanaspati, in the preceding hymns and also here 
represents Agni,as identified with the sacrificial post, or yu_pa, or the deity 
presiding over the post: yu_pa_bhima_ni_ deva]. 

5.005.11 The oblation is offered with reverence to Agni, to Varun.a; with 
reverence to Indra, to the Maruts; withreverence to the gods. [To Agni: the term 
is sva_ha_, who is an a_pri, or personification of Agni].

5.006.01 I glorify that Agni who is the giver of dwellings; to whom, as to their 
home, the kine, the light-facedsteeds, the constant offers of oblations, repair; 
do you, (Agni), bring food to your adorers. [Yajus. 15.41; to whom:yam astam 
yanti dhenavah: astam = sarves.a_m gr.havad a_s'rayabhu_tam, he who is become to 
house-likeasylum of all; astam = gr.ham]. 

5.006.02 He is Agni, who is praised as the giver of dwellings, to whom the kine, 
the light-faced steeds, thewell-born, devout worshippers repair; do you Agni, 
bring food to your adorers. 

5.006.03 Agni, the all-beholding, gives, verily, to the man (who worships him, a 
son) possessing abundant food;Agni, when propitiated proceeds (to bestow) that 
wealth which is of its own nature precious; do you, Agni, bringfood to your 

5.006.04 We kindle you, divine Agni, bright, undecaying so that your glorious 
blaze shines in heaven; do youbring food to your adorers. 

5.006.05 To you, radiant Agni, lord of light, giver of pleasure, destroyer (of 
foes), protector of man, the bearer ofoblations, to you the oblation is offered 
with the sacred verse; do you bring to your adorers. 

5.006.06 These fires cherish all that is precious in the fires (of sacrifice); 
they give delight; they spread abroad;they crave perpetually (sacrificial) food; 
bring, Agni, food to your adorers. [These fires cherish: pro tye agnayoagnis.u 
vis'vam pus.yanti va_ryam: prapus.yanti dhis.n.ya_ ga_rhapatya_dis.u, they 
nourish exceedingly, by theirintensity, wealth dhanam (implied), in the 
household and other fires; i.e., the primary flames of Agni, whenmanifested in 
the household fires, are the source of riches]. 

5.006.07 These your flames Agni, fed with abundant food, increase, as, by their 
descent, they seek the pasturesof the hoofed cattle; bring, Agni, food to your 
adorers. [They seek the pastures: ye patvabhih s'apha_na_mvraja_ bhuranta 
gona_m: ye ras'mayah, those rays which patanaih by fallings, icchanti yu_tha_ni 
s'apha_na_mgona_m, wish for or proceed to the herds of hoofed cattle; the 
spreading flames long for the burnt-offerings,ayata jva_la_ homa_ya ka_n:ks.anti 

5.006.08 Grant, Agni, to us who praise you, new dwellings, and (abundant) food; 
may we be those who worshipyou having you for a messenger (to the gods) in every 
house; bring Agni, food to your adorers. 

5.006.09 Giver of delight, you receive into your mouth the two ladles (full) of 
butter; so may you fulfil (ourdesires), lord of strength, at our solemn rites; 
bring, Agni, food to your adorers. [Yajus. 15.43; the two ladles:termed juhu and 
upabhr.t, two ladles used for pouring the oiled butter upon the fire; or ubhe 
darvi, two handsserving as ladles]. 

5.006.10 Thus have they repaired to Agni with praises and with sacrifices 
successively, and have established(the manner of his worship); and he has given 
us male descendants, and wealth of fleet horses; bring, Agni, foodto your 

5.007.01 Friends, offer fitting praise and food to Agni, the most liberal 
benefactor of men, the powerful son ofstrength. [upo naptre = balasya putra_ya; 
or, urj = water; the grandson of water = the timber and hence, fire theoffspring 
of fuel]. 

5.007.02 Where is (the deity) upon whose presence the rejoicing conductors (of 
the ceremony) are offeringhomage in the hall of sacrifice, (he) whom they 
kindle, and living beings generate. 

5.007.03 When we present to him (sacrificial food), when (he accepts) the 
oblations of men, then the power ofthe brilliant (viands), he assumes the 
radiance of the rite. [r.tasya ras'mim a_dade: the ray is the apprehender 
orabsorber, gra_haka, of water; alluding to the production of rain as the result 
of burnt-offerings; or he becomesendowed with the energy generative or the 
reward of the sacrifice, phalajanakam svi_kr.tava_n; or, he acceptsthe praise, 
as it were, thelustre or ray of the sacrifice]. 

5.007.04 Verily he gives a signal by night to one who is far off, when he, the 
purifier, the undecaying, consumesthe forest lords. 

5.007.05 At whose worship (the priests) pour the dripping (butter) upon the 
flames, and (the drops) mount uponthe fire as if they were its own numerous 
offspring, as (boys ride) upon the back (of a father). [bhu_ma_pr.s.t.heva = 
lit., likemany or much on the back; bahu bhavatiti bhu_ma_ apatyam; pr.s.t.ha 
implies the back ofthe father, pituh pr.s.t.o des'a_n iva, as boys mount upon 
the fathers' side, so do the flames, putra yatha_pituran:kam a_rohanti tad vat]. 

5.007.06 Him who is the desired of many, the (devout) man recognizes as the 
sustainer of all, the flavour of food,the provider of dwellings for men. 

5.007.07 He crops the dry ground strewn (with grass and wood), like an animal 
grazing; he with a golden beard,with shining teeth, vast, and of irresistible 
strength. [He crops the dry ground: dhanva_ks.itam da_ti: dhanva_ = aplace 
without water, nirudakaprades'am; a_ks.itam = tr.n.aka_s.t.ha_dibhir a_ks.iptam, 
tossed over with grass,timber]. 

5.007.08 Bright as an axe is he to whom the (worshipper), like Atri, proceeds 
(to offer worship); he whom hisprolific mother has brought forth, bestowing (a 
benefactor on the world), when (Agni) obtains (sacrificial) food.[Bright as an 
axe: s'uci sma yasma_ atrivat pra svadhi_ti_va ri_yate: the comparison may apply 
to theworshipper, eager to offer an oblation as an axe to cut; may also apply to 
Agni; atri = an eater, or devourer, or ananimal eating grass; atrivat may apply 
to the yajama_na]. 

5.007.09 To you, Agni, the accepter of the oblation, the upholder (of all), 
there is pleasure (from our praise); doyou bestow upon these your worshippers 
wealth, and food and a heart (grateful for your favour). 

5.007.10 May the sage who is in this manner the offerer of exclusive praise 
(Agni, to you), accept the cattle whichare to be given to you; and thereupon may 
Atri overcome (hostile) men. [May is.a overcome hostile men: is.ahsa_sahya_n 
nr.n: is.ah = r.s.i of the su_kta; or, derived from is. and being the accusative 
plural, may be anepithet of nr.n, encountering or opposing men].

5.008.01 Manifest of strength, Agni, ancient worshippers have kindled you of old 
for their preservation; you, thedelighter of many, the adorable, the all-
sustaining, the lowly-minded, the lord of the house, the excellent. 

5.008.02 Men have established you, (Agni), their ancient guest, as the lord of 
the house; (you), theblazing-haired, the vast bannered, the multiform, the 
dispenser of wealth, the bestower of happiness, the kindprotector, the 
destruction of decaying (trees). [jaradvis.am = lit., that which is poison to 
the old; it is explained asjarata_m vr.ks.a_n.a_m vya_pakam, the pervader or 
consumer of old trees; or, it may mean jirn.odakam, that bywhich water is dried 

5.008.03 Human beings glorify you, Agni, the appreciator burnt-offerings, the 
discriminator (of truth), the mainliberal giver of precious (things), abiding 
(awhile), auspicious one, in secret, (at other times) visible to all, 
loudsounding, offering worship, thriving upon clarified butter. 

5.008.04 We approach you, all-sustaining Agni, adoring you in many ways with 
hymns and with prostrations; doyou, An:giras, when kindled, be propitious to us; 
may the divine (Agni be pleased) by the (sacrificial) food (offeredby the) 
worshippers, and by the bright flames (of his sacrifice). 

5.008.05 Agni, the praised of many, you who are multiform, giver of old food to 
every mortal; you reign withstrength over the various (sacrificial) viands; the 
splendour of you when blazing brightly is not rivalled (by any). 

5.008.06 Agni, young (of the deities), the gods have made you, when kindled, 
their messenger, the bearer ofoblations; you, who are rapid in movement, and of 
whom butter is the source, they have made, when invoked, thebrilliant eye (of 
the universe), instigated by the understanding. 

5.008.07 The ancient seekers after happiness hav ekindled you, Agni, when 
invoked, (and fed you) withabundant fuel; and you (thereby) increasing, and 
supplied with shrubs, are dominat over all terrestrial viands.[abhi jaya_m.si 
pa_rthiva vi tis.t.hase: jaya_m.si = anna_ni, food, eatbles; pa_rthiva = 
vr.ks.ah, trees, an epitherof jaya_m.si, earthly eatbles, as the cakes and 
butter presented in sacrifices with fire].

5.009.01 Mortals bearing oblations glorify you, Agni, the divine; I praise you, 
Ja_tavedas, for that you conveysuccessively oblations (to the gods). 
[Ja_tavedas: the name seems to imply, he whom all know to be identicalwith all 
that exists; or, Vedasmean wealth, when it will signify, he from whom all wealth 
is generated]. 

5.009.02 Agni, is the invoker of the gods (on behalf of) him, the donor (of the 
oblation), the abode (of the fruit ofgood works), by whom the sacred grass has 
been strewn; (he) in whom congregate all sacrifices securing foodand fame. 

5.009.03 He (it is) whom the two sticks have engendered like a new-born babe; 
the supporter of men anddescendants of Manu, the fit object of sacrifice. 

5.009.04 You are laid hold of with difficulty like the young of tortuously-
twining (snakes); you who are theconsumer of many forests, as an animal is of 
fodder. [Like the young of tortuously twining snakes: putro nahva_rya_n.a_m, 
like the son of the crooked-going, like a young snake, ba_la sarpah; or it may 
mean the colt ofrearing and plunging horses, of those not broken in a as'iksi.ta 

5.009.05 Of whom smoke-emitting, the flames intensely collect; then, when 
diffused in the three regions, Agniinflates himself in the firmament, like the 
blower of a bellows, and sharpens (his flames), as (the fire blazes fromthe 
blast) of the blower. [When diffused in the three regions: yadi_m aha trito divi 
upadhama_ti = tris.ustha_n.esu vya_ptah, spread in the three regions; or, tria_i 
stha_na_ni ati_tya, having gone beyond the threeregions; a_tma_nam upa 
vardhayati, he blows up or enlarges himself; as the fire blazes from the blast 
of theblower: the text has s'is'i_te dhma_tari, he sharpens as in a blower; 
i.e., like the fire, which in the proximity of oneblowing with a bellows, blazes 
up, so Agni sharpens his flames,or of himself adds to their intensity]. 

5.009.06 By the protections of you, Agni, the friend (of all), and by our 
praises (of you), may we pass safe fromthe evil acts of men, as if from 
malignant (enemies). 

5.009.07 Powerful Agni, bestow upon us the institutors (of pious rites), that 
wealth (which we desire); may hediscomfit (our foes); may he cherish us; may he 
ever ready to bestow upon us food; and do you, Agni, be presentin battles for 
our success. 

5.010.01 Agni, of irresistible prowess, bring to us most powerful treasure; 
(invest us) with surrounding wealth;mark out the paths to abundance. 

5.010.02 Marvellous Agni, (gratified) by our acts, (produce) in us greatness of 
vigour; in you abides the strengthdestroying evil spirits; you who are to be 
worshipped like Mitra, are the doer (of great deeds). [The text has onlykra_n.a_ 
for kurva_n.a_; the acts alluded to are such as driving away the ra_ks.asas or 
other disturbers ofreligious rites]. 

5.010.03 Augment, Agni, our dwelling and prosperity, for the devout men (who 
have propitiated you) by theirpraises have acquired riches. 

5.010.04 Delightful Agni, those men who glorify you with hymns become rich in 
horses, and are invigorated with(foe-destroying) energies; and their great 
renown, spread through the firmament arouses (you) of your ownaccord. [divas'cid 
yes.a_m br.hat suki_rtir bodhati tmana_: the r.s.i of the su_kta, Gaya is the 
nominative ofbodhati; evamvidham tvam gayastmana_ svayam eva bodhayati, Gaya of 
his own accord, or of himself, as itwere, arouses you Agni]. 

5.010.05 These your bright and fierce flames, Agni, spread around like the 
circumambient lightning, and are likea rattling chariot rushing (into battle) 
for booty. 

5.010.06 Be prompt, Agni, for our protection, and for the gift of poverty-
repelling (riches); and may our piousdescendants be able to compass all their 

5.010.07 Agni, who are An:giras, glorified in the past, glorified (at present), 
invoker (of the gods), bring unto usriches (enabling us) to overcome the mighty; 
give to your praisers (ability) to praise you, and be (at hand) for oursuccess 
in battles.

5.011.01 The vigilant, the powerful Agni, the protector of man, has been 
engendered for the present prosperity(of the world); fed with butter, (blazing) 
with intense (radiance) reaching to the sky, the pure Agni shines brilliantlyfor 
the Bharatas. [Yajus. 15.27; Bharatas = R.tviks, or priests; alternative 
rendering: Agni has been engenderedby the priests for the present sacrifice; he 
shines so brilliantly that with his flames he touches the sky, the patronof the 
sacrificer, vigilant, dexterous, fed with butter, pure]. 

5.011.02 The priests have first kindled, in three places, Agni, the banner of 
sacrifice, the family priests, (riding) inthe same car with Indra and the gods; 
he, the performer of pious acts, the invoker (of the gods), has sat down onthe 
sacred grass for the (celebration of the) rite. [Have first kindled in three 
places: tris.adhasthe sami_dhire, i.e.as the three fires, the ga_rhapatya, 
a_havani_ya and daks.in.a_]. 

5.011.03 You are born unobstructed of two mothers; pure, adorable, wise, you 
have sprung up from (thedevotion of) the householder; they have augmented you 
with butter; Agni, to whom burnt-offerings are made, thesmoke is your banner 
spread abroad in the sky. [Born of two two mothers: the two sticks of attrition; 
you havesprung from the devotion of the householder: udatis.t.ho vivasvatah: the 
latter designates the yajama_na, fromhis especially, vi, abiding, vasata, in the 
chamber where the agnihotra, and other rites with fire are celebrated]. 

5.011.04 May Agni, the fulfiller (of all desires) come to our sacrifice; men 
cherish Agni in every dwelling; Agni, thebearer of oblations, has become the 
messenger (of the gods); those adoring Agni adore him as the accomplisherof the 

5.011.05 To you, Agni, this most sweet speech (is addressed) may this praise be 
gratification of your heart; pioushymns fill you, and augment you with vigour, 
as large rivers (replenish) the sea. 

5.011.06 The An:girasas discovered you, Agni, hidden in secret, and taking 
refuge from wood to wood; you aregenerated, being churned with great force; 
therefore they have called you, An:giras, the son of strength.

5.012.01 I offer to the great, the adorable Agni, the rain of water, the 
vigorous, the showerer (of benefits), thepresent acceptable praise, like well-
purified butter (poured) at sacrifices into his mouth. 

5.012.02 Agni, who know (the purpose of) the sacrifice, assent to this rite; be 
favourable to the copious showersof water; (endowed) with strength, (I 
undertake) not (to obstruct) sacred acts, nor adjure the rite with both 
(truthand untruth), but (repeate the praise) of the resplendent showerer (of 
benefits). [Showers of water: r.ta =sacrifice, praise, truth, water; r.tasya 
dha_ra_ = water of the sacrifice; with both truth and untruth: na_hamya_tum 
sahas na dvayena r.tam sapa_mi arus.asya vr.s.n.ah = lit., not I to go by 
strength, not by the two I swear,the sacrifice of the shining showerer; yukta is 
implied, i.e., joined or endowed sahasa with strength; ya_tum = toinjure, or 
injury of pious acts; this word is connected with sapa_mi, i.e. spr.s'a_mi or 
karomi, I touch or do; I do notproceed to injure sacred offices; by the two, the 
explanation is: satya_nr.tabhyam, the truth and untruth, i.e.avaidikam kr.tyam 
na sap_mi, na karomi, I perform not any act not enjoined by the Veda; r.tam here 
meanspraise, and is attached to sapa_mi, i.e. I vow or repeat the praise of 

5.012.03 Agni, bestower of water, by what (act of) truth may you, who are 
adorable, be cognizant of ouradoration; may the divine Agni, the guardian of the 
seasons, recognize me; (I know) him not (yet) as the lord ofthe riches of which 
I am the possessor. [I know him not as the Lord: na aham patim sanituh asya 
ra_yah =bhajama_nasya asya ma_ma ra_yah sva_mina_m tam agnim aham na ja_na_mi, I 
do not know that Agni, themaster of the riches of this one, or me, the enjoyer]. 

5.012.04 Who, Agni, among your (followers) are the imprisoners of foes? who 
among them are the protectors (ofmen) the splendid distributors of gifts? who 
among them defend the asserters of untruth? who are theencouragers of evil 
deeds? [Who among them: The last are persons not worshipping Agni; another 
rendering:who are they that confine their foes? who are they that preserve men 
from uttering untruth? who are they thatvindicate people from calumny? they are, 
Agni, your worshippers]. 

5.012.05 These your friends, Agni, everywhere dispersed, were formerly unhappy 
(in abandoning your worship),but are again fortunate (by its renewal); may they 
who, with (censorious) words, impute fraudulent (practices) tome who pursue a 
straight path, bring eveil upon themselves. 

5.012.06 May the dwelling of him, Agni, who celebrate your worship with 
reverence, of him who protects thesacrifice (offered) to the resplendent 
showerer (of benefits), be well stored; and may a virtuous successor of theman 
who diligently worships you come in his place.

5.013.01 Adoring you, Agni, we invoke you, adoring you we kindle you, adoring 
you for protection. 

5.013.02 Desirous of wealth, we recite today the effectual praise of the divine 
Agni, (whose radiance) reachesthe sky.  

5.013.03 May Agni, who among men is the invoker of the gods, accept our praises; 
may he offer sacrifice to thedivine beings. 

5.013.04 You, Agni, are mighty and gracious, the (ministrant) priest, the 
desired (of all) through your worshipperscomplete the sacrifice. 

5.013.05 Wise worshippers exalt you, Agni, the bountiful giver of food, the 
deservedly lauded; do you bestowupon us excellent strength. 

5.013.06 Agni, you encompass the gods as the circumference (surrounds) the 
spokes (of a wheel); bestowmanifold wealth upon us.

5.014.01 Waken the immortal Agni with praise, that, being kindled, he may bear 
our oblations to the gods. 

5.014.02 Mortals worship him, an immortal divinity, at their sacrifices, most 
adorable among the human race. 

5.014.03 Numerous (worshippers), pouring out butter from the (sacrificial) 
ladle, glorify him the divine Agni, thathe may convey their oblation (to the 

5.014.04 Agni, as soon as born, blazes brightly, destroying the dasyus, and 
(dispersing) the darkness by hislustre; he has discovered the cows, the waters, 
the sun. 

5.014.05 Worship the adorable Agni, the sage, whose summit blazes with butter; 
may he hear and comprehendmy invocations. 

5.014.06 They have augmented, Agni, the beholder of all, with oblations and with 
praises, along with the gods,the objects of pious meditation, desirous of 

5.015.01 I offer praise to Agni, the creator, the far-seeing, the adorable, the 
renowned, the first (of the gods); hewho is propitiated by oblations, the 
strong, the giver of happiness, the possessor of riches, the receiver 
ofoblations, the bestower of oblations. 

5.015.02 They are detaining by sacrifice the true recipient (of offerings) in 
the most eminent place of theceremony, who brings together the leaders (of the 
rite), the unborn with the born, (or gods and men), as seatedat the solemnity 
which is the stay of heaven. [They are detaining by sacrifice: r.tena r.tam 
dharun.amdha_rayantah, they, the yajama_nas, hold or detain r.tam dharun.am 
yajn~asya dha_rakam satyam the trueholder of sacrifice, that is, Agni, by the 
ceremony, parame vyomani utkr.s.t.e stha_ne, in the best place, that is,the 

5.015.03 They who (present) to the chief (of the gods) the great food (of 
sacrifice), unattainable (by thera_ks.asas), enjoy forms exempt from defect; may 
that new-born Agni scatter assembled (hosts); let them standfrom around me as 
(deer avoid) an angry lion. [Enjoy forms exempt from defect: am.hoyuvastanvas 
tanvate =svastanur am.hasa viyojika vista_rayanti, they effect the extension of 
their own person, disjoined by or separatedfrom sin]. 

5.015.04 When, everywhere predominating, you cherish all men like a mother, and 
(are implored by all) to beholdand to support them; and when, being detained, 
you mature every kind of food, then, multiform (Agni), youcomprise (all beings) 
in yourself. [You mature every kind of food: va_yo vayo jarase yad dadha_nah = 
yaddha_ryama_no bhavasi tada_ sarvam annam jarayasi, when you are being 
detained, then you cause all food todecay, i.e., to digest]. 

5.015.05 Divine, Agni, may the (sacrificial) food, the vast yielder (of benefits 
to men), the sustainer of riches,support the utmost of your vigour; and do you 
considering (the means of acquiring) great riches, like a thiefkeeping concealed 
the article (he has stolen), be propitious to Atri. [Like a thief: the 
implication may be thatwealth bestowed upon the r.s.i is deposited in a secure 
receptacle, like the hidden booty of a thief, padam natayur guham dadha_nah].

5.016.01 Offer abundant (sacrificial) food to the brilliant divine Agni, whom 
mortals have placed before them bypraises as a friend. 

5.016.02 For that Agni, (endowed) with the lustre of the strength of his arms, 
is the ministrant priest of mortals,who (presents) the oblation to the gods in 
succession, and like Bhaga distributes desirable wealth. [Bhaga =Su_rya]. 

5.016.03 (May we be assiduous) in the praise, (and cherished) in the friendship 
of that very radiant possessor ofwealth, on whom, loud-sounding and all-ruling, 
(his) universal (worshippers) have conferred vigour. 

5.016.04 Now verily, Agni, (be disposed) for bestowing excellent strength on 
these (your worshippers); heavenand earth have invested him with glory like the 
vast (sun). [The text has only yahvam na, like the great; theimplied terms are: 
maha_ntam su_ryam iva, like the great sun]. 

5.016.05 Glorified by us, Agni, come quickly, and bring us desirable wealth; we 
who (are your worshippers) we(who are your) adorers, offer you welcome together 
with oblations; be you favourable to us; be (our) success inbattles.

5.017.01 Divine Agni, a mortal thus with sacrifices (calls upon you) who are 
endowed with lustre for protection;Puru adores Agni for protection when the 
sacred rite is solemnized. 

5.017.02 Performer of various functions, who are deservedly renowned, you praise 
by your words that Agni, whois possessed of wonderful splendour, who is exempt 
from pain, who is adorable and supreme in understanding.[Performer of various 
functions: vidharman, may apply to the r.s.i or the yajama_na]. 

5.017.03 He who is endowed with vigour, is (glorified) by praise, and by whose 
radiance, like that of the sky, therays of light shine brightly; by his lustre, 
verily, (the sun is luminous). [The text has only asya va_sa_ u arcis.a_:va asa 
= va asau = lit., by the light of him, he verily; asu, he, designating the sun; 
i.e;, by the light of him, that is,of Agni, the sun becomes radiant; a_dityo 
arcis.man bhavati]. 

