3.001.01 Render me vigorous, Agni, since you have made me the bearer of the Soma 
to offer it in the sacrifice;honouring the gods who are present, I take hold of 
the stone (to express Soma); I propitiate them; do you, Agni,protect my person. 

[Vis'va_mitra was a ks.atriya, of royal or military profession, and was also a 
monarch for some time; hedescended from Kus'a or the lunar lineage and was the 
ancestor of many royal and saintly persons, who, likehimself, were called after 
their common ancestor, Kus'ikas, or Kaus'ikas. By the force of his austerities, 
hecompelled Brahma_ to admit into the Bra_hman.a order. He sought this position 
to be equated with Vasis.t.ha,which whom he had disputed earlier. The 
circumstances of his dispute with Vasis.t.ha are detailed in theRa_ma_yan.a; the 
legend is also told in the Maha_bha_rata, Va_yu, Vis.n.u and Bha_gavata 
Pura_n.as.Vis'va_mitra and Vasis.t.ha had the patronage of hostile princes; but 
both had friendly relations with the royalfamily of Ayodhya_, or King Das'aratha 
and his son, Ra_ma]. 

3.001.02 We have performed, Agni, a successful sacrifice; may my praise magnify 
(you) as worshipping you withfuel and with reverence; (the gods) fromheaven 
desire the adoration of the pious, who are anxious to praise theadorable and 
mighty (Agni). 

3.001.03 The gods discovered the graceful Agni (concealed) amidst the waters of 
the flowing (rivers), for thepurpose of (sacred) acts; Agni, who is 
intelligent,of purified vigour, and friendly; who from his birth 
bestowedhappiness on earth and heaven. 

3.001.04 The seven great rivers augmented in might the auspicious, pure, and 
radiant Agni as soon as he wasborn, in like manner as mares (tend) the newborn 
foal; the gods cherished the body (of Agni) at his birth. 

3.001.05 Spreading through the firmament with shining limbs, sanctifying the 
rite with intelligent and purifying(energies), and clothed with radiance, he 
bestows upon the worshiper abundant food and great andundiminished prosperity. 

3.001.06 Agni everywhere repairs to the undevouring, undevoured (waters); the 
vast (offspring) of the firmament,not clothed, yet not naked, seven eternal ever 
youthfful rivers, sprung from the same source, received Agni astheir common 
embryo. [Undevouring, undevoured waters: anadatir adabdha_, not extinguishing 
Agni, nor yetevaporated by him; not clothed: avasa_na_ anagna_, not wearing 
garments but invested by the water as by arobe]. 

3.001.07 Aggregated in the womb of the waters, (his rays) spread abroad; and 
omniform, are here effective forthe diffusion of the sweet (Soma), like kine 
full uddered; the mighty (Heaven and Earth) are the fitting parents ofthe 
graceful Agni. [The womb of the waters: the antariks.a, mid-heaven, or the 
firmament, the region of vapour]. 

3.001.08 Son of strength, sustained by all, you shine, possessing bright and 
rapid rays; when the vigorous Agniis magnified by praise, then the showers of 
sweet rain descend. 

3.001.09 At his birth he knew the udder of his parent and let forth its 
torrents, and its speech (of thunder); therewas no one to detect him, lurking in 
the deep, with his auspicious associates, (the winds), and the many (waters)of 
the firmament. [Knew the udder of his parent: pituru_dhan viveda: the parent 
here is the firmament, and theudder the clouds, or the accumulated stores of 

3.001.10 He cherishes the embryo of the parent (firmament), and of the generator 
(of the world); he aloneconsumes many flourishing (plants); the associated 
brides (of the Sun, Heaven and Earth), who are kind to man,are both of kin to 
that pure showerer (of blessings); do you, Agni, ever preserve them. 

3.001.11 The great Agni increases on the broad unbounded (firmament), for the 
waters supply abundantnutriment, and placid, he sleeps in the birth-place of the 
waters for the service of the sister streams. 

3.001.12 The invincible Agni, the cherisher of the valiant in battle, the seen 
of all, shining by his own lustre, thegenerator (of the world), the embryo of 
the waters, the chief of leaders, the mighty, is he who has begotton thewaters 
for (the benefit of) the offerer of the libation. 

3.001.13 The auspicious timber has generated the graceful and multiform embryo 
of the waters and the plants;the gods approached him with reverence, and 
worshipped the adorable and mighty (Agni) as soon as born. 

3.001.14 Mighty sins, like brilliant lightning, associate with the self-shining 
Agni, great in his own abode, as if in a(deep) cavern, as they milk forth 
ambrosia into the boundless and vast ocean. 

3.001.15 I, the institutor of the rite, worship you with oblations; desirous of 
your favour, I implore your friendship;grant, along with the gods, protection to 
him who praises you, preserve us with your well-regulated rays. 

3.001.16 Approaching you, benevolent Agni, and performing all holy acts that are 
the cause of opulence, offeringoblations with earnestness and in abundance, may 
we overcome the hostile hosts that are without gods. [May weovercome the 
hostile: abhis.ya_ma pr.tana_yu_r adeva_n;or, it may mean, may we overcome the 
hosts of thosewho are not gods, i.e. the ra_ks.asas, or evil spirits, 
obstructing sacrifices]. 

3.001.17 You, Agni, are the commendable announcer of the gods, cognizant of all 
sacred rites; placid, you abideamong mortals, and, like a charioteer, you follow 
the gods, accomplishing (their wishes). 

3.001.18 The immortal being has sat down in the dwelling of mortals, 
accomplishing (their) sacrifices; Agni, whois cognizant of all sacred rites, 
shines with expanded bulk when fed with clarified butter. 

3.001.19 Come to us with friendly, auspicious, and mighty aids, you who are 
great and all-pervading; bestowupon us ample riches, safe from injury, well-
spoken of, desirable, and renowned. 

3.001.20 I address to you, Agni, who are of old, these eternal as well as recent 
adorations; these solemnsacrifices are offered to the showerer of benefits, who 
in every birth is established (among men), cognizant of allthat exists. 

3.001.21 The undecaying Ja_tavedas, who in every birth is established (among 
men), is kindled by theVis'va_mitras; may we, (enjoying) his favour, ever be 
(held) in the auspicious good-will of that adorable (deity). 

3.001.22 Powerful Agni, (fulfiller) of good works, convey, rejoicing this our 
sacrifice towards the gods; invoker ofthe gods, bestow upon us abundant food; 
grant us, Agni, great wealth. 

3.001.23 Grant, Agni, to the offerer of the oblation, the earth, the bestower of 
cattle, the means of many (piousrites), such that it may be perpetual; may there 
be to us sons and grandsons born in our race, and may yourgood-will ever be upon 
us. [This hymn is the refrain of several subsequent su_ktas; this hymn also 
occurs in theSa_maveda].

3.002.01 We offer to Agni, who is Vais'va_nara, the augmenter of water, praise 
(as bland) as pure clarified butter;and the priests and the worshipper incite by 
their (pious) rites the invoker of the gods to his two-fold function, asa 
wheelwright fabricates a car.[To his twofold function: to the lighting of the 
ga_rhapatya and a_havani_ya, thedomestic and sacrificial fires; cf. 
vais'va_nara: (Nirukta 7.21)]. 

3.002.02 By his birth he lighted up both heaven and earth; he was the 
praiseworthy son of his parents; theundecaying Agni, the bearer of oblations, 
the giver of food, the guest of men, the affluent in radiance. 

3.002.03 The gods (endowed) with intelligence, gave birth to Agni in the 
multiform rite by the exertion ofpreserving strength; desirous of food, I 
eulogise the great Agni, bright with solar effulgence, and (vigorous) as ahorse. 

3.002.04 Desiring excellent food, inflicting no disgrace, we solicit the boon of 
the adorable (Vais'va_nara) fromAgni, the benefactor of the Bhr.gus, the object 
of our desires, who is acquainted with past acts, and shines withcelestial 

3.002.05 Men with strewn holy grass, and uplifted ladles, place before them this 
solemnity for the sake ofobtaining happiness, Agni, the bestower of food, the 
resplendent, the benefactor of all the gods, the remover ofsorrow, the perfecter 
of the (holy) acts of the sacrificer. [The remover of sorrow: the text has 
rudra, which istranslated as: duhkha_na_m dra_vakam, the driver-away of griefs 
or pains; otherwise, it may be a synonym ofAgni]. 

3.002.06 Agni, of purifying lustre, invoker of the gods, men desirous of 
worshipping (you), having strewn thesacred grass, repair to your appropriate 
abode at sacrifices; bestow upon them wealth. 

3.002.07 He has filled both heaven and earth and the spacious firmament, he whom 
the performers of (sacred)rites have laid hold of as soon as born; he, the sage, 
the giver of food, is brought like a horse to the sacrificer, for(the sake of) 
obtaining food. [Yajurveda, 33.75]. 

3.002.08 Reverence the bearer of oblations (to the gods), him whose sacrifice is 
acceptable; worship him bywhom all that exists is known, who is friendly to our 
dwellings; for Agni is the conductor of the great sacrifice, thebeholder of all, 
who has been placed in front of the gods. 

3.002.09 The immortals, desirous (of his presence), sanctified the three 
radiances of the great circumambientAgni; one of them they have placed in the 
world of mortals as the nourisher (of all); the other two have gone tothe 
neighbouring sphere. [The three radiances: tisrah samidhah = lit., the three 
fuels, (pa_rthiva vaidyuta su_ryaru_pa_di stisra stanu_h); here, interpreted as 
three forms or conditions of fire; as, earthy fire, that of thefirmament or 
lightning, and that of heaven, the sun;or, three Vedi cforms, two termed aghara, 
and one anuya_ja;the celebration of the latter is rewarded by enjoyment in this 
world, that of the two former by enjoyment in thefirmament and heaven]. 

3.002.10 Human beings, wishing for wealth, give brightnesss, (by their praises), 
to the lord of men, the wise(Agni), as they add lustre, (by polishing), to an 
axe; spreading everywhere, he goes alike through high and lowplaces, and has 
taken an embryo (condition) in these regions. [In these regions: the two pieces 
of wood, theattrition of which produces flame]. 

3.002.11 The showerer (of benefits), generated in (many) receptacles, 
flourishes, roaring in various (places) likea lion; Vais'va_nara, the 
resplendent, the immortal, giving precious treasure to the donor (of the 

3.002.12 Glorified by his adorers, Vais'va_nara of old ascended to the heaven 
that is above the firmamentbestowing wealth upon his (present) worshipper, as he 
did in former times; he travels, ever vigilant, the commonpath (of the gods). 
[The common path: thatis, as the sun's path]. 

3.002.13 We implore for present riches, the many-moving tawny-rayed, resplendent 
Agni, whom mightyvenerable, wise, adorable, and dwelling in the sky, the wind 
(brought down) and deposited (upon the earth). 

3.002.14 We implore with prayer the mighty Agni, the giver of food, the 
unrefusing, (seated on) the front ofheaven; the radiant in the sacrifice, him 
who is to be sought (for by all), the beholder of all, the emblem ofheaven, the 
dweller in light, who is to be awakened at dawn. 

3.002.15 We solicit wealth of the adorable (Agni), the invoker of the gods, the 
pure, the single-minded, themunificent, the commendable, the beholder of all, 
who is many-coloured like a chariot, elegant in form, andalways friendly to 

3.003.01 Intelligent (worshippers), offer to the powerful Vais'va_nara precious 
things at holy rites, that they maygo (the way of the good), for the immortal 
Agni worships the gods; therefore, let no one violate eternal duties. 

3.003.02 The graceful messenger (of the gods) goes between heaven and earth; 
sitting (on the altar), andplaced before men, he ornaments, the spacious 
chambers (of sacrifice) with his rays, animated by the gods, andaffluent in 

3.003.03 The wise worship, with (pious) rites, Agni, the sign of sacrifices, the 
accomplishment of the solemnity, inwhom the reciters of (his) praises have 
accumulated (their) acts (of devotion), and from whom the worshipperhopes for 
happiness. [The sign of sacrifices: ketum yajn~a_na_m: ketu = a banner; it is 
often used in the Veda inthe sense of prajn~a_paka, a sign, a signal, that which 
makes any thing known]. 

