4.001.01 Since the emulous gods ever excite you, Agni, who are a deity swift of 
motion, (to contest), therefore do (your worshippers) urge you by their 
devotions (to bring the deities to their sacrifices); adorable Agni, they (the 
deities), have generated you, immortal, divine, all-wise, as the present 
divinity among men; they have generated you as the all-present and all-wise 
deity. [The emulous gods: samanyavo deva_sas tvam nyerire: samanyavah = 
spardhama_nah, viewing with. In this and he next verse, there is a repetition at 
the end of the line of three or four preceding words; thus, adevam janata 
pracetasam, vis'vam adevam janata pracetasam, with a slight modification of 
meaning in the repetition]. 

 4.001.02 Bring to the presence of the worshippers, Agni, your brother Varun.a, 
as a participator fo the sacrifice, with a willing mind, the elder participator 
of the sacrifice; the ruler of the water, the A_ditya, the supporter of men the 
sovereign venerated by mankind. 

 4.001.03 Friendly and beautiful (Agni), bring your friend (Varrun.a) to our 
presence, as two strong horses convey the swift chariot along the road to its 
goal; you receive, Agni, the gratifying (oblation) together with Varun.a, and 
with the all-illuminig Maruts; grant, brilliant Agni, happiness to our sons and 
grandsons; grant, beautiful Agni, happiness to ourselves. 

 4.001.04 May you Agni, who are wise, avert from us the wrath of the divine 
Varun.a; do you, who are the most frequent sacrificer, the most diligent bearer 
(of oblations), the most resplendent liberate us from all animosities. 

 4.001.05 Do you Agni our preserver bemost nigh to us with your protection at 
the breaking of this dawn; deprecate Varun.a for us and propitiated (by our 
praise) feed upon the grateful (oblation), and be to us of auspicious 
invocation. [Yajus. 21.4; Deprecate Varun.a for us: ava yaks.va no varun.am: 
vina_s'aya, destroy (verb); varun.a-kr.tam (object), that which has been done by 
Varun.a, as disease inflicted by him, such as dropsy; or the term may imply 
pa_pam, sin]. 

 4.001.06 The glance of this auspicious deity, directed towards men, is most 
excellent, most wonderful, acceptable (to all) as the pure warm butter (from the 
milk) of the cow (is acceptable) to the deity; as the gift of a cow (is to a 

 4.001.07 These are the supreme, true, and desirable births of this divine Agni, 
invested (with radiance) in the unbounded (firmament); pure, bright, radiant 
lord (of all), may he come (to our) sacrifice. [Births of Agni: As Agni, Va_yu 
and Su_rya; or, itmay refer to the places of his manifestation; or, earth, 
firmament, and heaven]. 

 4.001.08 The messenger, the invoker (of the gods), riding in a golden chariot 
with a tongue of flame, he frequents all the chambers (of sacrifice); drawn by 
red horses embodied resplendent, always agreeable, as a delling well supplied 
with food. 

 4.001.09 Associated with sacrifice, and knowing those men (who are engaged in 
good works), they lead him with the strong cord (of praise); he, the divine 
Agni, fulfilling (all desires), abides in the dwelling of this mortal, and 
obtains fellowhip in his wealth. 

 4.001.10 May that wise Agni conduct us to that wealth which is desired by the 
devout; he whom all the immortals have created for (the performance of) sacred 
oblations, the most rresplendent, liberate us from all animosities. 

 4.001.11 He is first engendered in the habitation (of the sacrificers); then 
upon his station, (the altar), the base of the vast firmament; without feet, 
without head, concealing his extremities, combining with smoke in the nest of 
the rain-cloud. 

 4.001.12 Radiance has first proceeded to you, (Agni), who are glorified by 
praise, in the womb of the water, in the nest of the rain-cloud; the seven 
attached (priests) have engendered (praise) to the showerer (of benefits), who 
desirable, ever young, embodied, and resplendent. 

 4.001.13 In this world, our mortal forefathers departed after instituting the 
sacred rite, when, calling upon the dawn, they extricated the milk-yielding 
kine, concealed among the rocks in the darkness (of the cave). [Our mortal 
forefathers: the an:girasas; the reference is to the origin of fire-worship by 
An:giras and his followers]. 

 4.001.14 Rending the rocks, they worshipped (Agni), and other (sages) taught 
everywhere their (acts); unprovided with the means of (extricating) the cattle, 
they glorified the author of success, whence they found the light, and were thus 
enabled (to worship him) with holy ceremonies. 

 4.001.15 Devoted to (Agni), those leaders (of sacred rites), with minds intent 
upon (recovering) the cattle, forced open, by (the power) of divine prayer, the 
obstructing, compact, solid mountain confining the cows, a cow-pen full of kine. 

 4.001.16 They first have comprehended the name of the kine, knowing the thrice 
seven excellent (forms) or the maternal (rhythm); then they glorified the 
conscious dawns and the purple dawn appeared with the radiance of the sun. 
[Comprehended the name of the kine: te manvata prathamam na_ma dhenoh: dhenoh = 
va_k, speech and with na_ma, stutisa_dhakam s'abdama_tram, mere sound as the 
means of praise; the passage may also refer to the ancient nomenclature of 
cattle, as uttered by the An:girasas: ehi surabhi, guggulu, gandhini; thrice 
seven: twenty one metres of the vedas]. 

 4.001.17 The scattered darkness was destroyed; the firmament glowed with 
radiance; the lustre of the divine dawn arose; then the sun stood above the 
undecaying mountains, beholding all that was right or wrong among mankind. 

 4.001.18 Thereupon awaking, the (An:girasas) beheld (the cattle set free), and 
seized upon the precious treasures; the universal gods then came to all (their) 
dwellings; Mitra and Varun.a may your truth be (kept) to him who worships (you). 

 4.001.19 May I glorify the present radiant Agni, the invoker (of the gods), the 
supporter of the universe, most deserving of adoration, without milking the pure 
udder (of the cow), without the purified food of the Soma offered in libation. 
[Without the purified food: i.e., no offering is made to Agni on the occasion; 
praise alone is addressed to him]. 

 4.001.20 May Agni be the Aditi of all those in whom sacrifice is offered; may 
he be the guest of all men; receiving the (sacrificial) food of the devout may 
he to whom all is known, be the bestower of felicity. [Yajus. 33.16; may Agni be 
the Aditi: may he be the cherisher of the gods as if he were Aditi, their 
mother; or, Aditi may mean the earth, which is their stay or support; aditi = 
without a defect, gasyo khan.d.anam na_sa adian, not mean or base; receiving the 
sacrificial food: deva_na_m ava avrin.anah = participating in the sacrificial 
food of the worshippers; or, delivering oblations offered to the gods, i.e., 
through fire].  

 4.002.01 He who has beenplaced immortal among the mortals, the observer of 
truth, a deity triumphant among gods, the invoker of the gods, the most diligent 
sacrificer, Agni; he has been placed (upon the altar) to lighten (the ceremony) 
by his (lustre), and for the elevation of the worshipper, through oblations (in 
heaven). [Amont the mortal: or, among mortal organs of sense, Agni being that of 
speech: agnir-va_g bhu_tva_ mukham pra_vis'at]. 

 4.002.02 Agni, son of strength, generated today at this our rite, as 
intermediate between both (gods and men) you proceed, the invoker (of the gods), 
harnessing, graceful Agni, your robust, vigorous, and resplendent steeds.

 4.002.03 I celebrate the ruddy, food-bestowing, water- shedding, and swifter-
than-thought-going, steeds of him who is the truth; harnessing the brilliant 
pair (to your chariot), you pass between the deities of whom you are, and human 
worshippers. [You pass between the deities: antari_yase yus.ma_m.s'ca deva_n 
vis'a a_ ca marta_n, you go between, you  the gods, and men; you is specified 
from Agni being a divinity; he goes to men to receive oblation, and to the gods, 
of whom he is one, to bear it to them]. 

 4.002.04 Possessed, Agni, of good steeds, an excellent car, and abundant 
wealth, do you amidst these (worshippers) bring to the man who offers worthy 
oblations, Aryaman, Varun.a, Mitra, Vis.n.u, the Maruts, or the As'vins. 

 4.002.05 May the sacrifice, Agni, be productive of cows, of sheep, of horses, 
and celebrated by your worshipper, aided by the priests, be ever uninterrupted; 
may it, mighty Agni, be productive of food and progeny, long continued, 
affluent, wide based, and held in full assembly. [i.e. sabha_va_n, in the 
presence of spectators upadras.t.i sabha_ru_payuktah]. 

 4.002.06 You are the munificent recompenser of that man who, sweating (with 
toil), brings you fuel, and for your service causes his head to ache; protect 
him, Agni from every one that seeks to do him evil. [Munificent recompenser: 
svatava_n pa_yuh = dhanava_n pa_layita_, wealthy preserver]. 

 4.002.07 May a son, firm in (devotion) and liberal (in offerings), be born to 
him who presents (sacrificial) food to you when needing food, who gives you 
constantly the exhilarating (Soma juice), who welcomes you as a guest, and 
devoutly kindles you in his mansion. 

 4.002.08 Preserve from sin the liberal sacrificer who glorifies you morning and 
evening, and presenting oblations, does what is acceptable to you in his own 
abode, like a horse with golden caparisons. [as'vo na sve dame hemya_va_n = 
suvarn.anirmita kaks.ya_va_n, having a girth made of gold, the epithet is 
applied to the horse, though separated by sve dame, in his own house]. 

 4.002.09 Let not him who makes offerings to you Agni who are immortal, who with 
uplifted ladle pours out oblations repeating your praise, ever want riches, and 
let not the wickeness of a malevolent (foe) circumvent him.

 4.002.10 May that prayer be agreeable to you, Agni, who are a gracious deity, 
(which is uttered) by the man with whose well-conducted sacrifice you are well 
pleased young (of the gods), of whose (rites) when worshipping you may we be the 

 4.002.11 May the wise Agni discriminate between virtue and vice between 
(virtuous and wicked) men, as a (groom distinguishes between) the strong and 
weak backs (of horses); enrich us with wealth accompanied by virtuous offspring; 
be bountiful to the liberal giver; shun him who gives not. [cittim acittim 
cinavadvi vidva_n, may the sage (Agni) distinguish that which is to be known, 
cittim jn~a_tavyam pun.yam or virtue, and acittim acetani_yam not to be thought 
of, or pa_pam sin; cittim and acittim are explained by jn~a_nam and ajn~a_nam, 
knowledge and ignorance; marta_n, mortals or men, has no epithets and are 
supplied: the comparison runs: pr.s.t.heva vita_ vr.jina_ ca, like backs bright, 
(ka_nta_ni) and ill-bearing (durvaha_n.i); for the horses and the groom, 

 4.002.12 The unveiled sages abiding in the dwellings of man have glorified the 
sage (Agni); therefore, lord of sacrifice, you may proceed with swift-moving 
feet to behold the admirable and marvellous deities. 

 4.002.13 Resplendent Agni, young of the gods, the satisfier of (the desires of) 
men, who are easily to be conducted (to the altar), bestow joy-yielding and 
abundant wealth for his preservation upon the worshipper who praises and 
worships you and offers you libations. 

 4.002.14 Therefore, Agni, when we labour for you with hands and feet, and all 
our members, the pious performers of rites, (the An:girasas), exercise their 
arms in the work (of attrition), as wheelwrights fabricate a car. 

 4.002.15 May we seven priests first in order engender from the material drawn 
the worshippers of the creator (Agni); may we An:girasas be the sons of heaven, 
and, radiant, divide the wealth-continuing mountain. [May we, An:girasas, be the 
sons of heaven: divasputra_ an:giraso bhavena, or, may we, the sons of heaven be 
An:girasas; or, bhu_timantah, possessed of superior power. The An:girasas are 
the sons of A-ditya, an:girasa_m a_dityaputratvam a_mna_gyate; the text is: 
tasya yad retah prathamam udadipyata tad asau a_dityo abhavat, ityupakramya ye 
an:ga_ra_ asanste an:giraso abhavan, that which was his seed was first 
manifested as A_ditya, thence, in succession, those which were the cinders 
became the An:girasas; wealth-containing mountain: a_drim rujema dhaninam, may 
allude to the rock in which the cows were hidden; or, adri may be rendered cloud 
(megha), by the disruption of which rain is made to fall]. 

 4.002.16 Thus, Agni, our excellent and ancient forefathers, celebrators of holy 
sacrifice, proceeded to (the region of) pure light, and, reciting prayers and 
dispersing gloom, they made manifest the purple (kine). [Yajus. 19.69; proceeded 
to the region of pure light: s'ucid ayan di_dhitim di_ptam stha_nam tejas 
ca_gacchan: ravi-man.d.alam, the orb of the sun; the last phrases: may we, 
dividing the rays of the sun and piercing the earth (with sacrificial posts), 
also proceed by the path of the gods; or to heaven; apavran = apa_vr.n.umah, 
with the sense of the potential]. 

 4.002.16 Performers of good works, brilliant and devout, the praises of the 
gods have freed their birth from impurity, as (a smith heats) bronze; exciting 
Agni, elevating Indra, and wandering about (in search), they have gone to the 
vast (hidden) herd of cattle. 

 4.002.18 Fierce (Agni), when (Indra) proclaimed the near presence of the herd 
of the kine of the divine (An:girasas) as a herd of cattle in a well-stored 
stall, the progeny of mortals were thereby enabled (to perform pious acts), and 
the master of the family rendered competent to (provide for) the increase of 
posterity and (the support of) dependants. [Herd of cattle: a_yu_theva ks.umati 
pas'voh akhyat deva_na_m yaj janima_ni = lit., like a herd in food-possessing 
animals, he has said to the gods that which birth is nigh; jana_ma_ = go 
san:gham;  marta_na_m cid urvas'i_rakr.pranvr.dhe cid arya uprasya ayoh: 
urvas'ih = praja_,progeny; akr.pran = were made able (cf. Nirukta 5.13: urvas'ih 
= apsaras, i.e. urvabhya as'nuta;or, urubhya_m as'nuta, who pervades or proceeds 
from the thigh. The legend is that Urvas'i was born from the thigh of 

 4.002.19 We have worshipped you (Agni), and have thereby become the performers 
of a good work, adoring the full and variously delighting Agni, the beautiful 
lustre of the radiant divinity, when the brilliant dawns have arrayed 
(themselves) in light. 

 4.002.20 Creator, Agni, we have repeated these your praises to you who are all-
wise; do you accept them;blaze aloft; make us opulent; do you who are worshipped 
by many bestow upon us ample wealth.  

 4.003.01 Secure Agni, the king of sacrifice, the afflicter (of foes), the 
invoker (of the gods), the distributor of food through heaven and earth, the 
golden-formed, for your protection before (surprised by) sudden death. [pura_ 
tanayitnor acitta_t = lit., before the unconsciousness of the thunderbolt; this 
implies a state of unconsciousness, or death as sudden as if the work of the 

 4.003.02 This is the altar which we have decorated for you, as a wife attached 
to her husband puts on elegant garments (to gratify him); maturer of good works, 
sit down in our presence invested (with radiance), while your flames incline 
towards you. 

 4.003.03 Repeat, oh priest, the praise, the prayer, to the attentive, the 
affable Agni, the beholder of man, the giver of felicity, the divine, the 
immortal; to him whom the effuser of the libation, like the (bruising) stone, 
adores aloud. 

 4.003.04 You Agni, preside over this our rite; do you who are cognizant of 
truth, and the author of good works, recognize this our adoration, whenever 
these exhilarating prayers (are addressed) to you whenever friendly relations 
with you are (established) in our dwelling. 

 4.003.05 Why, Agni, do you reproach us (for our sin) to Varun.a, why to the 
heaven? what is our offence? why repeat it to the bountiful Mitra, to earth, to 
Aryaman, or to Bhaga? 

 4.003.06 Why repeat it when exalted in holy ceremonies? why tell it to the 
mighty, benevolent, circumambient, truthful wind? why, Agni, to earth, why to 
man-destroying Rudra? [To man-destroying Rudra: rudra_ya nr.ghne, the man-
slayer, Rudra, the slayer of wicked men]. 

 4.003.07 Why to the great and nutriment-conveying Pu_s.an? why to Rudra, the 
object of worship, the giver of the oblation (to the gods)? why to the many-
hymned Vis.n.u? why tell our sin to the extensive year? [To the extensive year: 
s'arave br.hatyai: s'aruh, s'arat, sam.vatsarah; or, s'aru = nirr.ti, the female 
personification of evil; nir.r.ti also occurs as a masculine (nirr.tir 
yajn~avigha_ti ra_ks.asah, an evil spirit disturbing sacrifice : Taittiri_ya 
Yajus. 1.2,11); nirr.ti = nairr.ta; nirr.tir sva nairr.ta iti va_ (Amarakos'a 
1.1,56); narr.tos tu khasaputro raks.aso nirr.tis ca sah, Nairr.ta, the son of 
Khasa, a ra_ks.asa, he is also Nirr.ti (Ratnakos'a)]. 

 4.003.08 Why tell it to the veracious company of the Maruts? why, even when 
asked, to the mighty sun? why repeat it to Aditi, or to the swift wind? fulfil, 
all-knowing Ja_tavedas, (the worship) of heaven. 

 4.003.09 I solicit, Agni, the milk of the cow, essential for the sacrifice; yet 
immature, (she possesses) the sweet and ripe (fluid); black though she be, yet 
with her white nutritious milk she maintains mankind in existence. 

 4.003.10 The male Agni, the showerer (of benefits), has been sprinkled by the 
genuine sustaining milk; the giver of food proceeds unswerving (from his 
course), and the sun, the shedder of rain, has milked the white (fluid) of the 
udder (of the firmament). [The sun milked: duduhe pr.s'nir udhas: prs'ni = 

 4.003.11 By the sacrifice, the An:girasas, rending the mountain asunder, have 
thrown it open, and returned with the cows; the leaders (of holy rites) have 
arrived happily at the dawn, and the sun was manifest as Agni was engendered. 
[The sun was manifest: an allusion to the early morning sacrifice with fire, 
probably instituted by the An:girasas]. 

 4.003.12 By sacrifice, Agni, the divine rivers, immortal, unobstructed, 
continue perpetually to flow with sweet waters, like a horse that is being urged 
in his speed. 

 4.003.13 Go not ever, Agni, to the sacrifice of any one who injures us; nor to 
that of a malevolent neighbour, nor to that of an (unnatural) relation; accept 
not the due (oblation) from an insincere brother; let us not derive enjoyment 
from the enemy of a friend. 

 4.003.14 Agni, worthily worshipped, counservator, conciliated (by our 
offerings), protect us with your protections; enlighten us; entirely extirpate 
our sin; overcome the great and exulting ra_ks.asas. 

 4.003.15 Be propitiated, Agni, by these hymns, accept, hero, these 
(sacrificial) viands (presented) with praises; be pleased, An:giras, by our 
prayers; may the adoration addressed to the gods exalt you. (Taittiri_ya 
Samhita_ 10.62.5) 

 4.003.16 Agni, creator, to you who are wise, acquainted with the past, I 
address, oh sage, these soliciting mysterious words, (these) ever-to-be-recited 
poems, together with praises and prayers. [Ever to be recited poems: 
nivacana_(ni) ka_vya_ni: nitara_m vaktavya_ni kavibhih kr.ta_ni, those which are 
made by poets ever to be recited].  

 4.00 4.01 Put forth your strength, Agni, as a fowler spreads a capacious snare; 
proceed like a king attended by his followers on his elephant; you are the 
scatterer (of your foes); following the swift-moving host consume the ra_ks.asas 
with your fiercest flames. [Yajus. 13.9; like a king attended: ra_jeva_mava_n 
ibhena: ibha may also mean fearless, gatabhayena;or, hastina_; ama = a minister, 
for a_ma_tya;or ama, an associate; or, sickness, inflicting it on the foe (cf. 
the same verse in Nirukta 6.13); following the swift-moving host: tr.s.vi_m anu 
prasitim dru_n.a_nah = ks.ipraga_mini_m prakr.s.t.a_m sena_m anugacchan; 
tr.s.vya = quick; santataya gatya, with extended or continuous march; prasiti = 
a net, a snare]. 

 4.004.02 Your swift and errant flames descend (on everyside); fierce-shining 
with vigour consume (the foe); scatter, Agni, with the ladle (of oblation), 
scorching flames and sparks, and brands. 

 4.00 4.03 Do you, who are most rapid, direct your (flames) against opposing 
(rays), and, unresisted, become the protector of this your people against the 
calumniator who is remote or who is nigh; let no malevolent (foe) prevail 
against us (who are) your worshippers. [Direct your flames against opposing 
rays: prati spas'o vir.ja: spas'ah = paraba_dhaka_n ras'min; or, it may mean, 
caran, spies, sent to determine between true and false, satyanr.taviveka_i_tham; 
pran.idhin may also mean binders, imprisoners, bandhanakr.ta_h]. 

 4.004.04 Sharp-weaponed Agni, rise up; spread wide (your flames) against (the 
ra_ks.asas); entirely consume the foes; blazing Agni, burn down him who acts as 
an enemy towards us like a piece of dry timber. [Who acts as an enemy: a_ratim 
cakre may also mean, who annuls or prevents our donation, one who makes a gift 
no gift]. 

 4.004.05 Rise up, Agni, chastise those who overpower us; manifest your divine 
energies; slacken the strone (bow strings) of the malignant kings; destroy those 
(who are hostile), whether kindred or unallied. [ja_mim aja_mim = bandhum 
abandhum; or, whether formerly overcome or not; alternative: punaruktam 
apunaruktam, repeated or not repeated; purah punastaditam ataditam, repeatedly 
chastised or not chastised]. 

 4.004.06 He experiences your good favour, young (of the gods), who offers 
praise to you a Brahman, coming quickly (to bestow felicity); to him are all 
prosperous days and wealth (of cattle) and treasures; do you as the lord of 
sacrifice, shine upon his dwelling. [A brahman coming quickly: ivate brahman.e, 
i.e., parivr.dha_ya, to the greatly augmented; shine upon his dwelling: aryo vi 
duro abhidyaut, he the worshipper especially shines over his house, aryo 
yajama_no gr.ha_n abhi vis'es.en.a dyotate]. 