5.017.04 By the worship of him who is pleasing of aspect, the provident (heap) 
wealth in their cars; Agni, towhom oblations are due, is then glorified by all 

5.017.05 Quickly, (Agni, give us) desirable (wealth), such as the devout, 
combining with (pious) praise, (obtain);son of strength (be favourable) to (my) 
desires; protect us (from calamity); be alert for our prosperity; come forour 
success in battles. [Be alert for our prosperity: s'agdhi svastaye: i.e., yace, 
I ask for; or, it may mean, s'aktobhava, be able].

5.018.01 Let Agni, the beloved of many, the guest of man, be present at dawn; he 
who, immortal, desires theoblations of mortals.  

5.018.02 Be (willing to make) a grant of your own strength to Dvita, the bearer 
of the pure oblations; for he,immortal Agni, your diligent praiser, brings to 
you continually the Soma juice. 

5.018.03 I invoke you bright-shining, through a long life, with praise, (for the 
benefit) of the affluent, that theirchariot, giver of horses, may proceed 

5.018.04 Among whom the ceremonial of many kinds is observed; who perpetuate the 
sacred hymns by theirrecital; by them the sacrificial viands are placed upon the 
strewn grass (at the sacrifice which) leads (theworshipper) to heaven. [svar 
nare, a synomym of yajn~e svargam yajama_nam nayati, it leads the yajama_na 

5.018.05 Immortal Agni, bestow upon those opulent men, who, upon (my) praise (of 
you), gave to me fifty horses,and brilliang, ample, and abundant food, 
(supporting numerous) dependants.

5.019.01 Unprosperous circumstances affect Vavri; may the accepter (of 
oblations) become cognizant (of them),as, reclining on the lap of his mother, he 
beholds all things. 

5.019.02 They who know (your power) invoke you incessantly and nourish (your) 
strength (by oblations); theydwell in an impregnable city. 

5.019.03 Living men, with collars of gold, earnest in praise, desirous of food, 
augment by this laudation the vigourof you abiding in the white firmament. 

5.019.04 May (Agni) with his two relatives, (heaven and earth), hear this 
faultless (praise), acceptable as milk; hewho, like the mixed oblation, is 
filled with food, and unsubsdued, is ever the subduer of his foes. [He who, like 
themixed oblations, is filled with food: gharmo na va_jajat.harah, he in whose 
belly is food like the gharmah; theordinary sense is warm, hot and day; it is 
further identified with the ceremony called pravargya: pravargya ivagharmo 
yatha_ havyena_jyenapayasa_ sikta_, like the pravargya the gharma, sprinkled 
with the oblation butterand milk; gharma = a vessel, a pitcher]. 

5.019.05 Radiant (Agni), who are made manifest by the wind and are sporting 
amidst the ashes (of the forest), bepresent with us; and may the fierce fiery 
flames, destructive of foes, be gentle to this your worshipper. [a_bhuvah = 
abhimukho bhava; tigma_ = ti_ks.n.ah].

5.020.01 That (sacrificial) wealth, Agni, bounteous giver of food, of which you 
approve, and which deserves to becommanded by our praises, do you convey to the 

5.020.02 may those prosperous men who do not offer oblations to you become 
destitute of great strength, andmay (the followers) of other (than Vaidika) 
observances incur (your) enmity and punishment. 

5.020.03 We, Prayasvats, have recourse to you, the invoker (of the gods), the 
means of strength; we glorify youfirst at sacrifices with praise. [Prayasvats: 
prayasvantah = lit., those having food, annavantah]. 

5.020.04 Possessor of strength, day by day so (provide) that we may enjoy your 
protection; doer of good deeds,may we (be deserving) of wealth through 
sacrifice, and may we be happy with cattle, happy with maledescendants.

5.021.01 Like Manu, we meditate, Agni, upon you; like Manu, we kindle you; 
worship the gods on behalf of the(worshipper), devout as Manu. 

5.021.02 When you are pleased, Agni, you shine upon the human race; well-born, 
feeder upon clarified butter,the ladles are constantly uplifted to you. 

5.021.03 All the consentient divinities have made you their messenger; therefore 
the pious worship you who aredivine, wise Agni, at sacrifice. 

5.021.04 Man praises you, divine Agni, to convey his offerings to the gods; 
bright Agni, blaze when kindled; takeyour seat in the chamber (of sacrifice), in 
the chamber of the sincere Sasa.

5.022.01 Sing, Vis'vasa_man, like Atri, (a hymn) to the dispenser of purifying 
light; (to him) who is to be praised atsacrifices, the invoker of the gods, the 
most adorable by man. 

5.022.02 Cherish the divine Agni, by whom all that exists is known, the priest 
(of the rite); may the sacrifice mostsuitable for the gods duly this day proceed 
to them. 

5.022.03 Men have recourse to you, divine Agni, who are of intelligent mind, for 
security; we praise you who aremost excellent, seeking your protection. 

5.022.04 Agni, son of strength, recognize the words of this our (laudation); 
handsome-chinned, lord of thedwelling, the sons of Atri exalt you, such (as you 
are), by thei rpraise; they embellish you by their hymns.

5.023.01 Bestow, Agni, upon Dyumna, a son, overcoming foes by his prowess; one 
who may with glory subdueall men in battle. [A son: the text has rayim, riches; 
the explanation is metaphorical, rendering it putram, a son]. 

5.023.02 Mighty Agni, grant us a son able to encounter hosts; for you are true 
and wonderful, and the giver offood with cattle. 

5.023.03 Allmen concurring in satisfaction, bearing the clipped sacred grass, 
solicit you, as the kind invoker ofthe gods, to the chambers (of sacrifice) for 
infinite wealth. 

5.023.04 May the (sage) on whom all men rely possess foe-subduing strength; 
radiant Agni, so shine in ourhabitation that they may abound in riches; shine, 
purifying Agni, dispensing light.

5.024.01-02 Agni, who are to be adored, be ever nigh to us, our protector and 
benefactor; do you, who are thegiver of dwellings and dispenser of food, be 
present with us; bestow upon us most brilliant wealth. [Yanus. 3.25,15.48 
repeate these verses; varu_thyah = varan.i_yah sam.bhajani_yah, that which is to 
be chosen, to beenjoyed, to be worshipped; alternative: favourable or auspicious 
to the family of the house, varutha meaningputra samu_ha, an assemblage of sons, 
or gr.ha, a house; or, endowed or inclosed with circumferences ordefences, 
paridhibhir vr.tah, an allusion to varutha, the fender of a carriage; 
vasus'ravas = vya_ptannah, he bywhom food is dispensed; or, renowned for 

5.024.03-04 Understand us, Agni; hear our invocation; defend us from all 
malevolent (people); most bright andresplendent Agni, we earnestly solicit you 
for the happiness (of ourselves) and our friends. [sumna_ya =sukha_ya, 
sukhibhyah sama_nakhya_tibhyah putrebhyah].

5.025.01 Celebrate the divine Agni for his protection; may he who presides over 
dwellings grant (our desires);may the son of the r.s.is, the observers of truth, 
save us from those who hate us. [The son of the r.s.is: Agni istermed the son of 
the r.s.is, as generated by their rubbing the sticks together which produce 

5.025.02 That Agni is true whom ancients, whom the gods have kindled, as the 
bright-tongued invoker of thegods, radiant with holy splendours. [That Agni is 
true: satya = true, one who does not fail to bestow upon hisworshippers the 
recompense of their devotions]. 

5.025.03 Agni, to be propitiated by praises, (gratified) by our choice and most 
excellent adoration and hymns,bestow upon us riches. 

5.025.04 Agni shines among the gods; Agni is present among mortals; Agni is the 
bearer of our oblations glorifyAgni with praises. 

5.025.05 May Agni bestow upon the donor (of the oblation) son, abounding in 
food, abounding in devotion,excellent, unharmed, conferring honour upon his 

5.025.06 May Agni bestow a son, the protector of the good, who, with his 
followers, may be victorious in battle;may he bestow a swift-footed steed, 
conquering, unconquered. 

5.025.07 That (praise) which best conveys (our veneration, is due) to Agni; 
affluent in splendour, grant us, (Agni),great (wealth), for from you vast riches 
and ample food proceed. [Yajus. 26.12; yad vahis.t.ham tad agnayebr.had arca 
vibha_vaso: addressed to the udga_ta_, the interpretation is: sing to Agni, that 
br.had sa_ma (ahymn of the Sa_maveda), which is the most effectual means of 
obtaining our desires; mahis.i_ iva tvad rayistvadva_ja_ udi_rate: mahis.i_ is 
the adjective of rayi, great riches, iveti pu_ran.ah; alternatively, iva denotes 
acomparison, thus explaining the passage: as the first-married bride proceeds 
from her home to her hausband,prathamaparin.i_ta_ stri_ gr.ha_t patim udgacchati 
so riches and food proceed to the worshipper, Agni, from you].

5.025.08 Brilliant, Agni, are your rays; mighty are you termed, like the stone 
(that bruises the Soma), and yourvoice spontaneously spreads through the sky 
like thunder.  

5.025.09 Thus, we Vasuyus, glorify the vigorous Agni; may he, the performer of 
great deeds, enable us to passover all our enemies as (we cross a river) with a 
boat. [Vasuyus; vasuka_mah, they who desire wealth].

5.026.01 Divine purifier, Agni, with your radiant and pleasing tongue, bring 
hither and worship the gods. 

5.026.02 Feeder upon butter, bright and variegated radiance we solicit you, the 
beholder of heaven, to (partakeof) the (sacrificial) food. 

5.026.03 We kindle you at the sacrifice, wise Agni, whose food is the oblation, 
who are brilliant and vast. 

5.026.04 Come, Agni, with all the gods, to the donor (of the oblation); we have 
recourse to you as their invoker. 

5.026.05 To the institutor of the rite, pouring out the libation, bring 
excellent vigour; sit down with the gods uponthe sacred grass. 

5.026.06 Victor over thousands, you favour, when kindled our holy rites, the 
honoured messenger of the gods. 

5.026.07 Reverence Agni, by whom all that is, is known, the bearer of oblations, 
the young of the gods, thedivine, the ministrant priest. 

5.026.08 May the sacrifice most solemnly offered by the devout duly proceed 
today (to the gods); spread thesacred grass for their seat. 

5.026.09 May the Maruts, the As'vins, Mitra, Varun.a, the gods, with all their 
attendants, sit down upon this grass.

5.027.01 Agni who are the protector of the good, most wise, powerful and 
opulent; Tryarun.a, the son ofTrivr.s.n.a, has become renowned, Vais'va_nara, in 
that he has bestowed upon me a pair of cattle with a wagon,and with them 
thousands of treasure.  

5.027.02 Agni, Vais'va_nara, who are deservedly praised and exaulted (by us), 
bestow happiness uponTryarun.a, who gives me hundreds (of Suvarn.as), twenty 
cattle and a pair of burden-bearing horses. [Hundresof suvarn.as: the text has 
only s'ata_ni, the hundreds; suvan.a_na_m is implied, of suvarn.as]. 

5.027.03 As Tryarun.a, pleased by the eulogies of me who has many children, 
presses with earnest (mind, giftsupon me), so does Trasadsyu, desirous Agni, of 
your valued favour through your exceeding praise. 

5.027.04 When As'vamedha gives to him who solicits of him as a benefactor, 
saying (bestow wealth) upon me,and comes (to him) with a verse (in your praise), 
do you, Agni, grant intelligence to (the Ra_ja_) who wishes tooffer sacrifice 
(to you). 

5.027.05 Whose hundred robust oxen yield me delight, as triple-mixed Soma, the 
offering of As'vamedha(gratifies you). [Triple-mixed Soma: mixed with curds, 
milk and parched grain]. 

5.027.06 Indra and Agni, bestow upon the munificent As'vamedha infinite wealth 
with excellent posterity,undecaying as the sun in heaven.

5.028.01 Agni, when kindled, spreads lustre through the firmament, and shines 
widely in the presence of thedawn; Vis'vava_ra_, facing the east, glorifying the 
gods with praises, and bearing the ladle with the oblation,proceeds (to the 
sacred fire). [Bearing the ladle with the oblation: havis.a_ ghr.ta_ci_ = 
puroda_s'a_dilaks.an.enayuktaya_ ghr.ta_cya_ sruca_ sahita_, with the ladle of 
ghi_ connected with the cakes and other articles of theoblation; vis'vava_ra_ = 
feminine; the repeller of all enemies of the nature of sin, sarvam api 
pa_paru_pams'atrum varayitri_]. 

5.028.02 When about to be kindled, Agni, you rule over ambrosial (water); you 
are present with the offerer of theoblation for his welfare; he to whom you 
repair acquires universal wealth; he places you, Agni the dues ofhospitality. 

5.028.03 Repress, Agni, (our foes to ensure our) exceeding prosperity; may your 
riches ever be excellent;preserve in concord the relation of man and wife, and 
overpower the energies of the hostile. [Yajus. 33.12;preserve in concord: sam 
ja_spatyam suyamam kr.n.us.va, make perfect the well-connected duty of wife 

5.028.04 I praise the glory, Agni, of you when kindled and blazing fiercely; you 
are the affluent showerer (ofbenefits), you are fitly lighted at sacrifices. 

5.028.05 Agni, who are kindled and invoked, worship the gods at the holy rite, 
for you are the bearer of theoblation. 

5.028.06 Offer worship and adoration to Agni when the sacrifice is solemnized; 
select the bearer of the oblationto the gods. [Three kinds of sacrificial fires, 
according to the Taittiri_ya are: havyava_hana, which receives theoblation 
intended for the gods; the kavyava_hana, that intendended for the pitara; and 
the saharaks.as, thatintended for the asuras; the worshipper is directed to 
select the first, on this occasion].

5.029.01 In the adoration of the gods by Manu there are three effulgences, and 
they, (the Maruts), uphold threeluminaries in heaven; the Maruts of pure energy 
worship you, for you, Indra, are their intelligent r.s.i [Threeluminaries: the 
sun, the wind, and fire; the same trio may be intended by the earlier phrase 
tryaryama_ tri_n.iaryama_n.i teja_m.si]. 

5.029.02 When the Maruts worship Indra, exulting and drinking of the effused 
libation, he grasps the thunderboltwherewith he destroys Ahi, and sets the 
abundant waters free to flow. 

5.029.03 Or,mighty Maruts, and you also, Indra, drink of this my copiously-
effused libation; then the offeredlibation obtains cattle for the offerer, and 
Indra, drinking of it, kills Ahi. [Obtains cattle for the offerer: ma_nus.ega_ 
avindat = yajama_nasya vedayati ga_ may also mean rain, 
dhenuvr.s.t.ilaks.an.a_ni udaka_ni va_]. 

5.029.04 Thereupon he fixed firmly heaven and earth, and resolutely advancing, 
filled (Vr.tra), like a deer, withterror, stripping off his covering, Indra, 
slew the Da_nava, endeavouring to hide, and panting with affright. 

5.029.05 Then, for this exploit, all the gods gave you Maghavan, in succession, 
the Soma beverage; whence youhave retarded, for the sake of Etas'a, the 
advancing horses of the sun. 

5.029.06 Whereupon Maghavan has destroyed with his thunderbolt at once his 
(S'ambara's) ninety and ninecities; the Maruts glorifying Indra in a common 
dwelling with the Tris.t.ubh hymn, he destroyed the bright (city ofthe asura). 
[Cities: the text has bhoga_n = cities, bhoga_n ityantoda_ttah purava_canah]. 

5.029.07 To aid (the undertaking of) his friend, Agni, the friend (of Indra) has 
quickly consumed three hundredbuffaloes; and Indra, for the destruction of 
Vr.tra, has at once quaffed vessels of Soma, offered by Manu. [Hasquickly 
consumed: apacat, has roasted or digested]. 

5.029.08 When you had eaten the flesh of the three hundred buffaloes, when you 
who are Maghavan had drunkthe three vessels of Soma, when he had slain Ahi, then 
all the gods summoned Indra, full of food, as if he hadbeen a servant, to the 
battle. [When he had slain Ahi: or perhaps yad ahim jagha_na, that he should 
kill Ahi]. 

5.029.09 When, Indra, you and Us'anas, with vigorous and rapid courses went to 
the dwelling of Kutsa, thendestroying his foes, you went in one chariot with 
Kutsa and the gods, and verily you have slain S'us.n.a 

5.029.10 You have formerly detached one wheel (of the car) of Su_rya; another 
you have given to Kutsawherewith to acquire wealth; with the thunderbolt you 
have confounded the voiceless Dasyus, you havedestroyed in battle the speech-
bereft (foes). [Confounded with voiceless dasyus: ana_so dasyu_n amr.n.ah:ana_sa 
= asyarahita_n, devoid or deprived of words, asya, face or mouth, being put by 
metonymy for s'abda, thesound that comes from the mouth, articulate speech;  
Dasyus are also called amr.dhrava_cas = him.sitava_gindriyan = having defective 
organs of speech]. 

5.029.11 May the praises of Gaurivi_ti exalt you; you have humbled Pipru for the 
son of Vidathin; R.jis'vanpreparing dressed viands, has, through your friendship 
brought you (to his presence), and you have drunk of hislibation. 

5.029.12 The observers of the nine month's celebration, those of the ten months, 
pouring out libations, worshipIndra with hymns; the leaders (of rites), 
glorifying him, have set open the cave (concealing the cattle). 

5.029.13 Although, knowing the heroic acts which, Maghavan, you have performed, 
how may I adequately offeryou adoration; most mighty Indra, we ever celebrate 
sacred rites the recent exploits which you have achieved. 

5.029.14 Unmatched (by any), you have done, Indra, all these many (deeds) by 
your innate energy; wielder ofthe thunderbolt, whatever you, the humbler of 
(foes), have undertaken, there is no one the arrester of this yourprowess. 

5.029.15 Most mighty Indra, be pleased to accept the prayers which we are about 
to offer, and the presentpraises which we repeat; firm, doing pious acts, and 
desirous of wealth; I have fabricated acceptable and piousworks like (rich) 
garments, and like a chariot. [Like garments and like a chariot: praises and 
hymns, are comparedto gaments, as being fit to be received as a respectful 
present, upasam.ha_ravad gra_hya_ni; the same arecompared to a chariot, as the 
means of conveying Indra and the gods to sacrifices].

5.030.01 Where is that hero? who has seen Indra seated in his easy chariot 
travelling with his horses, thethunder, the invoked of many, who, desirous of 
the libation is proceeding with riches to the habitation (of hisworshipper) for 
his preservation? 

5.030.02 I have looked down upon the secret and fearful place of his abiding; I 
have repaired, desiring him, (tothe place of) the self-sustainer; I have 
inquired (of him) from others; they, the leaders (of rites), the search 
afterwisdom, have said to me, let us have recourse to Indra. 

5.030.03 When the libation is offered, Indra, we celebrate your exploits; those 
(exploits) which you have beenpraised (to achieve) for us; let him who is 
ignorant acquire knowledge (of them); let him who is acquainted (withthem) make 
them known; this Maghavan (is) the lord of hosts. 

5.030.04 As soon as generated, Indra, you have made your mind resolved; you have 
gone alone to contendagainst numerous (foes); you have rent asunder the rock by 
your strength; you have rescued the herd ofmilk-yielding kine. 

5.030.05 When you have been born most excellent and supreme, bearing a name 
widely renowned, then thegods have been in dread of Indra, and he has subjugated 
all the waters, the brides of the slave (Vr.tra). 

5.030.06 These devoted Maruts eulogise you with pious praise, and pour out to 
you the sacrificial food; Indra hasovercome by his device the guileful Ahi, 
harassing the gods and arresting the waters. [Maruts: Or, maruts mayhere signify 
praisers, worshippers, stota_rah]. 

5.030.07 Maghavan, who are glorified by us, assailing with the thunderbolt the 
antagonist (of the gods), you haveslain those who were ever hostile (to you) 
from your birth; desiring to do good to Manu, you have bruised thehead of the 
slave Namuci. [Desiring to do good to Manu: manave ga_tum icchan: ga_tum = 
sukham; identifyingManu with the r.s.i of the su_kta, namucina 
apa_hr.tagodhana_ya mahyam, to me whose wealth of cattle hasbeen carried off by 
Namuci, an asura]. 

5.030.08 Verily you have made me, Indra, your associate when grinding the head 
of the slave Namuci like asounding and rolling cloud; and the heaven and earth 
(have been caused) by the Maruts (to revolve like awheel). [Like a sounding and 
rolling cloud: as'ma_nam cit svaryam vartama_nam: the first two are 
renderedmegham iva, like a cloud]. 

5.030.09 The slave (Namuci) made women his weapons what will his female hosts do 
unto me? The two his bestbeloved, (Indra) confined in the inner apartments, and 
then went forth to combat against the Dasyus. [What willhis female hosts do unto 
me? Indra is supposed to say this; the two his best beloved: decapitation of 
Namuci byIndra is related in the gada_ section of the S'alya parva of the 
Maha_bha_rata; Namuci through fear of Indra,took refuge in the solar rays; Indra 
promised that he would not harm him if he came forth, but broke his promise,and, 
on Namuci's issuing forth, cut off his head; by this he incurred the guilt of 
brahmanicide, for, Namuci was abrahman, but Indra was taught expiation of his 
sin by Brahma_]. 

5.030.10 When the cows were separated from their calves, they wandered about 
hither and thither; but when thewell-offered libations had exhilarated hi, then 
Indra, with his vigorous (maruts), reunited them (with their calves). 

5.030.11 When the libations effused by Babhru had exhilarated him, the showerer 
(of benefits) shouted aloud inthe combats; Indra, the destroyer fo cities, 
quaffing (the Soma), restored to him his milk-yielding cattle. 

5.030.12 The Sus'ama_s giving me four thousand cows, Agni, have done well; we 
have accepted the wealth, thedonation of the leader of leaders rn.an~caya. 
[Rus'ama_s are a people of a country of the same name, theprincipality of 

5.030.13 The Rus'ama_s, Agni, have presented to me a beautiful abode, with 
thousands of cattle; the sharplibations have exhilarated Indra upon the breaking 
up of the (gloom-) investing night. 

5.030.14 The (gloom-) investing night has dispersed with the dawn (upon the 
appearance of) R.n.an~caya, thera_ja_ of the rus'ama_s; Babhru being summoned, 
going like a fleet courser, has received the four thousand(cattle). 

5.030.15 We have accepted, Agni, the four thousand cattle from the Rus'ama_s; 
and the glowing, the goldenewer prepared for the solemnity, we who are wise have 
accepted it. [The golden ewer: gharmas' cit taptahpravr.je ya a_sid ayasmayah: 
ayasmayah = made of metal, here, made of gold, hiran.yamaya kalas'a, a 
ewer;gharmas'cit = maha_vi_ra iva, that is, like the ewer or vessel so termed, 
containing a mixture of Soma, meltedbutter, and milk, perhaps put upon the fire: 
yad ghara ityatapat tad gharmasya gharmatvam it s'ruti].

5.031.01 Indra, the possessor of opulence, directs downwards the car over which, 
intended (to receive sacrificial)viands, he presides; he proceeds unimpeded, the 
first of the gods, driving (his enemies before him), as aherdsman drives the 
herds of cattle. 

5.031.02 Hasten to us, lord of horses; be not indifferent to us; distributor of 
manifold wealth, befriend us; for thereis nothing else that is better, Indra, 
than you; you have given wives to those who were without women. [You havegiven 
wives: amena_m s'cijjanivatas' cakartha: mena_ = stri_, woman; jani = wife; 
apagatastri_ka_m.s'caja_ya_vatah karos.i, you make sundry persons, from whom 
women are separated, possessed wives]. 