3.003.04 The parent of sacrifices, the invigorator of the wise, the end (of the 
rite), the instruction of the priests,Agni, who has pervaded heaven and earth in 
many forms, the friend of man, wise, (and endowed) withsplendours, is glorified 
(by the worshipper). 

3.003.05 The gods have placed in this world the delightful Agni in a delightful 
chariot, the tawny-huedVais'va_nara, the sitter in the waters, the omniscient, 
the all-pervading, the endowed with energies, thecherisher, the illustrious. 

3.003.06 Perfecting the performance the multiform sacrifice of the worshipper, 
along with the gods to whomsolemnities have been addressed, and together withthe 
priests, Agni, the charioteer, the swift-moving, thehumble-minded, the destroyer 
of foes, passes along between (heaven and earth). 

3.003.07 Agni, praise (the gods that we may enjoy) good offspring and long life; 
propitiate them by libations;bestow upon us plentiful crops; ever vigilant, gran 
tfood to the respectable (institutor of this ceremony), for youare the desired 
of the gods, the object of the pious acts of the devout. [Grant food: vay_msi 
anna_ni; vayahks.adma (Nirukta 2.7.7)]. 

3.003.08 The leaderes (of holy rites) praise with prostration, for (the sake of) 
increase, the mighty lord of people,the guest (of men), the regulator eternally 
of acts, he desired of the priests, the exposition of sacrifices,Ja_tavedas, 
endowed with (divine) energies. 

3.003.09 The resplendent and adorable Agni, riding in an auspicious chariot, has 
comprehended the whole earthby his vigour; let us glorify with fit praises the 
acts of that cherisher of multitudes in his own abode. 

3.003.10 Vais'va_nara, I celebrate your energies, whereby, O sage, you have 
become omniscient; as soon asborn, Agni, you have occupied the realms (of 
space), and heaven and earth, and have comprehended all thesewith yourself. 

3.003.11 From acts that are acceptable to Vais'va_nara comes great (wealth); for 
he, the sage (Agni) alone,bestows (the reward) of zeal in (the performance of) 
his worship; adoring both his prolific friends, heaven andearth, Agni was born.

3.004.01 Repeatedly, kindled, (Agni), wake up favourably disposed; (endowed) 
with reiterated lustre, entertainthe kind purpose of (granting us) wealth; 
bring, divine Agni, the gods to the sacrifice; do you, the friend (of thegods), 
minister, well-affected, to (your) parents. [Repeatedly kindled: samit sama = 
samiddha; or, susamiddha, anappellative of Agni in the preceding su_ktas]. 

3.004.02 Tanu_napa_t, whom the deities, Mitra, Varun.a and Agni, worship daily 
thrice a day, render this oursacred rain-engendering sacrifice productive of 

3.004.03 May the all-approved praise reach the invoker of the gods; may Il.a_ 
first proceed to worship and topraise with prostrations the showerer (of 
benefits) in his presence; may the adorable (Agni), instigated (by us),worship 
the gods. [Il.a_ = the il.ita of preceding su_ktas]. 

3.004.04 An upward path has been prepared for you both in the sacrifice; the 
blazing oblations soar aloft; theinvoker of the gods has sat down in the centre 
of the radiant (hall); let us strew the sacred grass for the seats ofthe gods. 
[You both: Agni and the Barhis, or sacred grass, to which, as in the parallel 
pages, the hymn isaddressed]. 

3.004.05 The gods who gratify the universe with rain are present at the seven 
offerings (of the ministeringpriests), when solicited with (sincerity of) mind; 
may the many deities who are engendered in sensible shapes atsacrifices come to 
this our rite. [Deities in sensible shapes: in preceding su_ktas, the doors of 
the hall ofsacrifice, are the personifications specified; here, the divinities 
presiding over the doors are implied]. 

3.004.06 May the adored Day and Night, combined or separate, be manifest in 
bodily form, so that Mitra,Varun.a, Indra, or (the latter), attended by the 
Maruts, may rejoice us by their glories. 

3.004.07 I propitiate the two chief divine invokers of the gods; the seven 
offerers of (sacrificial) food, expectant ofwater, gratify (Agni) with 
oblations; the illustrious observers of sacred rites have saluted him in every 
ceremonyas (identifiable), verily, with water. [As identifiable with water: 
r.tam it ta a_huh = agnim eva r.tabhu_tam a_huh,they have called Agni, verily, 
r.ta; r.ta is usually rendered water but  it may mean truth; in the preceding 
phrase,r.tam s'ansanta = udakam, desirous or expectant of water]. 

3.004.08 May Bha_rati_, associated with the Bha_rati_s; Il.a_ with the gods and 
men; and Agni, and Sarasvati_with the Sa_rasvatas; may the three goddesses sit 
down upon the sacred grass (strewn) before them.[bha_rati_bhih, with the 
connections of Bharata, or the Sun: bharatasya su_ryasya sambandhini_bhih, 
perhapsintending the solar rays; Bha_rati_ = va_k, speech; Il.a_ = bhu_mi, the 
earth; sarasvati_ = ma_dhyamika_ va_k;the sa_rasvatas are the madhyamastha_nas, 
the middle regions, or the firmament; Agni whose name is ratherunconnectedly 
inserted, is thus identified through their several personifications as 
goddesses, with heaven,mid-heaven, and earth, or with speech or sound in the 
three regions]. 

3.004.09 Divine Tvas.t.a_, being well pleased, give issue to our procreative 
vigour, whence (a son), manly,devout, vigorous, wielder of the (Soma-bruising) 
stone, and reverencing the gods, may be born. 

3.004.10 Vanaspati, bring the gods nigh; may Agni, the immolator, prepare the 
victim; let him who is truth officiateas the ministering priest, for, verily, he 
knows the birth of the gods. [May Agni the immolator: agnir havih 
s'amita_su_daya_ti: cf. RV 2.3]. 

3.004.11 Agni, kindled into flame, come to our presence in the same chariot with 
Indra and with the swift-movinggods; may Aditi, the mother of excellent sons, 
sit down on the sacred grass, and may the immortal gods besatisfied with the 
reverentially-offered oblation. [May the immortal gods: sva_ha_ deva_ amr.ta_ 
ma_dayanta_m:sva_ha_ = sva_ha_ka_ren.a yuktah, joined with or addressed by the 
exclamation, sva_ha_].

3.005.01 The sagacious Agni, cognizant of the dawn, is awakened to (follow) the 
paths of the sages; theluminous Vahni, kindled by the devout, has thrown open 
the gates of darkness. 

3.005.02 The adorable Agni is magnified by the hymns, the prayers, the praises, 
of (his) worshippers; emulatingthe many glories of the sun, the messenger (of 
the gods) shines forth at the glimmering of the dawn. 

3.005.03 Agni, the embryo of the waters, the friend (of the pious), 
accomplishing (all desires) with truth, has beenplaced (by the gods) among men, 
the descendants of Manu; desirable and adorable, he has taken his station 
onhigh, where the wise Agni is to receive the oblations of the devout. [Taken 
his station on high: sa_nvastha_ =sa_nu ucchritam; i.e. uttaravedya_khyam, the 
place called the north altar]. 

3.005.04 Agni, when kindled, is Mitra; and, as Mitra, is the invoker (of the 
gods); Varun.a is Ja_tavedas; Mitra isthe ministering priest; Damunas is the 
agitator (Va_yu); Mitra (is the associate) of rivers and mountains. [Thehymn 
attempts to identify Agni with Mitra, the sun, and of both with Varun.a and 

3.005.05 The graceful (Agni) protects the primary station of the moving earth; 
mighty, he protects the path of thesun; he protects the seven-headed (troop of 
the Maruts) in the centre between heaven and earth; he protects theexhilarating 
(oblations) of the gods. 

3.005.06 The mighty, divine Agni knowing all (things) that are to be known, made 
the commendable and beautifulwater, the glossy skin, the station of the diffused 
slumbering (Agni), and, ever vigilant preserves it. [Preserves it:covering as it 
were by extinguishing the flame of fire]. 

3.005.07 Agni has taken his station in an asylum, brilliant, much-lauded, and as 
desirous (of receiving him) as heis (torepair to it); radiant, pure, vast and 
purifying, he repeatedly renovates his parents, (Heaven and Earth). 

3.005.08 As soon as generated he is borne aloft by the plants, which grow 
flourishing by moisture, as thebeautifying waters descend; may he, in the bosom 
of his parents, protect us. 

3.005.09 Praised and (nourished) by fuel, the mighty Agni, stationed on the 
(altar the) navel of the earth, in theform of the firmament, has shone 
(brightly); may the friendly and adorable Agni who respires in the mid-
heaven,the messenger (of the gods), bring them to the sacrifice. [Who respires 
in the mid-heaven: ma_taris'van: ma_tari,antariks.e; s'vasiti, su_rya ru_pen.a 
ces.t.ate, who breathes in mid-heaven, or acts in the form of the sun; 
or,ma_tari may imply arn.ye, in a forest, he who abides in the woods (Nirukta 
7.26); also, ma_taris'van = the wind,as in the next hymn]. 

3.005.10 The mighty Agni, being the best of the heavenly luminaries, sustained 
the heaven with radiance, whenthe wind kindled the bearer of oblations, (till 
then concealed) in a cave from the Bhr.gus. [Concealed from theBhr.gus: yadi 
bhr.gubhyah guha_ santam: bhr.gubhyah = a_dityasya ras'mibhyah, from the rays of 
the sun]. 

3.005.11 Grant, Agni, to the offerer of the oblation the earth, the bestower of 
cattle, the means of many (piousrites); such that it may be perpetual; may there 
be to us sons and grandsons born in our race, and may yourgood-will ever be upon 
us. [cf. RV. 3.1.1)].

3.006.01 Devout ministrants, who are to be inspired by prayer, bring forth (the 
ladle) destined for the worship ofthe gods, which is to be conveyed to the south 
(of the fire-altar), and which, charged with (sacrificial) food,pointed to the 
east, containing the oblation, and, filled with liquefied butter, proceeds to 

3.006.02 Agni, as soon as born, occupy both heaven and earth; for you, to whom 
sacrifice is to be offered,exceed in magnitude the firmament and the earth; may 
your seven-tongued fires be glorified. 

3.006.03 The firmament and the earth and the adorable (gods) propitiate you 
their invoker, for the (completion ofthe) sacrifice, whenever the descendants of 
Manu, pious, and bearing oblations, glorify your radiant flame.[Descendants of 
Manu: vis'ah ma_nus.i_h = manoh sambandhinyah praja_h, people connected with 

3.006.04 The great and adorable Agni is firm seated on his spacious throne 
between heaven and earth; and thepowerful fellow-brides (of the sun), the 
imperishable uninjurable (heaven and earth) are the two milk-yieldingcows of the 
wide-extending (Agni). [The fellow-brides: sapatni_, the two brides of one; i.e. 
the sun: sama_naekah su_ryah patiryayoste sapatnyau]. 

3.006.05 Great, Agni, are the deeds of you the mighty one; you have spread 
abroad by your power the heavenand earth; you have been the messenger (of the 
gods); as soon as begotten you have become the leader ofmen. 

3.006.06 Harness with traces, to your car, your long-maned, ruddy (steeds, to 
come) to the sacrifice; bring hither,divine Ja_tavedas, all the gods, and make 
them propitious to the oblation. 

3.006.07 When, Agni, you abide in the woods, consuming the waters at your 
pleasure, then your rays illuminatethe heavens, and you shine like many former 
radiant dawns; the gods themselves commend (the brilliancy) oftheir praise-
meriting invoker. 

3.006.08 The deities who sport in the spacious (firmament); those who are in the 
luminous sphere of heaven; theadorable Umas, who come when worthily invoked; the 
horses, Agni, that are fit for your car. [The adorableU_mas: u_ma_h = 
u_masan:jmaka_h pitarah santi, the U_mas are the pitara, called U_ma_]. 