 4.004.07 May the liberal man ever be prosperous who propitiate you with 
constant oblations and praises; may all the days in his arduous life be 
prosperous, and may this (his) sacrifice be (productive of reward). 

 4.004.08 I reverence your good favour, Agni; may this reiterated and resounding 
hymn convey due praise to your presence; may we be possessed of good horses and 
good cars, that we may pay you homage; and do you daily bestow upon us riches. 
[Good horses and good cars: a metaphor: may we, being with the sons, grandsons 
worship you]. 

 4.004.09 May every one of his own accord diligently worship you, shining in the 
(hall) morning and evening, every day; thus, sporting in our dwellings, 
(enjoying) the wealth (of hostile) man, may we with happy hearts worship you. 

 4.004.10 You Agni, are the protector of him who, possessed of good horses and a 
golden car, approaches you with a chariot laden with wealth; you are the friend 
of him who gratifies you be the due performance of hospitality to you. 

 4.004.11 Invoker (of the gods), young (of the deities) possessed of excellent 
wisdom, through the alliance (with you produced) by holy texts, which came to me 
from my father Gotama, I demolish the powerful (demons); do you who are the 
humbler (of foes), be cognizant of our praises. 

 4.004.12 All-wise Agni, may your protecting (rays), unslumbering alert, 
propitious, unslothful, benignant, unwearied, co-operating, having taken their 
place (at this sacrifice), preserve us. 

 4.004.13 Those your protecting (rays), Agni, which, beholding (what had 
chanced), preserved the blind son of Mamata_ from misfortune; he, knowing all 
things, cherished those benevolent (rays), and his enemies, intending to destroy 
him, wrought him no harm. [Preserved the blind son: an allusion to the legend of 
the birth of Di_rghatamas, who recovered his sight by worshipping Agni; 
cherished those benevolent rays: raks.a ta_n sukr.to vis'vaveda_: vis'vavedas 
may apply to Agni or to Di_rghatamas; by adding, bhava_n, your honour, the term 
seems to apply to Agni]. 

 4.004.14 Agni, who are freed from shame, by you we are made opulent; by you we 
are protected; may we, through your guidance, attain abundant food; cherisher of 
truth, destroy both (sorts of calumniators), those who are nigh, those who are 
far off, and in due course fulfil (our desires). 

 4.004.15 May we propitiate you, Agni, by this fuel; accept the praise that is 
recited by us; consume the unadoring ra_ks.asas; you are to be honoured by 
(your) friends, preserve us from the reproach of the oppressor and the reviler.  

 4.005.01 How may we present rejoicing (fit offering) to Agni the showerer (of 
benefits); to Vais'va_nara, he, who, bright with great lustre, sustains the 
heaven, with his entire vast and insupportable (bulk), as a pillar (sustains a 

 4.005.02 Reproach not the divine (Agni), who, accepting the oblation, has given 
this wealth to me, his mortal (worshipper) of mature (intellect); Agni, who is 
wise, immortal, discriminating, (who is) Vais'va_nara, chief conductor (of 
rites), the mighty. 

 4.005.03 May Agni, filling both (the middling and most excellent condition), 
bright shining, of manifold vigour, the showerer of (benefits), the possessor of 
affluence, (who comprehends), by (his) wisdom the mysterious sacred hymn, as 
(they track) the footsteps of a (missing) cow, reveal (the sense) to me. 
[Filling both: dvibarha = dvayor madhyamottamayoh stha_nayoh parivr.d.hah; who 
comprehends: sa_ma mahi padam na goh apagu_l.ham vividva_n agnir mahyam predu 
vocan mani_s.a_m: mani_s.a_m, is connected with sa_ma and is explained as 
jn~a_tavyam, what is to be known; apagu_l.ham atyantarahasyam; this is attached 
to padam]. 

 4.005.04 May the sharp-toothed Agni, possessed of excellent wealth, consume 
with his fierce radiance those (adversaries) who injure the firm and valued 
glories of the sapient Varun.a and Mitra. 

 4.005.05 Like women who have no brethren, going (about from their own to their 
father's house), women adverse to their lords going astray, so the wicked, false 
(in thought), false (in speech), they give birth to this deep abyss (of hell). 
[False in thought, false in speech: anr.ta_h ma_nasasatyarahita_ asatya_h 
va_cikasatyarahita_h; this deep anyss of hell: idam padam ajanata_ gabhi_ram, 
they engender this deep station, i.e. narakastha_nam]. 

 4.005.06 Purifier, Agni, bestow on me, not neglecting your worship, this 
acceptable and vast (wealth), like a heavy load on a feeble (bearer), together 
with invigorating food; (wealth), secure, abundant, tangible, and consisting of 
the seven elements. [saptadha_tu = seven sorts of animals; sapta gramya pas'avah 
sapta_ran.yah, seven tame, seven wild animals (Taittiri_ya Sam.hita_]. 

 4.005.07 May our (self) purifying praise, suited to his glory, and accompanied 
by worship, quickly attain to that omniform (Vais'va_nara) whose swift-ascending 
brilliant (orb) is stationed on the east of the earth, to mount, like the sun, 
above this immoveable heaven. [Vias'va_nara: the sun; or, Agni as lightning, or 
A_ditya; above immoveable heaven: sasasya carman adhi pr.s'neh = svapata iva 
nis'calasya dyulokasya upari carana_ya, for going above the immoveable heaven 
like the sun]. 

 4.005.08 What objection (can be offered) to this my assertion, that they affirm 
that the milk of the kine, which (the milkers) obtain like water, is placed in 
concealment (by Vais'va_nara), and cherishes the excellent and valued expanse of 
the wide earth. 

 4.005.09 I recognize this adorable assemblage of the great (deities), which 
from of old the milk-shedding cow affects, shining above the region of water, 
(the firmament), in secret; swift gliding, swift moving. [Assemblage of the 
great (deities): maha_mani_kam, the solar orb identified with Vais'va_nara, 
su_ryaman.d.alam vais'va_nara]. 

 4.005.10 Then, radiant in association with the parents, (heaven and earth), he 
is awakened (to drink) the agreeable secretion of the cow, and the tongue of the 
assiduous (performer of holy rites), the resplendent showerer (of benefits), 
approaching the excellent station of the maternal (cow), seeks to drink the 
milk. [Assiduous performer: the text has only prayatasya; this is amplified 
into: a_havani_ya_di rupen.a niyatasya vais'va_narasya, of vais'va_nara active 
in the form of the a_havani_ya fire]. 

 4.005.11 Interrogated with respect, I declare the truth, that this (wealth is 
acquired), Ja_tavedas, by the praise of you; you rule over it, (over) all that 
(it may be), the wealth that is in heaven or on earth. 

 4.005.12 What is the value of this (wealth) to us? what is its advantage? 
inform us, Ja_tavedas, for you know; (tell us) what is the best (course) for us 
on this secret path, so that we may follow unreproached the direct road. 

 4.005.13 Wha tis the limit, what are the objects, which is the desirable (end) 
to which we rush like swift (chargers) to the battle? when for us will the 
divine dawns, the brides of the immortal (sun), overspread (the world) with 

 4.005.14 (Men are) not satisfied by unproductive, frivolous, inconclusive, 
scanty speech; then what, Agni, do they here say to you? devoid of the 
implements (of worship), let them suffer from distress. [i.e., if they pretend 
to worship Agni without the oblation, and other materials of a burnt offering, 
they cannot expect his favour]. 

 4.005.15 For the prosperity of this (institutor of the rite), the host (of the 
flames) of the kindled (Agni), the showerer (of benefits), the giver of 
dwellings, has blazed in the hall (of sacrifice); clothed in radiance, beautiful 
in semblance, and glorified by many, he shines like a man with opulence. 
[ks.itir nara_ya, like a ra_ja_; or, the like, with wealth of cattle and 
treasure, ra_ya_s'va_dina_ dhanena ra_ja_diriva].

 4.006.01 Agni, ministrant of the sacrifice, do you who are entitled to worship, 
be above usin this offering to the gods; for you prevail over all that is 
desirable; you inspire the praise of the worshipper. [Prevail over all that is 
desirable: vis'vam abhyasi manma: manma = manani_yam s'atru_n.a_m dhanam 
abhibhavasi, you conquer the desirable wealth of foes. 

 4.006.02 The unperplexed, the sagacious, exhilarating Agni, the ministrant 
priest, has been placed among men for (the celebration of) sacrifices; like the 
sun, he spreads light above, and props the smoke above the sky like a pillar. 

 4.006.03 The ladle filled (with butter) is prepared; prompt (in act), opulent 
(with the oblation), the multiplying (priest), conducting (the worship) of the 
gods, circumambulates (the fire); the newly-trimmed post is set up, the 
impending shining axe falls upon the victims. 

 4.006.04 When the sacred grass is strewn and the fire is kindled, the Adhvaryu 
rises, propitiating (the gods), and Agni, the offerer of the oblation, ancient 
and multiplying (the offering), thrice circumambulates (the victim) like a 
keeper of cattle. [Thrice circumambulates: paryagnistrives.t.yeti, Agni goes 
round, having thrice returned, trir a_vr.tya paryeti, or trirhi paryagnih 
kriyate, Agni is thrice made around, which would imply that the fire was thrice 
circumambulated; the next stanza, however, clearly shows that it is Agni who 
goes round, either the altar or the victim; perhaps, it is the latter: parito 
gacchati pas'um]. 

 4.006.05 Agni, the sacrificer, the exhilarator, the sweet-spoken, the object of 
sacrifice, moving measuredly, circumambulates (the victim) of his own (accord); 
the bright (rays) of him (fed) with (sacrificial) food, spread around; all the 
regions are alarmed when he blazes. [Bright rays: asya va_jino na s'oka_ = as'va 
iva di_ptayo dravanti, his rays spread fast like horses]. 

 4.006.06 Bright-shining, Agni, beautiful and auspicious is the semblance of you 
who are terrible and wide-spreading, for (the nights) hide not your splendour 
with darkness, nor do the malignant (spirits) inflict any injury on your person. 

 4.006.07 Of whom, progenitor (of mankind), the benevolence is never checked; 
whose parents need not urge him to exertion; so that the well-satisfied, 
purifying Agni shines like a friend among men, the descendants of Manu. [Whose 
parents need not urge: na ma_tara_ pitara_ nu_ cid is.t.au, nor mother and 
father, i.e., heaven and earth, are quickly powerful in urging him; yasya 
pres.an.e ks.ipram eva na prabhavatah; descendants of Manu: ma_nus.is.u viks.u, 
may mean only human beings]. 

 4.006.08 Agni, whom the twice five sisters dwelling among men, the descendants 
of Manu, have engendered, like females, (awaking) him at dawn, feeding on 
oblations, brilliant of goodly aspect, and shharp as an axe. [Twice five 
sisters: the fingers employed in producing fire by attrition]. 

 4.006.09 Your horses, Agni, breathing foam, red-coloured, straight-going well-
placed, bright-shining, vigorous, well-membered, and of graceful form, are 
summoned to the worthy of the gods. 

 4.006.10 Those, your rays, Agni, triumphant, wide-spreading, radiant, adorable, 
go like hawk-faced horses (to their  goal), loud-sounding like the company of 
the Maruts. 

 4.006.11 Well-kindled Agni, for you the prayer has been composed; may (the 
priest) propitiate (you) by (his) praise; the (sacrificer) offers worship; 
bestow upon us manifold (wealth); desiring (riches), men sit down adoring Agni, 
the invoker of the gods, the glorifier of mankind. [The prayer has been 
composed: aka_ri brahma + the prayer or praise has been made].

 4.007.01 This invoker of the gods and minister of frequent worship, who is to 
be glorified at sacrifices, has been placed first (of the gods) by the 
performers of the rite; the Agni whom Apnava_na and other Bhr.gus lighted in the 
woods for the sake of all men, marvellous (in his acts), and soverign (over 
all). [Yajus. 3.15; the rite: the Agni here is a_havani_ya which is kindled 
before the daks.in.a_; Apnava_na and other Bhr.gus: Apnava_nah is the name of a 
r.s.i of the family of Bhr.gu; alternative: apnava_nah and other r.s.is and the 
Bhr.gus; it may also mean putravantah, having sons, an epithet of Bhr.gus]. 

 4.007.02 When, Agni, is the light of you, bright-shining, to be manifested; for 
therefore have mortals accepted you as to be worshipped among mankind. 

 4.007.03 Contemplating you in every dwelling, truthful intelligent, (brilliant 
with sparks) like the sky with stars, the perfecter of all sacrifices. 

 4.007.04 Men have brought, for the sake of all people, the swift messenger of 
the worshipper (to the gods), who (rules) over all mankind, the manifester, the 
resplendent. [Messenger of the worshipper: du_tam vivasvatah: vivasvatah = 
manus.yasya yajama~nasya, of the man, of the worshipper; the replendent: 
bhr.gava_n.am bhr.guvad a_carantam, going like Bhr.gu, i.e., di_pyama_nam 
ityartha, shining, or being kindled]. 

 4.007.05 They (the worshippers) have seated him in his due order, the invoker 
(of the gods), the intelligent, the agreeable, the purifyingly-radiant, the 
performer of frequent sacrifice, (brilliant) with seven flames. 

 4.007.06 Him, abiding in the maternal (waters) and in the woods, loved, yet 
unapproached, wonderful, hidden in a cave, endowed with knowledge, seeking 
(oblations) from any quarter. [Loved yet unapproached: vi_tam ka_ntam: as'ritam, 
da_habhaya+dasevitam, bright or beloved, not honoured or served, through fear of 
being burnt; seeking oblations from any quarter: ku_cidarthinam: i.e., kvacit, 
anywhere, anyhow; seeking fuel, butter: samida_jya_di havih svi_kurvantam]. 

 4.007.07 Whom, when they desist from slumber, the devout propitiate in the 
abode of water at every sacrifice; the mighty Agni, to whom oblations are to be 
offered with reverence, who truthful always, accepts the sacrifice. 

 4.007.08 You who are all-knowing understand the functions of a messenger (of 
the gods) at the sacrifice; well informed of both heaven and earth and the 
intermediate (firmament), and a most intelligent, ancient, and amplifying envoy, 
you go up the ascents of heaven. 

 4.007.09 Dark is the path of you wo are bright; the light is before you; your 
moving radiance is the chief of (all luminous) bodies; when the present 
(worshippers) take up the germ (in the sticks of attrition) you are speedily 
generated, and become indeed the messenger (of the sacrifice). 

 4.007.10 The light of the speedily-generated is visible, and when the win fans 
the flame, he (Agni) spreads his blazing tongue among the trees, and with his 
(glowing) teeth consumes the standing (fuel, his) food. 

 4.007.11 When quickly, with rapid (radiance), he has carried off his food, the 
mighty Agni makes (himself) the fleet messenger (of the worshipper); consuming 
(the fuel), he allies himself with the force of the wind, and as (a horseman) 
urges his fast steed, so the rapid going Agni, invigorates and urges (his 

 4.008.01 I propitiate you with praise, the messenger (of the gods), the 
omniscient, the bearer of oblations, the immortal, the chief sacrificer. 

 4.008.02 The mighty one knows how to bestow the (desired) wealth (upon the 
worshipper); he knows the ascents of heaven; may he bring the gods hither. 

 4.008.03 He, the divine (Agni), knows how the gods are to be reverenced; to the 
sincere (worshipper) in his dwelling he gives wealth that is desired. 

 4.008.04 He is the invoker (of the gods), comprehending the deity of (their) 
messenger; and, knowing the ascent of the sky, he travels between earth and 

 4.008.05 May we be they who propitiate Agni with gifts of oblations, and who, 
cherishing him, feed him with fuel. 

 4.008.06 They are renowned for riches and for progeny, who, venerating Agni, 
offer him oblations. 

 4.008.07 Many riches, envied by many, devolve upon us day by day, and 
(abundant) food await us. 

 4.008.08 May the wise Agni entirely obviate, by his powe,r the removable (ills) 
of men the descendants of Manu. [Entirely obviate the removable ills: 
atiks.ipreva vidhyati = ks.epyanyeva vina_s'ayitum arha_n.i atis'ayena 
na_s'ayatu, may he entirely destroy the evils which are capable of being 

 4.009.01 Agni, make us happy, for you are mighty, (you) who come to this devout 
man to sit down on the sacred grass. 

 4.009.02 May that Agni, who is difficult to overcome, who is immortal, who is 
pre-eminent among men the descendants of Manu, becomes the messenger of all the 

 4.009.03 He is conveyed into the sacrificial hall as the Hota_ to be adored at 
sacrifices, or as the Pota_ he sits down (on the sacred grass). [Hota_ and 
Pota_: two of the sixteen priests; Hota_ is the offerer of oblation; the 
function of the Pota_ is unclear]. 

 4.009.04 Agni may be the officiating priest at the sacrifice, or the master of 
the house in the sacrificial chamber, or he sits down as the Brahman. [The 
officiating priest at the sacrifice: uta gna agnir adhvara: gna = devapatni_, a 
wife of a deity; one reading: agnir yaje devapatnir yajati, Agni worships the 
wives of the gods at the sacrifice; or, gna = gacchan, going, may relate to the 
adhvaryu, who moves about the ceremonial]. 

 4.009.05 You, who are the director (of the ceremonial), accept the oblations of 
devoutly-worshipping men the descendants of Manu. [The director of the 
ceremonial: upavakta_, the priest who pronounces the formulae of sacrifice, or 
he may be the Brahma_, or the Sadasya, directing what is to be done]. 

 4.009.06 You are willing (to fulfil) the office of messenger for the mortal 
whose oblations at the sacrifice you are pleased to convey. 

 4.009.07 Be pleased by our sacrifice; (be pleased) An:giras, by our offering 
hear our invocation. 

 4.009.08 May your inviolable car, whereby you defend the donors of oblations, 
be everywhere around us. [Yajus. 3.36].

 4.010.01 We celebrate you today, Agni, who are like a horse (in conveying our 
burden) with your praises, conveying (our wishes to the gods), and (who are) 
like a benefactor, propitious and affectionate. [Yajus. 15.44; as'vam na = like 
a horse, an allusion to the as'vamedhika horse; Agni is the bearer of oblations 
as a horse is of burdens, vod.ha_ram as'vamiva tatha_ havis.o va_hakam; ohaih is 
an epithet of stomaih; ohaih is derived from vaha, to bear or, causing to 
acquire fruit or reward; or causint to attain to Indra and the rest, indra_di 
pra_pakaih; kratum na = upakarta_ramiva, like a benefactor; or, sacrifice, i.e., 
may we celebrate or augment that your sacrifice, Agni, with praises]. 

 4.010.02 Be now the conveyer, Agni, of our auspicious, powerful, efficacious, 
truthful, and great sacrifice. 

 4.010.03 Agni, who like the sun are light, propitiated by these our hymns, come 
to our presence with all your hosts (of radiance). 

 4.010.04 Glorifying you, Agni, today, with these our praises, may we offer you 
(oblations); your (flames), bright as those of the sun, roar aloud. 

 4.010.05 Your lovely radiance, Agni, whether by day or by night, shines upon 
(all objects) like an ornament (to give them) beauty. 

 4.010.06 Giver of sustenance, (Agni), your favour is free from fault, like 
clarified butter; your pure and golden lustre shines like an ornament. 

 4.010.07 Truthful, Agni, verily you remove from the mortal who institutes 
(your) worship, whatever sin has been committed (by him) of old. 

 4.010.08 May our friendly and fraternal attentions to your deities prove 
fortunate; for such (attentions shown) in every sacrifice (form) our security in 
the sphere (of the gods). [In the sphere: no na_bhih sadane: na_bhi, bandhanam, 
binding our fastening; deva_na_m stha_ne, in the place of the gods; 
sasminnu_dhan = sarvasmin yajn~e, in every sacrifice].

 4.011.01 Powerful Agni, your auspicious radiance shines upon the proximity of 
the sun (by day); your bright and visible (lustre) is conspicuous by night, as 
the bland and pleasing food (of sacrifice, the oblation) becomes manifest in 
your form. [By day, by night: i.e., oblations are to be offered with fire both 
morning and evening]. 

 4.011.02 Agni, who are engendered repeatedly, and glorified by sacrifice, set 
open heaven to him who offers you adoration; resplendent (Agni), bestow upon us 
that ample and acceptable (wealth), which, radiant (deity), you with all the 
gods, have given (to other worshippers). 

 4.011.03 The offerings (to the gods) are engendered, Agni, of you; from you 
(proceed) praises; from you effective prayers; from you come a vigorous frame 
and wealth to man who worships with sincerity and offers oblations. [The 
offerings to the gods: ka_vya_ = ka_vya_ni, acts in connection with fire, such 
as bringing the deities conveying oblations; or, it may mean the functions of 
the adhvaryu; or it may refer to the ka_vya_, or offerings to the pitr.s or 

 4.011.04 From you, who are vigorous, to conveyer of oblations, the vast, the 
granter of what is desired, is born (a son) of real strength; from you comes 
wealth approved of by the gods, the source of happiness; from you, Agni, (is 
obtained) a swift unarrested horse. 

 4.011.05 Immortal Agni, devout mortals worship with holy rites you the first 
deity (of the gods), whose tongue exhilarates (them), the dissipator of sin, the 
humiliator (of the demons) the lord of the mansion, the unperplexed. [Whose 
tongues exhilarate them: by taking as their mouth the oblation; the humiliator 
of demons: damanu_nasam = ra_ks.asam damanakaren.a ma_nasopetam, being intent on 
destroying the ra_ks.asas, having a mind for taming, or a tamed or humble mind, 
a liberal or a domestic mind]. 