5.031.03 When the light (of the sun) overpowers the light (of the dawn) Indra 
grants all (sorts of) wealth (to theworshipper); he has liberated the kine from 
the interior of the obstructing (mountain); he dissipates theenveloping darkness 
with light. 

5.031.04 The R.bhus have fabricated your car, Indra, the invoked of many, 
adapted to its horses; Tvas.t.a_ (hadmade) your radiant thunderbolt; the 
venerable (An:girasas), praising Indra with hymns, have given him vigour forthe 
destruction of Ahi. [The R.bhus: anavah is the text, explained manus.yah and 
applied to r.bhavah; thevenerable an:girasas: bra_hman.a_h, bra_hman.as is the 
text, explained as an:girasah]. 

5.031.05 When the Maruts, the showerers (of benefits), glorify you, Indra, the 
showerer (of desires), with praises,and the exulting stones delight (to bruise 
the Soma), then, without horses, without chariots, they, the purifying(Maruts), 
dispatched by Indra, have overcome the Dasyus. 

5.031.06 I celebrate, Maghavan, your ancient exploits, and those which you have 
newly achieved; wielder of thethunderbolt, subjugating both heaven and earth, 
you have distributed the wonderfully bountiful waters to man. 

5.031.07 Handsome and sagacious Indra, this is your deed, that, slaying Ahi, you 
have here displayed yourvigour; you have arrested the devices of S'us.n.a urging 
the combat; you have overcome the Dasyus.  [Have arrested the devices of 
S'us.n.a: s'us.n.asya cit pari ma_ya_ agr.bhn.a_h: mayah = yuvatih, 
youngdamsels, you have seized upon, or carried off, the young women of 

5.031.08 You, Indra, (abiding on the further bank), have rendered the 
fertilizing waters agreeable to Yadu andTurvas'u; you two, (Indra and Kutsa), 
have assailed the fierce (S'us.n.a), and (having slain him), you haveconveyed 
Kutsa (to his dwelling), and Us'ana_s and the gods have therefore honoured you 

5.031.09 May your steeds bring you both, Indra and Kutsa riding in one chariot, 
to the worshipper; you haveexpelled him (S'us.n.a) from the waters, from his 
proper abode; you have driven the glooms (of ignorance) fromthe heart of the 
affluent (adorer). [To the worshipper: karn.e vahanta: karn.a = stota_, praiser, 
stotra_n.i karoti, oryajama_na, the institutor or maker of the rite]. 

5.031.10 The sage Avasyu has obtained docile horses, endowed (with the speed) of 
the wind; all your adorers,Indra, in this world, your friends, augment your 
vigour by their praises. 

5.031.11 He, (Indra), has formerly arrested in battle the rapid chariot of the 
sun; Etas'a has born away the wheel,and (with it Indra) demolishes (his foes); 
may he, giving us precedence, be propitiated by our rite. [Etas'a hasborne away 
the wheel: bharaccakram etas'ah: etas'ah is put for etasaya, he, Indra, has 
taken the wheel forEtas'a]. 

5.031.12 Indra, oh people, has come to see you, wishing to behold his friend the 
offerer of the libation; let uscreaking stones, for whose rotation the priests 
hasten, supply the altar. 

5.031.13 Immortal (Indra), let not the more wishing, anxiously wishing for you, 
fall into sin; be indeed pleased withthe sacrificers, and grant vigour to those 
men among whom may we be (especially) yours.

5.032.01 You, Indra, have rent the cloud asunder, you have set open the flood-
gates, you have liberated theobstructed streams, you have opened the vast cloud, 
and have given vent to the showers, having slain theDa_nava. [The flood gates: 
kha_ni, the holes of interstices of the clouds]. 

5.032.02 You, thunder, (have set free) the obstructed clouds in their seasons; 
you have invigorated the strengthof the cloud; fierce Indra, destroying the 
mighty Ahi when slumbering (in the waters), you have established thereputation 
of your prowess. 

5.032.03 Indra, by his prowess, has annihilated the weapon of that mighty beast, 
from whom another morepowerful conceiving himself one and unmatched was 
generated. [From the body of Vr.tra, it is said, sprang themore powerful asura, 
S'us.n.a; allegorically, the exhaustion of the clouds was followed by a drought, 
which Indra,or the atmosphere, had then to remedy]. 

5.032.04 The wielder of the thunderbolt, the render of the rain-cloud, has 
destroyed with his bolt the mightyS'us.n.a, the wrath-born (son) of the Da_nava, 
the walker in darkness, the protector of there showering cloud,exhilarating 
himself with the food of these (living creatures). [The protector of the 
showerin gcloud: mihonapa_tam = meghasya raks.ita_ram napa_t, here meaning 
pa_ta_, a protector, a preserver, as in theBra_hman.a text cited: pra_n.o vai 
tanu_napa_t sa hi tanvah pa_ti, vital air is called the body-preserver, for 
itpreserves the limbs]. 

5.032.05 You have discovered, Indra, by his acts, the secret vital part of him 
who thought himself invulnerable,when, powerful Indra, in the exhilaration of 
the Soma, they have detected him preparing for combat in his darkabode. 

5.032.06 Indra, the showerer (of benefits) exhilarated by the effused juices, 
uplifting (his thunderbolt), has slainhim enjoying the dews of the firmament, 
sleeping (amidst the waters), and thriving in sunless darkness. 

5.032.07 When Indra raised his powerful irresistible weapon against the mighty 
Da_nava, when he struck himwith the blow of the thunderbolt, he made him the 
lowest of all creatures. 

5.032.08 The fierce Indra seized upon him, that vast moving (Vr.tra), when 
slumbering, (after) having drunk theSoma, subduing (his foes), and enveloping 
(the world), and then slew him with his great weapons in battle,footless, 
measureless, speechless. [apa_dam amatram mr.dhrava_cam: amatram = aparima_n.am, 
withoutmeasure, or perhaps bulk]. 

5.032.09 Who may resist the withering might of that Indra; he, single and 
irresistible, carries off the riches (of theenemy); these two divine (beings, 
heaven and earth), proceed swiftly through fear of the strength of thequick-
moving Indra. 

5.032.10 The divine, self-sustaining (heaven) comes to him; the moving (earth), 
like a loving (wife), resignsherself to Indra; when he shares all his vigour 
with these (his people), then, in due succession, men offerreverence to the 
potent Indra. 

5.032.11 Verily I hear you as chief among men, the protector of the good, 
friendly to the five classes of beings,the begotten, the renowned; may my 
(progeny), representing (their wishes), and uttering, his praises night andday, 
propitiates the glorified Indra. 

5.032.12 I hear of you influencing (creatures) according to the season, and 
giving riches to the pious; but whatdo your devoted friends (obtain), who have 
entrusted their desires, Indra, to you.

5.033.01 Feeble as I am, I offer praise to the great and vigorous Indra, for 
this purpose, (that he may grant)strength to (our) people; he who, associated 
with the Maruts, shows favour to this person when praised for thesake of 
sustenance. [Associated with the Maruts: samarya is an epithet of Indra; three 
explanations are offeredfor samarya: martyaih, stotr.bhih, sahitah, together 
with mortals, that is, with worshippers,yuddhama_nairmaruda_dibhih, with the 
Maruts and other combatants, or samara arhah, fir or suited to war]. 

5.033.02 You, Indra, meditating upon us, fasten the traces of yourborses, 
(incited), showerer (of benefits), bythose praises in which you have suitable 
delight, and do you therefore overcome (for us) hostile men. 

5.033.03 Since, mighty Indra, those who, differing from us, and not united with 
you through their lack of devotion,are not yours; therefore, divine holder of of 
the thunderbolt, who are possessed of excellent horses, ascend thecar, whose 
reins you guide, (to come to our sacrifice). 

5.033.04 Inasmuch, Indra, as many praises are yours, therefore, combating for 
the sake of (shedding) water onfertile (lands), you have effected (the 
discomfiture of its obstructors); you, who are the showerer (of benefits),have 
on behalf of the sun, destroyed in his own dwelling the very name of (the 
asura), Da_sa, in battle. 

5.033.05 We, Indra, are yours, and yours are they who are the leaders (of 
rites), promoters of (your) strength,and willing applicants (to you); all-
powerful Indra, may adherents worthy of commendation and faithful, come tous, 
like Bhaga, in battles. [All-powerful Indra: ahis'us.ma is an epithet of Indra, 
sarvato vya_ptabala, ofall-pervading strength; like Bhaga in battles: satva_ 
bhago na havyah prabhr.thes.u ca_ruh: prabhr.ta = war orsacrifice; hence, may a 
faithful folloer or ally, sarva bhr.tya_dih, come, like Bhaga, as an associate, 
ca_rusan:ganta_, tobe commanded, havya, in sacrifices, or defied, 
pratibhat.aira_hva_tavya, in battles; as the divineBhaga comes as our ally, so 
may followers and others come]. 

5.033.06 Glorious, Indra, is your strength, exulting, immortal, and clothing 
(the world with light); do you give usriches, and brilliant wealth, and I will 
greatly praise the munificence of the opulent lord. [Exulting: nr.tama_na =lit., 
dancing, nr.tyam; brilliant wealth: eni_m  rayim = lit., white riches, perhaps a 
reference to silver]. 

5.033.07 Hero, Indra, with your protection defend us, praising and worshipping 
(you), and be propitiated (bydrinking) of the well-effused and agreeable Soma 
juice that yields (a defensive) covering in combat. 

5.033.08 May those ten bright homes, the tift to me of the pious gold-possessing 
Trasadasyu, the son ofPurukutsa, of the raceof Giriks.ita, convey me (to the 
sacrifice) and may I proceed quickly with the rites. 

5.033.09 Or may those bay, well-actioned horses, the donation of Vidhata, the 
son of Marutas'va, (convey me);or (may) the thousands (of treasure) which he was 
bestowing upon and giving to me, entitled to respect, and theornaments which he 
presented (to decorate) the person, (contribute to the ceremony). [Bestowing 
upon andgiving to me: cyavatana dada_na causing to alight upon, giving]. 

5.033.10 Or may the bright and active steeds bestowed upon me by dhvanya, the 
son of Laks.man.a (bear me);the riches endowed with greatness, that have been 
presented, have passed (to the dwellings) of the R.s.iSam.varan.a, like cows to 
their stalls. 

5.034.01 The undecaying, heaven-conferring, unlimited (sacrificial) food, goes 
to the tamer (of enemies), whoseadversarie are unborn; therefore (priests) pour 
out (the libation), dress (the cakes and butter), diligentlydischarge (your 
offices) to him who is the accepter of prayer, who si glorified by many. 

5.034.02 Maghavan, who fills his belly with the Soma, to be exhilarated (by 
drinking) of the sweet-savouredbeverage, whereupon he has lifted up his 
destructive thousand-edged weapon, desiring to slay (the asura)Mmr.ga. 
[Thousand-edged: sahasra bhr.s.tim = aparimita tejas, of unbounded lustre]. 

5.034.03 He who pours out the libation to that Indra, by day or by night, 
undoubtely becomes illustrious; S'akradisregards tthe man who is proud of his 
descendants and vain of his person, and who, though wealthy, is thefriend of the 
base. [Proud of his descendants and vain of his person: tatanus.t.im 
tanu_s'ubhram = he whodesires, (vas.t.i) an extended (tata) race (santatim) and 
he whose person (tanu) is decorated (s'ubhra) withornaments, and in both 
implying svapos.akam ayajva_nam, a self-cherisher not offering sacrifice]. 

5.034.04 S'akra does not turn away from him whose father, whose mother, whose 
brother he has slain, but iswilling to accept his offerings; the regulator (of 
acts), the bestower of riches, does not turn away from iniquity.[Does not turn 
away: na ata i_s.ate = he does not fear, or does not go up or from hence, na 
bibheti na gacchativa_; whose brother he has slain: avadhi_t has the nominative 
s'akra; in the second line kilvis.a_d i_s.ate, he,Indra, does not go from sin, 
sin is a reference to the sinner, that is, from one who is a patricide or the 
like, pitra_divadha yukta_t, that is, he does not turn away from who has 
committed these crimes; the reason is: veti idvasyaprayata, for verily he 
desires his offerings, prayata_ni dada_ni]. 

5.034.05 He desires not (association in) enterprises with five or with ten; he 
associates not with the man whodoes not present libations; and cherishes not 
(his dependents) may, the terrifier (of foes) punishes him or slayshim, but he 
places the devout man in a pasturage stocked with cattle. 

5.034.06 Thinning (his enemies) in battle, and accelerating the wheels (of his 
car), he turns away from him whooffers no libation, and augments (the prosperity 
of) the offerer; Indra, the subduer of all, the formidable, the lord,conducts 
the Da_sa at his pleasure. 

5.034.07 He proceeds to plunder the wealth of the (avaricious), and bestows the 
riches that are prized by manupon the donor (of the libation); every man is 
involved in great difficulty who provokes the might of Indra to wrath.

5.034.08 When Indra, the possessor of opulence, discriminates between two men, 
both wealthy, and exertingthemselves (against each other) for the sake of 
valuable cattle, he takes one of them as his associate, causing(his adversaries) 
to tremble, and the agitator (of the clouds), together with the Maruts, bestows 
upon him herds ofcattle. 

5.034.09 I, Arya, Agni, praise S'atri, the son of Agnives'a, the bestower of 
thousands, a type for comparison; maythe collected waters yield him abundance; 
may wealth and strength, and glory be upon him. [Agni: Indra isreferred as 
identical with Agni; Agnives'a is a r.s.i, a son of Brahma_].

5.035.01 Perfect for our protection, Indra, that your act which is most 
effective, which is the subduer of men, holy,and difficult to be encountered in 

5.035.02 Whatever protections, Indra, may be yours, whether four, or, hero, 
three, or those accorded to the five(classes) of men, bestow them freely upon 
us. [Four, three, or...five classes: whatever favours may be granted tothe four 
varn.as, the three lokas, or the five orders of men, pan~ca ks.itina_m]. 

5.035.03 We invoke the desirable protection of you, the most liberal showerer 
(of benefits); that (protection)which you, the distributor of rain, the quick 
destroyer (of foes), grant, (associated) with the present (Maruts). 

5.035.04 You are the showerer (of benefits); you are born to (bestow) riches; 
your strength rains (blessings);your self-invigorated mind is the restrainer (of 
adversaies); your manhood, Indra, is the destroyer of multitudes. 

5.035.05 Indra, wielder of the thunderbolt, rider in all-pervading car, object 
of many rites, and lord of strength,proceed against the mortal who entertains 
hostility towards you. 

5.035.06 Slayer of Vr.tra, men with clipped sacred grass invoked you, who are 
fierce and foremost among many,for aid in battle. 

5.035.07 Defend, Indra, our chariot, difficult (to be stopped), mingling 
foremost in combats, followed byattendants, and eagerly striving for repeated 
spoil. [Our chariot: ava ratham: the latter may also signify a son, hewhose 
nature it is to give delight to his parents, ram.han.asvabha_vam putram]. 

5.035.08 Come, Indra, to us; defend by your providence our car; we contemplate 
in you who, most mighty one,are divine, all desirable vigour; (to you), who are 
divine, we offer praise.

5.036.01 May that Indra who is the donor of wealth, who knows (how) to 
distribute riches, come (to our sacrifice)marching boldly like a warrior; and 
may he, being thirsty, and desirous (of the draught), drink of the effused 

5.036.02 Hero, lord of horses, may the Soma, ascend to your destructive jaw, as 
if to the summit of a mountain;may we all, royal Indra, who are invoked of many, 
give pleasure to you with our hymns, as to horses with fodder.[Ascend to your 
destructive jaw: hanu s'ipre a_ruhat: the two nouns have the same sense; hence, 
one is anepithet of the other; hanu = means of destroying, or destructive hanana 

5.036.03 Wielder of the thunderbolt, the invoked of many, my mind trembles 
through dread of poverty like awhirling wheel; Maghavan, ever prosperous, may 
your worshipper, Puruvasu, praise you promptly andabundantly, seated in your 
chariot. [Through dread of poverty: amater id: amati = da_ridyam, poverty, or 
astota_,one who does not praise or worship]. 

5.036.04 This your adorer, Indra, like the stone (that expresses the Soma 
juice), urges praise to you,participating in the great (reward); you bestow, 
Maghavan, riches with your left hand, you bestow them, lord ofhorses, with the 
right be not reluctant. 

5.036.05 May the effective eulogium melt you, the showerer (of benefits); you, 
the showerer, are borne (to thesacrifice) by vigorous steeds sender of rain, you 
of the handsome shin, wielder of the thunderbolt, showerer,whose car showers 
down (blessings), do you defend us in battle. [A play on the word, vr.s.a_, to 
rain or shower]. 

5.036.06 Maruts, may all men bow in obedience to that youthful S'rutaratha, the 
possessor of abundance, whohas bestowed (upon us) two bay steeds accompanied by 
three hundred (cattle).

5.037.01 The piously worshipped (Agni), when invoked, glistening with the 
oblation, vies with the splendour ofthe sun; may the dawns rise innoxious to him 
who says, let us offer oblations to Indra. 

5.037.02 He whose fire is kindled, whose sacred grass is strewn, offers worship; 
he whose stone is uplifted,whose Soma juice is effused, offers praise; the 
priests, of whom the stones utter the sounds of bruising,descends with the 
oblation (for previous ablution) to the stream. 

5.037.03 The bride (of Indra), devoted to her lord, attends him (to the rite), 
who thus brings (with him) hisaccompanying queen; may his car convey to us ample 
food; may it sound loudly; may it scatter around manythousands (of riches). 

5.037.04 That prince suffers no evil in whose realm Indra drinks the sharp Soma 
juice mixed with milk; attendedby faithful (followers), he moves (in all 
directions); he destroys his enemy, he protects his subjects enjoyingprosperity, 
he cherishes the name of (Indra). 

5.037.05 He cherishes (his kin); he (reigns) in welfare and prosperity; he is 
victorious in present and continuous(time); dear is he to the sun, dear to Agni, 
who, with prepared libation, offers it to Indra.

5.038.01 Indra of many exploits, liberal is the distribution of your abundnat 
riches; therefore, all-beholder,possessor of excellent wealth, bestow upon us 

5.038.02 Although, most mighty Indra, you possess well-known abundance (of 
food), yet golden-hued (deity) it ismost notoriously reported as difficult(to be 

5.038.03 Wielder of the thunderbolt, yours are the strong (Maruts), who are 
adorable, and whose exploits arerenowned; both divinities, (you and they), rule 
at pleasure over heaven and earth. 

5.038.04 Slayer of Vr.tra, bring to us, your (worshippers), the wealth of any 
powerful (man) whatsoever, for youare disposed to enrich us. 

5.038.05 May we, S'atakratu, speedily (partake of) your felicity through these 
our prayers; may we be wellsecured, Indra, (by you); may we be carefully 
protected, hero, by you.

5.039.01 Wonderful Indra, wielder of the thunderbolt, since precious treasure is 
to be distributed by you, bestowit, possessor of riches, with both hands, upon 
us. [Since precious treasure is to be distributed by you:mehana_sti tva_ da_tam 
ra_dhas = mam.hani_yam dhanam tvaya_ da_tavyam, praiseable wealth is to be 
givenby you; another interpretation: mehana_sti = me iha na_sti, what is not in 
this world, or, on this occasion, mine(Nirukta 4.4)]. 

5.039.02 Whatever food you consider desirable, Indra, bestow it; let us be to 
you (in the relation of your) gift ofunlimited sustenance. [Gift of unlimited 
sustenance: tasya aku_pa_rasya da_vane = in the giving of that unlimitedfood, 
annasya or da_nasya, gift; akupa_ra = du_rapa_ra, maha_pa)ra, having a distant 
or great oppositeboundary, also an appellative of the sun and of the ocean; it 
also means a tortoise, one who does not go into awell, ku_pa]. 

5.039.03 Since your bountiful and praiseworthy will is notorious and vast, 
therefore, thunder, you have madeready for bestowing upon us substantial food. 
[Bountiful: ditsu, desiderative of da, desiring to give, an epithet ofmanas, 
mind of will]. 

5.039.04 With ancient (hymns) the pious approach Indra, to laud him who is most 
worthy of the beverage (theoffering) of you who are opulent; (him) who is 
theking of men. 

5.039.05 To that Indra, is the poetical and articulate prayer to be recited; to 
him the conveyers of pious praise,the sons of Atri, raise their hymns; the sons 
of Atri illume their hymns.

5.040.01 Come, Indra, (to our sacrifice); drink, lord of the Soma, of the juice 
expressed by the stones; showerer(of benefits), utter destroyer of Vr.tra, 
(come) with the showering (Maruts). 

5.040.02 The stone is the showerer, the inebriation is the showerer, this 
effused Soma is the showerer; showerer(of benefits), Indra, utter destroyer of 
Vr.tra, come with the showering (Maruts). [The showerer: either of theSoma 
juice, or the benefits derivable from offering it; here there is a play on the 
word vr.s.a_]. 

5.040.03 Effusing the libation, I invoke you, the showerer (of benefits), for 
your marvellous protections; showerer(of benefits), Indra, utter destroyer of 
Vr.tra, come with the showering (Maruts). 

5.040.04 May the accepter of the spiritless libation, the wilder of the 
thunderbolt, the showerer (of benefits), theovercomer of quick- (flying foes), 
the mighty, the monarch, the slayer of Vr.tra, the drinker of the Soma, 
havingharnessed his horses, come down (to us); may Indra be exhilarated at the 
mid-day sacrifice. [Accepter of thespiritless libation: r.ji_s.in = the 
possessor or ruler of the r.ji_s.a, here explained as gatasa_ra somarasa, or 
thatwhich ahs been offered at the morning and midday ceremonies, and of which 
the residue is now presented at theevening sacrifice]. 

5.040.05 When, Su_rya, the son of the Asura Svarbha_nu, overspread you with 
darkness, the worlds werebeheld like one bewildered knowing not his place. 
[Svarbha_nu: is a name of ra_hu, the personified ascendingnode, the causer of an 
eclipse; he was a son of kas'yapa, by Danu, the mother of the Da_navas or 
asuras;another genealogy makes him the son of Vipraciti, by Sim.hika_, the 
sister of Hiran.yakas'ipu]. 

5.040.06 When, Indra, you were dissipating those illusions of Svarbha_nu which 
were spread below the sun,then Atri, by his fourth sacred prayer, discovered the 
sun concealed by the darkness impeding his functions. [i.e.,by the four stanzas 
of this su_kta from the fifth to the eighth]. 

5.040.07 Su_rya speaks: Let not the violator, Atri, through hunger, swallow with 
fearful (darkness) me who amyours; you are Mitra, whose wealth is truth; do you 
and the royal Varun.a both protect me. 

5.040.08 Then the Brahman, (Atri), applying the stones together, propitiating 
the gods with praise, and adoringthem with reverence, placed the eye of Su_rya 
in the sky; he dispersed the delusions of Svarbha_nu. 

5.040.09 The sun, whom the Asura, Svarbha_nu, had enveloped with darkness, the 
sons of Atri subsequentlyrecovered; no others were able (to effect his release).

5.041.01 Who, Mitra and Varun.a, desiring to sacrifice to you, (is able to do 
so)? do you, whether (abiding) in theregion of heaven, or of the vast earth, or 
of the firmament, protect us, and give to the donor (of the oblation), andto the 
sacrificer, cattle and food. 