3.006.09 With all these in one chariot, Agni, or in many (chariots), come to our 
presence, for your horses areable; bring the three and thirty divinities with 
their wives, for the sake of (the sacrificial) food, and exhilarate them(all 
with the Soma). [The three and thirty divinities with their wives: patni_vatas 
trim.s'atam tri_m.s'ca deva_n: thefirst is, literally, having wives, but 
sometimes considered a proper name]. 

3.006.10 He is the invoker (of the gods), whom the spacious heaven and earth 
glorify, for the sake of increase, atrepeated sacrifices; charged with water, 
they await like holy rites, propitious to the real presence of him who isborn of 

3.006.11 Grant, Agni, to the offerer of the oblation, the earth, the bestower of 
cattle, the means of many (piousrites); such that it may be perpetual; may there 
be to us sons and grandsons born in our race, and may ourgood-will ever be upon 
us. [End of the second as.t.aka].

3.007.01 The (rays) of the blackbacked, all-sustaining (Agni) have arisen, and 
pervaded the parents (earth andheaven) and the flowing rivers; the surrounding 
parents co-operate with him, and bestow long life for the sake ofassiduous 
worship. [s'itipr.s.t.hasya dha_seh: agni is implied; so is ras'mayah, rays; 
dha_si = sarvasyadha_rayita_; sapta va_n.i_h = sarpan.asvabha_va_ nadi_h]. 

3.007.02 The sky-traversing steeds of the showerer (of benefits) are the kine 
(of Agni); as he attains the divine(rivers), bearers of sweet (water). One 
sacred soudn glorifies you (Agni), who are desirous of repose, pacifyingyour 
flames) in the abode of the water (the firmament). [The kind: dhenavah; this is 
considered an adjectiveequivalent to pri_n.ayitryah, propitiators, pleasers]. 

3.007.03 Their lord has mounted on his well-trained mares the sagacious selector 
of treasures, the blackbacked,many-limbed (Agni) has granted them a place of 
rest for the cherishing of (their) rapid speed. [atasasya dha_seh= s'atata 
gamanasya pos.ana_rtham, for the sake of cherishing of the perpetual going]. 

3.007.04 The flowing (rivers) invigorating him, bear along the great son of 
Tvas.t.a_, the undecaying upholder (ofthe world), radiant with various forms in 
the vicinity (of the firmament); Agni is associated with heaven and earth,as (a 
husband with) one only wife. [One only wife: the text has eka_m iva, like one, 
the pronoun being feminine;the additions are: yatha_ puma_n eka_m pravis'ati, as 
a man cohabits with one woman]. 

3.007.05 Men comprehend the service of the uninjurable showerer (of benefits), 
and exult in the commands ofthe mighty (Agni); their frequent and earnest hymns 
of praise, bright and radiant, are illuminating heaven. 

3.007.06 Verily (men) bring great delight to Agni by glorifying aloud the mighty 
parents (heaven and earth), whenthe shedder of rain approximates his own 
radiance to the worshipper, (wherewith) to invest the night. 

3.007.07 Seven sages with five ministering priests attend the station that is 
prepared for the rapid (Agni); theundecaying divine (sages), with their faces to 
the east, sprinkling (the libations), rejoice as they celebrate theworship of 
the gods. [Five ministering priests: adhvaryubhih pan~cabhih sapta vipra_h, this 
excludes theudga_ta_ and his class]. 

3.007.08 I propitiate the two first divine offerers of sacrifices; the seven 
(priests) rejoice with the libation; theillustrious celebrators of holy worship, 
reciting (his) praises, have called Agni the true (object) of every rite. 

3.007.09 Divine invoker of the gods, the vast and widespreading rays shed 
(moisture) for you, the mighty, thevictorius, the wonderful, the showerer (of 
benefits); do you who are all knowing, joy-bestowing, bring hither thegreat 
gods, and heaven and earth. 

3.007.10 Ever-moving (Agni) may the mornings rise for us, abounding with 
oblations, with pious prayers, and withauspicious signs, and conferring wealth; 
and do you with the might of your (diffusive flame), consume all sin onbehalf of 
your respectable (worshipper). 

3.007.11 Grant, Agni, to the offerer of the oblation, the earth, the bestower of 
cattle, the means of many (piousrites), such that it may be perpetual; may there 
be to us sons and grandsons, and may your good-will ever beupon us (productive 
of benefit to us). [This hymn is the refrain of several su_ktas in the preceding 
as.t.aka. Inone instance il.a_ is translated as bhu_mi, earth; here, she is 
called a female divinity in the form of a cow:goru_pa_m devata_m; vija_va_ is 
connected with sumati, good-will; which is explained: avandhya_, may it be 
notbarren, productive].

3.008.01 Vanaspati, the devout anoint you with sacred butter at the sacrifice; 
and whether you stand erect, oryour abode be on the lap of this your mother 
(earth), grant us riches. [Vanaspati = lit. forest lord; here, thereference is 
to the post of wood to which the victim is tied; the hymn is cited in Aitareya 
Bra_hman.a 2.2; cf.Nirukta 8.18]. 

3.008.02 Standing on the east of the kindled (fire), dispensing food (as the 
source) of undecaying (health) andexcellent progeny, keeping off our enemy at a 
distance, stand up for great auspiciousness. 

3.008.03 Be exalted, Vanaspati upon this sacred spot of earth, being measured 
with careful measurement, andbestow food upon the offerer of the sacrifice. 

3.008.04 Well clad and hung with wreaths comes the youthful (pillar); most 
excellent it is as soon as generated;steadfast and wise venerators of the gods, 
meditating piously in thei rminds, raise it up. 

3.008.05 Born (in the forest), and beautified in the sacrifice celebrated by 
men, it is (again) engendered for thesanctification of the days (of sacred 
rites); steadfast, active and intelligent (priests) consecrate it with 
intelligence,and the devout worshipper recites its praise. 

3.008.06 May those (posts) which devout men have cut down, or which, Vanaspati, 
the axe has trimmed, maythey standing resplendent with all their parts (entire) 
bestow upon us wealth with progeny. 

3.008.07 May those posts which have been cut down upon the earth, and which have 
been fabricated by thepriests, those which are the accomplishers of the 
sacrifice, convey our acceptable (offering) to the gods. 

3.008.08 May the leaders of the rite, the divine A_dityas, Rudras, Vasus, Heaven 
and Earth, the Earth, thefirmament, well pleased, protect our sacrifice; let 
them raise aloft the standard of the ceremony. 

3.008.09 Arrayed in bright (garments), entire (in their parts), these pillars 
ranging in rows like swans, have cometo us erected by pious sages on the east( 
of the fire); they proceed resplendent on the path of the gods. 

3.008.10 Entire in all parts and girded with rings, they appear upon the earth 
like the horns of horned cattle;hearing (their praises) by the priests; may they 
protect us in battles. 

3.008.11 Vanaspati, mount upwith a hundred branches, that we may mount with a 
thousand, you whom thesharpened hatchet has brought for great auspiciousness.

 3.009.01 We, your mortal friends have recourse for our protection to you, the 
divine, the grandson of the waters,the auspicious, the resplendent, the 
accessible, the sinless. 

3.009.02 Desirous as you are of the forests since you have repaired to the 
maternal waters, Agni, your tarryingso far away is not to be endured; (in a 
moment) you are here with us. [In a moment you are: Although not yetkindled, yet 
as soon as the attrition of the touchwood takes place Agni appears]. 

3.009.03 You wish exceedingly to convey satisfaction (to your worshippers) and 
are thereto well-disposed; ofthose in whose friendship you are cherished, some 
precede while others sit around. [Some prece: the allusion isto the sixteen 
priests, of whom the adhvaryu and eleven others take an active part in the 
ceremonial while theudga_ta_ and other three are sitting byengaged in the 
recital of the prayers and hymns]. 

3.009.04 The benignant and long-lived deities have discovered you, Agni, when 
required to go against theirconstant and assembled foes, hidden in the waters 
like a lion (in a cave). 

3.009.05 Ma_taris'van therefore brought for the gods from afar, Agni, hiding of 
himself, and generated by attrition,as (a father brings back) a fugitive (son). 
[A fugitive (son): the text has only sasr.va_msam iva, like one going; thefather 
and son are implied; or, the reference may be to master and slave]. 

3.009.06 Bearer of oblations,men apprehend you (thus concealed) for the service 
of the gods, and that youyoungest (of the deities) and friendly to manking, may 
recompense by your acts all their pious rites. 

3.009.07 Auspicious is your worship for it prospers the ignorant (worshipper), 
wherefore animals reverence, youAgni, kindled in the beginning of the night. 
[Animals: pas'avah; bipeds as well as quadrupeds]. 

3.009.08 Offer oblations to the object of holy sacrifice, the brilliant 
purifier, who is dormant (in fuel); worshipquietly the pervader (of the rite), 
the messenger (of the gods), the rapid, the ancient deity who is entitled 

3.009.09 Three thousand three hundred and thirty-nine divinities have worshipped 
Agni; they have sprinkled himwith melted butter; they have spread for him the 
sacred grass; and have seated him upon it as their ministrantpriest. [Yajus. 
33.7; three thousand: Br.hada_ran.yaka (3.9), gives the number as 3333 according 
to the gloss ofA_nandagiri, adding eight Vasus, eleven Rudras, and twelve 
A_dityas, with Indra and Praja_pati].


3.010.01 You, the king of men; Agni, the divine; prudent mortals kindle you at 
the sacrifice. 

3.010.02 They praise you as the priest, the invoker (of the gods) at sacrifice; 
shine forth the protector of thepious rite in your own abode. 

3.010.03 He verily who presents oblations to you, the knower of all things, he 
acquires (Agni) excellent progeny;he prospers. 

3.010.04 May (Agni), the banner (flag) of sacrifices, offering oblations on the 
part of the worshiper through (theministry of) the seven offering priests, come 
hither with the gods. 

3.010.05 Offer to the ministering Agni as if to the Creator (of the world), the 
great praise recited of old, for thesake of animating the energies of the pious 

3.010.06 May ourhymns exalt Agni, so that he may be born more worthy of praise, 
and may become manifest forthe purpose of (bestowing) abundant food and riches. 

3.010.07 Agni, you are to be especially worshipped at the sacrifice; worship the 
gods (on behalf of) the devout(worshiper); you shine the invoker (of the gods) 
the exhilarator (of the pious) overcoming your foes. 

3.010.08 Do you, our purifier, light up for us a brilliant progeny; be ever nigh 
to those who praise you for theirwell-being. 

3.010.09 The wise, intelligent, and vigilant (worshipers) kindle you, such as 
you (have been described), thebearer of oblations, the immortal, generated by 
strength. [Intelligent: vipas'cit vipanyuh (Nirukta 3.15.17);sahovr.dham = 
produced by the strength required for attrition].

3.011.01 Agni, the invoker of the gods, the minister (of the gods), the 
supervisor of the sacrifice, understands thesolemn rite in its due course. 

3.011.02 That Agni, who is the bearer of oblations, the immortal, the desirer 
(of offerings), the messenger (of thegods), and is the receiver of sacrificial 
viands, is associated with understanding. [dhiya_ samr.n.vati, i.e. Agni isfully 
aware of the objects of the ceremony, and a wish is implied that he may 
communicate similar knowledge toits performers, ta_n ta_dr.k prajn~a_nvita_n 
karotu; another interpretation: Yajus. 22.16: through knowledge Agniassociates 
with the gods, for the purpose of conveying the oblations to them]. 

3.011.03 Agni, the ancient banner (flag) of sacrifice, knows (all things) 
through understanding; his radiancetraverses (the darkness). [artham hyasya 
taran.i = his meaning or object is crossing; or, that which crosses; hislight or 
radiance is the end or object of Agni, which passes over or through, darkness 

3.011.04 The gods have made Agni, who is the son of strength, the eternally-
renowned, the knower of all that isborn, the bearer (of oblations). 

3.011.05 Agni, the preceder of human beings, (ever) alert, the vehicle of their 
offerings, is ever new, isunsusceptible of harm. [vis'am ma_nus.i_n.a_m = men 
the descendants of Manu, manor ja_ta_na_m]. 

3.011.06 Agni, the most liberal contributor of food, is able to resist all 
assailants unharmed, the nourisher of thegods. 