 4.011.06 Agni, son of strength, since you protect (your worshippers), far 
(remove) from us all iniquity; far (remove from us) sin; far (from us) all evil 
thoughts; for proeperous is he of whom you who are radiant by night promote the 

 4.012.01 May he who with uplifted ladle kindles you, and thrice every day 
presents to you the (sacrificial) food, knowing your glory, Ja_tavedas, to be 
invigorated by the act, surpass (all others) in riches. 

 4.012.02 He who, labouring diligently, brings you fuel, honouring, Agni, your 
great glory; he who kindles you in the evening and at dawn; he, prosperous and 
destroying his enemies, acquires riches. [dos.a s'vah sahasoh suno yam deva a 
cit sacase svasti: s'ivah to Agni as s'ivakara, making happy]. 

 4.012.03 Agni is the possessor of great strength of excellent food of riches, 
the young (of the gods); abounding in sustenance, he gives to the mortal who 
worships him precious (wealth) according to (his devotion). [The possessor of 
great strength: br.hatah ks.atriyasya = mahato balasya]. 

 4.012.04 If, young (of the gods), with the inconsiderateness common to men, we 
have ever committed any offence against you, make us free from the defects of 
earth efface entirely, Agni our offences. [Free from the defects of earth: 
aditer ana_ga_n = bhumer ana_gasah, pa_parahita_n, sins of the earth, or against 
the earth]. 

 4.012.05 Let not us, Agni, who are your friends, ever suffer harm from any 
great or comprehensive offence against either gods or men; bestow forgiveness 
upon our sons and grandsons, the reward of what has been well done. [Reward of 
what has been well done: yaccha toka_ya, tanaya_ya, sam yoh: sam = 
pa_paru_podravan.am s'antim, pacification of violence of the nature of sin; yoh 
sukr.totpa_ditam sukham, happiness produced by what is done well]. 

 4.012.06 Adorable Vasus, in like manner as you have liberated the cow bound by 
the foot, so set us free entirely from sin; and may our existence, Agni, be 

 4.013.01 Favourably-minded, Agni has manifested (his might) in regard to the 
wealth-bestowing procession of the resplendent dawns; proceed, As'vins, to the 
dwelling of the pious (worshipper); the divine sun rises with splendour. [The 
dawn having appeared the morning fire is to be lighted]. 

 4.013.02 The divine Savita_ diffuses his light on high, dispersing the dew, and 
like a vigorous (bull) ardent for the cow; then Varun.a, and Mitra, and other 
(divinities), hasten to (fulfil) their offices when they elevate the sun in the 
sky. [hasten to fill their offices: yat su_ryam divy a_rohanti; yad ras'mayah 
su_ryasya a_rohan.am ka_rayanti, when the rays of light cause the ascent of the 

 4.013.03 Seven great courses convey that sun, whom the (deities), occupants of 
enduring mansions, and not heedless (of their offices), have formed for the 
driving away of darkness, (and who is) the animator of the whole world. 

 4.013.04 Divine (sun), you proceed with most powerful (horses), spreading your 
web (or rays), and cutting down the black abode (of night); the tremulous rays 
of the sun throw off the darknes which is spread like a skin over the firmament. 

 4.013.05 This sun, not far removed, and unobstructed, whether (looking) 
downwards or looking upwards, is harmed by no one; what is the power by which he 
travels? who has (truly) beheld him who, as the collective pillar of heaven, 
sustains the sky?

 4.014.01 The resplendent Agni, by whom all is known, has manifested (his might) 
in regard to the dawns radiant with lustre; far-going Na_satyas, come with your 
car to this our sacrifice. 

 4.014.02 The divine Savita_ displays his banner on high, diffusing light 
through all worlds; contemplating (all things), the sun has filled heaven and 
earth and the firmament with his rays. 

 4.014.03 The great and intelligent dawn, variegated with (many-coloured) rays 
of purple tint, bringing opulence, has come with (her) lustre; the divine Us.as, 
arousing (the sleepers), proceeds with her well-harnessed car (to distribute) 

 4.014.04 May those robust and active horses bring you, (As'vins), hither at the 
breaking of the dawn, and may these Soma juices prepared, showerers (of 
benefits), for your drinking, exhilarate you at this (our sacrifice). 

 4.014.05 This sun, not far removed and unobstructed, whether looking downwards 
or looking upwards, is harmed by no one; what is the power by which he travels? 
who has (truly) beheld him who, as the collective pillar of heaven, sustains the 

 4.015.01 Agni, the invoker (of the gods), like a horse (that bears a burden), 
is brought to our sacrifice; a deity adorable among deities. [Is brought to our 
sacrifice: parin.i_yate = implies a formal ceremonial, the bringing of the fire 
taken from the household fire wherewith to light the sacrificial fire; va_ji san 
= a horse, i.e., whom they load as a horse bringing a load; Agni is brought to 
become the bearer of the oblation, havir va_hanah (Aitareya Bra_hman.a 2.5)]. 

 4.015.02 Agni, thrice (a day), comes to our sacrifice like charioteer, bearing 
the sacrificial food to the gods. 

 4.015.03 The sage, Agni, the lord of food, has encompassed the oblation, giving 
precious things to the donor. [Yajus. 2.35; paryakrami_t = taking the offerings 
for conveyance to the gods]. 

 4.015.04 Radiant as this Agni, the subduer of foes, who is kindled on the 
(altar) of the cast as (he was kindled) for Sr.n~jaya, the son of Devava_ta. 
[Sr.n~jayas are a people in the west of India: Vis.n.upura_n.a]. 

 4.015.05 May the mortal who is strenuous (in worship) acquire authority over 
this Agni, the sharp-rayed, the showerer (of benefits). 

 4.015.06 They diligently worship him daily who is like a horse (to convey 
oblations), who is liberal and resplendent as the son of heaven, (the sun). 

 4.015.07 When the prince, the son of Sahadeva, promised (to present) me with 
two horses, I withdrew not when called before him. [I withdrew not: accha_ na 
hu_ta udaram = a_bhimukhena kuma_ren.a hu_ta san ta_vas'va_valabdi_ va_ na 
nirgatava_n asmi, being called by the present prince, I did not go forth without 
receiving the two horses]. 

 4.015.08 But immediately accepted those two excellent and well-trained horses 
from the prince, the son of Sahadeva. 

 4.015.09 Divine As'vins, may this prince, Somaka, the son of Sahadeva, your 
(worshipper), enjoy long life. 

 4.015.10 Divine As'vins, do you two make the prince, the son of Sahadeva, long-

 4.016.01 May the truthful Maghavan the accepter of the spiritless Soma, come to 
us; may his horses hasten to us; to him we offer this sacrifice, the very potent 
beverage; may he grant the fulfilment of our desires. [Spiritless soma: 
r.ji_s.in = fr. r.ji_s.a, vigata sa_rah somah, the Soma of which the essence is 

 4.016.02 Hero, Indra, set us free today to give you exhilaration at this 
sacrifice, as (they let loose a horse) at the end of the road; may the 
worshipper, like Us'ana_s, repeat an acceptable prayer to you, the knower (of 
all things), the destroyer of the asuras. 

 4.016.03 Like a sage (knowing) what is hidden, and fulfilling sacred rites, so 
the showerer (of benefits), quaffing copiously the effused (libation), exults 
(in the draught), and he generates the seven efficient (rays) from heaven, 
which, being glorified, have made (manifest) the objects of (human) perception 
by day. [The seven efficient rays: aji_janat sapta ka_ru_n ahna_ ciccakrur 
vayuna_ gr.n.antah]. 

 4.016.04 When the vast luminous heaven manifested by the rays (of light) is 
displayed, then are (the deities) resplendent according to (their heavenly) 
abode; the chief of leaders, (Indra), in his approach has scattered the thick 
glooms so that men may see. [Indra: Su_rya, as identical with Indra]. 

 4.016.05 Indra, as the accepter of the stale Soma, sustains infinite greatness, 
and has filled both heaven and earth by his magnitude; therefore has the 
vastness of him who has surpassed all the regions, exceeded (the world). 

 4.016.06 Knowing all things profitable for men, S'akra has, with his willing 
friends (the Maruts), sent forth the waters, for they, with (loud) shouts, 
divided the clouds, and, desiring (to fulfil) their office, set open the 
pasturage of the cows (of the An:girasas). 

 4.016.07 Your protecting thunderbolt has slain Vr.tra obstructing the (issue of 
the waters), the conscious earth (co-operating) with you; valiant hero, 
preserver (of the regions), send down by your strength the waters of the 

 4.016.08 Invoked of many, when you had divided the cloud for (the escape of) 
the waters, Sarama_ appeared before you; and you, the bringer of abundant food, 
have shown us favour, dividing the clouds and glorified by the An:girasas. 

 4.016.09 Maghavan, who are honoured by men, you have repaired to the presence 
of the sage for (the sake of) bestowing (upon him) wealth, and when soliciting 
(you) in his need (for aid); defending (him) with your protection, the guileful, 
impious Dasyu has been destroyed in the contest for the spoil. [The sage: the 
text has kavim, usually rendered as kra_nta-dars'i, the seer of the past; but, 
here it is a synonym of Kutsa, as in the next verse]. 

 4.016.10 With a mind resolved on killing the Dasyu, you came (to his dwelling), 
and Kutsa was eager for your friendship; now have you two alighted in his, 
(Indra's), habitation, and being entirely similar in form the truthful woman has 
been perplexed (to discriminate between you). [Kutsa: a ra_jar.s.i, the son of 
Ruru, also a royal saint; Kutsa is the author of several su_ktas (RV 1.010), 
termed as the son of An:giras; there is also a legendary Kutsa, son of Arjuna; 
truthful woman has been perplexed: after destroying the enemies of Kutsa, Indra 
conveyed him to his palace, where S'aci, the wife of Indra, could not tell who 
her husband was, since both were exactly alike]. 

 4.016.11 You go with Kutsa in the same chariot, determined to defend him; (you) 
who are the tormentor (of foes), the lord of horses (of the speech) of the wind; 
on the same day wherein, yoking (to the car) the straight-going steeds, as if to 
receive food, the sage (Kutsa) has been enabled to cross over (the sea) of 

 4.016.12 For Kutsa, you have slain the unhappy S'us.n.a and in the forepart of 
the day, attended by thousands (you have slain) Kuyava with the thunderbolt; you 
have swiftly destroyed the Dasyus, and you have cut them to pieces in the 
battle, with the wheel (of the chariot of) the sun. 

 4.016.13 You have subjugated Pipru and the mighty Mr.gaya_ for the sake of 
R.jis.van, the son of Vidathin, you have slain the fifty thousand Kr.s.n.as; 
and, as old age (destroys) life, you have demolished the cities (of S'ambara). 
[Mr.gaya_ = name of an asura; Vidathin = a ra_ja_; fifty thousand Kr.s.n.as = 
ra_ks.asas of a black colour, kr.s.n.avarn.a_ni ra_ks.asa_m.si]. 

 4.016.14 While having (your) person in the proximity of the sun, your form 
becomes redolent of ambrosia, and you are like the deer-like elephant, consuming 
the strength (of the strong), and are like a terrible lion when wielding your 
weapons. [Like the deer-like elephant: mr.go na hasti = gaja vis'es.a; mr.ga iva 
= a sort of elephant like a deer]. 

 4.016.15 Relying (upon Indra) for protection, and desirous of riches, (pious 
men) repair to him soliciting his presence in the sacrifice, as if in the 
battle, asking for food, celebrating his praise with hymns, for he is the refuge 
(of his worshippers), and resembles the grateful and lovely (goddess) of 
nutrition. [i.e. goddess Laks.mi_]. 

 4.016.16 Let us invoke that gracious Indra who has made so many things good for 
man; who, bestowing enviable opulence, quickly brings acceptable food to a 
worshipper like me. 

 4.016.17 Hero, indra, when in any conflict of men the sharp thunderbolt falls 
in the midst (of them), and when, lord there is a terrible battle, then the 
defender of our persons is made known. 

 4.016.18 Be you the protector of the pious acts of Va_madeva; be you in battle 
an unfailing friend; we come to you, eminent in wisdom; may you be ever 
benignant to your praiser. 

 4.016.19 In every battle, Maghavan, may we, along with those men who trust in 
you and offer rich gifts, like those who are resplendent with riches, triumphing 
over their foes, glorify you many nights and years. 

 4.016.20 Therefore we offer to the vigorous Indra, the showerer (of benefits), 
holy adoration, that he may never withdraw his friendly (actions) from us, and 
that he may be our powerful protector, the defender of (our) persons, as the 
Bhr.gus (fabricate) a car (for use). [Bhr.gavo na ratham: bhr.gavo = di_ptas 
taks.a_n.ah, bright or dexterous carpenters; i.e. as a wheelwright makes a 
chariot for a special purpose, so the worshipper performs worship in order to 
secure Indra's favour]. 

 4.016.21 Glorified (in the past), glorified, Indra, at present, satisfy your 
worshipper with food, as rivers (are filled with water); lord of horses, a new 
hymn has been made for you; may we possessed of chariots, be ever delighted in 
(your) praise. [A new hymn has been made for you: aka_ri Brahma_].

 4.017.01 You, Indra, are mighty; the vast earth confesses to you (your) 
strength, as does the heaven; you have slain Vr.tra by your vigour, you have set 
free the rivers arrested by Ahi. 

 4.017.02 At the birth of you who are resplendent, trembled the heaven (and) 
trembled the earth through fear of your wrath; the mighty clouds were confined; 
they destroyed (the distress of drought), spreading the waters over the dry 

 4.017.03 The subduer of foes, manifesting his energy and hurling his 
thunderbolt, shattered the mountain by his strength; he slew Vr.tra with the 
thunderbolt, exulting, and the waters whose obstructor was destroyed rushed 
forth with rapidity. 

 4.017.04 Heaven, your progenitor, conceived (I have obtained) a worthy son; the 
maker of Indra was the accomplisher of a most excellent work; he who begot the 
adorable (Indra), armed with the thunderbolt, irremovable from his station, and 
endowed with greatness. [Heaven, your progenitor: suvi_ras te janita_ manyata 
dyauh: dyauh = dyotama_na; janita_ = praja_pati]. 

 4.017.05 All men, praising the munificence of the divine Maghavan, verily 
glorify him who alone casts downmany, Indra, the king of men, the adored of 

 4.017.06 Truly are all libations his, the inebriating draughts are truly most 
exhilarating to the mighty Indra; truly are you the lord of wealth, of (all 
sorts of) treasures; you, Indra, support all people by the gift (of riches). 

 4.017.07-08 (We praise) the slayer of many foes, the courageous, the 
discomfiter (of enemies), the great, the unbounded, the showerer (of benefits), 
the wielder of the bright thunderbolt, him who is the destroyer of Vr.tra, the 
bestower of food, the giver of wealth, Maghavan, the possessor of riches. 

 4.017.09 This Maghavan, who destroys assembled hosts, is he who is renowned as 
chief in battles; he brings the food which he bestows (upon the worshipper); may 
we be held dear in his friendship. 

 4.017.10 This (Indra), is renowned, whether conquering or slaying (his foes), 
or whether in conflict he recovers the cattle; when Indra truly entertains anger 
all that is stationary or moveable is in fear of him. 

 4.017.11 Indra, the lord of opulence, who has overcomemany (enemies), has 
completely won (their) cattle, (their) gold, (their) horses; chief leader by his 
energies, praised by these his worshippers, he is the distributor of riches, the 
bestower of wealth. 

 4.017.12 Some portion (of his strength) Indra derives from his mother, some 
portion from his father; he who, though his progenitor, has begotten (the 
world), and animates its vigour repeatedly, as the wind is driven by thundering 
clouds. [His progenitor: Praja_pati; as the wind is driven by thundering clouds: 
The simile is applied to Indra: as the wind is impelled by thunder-clouds, so 
Indra is influenced by the hymns of the worshippers]. 

 4.017.13 You are the Maghavan who makes one man destitute, another prosperous, 
who (scatters from his worshipper) the accumulated dust (of sin), the destroyer 
(of foes), like the heaven with the thunderbolt, Maghavan conducts his 
worshipper to wealth. 

 4.017.14 He has hurled the wheel (of the chariot) of the sun, and has stopped 
Etas'a going forth to (battle); the dark undulating cloud bedews him, (staying) 
at the root of radiance in the regions of its waters. [In the regions of the 
waters: in the antariks.a, or firmament; Etas'a: RV. 1.061.15; 1.130.09 and 

 4.017.15 As the sacrificer (pours the oblation) at night upon the fire. 
[asikanya_m yajama_no na hota_: hota_ = hota_ram, the invoker, Agni, 
a_hva_ta_ram agnim; sin~cati somam, he sprinkles the soma; the verse with one 
pa_da may relate to the previous verse]. 

 4.017.16 May we (who are) wishing for cattle, for horses, for food, for wives, 
through his friendship induce Indra, the showerer (of benefits), the giver of 
wives, the unwearied granter of protection, to come down, as a bucket (is 
lowered) into a well. 

 4.017.17 Be our preserver, you who are looking (benevolently upon) all; a 
kinsman (to us); a supervisor (of all things), a bestower of felicity on those 
who are worthy (to offer) libations; a friend, a protector, a defender in the 
highest degree among defenders, a creator; (be you, who bestows) the world of 
heaven upon him who desires it, the giver to us of food. 

 4.017.18 Regard yourself as a protector of those who desire your friendship; be 
a friend deserving of commendation; grant, Indra, food to him who praises (you); 
suffering difficulties, we make our suppications to you, worshipping you with 
these holy rites. 

 4.017.19 When Indra, the possessor of opulence, is glorified, he singly 
destroys many unyielding foes; the worshipper is dear to him (who relies) on his 
protection, and neither gods nor men molest him. 

 4.017.20 The many-voiced Indra, the possessor of opulence, the supporter of 
men, the irresistible bestows upon us, when praised by us, assured (rewards); 
you, (Indra), are the king of men; grant to us abundantly that great fame which 
(is due) to (your) worshipper. 

 4.017.21 Glorified (in the past), glorified, Indra, at present satisfy your 
worshipper with food, as rivers (are filled with water); lord of horses, a new 
hymn has been made for you; may we, possessed of chariots, be ever diligent in 
your praise. [This is a repetition of the last verse of the preceding su_kta]. 

 4.018.01 Indra speaks: This is the old and recognized path by which all the 
gods are born; so, when full-grown, let him be born in the same manner; let him 
not cause the loss of this his mother. 

 4.018.02 Va_madeva speaks: Let me not come forth by this path, for it is 
difficult (of issue); let me come forth obliquely from the side; many acts 
unperformed by others are to be accomplished by me; let me contend (in war) with 
one (enemy), in controversy with one opponent. 

 4.018.03 He, (Indra), has asserted (that it will) cause the death of my mother; 
let me not proceed by the usual way, but proceed quickly, according (to my 
will); in the dwelling of Tvas.t.a_ Indra drank the costly Soma from the vessels 
of the offerers. [Va_madeva vindicates his own wilfulness by the example of 
Indra, who came to Tvas.t.a_'s house uninvited, and, by force, drank the Soma 
prepared for other gods; tvas.t.a_ havaputro vi_ndram somama_harat (Taittiri_ya 
Sam.hita_ 2.4.12)]. 

 4.018.04 Aditi speaks: What irregular act has he committed whom (I, his 
mother), bore for a thousand months and for many years? there is no analogy 
between him and those who have been or will be born. [Aditi defends her son upon 
the plea that, as his period of gestation was marvellous, his actions are not to 
be compared with those of any others]. 

 4.018.05 Deeming it disreputable (that he should be brought forth) in secret, 
his mother endowed (Indra) with (extraordinary) vigour; therefore, as soon as 
born he sprung up of his own accord, invested with splendour, and filled both 
heaven and earth. [In secret: in the privacy of the lying-in chamber, unworthy 
of so great a divinity]. 

 4.018.06 These (rivers) flew murmuring as if, being filled with water, they 
were uttering sounds (of joy); ask them what is this they say; what is the 
encompassing cloud that the waters break through? [Ask them what is this they 
say: i.e., they are proclaiming the greatness of Indra, by which, and not by 
their own efforts, they have been extricated from the cloud]. 

 4.018.07 What do the sacred expiatory strains declare to me? the waters reeive 
the reproach of Indra; my son has slain Vr.tra with the mighty thunderbolt; he 
has set those rivers free. [What do the sacred strains declare: kinus.vid asmai 
nivido manante: the nivids are certain verses repeated at some sacrifices to 
Indra and the Maruts in their honour, and are tantamount to an acquittal of the 
charge imputed to Indra, and here anticipated by Aditi of brhmanicide, Vr.tra 
being a brahman; the crime was transferred to the waters in the shape of foam]. 

 4.018.08 Va_madeva speaks: exulting one youthful mother brought you forth; 
exulting, Kus.ava_ swallowed you; exulting, the waters gave delight to the 
infant; Indra, exulting, rose up by his strength. [Kus.ava_ = a ra_ks.asi, whom 
Indra, although at first swalled by her, drove out of the lying-in chamber]. 

 4.018.09 Vyam.sa, exulting and striking (hard blows), smote you, Maghavan, upon 
the jaw; whereupon, being so smitten, you proved the stronger, and did crush the 
head of the slave with the thunderbolt. [Vyam.sa: name of a ra_ks.asa who also 
attempted to destroy the infant Indra]. 

 4.018.10 As a helper bears a calf, his mother, (Aditi), bore Indra, mature (in 
years), strong, irresisitble, vigorous, energetic, invincible, (destined) to 
follow his own course, heedful of his person. 

 4.018.11 His mother inquired of the mighty Indra, have these deities deserted 
you, my son? then Indra and Vis.n.u, my friend (if you) purpose slaying Vr.tra 
exert your greatest prowess. 

 4.018.12 Who has made your mother a widow? who has sought to slay the sleeping 
and the walking? what deity has been more gracious than you since you have slain 
the father, having seized him by the foot? [Since you have slain the father: yat 
pra_ks.in.a_h pitaram pa_dagr.hya; cf. Taittiri_ya Sam.hita_]. 