5.041.02 May those divinities, Mitra and Varun.a, Aryaman, A_yu, Indra, 
R.bhuks.in, the Maruts who accept piouspraise, be pleased by our adorations, 
partaking of the gratification afforded to Rudra, the showerer (of 
benefits).[Divinities who accept pious praise: divinities are of two orders, 
those who share praises, stotrabha_jah, andthose who share oblations 
havirbha_jah, the first is here alluded to; Rudra the showerer: the last clause 
mayallude to the Maruts as the sons of Rudra]. 

5.041.03 I invoke you, As'vins, the restrainers (of desire), for the 
acceleration ofyour chariot with the swiftness ofthe wind; (priests) offer 
praise and oblations to the celestial destroyer of life, to the accmplisher of 
the sacrifice.[Celestial destroyer of life: divo asura_ya = dyotama_na_ya 
pra_n.a_pahartre, that is, to Rudra; yajyave =ya_gasa_dhaka_ya; asura = 
pra_n.ada_ta_, the giver, of life, when it will imply Su_rya or Va_yu]. 

5.041.04 May the divine accepter of sacrifice, of whom the Kan.vas are the 
priests, Tr.ta, Va_yu and Agni,concurring in satisfaction with (the ruler of) 
heaven, or (Su_rya and) Pu_s.an and Bhaga, and they who are theprotectors of the 
universe, (come quickly) to the sacrifice, as the fleet course rush to battle. 
[Trita: may be anepithet of Va_yu; the threefold, pervading the three regions of 
heaen, mid-air and earth]. 

5.041.05 Maruts, do you bring wealth comprising horses; to acquire and preserve 
riches the wise man offers youpraise; may the ministrant priest, (Atri), of the 
son of Us'ij (Kaks.i_vat), be made happy by those swift-going(horses) which are 
the swift-going (horses), Maruts, of you who are rapid in motion. 

5.041.06 Prevail, (priests), by your prayers, on Va_yu, the divine, the 
fulfiller of desires, the adorable, to harnesshis chariot; may the light-moving 
accepters of sacrifice, the lovely and excellent wives (of the gods), come 
hitherto our rite. 

5.041.07 Mighty Day and Night, to you, along with the adorable (deities) of 
heaven, I present (the oblation) withprayers delighting and explicit; knowing, 
like two sages, all (that is required), do you bring (it) to the worshipperfor 
his sacrifice. 

5.041.08 I glorify you, leaders (of rites), cherishers (of many), gratifying 
(with oblation, you) Tvas.t.a_ the lord offoundations, and the goddess of 
speech, bestower of opulence, and share in the satisfaction (of the 
otherdivinities); also the lords of the forest, and the herbs, that I may obtain 

5.041.09 May the Parvatas be (bountiful) to us in liberal donations; may they be 
favourable (to us) who are theestablishers (of the world) like heroes; may the 
adored and adorable (deity), who is accessible (to all), who isfriendly to man, 
ever grant us increase, being propitiated by our praise. [The Parvatas: the 
clouds; in liberaldonations: tuje nastane: tane = vistr.te, expanded; tuje = 
da_ne, gift; or, tuje = son; tane = grandson; accessibleto all: a_ptyo yajatah: 
a_ptyo = a_ptavyah sarvaih, to be obtained by all; yajatah = yajani_ya, to be 
worshipped,that is, A_ditya; propitiated by our praise: nah s'am.sam abhis.t.au 
= our praise in seeking or approaching]. 

5.041.10 I glorify with unqualified praise the embryo of the earth-fertilizing 
rain, the grandson of the waters, Agni,who is threefold, who rages (upon me) 
not, when travelling with (his) withering rays, but, bright-haired consumesthe 
forests. [Earth-fertilizing rain: vr.s.n.o bhu_myasya garbham: bhu_mya = suited 
to the earth or the firmament,bhu_mir antarks.am; in the latter case, the embryo 
of the firmamental rain will mean Agni as the lightning; with hiswithering rays: 
gr.n.i_te agni etari_ na s'u_s.aih = mayi gantari na krudhyati sukhakarai 
ras'mibhih, who is notangry upon me when going with his agreeable rays; but, 
s'us.a = drying up]. 

5.041.11 Howcan we offer (fit praise) to the mighty posterity of Rudra, or to 
the all-knowing Bhaga, for (the sakeof obtaining) riches; may the waters, may 
the plants, protect us, and the heaven, the woods, and the mountains,whose 
tresses are trees. 

5.041.12 May the lord of vigour, (Va_yu), hear our prayers, he who traverses the 
firmament, the circumambient;may the waters hear, bright as cities, flowing 
round the towering mountains. [Bright as cities: puro na s'ubhra_h =pura_n.i iva 
dipta, shining like cities]. 

5.041.13 Mighty Maruts, of goodly aspect, quickly hear (the praises) that we who 
repair to you repeat, offeringacceptable (oblations); (the Maruts) coming 
hither, well disposed, come down to us, (destroying) with theirweapons the 
mortals opposed to them, (overcome) by agitation. 

5.041.14 I offer adoration to the company of the Maruts deserving of sacred 
sacrifice, to obtain the waters,whether born of heaven or earth; may my praises 
prosper; may the joy-bestowing heavens (flourish); may therivers cherished (by 
the Maruts) be filled with water. 

5.041.15 My praise has been continually proffered as a protectress, powerful 
with (the means of) preservation;may the maternal and venerable earth accept our 
(praises), and, (pleased) with her pious (worshippers) be (tous) straight-
handed, and the giver of good. [As a protectress: varu_tri_ = asmad 
upadravavarayitri_, what or whokeeps off oppression upon us]. 

5.041.16 How may we (duly) worship the liberal (Maruts) with praise, how adore 
the Maruts with present praisein a fitting manner, the glorious Maruts with 
present praise? may Ahirbudhnya contrive nor for our harm; may hebe the 
destroyer (of our enemies). 

5.041.17 The mortal (sacrificer) worships you, gods, at all times for progeny 
and cattle; verily, gods, the mortalworships you; may Nirr.ti, on this occasion, 
sustain my body with salutary food, and keep off decay. 

5.041.18 Divine Vasus, may we obtain from the adorable cow invigorating and 
mind-sustaining food; may thatliberal and benignant goddess, hastening (I, her), 
come for our felicity. 

5.041.19 May Il.a_, the mother of the herd, and Urvas'i_ with the rivers, be 
favourable to us; may thebright-shining Urvas'i_ (come), commanding our 
devotion, and investing the worshipper with light. [Il.a_ andUrvas'i_: il.a_ = 
the earth, or the daughter of Manu, in the form of a cow, the mother of the 
herd, yu_thasyama_ta_; or, the latter may be applied to the company of the 
Maruts, when Il.a_ may be madhyamika_ va_k,middle, articulate or human speech; 
or, the latter sense may be applied to Urvas'i_; investing the worshipper 
withlight: abhyu_rn.arva_na_ prabhr.thasya_ yoh: the latter term should be read 
ayum, in the accusative, man or theyajama_na; prabhr.ta = light, tejas, or 
water, udakam (Nirukta 2.49) and being in the genitive, requires da_nena,by the 
gift of; or, the ellipse may be filled up by yajn~am, when the sentence will be: 
covering or protecting thesacrifice of the man making the offering]. 

5.041.20 May she cherish us (as the servants) of our patron U_rjavya. [sis.aktu 
na u_rjavyasya pus.t.eh: urjavyais the name of a ra_ja_; pus.t.eh = pos.akasya, 
one who cherishes or patronizes; the nominative to the verb maybe either 
Urvas'i_ or Il.a_ or the Marudgan.ah, the company of the Maruts].

5.042.01 May our most animating praise, together with our offerings, 
successfully attain Varun.a, Mitra, Bhagaand Aditi; may the ministrant of the 
five (vital airs, Va_yu), the dweller in the dappled (firmament), he whose 
pathis unimpeded, who is the giver of life, the bestower of happiness, hear. 

5.042.02 May Aditi accept my affectionate and devoted praise, as a mother (the 
endearments of) a son; thepleasing, delightful prayer that is approved of by the 
gods I address to Varun.a and Mitra. 

5.042.03 Celebrate, (priests), the most prophetic of the prophets; imbue him 
with the sweet libation, and may thedivine Savita_ bestow upon us ample, 
beneficial and delightful riches. [The most prophetic of the prophets:kavitamam 
kavi_na_m: kavi = kra_nta dar'i_, a seer or shower of the past, whence may be 
inferred theapplication of his knowledge to the future]. 

5.042.04 With a (willing) mind, Indra, you associate us with cattle, with pious 
(priests) and, lord of steeds, withprosperity, with (sacrificial) food that is 
agreeable to the gods, and with the favour of the adorable deities. 

5.042.05 May the divine Bhaga, Savita_, the lord of wealth, Am.s'a, Indra (the 
slayer) of Vr.tra, (all) theconquerors of riches, R.bhuks.in, Va_ja and also 
Purandhi, immortals, hastening (to our sacrifice) preserve us.[R.bhuks.in: a 
name of Indra, but here it implies R.bhu, while Purandhi = Vibhu, making, with 
Va_ja, the triad.Am.s'a is an apparent reference to Soma]. 

5.042.06 We celebrate the exploits of Marutvat, the unrecoiling, the victorious, 
the undecaying; neither theancients, Maghavan, nor their successors, have 
attained your prowess, nor has any one recent attained it. 

5.042.07 Glorify the first donor of precious treasure, Br.haspati, the 
distributor of riches, the bestower of greathappiness upon him who recites or 
chants (his praise), who comes laden with ample wealth to his invoker. 

5.042.08 Associated, Br.haspati, with your protections, (men) are unharmed (by 
foes), and become opulent andblessed with descendants; may wealth devolve on 
those who are generous, and givers of horses, of cows, ofclothes. 

5.042.09 Render transitory the riches of those who partake of enjoyment without 
giving satisfaction (to those whoare eminent) by holy hymns; put apart from the 
sun those who perform not sacred rites, and who, thoughprospering in their 
posterity, are the adversaries of prayer. [Put apart from the sun: su_rya_d 
yavayasva, makethem separate, condemn them to darkness]. 

5.042.10 Send, Maruts, into darkness with (cars) devoid of wheels, the man who 
invites the ra_ks.asas to thefood of the gods; (him also) who reviles me when 
offering praise to you; while sweating, he toils (to realize) vaindesires. 

5.042.11 Praise him who has the sure arrow, the strong bow, who presides over 
all sanitary drugs; worshipRudra for a comprehensive and sound understanding; 
adore the powerful divinity with prostrations. 

5.042.12 May the dexterous-handed, humble-minded artist (of the gods, the 
R.bhus); may the wives of theshowerer (Indra); may the rivers carved out by 
Vibhu; may Sarasvati_ and the brilliant Ra_ka_, the illustriousgranters of 
desires, be willing to grant us riches. 

5.042.13 To the great protector, (Indra), I offer devout pious praise, new and 
originated (at this time); to him, theshowerer, who, for his daughter (earth), 
giving form to the rivers, has provided this water for our (use). 

5.042.14 May your pious praise, oh worshipper, assuredly reach the thundering, 
roaring lord of Il.a_, who,impelling the clouds and distributing the rain, 
proceeds, illuminating the heaven and earth with lightning. 

5.042.16 May this hymn reach up to the presence of the might of the Maruts the 
youthful sons of Rudra; thedesire of riches incites me to holiness; glorify 
those who go to sacrifice on spotted steeds. 

5.042.17 May we ever, gods, enjoy great and uninterrupted felicity. 

5.042.18 May we ever be participant of the unprecedented, joy-conferring and 
well-guided protection of theAs'vins; bring to us, immortal (As'vins), riches, 
male progeny, and all good things.

5.043.01 May the kine, quick-moving, doing no harm, come to us, (laden) with 
their sweet fluid; the wiseworshipper invokes the seven vast and joy-diffusing 
(rivers) for the sake of ample riches. [The kine: dhenavah =rivers]. 

5.043.02 (I purpose) to approach with pious praise, and with oblations, for (the 
sake of) uninjured heaven andearth may the paternal (heaven), and the sweet-
spoken, free-handed, maternal (earth), both enjoying renown,defens us in every 

5.043.03 Priests, who are preparing (the libation), first offer to Va_yu the 
delightful and brilliant (Soma); and doyou, divine Va_yu, like the Hota_, first 
drink of this sweet juice, which we offer for your exhilaration. [First drink 
ofthis sweet juice: va_yu's first drinking of the Soma is repeatedly enjoined, 
asakr.t prapan~citam]. 

5.043.04 The ten express of the juice, (the fingers), and the two arms of the 
priests, which are the dexterousimmolators of the Soma, take hold of the stone; 
the exulting, skilful-fingered (priest) milks the mountain-born juiceof the 
sweet Soma, and that Soma (yields its) pure juice. [The text has only s'ukram 
am.s'uh = sa ca am.su'hs'ukram nirmalam rasam dugdhe, and that Soma has milked 
the pure juice; or am.s'u may be an epithet ofadhvaryu, the extensively present 
priest, am.s'ur vya_pto adhvaryuh]. 

5.043.05 The Soma has been effused, (Indra), for your gratification, for (giving 
you) strength in action, and foryour great exhilaration; therefore Indra, when 
invoked by us, put to your two beloved, docile, well-trained horsesin your car, 
and come down. 

5.043.06 Agni, being well pleasd with us, bring to us, by paths frequented by 
the gods, the divine (female), Gna_,mighty and omnipresent, to whom oblations 
are offered with reverence, who is vast and cognizant of rites, topartake of the 
exhilaration of the sweet Soma. [Gna_ = stri_, a woman, a wife; commonly 
expresses the wife of adeity; here, it is a proper name, gna_m = etanna_mika_m 

5.043.07 The vessel which the priests, celebrating (it), supply with butter, as 
if roasting a marrow-yielding animalwith fire, has been placed, desirous of the 
sacrifice, upon the fire, like a son upon the lap of his father. [Thevessel: 

5.043.08 May this adoring, earnest, and gratifying praise go like a messenger to 
summon the As'vins hither;come, As'vins, givers of happiness, riding in one 
chariot, come down to the deposited (Soma), as the bolt (isessential) to the 
axle of the wagon. [As the cart cannot move if the axle of the wheel is not 
fastened by the pin orbolt, so the offering of the Soma is without efficacy 
unless the As'vins be present]. 

5.043.09 I offer adoration to the powerful and rapid Pu_s.an., and to (the 
powerful and rapid) Va_yu, who areboth instigators of the desire of wealth and 
of food, (who are both) distributors of riches. 

5.043.10 Bring hither Ja_tavedas, who are invoked by us all, the Maruts, under 
their several names and forms;come all you Maruts, with all your protecting 
faculties, to the sacrifice, the paises, and the adoration of theworshipper. 

5.043.11 May the radiant Sarasvati_ come to the sacrifice from the heavens or 
the spacious firmament; may thegoddess, the showerer of water, propitiated by 
our invocation, and desirous of our gratifying praises hear. 

5.043.12 (Priests) place the mighty Br.haspati, the creator whose back is dark 
blue, in the chamber (of sacrifice);let us worship him who is seated in the 
interior of the mansion, everywhere shining, golden-hued, resplendent.[Whose 
back is dark blue: that is, who is enveloped in smoke, from this and other 
attributes specified and hispresence in the sacrificial chamber, the inference 
is that Br.haspati is Agni, itya_di lin:gair apyagnir evaBr.haspatih]. 

5.043.13 May the sustainer of all, (Agni), the greatly radiant, the delighter, 
come, with all his protecting (faculties),when invoked; he who is clothed with 
flames and with plants; who is irresistible; who has horns of three colours,the 
showerer (of benefits), the accepter of oblations. [Horns of three colours: 
tridha_tu s'r.n:gah, his flames ofthree colours, red, white and black (or 
smoke). Or, tridha_tu may simply connote protrusions of three elementalores]. 

5.043.14 The holders of the (sacrificial) ladles, the ministrant priests of the 
man (who institutes the rite), haverepaired to the bright and most excellent 
place of the maternal (earth); offerers of the oblations, they foster thetender 
infant, (Agni), with worship, as people rub (the limbs of a child to promote 
his) existence. [The excellentplace: that is, to the first altar; as people rub 
the limbs: s'is'um mr.janti a_yavo na vase = yatha_ manus.ya s'is'umvasa_ya 
mr.janti, they rub the infant has double application, to the first kindling of 
Agni by attrition, and to thenew-born babe]. 

5.043.15 Married pairs, worn by devout rites; jointly offer abundant sacrificial 
food, Agni, to you who are mighty;may each individual divinity be successfully 
invoked by me; let them not take us into unfavourable thought.[Jointly offer: 
ja_ya_pati agnim adadhi_ya_ta_m, let husband and wife worship or keep up Agni]. 

5.043.16-7 May we ever be participant of the unprecedent joy-conferring, and 
well-guiding protection of theAs'vins bring to us, immortal (As'vins), riches, 
male progeny, and all good things.

5.044.01 In like manneer as the ancient (sages), those our predecessors, as all 
sages, and those of the presentperiod (have obtained their wishes by his 
praise), so do you by praise extract (my desires) from him who is theoldest and 
best (of the gods), who is seated on the sacred grass, who is cognizant of 
heaven, coming to ourpresence, vigorous, swift, victorious, for by such praises 
you exalt him. [Yajus. 7.12; by such praises you exalthim: Or, anu ya_su 
vardhase may be applied to Indra, you prosper, Indra, by such praises]. 

5.044.02 Do you, (Indra), who are radiant in heaven, spread through the regions, 
for the good (of mankind),those the beautiful (waters) of the unyielding cloud; 
doer of good deeds, you are the preserver (of men), not(destined) for their 
detriment; you are superior to all delusions; you names abides in the world of 

5.044.03 He, (Agni), is associated with the perpetual oblation that is the true 
(source of good); the sustainer ofall, he is of unrestricted movement, the 
offerer (of burnt-offerings), the cherisher of strength; gliding especiallyover 
the sacred grass, the showerer (of benefits); an infant, a youth, exempt from 
decay, whose place is amongplants. 

5.044.04 These well-combined rays (of the sun) are descending with intent to 
proceed on the path (of thesacrifice), amplifiers of the ceremony for this (its 
institutor); operating with these swift-moving, all-regulating rays,he, 
(A_ditya) steals the waters (that flow) in low places. 

5.044.05 Object of honest eulogies (Agni), you shine among the reciters of your 
praises when the Soma isreceived at its effusion by the wooden (cups), and you 
accepting (the beverage), are animated by theheart-affecting (praises); giver of 
life, increase in the sacrifice your protecting flames. [The verse is 
anextraordinary play on words; literally, it reads: seizing with the trees the 
seized in the effused, the produce of thebranching, in the embryos of the mind 
well-moving, (or) well praised, among the speech holders, straight-sung,you 
shine, augment the protectresses, the life in the sacrifice]. 

5.044.06 Such as (the deity) is beheld, such is he said (to be); they abide with 
concentrated splendour in thewaters; (may they bestow) upon us honourable and 
ample (riches) great energy, numerous male offspring andundecaying vigour. 

5.044.07 The sage Su_rya, advancing, accompanied by his bride, (the dawn), 
proceeds boldly, intent on combatwith his enemies; may he on whom riches are 
dependent, secure our entire felicity, (and grant) a brilliant andeverywhere 
protecting mansion. 

5.044.08 The (pious man) proceeds to you, most excellent (of the gods, who are 
indicated) by the sign of thismoving (revolution); who are hymned by the r.s.is 
in whose praises youyr name (is glorified); he obtains thatblessing by his 
devotion, on whatsoever (his desire) has been fixed; and he also, who of his own 
accord offers(worship) acquires abundant (reward). [By the sign of this moving 
revolution: asya yatunasya ketuna is the textwhich is explained: karman.odaya_di 
laks.an.ena, characterized by functions such as rising and the like; 
healso...acquires abundant reward: ya u svayam vahate so aram karat = he who, 
not urged by another, entertainsof his own mind the hope of reward, he does, 
much, or enough; atyartham karoti is one explanation; another is,atyartham 
kurya_t, let him do much, or enough]. 

5.044.09 The chief of these (our praises) proceed to the ocean-like sun; that 
chamber of sacrifice fails not inwhich (his praises) are prolonged; there are 
heart's desire of the worshiper is not disappointed where the mind isknown to be 
attached to the pure (sun). 

5.044.10 He verily (it to be glorified); let us, with the pleasant thoughts of 
Ks.atra, Manasa, Avada, Vajada,Sadhri and Avatsara, fill up the invigorating 
food (the portion) to be shared by the wise. [ks.atra, manasa...: theseare the 
names of the r.s.is]. 

5.044.11 Swift is the excessive and girth-distending inebriation of 
Vis'vava_ra_, Yajata and Ma_yin; (by drinking)of these (juices) they urge one 
another to drink; they find the copious draught the prompt giver of 
intoxication.[Swift is...inebriation: s'yena a_sa_m aditih kaks.yo madah: s'yena 
= s'i_ghra, quick; aditi = atisamr.ddhah;a_sa_m = of these, Soma juices; mada = 
intoxication, is the devata_ of the verse]. 

5.044.12 May Sada_pr.n.a, Yajata, Bahuvr.kta, S'rutavit, Tarya, associated with 
you, destoy, your foes; the r.s.iobtains his desires in both (worlds), and 
shines brightly, whenever he adores with well-mingled (offerings andpraises) the 
host (of heaven). [Sada_pr.n.a... names of r.s.is]. 

5.044.13 Sutambhara, is the ministrant priest of the institutor of the 
sacrifice, the causer of the upward ascent ofall holy rites; the cow offers 
juicy (milk); the milk is distributed; announcing this in order (Avasta_ra) 
studies (theholy texts) without repose. [The ministrant priest: sutambharo 
yajama_nasya satpatih: satpatih = hota_;sutambhara = name of a r.s.i, 
etymologically, the bearer or offerer of the oblation; hence, possibly a 
metaphoricalpersonation and in the context, merely describes the effusion of the 

5.044.14 Him who is ever vigilant, holy verses desire; to him who is ever 
vigilant sacred songs proceed; him whois ever vigilant the Soma thus addresses, 
I am always abiding in your fellowship. 

5.044.15 Agni is ever vigilant, and him holy verses desire; Agni is ever 
vigilant, and to him sacred songs proceed;Agni is ever vigilant, and him the 
Soma addresses, I am ever abiding in your fellowship.

5.045.01 (Indra) recovered (the hidden cattle), hurling his thunderbolt from 
heaven at the prayers of theAn:girasas; the rays of the approaching dawn are 
spread around; the divine sun, scattering the clustered gloom,has risen and set 
open the doors of (the habitations of) men. 

5.045.02 The sun distributes his radiance as it was a substance; the parent of 
the rays of light, (the dawn),knowing his approach, comes from the spacious 
(firmament); the rivers with running waters flow, breaking downtheir banks; the 
heaven is stable like a well-constructed pillar. 

5.045.03 To me, when offering praise, as to an ancient author of sacred songs, 
the burden of the cloud(descends); the cloud parts (with its burden); the sky 
performs (its office); he assiduously worshipping An:girasasare exhausted by 
much (adoration). [Ancient author of sacred songs: mahi_na_m janus.e pu_rvya_ya 
=stu_tina_m utpa_dayitre pratnaya_, to an ancient begetter or producer of 
praises; the cloud = the mountain,parvata]. 

5.045.04 I Indra and Agni, I invoke you for my salvation with well-uttered 
words, agreeable to the gods; for verily,sages excelling in sacrifice, and 
diligently adoring, worship you with sacred songs, prompt as the Maruts 

5.045.05 Come today quickly; let us be engaged in pious acts; let us entirely 
annihilate the hostile; let us keep offall sacred enemies; let us hasten to the 
presence of the institutor of the rite. 