3.011.07 From Agni of purifying radiance the mortal presenter (of offerings) 
obtains by his conveyance (of themto the gods) abundant viands and a dwelling. 

3.011.08 May we, endowed with intelligence, obtain all good things by our 
praises of Agni, to whom all is known. 

3.011.09 May we obtain, Agni, all precious things (as booty) in battles, since 
the gods are concentrated in you.

3.012.01 Indra and Agni, come to this acceptable libation, (brought) by our 
praises from heaven, and induced by(our) devotion to drink of it. [Yajus. 7.31; 
gi_rbhir nabho varen.yam: sambhajani_yam somam pratiasmadi_ya_bhih 
stutiru_pa_bhir, va_gbhir, ahu_tau: nabho, nabhasah svargastha_na_d a_gatam = 
called by ourpraises, come you two from the place of svarga to this enjoyable 
Soma; another interpretation for nabha =a_ditya; come to the Soma which is like 
the desirable sun; or, those dwelling in heaven, nabhahsthah the gods:come to 
the Soma that is sought for by the gods]. 

3.012.02 Indra and Agni, the conscious sacrifice associated with the worshipper 
proceeds to you; (summoned) bythis (invocation) drink the libation. [jarituh 
saca_ yajn~o jiga_ti cetanah: yajn~a and cetana are both applied toSoma, as the 
material of the sacrifice, yajn~a-sa_dhanam, and the animator or giver of 
consciousness to theorgans of perception, indriya_n.a_ cetayita_, and the 
cooperator with the worshipper in obtaining heaven or otherbenefits-- jarituh 
saca_ svarga_diphalapra_ptau saha_yabhu_tah]. 

3.012.03 Urged by the energy of the sacrifice, I have recourse to Indra and 
Agni, the protectors of the pious; maythey be satiated with the Soma here 

3.012.04 I invoke Indra and Agni, the discomfiters of foes, the destroyers of 
Vr.tra, the victorious, the invincible,the bestowers of most abundant food. 

3.012.05 The reciters of prayers, the repeaters of praise, who are skilled in 
sacred song, worship you both; Ihave recourse to Indra and Agni for food. 

3.012.06 Indra and Agni, with one united effort you over-threw ninety cities 
ruled over by (your) foes. [da_sapatnih purah, cities of which da_sas were the 

3.012.07 Indra and Agni the pious ministers, are present at our holy rite, 
according to the wave of worship. 

3.012.08 Indra and Agni, in you, vigour and food are abiding together, and 
therefore in you is deposited thedispensing of water. 

3.012.09 Indra and Agni, illuminators of heaven, be ever graced (with victory) 
in battles, for such your prowessproclaims. [All the hymns of this Su_kta are 
found in the Sa_maveda].

3.013.01 (Priests) utter devout (praises) to this your divine Agni, that so 
glorified he may come to us with gods,and sit down on the sacrificial grass. 

3.013.02 The observer of truth, of whom (are) heaven and earth, and whose vigour 
the protecting (deities) assist;him, the offerers of oblations adore, and those 
desirous of riches (have recourse) to him for protection. 

3.013.03 He, the sage, is the director of those (who sacrifice), he is (the 
regulator) of sacrifices; worship him you(benefactor), the donor, who is the 
bestower of wealth. [magham rekan.ah (Nirukta 2.10.1) = mahani_yamdhanam]. 

3.013.04 May that Agni bestow upon us prosperous dwellings for our maintenance, 
so that from him infinitewealth, whether it may be in heaven or from earth, or 
in the waters (may come to us). 

3.013.05 The devout kindle (the fire) with his wealth-obtaining rites, (to 
worship) the radiant, unpreceded Agni,the invoker (of the gods), the protector 
of men. 

3.013.06 Perfect our prayer, invoker of the gods, as well as our hymns; Agni, 
who increases with the winds andthe giver of thousands, augment our felicity. 

3.013.07 Grant us indeed, Agni, wealth (that may be counted) by thousands, and 
comprising offspring,nourishment, brilliant treasure, and vigour, and be 
infinite and inexhaustible. [pus.t.imat :  cattle from whose milkand the like, 
support is derived; dyumat = precious metals and jewels].

3.014.01 The invoker (of the gods), the exhilarator (of his worshippers), the 
true, the offerer of sacrifice, the mostwise, the creator, is present at our 
sacred rites. Agni, the son of strength, whose chariot is the lightning, 
whosehair is flame, manifests his glory on the earth. 

3.014.02 I utter to you the words of adoration, be pleased by them observer of 
truth; endowed with strength,(they are addressed) to you who are the expounder 
(of sacred rites); wise (as you are), bring (hither) the wise;object of 
sacrifice, sit down in the midst upon the sacred grass for our protection. 

3.014.03 May the good-bestowing day and night hasten to you while you, Agni meet 
them on the paths of thewind; since (the priests) ever worship you preceding 
(them) with oblations, whilst they (united) like the pole (andthe yoke of a 
wagon), abide successively in our dwelling. [Preceding: pu_rvyam = sa_yam 
pra_tah ka_layohpu_rvyam, i.e., Agni is worshipped at dawn before the day, and 
in the evening before night]. 

3.014.04 Vigorous Agni, you Mitra and Varun.a, and all the Maruts, offer praise; 
since, son of strength, you standa sun, shedding your rays with lustre on 
manking. [You stand a son: tis.t.a_h su_rya: su, good; arya, master; oras, 
urger, impeller, preraka, or vigour, energy, vi_rya]. 

3.014.05 With uplifted hands, approaching you with reverence we present you 
today our oblation do you who arewise, worship the gods with most devout mind 
and with unwearied praise. [Yajus. 18.75: with uplifted hands:utta-anahastah; 
also means, with open hands, not niggardly; oblation: ka_mam = oblation, 
purod.a_s'a_dihavis,as that which is desirable to the gods, kamani_yam]. 

3.014.06 From you, verily, son of strength, many and various benefactions and 
various kinds of food devolveupon the devout (worshipper) do you grant us, Agni, 
infinite wealth, and (a son) observant of truth, with speechdevoid of guile. 

3.014.07 Divine (Agni), mighty and omniscient, these (are the offerings) which 
we mortals present to you in thesacrifice; do you be cognizant of every 
respectable worshipper, and partake, immortal of all (his offerings) on 
thisoccasion. [Be cognizant: vis'vasya surathasya bodhi: know that I am his 
protector, gopa_yita_ bhava_mi itibudhyasva; suratha = lit., one who has a good 
chariot, s'obhanaya_nopetasya].

3.015.01 Radiant with great glory, repel the hostile ra_ks.asas and pis'a_cas; 
may I be in (the enjoyment) of thefavour of the great (Agni), the giver of 
prosperity, and in the service of (him who is) easily invoked. [Yajus. 
2.49;dvis.o raks.aso ami_va_h: ami_va_ is either an epithet of the ra_ks.asas, 
free from sickness, vigorous, strong; or,it may be a synonym of pis'a_cika, as 
hovering about the sacrifice in order to interrupt it; ami_va_ may meankeep off 
diseases (vya_dhi), vya_dham.s'ca badhasva]. 

3.015.02 Consider yourself our protector at the breaking of the dawn today and 
when the sun has risen; Agni,who is engendered with (embodied) form, be pleased 
with my constant praise, as a father (is pleased with) hisson. [When the sun has 
risen: some perform the worship of fire before the sun-rise, some after the sun 
has risen;with (embodied) form: tanva_ suja_tah, well-born with a body, i.e. 
with flames; or, it may mean self-born,svayambhu; as a father: janmeva tanayam, 
yatha_ pita_ putram sevate, janma, being put for janaka]. 

3.015.03 Showerer (of benefits),beholder of men, radiant amid darkness, shine, 
Agni, with abundant (rays) in dueorder; granter of dwellings, conduct us (to 
good), keep off all ill, and youngest (of all the gods), gratify our desiresfor 

3.015.04 Agni, who is irresistible and the showerer (of benefits), consume 
victorious all the cities (of the foe) and(all their) precious things; do you, 
the duly worshipped, the knower of all that is born, (be for us) the conductor 
ofthe first great preserving sacrifice. [The first great preserving sacrifice: 
of the jyotis.t.oma which is the first andthe most important of sacrifices]. 

3.015.05 Destroyer (of the world), do you who is endowed with intelligence and 
radiance celebrate manyfaultless sacred rites in honour of the gods, and 
restraining (your impatience), convey to them like a wagon our(sacrificial) 
food; illume (with your rays) the beautiful heaven and earth. 

3.015.06 Be propitious, showerer (of benefits); grant (abundant) food, Agni; 
(make) heaven and earth yield usmilk; divine (Agni), associated with the gods, 
shining with bright radiance, let not the ill-will of any mortal prevailagainst 

3.015.07 Grant, Agni, to the offerer of the oblation, earth the giver of cattle 
the means of many sacred rites, suchthat it may long endure; may there be to us 
sons and grandsons, and may your favour, Agni, be productive ofgood to us.

3.016.01 This Agni, is the lord of heroism and of great good fortune; he is the 
lord of wealth comprising progenyand cattle; he is the lord of the slayers of 
Vr.tra; [vr.trahatha_na_m i_s'e: vr.tra may imply an enemy, or iniquity;tvayi 
samarpita karma_n.a_m asma_kam tvat prasa_da_t pa_paks.ayo bhavati, through your 
favour is thedestruction of the sins of us whose good works have been delivered 
to you]. 

3.016.02 Maruts, leaders (of rites), associate with this augmenter (of our 
prosperity), in whom (abide) richescontributing to felicity, you who (are 
victorious) over (your) enemies in battle, who daily humble (your) foes. 

3.016.03 Do you, opulent Agni, showerer (of benefits), prosper us with riches 
comprising vigour, numerousprogeny health, and happiness. 

3.016.04 He who is the maker pevades all worlds; he the enduring maker (of all) 
bears our offerings to the gods;he is present with the devout (worshippers) and 
amidst th eheroism and the devotions of men. 

3.016.05 Consign us not, Agni to malignity; (doom) us not to the absence of 
posterity; nor, son of strength, to thewant of cattle, nor to reproach; drive 
away (all) animosities. 

3.016.06 Auspicious Agni, bestow (upon us) at the rite, food (the source of) 
happiness and renown. [Happiness:maya iti sukhana_ya 's'evr.dhammayah' (Nirukta 

3.017.01 The righteous (Agni) when first kindled on the several (altars) the 
object of adoration by all, whose hairis flame, and who is cleansed with butter, 
the purifier, the worthy-worshipped, is sprinkled with oblations for theworship 
of the gods. [The righteous Agni: prathama_nudharma_: dharma is a synonym of 
agni; or, theconstruction may be anudharma, according to law or religion]. 

3.017.02 As you did offer the burnt-offering, Agni, (on behalf of) earth; as 
you, Ja_tavedas, who are cognizant (ofsacred rites, did offer sacrifice on 
behalf) of heaven; so with this oblation worship the gods, and perfect this 
ritetoday (as you did) that of Manu. 

3.017.03 Three are your existences Ja_tavedas; three, Agni, are your parent 
dawns; with them offer the oblationof the gods, the knowing (his wishes) be the 
bestower of happiness on the institutor of the sacrifice. [Threeexistences: 
tri_n.ya_yum.si, three lives, as supported by butter, by fuel and the Soma; 
parent dawns: tisraagni_rus.asah: a_ja_ni_ may mean sisters, or mothers; the 
dawns personified as the parents or sisters of Agni,as prior or subsequent to 
the lighting of the sacrificial fire in the early morning; 'three' may relate to 
three diurnalfires; as sisters, separate offices are assigned to them: praja_m 
eka_ raks.aty u_rjam eka_, ra_s.t.ram eka_raks.ati, one preserves the people, 
one vigour, one the kingdom]. 

3.017.04 Ja_tavedas, we venerate you, glorifying the brilliant, beautiful, 
adorable Agni; the gods have made youtheir messenger, the disinterested bearer 
of oblations, the centre of ambrosia. 