 4.018.13 In extreme destitution I have cooked the entrails of a dog; I have not 
found a comforter among the gods; I have beheld my wife disrsepected; then the 
falcon, (Indra), has brought to me sweet water. [In extreme destitutuin: So Manu 
has, Va_madeva, who well knew right and wrong, was by no means rendered impure, 
though desirous when oppressed with hunger, of eating the flesh of dogs for the 
preservation of his life; icchan attum, wishing ot eat; the text has s'uno 
a_ntra_n.i pece, I cooked the entrails of a dog; the falcon: i.e., as swift as a 
hawk, s'yena vat s'i_ghraga_mi_ndrah].  [Su_kta 18: R.s.i va_madeva, while yet 
in the womb, was reluctant to be born and chose to come into the world through 
his mother's side; aware of his purpose, the mother prayed to Aditi, who 
thereupon came, with her son Indra, to expostulate with the R.s.i; this is the 
subject of the Su_kta].

 4.019.01 Indra, wielder of the thuderbolt, all the protecting deities who are 
reverently invoked, and both the heaven and the earth, glorify you who are 
verily one alone, mighty, vast, and pleasing of aspect, for the destruction of 

 4.019.02 As elders (send forth their young), so the gods have sent you (against 
Vr.tra); thence you became, Indra who is the abode of truth, the soverign of the 
world; you have slain the slumbering Ahi for (the release of) the water and have 
marked out (the channels of) all the delighting rivers. 

 4.019.03 On the day of full moon you have slain with the thunderbolt the 
insatiable, unnerved, ignorant, unapprehending, slumbering Ahi, obstructing the 
gliding-downward-flowing (streams). [On the day of the full moon: aparvan = 
paurn.ama_sya_m (ghnanti va_ enam paurn.ama_sa : Taittiri_ya Sam.hita_]. 

 4.019.04 Indra, by his strength, has agitated the exhausted firmament, as wind, 
by its violent (gusts, agitates) the water; exulting in his strength, he has 
divided the solid (clouds), and has shattered the peaks of the mountains. 

 4.019.05 The Maruts have hastened to you like mother to their young; like 
chariots they have rushed in along (with you); you, Indra, have satisfied the 
following streams; you have shattered the clouds; you have set free the 
obstructed rivers. 

 4.019.06 You have made the vast, all-cherishing, and exuberant earth, delighted 
with (abundant) food, and tremulous water, for (the sake of) Turvi_ti and 
Vayya_; you have made the rivers easy to be crossed.  

 4.019.07 Indra has filled the youthful rivers, the parents of plenty, the 
corroders (of their banks), like  armies destructive (of their foes); he has 
inundated the dry lands, and (satisfied) the thirsty travellers; he has milked 
the barren cows whom the asuras had become the lords of. [He has milked the 
barren cows: adhok staryo dam.supatni_h, i.e., he has removed the barrenness 
occasioned by the grief of their separation by rescuing the cattle carried off 
by the Pan.i]. 

 4.019.08 Having slain Vr.tra, he has liberated many mornings and years (that 
had been) swallowed up by darkness, and has set the rivers free; Indra has 
released the imprisoned rivers, encompassed (by the cloud), to flow upon the 

 4.019.09 Lord of horses, you have brought the son of Agru from his dwelling, 
where he was being devoured by the ants; when extricated, although blind, he 
distinguished the serpent; and when he came forth the joints that had been 
sundered in the ant-hill were restrung. [Agru: agru_ na_ma ka_cit, a certain 
female; where he was being devoured by the ants: vamribhir adanam 
upajihvika_bhir adyama_nam: upajihvika_, the white ant: nives'ana_t 
va_lmi_kakhya_t stha_na_t: valmi_ka is a hillock thrown up by the insect; the 
serpent: ahim = sarpam (an allusion to the popular belief of the presence of a 
snake in an ant-hill); the joints were restrung: ukhacchit samaranta parva: 
va_lmi_ka_khya_ ukha_ya_s chedaka_ni parva_n.i samagacchanta, the joints which 
had been relaxed or corroded by the insects of the ukha_, or ant-hill were 
reunited by Indra]. 

 4.019.10 The sage, (Va_madeva), knowing, royal Indra, the ancient deeds of you 
who are all wise, has proclaimed the actions, such as you ahve performed them, 
generative of rain, self-evolved, and beneficial to man. 

 4.019.11 Glorified (in the past), glorified, Indra, at present, satisfy your 
worshipper with food, as rivers (are filled with water); lord of horses, a new 
hymn has been made for you; may we, possessed of chariots, be ever diligent in 
your praise.

 4.020.01 May the illustrious Indra, the granter of desires, come to us, whether 
from afar or nigh, for our protection; he who is the lord of men, armed with the 
thunderbolt, overcoming his foes in conflict and in combats, (attended) by the 
most illustrious (Maruts). 

 4.020.02 May Indra, looking down upon us, come with his steeds to our presence 
for our protection and enrichment; may the mighty thunderer, the possessor of 
wealth, (aiding us) in battle, be present at this our sacrifice. [Yajus. 
20.48,49: balaih is used for marudbhih; va_jasa_tau also means, for the sake of 
bestowing food]. 

 4.020.03 You, Indra, placing us before you, shall receive this sacrifice, our 
holy offering; and as the huntsman (kills his game), may we, your worshippers, 
holder of the thunderbolt, for the acquisition of riches through you to be 
victorious in battle. 

 4.020.04 Indra, the giver of food, be near to us, favourably disposed; and 
anxious for our (good), drink of the effused, prepared, exhilarating Soma, and 
be pleased by the (sacrificial) food (offered with the noon-day hymn. 
[samandhasa_ mamadah pr.s.t.hyena: pr.s.t.hyam = ma_dhyandinasavana udga_tr.bhir 
udgi_yama_nam stotram]. 

 4.020.05 Like a man boasting of his wife, I glorify that Indra who is invoked 
of many, who is hymned by recent sages (who is) like a tree with ripe fruit, 
like a victorious (warrior), skilful in arms. 

 4.020.06 He who is vast and self-sustained like a mountain, the radiant and 
formidable Indra, born of old for the destruction (of the foes of the gods), the 
wielder of the ancient thunderbolt, charged with splendour, like a jar (filled) 
with water. 

 4.020.07 Of whom there is no opposer by (reason of) his birth nor any destroyer 
of the wealth that accomplishes (pious works); powerful and resplendent (Indra), 
the invoked of many, do you who are the showerer (of benefits) bestow upon us 

 4.020.08 You rule over the riches and the dwellings of men; you are the rescuer 
of the herd of cattle; you are the giver of the instruction, the smiter in 
battles, and the distributor of great heaps of riches. 

 4.020.09 By what wisdom is he who is most wise renowned by that wherewith the 
mighty Indra repeatedly does (great things); he is the especial effacer of the 
manifold sin of the worshipper, and bestows wealth upon his adorer. 

 4.020.10 Harm us not, but cherish us, Indra; bestow upon us that abundant 
wealth which it is yours to give to the donor (of the oblation); praising you, 
we celebrate you at this sacred rite, which is new and excellent, and (at which 
the oblation) is proper to be presented. 

 4.020.11 Glorified (in the past) glorified, Indra, at present, satisfy your 
worshipper with food, as rivers (are filled with water); lord of horses, a new 
hymn has been made for you; may we, possessed of chariots, be ever delighted in 
your praise.

 4.021.01 May Indra come to us for protection, and being praised (by us), may 
the mighty hero be exhilarated along with (us) at this rite; he whose energies 
are many; may he, like the radiant sun, recruit his own overpowering vigour. 
[Yajus. 20.47; along with us: vasa, with the gods, devai saha; or, asma_bhih 
saha; lie the radiant sun: dyaur na ks.tram abhibhu_ti pus.yati, whose many 
exploits (are celebrated) like the heaven; ks.atram = may he, (Indra) cherish 
(our) strength. 

 4.021.02 Glorify the powerful leaders of that renowned and opulent (Indra), 
whose victorious and protecting energy rules over men, like a universal 
sovereign entitled to veneration. [The powerful leaders: vr.s.nya_ni nr.n = 
balabhu_ta_n netr.n, i.e., the Maruts]. 

 4.021.03 May Indra, accompanied by the Maruts come quickly for our protection, 
from the heaven, from the earth, from the firmament, or from the waters; from 
the sphere of the sun, from (any) distant region, from the abode of the rains. 

 4.021.04 We glorify, in solemn rites, this Indra who rules over substantial, 
abundant riches; who by his prowess is victor over (hostile) hosts; who by his 
munificence brings excellent (wealth) to the presence (of his worshippers). 

 4.021.05 Let the invoking priest bring to our dwellings that (Indra) who, 
firmly fixing the (world) returns food for (sacrificial food), and (utters) a 
voice enjoining (men) to worship; he who is to be propitiated by praises, who is 
adored by many. [Utters a voice enjoining men to worship: va_cam janayam 
yajudhyai = the speech of Indra is the thunder]. 

 4.021.06 When the repeaters of (his) commendations, abiding in the dwelling of 
the worshipper, approach Indra with praise, may he who is our (great) sustainer 
in conflicts, whose wrath is difficult to be (appeased), becomes the ministering 
priest of the master of the house. [Of the worshipper: aus'ijasya, from us'ij, a 
priest, one who employs priests; Indra: adri is the name in the text, a name, it 
is said, of Indra, from dri to divide, to tear, as foes]. 

 4.021.07 True it is that this might of the son of the protector of the world, 
the showerer (of benefits), affects for his advantage the offerer of praise; it 
(prevails) in the secret (thoughts) of the worshipper, and in his dwelling, for 
(the accomplishment of his) pious acts, (the attainment of his) desires, and his 
delight. [The protector of the world: bha_rvara = patronymic of Bha_rvara, which 
means jagadbharta_, the protector of the world, or, Praja_pati; in the secret 
thoughts: the text has guha_ pra; this is expanded into: guha_ru_pa hr.daye 
prabhavati, the strength,balam, of Indra, prevails or presides over the heart, 
in the nature of secrecy or mystery; the purport of the entire verse is that the 
might of Indra always protects his worshipper, Indrasya balam sarvada_ 
vajama_nam pa_layati]. 

 4.021.08 Inasmuch as he has opened the doors of the cloud, and has supplied the 
rapid courses of the waters with (additional) torrents, so when the pious have 
recourse to Indra for food, he finds (it) in the haunt of the Gaura and Gavaya. 
[He finds it in the haunt of Gaura and Gavaya: vidat gaurasya gavayasya gohe: 
vidat here has no government; goha = gr.ha, a dwelling; Gaura and Gavaya are two 
species of mr.ga, deer or any wild animal; they are perhaps bos gavaus or gavaus 
frontalis and bibos gaurus or bos cavifrons; the purport of the phrase is that 
Indra obtains those two animals tau dvau pas'u labhate, either for himself as 
sacrificial flesh, or for his worshippers, some of whom, at least, even now, 
would not object to eat the flesh of the wild oxen]. 

 4.021.09 Your auspicious hands, Indra, are the doers of good deeds; your two 
hands, Indra, are the extenders of wealth to him who praises you; what, Indra, 
is this delay? why do you not exhilarate us? why are you not delighted to make 
us gifts? 

 4.021.10 Thus (glorified), Indra, who is faithful (to his word), the lord of 
wealth, the slayer of Vr.tra, bestows rihes on man; so you, the praised of many, 
give us riches for our pious acts, that I may eat of your divine food. [Bestow 
riches on man: varivah pu_rave kah = manus.ya_ya dhanam karoti; or, it may be a 
reference to a descendant of Puru]. 

 4.021.11 Glorified (in the past), glorified, Indra, at present, satisfy your 
worshipper with food, as rivers (are filled with water); lord of horses, a new 
hymn has been made for you; may we, possessed of chariots, be ever delighted in 
your praise.

 4.022.01 Since the great and mighty Indra is propitiated by our (oblations), 
since he desires (them) from us, may he, the possessor of opulence, who comes 
wielding the thunderbolt of his strength, accept the (sacrificial) food, the 
hymn, the Soma libation, and the prayers. [Food, hymn, soma and prayhers: an 
allusion to the fourfold forms of offering worship, Brahma_, Stoma, Soma and 
Uktha: the first is the cakes steeped in butter-- offerings or obaltions; the 
second, the praise that is recited aloud; the third, the libation of the Soma; 
and the fourth, the praise or prayer that is repeated silently or in a lower 
tone not chanted or sung].  

 4.022.02 The showerer (of benefits), casting with his hands the quadrangular 
bolt that causes rain, fierce, the chief of leaders, the achiever of (glorious) 
acts, is desirous of the prosperity of the investing Parus.n.i (river), whose 
(bordering) districts he has frequented through regard. [The investing 
Parus.n.i: u_rn.a_m parus.n.i_m = accha_dika_m parvavati_m nadi_m, the river 
having joints or bends covering; whose bordering districts he has frequented: 
the text is, yasya_h parva_n.i sakhya_ya vivye = lit., those joints through 
friendship he has approached; the explanation: yasya_h nadhyah bhinna_n des'a_n 
sakhikarman.e sam.vr.tava_n, the separate districts of which river he has, for 
the sake of friendly acts,covered or concealed]. 

 4.022.03 Who diine, most divine, as soon as born (was endowed) with abundant 
viands, and great energies, holding in his arms the willing thunderbolt, and 
causing by his strength (both) heaven and earth to tremble. 

 4.022.04 All the high places, and the many low paces, the heaven and the earth, 
trembled (through fear) of the mighty (Indra) at his birth; the strong (Indra) 
cherishes the parents of the moving (Sun), and the winds, like men, make a noise 
in their peregrination. [Parents of the moving sun: ma_tara_ bharati goh: goh = 
gantuh su_ryasya]. 

 4.022.05 Of you, Indra, who are mighty, great are deeds, and to be proclaimed 
at all sacrifices, inasmuch as, high-minded hero, you, sustaining (the world), 
have by your strength slain Ahi with the resistless thunderbolt. 

 4.022.06 Most powerful Indra, all these, your exploits, are verily true: 
(through fear of you), the showerer (of benefits), the cows shed (milk) from 
their udders; then, benevolent-minded (Indra), the rivers, fearing you, flow 
with rapidity. 

 4.022.07 Then, Indra, lord of horses, the divine sister (rivers) praise (you) 
for your protection when you did set them free to flow, after having been 
impeded (by Vr.tra) through a long confinement. 

 4.022.08 The exhilarating Soma juice has been expressed; now may the curren 
flow to you, and may the expiatory power of the illustrious utterer of praise be 
directed towards us, as the quick rider holds firmly the reins of the steed. 
[s'ami_ s'as'ama_nasya s'aktih = s'amanam stuvatah stuti karma; s'asa'ca_nasya = 

 4.022.09 Enduring Indra, bestow upon us energies, excellent, superior, 
powerful; bring under subjection to us enemies deserving of death; demolish the 
weapon of the malevolent man. 

 4.022.10 Hear our praises, Indra, and bestow upon us many kinds of food; fulfil 
all our desires, and know yourself, Maghavan, to be to us the donor of cattle. 

 4.022.11 Glorified (in the past), glorified, Indra, at present, satisfy your 
worshipper with food, as rivers (are filled with water); lord of horses, a new 
hymn has been made for you; may we, possessed of chariots, be ever diligent in 
(your) praise.

 4.023.01 In what manner may (any one) extol the mighty Indra? at the sacrifice 
of what worshipper may he, propitiated, be present, drinking the sacrificial 
Soma beverage, desirous of the (sacred) food, and pleased (by the oblation)? the 
mighty Indra is borne (to the rite) for the purpose of bestowing brilliant 

 4.023.02 What hero has enjoyed his fellowship (in battle)? who has been a 
sharer in his benevolent thoughts? when does any one appreciate his wonderful 
bounty? when is he (presen) for the promotion of the prosperity of the man who 
glorifies and worships him? 

 4.023.03 How is that Indra hears (the worshipper) who invokes him? and, 
hearing, how does he know his necessities? what are his gifts of old; why have 
they termed him the fulfiller (of the desires) of him who offers praise? 

 4.023.04 How does he who glorifies Indra, and is diligent in his worship, 
although encountering opposition, obtain from him wealth? may the divine Indra 
be the appreciation of my praises, when accepting the sacrificial food he is 
propitiated towards me. 

 4.023.05 When, in what manner, at the dawning of this morning, has the divine 
Indra accepted the friendship of a mortal? when and in what manner, (is) his 
friendship (manifested) to the friends who have spread out the desirable and 
suitable (offering) before him? 

 4.023.06 May we in any manner proclaim your friendship for your friends? when 
may (we make known) your fraternal regard? the efforts of the well-looking Indra 
are for the happiness of all; the wonderful form of the moving (Indra) is, like 
the sun, ever wished for. 

 4.023.07 Resolving to kil the oppressing, malevolent (ra_ks.asi), not 
acknowledging Indra, he sharpened his sharp weapons for (her) destruction, and 
the fierce (Indra) the canceller of debts, has kept afar the unknown dawns in 
which the debts (are to be paid). [Resolving to kill: jigha_m.san druham 
dhavarasam anindram: the implied ra_ks.asi is thought to mean death, the debt of 
nature, the payment of what Indra's favour delays by prolonging life]. 

 4.023.08 Many are the waters of r.ta; the adoration of r.ta destroys 
iniquities; the intelligent and brilliant praise of r.ta has opened the deaf 
(ears) of man. [r.ta = sacrifice or truth or water; here it may apply to Indra, 
or to A_ditya, or to the three former personified divinities; the following 
verses are a succession of changes on the word]. 

 4.023.09 Many are the stable, sustaining, delightful forms of the embodied 
r.ta; the r.ta are (the pious) expectant of food; by r.ta have the kine entered 
into the sacrifice. [i.e., as presents made to the officiating priests; the 
phrase may also mean, the rays of light have entered into the water, ga_va r.tam 
a_vives'uh ras'maya_ udakam a_ives'uh]. 

 4.023.10 The (worshipper) subjecting r.ta (to his will) verily enjoys r.ta; the 
strength r.ta is (developed) with speed, and is desirous of (possessing) water; 
to r.ta belong the wide and profound heaven and earth; supreme kine, they yield 
their milk to r.ta. [Desirous of possessing water: r.tasya s'us.mas turaya_ u 
gavyuh = s'us.mo balam tu_raya_s tu_rn.am gavyuh u carthe jalaka_mas'ca 

 4.023.11 Glorified (in the past), glorified, Indra, at present, satisfy your 
worshipper with food, as rivers (are filled with water); lord of horses, a new 
hymn has been made for you; may we possessed of chariots, be ever diligent in 
our praise.

 4.024.01 What suitable praise may bring the son of strength, Indra, before us, 
to give us wealth; the hero, the lord of cattle, is the donor, oh man, of the 
wealth of his adversaries to him who glorifies him. 

 4.024.02 He, Indra, is to be invoked for the destruction of Vr.tra; he, the 
deservedly praised, is to be worshipped; the real donor of wealth, he, Maghavan, 
gives wealth, (acquired) in battle, to the mortal offers him prayer and 

 4.024.03 Men verily call upon him in battle; the (devout) inflicters of 
austerity upon their persons constitute him their preserver; when both (the 
worshipper and the priest) approach together the bountiful Indra, men (succeed) 
in (obtaining) the gift of sons and grandsons. [Inflicters of austerity: 
ririkva_m.sas tanah = svaki_ya_ni s'ari_ra_n.i tapasa_ recayanto yajama_na_h, 
worshippers emaciating their own bodies by penance]. 

 4.024.04 Powerful Indra, men variously dispersed, come mutually together to 
celebrate sacred rites for the sake of obtaining rain; when men who are 
combatants assemble in battle, there are some of them who rely upon Indra.

 4.024.05 Thereupon some verily worship the powerful (Indra); thereupon one man 
prepares the buttered cake that he may offer it to (Indra); thereupon the 
offerer of the Soma he distinguishes from him who presents no libation; 
thereupon some one rejoices to worship the showerer (of benefits). 

 4.024.06 Indra bestows wealth upon him who offers a libation to him, desiring 
it, though in another sphere; and, with a humble mind, makes him who is devoted 
to him his friend in combats. 

 4.024.07 Indra accepting graciously the praises of his devoted (worshipper), 
who today pours out the libation to him who toasts the buttered cakes, or fries 
barley for Indra, exercises towards him the power that grants his desires. 

 4.024.08 When the destroyer (of enemies) distinguishes a mortal foe; when the 
lord is engaged in the long (continued) battle, (his) bride summons to the 
dwelling the showerer (of benefits), encompassed by the offerers of the 
libation. [When the lord is engaged in the long battle: di_rgham yad a_jim 
abhyakhyad arya: arya = sva_mi, lord, i.e., Indra; patni_ in the next verse is 
Indra's wife]. 

 4.024.09 A man has realized a small price for an article of great value, and 
again coming (to the buyer he says) this has not been sold; I require the full 
price; but he does not recover a small price by a large (equivalent); whether 
helpless or clever they adhere to their bargain. [A man has realized: bhu_yasa_ 
vasnam acarat kani_yas = lit., by much a man acquires a little, wealth or value; 
kas'cid pan.yena dravyen.a alpataram mu_lyam pra_pnoti: kas'cit is understood to 
be the vendor; one (a vendor) who takes a small price for valuable goods, comes 
afterwards to the buyer, and says, this has not been sold by me, and, so saying, 
he requires the balance of the price; but he, the vendor, does not recover the 
full price, nor does he get back the article; according to the bargain between 
them it may not be otherwise; the sale has taken place, and if the bargain has 
been kept, then it has only to be considered that such is the object of the 
price, and that is the conclusion: a baragin has been made, and the (stipulated) 
price given; therefore, in the first place, an agreement is to be made by me: so 
reflecting, Va_madeva, having by much praise got Indra into his possession or 
subjugation, purposes to make a bargain when about to dispose of him, as in the 
next verse]. 

 4.024.10 Who buys him, my Indra, with ten kine? when he shall have slain (your) 
foes, then let (the purchaser) give him again to me. 

 4.024.11 Glorified (in the past), glorified, Indra, at present, satisfy your 
worshipper with food, as rivers (are filled with water); lord of horses, a new 
hymn has been made for you; may we, possessed of chariots, be ever diligent in 
your praise.