5.045.06 Come, friends, let us celebrate that solemn rite which was effectual in 
setting open the (secret) stalls ofthe (stolen) cattle; by which Manu overcame 
Vis'is'ipra; by which the merchant, going to the wood (for it),obtained the 
water. [Vis'isipra: manur vis'isipram jiga_ya = Manu conquered the enemy without 
a chin, or as s'iprameans also a nose, it might mean noseless; Indra and Vr.tra 
may be here intended; by which the merchant: van.ijvan:kur a_pa_ puri_s.am: an 
allusion to the legend of kaks.i_va_n]. 

5.045.07 At this sacrifice the stone (set in motion) by the hands (of the 
priests) makes a noise, whereby thenine-months ministrants celebrated the ten-
months worship; when Sarama_, going to the ceremony, discoveredthe cattle, and 
An:giras rendered all the rites effective. [Ten-months worship: or, when the 
priests of both the nineand ten months rites offered worship; Sarama_: may 
signify either flowing, eulogistic, or sacred speech,s'aran.as'i_la_ stutiru_pa 
va_k, or, as usual, the bitch of Indra]. 

5.045.08 When all the An:girasas, on the opening of this adorable dawn, came in 
contact with the (discovered)cattle, then milk and the rest were offered in the 
august assembly, for Sarama_ had found cows by the path oftruth. 

5.045.09 May Su_rya, lord of seven steeds, arrive, for he has a distant goal (to 
reach) by a tedious route; fleet asa hawk he pounces upon the offered 
(sacrificial) food; ever young and far-seeing, he shines, moving amidst raysof 

5.045.10 Su_rya has ascended above the glistening water, as soon as he has put 
to his bright-backed steeds;sage (worshippers) have drawn him, like a ship, 
across the sea; the waters hearing his commands, have comedown. [Su_rya has 
ascended: su_ryo aruhat s'ukram arn.as = su_rya has mounted the bright water, 
that is, hehas become everywhere visible, but it may be an allusion to the sun's 
rising apparently out of the sea]. 

5.045.11 I offer to you, (gods), for the sake of water, an all-bestowing 
sacrifice, whereby the nine-monthsministrants have completed the ten-months 
rite; may we, by this sacrifice, be the protected of the gods; may we,by this 
sacrifice, cross over the boundaries of sin.

5.046.01 The sage, (Pratiks.atra), has, of his own accord, attached himself to 
the burden (of sacrifice), like ahorse (to a chariot); I support that 
transcendent and preservative load; I do not desire release from it, nor yet 
itsreiterated imposition; the sage, going first, conducts (men) by the right 

5.046.02 Agni, Indra, Varun.a, Mitra, gods, confer (upon us) strength; or, 
company of the Maruts, or Vis.n.u,(bestow it); and may both the Na_satyas, 
Rudra, the wives of the gods, Pu_s.an, Bhaga, Sarasvati_, be pleased(by our 

5.046.03 I invoke for protection Indra and Agni, Mitra and Varun.a, Aditi, Svar, 
Earth, Heaven, the Maruts, theclouds, the waters, Vis.n.u, Pu_s.an., 
Brahman.aspati and Savita_. [Yajus. 33.49; Svar = a name of A_ditya]. 

5.046.04 Or may Vis.n.u grant us felicity, or the innoxious wind, or Soma the 
bestower of riches; or may theR.bhus, the As'vins, Tvas.t.a_, or Vibhvan be 
favourably disposed to our enrichment. 

5.046.05 Or may the adorable, heaven-abiding company of the Maruts, come to us 
to take their seats on thesacred grass; or may Br.haspati, Pu_s.an., Varun.a, 
Mitra, Aryaman, bestow upon us domestic happiness. 

5.046.06 Or may the glorious mountains, the beneficient rivers, be to us for our 
preservation; may Bhaga, theapportioner of wealth, come with abundance and 
protection; may this wide-pervading Aditi hear my invocation. 

5.046.07 May the wives of the gods, desiring (our homage), defend us; may they 
so protect us that (we mayobtain) vigorous (offspring) and abundant food; 
whether terrestrial, or those in charge of the waters (in thefirmament), do you, 
goddesses, earnestly invoked, bestow upon us felicity. 

5.046.08 Or may the goddesses, the wives of the gods, accept (the offering); 
Indra_n.i_, Agna_yi_, the radiantAs'vini_ Rodasi, Varun.a_ni, may each hear (our 
prayer); may the goddesses partake (of the oblation); may the(personified) 
season of the wives of the gods, accept it. [Rodasi: wife of Rudra; earlier, she 
had been referred toas the bride of the Maruts; may the goddesses partake: 
vyantu devi_h, may the goddesses eat (Nirukta 12.46);the seacon of the wives of 
the gods: ya r.tur jani_na_m that which is the time of the wives of the gods, 
that is, thegoddesses presiding over it: yo devajayanam ka_lastadabhima_na 

5.047.01 Arousing (men to their labours), the adorable (Dawn) comes from the 
heaven, a mighty mother, theawakener of her daughter (earth); pious, ever young, 
and glorified (she comes), when invoked, to the chamber ofsacrifice with the 
protcting (gods0. [Awakener of her daughter: duhitur bodhayanti_ = bhu_mya_ 
bodhamkurva_n.a_, making or awaking of the daughter, of the earth; us.as is 
called divor duhita_ bhuvanasya patni_, thedaughter of heaven, the bride of 
earth; generally, she is designated the daughter of heaven]. 

5.047.02 The rays (of light) extending round, fulfilling, their duty (of 
bringing on the day), abiding in contact withthe orb of the immortal (sun), 
unlimited and diffusive, spread everywhere through heaven and earth. 

5.047.03 The showerer (of rain), the shedder of dew, the radiant and quick-going 
(car) has entered the region ofthe paternal east; the many-tinted and pervading 
(luminary) proceeds to both extremities of the firmament, (andso) preserves (the 
world). [Many-tinted and pervading luminary: pr.s.n.ir as'ma_ vicakrame 
rajaspatyantau: as'ma= vya_paka or sarvatra vya_pta, pervading; also, it means, 
a stone, an allusion to a pa_s.a_n.a, or stone, whichin some ceremonies is 
placed in the a_havani_ya fire; as'ma may also imply a simile, the term of 
comparisonbeing dropped, luptopama_ va_ as'ma_ sa_dr.s'ah]. 

5.047.04 The four (chief priests) sustain him (with oblation and praises), 
seeking their own welfare; the ten(regions of space) invigorate him, their 
embryo, to travel (his daily course); his three elementary rays swiftlytraverse 
the boundaries of the sky. [The four chief priests: the text has only catva_rah, 
four; r.tvijah are implied;his three elementary rays: tridha_tavo ga_vah, 
supposed to be the causes of cold, heat and rain. Or, simply threeore elements: 
copper, silver, gold]. 

5.047.05 (Behold), men, this indescribable form from which the rivers (spring), 
and where the waters dwell; when(form, the firmament), the two, (day and night), 
associated and equally allied, as well as other (seasons), born (ofit, as of a 
parent), here and there sustain. [(Behold): may be rendered also, as men, look 
at the form which is tobe seen; here and there sustain: apparently the firmament 
is supported or maintained in its place by the variouschanges of times and 
seasons which it may be considered to generate]. 

5.047.06 To him (worshippers) multiply praises and acts of adoration; for (him 
as for) a son, the (divine) mothersweave garments (of light); rejoicing in the 
contact of their impregnation, the wives of the sun, (the solar rays),come to 
our presence by the path of the sky. 

5.047.07 May this (hymn), Mitra and Varun.a, be valued (by you); may it, Agni, 
be valued (by you) as the meansto us of happiness unmixed; may we (thence) 
obtain stability and permanence; reverence be to you and mightyasylum (of the 

5.048.01 When may we offer adoration to the benevolent splendour, strong in its 
own (strength), self-sustainingwith food, deserving of worship; when the 
delusive (energy of Agni), investing (the heavens), spreads the watersabove the 
clouds over the unbounded firmament. [This is addressed to Agni as the 

5.048.02 These dawns diffuse the consciousness that is apprehended by pious men, 
and (overspread) the wholeworld with uniform, investing (light); the devout man 
disregards the dawns which have turned back, and (thosewhich) are to come, and 
improves (his understanding) by those which have proceeded. [The dawns 
whichhave...: a_po apa_ci_r apara_ apejate: apacih = pratinivr.ttamukhih; apara_ 
= agaminir us.asah; apejate =apa_calayati, he causes to go away; he sends away 
future dawns with averted faces; improves hisunderstanding: pra 
pu_rva_bhistirate = pratirate: vardhayati sva manis.am or svayam vardhate]. 

5.048.03 (Animated) by the libations offered by day and by night, (Indra) 
sharpens his vast thunderbolt againstthe beguiler (Vr.tra); he whose hundred 
(rays) attend him in his own abode, sending away, and bringing back(revolving) 

5.048.04 (I behold) the practice of that (Agni) as of a deputy (or axe); I 
celebrate the host (of rays) of that(resplendent) form, (designed) for the 
enjoyment (of mankind); if he be with (the worshipper), he bestows uponthe man 
who invokes him at a sacrifice such opulence as a mansion abounding with food. 
[As of a depty: ta_masya ri_tim paras'or iva: the verb is supplied, pas'ya_mi; 
paras'u = pratinidhi, a deputy, a substitute; just a depytfulfils the will of 
his master, so the functions of Agni make him the deputy or representative of 
the yajama_na; orparas'u may imply an axe, which accomplishes the object of the 
wood-cutter, as Agni does that of the sacrificer]. 

5.048.05 Blazing with his (fiery) tongue in the four quarters (of the horizon) 
he proceeds (to the sacrifice),wearing beautiful (lustre), the disperser of 
darkness, extirpating foes; we know him not (as endowed) withmanhood, whereby 
this adorable Savita_ bestows desirable (wealth). [We know him not as endowed: 
na tasyavidma purus.atvata vayam: tasya = tam, we do not know him; joined with 
or possessed of yuktam, manliness,purus.atvena, or the property of fulfilling 
desires, ka_ma_na_m pu_rakatvena].

5.049.01 For you, (worshippers), I approach today the divine Savita_ and Bhaga, 
the distributors of precious(wealth) among men; As'vins, (leaders of rites), 
enjoyers of many (good things), desiring your friendship, I solicityour daily 
presence. [Distributors of precious wealth: the function was assigned to Bhaga 
(RV. 5.046.06), bhagovibhakta, dhana_na_m vibha_gakartta_; here he is called 
ratnam vibhajantam: ratnam is applied to havis., theoblation; yajama_na_rtham 
dhanam vibhajantam; in RV. 4.017.11, he is called rayo vibhakta]. 

5.049.02 Knowing the approach of the expeller (of the foes of the gods from 
heaven), worship the divine Savita_with holy hymns; praise him with reverence, 
distinguishing him as distributing precious (treasures) among men. 

5.049.03 Pu_s.an, Bhaga, Aditi bestow (severally) excellent viands; the fierce 
(sun) robes (himself with radiance);the good-looking (deities), Indra, Vis.n.u, 
Varun.a, Mitra, Agni, give birth to happy days. [Bestow excellent 
viands:adatraya_ dayate va_rya_n.i: adatraya_ = adani_ya_ni, eatables; Agni 
consumes excellent consumable timbers,varan.i_ya_ni ka_s.t.ha_ni dahate; the 
other terms are epithets: nourishing, the desirable, the uninjurable Agni]. 

5.049.04 May the irreproachable Savita_ (grant) us that desirable (wealth); may 
the flowing rivers hasten to(convey) it to us; for which purpose I, the 
ministering priest of the sacrifice, repeat (pious praises); affluent infood, 
may we be the lords of (manifold) riches. 

5.049.05 May ample wealth devolve upon those who have presented victims to the 
Vasus, and upon those whohave repeated praises to Mitra and Varun.a confer upon 
them, (gods), felicity, and may we rejoice in theprotection of heaven and earth. 
[Presented victims to the Vasus: pra ye vasubhya i_vada_ namah: i_vada_namah = 
gamanavad annana, food having motion, that is pas'va_tmakam, the same with 

5.050.01 Let every man solicit the friendship of the divine leader (of heaven 
and sun); let every man desire (ofhim) riches; let him request affluence 
(wherewith) to nourish (his descendants). [Yajus. 4.8]. 

5.050.02 Divine (leader of heaven), these (worshippers) are yours, and (so are 
they) who praise these (othergods); these (borth) we associate with opulence, we 
(seek) to unite with (our) desires. [te ra_ya_ hi a pr.cesacemahi sacathyai = te 
ubhaye dhanena sacemahi te hi te aparcaniyah sarvaih ka_maih san:gacchemahi]. 

5.050.03 Worship, therefore, the leaders (of our rites), our guests, (the gods), 
and the wives (of the deities); maythe (divine) discriminator drive to a 
distance every adversary, (and all our) enemies. [Worship, therefore... : atona 
a_ nr.n atithi_n atah patni_r das'asyata = bestow upon us male descendants, 
guests, and wives]. 

5.050.04 Whence the victim fit to be bound, the subject (of the sacrifice), has 
been stationed (at the sacrificialpost); he, (Savita_), with mind well disposed 
towards the worshiper, the donor of dwellings and descendants islike a clever 
wife, the bestower (of wealth). [Whence the victim: yatra vahnir abhihitah = 
where the fire is placed;may also be vahni, yajn~asya vod.ha_, the bearer of the 
sacrifice, which, from the following epithet, dron.ya, fitfor the tree, that is, 
for the yu_pa, or post to which the animal is tied, must mean pas'u, the victim; 
like a cleverwife: arn.a) dhi_reva = aran.a_kus'ala yosidviva, like a woman 
skilful in going or in pleasing]. 

5.050.05 Leader (of heaven), may this your protecting chariot, laden with 
riches, (come for our) happiness;praisers of the honoured (Savita_), we glorify 
him for felicity through well-being; praisers of the gods, we glorify(them).

5.051.01 Come, Agni, with all the protecting deities, to drink the libation; 
come with the gods. [The protectingdeities: u_mebhih = raks.akaih]. 

5.051.02 (Gods who are) devoutly praised and worshipped in truth, come to the 
sacrifice, and drink the libationwith the tongue of Agni. 

5.051.03 Sage and adorable Agni, come with the wise and early-stirring 
divinities to drink the Soma libation. 

5.051.04 This Soma juice, effused into the ladles, is poured out into the vase, 
acceptable to Indra and Va_yu. 

5.051.05 Come, Va_yu, propitious to the offerer of the libation, to partake of 
the sacrificial food, and drink of theeffused juice. 

5.051.06 Indra and Va_yu, you ought to tdrink these libations; be gratified by 
them, benevolent (divinities), andpartake of the sacrificial food. 

5.051.07 The Soma juices mixed with curds are poured out to Indra and to Va_yu; 
the sacrificial viands proceedto you as rivers flow downwards. 

5.051.08 Accompanied by all the gods, accompanied by the As'vins, and by Us.as, 
come Agni, and like Atridelight in the libation. [Atri = sacrifice of the r.s.i; 
delight as at the yajn~a of Atri]. 

5.051.09 Accompanied by Mitra and Varun.a, accompanied by Soma and Vis.n.u, 
come, Agni and like Atri, delightin the libation. 

5.051.10 Accompanied by A_ditya and the Vasus accompanied by Indra nad by Va_yu, 
come, Agni, and like, Atri,delight in the libation. 

5.051.11 May the As'vins contribute to our prosperity; may Bhaga, and the divine 
Aditi (contribute) to (our)prosperity; may the irrestible Vis.n.u, the scatterer 
(of foes), bestow upon us prosperity; may the consciousHeaven and Earth (bestow 
upon us) prosperity. [May the As'vins contribute: svasti : svasti no mimi_ta_m 
as'vina_= avinas'am ks.emam, imperishable prosperity; or, literally well-being, 

5.051.12 We glorify Va_yu for prosperity, Soma for prosperity, he who is the 
protector of the world; (we praise)Br.haspati (attended by) all the companies 
(of the deities), for prosperity, and for our prosperity may the A_dityasbe 

5.051.13 May all the gods be with us today for our prosperity may Agni, the 
benefactor of all men, and giver ofdwellings, (be with us) for (our) prosperity; 
may the divine R.bhus protect us for (our) prosperity; may Rudrapreserve us from 
iniquity for (our) prosperity. 

5.051.14 Mitra and Varun.a, grant us prosperity; path (of the firmament), and 
goddess of riches, (grant us)prosperity; may Indra and Agni (grant us) 
prosperity; Aditi, bestow prosperity upon us. [Path of the firmament:pathye, 
revati are two proper names; pathye = goddess presiding over the antariks.a; 
revati = goddess presidingover riches]. 

5.051.15 May we ever follow prosperously our path, like the sun and the moon; 
may we be associated with arequiting, grateful and recognisant (kinsman). 
[punardadata_ aghnata_ ja_nata_ = with one who gives again, onewho does not kill 
or harm, i.e., one who not make an evil return to kindness, one who is grateful 
(one who doesnot inflict injury by long-suspended anger); ja_nata_ = by one 
knowing, one who does not cut an oldacquaintance, madhiyas' ciraka_lam gatah ko 
ayam iti sandeham akurvatu, by one who does not feel any doubt,saying, whos is 
this of mine that has been long since gone away; all these apply to bandhujana, 
a kinsman:bandhujanena san:gamemahi].

5.052.01 Offer, worship with perseverance, S'ya_va_s'va, to the praise-deserving 
Maruts; they who are adorableand delight in the daily offered and inoffensive 
sacrificial food. 

5.052.02 They are the firm friends of steady vigour, who, proceeding resolute on 
their way, willingly protect (our)numerous (descendants). 

5.052.03 Gliding along, and shedding moisture, they pass through the nights; 
therefore we now celebrate themight of the Maruts, manifested in both heaven and 

5.052.04 We enjoin you, (priests), to offer earnestly praise and sacrifice to 
the Maruts, who through all humanages, protect the mortal worshipper from harm. 

5.052.05 Offer sacrifice to the adorable Maruts, who (have come) from heaven, 
who are worthy of worship,munificent leaders (of rites), and possessors of 
unequalled strength. 

5.052.06 Leaders (of the rains), the mighty Maruts shine with brilliant 
ornaments and weapons, and hurl javelin(at their foes, the clouds); the 
lightnings like roaring (torrents), daily follow the Maruts; the radiance of 
theresplendent (cohort) spontaneously breaks forth. 

5.052.07 The Maruts, who are of the earth are augmented, so are those in the 
vast firmament; they increase inthe force of the rivers, and in the aggregate of 
the spacious heaven. [The Maruts who are of the earth: yepa_rthiva_ = 
pr.thivisambaddhah, connected with the earth]. 

5.052.08 Glorify the truth-invigorated and infinite strength of the Maruts, for 
they, the leaders (of the rains),gliding along, are labouring voluntarily for 
(our) good. 

5.052.09 Whether they (abide) on the Parus.n.i (river), or, purifying (all), 
they clothe themselves with light, orwhether they break through the clouds with 
strength by the wheels of their chariots. [urn.a_ vasata s'undhyavah= diptih 
s'odhikah a_ccha_dayanti = purifiers they put on light]. 

5.052.10 (Whether), following the paths that lead (to us), or that spread 
diversely, or those that sink into thehollows (of the mountain), or those that 
extend smoothly, they, (however) scattered, accept the sacrifice for mybenefit, 
(when invoked by these appellations). [The paths that lead us: a_pathayah 
vipathayah antaspatha_hanupatha_h: may also be considered as the proper names of 
these four orders of the Maruts]. 

5.052.11 Now, leaders (of the rains), they support (the world); now, blending 
together, they bear (the oblation)now, situated remote, (they uphold distant 
objects); so may their manifold forms be manifest. [They uphold thedistant 
objects: the text has only adha_ para_vata_: the latter is formed from paravat, 
du_rades'ah, a distantplace or country, tat sambandhinah being in relation to 
it; i.e., the winds being in the firmament give support tothe distant stars and 

5.052.12 The reciters of sacred metres, desirous of water, and celebrating (the 
Maruts), have drawn them to(provide) a well (for Gotama); some of them 
(invisible) as thieves, have been my defenders; some have been(obvious) to view 
through the light (of life).  

5.052.13 Glorify, R.s.i, with grateful praise, the company of the Maruts, who 
are manifest, bright with lightninglances, who are wise, and the creators (of 
all things). 

5.052.14 Approach, R.s.i, with offerings and with praise, the company of the 
Maruts like a friend; come,sustaining (Maruts), with your strength, from heaven 
of (any other region), glorified by our hymns. [Like a friend:mitram na may also 
be rendered a_dityam iva, like the sun]. 

5.052.15 Glorifying them promptly, desiring not to bring (other) deities to 
(his) presence, let (the worshipper)associate his gifts with those wise 
(divinities) renowned for their velocity, and distributors (of rewards). 

5.052.16 To me, inquiring of their kindred, the sage (Maruts) have uttered a 
reply; they have declaree Pr.s.n.i (tobe their) mother; the mighty ones have 
declared the food-bestowing Rudra (to be their) father. [Seven timesseven: there 
are seven toops of Maruts, each consisting of seven, making up the number of 

5.052.17 May the seven times seven all-potent (Maruts, aggregated as) a single 
troop, bestow upon mehundreds (of cattle) may I possess wealth of cows, renowned 
upon the (banks of) the Yamuna_; may I possesswealth of horses. [Upon the banks 
of Yamuna_: yamuna_ya_m adhi s'rutam ra_dho gavyam: an extraordinaryallusion 
anticipating Gokula of Kr.s.n.a].

5.053.01 Who knows the birth of these (Maruts)? who has formerly been 
(participant) of the enjoyments of them(by whom) the spotted deer are harnessed 
(to their chariots)? 

5.053.02 Who has head them, when standing in their cars, (declare) whither they 
go? Upon what liberalworshipper do their kindred rains descend together with 
manifold food? 

5.053.03 To me have they spoken; they have come to me with radiant steeds to 
(drink) the exhilaratingbeverage; to them (they have said), when, beholding 
them, who are the formless leaders (of rites), and friends ofman, repeat our 
prais. [Formless: arepasah alepa = intangible]. 

5.053.04 (The praise of them) who are all self-irradiating splendid in 
ornaments, in arms, in garlands, inbreast-plates, in bracelets, in chariots, in 
bows. [In bracelets: kha_dis.u; in an earlier text kha_di = hasta tranaka,a 
guard for the hand or arm (RV. 1.23.43); here, it is explained as: 
hastapa_dasthita kat.aha_h = rings for thehands or feet,bracelets or anklets]. 

5.053.05 I contemplate your chariots, munificent Maruts, with delight, like 
wandering lights in the rains. 

5.053.06 Leaders (of the rain), munificent givers, they cause that which is the 
treasury (of water) to fall from thesky for (the benefit of) the donor (of the 
offering); they let loose the rain cloud, and the shedders of rain 
spread(everywhere) with (abundant) water. 

5.053.07 The gliding (torrents), issuing (from the clouds), overspread the 
firmament with water, as cows (yieldmilk), and like rapid horses let loose upon 
the road, the rivers rush in various directions. 

5.053.08 Come, Maruts, from heaven, from the firmament, or from this (earth); 
tarry not far off. 

5.053.09 Let not the Rasa, the Anitabha_, the Kubha_, or the wide-roving ocean 
delay you; let not the waterySarayu oppose you; may the happiness of your 
(approach) be ours. [Rasa, Anitabha_, Kubha_: names of rivers;the wide-roving 
ocean: kramuh sindhuh = sarvatra kraman.ah samudra, the every-where going 

5.053.10 I praise that brilliant company of the Maruts, who have your strength 
of recent chariots, you whom therains attend. 