3.017.05 He is the most diligent offerer of worship who is the presenter of 
oblations before you are and who intwo places (the middling and the best) seated 
with the sacrificial food is (the source of) happiness (to theworshippers); do 
you cognizant (of the objects of devotion), officiate in accordance with his 
piety, and thus renderour rite acceptable to the gods.

3.018.01 Be favourably disposed Agni, on approaching us (at this rite); be the 
fulfiller (of our objects) like a friend(to a friend) or parents (to a child); 
since men are the grievous oppressors of men, do you consume the foes whocome 
against us. 

3.018.02 Vex thoroughly, Agni, our assailing enemies, disappoint the purpose of 
the adversary who offers notworship; giver of dwellings, who are cognizant (of 
sacred rites), vex those who have no thought (of pious acts) sothat your 
undecaying, all-pervading (rays), may ever abide. 

3.018.03 Desirous (of wealth) I offer to you Agni, an oblation with butter and 
with fuel for your speed andinvigoration, praising you with a holy prayer as 
much as I am able; I propitiate you that you may render this praiseresplendent 
with infinite treasure. 

3.018.04 Rise up, son of strength, with your splendour when hymned, and bestow 
abundant food and wealth,Agni, upon the descendants of Vis'va_mitra celebrating 
your praise; and grant them exemption from sickness anddanger; encourager of 
pious works (Agni), we repeatedly sprinkle your substance (with milk and 
butter). [Uponthe descendants of Vis'va_mitra: vis'va_mitres.u, on the 
Vis'va_mitras, or the plural may be used honorifically inthe sense of the 

3.018.05 Liberal donor (of riches) bestow upon us the most precious of 
treasures, for therefore is it, Agni, thatyou are kindled; you have aims 
promptly stretched forth, whose (radiant) forms (bestow) wealth on the 
dwellingof your fortunate adorer.

3.019.01 I have recourse in this sacrifice to Agni, the invoker and praiser (of 
the gods), theintelligent, theall-knowing the unbeguiled; may he, the adorable, 
sacrificer for us to the gods, (and) accept the precious(offerings) we make for 
food and riches. 

3.019.02 Reverencing the gods, I place before you Agni, the brilliant oblation-
yielding, food-bestowing,butter-charged (offering); may you (propitiated) by the 
present wealth, sanctify (this) sacrifice by yourcircumambulation. 

3.019.03 He who isprotected, Agni, by you, becomes endowed with a most luminous 
mind; bestow upon himexcellent progeny; may we ever be under the power of you 
who is the willing dispenser of riches; glorifying you(may we be) the 
receptacles of wealth. 

3.019.04 The ministering priests have concentrated in you Agni, who are divine, 
many hosts (of flames); do youbring hither the gods, youngest (of the deities), 
that you may worship today the divine effulgence. 

3.019.05 Inasmuch as the attendant divine (priests) anoint you as the invoker of 
the gods to offer worship in thesacrifice, therefore do you assent to be our 
protector on this occasion, and grant abundant food to ourdescendants.

3.020.01 The bearer (of the oblation) invokes with praises at the break of day, 
Agni, the dawn, the As'vins, andDadhikra); may the resplendent divinities, 
desirous of our sacrifice, hear in unison (the invocation). [Dadhikra_ 
=ordinarily means a horse; here, it  implies a divinity: dadhikra_va na_ma 
kas'cidevah tam dadhika_van.am]. 

3.020.02 Agni, born of sacrifice, three are your viands; three your abiding 
places, three the tongue satisfying(thegods); three verily are your forms 
acceptable to the deities, and with them never heedless (of our 
wishes),bepropitious to our praises. [Three viands: butter, fuel and the Soma; 
three abiding places: three altars, or thethree daily sacrifices, or the three 
worlds; three tongues: three fires, ga_rhapatya, a_havani_ya and 
daks.in.a_;three forms: three fires termed pa_vaka, pavama_na and s'uci]. 

3.020.03 Divine Agni, knowing all that exists and distributor of food, many are 
the names of you who are immortalsatisffier of all men, friend of the suppliant, 
the gods have deposited in you whatever are the delusions of thedeluding 
(ra_ks.asas). [Many are the names of you: bhu_ri_n.i na_ma, for na_ma_ni; the 
substantive is explainedby teja_m.si, splendours; the gods have deposited: 
therefore agni is able to counteract their devices fordisturbing sacrifices. 

3.020.04 The divine Agni is the guide of devout men, as the sun is the regulator 
of the seasons; may he, theobserver of truth, the slayer of Vr.tra, the ancient, 
the omniscient convey his adorer (safe) over all difficulties. 

3.020.05 I invoke to this rite, Dadhikra_, Agni, the divine Us.as, Br.haspati, 
the divine Savita_, the As'vins, Mitraand Varun.a, Bhaga, the Vasus, the Rudras, 
and A_dityas.

3.021.01 Convey our sacrifice, Ja_tavedas, to the immortals and do you accept 
these oblations; Agni, invoker (ofthe gods) seated (on the altar) first partake 
of the drops of the marrow and of the butter. [Stoka_h = any smallportion; 
further explained as bindavah, drops; the hymn is proper to animal sacrifices, 

3.021.02 The drops of the marrow charged with butter fall, purifier, to you, at 
your own rite, for the food of thegods; therefore grant us excellent affluence. 

3.021.03 The drops (of the marrow) dripping with butter are offered, Agni, to 
you who are wise; you the mostexcellent are kindled; be the protector of the 

3.021.04 Irrepressible and powerful, Agni, the drops of marrow and of butter 
distil for you; therefore you, who arepraised by sages, come with great 
splendour, and be pleased ever intelligent Agni, with our oblations. 

3.021.05 We present to you the densest marrow that has been extracted for you 
from the interior (of the victim);grant of dwellings, the drops fall for you 
upon the skin; distribute them amongst the gods. [ojis.t.ham te madhyatomeda 
udbhr.tam: the meda or vapa_ is described as the fatty matter that lubricates 
the abdomen like coagulatedbutter].

3.022.01 This is that Agni in whom Indra, desirous (of the oblation), placed the 
effused Soma for (his own) belly;you are praised by us, Ja_tavedas, enjoying the 
sacrificial food of many sorts like a rapid courser (enjoying manypleasures in 
battle). [pan~cacitiru_pa_ agnayo devata_: each hymn is separately recited as 
the adhvaryuconstructs a pit or an altar, is.t.aka_, for collecting cayana or 
citi a sacrificial fire; cf. Yajus. 12.47.51; placed:dadhe jat.hare svodare 
d_dha_ra: one verb is also applied to yasmin, the fire in which the Soma was 
placed;sahasrin.am va_jam atyam na saptim sasava_n = enjoying a thousandfold 
food like a quick-going horse; i.e. likea horse that enjoys various properties 
in battle, sahasram na_na_ru_pata_m yuddhe yo bhajati sa sahasri tamas'vamiva; 
another interpretation: sahasrin.am is related to somam, worthy or fit for a 
thousand libations, somamsahara_rham; atyam and saptim to va_jam food, 
exhilarating, modakaram, and satisfying tr.ptikaram na, meaning'now' samprati]. 

3.022.02 Adorable Agni, your radiance that is in the heaven, on the earth, in 
the plants, in the waters andwherewith you overspread the firmament, that is 
shining and resplendent, overlooking man (vast as) the ocean.[In the heaven: 
Agni, severally, as the sun, as sacrificial fire, as the fire that is 
illuminated by attrition from wood,as submarine fire and as wind; overlooking 
man (vast as) the ocean: tves.a sa bha_nur arn.avo nr.caks.ah =di_ptima_n eva 
bha_samano nr.n.a_m dras.t.a_ samudravan maha_n, shining ocean (sa 
bha_nurarn.avonr.caks.a_ iti maha_ntsa (S'atapatha Bra_hman.a 7.1.23); another 
explanation: arn.avah = arn.a_nsi, udaka_niyatra santi, the place where the 
waters are: after this verse the priest adds, idr.s'o yaste bha_nus, 
tameves.t.aka_ru_pam upadadha_mi, such being your lustre, I place it in the form 
of the is.t.ka_]. 

3.022.03 You move, Agni, to the vapour in heaven; you congregate the divinities 
who are the vital airs (of thebody); you animate the waters in the bright region 
above the sun, as well as those that are in the firmamentbeneath. [Vapour in 
heaven: i.e. in the form of smoke; congregate the divinities: deva_n u_cis.e 
dhis.n.ya_ ye:dhis.n.a = pra_n.ya; or, the deva_s presiding over the vital airs, 
pra_n.a_bhima_nino deva_h; u_cis.e =samaveta_n karos.i; the bright region above 
the sun: rocane parasta_t su_ryasya: rocana = loka or region wherethe fiery 
radiance burns, rocano na_ma_yam loko yatra a_gneyam jyotis. tapati_, above the 

3.022.04 May the benignant fires termed puris.ya_s, together with the 
instruments (that have dug the pits inwhich they are placed) combined, accept 
the sacrifice (and grant us) salutary and abundant food. 
[pur_is.yas:puri_s.ya_so agnayah = sikata_ sammis.ra_h, mixed with sand; 
puri_s.am is a synonym of water and also thatwhich pleases or fills : puri_s.am 
pr.na_teh pu_rayaterva_ (Nirukta 2.22); with the instruments: pra_vanebhih 
=mr.tkhananasa_dhanabhu_tair abhrya_dibhih: abhrya and others, which are the 
implements for digging theearth]. 

3.022.05 Grant, Agni, to the offerer of the oblation earth the giver of cattle, 
the means of many sacred ries, suchthat it may long endure; may there be to us 
sons and grandsons, and may your favour, Agni, be productive ofgood to us.

3.023.01 Churned (by the friction of the sticks), duly placed in the sacrificial 
chamber, the young and sage leaderof the rite, Ja_tavedas, the imperishable 
Agni, (blazing) amidst consuming forests, grants us on this occasionambrosial 

3.023.02 The two sons of Bharata, Devas'ravas and Devava_ta, have churned the 
very powerful andwealth-bestowing Agni; look upon us, Agni, with vast riches, 
and be the bringer of food (to us) every day. 

3.023.03 The ten fingers have generated this ancient (Agni); praise, 
Devas'ravas, this well-born, beloved (son) ofhis parents, generated by 
Devava_ta, Agni, who is the servant of men. [His parents: the two pieces of 
stick thathave been rubbed together by Devava_ta]. 

3.023.04 I place you in an excellent spot of earth on an auspicious day of days; 
do you, Agni, shine on thefrequent (banks) of the Dr.s.advati, A_paya_ and 
Sarasvati_ rivers. [In an excellent spot of earth: pr.thivya_il.a_yaspade, in 
the footmark of the earth in the form of a cow; i.e. on the northern altar; 
frequented banks:ma_nus.e, relating to man or to Manu; implies, 
manus.yasam.caran.avis.aye ti_re, on a bank, a place frequentedby men; the 
Dr.s.advati_ and Sarasvati_ rivers are well known (r.s.ayo vai sarasvatya_m 
satrama_sata : AitareyaBra_hman.a 2.19)]. 

3.023.05 Grant, Agni, to the offerer of the oblation earth the giver of cattle, 
the means of many sacred rites, suchthat it may long endure; may there be to us 
sons and grandsons, and may your favour, Agni, be productive ofgood to us.

3.024.01 Repel, Agni, (hostile) hosts; drive away (all) assailants; insuperable, 
foe-surpassing, give food to theinstitutor of this sacrifice. [Yajurveda 9.37]. 

3.024.02 Agni (who is) immortal and who is gratified by oblations, you are 
kindled upon the altar; be pleased bythis our sacrifice. 

3.024.03 Agni, son of strength, vigilant (in the exercise of) your energy, take 
your seat when invoked on thesacred grass (strewn at) my (sacrifice). [Vigilant: 
dyumnena ja_gr.ve = svatejasa_ sarvada_ ja_garan.opeta(ja_gr.vir ja_garan.a_t: 
Nirukta 9.8), always endowed with his vigilance by own lustre or energy,loka-
raks.a_rtham, for the preservation of the world]. 

3.024.04 Agni, with all the divine fires, respect the praises of those who in 
(their) sacrifices are (your especial)worshippers. 