 4.025.01 What friend of man, or worshipper of the gods, deserving the 
friendship of Indra, has today enjoyed (it)? or what offerer of the libation on 
the kindled fire praises him (sufficiently) for his great and unbounded 

 4.025.02 Who has reverenced with (suitable) words the (deity) worthy of the 
libation? who is devoted (to him)? who supports the cattle (given by him)? who 
desires the society of Indra? who his friendship? who his fraternity? who (has 
recourse) to the sage Indra for protection? 

 4.025.03 Who solicits today the protection of the gods? who glorifies the 
A_dityas, Aditi, light? of whose effused libation to the As'vins, Indra, Agni, 
drink at will propitiated by his praise? [Light: jyotir; this is explained as 
water, jyotir udakam]. 

 4.025.04 May Agni, the bearer of oblations, grant him felicity, and long behold 
the rising sun (in the dwelling of him) who says, let us offer libations to 
Indra, leader (of rites) the friend of man, the chief leader among leaders. [And 
long behold the rising sun: i.e., may the sacred fire long be hindled in the 
house of the sacrificer at the hour of sunrise]. 

 4.025.05 Him neither many nor few can molest; may Aditi grant him infinite 
happiness; the performer of pious acts is dear (to Indra); dear to Indra is he 
whose mind is intent upon him; dear is he who approaches him with homage; dear 
to him is the offerer of the libation. 

 4.025.06 This hero, Indra, the prompt discomfiter (of foes), who is to be 
approached with homage, grants special maturity to the presenter of the 
libation; he is not the kinsman, nor friend, nor relative, of him who offers no 
libation (to him); he is difficult of access, and the punisher of him who 
repeats not (his) praise. 

 4.025.07 (Indra), the drinker of the effused Soma, contract no friendship with 
the wealthy trader who offers not any libation; he takes away his wealth; 
destroys him when destitute; but he is a special (friend) to him who presents 
the libation and oblation. 

 4.025.08 The most exalted, the most humble, (invoke) Indra; the middle 
(classes) invoke Indra; those going, those stopping, (invoke) Indra; those 
dwelling at home, those going in battle, (invoke) Indra; men needing food invoke 

 4.026.01 I have been Manu and Su_rya; I am the wise r.s.i: Kaks.i_vat; I have 
befriended Kutsa, the son of Arjuni; I am the far-seeing Us'ana_s; so behold me. 
[Attributed to Va_madeva: the sage uttered the verse and the following two 
verses, while yet in the womb, knowledge of truth being generated in him, and 
enabling him to identify himself with universal existence; through the eye of 
supreme truth I am everything, parama_rtha dr.s.t.ya_ kr.tsnam aham 
asmityarthah, we have, thus, the statement of the pantheistic basis for 

 4.026.02 I gave the earth to the venerable (Manu); I have bestowed rain upon 
the mortal who presents (oblations); I have let forth the sounding waters; the 
gods obey my will. [To the venerable Manu: the text has only a_ryaya; Ma_nave is 

 4.026.03 Exhilarated (by the Soma beverage) I have destroyed the ninety and 
nine cities of S'ambara, the hundredth I gave to be occupied by Divoda_sa when I 
protected him, Atithigva, at his sacrifice.  

 4.026.04 May this bird, Maruts, be pre-eminent over (other) hawks, since with a 
wheelless car the swift-winged bore the Soma, accepted by the gods, to Manu. 
[With a wheelless car: acakraya_ vadhaya_ = cakrarahitena rathena, with a car 
without wheels; the text has havyam, this is a metonymy for the Soma, which is 
said to have been brought from heaven by the ga_yatri_, in the form of a hawk; 
by the hawk, we are to understand the supreme spirit, parabrahma]. 

 4.026.05 When the bird, intimidating (its guardians), carried off from hence 
(the Soma) it was at large; (flying) swift as thought along the vast path (of 
the firmament), it went rapidly with the sweet Soma, and the hawks thence 
acquired the celebrity in this world. 

 4.026.06 The straight-flying hawk, conveying the Soma from afar; the bird, 
attended by the gods, brought, resolute of purpose, the adorable exhilarating 
Soma, having taken it from that lofty heaven. 

 4.026.07 Having taken it, the hawk brought the Soma with him to a thousand and 
ten thousand sacrifices, and this being provided, the performer of many (great) 
deeds, the unbewildered (Indra) destroyed, in the exhilaration of the Soma, 
(his) bewildered foes.

 4.027.01 Being still in the germ, I have known all the births of these 
divinities in their order; a hundred bodies of metal confined me, but as a hawk 
I came forth with speed. [i.e., until the sage comprehended the differences 
between the body and soul, and learned that soul was unconfined, he was subject 
to repeated births; but in this stage he acquired divine knowledge, and burst 
through the bonds with the force and celeriy of a hawk from its nest; va_madeva 
s'yena ru_pam a_stha_ya garbha_d yogena nihsr.tah = Va_madeva, having assumed 
the form of a hawk, came forth from the womb by the power of Yoga 

 4.027.02 That embryo did not beguile me into satisfaction, but by the keen 
energy (of divine wisdom), I triumphed over it; the impeller of all, the 
sustainer of many, abandoned the foes (of knowledge), and, expanding, passed 
beyond the winds (of worldly troubles). [The impeller of all: the parama_tma_, 
or supreme spirit; beyond the winds: the vital airs, or life, the cause of 
worldly existence, which is pain]. 

 4.027.03 When the hawk screamed (with exultation) on his descent from heaven, 
and (the guardians of the Soma) perceived that the Soma was (carried away) by it 
then, the archer of Kr.s'a_nu, pursuing with the speed of thought, and stringing 
his bow, let fly an arrow against it. 

 4.027.04 The straight-flying hawk carried off the Soma from above the vast 
heaven, as (the As'vins carried off) Bhujyu from the region of Indra, and a 
falling feather from the middle of the bird dropped from him wounded in the 
conflict. [antah parn.am tan madhye sthitam; one nail of the left foot and the 
shaft was broken by the collision, the fragments of the nail became the quills 
of the fretful porcupine, those of the arrow, water-snakes, flying foxes, and 

 4.027.05 Now may Maghavan accept the pure nutitious (sacrificial) food in a 
white pitcher, mixed with milk and curds, offered by the priests; the upper part 
of the sweet (beverage) to drink for his exhilaration; may the hero accept (it) 
to drink for (his) exhilaration.

 4.028.01 Through that friendship, Soma, which has united you with your (friend) 
Indra, he has made the waters flow for man; he has slain Ahi; he has sent forth 
the seven rivers, and has opened the shut-up sources (of the streams). 

 4.028.02 With you, Soma, for his ally, Indra has quickly taken off by force the 
wheel of the chariot of the sun, abiding above with the vast and stationary 
(firmament); the everywhere going wheel (of the car) of the great oppressor has 
been taken away. [maho druho = prabhutasya drogdhuh, of the very mighty oppresor 
or tyrant, alluding probably to his heat]. 

 4.028.03 Indra has slain the Dasyus, Soma, in battle; Agni has consumed them 
before the noon; he (Indra) has destroyed the whole of many thosands, as 
(robbers are the destroyers of those) going upon (their own) business, in a 
difficult and dangerous (place). [Before the noon: pura_ madhyandina_t, in the 
forenoon, when the Soma is drunk, and thence Indra and Agni have been 
invigorated; as robbers are the destroyers of those: the text has only durge 
duron.e kratva_ na ya_ta_m, as of those gone on account of business, in a 
difficult place; the implied terms are: where protection is difficult, from 

 4.028.04 Indra, you have made these Dasyus devoid of all (good qualities); you 
have made the races without rites abject; may you, (Soma and Indra), repel (and) 
destroy (your) enemies; accept (our) homage for their destruction. [You have 
made the servile races abject: vis'a da_si_r akr.n.ora pras'asta_h: da_sih as 
the adjective of vis'ah, praja_h, people, men, is explained: karmahi_na_h, 
having no special or religiously instituted rites or functions; apras'asta_h = 
garhita_h, reviled, vile]. 

 4.028.05 Possessors of wealth, destroyers of foes, Indra and Soma, it is indeed 
true that you have distributed great numbers of horses, and of the cattle which 
had been concealed and the land which you had recovered by your strength.

 4.029.01 Honoured with accepted (sacrificial) viands, come, Indra, exulting, 
with your steeds, to our many rites, for our protection; you who are the lord, 
glorified by hymns, whose wealth is truth. 

 4.029.02 May Indra, the friend of man, the omniscient, come to the sacrifice 
when invoked by the offerers of libations; he is possessed of good horses, who 
is fearless honoured by the effusers of libations, who rejoices with the heroes 
(the Maruts). 

 4.029.03 Let (his worshipper) cause his ears to listen so as to invigorate him 
(by praise), and to give him pleasure in every acceptable place; and being well 
moistened with the Soma juice, may the vigorous Indra render the holy places 
(conducive) to our wealth, and free from danger. [The holy places: suti_rtha = 
s'obhana_ni ti_rtha_ni]. 

 4.029.04 (That Indra), who repairs to the suppliant or (his) protection, to the 
sage in this manner invoking and praising him; he who, armed with the 
thunderbolt, places, of his own accord, hundred and thousands of swift-going 
(horses) in the shafts (of their cars). 

 4.029.05 Opulent Indra, may we, who are protectedby you, who are intelligent, 
devout, and offerers of praise, be participant with you for the sake of 
distributing brilliant wealth, and abundant food, entitled to (our) 
commendation. [br.had divasya ra_ya_ aka_yyasya da_vane puriks.oh = mahad 
di_pter a_samanta_t stutyasya bahvannasya dhanasya_da_ne nimitte bhejanasas tvam 
bhajama_na bhavema, may we enjoying you for the sake of the gift of wealth of 
much food, every way commendable and very brilliant].

 4.030.01 There is no one, Indra, superior to you; no one more excellent (than 
you); slayer of Vr.tra there is no one, verily, such as you are.  

 4.030.02 Verily men are attached to you as are all the wheels (to the body of 
the wagon); in truth you are great and renowned. 

 4.030.03 Verily all the gods, with you (for) their strength, have warred (with 
the asuras); wherefore you have destroyed by day and by night. 

 4.030.04 In wihc (contests), for the sake of Kutsa and his allies, you hae 
stolen, Indra, the (wheel of the car) of the sun. [You have stolen: the text has 
mus.a_ya su_ryam, you have stolen the sun]. 

 4.030.05 In which (contest) you singly indeed have warred with all those 
opposing the gods; you, Indra, have slain the malignant. 

 4.030.06 In which (contests), Indra you have, for the sake of a mortal, 
discomfited the sun, and have protected Etas'a by (your) exploits. 

 4.030.07 Wherefore, slayer of Vr.tra, opulent Indra, have you thereupon become 
most incensed, and in consequence, have slain the son of Danu (Vr.tra) in this 

 4.030.08 Inasmuch, Indra, as you have displayed such manly prowess, you have 
slain the woman, the daughter of the sky, when meditating mischief. [The 
daughter of the sky: the dawn, extinguished by the ascendancy of Indra 
throughout the day]. 

 4.030.09 You Indra, who are mighty, have enriched glorious dawn, the daughter 
of heaven. 

 4.030.10 The terrified Us.as descended from the broken wagon when the (showerer 
of benefits) had smashed it. 

 4.030.11 Then her shattered wagon reposed (on the bank) of the Vipa_s' (river), 
and she departed from afar. 

 4.030.12 You have spread abroad upon the earth, by your contrivance, the 
swollen Sindhu when arrested (on its course). [sindhu viba_lyam vitastha_nam : 
vigataba_lya_vastha_m, whose youth was passed, i.e., who was full of water, 
sampu_rn.ajalam, and vitis.t.hama_nam, stopping or being stopped]. 

 4.030.13 By valour you have carried off the wealth of S'us.n.a, when you had 
demolished his cities. 

 4.030.14 You have slain the slave S'ambara, the son Kulitara hurling him off 
the huge mountain. 

 4.030.15 You have slain the five hundreds and thousands (of the followers) of 
the slave Varin, (surrounding) him like the fellies (round the spokes of the 

 4.030.16 You, Indra, who are S'atakratu, have made Para_vr.j, the son of Agru, 
participant in sacred hymns. 

 4.030.17 The lord of acts, the wise Indra, has borne across (their 
difficulties), Turvas'as and Yadu, when denied inauguration. [apa_rayat =he 
enabled to cross; i.e., he made them worthy to be inaugurated or crowned which 
they were not at first, as the text implies by asna_ta_rau, not bathers; 
allusion is to their exclusion from the succession in favour of the young son 
Puru by their father Yaya_ti]. 

 4.030.18 You have slain at once those two A_ryas, Arn.a and Citraratha, 
(dwellig) on the opposite (bank) of the Sarayu. [Those two A_ryas: a_rya_ = 
a_rya_bhima_nau, a_ryatvabhima_ninau, presuming on their dignity as a_ryas, and 
being without any faith or devotion]. 

 4.030.19 Slayer of Vr.tra you have restored the (one who was) blind, the (other 
who was) lame, both abandoned by their kin); (it is not possible) to exceed the 
happiness what is given by you. [Blind and lame: in an earlier passage, 
blindness and lameness were attributed to one person, Para_vr.ja (son of Agru); 
here, the dual jahita_ (for jahitau) and dva (for dvau), the two are used]. 

 4.030.20 Indra has overturned a hundred stone-built cities for Divoda_s, the 
donor of oblations. [Stone-build cities: as'manmayi_na_m pura_m, an apparent 
reference to the use of masonry for walls and dwellings]. 

 4.030.21 He put to sleep, by delusion, with his destructive (weapons), thirty 
thousand of the servile (races), for the sake of Dabhi_ti. 

 4.030.22 Slayer of Vr.tra, you are the same to all your worshippers, the lord 
of cattle, who cast down all these (your enemies). 

 4.030.23 When, indeed, Indra, you excite your vigorous manhood, there is no one 
at the present time who may resist it. 

 4.030.24 Destroyer of foes, may the divine Aryaman distribute your precious 
wealth; (may) Pu_s.a (bestow it), (may), Bhaga (bestow it); may the toothless 
deity bestow the desired wealth. [The text has: va_mam pu_s.a_ va_mam bhago 
va_mam devah karu_l.ati_: the triple repetition of va_ma, vanani_yam, dhanam 
would seem to separate not only Bhaga, but Karu.lati_ from Pu_s.an; karu_l.ati_ 
= kr.ttadanta or adantaka, the broken-toothed, or toothless, this term seems to 
apply to Pu_s.an; the legend: pu_s.a_ prapis.t.abha_go adantako hitya_di 
s'rutis.u (Taittiri_ya Sam.hita_; Vis.n.u Pura_n.a, 67 has Pu_s.an 
whose teeth were knocked out by Vi_rabhadra's followers at Daks.a's sacrifice].

 4.031.01 By what means may he who is ever augmenting, who is wonderful, who is 
our friend, be present with us, by what most effective rite? 

 4.031.02 What genuine and most esteemed of the exhilarating juies of the 
(sacriiial) beverage may delight you to demolish the substantial treasures (of 
the foe)? 

 4.031.03 Do you, the protector of us your friends and praisers, be present with 
a hundred protections. 

 4.031.04 (Induced) by the praise of men, return like a revolving wheel to us, 
dependent (upon your favour). 

 4.031.05 You come in a downward (direction) to sacfred rites, as if to your own 
station; I glorify you together with the sun. 

 4.031.06 When you praises, and these sacred rites, Indra, are addressed to you, 
they first belong to you and next to Su_rya. 

 4.031.07 Lord of holy acts, they call you Maghavan, the munificent, the 

 4.031.08 And verily you give promptly abundant wealth to him who praises you 
and offers you libations. 

 4.031.09 Adversaries diminish not your hundred-fold opulence nor resist the 
energies of you opposing (them). 

 4.031.10 May your hundred, your thousand, protections preserve us; may all 
(your) desires (be for our defence). 

 4.031.11 Select us, Indra, on this occasion, for your friendship, for (our) 
welfare, for vast and splendid riches. 

 4.031.12 Favour us, Indra, daily with infinite riches (protect) us with all 

 4.031.13 With fresh protections, Indra, like a warrior, open for us those 
pastures filled with cattle. 

 4.031.14 May our chariot, Indra, foe-repelling, brilliant unfailing, proceed 
(everywhere), possessing us of cattle and of horses. 

 4.031.15 Su_rya, make our fame exalted among the gods, as (you have placed) the 
sky, the shedder of most copious rain, above (all other regions). 

 4.032.01 Indra, slayer of Vr.tra, come to us quickly; you, who are mighty, 
(come) with mighty protections. [Cometo us quickly: asma_kam ardham, asma_kam 
sami_pam, near to us; ardha = dwelling place, niva_sa des'am, or hall of worhip, 
deva yajanades'am: a half].  

 4.032.02 Wonderful Indra, wanderer at times (through space), you are verily the 
granter of (our) desires, and do what is marvellous for the protection (of those 
who are engaged) in wondrous works. 

 4.032.03 You destroy by your might the fierce assailing foe, associated with 
the humble friends who are along with you. 

 4.032.04 We, Indra, are along with you; we zealously glorify you; do verily 
protect us all. 

 4.032.05 Wielder of the thunderbolt, do you come to us with wondrous, 
irreproachable, irresistible protections. 

 4.032.06 May we, Indra, be the friends of one like you, possessed of cattle, 
allied (to him) for (the sake of) abundant food. 

 4.032.07 For you alone, Indra, are lord over food combined with cattle; 
therefore do you grant us ample food. 

 4.032.08 None change your purpose, Indra, object of laudation, when, being 
praised, you desire to bestow wealth upon the praisers. 

 4.032.09 The Gotamas glorify you, Indra, with praise, that you may grant 
wealth, and for the sake of abundant food. 

 4.032.10 We proclaim your prowess, whereby exhilarated (by the Soma), and 
having gone against them, you have demolished the servile cities. 

 4.032.11 The pious celebrate your manly exploits, Indra, object of laudation, 
when the juices (of the Soma) are effused. 

 4.032.12 The Gotamas, offerers of praise, exalt you, Indra; bestow upon them 
food and prosperity. 

 4.032.13 Although, Indra, you are the common property of (all) worshippers, we 
invoke you (such) as your are (for ourselves). 

 4.032.14 Giver of dwellings, be present with us; drinker of the Soma, be 
exhilarated by the beverage of the juices. 

 4.032.15 May the praise (of us) who are devoted (to you), Indra, give you to 
us; guide your horses towards us. 

 4.032.16 Eat (Indra) our cakes and butter; be pleased by our praises as a 
libertine (by the caresses) of a woman.

 4.032.17 We solicit, Indra for a thousand well-trained, swift-going horses, for 
a hundred jars of Soma juice. [Jars: kha_ri = a certain measure, by metonymy, a 
jar or ewer, dron.akalas'a, holding such a quantity; it is a grain measure equal 
to sixteen dron.as, or about three bushels]. 

 4.032.18 We seek to bring down from you thousands and hundreds of cattle; may 
riches come to us from you. 

 4.032.19 May we obtain from you, ten golden ewers, for you, slayer of Vr.tra, 
are a bountiful giver. 

 4.032.20 A bountiful giver are you, Indra; give bountifully to us; (give) not 
little; bring much; for verily you desire to give much. 

 4.032.21 Verily you are renowned among many as a bountiful giver, hero, slayer 
of Vr.tra, make us sharers in wealth. 

 4.032.22 Wise Indra, I praise your brown (horses); bestower of kine, (who are) 
not regardless (of your worshippers); with those two steeds terrify not our 
cattle. [Not regardless of your worshippers: he napa_t na pa_tayita_h stotr.n 
avina_s'ayitah kintu pa_layitah itaryarthah, oh you, not casting down, not 
injuring or destroying, those who praise, that is, cherishing them]. 

 4.032.23 Like two puppets on an arranged, new and slender stage, your two brown 
(steeds) are brilliant at sacrifices. [kani_nakeva vidradhe nave drupade 
arbhake: nave = new; arbhake = small; kani_nake = s'alabhan~jike, dolls or 
puppets; vidradhe = vyodhe, arrayed, or arranged; drupade = drunma_khyastha_ne 
sthite, standing on a place fixed, termed either a tree or from a tree, a plank 
or platform used as a stage to exhibit puppets; su_kta = r.bhus]. 

 4.032.24 Your two innocuous brown (steeds) are sufficient at sacrifices for me, 
whether going (to them) in (a wagon drawn by) oxen, or going without (such) a 

 4.033.01 I send my prayer as a messenger to the r.bhus; I solicit (of them) the 
cow, the yielder of the white milk, for the dilution (of the Soma libation); for 
they, as swift as the wind, the doers of good works, were borne quickly across 
the firmament by rapid steeds. [WSere borne quickly: as applicable to the 
deified mortals, the allusion is to their being transported to the sphere of the 
gods; if the reference is to the rays of the sun, it implies merely their 
dispersal through the sky]. 

 4.033.02 When the r.bhus, by honouring their parents with renovated (youth), 
and by other works, had achieved enough, they thereupon proceeded to the society 
of the gods, and, considerate, they bring nourishment to the devout 

 4.033.03 May they who rendered their decrepid and dropsy parents, when, like 
two dry posts, again perpetually young, Va_ja, Vibhavan, and R.bhu associated 
with Indra, drinkers of the Soma juice, protect our sacrifice. 

 4.033.04 Inasmuch as for a year the R.bhus preserved the (dead) cow, inasmuch 
as for a year they invested it with flesh, inasmuch as for a year they continued 
its beauty they obtained by their acts of immortality. 

 4.033.05 The eldest said, let us make two ladles; the younger said, let us make 
three: Tvas.t.a_, R.bhus, has applauded your proposal. 

 4.033.06 The men, (the R.bhus), spoke the truth, for such (ladles) they made, 
and thereupon the R.bhus partook of that libation; Tvas.t.a_, beholding the four 
ladles, brilliant as day, was content. 