5.053.11 Let us wait with sacred praises and holy rites upon your several 
strength, and separate troop, andindividual company. 

5.053.12 To what well-born and oblation-giving (worshipper) will the Maruts 
today in tthis their car? 

5.053.13 With the same (goodwill) that you bestow imperishable grain-seed upon a 
son or grandson, bestow itupon us, for we ask of you life-sustaining and 
auspicious wealth. [Imperishable grain-seed: dha_nyam bi_jamaks.itam: 
unperishing grain-seed]. 

5.053.14 May we overcomeour secret and reviling adversaries, having departed 
from iniquity by good deeds;may we possess, Maruts, through the rain (sent by 
you), unmixed happiness, water, cattle and herbs. 

5.053.15 Renowned (host of) Maruts, leaders (of rites), that mortal is favoured 
by the gods, and blessed withprogeny, whom you protet; may we be such as he is. 

5.053.16 Praise the givers of enjoyment, (the Maruts), at the sacrifice of this 
worshiper, (for they) delight in (piouspraise) like cattle in fodder; wherefore 
call upon them as if upon friends; praise them, desirous of praise, with asacred 

5.054.01 Offer praise to the company of the Maruts, the self-irradiating, the 
precipitators of mountains; presentliberal oblations to the assuagers of heat, 
to those who come from the sky, to whom solemn rites are familiar, tothe givers 
of abundant food. [To whom solemn rites are familiar: pr.s.t.hayajvane: by whom 
the sacrifices calledpr.s.t.ha are made, these are said to be six, of which two 
are specified: rathantara and br.hat, s'atpr.s.t.haihrathantara br.hada_dibhir 

5.054.02 Your (cohort), Maruts, is conspicous, mighty shedding water and 
augmenting food; yoking your horse(to your cars), spreading everywhere, and 
combined with the lightning, the triple-stationed company roars aloud,and the 
circumambient waters fall upon the earth. 

5.054.03 The Maruts (appear) radiant with lightning, leaders (of the rain), 
armed with weapons of adamant,blazing with the wind, the precipitators of 
mountains, the repeated distributors of water, wielders of thethunderbolt, 
roaring in concert, combining (to send rain), and of exceeding strength. 

5.054.04 Powerful Rudras, you urge on the nights and days the firmament and the 
worlds; agitators (of allthings), you toss the clouds like ships (in the sea), 
so (you throw down) the strong places (of the enemy); but,Maruts you do no harm. 

5.054.05 Your prowess, Maruts, has spread wide your glory as the sun (sends afar 
his) radiance, or the white(horses of the gods travel far) in their course; of 
unbounded lustre, you close the cloud withholding the waters. 

5.054.06 Maruts, dispensers of rain, your strength is manifested when, shaking 
the water-laden cloud, you letloose the shower; conjointly propitiated, conduct 
us by an easy path leading to prosperity, as the eye (shows theway). 

5.054.07 The sage, or the sovereign, whom you, Maruts, direct, is never overcome 
nor slain; he perishes not, norsuffers pain, nor undergoes injury, nor are his 
riches or his safety imperilled. 

5.054.08 Lords of the Niyut steeds, overcomers of multitudes leaders (of rites), 
radiant as the A_dityas, are thedispensers of water; when sovereign lords, they 
fill the clouds, and, loud sounding, moisten the earth with sweet(watery) 

5.054.09 This wide-extended earth is for the Maruts; the spacious heaven is for 
the spreading winds; the pathsof the firmament are provided (for their course); 
for them the expanding clouds quickly bestow (their gifts). [Thiswide-extended 
earth: pravatvati_ pr.thivi_: pra-vat, having extent, extension; vat = again, 
having or possessing;pravatvat = extensive; or, may imply having pre-eminence; 
or, tat-para, being subject to it, as the earth is subjectto the Maruts, or they 
pervade the whole earth, kr.tsnam bhu_mim vya_pnuvant; so the heaven is 
pravatvati_,spacious or subject to the pravats, pravatbhyah the pre-eminent of 
spreading  Maruts]. 

5.054.10 Maruts of combined strength, leaders of the universe, guides of heaven, 
when the sun has risen yourejoice (in the Soma beverage), then your rapid steeds 
know no relaxation, but quickly you reach the limits of thisroad (to the 
sacrifice). [Leaders of the universe: svarn.arah = sarvasya neta_rah, leaders of 
all; divo narah =leaders of heaven] 

5.054.11 Lances (gleam), Maruts, upon your shoulders, anklets on your feet, 
golden cuirasses on your breasts,and pure (waters shine) in your chariots; 
lightning blazing with fire in your hands, and golden tiarsa are toweringon your 
heads. [s'ipra_h s'irs.asu vitata_ hiran.yayi_h: s'ipra = us.n.i_s.amayah, 
composed of turbans orhead-dresses]. 

5.054.12 Maruts, when moving, you agitate the heaven of unchecked radiance, and 
(stir) the bright water; whenyou combine your energies and are shining 
brilliantly, and when purposing to send down rain, you utter a loudshout. [And 
stir the bright water: the text changes the person of the verb, yat svaranti 
ghos.am, when they sounda noise; i.e. when the Maruts make a fearful noise, or 
when the worshippers utter loud praises]. 

5.054.13 May we, who are possessed of chariots, intelligent Maruts, become 
(proprietors) of wealth, comprisingfood bestowed by you; of wealth that vanishes 
not, as Tis.ya (declines not) from the sky; therefore, Maruts,gratify us with 
infinite (riches). [Tis.ya: = A_ditya; it is the eighth lunar mansion]. 

5.054.14 You bestow, Maruts, wealth and enviable posterity; you protect the sage 
learned in the Sa_ma; yougrant horses and food to (me) the ministrant priest; 
you render a prince prosperous. [The sage learned in theSa_ma: sa_mavipram = 
samna_m vividha_m prerayita_ram, the prompt or instigator, in various ways, of 
theSa_ma hymns]. 

5.054.15 Therefore do I solicit wealth of you, who are prompt to grant 
protection, whereby we may multiply ourdescendants, as the sun (spreads wide his 
rays); be propitiated, Maruts, by this my praise, by the efficacywhereof may we 
pass over a hundred winters.

5.055.01 The adorable Maruts, armed with bright lances and cuirassed with golden 
breast-plates, enjoy vigorousexistence; may the ears of the quick-moving 
(Maruts) arrive for our good. 

5.055.02 Maruts, you have of yourselves maintained your vigour according as you 
judge (fit); you shine mostmighty and vast, and you pervade the firmament with 
your power; may the cars of the quick-moving (Maruts)arrive for our good. 

5.055.03 Born simultaneously, mighty, co-dispensers of moisture, they have grown 
exceedingly in glory; leaders(of rites), and radiant (are they) as the rays of 
the sun; may the cars of the quick-moving (Maruts) arrive for ourgood. 

5.055.04 Your might, Maruts, is to be glorified; it is to be contemplated like 
the orb of the sun; sustain us ever inimmortality; may the cars of the quick-
moving (Maruts) arrive for our good. 

5.055.05 You send (the rain), Maruts, from the firmament; charged with the 
waters you shower down the rain;destroyers of foes, your kine are never dry; may 
the cars of the quick-moving (Maruts) arrive for our good. 

5.055.06 When you yoke your spotted mares to the poles (of your chariots), you 
lay aside your goldenbreast-plates, for you dissipate all hostility; may the 
cars of the quick-moving (Maruts) arrive for our good. 

5.055.07 Let not the mountains, let not the rivers, arrest you; whither you 
purpose, (Maruts), thither repair, andcompass heaven and earth; may the cars of 
the quick-moving (Maruts) arrive for our good. 

5.055.08 Whatever (rite has been addressed to you), Maruts, of old; whatever is 
recent; whatever (hymn) isrecited, Vasus, whatever prayer is repeated, do you be 
cognizant of all; may the cars of the quick-moving(Maruts) arrive for our good. 

5.055.09 Send us felicity, Maruts, harm us not; bestow upon us exceeding 
happiness; reward our adoration byyour friendship; may the cars of the quick-
moving (Maruts) arrive for our good. 

5.055.10 Do you, Maruts, conduct us to opulence; propitiated by our praises, 
extricate us from sin; accept,adorable (Maruts), our offered oblation, and may 
we be the possessors of riches.

5.056.01 I invoke, Agni, the victorious company (of the Maruts) decorated with 
brilliant ornaments; (I invokethem), the people of the Maruts, to descend today 
from above the shining heaven. 

5.056.02 In whatever manner you honour the (Maruts, Agni) in your heart, may 
they come to me as benefactors;gratify, (by oblations), those fierce-looking 
Maruts, who most promptly come to your invocations. 

5.056.03 As the (people of the) earth having a powerful lord have recourse to 
him when oppressed (by others),so comes (the host of the Maruts) exulting to us; 
your company, Maruts, active as fire, is as difficult to be resistedas a 
formidable ox. [As the people of the earth: mi_l.hus.mati_va pr.thivi_ 
para_hata_ = prabalasva_mika_pr.thivi_ parairanyair abhibhu_ta_, the earth 
having a powerful master when oppresse dby others; earth connotesits 
inhabitants, praja_, people or subjects, who, when oppressed, have recourse to 
their own ruler, ss yatha_svasva_minam upadruta abhigacchati]. 

5.056.04 They who with ease destroy (their foes) by their prowess, like horses 
difficult to be restrained, theysend down by their movements the vast and 
sounding water-laden cloud. [Like horses: the text has ga_vah; thetranslation is 
as'vah, horses]. 

5.056.05 Rise up (Maruts); verily by my praises I invoke the mighty and 
unpreceded (troop) of these exalted(maruts) like a heap of waters. [gava_m 
sargam iva may also mean, like a herd of cattle]. 

5.056.06 Yoke the bright steeds to the car, yoke the red steeds to the cars; 
yoke the swift pair of horses to bearthe burden; the strong bearing to bear the 

5.056.07 And let not that horse, bright-shining, loud-neighing, of graceful 
form, who has been placed (inharness), delay you, Maruts, on your journey; urge 
him on in the car. 

5.056.08 We invoke the food-laden chariot of the Maruts, in which Rodasi stood 
with the Maruts, bearing thedelicious (waters). [Rodasi = wife of Rudra, and the 
mother of the Maruts]. 

5.056.09 I invoke that, your cohort, gracing the chariot, brilliant and 
adorable, amidst which the rain-bestowing(goddess), of goodly origin and 
auspicious, is worshipped together with the Maruts. [The rain-bestowinggoddess: 
mi_l.hus.i_ is another name of Rodasi, the wife of Mid.hvat, an appellation of 

5.057.01 Rudras, servants of Indra, mutually kind, riding in golden cars, come 
to the accessible (sacrifice); thisour praise is addressed to you; (come to us 
as you came) from heaven, (bringing) oozing water to the thirsty(Gotama) longing 
for moisture. [Lit. = this our praise is addressed to you as to the thirsty, 
from heaven, rushingwaters to the water-wishing; the allusion is to the legend 
of the well brougth by the Maruts to Gotama whensuffering from thirst]. 

5.057.02 Intelligent Maruts, you are armed with swords, with lances, with bows 
with arrows, with quivers; you arewell mounted and have handsome chariots; sons 
of Pr.s.n.i you are well armed; come for our good. 

5.057.03 You agitate the clouds in the sky; (you give) wealth to the donor (of 
oblations); through fear of yourapproach the forests bow down; sons of Pr.s.n.i, 
you incense the earth when, for the purpose of (sending) water,you, fierce 
(Maruts), yoke your spotted steeds. 

5.057.04 The Maruts, radiant with light, purifiers of the rain, like twins of 
goodly aspect and graceful form,masters of tawny and of ruddy steeds, devoid of 
guile, thinners (of foes) and vast in magnitude as the sky. 

5.057.05 Shedders of abundant showers, wearers of ornaments, munificent, of 
brilliant aspect, of inexhaustiblewealth well descendent by birth, wearing 
golden breast-plates, entitled to adoration, (coming) from heaven,accept teh 
ambrosial oblation. 

5.057.06 Lances rest, Maruts, upon your shoulders; strength (of) foes-destroying 
power is seated in your arms;golden (tiaras) are on your heads, weapons are 
placed in your chariots, all glory is assembled in your limbs. 

5.057.07 Maruts, bestow upon us affluence, comprehending cattle, horses, cars, 
treasure, and maledescendants; sons of Rudra, grant us distinction; may I ever 
enjoy your divine protection. 

5.057.08 Ho, Maruts, leaders (of rites), be propitious to us, you who are 
infinitely opulent, immortal, shedders ofrain, renowned for truth, wise, young, 
greatly glorified, and worshipped with copious oblations. [br.hatuks.a_ma_n.a_h 
may also mean sprinkliing much water, udakam sin~cantah].

5.058.01 I praise today that brilliant company of the adorable Maruts, lords of 
swift horses, who pass along instrength, who, self-radiant, preside over the 
ambrosial rain. 

5.058.02 Adore, priest, the resplendent and powerful company, whose arms (are 
decorated) with bracelets,whose function is the agitation (of the trees), who 
are wise, and by whom wealth is conferred; they who arebestowers of felicity, 
whose greatness is unbounded; glorify the opulent leaders (of rites). 

5.058.03 May the universal Maruts, who urge on the rain, come to you today laden 
with water; Maruts, who arewise and young, be pleased by this fire which is 
kindled for you. 

5.058.04 Adorable Maruts, you cause (a son) to be born to the man (who worships 
you), a ruler, an over-comerof foes, and modelled by Vibhvan; from you, Maruts, 
comes a valiant descendant, strong-fisted, mighty armed;from you (he acquires) 
an excellent steed. [Modelled by Vibhvan: vibhvatas.t.am: vibhva_n is the second 
of theR.bhus, a skilful artist; fabricated by him, implies very perfect or 
handsome, tena nirmitam atyantaru_pavantam]. 

5.058.05 Like the spokes of a wheel, none (of you) are inferior (to the rest), 
but equal as days (of like duration);the sons of Pr.s.n.i are born all alike, 
none inferior in splendour; rapid in speed, the Maruts, of their own freefavour 
send down (the rains). 

5.058.06 When, Maruts, you come with stout-axled cars drawn by spotted steeds, 
then the waters descend, theforests are damaged,a nd the bright showerer (of the 
rain), influenced by the solar rays, may emit a downwardsound. [May emit a 
downward sound: avosriyo vr.s.abhah krandatu dyauh: dyaur--vr.s.abhah = the 
shiningshowerer, i.e., Parjanya, or Indra, in that capacity; usriyah, in 
connection with the usra or rays of the sun,avakrandatu, ava_n:gmukham 
s'abdayatu, may sound with his face turned downwards, vr.s.yartham, for the 
sakeof rain]. 

5.058.07 On their approach the earth becomes capable of fertility, and they 
deposit in her water as their germ, asthe husband generates the embryo of the 
child; they have harnessed their horses fleet as the wind; the sons ofRudra have 
emitted their perspiration, (the rain). [Perspiration: svedam svedastha_ni_yam 
vars.am, rain in placeof perspiration]. 

5.058.08 Ho, Maruts, leaders (of rites), be propitious to us, you who are 
infinitely opulent, immortal, shedders ofrain, renowned for truth, wise, young, 
greatly glorified, and worshipped with copious oblations. [This last phraseis 
repeated from the last verse of the preceding su_kta].

5.059.01 The priest glorifies you, Maruts, for the good of the donor of the 
oblation; offer worship to the shining(heaven); I bring offerings to the earth; 
they, the Maruts, scatter the rapid (rain); they traverse the firmament; 
theycombine their own radiance with (that of) the clouds. [The priest: spas', 
nom. spat, for spras'ta, one who touchesthe oblations, or the fire, an unusual 
term for the Hota_]. 

5.059.02 From their approach, the earth trembles with fear as a crowded boat 
goes quivering (through the water)visible from afar, they are recognized by 
their movements; the Maruts, leaders (of rites), pass between (heavenand earth) 
to the solemn sacrifice. 

5.059.03 You bear, for your decoration, an excellent (diadem) like the horn of 
cattle; as the sun, the eye (of day,dispenses light), so (are you diligent) in 
the distribution of the rains; graceful are you, and rapid as horses, andlike 
(pious) mortals, you, leaders (of rites), consider (holy ceremonies) for their 

5.059.04 Who may exalt the great excellences of you who are adorable? who may 
(offer you fitting) praises? who(glorify your) manly (deeds)? For you make the 
earth tremble like a ray (of light) when you confer the gift (of rain)for (the 
diffusion of) fertility. 

5.059.05 Resplendent as steeds, of one kindred, they engage in combat like 
valiant heroes; like (prosperous)men, they, the leaders (of rites), have 
increased (in power), and cover the eye of the sun with showers. 

5.059.06 None of them are older, none younger (than the others); the destroyers 
of (foes), none hold a middle(rank), but all excel in glory; honourable by birth 
having Pr.s.n.i for your mother, do you, Maruts, favourable toman, come from 
heaven to our presence. 

5.059.07 Like birds (that fly) in rows they pass along in their strength above 
the vast summit (of the sky) to theends of the firmament; their horses have 
caused the waters of the cloud to descend, as both (gods and mortals)know. [Both 
gods and mortals: the text has only ubhaye yatha_ viduh, as both know; men of 
course know byperception the setting in of the rains; the gods know it by the 
agraya_na and other sacrifices which are offered atthat season]. 

5.059.08 May the heaven and the earth yield (rain) for our sustenance; may the 
wonderfully bounteous dawnsexert themselves (for our good); may these sons of 
Rudra, lauded, R.s.i, (by you), send down the celestial rain.

5.060.01 I adore the protecting Agni with hymns; may he, propitiated on this 
occasion, approve of our acts; offer(worship with praises), intended to obtain 
food; as if (proceeding) with cars (to the goal), circumambulating (thefire); 
may I exalt the praise of the maruts. 

5.060.02 Fierce Maruts, sons of Rudra, who ride in easy chariots (drawn by) 
celebrated steeds, (at your coming)the woods bow down with fear, the earth 
tremles, and the mountains (shake). 

5.060.03 The mountain, vast and lofty (though it be), is alarmed at your noise, 
and the summit of the firmamenttrembles when, lance-armed Maruts, you are 
sporting; you rush along together like waters. 

5.060.04 Like wealthy bridegrooms who have decorated their persons with golden 
(ornaments) and purifyingwaters, so the noble and powerful Maruts, associated 
together in their chariots, have made great (preparation) intheir several 
persons for their embellishment. 

5.060.05 They are brothers, of whom no one is the elder, no one the younger, but 
who grew up together for theirmutual prosperity; may their father, Rudra, ever 
youthful, the doer of good deeds, and Pr.s.n.i, (their mother),easy to be 
milked, grant favourable days for (the sake of) the Maruts. 

5.060.06 Auspicious Maruts, whether you abide in the upper, the middle, or \the 
lower heaven, (come), Rudras,to us from thence; and do you, Agni, accept the 
oblation which this day we offer. 

5.060.07 Maruts, who are omniscient, since you and Agni abide above the summits 
of the upper (region) of thesky, do you who cause (your enemies) to tremble, and 
are the consumers of (our) foes, do you, being pleased,bestow upon the 
sacrificer who offers you oblations desirable wealth. 

5.060.08 Agni, drink the Soma-juice, rejoicing, along with the Maruts, 
resplendent, adorable, associated introops, purifying all, animating and long-
lived; drink, Vais'va_nara, who are identified with the ancient emblem 

5.061.01 Who are you, most excellent leadeers (of rites), who come one by one 
from a region exceedinglyremote? [A wonderful old story: a_s'caryam pura_vr.ttam 
a_hura_gamapa_ragah, those who have gone through thea_gamas have related a 
wonderful occurrence]. 

5.061.02 Where are your horses? where your reins? what is your capability? where 
are you going? The saddle ison the back (of the steeds), the bridle in their 

5.061.03 The goad is (applied) to their flanks; the drivers force them to spread 
their thighs apart, like women inbringing forth children. 

5.061.04 Heroes, friendly to man, of honourable birth, you are as if blazing 
with fire. 

5.061.05 She, (S'as'iyasi_), who has thrown her arms round the hero Taranta, who 
was eulogized byS'ya_va_s'va, has given me cattle comprising horses, and cows, 
and hundreds of sheep. 

5.061.06 S'as'i_yasi, though a female, is more excellent than a man who 
reverences not the gods, nor bestowswealth. [Though a female: uta tva_ stri_ 
s'as'i_yasi_: tva_ = eka, one]. 

5.061.07 For she discerns one who suffers pain, one who is in want, or one 
desirous (of any thing), and directsher mind towards the gods. 

5.061.08 And, eulogizing (him), I proclaim that the man, her (other) half is, 
(as it were), uncommended, for he isever the same in munificent donations. [Her 
other half: nemah is the term of the text; lit., half as it is said in 
theSm.r.ti, ardham s'ari_rasya bha_rya_, wife is the half of the body (of the 

5.061.09 Young and affable, she has explained to me, S'ya_va_s'va, the road, and 
two ruddy horses have borneme to the valiant and renowned Purumi_l.ha. 

5.061.10 Who, the son of Vidadas'va, has given me a hundred (head) of cattle, 
and, like Taranta, many preciousgifts. 

5.061.11 Those (Maruts) who are brought hither by swift horses, drinking the 
inembriating juice, receive heregratification. 

5.061.12 They by whose glory heaven and earth are surpassed; who shine splendid 
in their chariots like theradiant (sun) in the heaven above. 

5.061.13 That company of Maruts, ever young, riding in bright chariots, 
irreproachable, auspicious, motive,unobstructed. 

5.061.14 Who knows of a certainty their (abode), where the intimidators (of 
their foes) rejoice? born for (thedistribution of) water, exempt from defects. 

5.061.15 Desirous of praise, you are the guides (to happiness) of the man who 
propitiates (you) by this pious rite;you are bearers of invocations to the 

5.061.16 Do you, who are destroyers of the male violent, abounding in wealth, 
and entitled to adoration, bestowupon us desirable riches. 

5.061.17 Bear to Da_rbhya, oh night, turning away (from me to him), this my 
eulogy (of the Maruts); convey mypraises, goddess, as a charioteer (conveys the 
contents of his vehicle to their destination). [Oh night: uponconcluding the 
praises of the Maruts and thus having attained the rank of a r.s.i, S'ya_va_s'va 
summons thenight, here called, Urmya, to convey the intelligence to Rathavi_ti, 
who gives him his daughter, with manyvaluable presents, but at the end of the 
ceremony the r.s.i departd for the woods to resume his austerities]. 

5.061.18 And say on my behalf to Rathavi_ti, when the libation is poured out, my 
love (for your daughter) doesnot depart. 

5.061.19 This opulent Rathavi_ti dwells upon the (banks of the) Gomati_ (river), 
and has his home on (the skirtsof) the (Hima_laya) mountains. [Gomati_ river: 
Gomati_h = having water, rivers, being in the plural; it may be ariver which 
rises in the first range of the Hima_layas, or, it may be the river rising in 
Kulu, a feeder of the Beyahor Vya_sa].

5.062.01 I have beheld the permanent orb of the sun, your (dwelling place), 
concealed by water, where (thehymns of the pious) liberate (his) steeds; where a 
thousand rays abide together; the one most excellent of the(embodied) forms of 
the gods. [His steeds: which are said to be attempted to be detained by a class 
of asurastermed mandehas; most excellent of the embodied forms of the gods: 
deva_na_m s'res.t.ham vapus.am = thebest of the embodied or light-possessing 
deities, i.e., of Agni and others, deva_na_m vapus.mata_m tejovata_magnya_dina_m 
pras'asyam; or, it may apply to the sun only, the man.d.ala, the orb, the 
visible form, as it were, ofthe sun, man.d.alam hi su_ryasya vapustha_niyam]. 