3.024.05 Grant, Agni, ample wealth and progeny to the donor (of the oblation); 
make us prosperous, possessedof offspring.

3.025.01 Agni, who is omniscient, and the discriminator (of acts), you are the 
son of heaven or the son of earth;do you who is intelligent worship severally 
the gods on this occasion. 

3.025.02 The wise Agni bestows faculties (securing prosperity and descendants); 
adorning (the world with lustre)he gives (sacrificial food) to the immortals; 
Agni, (to whom) many oblations (are offered), bring hither to us thegods. 

3.025.03 Agni, the unbewildered, the ruler (of the world), the radiant, 
associated with vigour and food, illuminesthe divine immortal parents of all 
things, heaven and earth. 

3.025.04 Agni, do you and Indra, gods disdaining not (our rite), come to the 
sacrifice in the dwelling of the offererof the libation to drink the Soma. 

3.025.05 Agni, son of strength, Ja_tavedas the eternal traversing the inhabited 
regions with your protection, youare kindled in the dwelling of the waters. [You 
are kindled in the dwelling of the waters: i.e. as lightning in thefirmament].

3.026.01 We of the race of Kus'ika offering oblations, desirous of wealth, 
having contemplated him in our minds,invoke with praises the divine 
Vais'va_nara, the observer of truth, the cognizant of heaven, the bountiful, 
thecharioteer, the frequenter (of sacrifices). [Observer of truth: anusatya_: 
from anu and satya; the notion is not thatof observing truth in the abstract, 
but of keeping faith with the sacrificer, by giving him the desired recompense 
towhich he is justly entitled]. 

3.026.02 We invoke you for our own protection and for the devotions of mankind, 
the radiant Agni, Vais'va_nara,the illuminator of the firmament, the adorable 
lord of sacred rites, the wise, the hearer (of supplications), theguest (of 
man), the quick-moving. [The adorable lord of sacred rites: br.haspati, 
explained here: br.hatoyajn~asya patim, the lord of the great sacrifice, 
tatpa_lakataya_ sva_minam, lord through protecting it]. 

3.026.03 Vais'va_nara is kindled in every age by the Kus'ikas as a neighing foal 
(is nourished) by its mother; maythat Agni, vigilant among the immortals, give 
us wealth with excellent offspring and good horses. 

3.026.04 May the swift fires combined with the vigorous winds proceed to the 
pure (region of the water), unitingthe drops (of rain); the Maruts irresistible, 
all-knowing, agitate the copious-shedding clouds. 

3.026.05 The fire-beautified, all-agitating Maruts; we seek their fierce 
radiance for protection; they, the sons ofRudra, the bountiful Maruts, whose 
form is the rain, are loudlike roaring lions. 

3.026.06 We solicit the might of the Maruts, the irradiation of Agni with solemn 
prayers in every assembly andcompany (of worshippers); those Maruts who ahve 
partly-coloured steeds, who are dispensers of unfailingwealth, firm (of 
purpose), and frequenters of sacrifices. 

3.026.07 I, Agni, am by birth endowed with knowledge of all that exists; 
clarified butter is my eye; ambrosia is mymouth; I am the living breath of 
threefold nature, the measure of the firmament, eternal warmth; I am also 
theoblation. [Yajus. 18.66; I, Agni, am by birth: agni asmi janmana_ ja_taveda_; 
clarified butter is my eye: a mysticaldescription of the universality of Agni in 
the double capacity of the enjoyer and enjoyed, the food and the feeder,and in 
the three forms of fire, air, and the sun, presiding over earth, mid-heaven, and 
heaven; the eye of Agni isthe light of all, which light is fed by oblations of 
butter; ambrosia is the reward of pious acts or enjoyment ofheaven and the like, 
which is procurable through oblations to fire, as if through his mouth or 
countenance,amr.tam me a_san; arkastridha_tu_: arka = jagatsras.t.a_ pra_n.ah, 
world-creating vital air, which, becomingthreefold is va_yu, in the firmament, 
agni, on earth and a_ditya as the source of eternal warmth and life. 
(AitareyaBra_hman.a 10.6.5). Another interpretation: as the eye lights up the 
world, so ghi_ thrown upon the fire causes itot burn fiercer and dispense more 
light; amr.ta = prabha_, light, light is in my countenance; tridha_t = the 
threevital airs termed pra_n.a, apa_na and vya_na; the identity with the air and 
the sun is similarly explained. Yetanother interpretation: It is the yajama_na 
who identifies himself with Agni, saying, I am by birth, Agni, or of thisform of 
Agni, Agni-ru_pa, the lord of all that is born, the sacrifice (arka), the three 
vedas, the measure of thewater, the eternal sun; ghi_ is the eye; i.e., I behold 
the offerer of ghi_ on the fire; I convert the oblation that is putinto my mouth 
into ambrosia; thus there is no duality between Agni and the 

3.026.08 Agni, thoroughly comprehending the light that is to be understod by the 
heart, has purified himself (bythe three) purifying (forms); he has made himself 
most excellent treasure by (these) self-manifestations, and hasthence 
contemplated heaven and earth. [Having by self-contemplation recognized his 
identity with the threemanifestations, Agni, Va_yu and A_ditya, he comes to know 
his identity with the universe, as by the text, a_tmanivijn~a_te sarvam idam 
vijn~a_tam bhavati, the self being known, all this (universe) is known]. 

3.026.09 Heaven and earth be kind to that stage who is as it were a many-
cahnneled and inexhaustible stream(of knowledge); the parent (of his disciples), 
the collater of holy texts, rejoicing on the lap of his parents,, whosewords are 
truth. [That sage: That is, Vis'va_mitra himself; in consequence of his 
discovery that vais'va_nara ispara-brahma the supreme spirit; perhaps, this hymn 
may be ascribed to Brahma].

3.027.01 The months, the half months, (the gods) who are the receivers of 
oblations, with the butter-yieldingkine, preside over your rite; the sacrificer, 
desirous of prosperity, worships the gods. [The months: pra vo va_ja_abhidyavo 
havis.manto ghr.ta_cya_: va_ja_ = ma_sa_h, months; abhi_dyavah = arddha ma_sa_h, 
half months;havis.manta = having the havis. or oblation of butter; an epithet of 
deva_h, gods (Taittiri_ya Samhita_;also explaiend by pas'vah, animals 
yielding milk, of which havis. ismade; ghr.ta_ci = gau; another meaning is,sruk, 
a ladle; pra implies prabhavanti, all these preside over your sacrificing]. 

3.027.02 I worship with praise the wise Agni, the accomplisher of sacrifice, the 
possessor of happiness, therepository of wealth. 

3.027.03 May we offering oblations effect the detention of you is divine (until 
the completion of the rite), and maywe (thereby) overcome all animosities. 
[Animosities: dves.a_m.si, hatreds; added, pa_pa_ni, sins]. 

3.027.04 We solicit that Agni, who is being kindled at the sacrifice, the 
purifier, the adorable, whose hair is flame. 

3.027.05 Agni, the bright-shining, the immortal, the cleanser with clarified 
butter, the fitly-involved, the bearer ofthe oblation in the sacrifice. 

3.027.06 The exorcisers (of the demons), lifting up their ladles, and offering 
sacrifice, have called upon Agni bythis ceremony for their protection. [The 
exorcisers: saba_dhah, repelling; the disturbers of sacred rites byrepeating the 
mantras or charm for their destruction, raks.oghna mantrocca_ran.ena 

3.027.07 The offerer of the oblation, the divine, immortal, Agni, comes first 
(at the ceremony) directingsolemnities by his experiences. [By his experiences: 
ma_yaya_, usually illusion or guile; explained here askarmavis.ayajn~a_nam, 
knowledge of the objects of sacred rites]. 

3.027.08 The mighty Agni is placed (foremost by the gods) in battle; he is 
brought forward reverently at holy rites;for he is the sage fulfiller of the 

3.027.09 He who has been made by the sacred rite, the choice (of the 
worshipper), who comprehends (withinhimself) the germ of all creatures, and whom 
the daughter of Daks.a (receives) as the parent of the world.[daks.asya pitaram 
tana_ = daks.asya praja_pater tanaya_, the daughter of the Praja_pati Daks.a; 
i,e, the earth,here identified with the altar, vediru_pa; she sustains, 
dha_rayati, understood, him, Agni, the protector or fatherof the world, sarvasya 
jagatah pa_lakam dha_rayati]. 

3.027.10 Agni, strength-engendered, Il.a_ (the daughter) of Daks.a has sustained 
you, the desirable, theresplendent, and longing (for the oblation). [Il.a_ = 
earth or the altar]. 

3.027.11 The wise (priests) performers (of the ceremony) kindle with oblations 
for the due celebration of the rite,Agni, the regulator (of all), the sender of 
the rain. 

3.027.12 I adore at this sacrifice Agni the grandson of (sacrificial) food, 
shining above in the firmament, thecreation of the wise. [Grandson of food: 
u_rjo napa_tam or the son of the oblation, as blazing when fed by butterand the 
like; or the descent may be differently accounted for, from the oblation 
proceed: A_ditya, and fromA_ditya, Agni; the creation of the wise: kavikratum of 
whom, kavayah, the wise, that is the adhvaryu and the rest,are the makers, 
karta_rah, by their rubbing the sticks to evolve flame]. 

3.027.13 Agni, who is to be worshipped with praise and with prostration, the 
dispeller of darkness, the beautiful,the showerer (of benefits) is kindled. 

3.027.14 The offerers of oblations glorify that Agni who is the showerer (of 
benefits) and is the bearer of theofferings to the gods as a horse (bears his 
rider to his home). 

3.027.15 Showerer (of benefits) we profusely offering (oblations) kindle you 
mighty and resplendent Agni, who isthe sender of showers. [The sender of 
showers: Manu III.76: (on the property of Agni), the offering that issacrificed 
with fire proceeds entirely to the sun, from the sun generated rain, and from 
rain food; from thencemankind].

3.028.01 Agni, by whom all is known, who rewards pious acts with wealth, accept 
our cakes offered with butter atthe morning worships. 

3.028.02 The cakes and butter are dressed, Agni, and verily prepared for you; 
accept them youngest (of thegods). 

3.028.03 Eat, Agni, the cakes and butter offered as the day disappears; you, son 
of strength, are stationed (byus) at the sacrifice. 

3.028.04 Wise Ja_tavedas accept the cakes and butter offered in this sacrifice 
at the mid-day rite; prudent(worshippers), withhold not at solemn ceremonies the 
portion of you who are mighty. 

3.028.05 Be pleased, Agni, son of strength, with the cakes and butter offered at 
the third (daily sacrifice), and doyou (propitiated) by praise convey the 
precious imperishable and awakening (oblation) to the immortal gods.[Awakening 
oblation: ja_gr.vim; the Soma is offered at dawn is termed ja_gr.vi, the sleep-
dispelling,svapnaniva_rakah; but, the reference here is to the third or evening 

3.028.06 Agni who is Ja_tavedas and is thriving upon oblations accept the cakes 
the butter as the daydisappears.

3.029.01 This, the apparatus of attrition is ready; the generation (of the 
flame) is ready; take up this (stick) theprotectress of mankind, and let us 
churn the fire as has been done of old. [The apparatus of attrition is 
ready:asti_dam adhimanthanam = asti prajananam kr.tam: adhimanthana is the 
stick, the string and the like placedupon the two pieces of wood to assist in 
their attrition; prajananam = begetting; may also connote a tuft of drygrass 
used to catch and carry the flame]. 

3.029.02 Ja_tavedas has been deposited in the two sticks as the embryo is 
deposited in pregnant women; Agniis to be adored day by day by vigilant men 
laden with oblations. 

3.029.03 Let the intelligent priest place the lower of the sticks with the face 
upwards, the upper (with the surface)downwards, so that quickly impregnated it 
may generate the showerer (of benefits) Agni; then the bright blazingson of 
Il.a_ whose light dissipates the darkness is born of the wood of attrition. [Son 
of il.a_: the fire of the altar]. 