 4.033.07 When the R.bhus, reposing for twelve days, remained in the hospitality 
of the uncealable (sun) they rendered the fields fertile, they led forth the 
rivers, plants sprung upon the waste, and waters (spread over) the low (places). 

 4.033.08 May those R.bhus who constructed the firm-abiding wheel-conducting 
car; who formed the all-impelling multiform cow; they who are the bestowers of 
food, the doers of great deeds, and dexterous of hand, fabricate our riches. 

 4.033.09 The gods were pleased by their works, illustrious in act and in 
thought; Va_ja was the artificer of the gods, R.bhuks.in of Indra, Vibhavan of 

 4.033.10 May those R.bhus who gratified the horses (of Indra) by pious praise, 
who constructed for Indra his two docile steeds, bestow upon us satiety of 
riches, and wealth (of cattle), like those who devise prosperity for a friend. 

 4.033.11 The gods verily have given you the beverage at the (third sacrifice of 
the) day, and its exhilarqation, not through regard, but (as the gift of one) 
wearied out (by penance); R.bhus, who are so (eminent), grant us, verily, wealth 
at this third (diurnal) sacrifice. [Wearied out by penance: r.te s'ra_ntasya 
sakhya_ya = na sakhitva_ya bhavanti deva_h, the gods are not through friendship, 
s'ra_nta_t tapo yukta_t r.te except one wearied by penance; ete s'ra_nta ato 
saduh, they, wearied out, therefore gave].

 4.034.01 R.bhu, Vibhvan, Va_ja and Indra, do you come to this our sacrifice, to 
distribute the precious things, for the divine work has indeed now desired the 
drinking (of the Soma) on the (appointed hours of the) days; therefore the 
exhilarating draughts are collected for you. [The divine work has desired the 
drinking: dhis.an.a_ devi: Aitareya Bra_hman.a states: Praja_pati said to 
Savitri, these are your fellow-students, do you drink with them]. 

 4.034.02 Resplendent with (sacrificial) food, prescient of your (celestial) 
birth, be exhilarated, R.bhus along with the R.tus; the inebriating draughts are 
collected for you as well as pious praise; do you confer upon us riches with 
excellent posterity. [Prescient of your celestial birth: vida_na_sojanmanah = 
jananasya devatva laks.an.asya devatva pra_ptim ja_nantah, knowing the 
attainment of deification]. 

 4.034.03 This sacrifice, R.bhus, has been instituted for you, who are eminently 
resplendent, which you have accepted after the manner of men; before you have 
the propitiatory (libations) been placed, for Va_jas, you are all entitled to 

 4.034.04 Now, leaders (of rites), the treasure that ought to be presented is to 
be given to the mortqal performing (the sacred rite), the offerer (of the 
libation); drink, Va_jas (drink), R.bhus; I present it to you at the third 
solemn (diurnal) ceremony for your exhilaration. 

 4.034.05 Va_jas, R.bhuks.ans, leaders (of rites), come to us eulogizing 
exceeding wealth; these draughts (of Soma) proceed to you at the decline of day, 
like newly-delivered cows to their stalls. 

 4.034.06 Sons of strength, come to this sacrifice, invoked with veneration; 
givers of precious things, associated with Indra, with whom you are intelligent, 
participate in being gratified (by the libation), drink ofthe sweet Soma juice. 

 4.034.07 Sympathizing in satisfaction with Varun.a, drink, Indra, the Soma 
juice; drink it, you who are entitled to praise, sympathizing with the Maruts; 
drink, sympathizing with the first drinkers, with the drinkers (at the 
sacriices) of the R.tus; sympathizing with the protectresses of the wives (of 
the gods), the giver of wealth. [Sympathizing: sajos.ah; sajos.a indra varun.ena 
somam pa_hi = lit., Indra, who are co-pleased with Varun.a, drink the libation; 
the implication is that they both derive like satisfaction from the beverage 
which they imbibe together; R.tus: r.tupa_bhih = r.tuyajadevaih, the deities to 
whom the r.tu sacrifice is dedicated; wives of the gods: gna_spatni_bhih = wives 
of the gods, stri_n.a_m pa_layitryah, the female protectors of women, implying 
the goddesses]. 

 4.034.08 R.bhus, be exhilarated, sympathizing with the A_dityas, sympathizing 
with the Parvatas, sympathizing with the divine Savita_, sympathizing with the 
wealth-bestowing (deities of the) rivers. [With the parvatas: parvatebhih; 
parvavadbhih parvan.yarcyama_nair devavis'es.aih, deities to be worshipped at 
the parvas, certain periods of the month, such as the new and full moon]. 

 4.034.09 R.bhus, who by your assistance (gratiied) the As'vins, who (renovated 
your) parents, who (restored) the cow, who fabricated the horses, who made 
armour (for the gods), who separated earth and heaven, and who, the all-
pervading leaders (of rites), accomplished (acts productive of) good results. 
[svapatya_ni cakruh = svapatana sa_dhana_ni karma_n.i, acts, the means of 
accomplishing their good offspring or consequences; ye in the next verse may 
refer to te agrepat, they the first drikers, the Soma being first offered at the 
evening sacrifice to the R.bhus]. 

 4.034.10 R.bhus, who posses wealth, comprising cattle, food, progeny, 
dwellings, and abundant sustenance, do you, who are the first drinkers (of the 
Soma), bestow upon us, when exhilarated, (that wealth and upon those) who laud 
your liberality. 

 4.034.11 R.bhus, go not away; let us not leave you (thirsting); (be present) 
unreproached at this sacrifice; be exhilarated, deities, along with Indra, with 
the Maruts, and with (other) brilliant (divinities), for the distribution of 

 4.035.01 Come hither, sons of strength, sons of Sudhanvan; R.bhus, keep not 
away; may the exhilarating juices proceed to you at this sacrifice, after the 
munificent Indra. [indram anu = indram anusritya or anugamantu, having followed, 
or may they come after Indra; or, may they come after (you) to Indra]. 

 4.035.02 The munificene of the R.bhus come to me on this occasion, (since) 
there has been the drinking of the effused Soma, in consequence of one ladle 
having been made fourfold by their dexterous and excellent work. 

 4.035.03 You have made the ladle fourfold, and have said (to Agni), assent (to 
the division); therefore have you gone, Va_jas, the path of the immortals; 
dexterous-handed R.bhus (you have joined) the company of the gods. 

 4.035.04 What sort of ladle was that which by skill you have made four? now 
pour forth the Soma for their exhilaration; drink, R.bhus, of the sweet Soma 

 4.035.05 By your (marvellous) deeds you have made your parents youg; by your 
deeds you have made the ladle (fit) for the drinking of the gods; by your deeds 
you have made the two horses, the bearers of Indra, swifter than (an arrow from) 
a bow, R.bhus, who are rich in (sacrificial) food. 

 4.035.06 Distributors of food, R.bhus, showerers (of benefits), exhilarated (by 
the Soma draught), fabricated wealth, comprising all posterity for him who pours 
out for your exhilaration, the acrid libation at the deline of day. 

 4.035.07 Drink, lord of horses, Indra, the libation offered at dawn; the noon-
day libation is alone for you; but (in the evening) drink with the munificent 
R.bhus, whom, Indra, you have made your friends by good deeds. 

 4.035.08 Do you, sons of strength, who have become gods by (your) good deeds, 
soaring aloft in the sky like falcons, bestow upon us riches; sons of Sudhanvan, 
you have become immortals. 

 4.035.09 Dexterous-handed, since you have instituted, through desire of good 
works, the third sacrifice, which is the bestower of wealth, therefore, R.bhus, 
drink this effused Soma with exhilarated senses. 

 4.036.01 The glorious three-wheeled car (of the As'vins made, R.bhus by you) 
traverses the firmament without horses, without reins; great was that 
proclamation of your divine (power), by which, R.bhus, you cherish heaven and 

 4.036.02 We invoke you respectfully, Va_jas and R.bhus, to drink of this 
libation, for you are the wise sages, who, by mental meditation, made the well-
constructed undeviating car (of the As'vins). 

 4.036.03 Therefore, Va_ja, R.bhu, Vibhvan, was your greatness proclaimed among 
the gods, that you made your aged and inform parents young (and able) to go 
(withere they would). 

 4.036.04 You have made the single ladle fourfold; by your (marvellous) acts you 
have clothed the cow with a (new) hide; therefore you have obtained immortality 
among the gods; such acts, Va_jas and R.bhus, are to be eagerly glorified. 

 4.036.05 From the R.bhus may wealth, the best and most productive of food, 
(come to me); that which the leaders of rites renowned together with the Va_jas, 
have engendered; that which has been fabricated by Vibhvan and is to be 
celebrated at sacrifice; that which, deities you protect, that is to be beheld. 

 4.036.06 He is vigorous and skilled in war, he is a r.s.i worthy of homage, he 
is a hero, the discomfiter of foes, invincible in battles, he is possessed of 
ample wealth, and (is blessed) with excellent posterity, whom Va_ja and Vibhvan, 
whom the R.bhus protect. 

 4.036.07 An excellent and agreeable form has been assumed by you; (this is our 
own) praise; Va_jas and R.bhus be gratified (thereby), for you are wise, 
experienced, and intelligent; such we make you known (to be) by this (our) 

 4.036.08 Do you who are wise, (bestow) upon us, in requital of our praises, all 
enjoyments that are good for man and fabricate for us, R.bhus, riches and food, 
resplendent invigorating, overpowering (foes), and most excellent. 

 4.036.09 Gratified (by your worship), fabricate for us, on this occasion, 
progeny and wealth, and reputation, with numerous adherents; grant to us, 
R.bhus, abundant sustenance wherewith we may greatly excel others.

 4.037.01 Divine Va_jas, R.bhus, come to our sacrifice by the path travelled by 
the gods, inasmuch as you, gracious (R.bhus), have maintained sacrifice among 
the people, (the progeny) of Manu, for (the sake of) securing the prosperous 
course of days. [R.bhus: the text has r.bhuks.ah, nom. sing. of r.bhuks.in, a 
name of Indra; here, it is equated with r.bhavah, pl. nom. of r.bhu; in the 
following verses r.bhuks.a_n.ah is used, the nom. or voc. pl. of r.bhuks.in]. 

 4.037.02 May these sacrifices be (acceptable) to you in heart and mind; may 
today the sufficient (juices) mixed with butter to you; the full libations are 
prepared for you; may they, when drunk, animate you for glorious deeds. 

 4.037.03 As the offering suited to the gods at the third (daily) sacrifice 
supports, you, Va_jas, R.bhuks.ans; as the praise (then recited supports you); 
therefore, like Manu, I offer you the Soma juice, along with the very radiant 
(deities) among the people assembled at the solemnity. [I offer you: juhve 
manus.vat uparasu viks.u yus.me saca_ br.had dives.u somam: upara = those who 
are pleased or sport near the worship of the gods, devayajana sami_pe ramantah; 
ta_su viks.u-praja_su = in or among such people; br.haddives.u is an epithet of 
deves.u implied]. 

 4.037.04 Va_jins, you are borne by stout horses mounted on a brilliant car, 
have jaws of metal and are possessed of treasures; sons of Indra, grandsons of 
strength, this last sacrifice is for your exhilaration. [Possessed of treasures: 
va_jinah = possessors either of horses or food; ayahs'ipra_ = as hard or strong 
as metal, ayovat sa_rabhu_ta s'ipra_h; sunis.ka_h = having good nis.kas, a 
certain weight of gold; sons of Indra, grandsons of strength: the text has 
singular nouns, son of Indra, son or grandson of strength; this is followed by 
vah-vos, you in the plural; last sacrifice: ityagriyam = agre bhavam, the first, 
the preceding; explained as tr.ti_yam savanam]. 

 4.037.05 We invoke you, R.bhuks.ans, for splendid wealth, mutually co-
operating, most invigorating in war, affecting the senses, ever munificent, and 
comprehending horses. [Splendid wealth: the epithets apply to rayim, wealth: 
r.bhu yujam, va_jintamam, indrasvantam, sada_sa_tamam as'vinam]. 

 4.037.06 May the man whom you, R.bhus and Indra, favour, be ever liberal by his 
acts, and possessed of a horse at the sacrifice. [A horse at the sacrifice: 
medhasa_ta_ so arvata_, perhaps a horse fit for the as'vamedha is implied]. 

 4.037.07 Va_jas, R.bhuks.an.s, direct us in the way to sacrifice; for you, who 
are intelligent, being glorified (by us), are able to traverse all the quarters 
(of space). 

 4.037.08 Va_jas, R.bhuks.an.s, Indra, Na_satyas, command that ample wealth with 
horses be sent to men for their enrichment.

 4.038.01 Trasadasyu has bestowed upon many the ancient (gifts) which were 
obtained by the liberal (prince) through your (favour, Heaven and Earth) you two 
have given a horse, a son, a weapon (for the destruction) of the Dasyus, fierce 
and foe-subduing. [Heaven and earth: the dual pronoun, va_m, of you two, implies 
heaven and earth; you two have given a horse, a son: ks.etra_sa_m : from 
ks.etra, land;  urvara_sa_m: urvara, fertile soil; san = to give]. 

 4.038.02 And you two have given the swift Dadhikra_, the repeller of many 
(foes), the defender of all men, the straight-going, the graceful-moving, the 
resplendent, the rapid, the destroyer of enemies like a heroic prince. 
[Dadhikra_: dadhikra_van, synonym of as'va, a horse; derivation: from, dadhi, 
who bears, who carries his rider; krama, to go]. 

 4.038.03 Whom all men, rejoicing, praise, rushing everywhere, as if down a 
precipice, springing with his feet like a hero eager for war, drawing a car, and 
going as swift as the wind. 

 4.038.04 Who, opposing the mingled multitude in battles, rushes eager, passing 
through the regions, whose vigour is manifestl, who, understanding what is to be 
known, puts to shame the adversary of the (pious) man. [vidhata_ nicikyat tiro 
aratim parya_pa a_yoh = jn~a_tavya_ni janam aramana_m arim va_ tiraskaroti 
stoturmanus.yasya, knowing things cognizable, who disgraces the opponent, or the 
foe of the man, the praiser]. 

 4.038.05 Whom men call after in battles, as after a thief carrying off a 
garment, or as (after) a hungry hawk pouncing (upon his prey); they call after 
him, hastening to obtain food, or a herd of cattle. [They call after him: 
s'ravasca_ccha_ pas'umacca yu_tham = annam ki_rttim va_ pas'umad yu_tham ca 
accha_ abhilaks.ya gacchantam enam anukros'anti, they call after him, that is 
Dadhikra_, going, having in view either food or fame, or a herd consisting of 

 4.038.06 And who, issuing forth the first in those encounters, rushes in 
various directions with rows of chariots; like an elegant (courser), friendly to 
man, decorated with a garland, raising the dust, and champing his bit. 

 4.038.07 And that swift (horse) enduring in battle, bestowing food, and doing 
service with his limbs, rushing swiftly upon the quick-moving (host of the 
enemy), going straight onward, and tossing up the dust, throws it above his 

 4.038.08 And the adversaries of that foe-destroying steed, like (those) of the 
brilliant thunderbolt, are alarmed; for when he contends, even against thousands 
on every side, then, rousing (his spirit), he is fearful and irresistible. 

 4.038.09 Men praise the overpowering rapidty of that fleet (steed), who is the 
accomplisher (of the desires) of mankind, and following him to battle, they have 
said, Dadhikra_ with (his) thousands has gone forth against the foe. 

 4.038.10 Dadhikra_ has spread abroad the five classes of beings by his 
strength, as the sun (diffuses) the waters by his radiance; may he, the giver of 
hundreds and thousands, associate these praises with agreeable (rewards).

 4.039.01 Verily we praise that swift Dadhikra_ and scatter (proved before him) 
from heaven and earth; may the gloom-dispelling dawns preserve for me (all good 
things), and bear me beyond all evils. 

 4.039.02 Fulfiller of religious rites, I reiterate the praise of the great 
Dadhikra_, the liberal, many-honoured showerer (of benefits), whom Mitra and 
Varun.a gave for the good of many, the transporter (beyond calamity), as 
brilliant as Agni. 

 4.039.03 May Aditi, consentient with Mitra and Varun.a render him free from sin 
who has performed the worship of the steed Dadhikra_, when the fire has been 
kindled at the opening of the dawn. [Aditi: an appellative, akhan.d.ani_ya, the 
indivisible or infrangible, that is, Dadhikra_]. 

 4.039.04 While we glorify the name of the great Dadhikra_ the means of 
sustenance and of strength, the prosperity of those who praise (him), let us 
invoke (also) for our welfare Varun.a, Mitra, Agni, and Indra, the bearer of the 
thunderbolt. [Of those who praise him: the text has maruta_m na_ma bhadram: 
maruta_m = stotr.n.a_m, of the praisers]. 

 4.039.05 Those who are preparing for battle, those who are proceeding to 
sacrifice, both invoke (Dadhikra) as if (he was) Indra; Mitra and Varun.a have 
given to us the horse Dadhikra_ as an encourager to man. 

 4.039.06 I have celebrated the praise of Dadhikra_, the rapid and victorious 
stee; may he make our mouths fragrant, may he prolong our lives. [Yajus. 23.32; 
may he make our mouths fragrant: the mouth having been defiled by the use of 
inelegant language].

 4.040.01 May we repeatedly recite (the praise) of Dadhikra_van.; may all rising 
dawns excite me (to the adoration) of the waters, of Agni, of Us.as, of Su_rya, 
of Br.haspati, and of Jis.n.u, the son of An:giras. 

 4.040.02 May Dadhikra_van., the active, the cherisher, the giver of cattle, who 
abides with the devout, the swift-going, be willing to accept (the sacrificial) 
food at the time of the desirable dawn; may he who is true, moving, rapid, and 
leaping like a grasshopper, produce (for us) food, strength and heaven. 

 4.040.03 And after him who is quick-going, hastening, eager (to arrive at his 
goald, men) follow (as other birds pursue) the flight of a swift (bird) striving 
together to keep up by the side of Dadhikra_van. the transporter (of others) as 
swift as a hawk. [Yajus. 9.15; after him who is: asya dravatas turan.yatah 
parn.am na_da_dha_ram urah prades'am va_ of Dadhikra_van., together with 
strenght, or for the sake of strength together, enabling to cross; an:kasam pari 
= a horse's trappings, the cloth, tail, vastracamara_dikam, over all his body, 
which fly open as the horse gallops, like the wings of a bird, the horse has the 
speed of a hawk]. 

 4.040.04 And that horse bound by his neck, his flanks, his mouth, accelerates 
his paces; Dadhikra_ increasing in vigour after the (sacred rite), following the 
windings of the roads, goes still more rapidly. 

 4.040.05 He is the Ham.sa, (the sun), dwelling; Vasu (the wind), dwelling in 
the firmament; the invoker of the gods (Agni), dwelling on the altar; the guest 
(of the worshipper), dweling in the house (as the culinary fire); the dweller 
among men, (as consciousness), the dweller in the most excellent (orbl, the 
sun), the dweller in truth, the dweller in the sky (the air), born in the 
waters, in the rays of light, in the verity (of manifestation) in the (eastern) 
mountain, the truth (itself). [Repeated twice in Yajus. 10.24 and 12.14 and also 
in Aitareya Bra_hman.a 4.20.1; ham.sa is identified with A_dityas, or the sun; 
dadhikra_ is identified with parabrahma, or the universal deity, the supreme 
being; ham.sa = fr. han to go, who goes eterenally, to destroy individually; or, 
resolved into aham, I and sa, he, that is, I am that, the supreme; vasu = the 
appointer of the stations of all creatures, or all men, or that which abides 
(vasati) at all times, sarvada_; hota_ = sacrificer; 4. atithi_ = guest, Agni, 
the sacrificial and the culinary fire; nr.s.ad = the dweller among men is 
explained caitanya, consciousness or pra_n.a, vitality, or sight or the eye, 
thus explaining the text, 'the sun, becoming the eye (of the world), entered 
into the two eyes (of man)'; varasad = dweller in the most excellent station, 
that is, the solar orb; r.tasad = he who is present in truth, or in water, or in 
sacrifice; vyomasad = the dweller in the sky or the wind; abjah = who is born in 
the midst of the wateer; gojah = born gos.u rays; or, gavi pr.thivya_m, in the 
earth, identified with the elements; r.taja_h = born of truth, from being 
visible to all, not invisible like Indra; or, born from the mantras of the 
Vedas; adrija_ = mountain-born, i.e. in the eastern mountain, where he rises; 
or, born in stone in the form of Agni, as if alluding to flint; or, adri may 
denote the cloud, thus he may be said to be generated in the clouds, i_pa; 
A_ditya in the form of parabrahma].

 4.041.01 Indra (and Varun.a), Varun.a (and Indra), what praise of you 
accompanied by oblations may obtain for us felicity, (such as) the immortal 
invoker of the gods, (Agni, may bestow); may (the praise) which is addressed by 
us to you both, Indra and Varun.a, sanctified by acts and prompted by 
veneration, touch your hearts.  

 4.041.02 Divine Indra and Varun.a, the mortal diligent in offering (you) 
sacrificial food, who has through friendship made you his kinsmen, destroys (his 
own) sins, and his enemies in battle; and by your great favours he becomes 

 4.041.03 Indra and Varun.a (you are) most liberal givers of wealth to men 
praising you in various ways, when as friends well plied with (sacrificial) 
food, you are exhilarated by the Soma juice effused through friendship. 

 4.041.04 Fierce Indra and Varun.a you hurled the bright-shining and most mighty 
thunderbolt against this (our foe), who is difficult ot be resisted by us; (who 
is) rapacious, malevolent; grant us strength to overcome him. 

 4.041.05 Indra and Varun.a, be the exciters of this our praise, as the bull is 
of the cows; may that cow (of praise) yield us (reward), like a large cow that 
has gone forth to pasture, whose thousand channels (are filled) with milk. 