5.062.02 Exceeding is that your greatness, Mitra and Varun.a, whereby the ever-
moving sun has, through(succeeding) days, milked forth the stationary waters; 
you augment all the (world-illuming) rays of theself-revolving (sun); the one 
chariot of you two (perpetually) goes round. [The one chariot of you two gods 
round:va_m ekah pavir a_ vavarta: pavi is the circumference of a wheel; a 
metonymy for the chariot; yuvayor eko rathoanukraman.en ma paribhramate]. 

5.062.03 Royal Mitra and Varun.a, you uphold, by your energies, earth and 
heaven; prompt benefactors, causethe plants to grow, give nourishment to the 
cattle, send down the rain. 

5.062.04 May your easily-harnessed horses bear you both (hither), and with well-
guided reins come down; theembodied form of water follows you, the rivers flow 
as of old. 

5.062.05 Augmenting the well-known and ample form (of man), in like manner as 
the sacred grass is preservedby prayer, do you, Mitra and Varun.a, who are 
invigorated by (sacrificial) viands, and abound in food, ascendyour car in the 
midst of the place of sacrifice. [Augmenting the well-known and ample form: 
s'rutam amatimanuvardha_d urvi_m = vis'rutam s'ari_radi_ptim anuvarddhayantau = 
augmenting the renowned bodily lustre; tadurvi_m pa_layantau; ascend your car: 
garte mitra a_sa_the: garta = ratha, a car]. 

5.062.06 Be open-handed and benignant to the performer of pious acts, whom you 
protect in the midst of theplace of sacrifice; for you two, who are soverigns, 
and free from wrath, uphold together a mansion of a thousandcolumns. [ks.atram 
sahasrasthu_n.am = aneka_vas.t.ambhaka stambhopetam saudha_di ru_pam gr.ham, 
house,such as a palace and the like, possessing many supporting pillars; 
ks.atram = dhanam, wealth; balam, strength;e.g. strong chariot of the deities 
supported by innumerable columns]. 

5.062.07 The substance (of their chariot) is of gold; its pillars are of metal, 
and it shines in the firmament likelightning; may we load the vehicle with the 
libation in an auspicious place, or in the sacrificial hall, (where thecolumns) 
are erected. 

5.062.08 At the break of dawn, at the rising of the sun, ascend Mitra and 
Varun.a, your golden-bodied,metal-pillared car, and thence, behold the earth and 
its inhabitants. [Yajus. 10.15; atas'caks.a_the aditim ditim ca= aditim 
akahn.d.ani_yam praja_dikam, the divisible people; alternative reading: aditim = 
adinam, not base, i.e.vihita_nus.t.ha_ta_ram, one who follows what is 
prescribed, i.e., performs his religious duties; ditim = dinam,base or 
na_stikavr.ttam, an infidel]. 

5.062.09 Munificent Mitra and Varun.a, protectors of the universe, (it is yours 
to grant) exceeding and perfectfelicity, such as it is impossible to disturb; 
bless us with that (felicity), and may we ever be (possessed) of theriches we 
desire, and be confident of vicotry (over our enemies).

5.063.01 Guardians of water, observers of truth, you ascend your car in the 
highest heaven; to him whom you,Mitra and Varun.a, protect, the rain sends down 
the sweet (shower) from the sky. 

5.063.02 Imperial rulers of this world, you shine, Mitra and Varun.a, at this 
sacrifice, the beholders of heaven; weask of you the wealth (that is) rain, and 
immortality for your forms traverse earth and heaven. [va_m tanyavahvistr.ta 
ras'mayah, the expanding rays]. 

5.063.03 Imperial and mighty showerers, lords of heaven and earth, beholders of 
the universe, you approach,Mitra and Varun.a, with variegated clouds to hear the 
sound (of your praises), and cause the sky to (send down)rain by the power of 
the emitter of showers. [By the power of the emiter of showers: asurasya 
ma_yaya_ = udakanirasituh parjanyasya sa_marthyena, by the power of Parjanya, 
the caster-forth of water, influenced by Mitra andVarun.a as the deities 
presiding over day and night]. 

5.063.04 Your deevice, Mitra and Varun.a, is manifested in heaven, when the 
light (that is) the sun, yourwonderful weapon, moves (in the firmament); him you 
invest in the sky with the cloud (and) with rain; and (your)sweet drops, 
Parjanya, fall (at their desire). 

5.063.05 The Maruts harness their easy-going chariot, Mitra and Varun.a, for 
(the emission of) water, as a hero(harnesses his war-car); their forms traverse 
the different spheres to distribute the rain; do you, therefore,supreme rulers, 
shed upon us water from heaven. 

5.063.06 The cloud, (through your will), Mitra and Varun.a, utters a wonderful 
sound, indicative of radiance, andannouncing (abundant) food; the Maruts 
thoroughly invest the clouds with (their) devices, and, (along with them),you 
two cause the purple and faultless sky to send down rain. 

5.063.07 Discerning, sagacious, Mitra and Varun.a, by your office you protect 
pious rites, through the power ofthe emitter of showers; you illumine the whole 
world with water; you sustain the sun, the adorable chariot in thesky.

5.064.01 We invoke you, Mitra and Varun.a, with this hymn; each the discomfiter 
of foes, the conductor toheaven, like (two herdsmen) driving, by (the strength 
of their) arms, the herds of cattle before them. 

5.064.02 Do you two, with discriminating hand, bestow upon me, your worshipper, 
(what I desire); for thedesirable felicity (that is given by you) spreads 
through all lands. 

5.064.03 That I may now pursue the (right) direction, may I proceed by the path 
of Mitra, for all (good things) areaggregated in the happiness, (the gift) of 
that beloved and benignant (deity). 

5.064.04 May I obtain from you, Mitra and Varun.a, by my praise, such  wealth as 
to excite envy in the dwellingsof the rich and the devout. 

5.064.05 Come, Mitra (come), Varun.a, with your splendour to our assembly, and 
augment (the prosperity) of theaffluent (worshipper), and of (those who are) 
your friends in their respective abodes. 

5.064.06 You, Mitra and Varun.a, bring us strength and abundant (food) for 
(those praises) which (we offer); belargely bountiful to us in food, in riches, 
in prosperity. 

5.064.07 Deities who are to be worshipped at the sacrifice to the gods, at the 
(first) shining ray (of light) at dawn;behold my Soma libation poured out; 
hasten, with rapid steeds, leaders (of rites), propitious to Arcana_nas. 
[Withrapid steeds: hastibhih padbhih = lit., with hands, with feet, that is, wih 
those having four feet, i.e. with horses].

5.065.01 He who knows (how to honour you two) among the gods, is ghe performer 
of good works; let him,communicate (that knowledge) to us, he of whom the 
graceful Varun.a or Mitra accepts the laudation. 

5.065.02 They two, verily excelling in radiance, royal (deities), who hear 
(invocations) from the greatest distance;lords of the virtuous, favourers of the 
sacrifice, are in movement (for the good of) each individual man. 

5.065.03 Approaching you, ancient (divinities), I invoke you together for 
protection; possessed of good steeds,(we praise you) who are provident to give 
us food. 

5.065.04 Mitra grants even to the sinful (worshipper) the (means of) repairing 
to his spacious dwelling; the favourof Mitra, the destroyer fo foes, is 
(granted) to (his) adorer. 

5.065.05 May we ever be in the comprehensive guardianship of Mitra, and, free 
from sin, enjoy, (Mitra), yourprotection, being at the same time the children of 
Varun.a [varun.as'es.ah: s'es.a = apatya, offspring]. 

5.065.06 You come, Mitra and Varun.a, to this man, and guide him (to his 
desires); deny us not when we are rich(in offerings); (deny us not), who are 
(the sons) of r.s.is protect us in the presenting of the libation.

5.066.01 Man, endowed with intelligence, (adore) the two deities, the performers 
of good deeds, the destroyersof foes; offer (oblations) to the adorable accepter 
of (sacrificial) food, to Varun.a, whose form is water.[varun.a_ya r.tapes'ase = 
udakam eva ru_pam yasya, of whom the form is verily water]. 

5.066.02 Inasmuch as you two are possessed of irresistible and asura-subduing 
strength, therefore has holysacrifice been established among men, as the sun 
(has been placed) in the sky. 

5.066.03 We glorify you both, that your chariots may precede ours by a long 
distance; accepting the piousworship of Ra_tahavya with (his) praises. 

5.066.04 Now, adorable and wonderful deities, (propitiated) by the former 
(praises) of (me, your) worshipper; doyou, who are of pure vigour, consider with 
approving minds (the adoration) of these men. 

5.066.05 Earth, in you is abundant water for the necessities of the R.s.is; the 
two active (deities) dispense bytheir movement sufficiently copious (rain). 

5.066.06 We and the devout (invoke) you, Mitra and Varun.a, who are far-seeing; 
may we proceed to yourspacious and much frequented kingdom.

5.067.01 Divine sons of Aditi, Mitra, Varun.a, Aryaman, verily you are 
possessed, at the present time, of perfect,adorable, vast, exceeding strength. 

5.067.02 When you come, Varun.a and Mitra, to the delightful place of sacrifice, 
then, supporters of men,destroyers of foes, you bring felicity. 

5.067.03 Mitra, Varun.a, Aryaman, who are possessed of omniscience, are all 
associated at our rites, as if in(their respective) station, and protect the 
worshipper from the malignant. 

5.067.04 They verily are observers of truth, distributors of water, protectors 
of holy rites among men; guides inthe right way, liberal donors, and benefactors 
even of the sinner (who worships them). [Even of the sinner:am.hos'cit pa_pino 
api, even of the sinner; added: svastotuh, of your own praiser]. 

5.067.05 Which of you, Mitra and Varun.a, has not been celebrated in (our) 
praise, for therefore do our thoughtstend towards you; the thoughts of the 
lineage of Atri tend towards you.

5.068.01 Sing loud with lusty praise to Mitra and Varun.a; (come), mighty 
deities, to the great sacrifice. 

5.068.02 Mitra and Varun.a, who are both sovereign rulers, originators of the 
rain, eminent deities among thegods. 

5.068.03 They two are able (to grant us) of great terrestrial and celestial 
riches; great is your might among thegods. 

5.068.04 Rewarding with rain the holy rite, they favour the zealous worshipper; 
benevolent deities, may youprosper. [They favour the zealous worshipper: r.tam 
r.tena sapanta is.iram daks.am a_s'a_te = udakenanimittena yajn~am spris'antau 
es.anavantam pravr.ddham yajama_nam havir va_ vya_pnutah, they two, for thesake 
of water touching or affecting the sacrifice, they pervade the inquiring, 
powerful institutor of the rite, theyreward him; or, it may be, they pervade or 
accept the efficacious, adequate oblation. 

5.068.05 Senders of rain from heaven, granters of desires, lords of sustenance, 
suited to the liberal donors (ofoblations), they ascend their spacious car.

5.069.01 Mitra and Varun.a, you uphold the three realms of light, the three 
heavens, the three regions (of theearth), augmenting the force of the vigorous 
(indra) and protecting the imperishable rite. [Augmenting the force ofthe 
vigorous Indra: va_vr.dha_nau amatim ks.atri_yasya: amati = ru_pa; ks.atriyasya 
= possessed of strength,ks.atram, balam, an attribute, and here an appellative 
of Indra; or it may mean, the ks.atriya, or the military]. 

5.069.02 Mitra and Varun.a, the cows are full o fmilk through your (command), 
and the rivers yield through your(will) sweet water; through you the three 
radiant receptacles and showerers of rain stand severally in their threespheres. 
[Agni, Va_yu and A_ditya, present, severally, upon the earth, in the mid-air, 
and in heaven]. 

5.069.03 I invoke the divine and bright Aditi at dawn, and at mid-day, when the 
sun is high; I worship you, Mitraand Varun.a, at all seasons, for the sake of 
riches, for sons and grandsons, for prosperity and happiness. [Thetext is 
s'am.yoh = ar.s.t.as'amana_ya sukhasya mis'ran.a_ya ca, for the alleviation or 
prevention of calamity, andfor the mixture or association of happiness]. 

5.069.04 I worship you two, divine A_dityas, who are upholders of the celestial 
and terrestrial worlds; theimmortal gods impair not, Mitra and Varun.a, your 
eternal works.

5.070.01 May I, Mitra and Varun.a, enjoy your favour through which there is 
assuredly protection. 

5.070.02 Benignant (deities), may we obtain from you, (who are) such (deities), 
food for our sustenance; may weRudras, be yours. 

5.070.03 Protect us with your protections; preserve us with kind preservation; 
may we, with our descendants,overcome the Dasyus. 

5.070.04 Workers of wondrous deeds, let us not depend upon the bounty of any 
other (than you), either in ourpersons, or with our sons and grandsons.

5.071.01 Mitra and Varun.a, scatterers of foes, destroyers of enemies, come to 
this our accessible sacrifice. 

5.071.02 Sagacious Mitra and Varun.a, you reign over all bestow fullness, lords, 
upon our ancient rites. 

5.071.03 Come, Mitra and Varun.a, to our effused libation to drink of the Soma 
of the offerer.

5.072.01 We invoke Mitra and Varun.a with hymns, like (our progenitor) Atri; do 
you sit down upon the sacredgrass to drink the Soma libation. 

5.072.02 Steady are you in your functions, whom men animate by (their) devotion; 
come and sit down upon thesacred grass to drink the Soma libation. 

5.072.03 May Mitra and Varun.a, accept wiht satisfaction our sacrifice; come and 
sit down upon the sacred grassto drink the Soma libation.

5.073.01 Whether, As'vins, you are at present far, whether you are nigh, whether 
you are (straying) many places,or whether you are in mid-air, do you, who 
partake of many offerings, come hither. 

5.073.02 I approach you (to invite you) hither, you who are the encouragers of 
many; (who are) the achievers ofmany (great) exploits, most excellent and 
irresistible, I invoke you, who are most mighty, for protection. 

5.073.03 You hae arrested one luminous wheel of (your) car for illumining the 
form (of the sun), while with theother you traverse the spheres (to regulate) by 
your power the ages of mankind. [You have arrested oneluminous wheel: i_rma_ 
anyad vapus.e vapus'cakram rathasya yemathuh: i_rma = ru_pam, form; vapus.e 
=a_dityasya s'obha_yai, for the beauty or lustre of the sun; vapus = vapus.mat, 
having light or lustre, luminous asan epithet of cakram; the fixing of one wheel 
of the car of the As'vins has been alluded to; the ages of mankind:nahus.a_ 
yuga_ : nahus.a, manus.ya, man; yuga = yuga_ni, metonymy for the divisions of 
time in general, asmorning, noon, night, or the sacrifices offered at stated 

5.073.04 May the praise, universal (deities), wherewith I laud you, be agreeable 
to you, as offered by this (yourworshipper); and do yo, who are severally born, 
and free from blame bestow upon us food. 

5.073.05 When Su_rya has ascended your ever easy-moving car, then bright-waving, 
resplendent rays (of light)encompass you. [pari va_m arus.a_ vayo ghr.n.a_ 
varanta a_tapah = radiant horses, vayah, as'vah, ghr.n.a_,bright, scorchers, 
a_tapah, of enemies, accompany you]. 

5.073.06 Leaders (of rites), Atri recognized (your benevolence) with (a 
grateful) mind on account of the relief (youafforded him), when, Na_satya_s, 
through his praise of you, he found the (fiery) heat innocuous. 

5.073.07 Your strong, lofty, moving, ever-progressing (ear) has been renowned at 
sacrifices ever since; As'vins,leaders (of rites), Atri was rescued by your 

5.073.08 Mixers of the Soma juice, Rudras, (our) nutritious (adoration) bedews 
you will with the libation, whenyou traverse (the limits) of the firmament, and 
the prepared viands (of the sacrifice) support you. [Mixers of theSoma juice: 
madhuyuvah soma_der mis'rayita_rau, mixers, or causers of the mixing of Soma and 
other things]. 

5.073.09 Truly have they called you, As'vins, the bestowers of felicity; such 
may you be when earnestly invokedto our sacrifice; bountiful bestowers of 
felicity at our sacrifice. 

5.073.10 May these praises exalting the As'vins be productive of happiness, the 
praise that we fabricate as (awheelwright) a car; we proclaim aloud fervent 

5.074.01 Divine A_dityas, affluent in praise, descended this day from heaven 
upon the earth, hear that(laudation), which, liberal showerers (of benefits), 
Atri ever address to you. [Descended...upon the earth:ku_s.t.hah = bhu_mau 
tis.t.hantau, being upon the earth; or, ku = kva, where, where are you two 

5.074.02 The divine Na_satya_s, where are they? where are they heard if in 
heaven? to what worshipper do youcome? who may be the associate of your praises? 

5.074.03 To whom do you proceed? to whom do you repair? to (go to) whose 
presence do you harness yourcar? by whose prayers are you gratified? We are 
anxious for your arrival. 

5.074.04 Pauras, send to Paura the rain-shedding cloud drive it to him who is 
engaged in sacrifice, as (hunterschase) a lion in a forest. [Paura: pauram cid 
udaprutam paura paura_ya jinvathah: the name of the r.s.i is appliedto the 
As'vins,because they are in relation with Paura as the author of the su_kta; 
Paura = As'vins; pauram = acloud, being solicited by the r.s.i for the fall of 
rain; paura_ya = to me the r.s.i so called; as...a lion in a forest:sim.ham iva 
druhaspade: druhaspade = a place of difficult access, a thicket; yatha_ bala_d 
cya_vayanti s'ura_h,as heroes hurl down a lion by their strength]. 

5.074.05 You stripped off (his aged form) like a cuirass ffrom the decrepit 
Cyava_na, so that, when you hadrendered him again a youth, he attracted the 
desires of women. 

5.074.06 A glorifier of you both is here; may we be (retained) in your sight for 
the sake of prosperity; hear today(my invocation); come hither with your 
protections, you who are affluent in food. 

5.074.07 Who among many mortals has this day (best) propitiated you? what wise 
man (has best propitiated you)who are reverenced by the wise? what (worshipper 
has best propitiated you) by sacrifice, you who are affluent infood? 

5.074.08 May your car, As'vins, the swiftest of the cars (of the gods), come 
hither well-disposed towards us, thediscomfiter of numerous (foes), glorified 
among men. [A_n:gu_s.o maryes.u = yajama_nes.u madhye stutyah, tobe praised 
among worshippers; or, a_n:gu_s.a may be a substantive meaning stava or stoma, 
praise, may thepraise of the car of the As'vins among men, or by the priests, be 
beneficial to us, asmayuh]. 

5.074.09 May our repeated adoration of you two, who are desirous of the 
libation, be productive of felicity;descending to our presence, and exceeding in 
wisdom, travel with rapid (steeds), swift as two falcons. 

5.074.10 As'vins, wherever you may be, hear this invocation; the excellent 
sacrificial offerings, longing for yourproximity, reach you. [The excellent 
sacrificial offerings: vasvi_r u_ s.u va_m bhujah pr.n~canti su va_m pr.ca 
:vasvi_r bhujah = pras'asya_ni dhana_ni havirlaks.an.a_ni, excellent offerings; 
pr.n~canti = pra_pnuvanti, obtainor reach being pr.cah; yuvam pra_ptum 
ka_mayama_na_h, desiring to reach you; alternative: the worshippers,su pr.cah, 
who enjoy vasvi_r bhujah, wealth of sacrificial offerings, bring them into due 
contact with you, va_msus.t.hu sam.parcayanti].

5.075.01 The r.s.i, your worshipper, As'vins, graces your beloved chariot, the 
showerer (of benefits), the vehicleof wealth, with praises; masters of mystic 
lore, hear my invocation. [ma_dhvi_ ma_ma s'rutam havam: ma_dhvi_ =madhuvidya_ 

5.075.02 Passing by (other worshippers), come, As'vins, hither, so that I may 
ever overcome all (adversaries);Dasras, riding in a golden chariot distributors 
of wealth, propellers of rivers, masters of mystic lore, hear myinvocation. 

5.075.03 Come, As'vins, bring for us precious treasures; Rudras, riding in a 
golden chariot, propitiated (bysacrifice), affluent with food, masters of mystic 
lore, hear my invocation.  

5.075.04 Showerer of wealth, the praise of your worshipper is addressed to your 
chariot; (to it), as well as to you,does this distinguished, devoted, embodied 
(adorer) offer sacrificial food; masters of mystic lore, hear myinvocation. 
[Distinguished, devoted, embodied (adorer): the epithets are: kakuha, mr.ga 
va_pus.a = maha_n,great, mr.gayita_ searcher, vapus.ma_n, having body, yajama_na 

5.075.05 With mind attentive (to praise), riding in cars, swift-moving, 
listening to invocations, you hastened withyour steeds to the single-purposed 
cyavana; masters of mystic lore, hear my invocation. 

5.075.06 As'vins, leaders (of rites), may your horses, harnessed at will, of 
wondrous beauty, and of rapid course,bring you hither with good gifts to drink 
(of the proffered beverage); masters of mystic lore,hear my invocation. 

5.075.07 As'vins, come hither; Na_satyas, be not unpropitious; invincible lords, 
come from hidden (regions) to oursacrificial hall; maste of mystic lore, hear my 

5.075.08 Invincible As'vins, lords of water, favour Avasyu, glorifying you at 
this sacrifice; masters of mystic lore,hear my invocation. 

5.075.09 The dawn has come; the Agni of the season, blazing with the oblation 
has been placed (upon the altar);showerers of wealth, subduers of foes, your 
immortal chariot has been harnessed; masters of mystic lore, hearmy invocation. 
[Blazing with the oblation: rus'at pas'u = blazing with the victim; but here, 
pas'u = ras'mi_, a ray; orhavis., oblation].

5.076.01 Agni light sup the face of the dawns; the devout praisers of the pious 
have risen up; therefore, As'vins,lords of the chariot, descending, come hither 
today to the splendid sacrifice, perfect (in all its parts). [Agni lightsup the 
face of the dawns: a_bha_ti agnir us.asa_m ani_kam: ani_kam = mukham, or the 
verse may be rendered:Agni, the face of beginning of the dawns, shines; come 
hither today: pipiva_m.sam gharmam accha = sva_n:gaihparivr.dham pradi_ptam 
yajn~am, to the bright sacrifice, vast or developed with all its members; or, 
pipiva_m.sam= a_pyayitam, nourished, with the Somajuice or with clarified 
butter; gharma, again, may mean the vessel socalled or the pravargya ceremony, 
at which it is used, being fed or nourished, pipiva_msam, with the butter 
andcurds it contains]. 

5.076.02 Harm not, As'vins, the perfected (rite), but coming now most quickly, 
be glorified on this occasion; bepresent at the opening of the ay, with 
proection against destitution, and be prompt to bestow happiness upon thedonor 
(of the offering). [With protection against destitution: avasa agamis.t.ha_ 
pratyavartim: varti = ji_va_na_m,living or livelihood; avarti = the contrary, 
the want of it]. 