3.029.04 Agni who is Ja_tavedas, we place you upon the earth in the centre, in 
the place of Il.a_, for the purposeof receiving the oblation. [Yajus. 34.14-15; 
in the place of il.a_: il.a_ya_spade na_bha_ pr.thivya_h adhi, i.e. inthe middle 
of the northern altar; the hymn is also cited in Aitareya Bra_hman.a 1.5]. 

3.029.05 Conductors of the rite, produce by attrition the far-seeing, single-
minded, intelligent, immortal,radiant-limbed Agni; generate him, leaders (of the 
solemnity), in the first place the chief standard of the sacrifice,who is the 
source of felicity. 

3.029.06 When they rub (the sticks) with their arms the radiant Agni bursts 
forth from the wood like a fleetcourser, and like the many-coloured car of the 
As'vins unresisted in its course, Agni spreads wide aroundconsuming stones and 

3.029.07 As soon as born Agni, shines intelligent, swift-moving, skilled in 
rites, praised by the wise, and liberal ingifts; (and it is he) whom the gods 
have held as the bearer of oblations at sacrifices, adorable and all-knowing. 

3.029.08 Offerer of oblations sit down in your own sphere, for you are cognizant 
(of holy acts), and station theinstitutor of the ceremony in the chief place of 
the sacred rite; cherisher of the gods, worship the gods, Agni, andbestow 
abundant food on the founder of the sacrifice. [Yajus. 11.35; in your own 
sphere: sva u loke:uttaravedya_h na_bhau, on the centre of the north altar; or, 
alternatively, sukr.ta yonih = kr.s.na_jine, on the hideof the black antelope; 
in the chief place of the sacred rite: sa_daya_ yajn~am sukr.tasya yonau: yajn~a 
=yajama_na, yajn~asya karta_ram, who is to be stationed uttame loke, in the best 
place, or that which enjoys thefruit of the holy rite, sukr.tajanyopabhogasya 

3.029.09 Produce, friends, smoke, the showerer (of benefits); indefatigable 
persist in the contest with (Agni); theheroic Agni is able to encounter hosts, 
and by him the gods overcome their foes. [Produce smoke: kr.n.otadhu_mam, 
produce fire,by metonymy]. 

3.029.10 This in every season, Agni, is your place, whence, as soon as 
generated, you have ever shone;knowing that to be so, Agni, there abide, and 
thrive by our praises. [Yajurveda 3.14; your place: the allusion is tothe 
aran.i, the stick of vetasa of as'vattha, or other trees; alternatively, may 
refer to ga_rhapatya or householdfire; vardhaya_ girah = give us increase of 

3.029.11 When (existing) as an embryo (in the wood), Agni is called Tanunapa_t; 
when he is generated (he iscalled) the asura-destroying nara_s'am,sa; when he 
has displayed (his energy) in the material firmament,Ma_taris'van; and the 
creation of the wind is in his rapid motion. [Tanu_napa_t = he who does not 
consume thepersons of the worshippers, yas.t.r.na_m tanu_h, s'ari_ra_n.i nu 
pa_tayati, na dahati; or, it may refer to thegrandson of the waters; 
ma_taris'van = who breathes, s'vasiti, in the material atmosphere ma_tari]. 

3.029.12 Agni, who is pronounced by reverential attrition, and deposited with 
reverential care, and who arefar-seeing, render our rites (exempt from defects), 
and worship the gods (on behalf) of the devout worshipper. 

3.029.13 Mortals have begotten the immortals, the undecaying (Agni), the 
devourer of oblations, the conveyance(by which they cross over sin), the ten 
sister fingers intertwined proclaim him born as if it was a male 
(infant).[Proclaim him born: when the priests and assistants behold the flame 
break forth, they clap their hands and makesounds of rejoicing, like the parents 
of a new-born son]. 

3.029.15 Agni, who has seven ministering priests, shines eternally; when he has 
blazed upon the bosom and lapof his mother (earth), he is vociferous (with 
delight); day by day he never slumbers after he is born from theinterior of the 
(spark) emitting wood. 

3.029.15 The Kus'ikas, the first-born of Brahma_, armed against enemies like the 
energies of the Maruts,comprehend the universe; they have uttered the prayer 
accompanied by the oblation; they have one by onelighted Agni in this dwelling. 

3.029.16 Agni, offerer of oblations, cognizant of rites, inasmuch as we have 
recourse to you today in thisprogressing sacrifice, therefore do you steadily 
convey (the offering to the gods), or tranquilly be at rest, andknowing (the 
purport of our acts), and wise (in all respects), approach (and accept) the 

3.030.01 The bearers of the libations desire you; your friends pour forth the 
Soma; they offer copious oblations;(supported by) you they endure patiently the 
calumny of men, for who is so renowned as you are. 

3.030.02 Master of tawny steeds, the remotest regions are not remote for you; 
then come quickly with yourhorses; to you the steady showerer (of benefits), 
these sacrifices are presented; the stones (for bruising theSoma) are ready, as 
the fire is being kindled. 

3.030.03 Showerer (of benefits), who are Indra, the wearer of the helmet, the 
professor of opulence, theconveyor (of men beyond the evil), the leader of the 
numerous troops (of the Maruts), the achiever of many greatdeeds, the 
devastation of hostile (regions), the terror of your foes, where are those 
heroic deeds (which you haveperformed) against the mortal (asuras) when opposed 
(by them in battle). [The wearer of the helmet: su'sipra =having a handsome 
nose, or chin (Nirukta 6.17); now a new meaning is given: s'iras stra_n.am = a 
guard of thehead, a helmet; the conveyor of men beyond evil: tarutra = he by 
whom the gods surpass or defeat the asuras]. 

3.030.04 You alone casting down the firmly-footed (asuras) proceed, destroying 
the Vr.tras, and obedient to yourcommand the heaven and earth and the mountains 
stood as if immoveable. 

3.030.05 You alone, when invoked by many, and the slayer of Vr.tra, by your 
prowess, did say firmly (to thegods), fear not! Indra, endowed with opulence, 
vast is your grasp, wherewith you have seized these unboundedregions, heaven and 

3.030.06 Let (your car), Indra, drawn by your horses (rush) downwards (upon the 
asuras); let your destroyingthunder-bolt fall upon your enemies; slay those that 
assail in front or in rear, or that fly (from the combat); makethe universe (the 
abode of) truth; (let such power) be concentrated in you. 

3.030.07 The man to whom you grant, lord of power, (your good-will), enjoys 
unprecedented domestic(prosperity); Indra, who are invoked by many, your 
auspicous favour, which is obtained by oblations, is the giverof unbounded 
wealth. [Which is obtained by oblation: sumatirghr.ta_ci_ = that which goes to 
or obtains clarifiedbutter, havir an~cati, pra_pnoti]. 

3.030.08 Indra, who is invoked by many, grind to dust the reviling malevolent 
Vr.tra opposing you, dwelling withthe mother of the Da_navas, and increasing in 
might, until having deprived him of hand and foot, you havedestroyed him by your 
strength. [Yajus. 18.69; having deprived him of hand: sahada_num ks.iyantam 
sampin.akkun.a_rum: the allegory is the destruction of the cloud; or, it may 
mean, united with the da_navas; sahau =sahas, strength; ks.iyantam = 
badhama_nam, rain opposing; or, nikat.avartama_nam, being near to; kun.a_ru 
=either a proper name of an asura, a noisy one, kvan.anas'i_lam, or evil 
speaking, durvacavadanam; or,parikavan.ana, loud-sounding; anothe 
rinterpretation: crush the increasing cloud shedding water, 
sahada_numudakada_napetam; abiding in the sky, ks.iyantam a_ka_s'e nivasantam; 
and thundering, kun.a_rum = garjantam].

3.030.09 You have fixed tranquil in its position the vast unbounded and 
wandering earth; the showerer (ofbenefits) has upheld the heaven and the 
firmament; let the waters engendered by you here descend. 

3.030.10 The heavy cloud, the receptacle of water, dreading you its destroyer, 
opened out before (you had castyour bolt); then Indra made easily-traversed 
paths for the waters to issue, and desirable and loud sounding theyproceeded to 
the (waters of the earth) invoked of many. [Heavy cloud: ala_tr.n.o valah = a 
cloud, that which byits abundance of water, is able to do mischief; cf. Nirukta 
6.2; desirable and loud-sounding: pra_van puruhu_tam,va_n.irdhamanti_h = 
vanani_yah 'sabda_yama_na_s-ta_ a_pah puruhu_tam bahubhira_hu_tam 
pa_rthivamudakam abhyagacchan; dhamanti_h = dhamatirgatikarma_ (Nirukta 6.2)]. 

3.030.11 Indra alone has filled the two,both earth and heaven mutually combined, 
and abounding with wealth; doyou hero, mounted in your car, come with your 
harnessed horses from the firmament, impatient to be near us. 

3.030.12 Su_rya harms not the quarters (of the horizon), set open daily (for his 
journey), the progeny ofHaryas'va; when he has traversed the roads (he is to 
travel), then he lets loose his horses, for such is his office.[Harms not the 
quarters: dis'ah su_ryo na mina_ti na him.sati = he does not injure; haryas'va = 
Indra, or he withthe tawny horses]. 

3.030.13 Al,l me are anxious to behold the great and variegated host (of the 
solar rays) at the issuing of the dawnafter the night has been displaced; and 
when the morning has come, they recognize the many great and gloriousacts of 

3.030.14 A great light has been shed upon the rivers; the cow yet immature 
grazes, charged with the ripe (milk),for Indra has placed in the cow all this 
collected sweetness for food. 

3.030.15 Indra, be firm, for there are obstructors of your path; secure to the 
worshipper and his friends (themeans of completing) the sacrifice; mortal 
enemies bearing bows, armed with mischievous weapons, and comingwith evil 
intent, must be destroyed (by you). [Mortal enemies: martya_sah = ma_rayita_rah, 
killers, murderers]. 

3.030.16 The sound (of your bolt) has been heard by the approaching foes; hurl 
upon them the consumingthunder-bolt, cut them up by the root, oppose; Maghavan, 
overcome, slay the ra_ks.asas, complete (thesacrifice). 

3.030.17 Pluck the ra_ks.asas, Indra, by the root; cut as under the middle, 
blight the summit; to whatever remote(regions) you have driven the sinner, cast 
upon the enemy of the Veda your consuming weapon. [The enemy ofthe Veda: 
brahmadvis.e = brahman.adves.aka_rin.e, or him who entertains hatred against the 
Brahman; but,brahma may mean the prayer of the Vedas, or the Vedas, or perhaps, 
the religion or ritual of the followers of theVeda]. 

3.030.18 Regulator (of the world, provide us) with horses for our welfare, and 
when you are seated near to usmay we become mighty, enjoying abundant food, and 
ample riches, and may there be to us wealth accompaniedby progeny. 

3.030.19 Bring to us, Indra, splendid affluence; we rely on the bounty of you 
who are fond of giving; our desire isas insatiable as the fire of the ocean; 
appease it, lord of infinite riches. 

3.030.20 Gratify this our desire (of wealth) with cows, with horses, with 
shining treasure, and make us renowned;the wise Kus'ikas, desirous of heaven, 
offer praise to you Indra, with pious (prayers). 

3.030.21 Indra, lord of cattle, (divide the clouds and send us) rain, whence 
nutritious food may come to us;showerer (of benefits), you are spread through 
the sky, and powerful through truth; Maghavan, consider yourselfas our 

3.030.22 We invoke for our protection the opulent Indra distinguished in this 
combat; the leader in thefood-bestowing (strife), hearing (our praises), 
terrible in battles the destroyer of foes, the conqueror of wealth.

3.031.01 The sonless father, regulating (the contract), refers to his grandson, 
(the son) of his daughter, andrelying on the efficiency of the rite, honours 
(his son-in-law) with valuable gifts; the father, trusting to theimpregnation of 
the daughter, supports himself with a tranquil mind. [The sonless father: 
s'a_sadvahnih; the latteris said to be the father of a daughter only, not of a 
son, because he conveys away (vahati, pra_payati) hisproperty through his 
married daughter into another family; s'a_sad, s'a_sti, he stipulates, that this 
daughter's son,his grandson, duhitur naptyam, shall be his son, a mode of 
affiliation recognized by law; and relying on an heirthus obtained, and one who 
can perform his funeral rites, he is satisfied]. 