 4.041.06 May Indra and Varun.a, the overthrowers (of foes), be around us with 
(their) protections; (that thereby we may have) good sons and grandsons, and 
fertile lands, and long life, and virility. [Be around us: paritakmya_ya_m = 
paritakane, in the night, i.e. may Indra and Varun.a protect us in the night 
against evil spirits; long life: su_ro dr.s'ike = su_ryasya 
ciraka_ladars'ana_ya, for the sight of the sun for a long time, i.e. 
cirajivana_ya, for long life]. 

 4.041.07 Desirous of (possessing) cattlle, we have recourse to you, Indra and 
Varun.a, for full protection, you who are powerful and kind as (kinsmen); we 
have recourse to you, adorable heroes, for (your) friendship and affection, (to 
you who are), like parents, givers of happiness. 

 4.041.08 Liberal givers, those (our) praises soliciting (abundant) food have 
proceeded to you for (your) protection; longing for you as (soldiers long) for 
battle, and as cattle approach the Soma for (its) advantage, so my heartfelt 
hymns (approach) Indra and Varun.a. [Longing for you: yuvayuh = yuvam 
ka_mayama_nah; approach the soma for its advantage: s'riye na ga_va upa somam 
asthuh, an allusion to the mixture of milk and curds with the Soma libation, 

 4.041.09 These my earnest praises approach Indra and Varun.a, desirous to 
obtain wealth, as dependants attend (upon an opulent man) for the sake of 
riches, like humble (females) begging for food. [As dependants attend upon an 
opulent man: jos.t.a_ra iva vasvo = sevaka_ dhanikam sva_minam, as servants upon 
a rich master, or as derived from jus., to please, jos.t.a_rah = flatterers, 
parasites; like humble females: raghvi_r iva s'ravaso bhiks.a_ma_n.a_h: raghvi_r 
iva = laghvya iva, like light or trivial]. 

 4.041.10 May we of our own (right) be the masters of permanent riches, 
comprising horses, chariots, and nourishment; may those two, traversing (the 
regions), direct their Niyut steeds towards us, associating (them) with riches 
and with recent protections. [May we of our own be: tmana_ patayah sya_ma, 
without any effort or labour, aprayatnena]. 

 4.041.11 Mighty Indra and Varun.a, come to us in battle with (your) powerful 
protections, and where the bright (weapons) play amidst the (hostile) hosts, may 
we triumph in that conflict (through) your (favour).

 4.042.01 Twofold is my empire, that of the whole ks.atriya race, and all the 
immortals are ours; the gods associate me with the acts of Varun.a; I rule over 
(those) of the proximate form of man. [Twofold is my empire: mama dvita_ 
ra_s.t.ram ks.atriyasya vis'vayoh; an allusion to the military and regal order; 
all the immortals are ours: vis've amr.ta_ yatha_ nah, therefore he is king also 
over svarga; the gods associate me with the acts of Varuna: kratum sacante 
varun.asya deva_ ra_ja_mi kr.s.t.er upamasya vavreh: vavreh = ru_pa, form; 
ra_ja_mi = ra_jatirais'varya karma_]. 

 4.042.02 I am the king Varun.a; on me (the gods) bestow those principal 
energies (that are) destructive of the asuras; (they) associate me with the 
worship of Varun.a; I rule over (the nets) of the proximate form of man. 

 4.042.03 I am Indra, I am Varun.a, I am those two in greatness; (I am) the 
vast, profound, beautiful, heaven and earth; intelligent, I give Tvas.t.a_-like 
animation to all beings; I uphold earth and heaven]. 

 4.042.04 I have distributed the moisture-shedding waters; I have upheld the sky 
as the abode of the water; by the water I have become the preserver of the 
water, the son of Aditi, illustrating the threefold elementary space. [As the 
abode of the water: sadane r.tasya may imply, for the place or sphere of the 
sun, the word r.ta is used for udaka or a_ditya; illustrating the three-fold 
elementary space: i.e., for me the creator has made the three worlds, madartham 
eva ks.itya_dilokatrayam aka_rs'it parames'varah; or, simply, the earth with 
three ore-elements, tridha_tu]. 

 4.042.05 Warriors well mounted, ardent for contest invoke me; selected 
(combatants invoke) me in battle; I, the affluent Indra, instigate the conflict, 
and, endowed with victorious prowess, I raise up the dust (in the battle). 

 4.042.06 I have done all these (deeds); no one resists my divine, unsurpassed 
vigour; and when the Soma juices, when sacred songs, exhilarate me, then the 
unbounded heaven and earth are both alarmed. 

 4.042.07 All beings recognize you (Varun.a), and your, worshipper, address 
these (encomiums) to Varun.a; you, Indra, are renowned as slaying Vr.tra; you 
have set the obstructed rivers free to flow. 

 4.042.08 The seven r.s.is were the protectors of this our (kingdom) when the 
son of Durgaha was in bonds; performing worship they obtained for (his queen) 
from the favour of Indra and Varun.a, Trasadasyu, like Indra the slayer of foes, 
dwelling near the gods. [Trasadasyu: Purukutsa, son of Durgaha, being a 
prisoner, his queen propitiated the seven r.s.is to obtain a son who might take 
his father's place; they advised her to worship Indra and Varun.a, in 
consequence of which Trasadasyu was born]. 

 4.042.09 The wife of Purukutsa propitiated you two, Indra and Varun.a, with 
oblations and prostrations, and therefore you gave her the king Trasadasyu, the 
slayer of foes dwelling near the gods. [Dwelling near the gods: ardhadevam = 
deva_na_m sami_pe vartama_nam (yat sarves.a_mardhamindrah : Taittiri_ya 
Sam.hita_; or, Indra is declared to be one half of all the gods, and 
therefore, entitled to the largest share of offerings, yat sarves.a_m ardham 
indrah prati tasma_d indro devata_na_m bhuyis.t.ha bha_ktmah]. 

 4.042.10 May we, glorifying you both, be delighted by riches; may the gods be 
pleased by oblations, the cows by pasture; and do you, Indra and Varun.a, daily 
grant us that same cow, (riches) free from any imperfection. [Yajus. 7.10; free 
from any imperfection: anapasphurantim = ahim.sitam, unharmed; or, not going to 
another, ananyaga_minam].

 4.043.01 Which of those who are entitled to sacrifice will listen (to our 
prayers)? which of the gods will hear our praise? which will be propitiated (by 
it)? upon the heart of whom among the immortals may we impress the devout 
affectionate adoration, accompanied by sacred oblations? 

 4.043.02 Who will make us happy? which of the gods is the most prompt to come 
to our sacrifice? which is the most willing to grant us felicity? what chariot 
do they say is quick and drawn by rapid steeds? That which the daughter of 
Su_rya selected. 

 4.043.03 Moving, you proceed rapidly by day, as Indra, at the end of the night, 
(manifests his) power; descended from heaven, divine, of graceful motion, 
(As'vins), by which of (your) acts are you most distinguished? [kaya_ s'acina_m 
bhavathah s'acis.t.ha_ = s'aci_na_m yus.mat sam.bandhina_m karman.a_m s'aktina_m 
va_, acts or energies connected with you]. 

 4.043.04 What may be the fit measure (of your merits)? invoked by what praises 
do you come to us? who (can exist as) the object of your great wrath? Dasras, 
dispensers of sweet (water), defend us with your protection. 

 4.043.05 Your chariot travels widely round the heaven until it places you 
beyond the firmament; dispensers of sweet (water, the priests) are diluting the 
Soma juice with milk, that the boiled (barley) may be united with the libation 
offered to you. 

 4.043.06 The flowing (stream) has sprinkled your steeds with moisture; the 
radiant horses (like) birds (in swiftness) pass on, bright with lustre; well 
known as that quick-moving chariot, whereby you became the lords of Su_rya. [The 
flowing stream: sindhu, this may mean here, either water or a cloud]. 

 4.043.07 May the earnest praise, distributors of food, wherewith I associate 
you both like-minded at this sacrifice, be (beneficial) to us; do you protect 
your worshipper; my desire, Na_satyas, directed towards you is gratified.

 4.044.01 We invoke, As'vins, today, your rapid car, the associator of the solar 
ray; the banked car which bears Su_rya, vast, wealthy, and laden with praises. 
[Associator of the solar ray: san:gatim goh = goh san:gamayita_ram, the bringer 
into union, or associator of Go; the basis is the connection of the As'vins with 
light, or the sun]. 

 4.044.02 As'vins, grandsons of heaven, divinities, you enjoy that glory of your 
actions, that (sacrificial) food is administered to your persons, and powerul 
horses draw you in your chariot. [Powerful horses: kakuha_sah = maha_nto 
as'va_h; or, the reference may be to praises, stutayah]. 

 4.044.03 What offer of oblations addresses you today with hymns for the sake 
(of obtaining) protection, for the drinking of the Soma, or for the ancient 
fulfilment of the sacrifice? what offer of adoration may bring you As'vins may 
bring you As'vins (to this rite)? 

 4.044.04 Na_satyas, who are manifold, come with your golden chariot to this 
sacrifice; drink of the sweet Soma beverage, and give precious things to the man 
who celebrates (your worship). 

 4.044.05 Come to our presence, whether from heaven or earth, with your well-
constructed golden chariot; let not other devout worshippers detain yhou, for a 
prior attraction awaits you (here). 

 4.044.06 Dasras, mete out for us both great opulence, comprising many 
descendants, since the leaders of the rite (the Purumi_l.has), have addressed to 
you, As'vins, their praise, and the Ajami_l.has have united with it their 
laudation. [For us both: the two r.s.is, the authors of the su_kta]. 

 4.044.07 May you earn praise wherewith, distributors of food, I associate you 
both like-minded at this sacrifice, be (beneficial) to us; do you protect your 
worshipper; my desire, Na_satyas, directed towards you is gratified.

 4.045.01 The sun rises; your chariot, (As'vins), traversing (the regions), is 
associated with the divine (orb) on the summit (of the eastern mountain in it 
are three analogous kinds of food, and the leather vessel of the sweet Soma 
juice appears as the fourth. [Three analogous kinds of food: pr.ks.a_so mithuna_ 
trayah: mithuna_ = twins, a pair; it is used for a number of analogous or 
connected objects, as ma_ta_ pita_ putrastadeva mithunam, mother, father, son, 
constitute a twin or pair; the three sorts of food are said to be as'anam, 
pa_nam, kha_dah]. 

 4.045.02 Your food-bearing, Soma-laden, well-horsed chariots, appearing at the 
opening of the dawn, scattering the surrounding darkness like the sun, and 
spreading bright radiance over the firmament. 

 4.045.03 Drink of the Soma juice, with mouths (fit for) imbibing the beverage; 
harness your beloved chariot for the Soma juice; (come to the dwelling) of the 
sacrifice; enliven the path with the Soma; bring, As'vins, the leather vessels 
filled with the Soma-juice. 

 4.045.04 Come to sacrifices as flies to honey, (with those horses) that are 
swift of speed, gentle, unrefractory, golden-winged, bearers (of burden), wakers 
at dawn, dispensers of water, exulting and sipping the Soma juice. 

 4.045.05 The ssacred fires, the instruments of holy sacrifice the conveyers of 
libations, praise the associated As'vins at the break of day, when the observant 
(priest) the conductor of the rite, with washed hands has expressed by the 
(grinding) stones the sweet-flavoured Soma juice. 

 4.045.06 The near-advancing (rays), dispersing (the darkness) by the (light of 
day), are overspreading the firmament with lustre like the sun; the sun, 
harnessing his horses, (proceeds on his way); do you make known all his paths by 
(following) after (him) with sacrificial food. 

 4.045.07 Celebrating (sacred) rites, I glorify you, As'vins; well-horsed and 
undecaying is that chariot, whereby you quickly traverse the regions (of space), 
and come to (our sacrifice) abounding in oblations, promptly passing away, and 
the yielder of enjoyment.

 4.046.01 Drink first, Va_yu, the effused libation of the Soma at the rites that 
secure heaven, for you verily are the first drinker. [Drink first, pu_rva pa_: 
deva dadhis.e pu_rvapeyam (RV. 7.92.1); prathamah pibeyam (Aitareya Bra_hman.a 

 4.046.02 Va_yu, who are drawn by the Niyuts, and have Indra for charioteer, 
come (for the fulfilment) of our numerous wishes, and do you (and Indra) drink 
of the libation. 

 4.046.03 Indra and Va_yu, may a thousand steeds, eager for food, bring you to 
drink the Soma. 

 4.046.04 Mount, Indra and Va_yu, the golden-seated chariot, propitious to 
sacrifice, soaring to heaven. 

 4.046.05 Indra and Va_yu, come with your very strong chariot to the sacrifice; 
come hither. 

 4.046.06 Indra and Va_yu, this (libation) is poured out sympathizing with the 
gods, drink it in the dwelling of the donor. 

 4.046.07 Hither be your course; here, Indra and Va_yu, be the letting of your 
horses loose, for your drinking of the Soma.

 4.047.01 Purified (by holy acts) I bring to you, Va_yu, the Soma, first 
(offered to you at sacrifices) that seek to gain heaven; deity, who are ever 
longed over, come with your Niyut steeds to drink the Soma juice. [Yajus. 27.30; 
purified by holy acts: s'ukrah vratacarya_dina_ di_pto aham, illustrious by 
observing vows; I bring to you the Soma, first offered: aya_mi te madhvo agram: 
madhvoh = madhum; aya_mi = pra_paya_mi; agram = itarebhyah pu_rvam; alternative 
reading: may the cup (s'ukra graha) come to you, aya_ni, a_gacchatu, which is 
the essence of the Soma, agram sa_rabhu_tah madhunah rasasya].  

 4.047.02 Indra and Va_yu, you are fit for the drinking of these Soma libations, 
for the drops flow towards you as waters (run) together in a deep place. 

 4.047.03 Indra and Va_yu, who are lords of strength, vigorous and drawn by the 
Niyut steeds, come (riding in) the same car; drink the Soma for our protection. 

 4.047.04 Leaders (of rites), conveyers of sacrifices, Indra and Va_yu, give to 
us for the offer (of the oblation), those Niyuts who are your (steeds), and are 
desired of many.

 4.048.01 Drink, Va_yu, the oblations yet untested, like (a prince) the 
terrifier of foes; (bestow) upon the worshipper wealth; come with your brilliant 
car to drink the Soma juice. [Like a prince the terrifier of foes: vipo ra_yo = 
s'atru_n.a_m vepayita_ ra_jeva]. 

 4.048.02 Va_yu, who are the represser of calumnies, who are drawn by the 
Niyuts, and have Indra for your charioteer come with your brilliant car to drink 
the Soma juice. [Who are the represser of calumnies: nir yurva_n.o as'astih = 
abhis'astir nihs'es.en.a niyojayan]. 

 4.048.03 The dark nurses of wealth, the universal forms (heaven and earth), 
attend upon you; come Va_yu with your brilliant car to drink the Soma juice. 
[Dark nurses of wealth: kr.s.n.e vasudhiti_ = kr.s.n.avarn.e vasuna_m 

 4.048.04 May the ninety-nine steeds harnessed together, that are as swift as 
thought, convey you; come, Va_yu, with your brilliant car, to drink the Soma 

 4.048.05 Harness, Va_yu, a hundred plump steeds, or even a thousand, and let 
your chariot come with rapidity (hither).

 4.049.01 (I present) the agreeable oblation to your mouths, Indra and 
Br.haspati, and the hymn and the exhilarating beverage are offered. 

 4.049.02 This delicious Soma is effused, Indra and Br.haspati, for you, (your) 
drinking and exhilaration. 

 4.049.03 Indra and Br.haspati, come to our dwelling, drinkers of Soma, to drink 
the Soma juice. 

 4.049.04 Grant to us, Indra and Br.haspati riches comprising a hundred 
(cattle), a thousand horses. 

 4.049.05 Indra and Br.haspati, we invoke you with praises, when the libation is 
effused, to drink of this Soma juice. 

 4.049.06 Drink, Indra and Br.haspati, the Soma; in the dwelling of the donor, 
and be exhilarated in his abode. [da_s'us.o = of the donor].

 4.050.01 The ancient sages, illustrious, intelligent, have placed before (them) 
the pleasing-tongued Br.haspati, who propped up by (his) strength the ends of 
the earth, and who abides with noise in the three regions. [Who abides with 
noise: trisadhastho raven.a = tris.u stha_nes.u vartama_no raven.aivam 
tis.t.hatetyanena s'abdena]. 

 4.050.02 Br.haspati, protect the fruit-yielding, progressive, uninjured ample 
sacrifice of this (your worshipp0er, at which) they who are the terrifiers (of 
foes), the delighters of you who are possessed of great wisdom, glorify (you) in 
our behalf. 

 4.050.03 Those (steeds), Br.haspati, which had come from that distant (region), 
the best (of all), have sat down in connection with the ceremony, and to you the 
Soma juices expressed by the stones flow copiously, (accompanied) by the sounds 
of praise, like deep wells that supply water. 

 4.050.04 Br.haspati, when first being born in the highest heaven of supreme 
light, seven-mouthed, multiform, (combined) with sound, and seven-rayed, has 
subdued the darkness. [Seven-mouthed: the seven metres are said to be his 

 4.050.05 (Aided) by the praised and brilliant troop (of the An:girasas), he 
destroyed with sound the mischievous Bala, Br.haspati, shouting aloud, set free 
the boon-bestowing, oblation-supplying kine. 

 4.050.06 Thus may we offer worship with sacrifices, with oblations, with 
praise, to the paternal, universal deity, the showerer (of benefits); and may 
we, Br.haspati, become possessed of riches, and be blessed with excellent 
progeny and valiant descendants. [Universal deity: vis'vadeva_yha is an 
appellation of Br.haspati, because as the deity presiding over the mantras he is 
the same with every deity; or deva may mean praise, he who has the praise of 

 4.050.07 That prince overcomes by his strength and prowess, all hostile people, 
who cherishes liberally Br.haspati, and glorifies and honours him as the first 
sharer (of the offering). 

 4.050.08 Verily he abides prosperous in his own abode; for him the earth bears 
fruit at all seasons; to him (his) subjects willingly pay homage, the prince, to 
whom the Bra_hman.a first, (duly reverenced), repairs. 

 4.050.09 Unopposed he is the master of the riches of hostile people, and of his 
own subjects; the Ra_ja_ who bestows riches upon the Bra_hman.a seeking his 
protection him the gods protect. [This and the preceding verse are in Aitareya 
Bra_hman.a 8.5. 24,26: 'the gods eat not the food of a Ra_ja_ who has no 
purohita; therefore when about to sacrifice, let him (lit., place before) a 
Bra_hman.a, na_ hava apurohitasya ra_jn~o deva annam adani tasma_d ra_ja_ 
yaks.yama_na bra_hman.am puro dadhi_ta'; here, il.a_ = food, instead of earth, 
his food increases at all seasons; sajanya_ = allies of his enemies, instead 
].of his own people; brahma_ = bra_hman.a]. 

 4.050.010 Br.haspati, do you and Indra, both exulting and showering riches, 
drink the Soma at this sacrifice; may the all-pervading drops enter you; bestow 
upon us riches, comprising all male descendants. 

 4.050.11 Br.haspati, Indra, elevate us; may the favourable disposition of you 
both be combined for us; protect our rites; be awake to our laudations, confound 
the arrogant (foes) of us who are the donors (of oblations).

 4.051.01 This widely-spread and sense-bestowing light has sprung up in the east 
from out of the darkness; verily the brilliant Dawns, the daughters of heaven, 
are giving to man (the faculty to act). [ga_tum kr.n.avan jana_ya = 
yajama_na_na_m gamana_di vya_pa_ra sa_marthyam akurvan, they give to the offerer 
of sacrifice the ability to perform the acts such as going]. 

 4.051.02 The many-limbed Dawns rise up in the east, like the pillars planted at 
sacrifices (round the altar); radiant and purifying, they are manifested, 
opening the gates of the obstructing gloom. 

 4.051.03 The gloom-dispelling, affluent Dawns animate the pious worshippers to 
offer (sacrificial) treasure; may the churlish (traffickers) sleep on 
unawakened, in the unlovely depth of darkness. [The churlish traffickers: 
pan.aya = van.ijah, i.e., ada_ta_rah, non-givers]. 

 4.051.04 Divine Dawns, may your chariot, whether old or new, be frequent at 
this day's (worship), wherewith, affluent Dawns, possessing riches, (you shine) 
upon the seven-mouthed (troop of the) An:girasas, the observers of the nine or 
ten days' rite. [Seven-mouthed an:girasas: repeating the seven vedic metres; 
nine or ten days rites: cf. RV. 10.62.6]. 

 4.051.05 Divine Dawns, with horses that frequent sacrifices you quickly travel 
round the regions (of space); awake the sleeping being, whether biped or 
quadruped, to pursue (his functions). 

 4.051.06 Where is that ancient one of those (Dawns), through whom the works of 
the R.bhus were accomplished? For as the bright Dawns happily proceed, they are 
not distinguished, being alike and undecaying.

 4.051.07 Verily those auspicious Dawns have been of old, rich with desired 
blessings, truthful (bestowers) of the results of sacrifice; at which the 
sacrificer, adoring with (silent) praise, glorifying (with hymns), has quickly 
obtained wealth. 

 4.051.08 They spread around of smilar form, (coming) from the east, (coming) 
from the same region alike renowned; the divine Dawns, arousing the assembly of 
the sacrifice are glorified like the (rays) creative of the waters. [Rays: 
gava_m sarga_ na ras'mayah: RV. 4.52.5]. 

 4.051.09 Those Dawns proceed verily all alike, of similar form, of infinite 
hues, pure, bright, illumining, concealing by their radiant persons the very 
great gloom. 

 4.051.10 Divine, resplendent daughters of heaven, bestow upon us wealth, 
comprehending progeny; awaking you for our benefit, may we be the lords of 
excellent descendants. 

 4.051.11 Daughters of heaven, resplendent Dawns, I address you (as) the 
announcer of the sacrificer; may we be (the possessors) of celebrity among men, 
and may heaven and the divine earth perpetuate (it). [The verse is to be 
inaudibly recited every morning at day-break].