5.076.03 Whether you come at the (milking time) of the cattle, at the dawn of 
day, at noon, when the sun is high,or by day or by night, (come) with 
felicitious protection; the drinking of the Soma has not now extended beyondthe 
As'vins. (whether you come: the day is divisible into two, three, five or 
fifteen parts; here the five-folddistinction is alluded to: udita_ su_ryasya = 
the afternoon, atyanta pravr.ddha samayah apara_hn.a ityarthah; thedrinking of 
the soma...As'vins: neda_ni_m pi_tir as'vina_ tata_na: legend-- the other gods 
refused to admit theparticipation of the As'vins in the Soma libation at these 
hours, but on the present occasion they are not passedover; ida_nim api 
itaradeva_na_m pa_nam na tanotyas'vinau viha_ya, but now the drinking of the 
other godsdoes not extend, having omitted the two As'vins] 

5.076.04 This station, As'vins, is your ancient abode; these are your mansions, 
this your dwelling; come from thevast firmament, (verspread) by clouds (filled) 
with water, bringing strength. 

5.076.05 May we be united with the As'vins by their special protection, which is 
the source of happiness andguide to good; bestow upon us, immortals, wealth and 
posterity; and all good things.

5.077.01 Worship the two who come first (of the gods) at dawn; let them drink 
before the greedy withholders (ofthe offering); for the As'vins verily claim the 
morning sacrifice; the ardent sages praised them (at dawn). [Theancient sages: 
kavayah pu_rvabha_jah: kavi = one learned in the Vedas: ye ve anuca_nas te 
kavayah, those areanuca_nas are kavis (Aitareya Bra_hman.a); anuca_na = 
s.adan:gasahita vedadhya_yinah, students of theVedas with the six supplements]. 

5.077.02 WOrship the As'vins at early dawn; offer their oblations; the evening 
is not for the gods; it isunacceptable to them; and whether it be any other than 
ourselves who worship them or propitiates them, theworshipper who is foremost 
(in his devotion) is the most approved of. [The evening is not for the 
gods:Purva_hn.o vai deva_na_m, the forenoon verily is for the gods]. 

5.077.03 Your car, As'vins, approaches, coated with gold, honey-tinted, water-
shedding, laden with ambrosia, asquick as thought, as rapid as the wind, 
wherewith you pass over all obstacles. 

5.077.04 He who, in the appointment (of the offerings), presents to the 
Na_satyas the most ample (share) of (thesacrificial) food, who gives (them) the 
largest portion of the viands, secures, by his acts, the welfare of his son,and 
ever has the advantage of those who light no sacred fires. 

5.077.05 May we be united with the As'vins, by their special protection, which 
is the source of happiness, theguide to good; bestow upon us, immortals, wealth 
and all good things.

5.078.01 As'vins, come hither; Na_satyas, be not ill-disposed; alight like two 
swans upon the effused libations.[Swans: the ham.sa, the swan of goose is a 
connoisseur in pure water]. 

5.078.02 Like two deer, As'vins, like two wild cattle on (fresh) pasture; like 
two swans alight upon the effusedlibation. [Like two wild cattle: like two 
gauras, bos gaurus]. 

5.078.03 As'vins, affluent in food, be propitiated at your pleasure by the 
sacrifice; alight like two swans uon theeffused libation. 

5.078.04 Inasmuch as Atri, escaping by your aid from the fire of chaff, 
conciliates you, like a wife soliciting theaffection of a husband, therefore 
come with (your) propitious cars; with the new-born rapidity of the falcon. 
[Fireof chaff: the fire here is called r.bi_sam tus.a_gnim, a fire of chaff]. 

5.078.05 Open, Vanaspati, like the womb of parturient female; hear, As'vins, my 
invocation; set Saptavadhri free.[Ancient chroniclers, pura_vidah tell this 
story: the sons of the brothers of Saptavadhri beign determined toprevent his 
having intercourse with his wife shut him up every night in a lare basket, which 
they locked andsealed, letting him out in the morning; in this dilemma the r.s.i 
prayed to the As'vins, who came to his succour;and enabled him to get out of his 
cage during the night, he returning to it at day-break; in this verse he 
firstaddresses the basket, pet.ka_, as a form of Vanaspati, lord of forests, and 
then invokes the As'vins]. 

5.078.06 As'vins, by your devices sunder the wicker-work for (the liberation of 
the) terrified, imploring R.s.i,Saptavadhri. 

5.078.07 As the wind ruffles the lake on every side, so may your womb be 
stimulated, and the conception of themonths come forth. 

5.078.08 As the wind, as the wood, as the ocean are agitated, so do you, 
gestation of ten months, invested withthe uterine membranes, descend. 

5.078.09 May the boy who has reposed for ten months in the bosom of his mother 
come forth, alive, unharmed,living, from a living (parent).

5.079.01 Radiant Us.as, wake up today for (the acquisition of) ample riches, in 
like manner as you haveawakened us (of old); bright-born, and praised sincerely 
for (the gift of) horses, show favour to satyas'ravas, theson of Vayya. [The 
concluding phrase is the refrain of the following verses: suja_te as'vasu_nr.te: 
suja_ta_,well-born = s'obhanapra_dur bhu_ta, becoming manifest with splendour or 
light; as'vasunr.ta, she whose praisefor the sake of horses is affectionate and 
true, svartha priyasatya_tmika stutiva_k yasya_h sa]. 

5.079.02 Daughter of heaven, who have dawned upon Sunitha, the son of 
S'ucadratha, bright-born, and praisedsincerely for (the gift of) horses, dawn 
upon the powerful son of Vayya, Satyas'ravas. 

5.079.03 Daughter of heaven, who are the bringer of opulence, dawn upon us 
today, as, bright-born, and praisedfor (the gift of) horses, you have dawned 
upon the powerful Satyas'ravas, the son of Vayya. 

5.079.04 The offerers of oblations who eulogize you, lustrous Us.as, with sacred 
hymns, become prosperouswith affluence, (through your favour), bestower of 
wealth, bright-born goddess, (who are) sincrely praised for (thegift of) horses. 

5.079.05 These, your assembled (worshippers), who stand before you to distribute 
wealth, entertain towards uskindly intentions, offering unlimited riches; 
bright-born goddess, (who are) sincerely praised for (the gift of)horses. [These 
your assembled worshippers: yaccid hi te gan.a_ ime chadayanti maghattaye 
paricid vas.t.ayodadhur dadato ra_dho ahrayam: maghattaye = dhanada_na_ya or 
dhanavattva_ya, for giving or for possessingwealth; pari cid vas'tayo dadhuh = 
asma_n eva ka_mayama_nah parito dha_rayanti, desirous of or being kind tous, 
they support us every way; dadato ra_dho ahrayam = giving wealth that is not to 
be wasted or taken away, orof which there is no need to be ashed; i.e. all they 
who, offering oblations, worship the dawn receive the rewardfor the benefit of 
us, or of me, that is, of the author of the hymn, ye tvam havir dadatah stuvanti 
te sarve apyasmadartham phalam dha_rayanti]. 

5.079.06 Affluent Us.as, bestow upon these (yor) devout adorers food and 
posterity, so that, being opulent, theymay, without stint, bestow riches upon 
us; bright-born goddess who are sincerely praised for (the gift of) horses. 

5.079.07 Affluent Us.as, bring wealth and abundant food to those who, liberal 
givers, bestow upon us riches withhorses and cattle; bright-born goddess (who 
are) sincerely prised for (the gift of) horses. 

5.079.08 Daughter of heaven, bring to us food and cattle together with the pure 
rays of the sun, and the radiantflames (of the kindled fires); bright-born 
goddess, (who are) sincerely praised for (the gift of) horses. 

5.079.09 Daughter of heaven, Dawn! delay not our (sacred) rite; let not the sun 
scorch you with his ray, as (aprince punishes) a thief, or (subdues) an enemy; 
bright-born goddess,(who are), sincerely praised for (the gift of)horses. 

5.079.10 You, Us.as, are able to give (us) whatever, indeed, (has been 
solicited), and much (that has not beenasked for); for, radiant (divinity), who 
are dawning upon your adorers, you are never cruel (to them);bright-borngoddess 
(who are) sincerely praised for (the gift of) horses.

5.080.01 The wise priests celebrate with hymns the divine, bright-chariot, 
expanded Dawn; worshipped with holyworship, purple-tinted, radiant, leading on 
the sun. 

5.080.02 The lovely Dawn, arousing man, goes before (the sun) preparing 
practicable paths, riding in a spaciouschariot; vast, expanding everywhere, she 
diffuses light at the commencement of the days. 

5.080.03 Harnessing the purple oxen to her car, unwearied she renders riches 
perpetual; a goddess, praised ofmany, and cherished by all, she shines, 
manifesting the paths that lead to good. 

5.080.04 Lucidly white is she, occupying the two (regions, the upper and middle 
firmament), and manifesting herperson from the east; she traverses the path of 
the sun as if knowing (his course), and harms not the quarters ofthe horizon. 

5.080.05 exhibiting her person like a well-attired female, she stands before our 
eyes, (gracefully) inclining like (awoman who has been) bathing; dispersing the 
hostile glooms, Us.as, the daughter of heaven, comes withradiance. 

5.080.06 Us.as, the daughter of heaven, tending to the west puts forth her 
beauty like a (well-dressed) woman,bestowing precious treasures upon the offerer 
of adoration; she, ever youthful, brings back the light as (she hasdone) of old.

5.081.01 The wise apply their minds; they perform sacred rites for the 
propitiation of the intelligent, great,adorable Savita_; he alone, knowing their 
functions, directs the priests; verily, great is the praise of the 
divineSavita_. [Yajus. 5.14; viprasya br.hato vipas'citah are epithets of 

5.081.02 The wise Savita_ comprehends all forms (in himself); he has engendered 
what is good for biped andquadruped; the adorable Savita_ has illumed the 
heaven, and shines in sequence to the passage of the Dawn.[Yajus. 13.3; savita_ 
comprehends all forms in himself: vis'va ru_pa_n.i pratimun~cate, he liberates, 
severally, allforms = a_tmani badhna_ti or dha_rayati he binds or holds in 
himself; or,he makes all forms manifest in their ownsubstance, by removing 
darkness; has illumed the heaven: na_kam vya_khyat = svargam praka_s'ayati, 
hemakes manifest svarga as the reward of the yajama_na]. 

5.081.03 After the passage of which divine (being) the other deities proceed to 
(obtain) majesty with power; hewho by his greatness has measured out the 
terrestrial regions the divine Savita_, (is) resplendent. [Yajus. 11.6;sa 
etas'ah savita_: etas'ah = etavarn.ah s'ubhrah, s'obhama_na, white-coloured, 
bright, shining; or, etad, thisworld, and s'ete, who reposes in, who pervades; 
or, etas'a = a horse, hence, designating the sun]. 

5.081.04 eithe ryou traverse, Savita_, the three regions, or combine with the 
rays of Su_rya; or you passbetween the night on either hand; or you, divine 
Savita_ are Mitra, through your (benevolent) functions. [Su_rya:Savita_ is the 
sun before rising; Su_rya is the sun in general]. 

5.081.05 You alone rule over (the actions of) living beings; you are Pu_s.an, 
divine (Savita_), by the movements;you are soverign over the whole world; 
S'ya_va_s'va offers praise, Savita_, to you.

5.082.01 We solicit of the divine Savita_ enjoyable (wealth) may we receive from 
Bhaga that which is excellent,all sustaining, destructive of foes. [Enjoyable 
wealth: the text has bhojanam, food; but here explained asbhogyam, to be 
enjoyed, i.e., dhanam, wealth]. 

5.082.02 Nothing impairs the sovereignty of this Savita_, which is most 
especially renowned and beloved. 

5.082.03 That Savita_ who is Bhaga, bestows precious treasure on the donor of 
the offering; we solicit (of him) avaluable portion. [That Savita_ who is Bhaga: 
sa savita_ Bhaga; or, the latter may be an attributive, bhajani_ya,to be 
worshipped, shared, or desired]. 

5.082.04 Grant us today, divine Savita_ affluence with progeny, and drive away 
evil dreams. [paraduhs.vapnyam suva: duhs.vapnyam = da_ridryam, poverty]. 

5.082.05 Remove from us, divine Savita_, all misfortunes; bestow upon us that 
which is good, [bhadram =progeny, cattle, dwelling, praja_ vai bhadram, pasa'vo 
bhadram, gr.ham bhadram iti]. 

5.082.06 Let us be void of offence towards Aditi, according to the will of the 
divine Savita_; may we bepossessed of all-desired (riches). [To the will of the 
divine Savita_: devasya savituh save save: save =anujn~ayam satyam, his will or 
assent existing; Aditi = bhu_mi, earth]. 

5.082.07 We glorify today with hymns Savita_, the protector of the good, the 
observer of truth (identical with) allthe gods. [All the gods: vis'vadevam; tam 
hi sarva_matvad indram, mitram, varun.am, agnim a_huh, they haveverily calle 
dhim Indra..., from his identity with all. 

5.082.08 The divine object of meditation, Savita_, who ever vigilant, precedes 
both night and day. 

5.082.09 Savita_, who proclaims his glory to all these living beings, and gives 
them life.

5.083.01 I address the mighty Parjanya who is present; praise him with these 
hymns; worship him withreverence, him who is the thunderer, the showerer, the 
bountiful, who impregnates the plants with rain.[Parjanya: is Indra, as the 
sender of rain; Nirukta 10.10 provides a number of etymologies: par, derived 
from tr.p,to satisfy (with a reversal of the final consonant), janya = a victor, 
jeta_ or generator janayith, or impelleerprajayita_, of fluids, rasa_na_m; 
una_di derivation refers it to vr.s., to rain (p substituted for v; r. becoming 
thegun.a, ar; and s' being changed to j; anya is the affix)]. 

5.083.02 He strikes down the trees, he destroys the ra_ks.asas, he terrifies the 
whole world by his mightyweapon; even the innocent man flies from the sender of 
rain, when Parjanya, thundering, slays the wicked. 

5.083.03 As a charioteer, urging his horses with his whip, brings into view the 
messenger (of war), so Parjanya,(driving the clouds before him), makes manifest 
the messengers of the rain; the roaring of the lion-(like cloud)proclaims from 
afar that Parjanya overspreads the sky with rainy clouds. [The messenger of war: 
the text hasonly du_ta_n = bhat.a_n, warriors]. 

5.083.04 The winds blow strong, the lightnings flash, the plants spring up, the 
firmament dissolves; earthbecomes (fit) for all creatures when Parjanya 
fertilizes the soil with showers. 

5.083.05 Do you, Parjanya, through whose function the earth is bowed down; 
through whose function hoofedcattle thrive; through whose function plants assume 
all kinds of forms, grant us great felicity. 

5.083.06 Send down for us, Maruts, the rain from heaven; drops of the rainy 
charger descend; come downParjanya, sprinkling water by this thundering (cloud); 
you who are the sender of rain, our protector. [Drops of therainy charger: 
vr.s.n.o as'vasya: as'vasya = vya_pakasya, or the pervading rain]. 

5.083.07 Cry aloud over (the earth); thunder; impregnate the plants; traverse 
(the sky) with your water-ladenchariot, draw open the tight-fastened, downward-
turned water bag, and may the high and low places be madelevel. 

5.083.08 Raise on high the mighty sheath (of rain), pour down (its contents); 
let the rivers flow unimpeded to theeast; saturate with water both heaven and 
earth, and let there be abundant beverage for the kine. 

5.083.09 When, Parjanya, sounding loud and thundering, you destroy the wicked 
(clouds), this whole (world)rejoices, and all that is upon the earth. [Destroy 
the wicked clouds: ham.si dus.kr.tah, the wicked, i.e. the cloudsnot yielding 
their water]. 

5.083.10 You have rained; now check well the rain; you have made the deserts 
capable of being crossed; youhave given birth to plans for (man's) enjoyment; 
verily you have obtained laudation from the people.

5.084.01 Verily you sustain here, Pr.thivi, the fracture of the mountains; 
mighty and most excellent, you are shewho delight the earth by your greatness. 
[Pr.thivi: antariks.am or firmament; parvata_na_m khidram bibhars.i =you sustain 
the fracture, or opening of the clouds; mahna_ jinos.i bhu_mim = you delight the 
earth with great orabundant rain]. 

5.084.02 Wanderer in various ways your worshippers hymn you with (sacred) songs; 
you who, bright-hued,tosses the swollen (cloud) like a neighing horse. 

5.084.03 You who, with solid earth, sustain by your strength the forest lords, 
when the showers of your cloud fallfrom the shining sky.

5.085.01 Offer a solemn, profound, and acceptable prayer to the imperial and 
renowned Varun.a, who hasspread the firmament as a bed for the sun, as the 
immolator (spreads) the skin of the victim. 

5.085.02 He has extended the firmament over the tops of the trees, has given 
strength to horses, milk to cows,determination to the heart; he has placed fire 
in the waters, the sun in heaven, the Soma in the mountains. [Hehas placed fire 
in the water: either the lightning amidst the rain, or the submarine fire; 
Yajus. 4.32 reads viks.u forapsu, he placed in people, or human beings, digetive 
fire; Soma in the mountains: somam adrau; the soma growsin the clefts of the 
stones of mountains, parvata_na_m pa_s.a_n.asanidhis.u somavallya 

5.085.03 Varun.a has set free the (water of the) downward opening cloud for the 
(benefit of the) heaven, theearth, and the firmament, thence is the monarch of 
all the world, watering the soil as the rain bedews the barley.[yavam na 
vr.s.tir vynatti bhu_ma: vr.s.t.i = sekta, the sprinkler, the man, puma_n, who 
waters the soil]. 

5.085.04 Varun.a waters earth, mid-air, and heaven, when he pleases (to send 
forth) the milk (of the cloud);thereupon the mountains cloth (their summits) 
withthe rain-cloud, and the hero, (Maruts), exulting in theirstrength, compel 
(the clouds) to relax. 

5.085.05 I proclaim this great device of the renowned Varun.a, the destroyer of 
the Asuras, who, abiding in themid-heaven, has meted the firmament by the sun, 
as if by a measure. 

5.085.06 No one has counteracted the device of the most sagacious divinity, 
whereby the lucid water-sheddingrivers do not fill the ocean with water. [These 
wonderful acts are not the acts of Varun.a, but of Parames'vara, theSupreme 
Being, from his existin gin the forms of Varun.a and others, karma 
parames'varasyaiva ucitam navarun.asya tasya varun.a_diru_pavastha_na_t]. 

5.085.07 If, Varun.a, we have ever committed an offence against a benefactor, a 
friend, a companion, a brother,a near neighbour, or, Varun.a, a dumb man, remove 
it from us. [Benefactor a friend: aryamyam mitryam va_ =aryaman and mitra, the 
final ya being pleonastic; the first is da_tri_ a giver; guru, a spiritual 
preceptor; a dumbman: varun.a_ran.am va_; the pada separates the word into 
varun.a and aran.am; aran.am = as'abdam, nothaving sound or speech, or 
ada_ta_ram, not giving, niggardly]. 

5.085.08 If, like gamesters, who cheat at play, (we commit offences) knowingly, 
or (those) of which we know not,do you divine Varun.a, extricate us from them 
all, as if from loosened (bonds), so that we may be dear, Varun.a,to you.

5.086.01 Indra and Agni, the mortal whom you both protect scatters the 
substantial treasures (of his enemies), asTrita (fonfutes) the words (of his 
opponents). [va_n.i_r iva tritah: trita r.s.i prativadava_kya_ni prabhinatti, as 
ther.s.i Trita breaks or refutes controversial arguments or Trita may mean Agni, 
who, in the three regions, disregardsor dissipates reproaches. 

5.086.02 We invoke the two, Indra and Agni, who are irresistible in conflicts, 
who are renowned in battles, whoprotect the five (classes of) men. [pan~ca 
cars.ani_h, a temr which preclues all allusion to mythological beings]. 

5.086.03 Overpowering is the might of these two; the bright (lightning) is 
shining in the hands of Maghavan, asthey go toether in one chariot for the 
(recovery of the) cows and the destruction of Vr.tra. 

5.086.04 We invoke you both, Indra and Agni, for (sending) your chariots to the 
combat, lords of moveablewealth, all-knowing, most deserving of praise. 

5.086.05 I adore you, irresistible deities for (the sake of obtaining) horses; 
you who are increasing day by daylike mortals, who are worthy of worship, like 
two A_dityas. [am.seva: am.sa' is the name of one of the twelveA_dityas, here 
putin the dual, am.s'a iva for any two; am.s'u also connotes Soma]. 

5.086.06 The invigorating oblation has been offered, like the Soma-juice 
expressed by the sounding stones; doyou bestow food uponthe pious; great riches 
upon those who praise you; bestow food also upon those whopraise you. [Like the 
Soma juice expressed: ghr.tam na pu_tam adribhih: mention of the stones 
restricts thesense of ghr.tam to the Soma effusion].

5.087.01 May the voice-born praises of Evaya_marut reach you, Vis.n.u, attended 
by the Maruts; (may theyreach) the strong, the adorable, the brilliantly-
adorned, the vigorous, praise-loving, cloud-scattering,quick-moving company of 
the Maruts. [Vis.n.u attended by the Maruts: vis.n.ave marutvate: vis.n.ave is 
anadjective to the pervading, vya_ta_ya, i.e. Indra, of whom Marutvat is a 
designation; alternative: vis.n.ave va_, orto Vis.n.u] [This su_kta is 
attributed to r.s.i evaya_marut; this is perhaps an epiithet of the Maruts]. 

5.087.02 Evaya_marut glorifies those who are manifested with the great (Indra), 
who appear spontaneously andspeedily with the knowledge (that the sacrifice is 
prepared); your strength in action, Maruts, is not to be resisted,(though 
qualified) by (your) infinite liberality; you are immoveable as mountains. 

5.087.03 Evaya_marut, glorifies with praise those who, (coming) brilliant and 
happy from the vast heaven, hear(his invocation); in whose dwelling there is no 
one able to disturb them, and who, like self-radiant fires, are theimpellers of 
the rivers. [In whose dwelling thereis: na yes.a_m iri sadhasthe is.t.e = 
marutam svaki_ye niva_setis.t.hata_m prerita_ na is.t.e na is.tate ca_layitum, 
there is no impeller who has power to cause the movement ofthe Maruts when 
abiding in their own abode; impellers of the rivers: i.e., lightning as 
associated with rain, may beconsidered as giving impulse to the rivers]. 

5.087.04 That wide-spreading troop (of Maruts) has issued from a spacious common 
dwelling-place, (where)evaya_marut (awaits them) when their car has been 
spontaneously harnessed with its rapid horses; and,emulous, vigorous, and 
conferring happiness, they sally forth. 

5.087.05 Let not the sound (of your approach, Maruts), which is mighty, the 
announcer of rain,t he shedder oflight, diffusive, loud, alarm Evaya_marut; that 
sound wherewith, overcoming (your foes), you who areself-irradiating, lasting-
rayed, ornamented with golden oranaments, self-weaponed, bestowing food, 
accomplishyour functions. 

5.087.06 Possessor of vast strength, may your unbounded greatness, your 
brilliant vigour, protect Evaya_marut;for you are the regulators for overseeing 
(what is fit for) the limits of the sacrifice; preserve us from those whorevile 
us, you, who are like blazing fires. 

5.087.07 May those Rudras, the objects of worship, like resplendent fires, 
protect Evaya_marut; they, whoseethereal dwelling, extended and wide, has been 
made illustrious (by them), and of whom, exempt from blame, themighty energies 
(are manifested) in their courses. 

5.087.08 Maruts, devoid of enmity, come to our proffered praise, hear the 
invocation of your adorer,Evaya_marut; do you, who are associated in the worship 
of Vis.n.u drive away, as warriors (scatter theirenemies), our secret foes. 
[Vis.n.u = Indra]. 

5.087.09 Adorable Maruts come to our sacrifice, so that it may be prosperous; 
hear, undeterred by ra_ks.asas,the invocation of Evaya_marut; abiding like lofty 
mountains in mid-heaven, do you, who are profoundly wise, beever intolerant of 
the reviler.

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