 4.052.01 The daughter of heaven has been seen; the kind conductress (of men), 
the parent (of benefits) shedding radiance upon (the departure of her) sister 
night.  [cf. RV. 1.128.8]. 

 4.052.02 Like a beautiful mare, the radiant mother of the rays of light, the 
object of sacrifice, (she) is the friend of the As'vins. [Mother of the rays of 
light: ma_ta_ gava_m = ras'min.a_m ma_ta_; she is the friend of the as'vins: the 
as'vins are to be worshipped together with the Dawn; since gava_m = rays of 
light, the phrase gava_m ayana relates to the winter solstice when the 
maha_vrata is initiated.]. 

 4.052.03 You are the friend of the As'vins; you are the mother of the rays of 
light; you, Us.as, rule over riches. 

 4.052.04 With praises we awaken you, you who are endowed with truth; you, 
baffler of animosities, the restorer of consciousness. [The baffler of 
animosities: ya_vayad dves.asam, the Dawn puts to flight those enemies who had 
been endeavouring to destroy their adversaries during the night]. 

 4.052.05 The auspicious rays are visible like showers of rain, the dawn has 
filled (the world) with ample light. [Like showers of rain: gava_m sarga_ na: 
gava_m = udaka_na_m, of waters; udaka_na_m sarga_h = vars.adha_ra_h]. 

 4.052.06 Brilliant Us.as, filling (the world with light), you disperse the 
darkness with radiance; thereafter protect the oblation. 

 4.052.07 You overspread, Us.as, the heaven with rays, as well as the vast and 
beloved firmament with pure lustre.

 4.053.01 We solicit of the divine, powerful, and intelligen Savita_ that 
desirable and ample (wealth), along with which he grants a dwelling to the 
offerer of the oblation of his own accord; may the great deity grant us such 
every day. [tacchardir no maha_n udaya_n devo aktubhih: chardih = gr.ha, a 
house; or, it may mean light; aktubhih = lit., by nights, by metonymy, for 

 4.053.02 The supporter of heaven, the protector of the world, the wise 
(Savita_) puts on his golden armour discrimiator (of objects), filling (the 
world with light) Savita_ has engendered great and laudable felicity. [Puts on 
his golden armour: pis'an:gam dra_pam prati mun~cate = hiran.yam huvenam 
accha_dayati pratyudayam, every morning he puts on a golden cuirass]. 

 4.053.03 The divine (Savita_) fills (with radiance) the celestial and 
terrestrial regions, and boasts of his own function; Savita_ puts forth his arms 
or (the work of) production, regulating the world, and animating it with light. 
[Puts forth his arms: ba_hu_ prasra_k, he puts forth his rays]. 

 4.053.04 The divine Savita_ unrestrained, illumining the regions, protects the 
righteous acts (of men); he extends his arms for (the direction of) the people 
of the earth; observant of obligations, he rules over the wide world. 

 4.053.05 Savita_, encompassing them by his magnitude, pervades th three 
(divisions of the) firmament, the three worlds, the three brilliant sphere, the 
three heavens, the threefold earth may he, by his three functions, of his own 
(pleasure) protect us. [Three divions of the firmament: antariks.a is divided 
between Va_yu, Vidyut and Varun.a, in three portions; three brilliant spheres: 
the regions of Agni, Va_yu and Su_rya; three heavens: the lokas of Indra, 
Praja_pati and Satyaloka; threefold earth = three ores?; three functions: those 
of distributing heat, rain and cold]. 

 4.053.06 May that divine Savita_, who is the source of great happiness, the 
engenderer (of good works), the comprehender (of all beings), the regulator of 
both the moveable and the stationary, grant us happiness in the three worlds, 
and (be) to us for the destruction of sin. 

 4.053.07 May the divine Savita_ approach along with the R.tus, prosper our 
dwelling, and bestow upon us good progeny and food; may he be favourable to us 
by night and by day; may he heap upon us wealth comprehending offspring.

 4.054.01 The divine Savita_ has been manifested; he is at once to be glorified 
by us; he is to be praised by the priests at the present (rite), and at the 
close (of the day), in order that he who apportions precious things to be 
descendants of Manu may bestow upon us, on this occasion, most excellent wealth. 

 4.054.02 First you engender for the adorable gods the best portion, 
immortality; then, Savita_, you set open (the day) to the donor (of the 
oblation), and (grant) successive existences to men. [Yajus. 33.54; your 
engender :suvasi, from su, to bear or bring forth; successive existences: 
anu_ci_na_ ji_vita_: ji_vita_nyanukrama yukta_ni, i.e., in the order of fathers, 
sons; damanam = da_ta_ram; or, ras'misamu_ham, collection of rays; alternative 
rendering: you spread abroad your rays, and excite among men the consequent 
offices of vitality, i.e., the daily duties following on the return of morning]. 

 4.054.03 If, Savita_, through ignorance, through pride in feeble or powerful 
(dependants), or through human infirmity, we have committed (offence) against 
your divine person, or against gods or men, do you on this occasion hold us to 
be unoffending. 

 4.054.04 (It is) not (fit) to obstruct (the acts) of the divine Savita_, since 
by them he upholds the whole world, wheeby his gracious hand spreads fertility 
over the extent of the earth, and the magnitude of the heaven; such is his true 

 4.054.05 You elevate those, of whom Indra is chief, above the vast clouds; for 
these, (your worshippers), you provide dwelling (places) filled in habitations; 
as when advancing they detained you, so in like manner at your command they 
stayed. [yatha_ yatha_ patayantah gaccandas tvam viyemire evaiva tasthuh sava_ya 
te: tavanujn~aya_ eva tis.t.hanti, probably this applies to the worshippers]. 

 4.054.06 May Indra, heaven and earth, Sindhu with the waters, and Aditi with 
the A_dityas, bestow happiness upon us, who, offering libations, Savita_, pour 
out the auspicious Soma, day by day, thrice a day.

 4.055.01 Which of you, Vasus, is a defender? Which is a protector? Heaven and 
earth and Aditi preserve us; defend us, Mitra and Varun.a, from the strong man; 
who is it, gods, that offers you wealth at the sacrifice? [Aditi: dya_va_bhu_mi 
adite tra_si_tha_m nah: adite, undivided, indivisible, may be an epithet of 
heaven and earth; who is it, gods, that offer you: ko vo adhvare arivo dha_ti 
deva_h = which of you gods bestows wealth at the sacrifice?] 

 4.055.02 The (deities) who bestow ancient places (of enjoyment on their 
worshippers), and (with minds) unperplexed, are the separators of light (from 
darkness); they, the eternal distributors (of rewards), grant (what is desired), 
and shine of pleasing aspect, the true (recompensers) of pious acts.  

 4.055.03 I adore the venerated Aditi, the Sindhu and the divine Svasti for 
their friendship; (I praise you) both, Day and Night, that you may protect us 
unimpeded; night and morning do (what we desire). [Svastim: sukhaniva_sam, 
etanna_mikam devim, the abose of happiness; well-being, or a goddess so named]. 

 4.055.04 Aryaman and Varun.a instruct us in the path (of worship); Agni, the 
lord of food points out the way to happiness; Indra and Vis.n.u, being 
glorified, bestow upon us desirable prosperity comprehending descendants and 

 4.055.05 I have recourse to the protection of Parvata, of the Maruts, and of 
the divine protector, Bhaga; may the lord (Varun.a) preserve us from human 
wretchedness, and may Mitra defend us with a friendly regard. 

 4.055.06 Divine Heaven and Earth, I praise you together with Ahirbudhnya for 
those (good things that are) desired, as those desirous of acquiring (riches) 
praise the ocean on traversing it (in which) the sounding rivers disappear. [As 
those desirous: samudram na san~caran.e sanis.yavah = dhana_na_m sambhaktum 
iccantah samudramadhyagamana_ya samudram yatha_ stuvanti, as those wishing to 
possess riches for the sake of going through the midst of the ocean praise the 
ocean; gharmasvara so nadyo apavran = di_ptadhvanayho nadyo apavr.nvantiti 
paroks.a iva, referring this to the deities, the explanation is: may they, 
Heaven and Earth, cherish or replenish the rivers]. 

 4.055.07 May the divine Aditi, with the gods, preserve us; may the ever-
attentive protecting (deity, Indra), protect us; we are not able to withhold the 
elevated (sacrificial) food of Mitra, of Varun.a, of Agni. 

 4.055.08 Agni is lord over treasure; Agni (is lord) over great good fortune; 
may he bestow them upon us. 

 4.055.09 Opulent, Us.as, truth-speaking, food-abounding, bestow upon us many 
good things. 

 4.055.10 May Savita_, Bhaga, Varun.a, Mitra, Aryaman, Indra, come to us with 
the wealth (that each bestow).

 4.056.01 Vast and most excellent Heaven and Earth, be present with splendour at 
this (sacrifice, attracted) by sanctifying hymns; since that the showerer sounds 
everywhere with (his) heralds, the rapid (winds), passing through the two 
spacious and mighty (regions). 

 4.056.02 May the divine, adorable, benevolent, fertilizing, truthful, 
unoppressive Heaven and Earth, the leaders of sacrifice, whose sons are the 
gods, be present with the adorable gods, (attracted) by sanctifying hymns. 
[Divine, adorable: the epithets are: devi_ yajate aminati uks.amane, r.ta_vari_ 
adruha_ deva putre yajn~asya netri_ = lit. the shining, or, divine, objects of 
worship, unharming, sprinkling (rain, and therefore fertilizing), possessing 
truth, or water, or sacrifice, not oppressing or violent, having gods for sons, 
leaders of invesigators, or subjects of sacrifice]. 

 4.056.03 Verily he was the doer of a good work in the regions, who generated 
these two, Heaven and Earth, and firm of purpose, gave an impulse by his deed to 
the two vast immoveable, beautiful, unsupported worlds. 

 4.056.04 May Heaven and Earth, vast, universal, adorable, united in 
satisfaction and disposed to give us food, protect us with our spacious 
dwelings, inhabited by our wives, and may we for our (pious) acts be possessed 
of chariots and slaves. 

 4.056.05 We offer earnest praise you both resplendent (Heaven and Earth); we 
approach you who are pure to offer adoration. 

 4.056.06 Mutually sanctifying (each other) of your own substance you shine by 
your own power, and ever beat away the offering. [Mutually sanctifying each 
other: puna_ne tanva_ mithah: this may apply to the worship or the worshipper, 
purifying them severally by each individual form, svaki_ya_ya murtya_ 
s'odhayantau yajn~am yajama_nam va_; or, this may apply to the regions, heaven 
and earth, the former purifying or fertilizing the latteer by rain, the latter 
supporting the former by cultivation: dyauh svaki_yena sthitena divam, by that 
which is in the sky or the moon]. 

 4.056.07 Mighty (Heaven and Earth), you fulfil the desires of your friend; 
distributing food and giving sustenance you have sat down at the sacrifice.

 4.057.01 With the master of the field, our friend, we triumph; may he bestow 
upon us cattle, horses, nourishment, for by such (gifts) he makes us happy. 
[With the master of the field: ks.etrasya patina_ may be a reference to Rudra or 

 4.057.02 Lord of the field, bestow upon us sweet abundant, (water), as the cow 
(yields her) milk, dropping like honey, blend as butter; may the lords of the 
water make us happy. 

 4.057.03 May the herbs (of the field) be sweet for us; may the heavens, the 
waters, the firmament, be kind to us; may the lord of the field be gracious to 
us; let us, undeterred (by foes), have recourse to him. [Be kind: an epithet of 
ks.etrapati; madhumat = lit. having sweetness]. 

 4.057.04 May the oxen (draw) happily, the men (labour) happily; the plough 
furrows happily; may the traces bind happily; wield the goad happily. [Happily: 
s'unam va_ha_h s'unam narah: s'unam = sukham, sukham yatha_ bhavati tatha_, so 
that pleasure is or may be; as a personification it is the divinity through 
whose favour the work goes well, sukhakr.d devah, who may be either va_yu or 

 4.057.05 S'una and Si_ra be pleased by this our praise, and consequently 
sprinkle this (earth) with the water which you have reated in heaven. [S'una and 
Si_ra: s'una_si_rau is in the dual, as the name of two divinities; s'una is 
dyudevah, the deity of the sky, i.e., Indra; sira is va_yu; s'una, va_yu and 
si_ra = a_ditya (Nirukta 9.40); s'una_si_ra = Indra]. 

 4.057.06 Auspicious Si_ta_, be present, we glorify you; that you may be 
propitious to us, that you may yield us abundant fruit. [Yajus. 12.69-72; Si_ta_ 
= a furrow; a personification of the deity; the wood supporting the furrow, 
si_ta_dha_raka_s.t.ham, which Indra is to take hold of, indra gr.hn.atu; if 
ka_s.t.ha is a quarter of the horizon, si_ta_ may mean the sky, sa, she, is 
interpreted as dyau, the sky]. 

 4.057.07 May Indra take hold of Si_ta_; may Pu_s.an guide her; may she, well 
stored with water, yield it as milk, year after year. 

 4.057.08 May the plough shares break up our land happily; may the ploughman go 
happily with the oxen; may Parjanya (water the earth) with sweet showers 
happily; grant, S'una and Si_ra, prosperity to us.

 4.058.01 The sweet water swells up from the firmament; by the (solar) ray (man) 
obtains immortality; that which is he secret name of clarified butter is the 
tongue of the gods, the navel of ambrosia. [Yajus. 17.89-99; the sweet water 
swells up from the firmament: samudra_d urmir madhuma_n uda_rat: the meaning 
depends on the variants of meaning of samudra: samodante asmin yajama_nah, that 
in which worshippers delight, sacrificial fire; or, samudra_d dravanti a_pah, 
that from which waters rush, celestial fire, lightning; u_rmi = reward or 
consequence; second occurrence of u_rmi = rain; in the latter sence of u_rmi, 
samudra may mean antarks.a, the firmament; samudra may also mean the udder of 
the cow, whence flows milk, samudravati, from which come u_rmi, ghi or butter; 
another interpretation restricts the objects to two: ghi_ and agni, atra 
anna_dhya_sena ghr.tam stu_yate pra_n.a_dhya_sena ca agnih; as a representative 
of food, ghi_ is here praised, as that of vitality, agni; samudra is the ocean 
of ghi_, from which it rises as its wave, samudra_d ghr.ta-mayad madhuma_n 
rasava_n u_rmirudagacchat, and, having so risen, it pervades immortality by 
Agni, as the life of the world with whom it is combined: udgatya ca sa u_rmir-
ansuna_ jagatpra_n.abhu_tena_gnina_ samaikibhu_ya amr.tatva_n vya_pnoti; in both 
interpretations, agni is intended, with whom ghi_, as the material of the 
oblation, is meant to be identified. That which is the secret name: ghr.tasya 
na_ma guhyam yad asti jihva_ deva_na_m amr.tasya na_bhih: i.e., the material of 
sacrifice commonly called ghi_ is, in the mantras of the Veda, designated the 
tongue of the gods, being used metonymicaly for Agni; also the navel or binding, 
that is, the means of securing immortality for him who offers it in oblations. 
Since the ghr.ta is intented to be the secret name, the reference intended may 
be to another principal oblation: the Soma]. 

 4.058.02 We celebrate the name Ghr.ta at this sacrifice, we offer it with 
adoration; may the four-horned Brahma_ listen to its being glorified; the fair-
complexioned-deity perfect this rite. [The four-horned brahma_: brahma_ catuh 
s'r.n:gah: brahma_, the mantra; parivr.d.ho devah, the augmented, developed, or 
great deity; his four horns are the four vedas; Brahma_ is also explained as 
R.tij, priest; the fair-complexioned deity perfects this rite: avamid-gaura 
etat: gaura = yajn~a, with epithets catuh s'r.n:ga, the sacrifice with four 
priests, obtains the object for which it is solemnized; the verse is said to 
apply to Agni as the sun; but it is applied to ghi_. Since ghi_ is the secret 
name for Soma, the object for which it is solemnized is Soma]. 

 4.058.03 Four are his horns; three are his feet; his heads are two, his hands 
are seven; the triple-bound showerer (of benefits) roars aloud; the mighty deity 
has entered among men. [This verse is preferentially applied to Agni, identified 
either with yajn~a or with A_ditya; the four horns of the yajn~a are the four 
vedas; of A_ditya, the four cardinal points of the horizon; the three feet of 
yajn~a are the three daily sacrifices; of A_ditya, morning, noon, evening; the 
two heads of yajn~a are two particular ceremonies termed brahmaudanam and 
pravargya; of A_ditya, day and night; the seven hands of yajn~a are the seven 
metres; of A_ditya, the seven rays, or the six seasons and their aggregate, or 
the year, the seventh; the term vr.s.abha phala_na_m var.sita_, the rainer of 
rewards, applies to yajn~a and A_ditya; so does roraite, he roars, implying the 
noise made by the repetition of the mantras of the vedas; the three bonds of 
yajn~a are: mantra, kalpa and bra_hman.a, the prayer, the ceremonial; the 
rationale of A_ditya, the three regions, earth, mid-air and heaven; another view 
is to limit vr.s.abha ka_ma_nam vars.ita_ to yajn~a; the four horns are the 
priests: the hota_, udga_ta_, adhvaryu and brahma_; the three feet are the three 
vedas; the two heads the havirdha_na and pravargya rites; the hands are the 
seven priests, or seven metres; the three bonds the three daily sacrifices; 
Nirukta 13.7 applies the verse to yajn~a]. 

 4.058.04 The gods discovered the Ghi_ concealed by the Pan.is, placed three-
fold in the cow; Indra generated one (portion), Su_rya another, the (other gods) 
fabricated one from the resplendent (Agni), for the sake of the oblation. [The 
pan.is are asuras; the three forms or states in which the ghi_ was deposited in 
the cow were milk, curds and butter, of which Indra engendered jaja_na, milk, 
Su_rya butter, and the god (deva_sah) fabricated (tataks.uh) curds from the 
shining, vena_t, that is Agni; another rendering is deva_sah dvija_tayah, the 

 4.058.05 These hundred-channeled showers fall from the heart-delighting 
firmament, unobserved by the hostile (cloud); I look upon these showers of Ghi_, 
(and behold) the golden Vetasa in the midst of them. [Samudra, the showers is 
implied by the epithet s'ata vraja, copious, either of water or ghi_; vetasa = 
Agni, either as lightning or the sun; or the fire of sacrifice; another 
interpretation: eta_ ars.anti, va_ca_ udgacchanti, these words originate from 
the ocean of the water of faith, purified by the metres and other supplementary 
portions of the Vedas, amidst which words the r.s.is see the golden form of 
Agni, for Agni is the deity presiding over speech, or holy texts, agnir hi 
vaca_m adhis.t.ha_tri devata_]. 

 4.058.06 They flow uninterruptedly like pleasing rivers, purified by the mind 
that is seated in the heart; these streams of Ghi_ descend (upon the fire), like 
deer flying from the hunter. [The allusion is to the ghi_ poured from the ladle 
on the fire; antahr.da_ manasa_: hr.dayamadhya gatena cittena, by the mind gone 
within the heart; s'u_ghana_sah: a_s'u gantryah (Nirukta 6.1)]. 

 4.058.07 The stream of Ghi_ fall copious, swift as the wind, and rapid as the 
waters of a river down a declivity, breaking through the confining banks, and 
hurrying on with their waves, like a high-spirited steed. [Swift as the wind: 
va_ta pramiyah vayu_vat prakr.s.tavega; the comparison may be to Sindhu, a river 
agitated by the wind; breaking through the confining banks: ka_s.t.ha_ bhindan 
urmibhih pinvama_nah: ka_s.t.ha_ = limiting circles; marya_da_bhu_ta_n paridhi_n 
limits within which the flowing butter increases with its juice; ghr.ta may also 
mean water, when sindhu will imploy antariks.a]. 

 4.058.08 The streams of Ghi_ incline to Agni as devoted wives, auspicious and 
smiling, to a husband; they feed (the flame) like fuel, and Ja_tavedas, 
propitiated, accepts them. 

 4.058.09 I contemplate these streams of Ghi_ as they flow from where the Soma 
is effused, where the sacrifice (is solemnized), as maidens decorating 
themselves with unguents to go to the bridegroom. 

 4.058.10 (Priests) address the pious praise, (the source) of herds of cattle; 
bestow upon us auspicious riches; convey this our sacrifice to the gods, (where 
at) the streams of Ghi_ with sweetness descend. [Priests: the text has no 
nominative; R.tvijah, priests are impied; an alternative implied term may be 
deva_h, gods; the pious praise the source of herds of cattle: sus.t.utim gavyam 
a_jim: a_jim = gosambandhina_m san:gha_tam, the number or collections related to 
cattle; or, it may mean the abundance of water; another interpretation: agni = 
yajn~a (sacrifice); gavya = ghi_; gods, approach the pious praise, and, the 
sacrifice at which ghi_ is offered]. 

 4.058.11 The whole world, (Agni), finds an asylum in your effulgence, whether 
it be in the ocean, in the heart (of man), in the life (of living beings), in 
the assemblage of the waters, or in warfare; may we attain the sweet-flavoured 
wave which is established in your (essence). [dha_man te vis'vam bhuvanam 
adhis'ritam: dha_man = tejah stha_ne, in the place of brightness or heat (or 
vibhutyam, superhuman power); the purport is to identify all things with Agni, 
present in the ocean as submarine fire, in men as vais'va_nara, an etymological 
pun from vis'va, all and nara, man; in life, a_yus.i, as the vital principle, or 
a_yus. may mean food, anna, when the digestive fire is intended; in the 
assembled waters or the firmament, as lightning; in war, as the metaphorical 
fire of valour; that sweet-flavoured wave: u_rmih ya a_bhr.tah, the wave which 
is so deposited, stha_pitah, may imply either the butter of the oblation, or 
water in the shape of rain. The reference to madhu in this and previous verse, 
establish that the implied reference is o Soma].146RigVeda - Mandala 41Rigveda - 
Mandala 4

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