3.031.02 (A son) born of the body, does not transfer (paternal) wealth to a 
sister; he has made (her) the recptacleof the embryo of the husband; if the 
parents procreate children (of either sex), one is the performer of holy 
acts,the other is to be enriched (with gifts). [Born of the body: ta_nvah = 
tanujah na ja_maye riktham a_raik, if therebe a son the inheritance does not go 
to the sister, ja_maye, bhaginyai; he has made her the receptacle: and byso 
doing he makes her sanskr.ta-- he secures for her one of the essential 
purificatory rites; if the parentsprocreate children: yadi ma_taro janayanti 
vahnim: vahni = offspring, or male offspring, a son; avahni = adaughter; one, 
the son, the performer of obsequial and other rites, is the heir, while the 
other is rindhan,ridhyama_na, to be increased or made wealthy, with dresses, 
ornaments and the like; cf. Nirukta 3.4-6]. 

3.031.03 For the worship of the resplendent (Indra), Agni, glowing with flame, 
has begotten mighty sons; greatwas the germ, and great was their birth, and 
great was their efficacy, for the worship of Haryas'va. 

3.031.04 The victorious (Maruts) associated (with Indra when contending with 
Vr.tra) perceived a great lightissuing from the darkness. The dawns recognizing 
him (as the sun) arose, and Indra was the sole sovereign ofthe rays (of light). 

3.031.05 The seven intelligent ages (the an:girasas) having ascertained that 
(the cows) were concealed in thestrong (cavern), propitiated (Indra) by mental 
devotion; they recovered them all by the path of sacrifice; for Indra,knowing 
(their pious acts), and offering them homage, entered (the cave). 

3.031.06 When Sarama_ discovered the broken (entrance) of the mountain, then 
Indra made great and ample(provision) for her young, as previously (promised); 
then the sure-footed (animal), forest recognizing their lowing,proceeded, and 
came to the presence of the imperishable kine. [yajus. 33.59; sarama_ = va_k, 
speech, that inwhich the gods saharamante, delight together]. 

3.031.07 The most sage (Indra), desirous of the friendship of the (an:girasas), 
went to the cave, and themountain yielded its contents to the valiant (deity), 
aided by the youthful Maruts, equally wishing (to conciliate thesages); the 
destroyer (of the asuras) recovered (the cattle), and immediately an:girasas 
became his worshipper. 

3.031.08 May he who is the type of all that is excellent the anticipator (of his 
foes), he who knows all that is born,who destroys S'us.n.a, the far-seeing, the 
restorer of cattle may he, a friend coming from heaven, honouring usas his 
friends, be free from all reproach. [Far-seeing: padavi_h, kavitama, most wise 
or far-seeing as to the past,from pada, on object, and vih, who knows; may he be 
free from all reproach: mun~canniravadya_t: always,nitara_m, be free, mun~catu-- 
from such a fault as that of the nature of the death of Vr.tra: 
vr.travadharu_pa_ddos.a_t; the paura_n.ika notion is that Vr.tra was a brahman, 
and by killing him, Indra was guilty of the heinoussin of brahmahatya_]. 

3.031.09 The an:girasas, with minds intent on their cattle, (sat down to 
worshipIndra) with hymns, following theroad to immortality; great was their 
perseverance by which they sought for months to accomplish (their ends). 

3.031.10 Contemplating their own (cattle) giving milk to their former progeny 
(the an:girasas) were delighted;their shouts spread through heaven and earth; 
they replaced the recovered kine in their places, and stationedguards over the 

3.031.11 Indra, the slayer of Vr.tra,let loose the milch kine, assisted by the 
Maruts, born for his aid, and entitledto praises and oblations, and the 
excellent (cows) contributing abundantly to sacred offerings, and yielding 
thebutter of libation, milked for him sweet (sacrificial) food. 

3.031.12 They (the an:girasas) performing pious acts made for their protector a 
spacious and splendid abodewhich they celebrated; seated (at the sacrifice) and 
supporting with the pillar (of the firmament) the parents (of allthings heaven 
and earth), they established the rapid Indra on high (in heaven). 

3.031.13 Inasmuch as our devout praise has appointed a thiriving ruler for the 
regulation of heaven and earth, towhom faultless and appropriate commendations 
(are due), therefore are all the energies of Indra spontaneouslyexerted. 

3.031.14 I wish, Indra, for your friendship, and (the exercise of) your 
powers;many heroes come to the slayer ofVr.tra; we offer to you, sage, great 
praise and oblations; consider yourself, Maghavan, as our protector. 

3.031.15 Wide fields, vast treasure, (spacious) pastures has the much-knowing 
(Indra) bestowed upon hisfriends; the radiant Indra with the leaders (of rites, 
the Maruts) generated the sun, the dawn, the earth and fire. 

3.031.16 This lowly-minded Indra has created the wide-spread, commingled, all-
delighting waters; and they,purifying the sweet (libations) with the sage 
purifiers, and being benevolent (to all), proceed with (the revolutions)of days 
and nights. [With the sage purifiers: kavibhih pavitraih = the sages, who are as 
it were with the filters orpurifiers of the soma, are the divinities: agni, 
va_yu and su_rya; proceed with days and nights:dyubhir-hinvantyuktabhih = they 
go with days and nights, i.e. they regulate by day and night the 
respectivefunctions of all the world: ra_tridivam saravam jagat sva 
svavya_parapravanam kurvanti, they make the wholeworld diligent in its 
respective functions by night and day]. 

3.031.17 The two adorable (alternations of) day and night, upholding (all 
things) by the might of the sun,successively revolve; your sincere and 
acceptable friends (the Maruts) are ready to encounter (your foes) andmaintain 
your greatness. [Day and night: the text has ubhe kr.s.n.e = both the blacks, 
i.e. ahora_tre, day andnight; by the might of the sun: su_ryasya mam.hana_: 
su_rya = Indra, the impeller, preraka, of the world]. 

3.031.18 Slayer of Vr.tra, do you, who is long lived the showerer (of benefits), 
the giver of food, be the lord of ourtrue praises, repairing (to the sacrifice), 
come to us great, with great, friendly, and auspicious protections. 

3.031.19 Worshipping him with reverence, like an an:giras, I make the ancient 
(Indra) renovate to accept theoblation; destroy the many impious oppressors (of 
your worshippers) and bestow upon us, Maghavan, yours own(wealth) for our 

3.031.20 You purifying water have been spread abroad; fill their beds for our 
welfare; riding on the car, defend usfrom the malevolent, and make us quickly 
the conquerors of cattle. 

3.031.21 Indra, the slayer of Vr.tra, the lord of herds, has discovered the 
cattle, and by his radiant effulgencedriven away the black (asuras), and 
indicating with veracity (to the an:girasas) the honest (kine), he shut the 
gateuon all their own cattle. [He shut the gate upon all: duras'ca vis'va_ 
av.r.n.od apa sva_h = having placed thecattle in the cow-pens, he covered or 
closed the doors, vraje ga_h stha_payitva_ ta_ni dva_ra_nyaccha_ditava_n]. 

3.031.22 We invoke for our protection the opulent Indra, distinguished in this 
combat, the leader in thefood-bestowing (strife), hearing (our praise), 
terriblein battles, the destroyer of foes, the conqueror of wealth.

3.032.01 Indra, lord of the Soma, drink this Soma which is grateful to you at 
noon-day sacrifice, Maghavan,partake of the spiritless Soma, unyoke your horses, 
and filling their jaws (with fodder), exhilarate them at thisceremony. 
[Spiritless soma: r.jis.in, possessing r.jis.am, gatasa_ram somam, soma having 
lost its strength]. 

3.032.02 Indra, drink the Soma mixed with milk, with butter-milk, or fresh; we 
offer it for your exhilaration,associated with the devout company of the Maruts 
and the Rudras; drink it till you are satisfied. [Mixed with milk:gavas'iram, 
manthinam, s'ukram: manthinam = manthasam.yuktam, mixed with butter-milk; 
s'ukram = abhinavan,new or fresh; or, the terms may mean s'ukramanthigrahe 
vartama_nam, being in the vessel of acid butter-milk;devout: brahmakr.ta_ = 
indrastotram kurva_n.ena, making the praise of Indra]. 

3.032.03 These are the Maruts, Indra, who, worshipping your prowess, augment 
your withering force (by theiraid); attended by the Rudras, drink, wielder of 
the thunder-bolt, and handsome-chinned, at the noon-daysacrifice. 

3.032.04 Those were the Maruts who were the strength of Indra, and gently 
encouraged him; animated by whomhe pierced the vital part of Vr.tra, fancying 
himself vulnerable. 

3.032.05 Phased with the sacrifice, as if it was that of Manu, drink, Indra, the 
Soma, for the sake of perpetualvigour; come, lord of the tawny steeds, with the 
adorable Maruts, and with the traversers (of the air); send downthe waters (of 
the firmament) to (blend with) the waters of the earth. [Send down the waters: 
apo arn.a_ sisar.si =antariks.asthita_n yudaka_ni pa_rthiva_n yudaka_ni, 
pra_paya, cause the waters staying in mid-air to reach, orbecome those of, 

3.032.06 Inasmuch as you have slain with active strife the slumbering, darking, 
water-investing Vr.tra, you havelet forth the bright waters like horses 
(rushing) into battle. 

3.032.07 Therefore we sacrifice with reverence to the vast and mighty Indra, who 
is adorable, undecaying,young; whose magnitude the unbounded heaven and earth 
have not measures, nor can measure. 

3.032.08 All the gods cannot detract from the many glorious exploits, and pious 
works of Indra; he who hasupheld earth, and heaven, and the firmament, and who, 
the performer of great deeds, has engendered the sunand the dawn. 

3.032.09 Doer of no wrong, such was your true greatness, that as soon as born, 
you have quaffed the Soma;neither the heavens, nor days, nor months, nor years, 
resist the force of you who is mighty. 

3.032.10 As soon as born in the highest heaven, you have quaffed, Indra, the 
Soma for your exhilaration; andwhen you had pervaded the heaven and earth, you 
became the primary artificer (of creation). 

3.032.11 Indra, from whom many are born; you who is vigorous have slain Ahi, 
enveloping the slumbering waterand confiding in his prowess; yet the heaven 
apprehended not your greatness as you remained concealing theearth by on eof 
your flames. [As you remained concealing: anyaya_ sphigya_ ks.a_m avastha_ = 
ekataraya_kat.ya_ bhu_mim avaccha_dya tis.t.hasi]. 

3.032.12 This our sacrifice, Indra, is your augmentation, for the rite in which 
the Soma is effused is acceptable toyou do you who is deserving of worship 
protect the worshipper by (the efficacy of) the worship, and may thissacrifice 
strengthen your thunderbolt for the slaying of Ahi. 

3.032.13 The worshipper, by his conservatory sacrifice, has made Indra present; 
may Ibring him to my presenceto obtain new wealth, him who has been exalted by 
praise, whether ancient, medieval, or recent. 

3.032.14 When the thought of glorifying Indra entered my mind, then I gave birth 
(to his praises); may I laud himbefore encountering distant (evil) days, whereby 
he may guide us beyond sin; for those on both sides of usinvoke him, as (those 
on either bank of a river hail) a passenger in a boat. 

3.032.15 The vase is filled for him (with Soma); welcome Indra; I pour it out 
for you to drink, as a water-carrier(pours water) from his bag; may the grateful 
Soma flow in reverence round Indra for his exhilaration. 

3.032.16 Invoked of many, the deep ocean arrests you not, nor do the 
accompanying mountains (stay you); andtherefore, summoned by your friends, you 
have repressed the strong flame abiding in the abyss. [You haverepressed the 
strong flame: dr.l.ham cid arujo gavyam u_rvam = prabalam api avate vartama_nam 
u_rva_nalamsamyagabha_n:ks.i_h, you have entirely broken the strong (u_rva) fire 
abiding in the deep]. 

3.032.17 We invoke for our protection the opulent Indra, distinguished in this 
combat, the leader in thefood-bestowing (strife), hearing (our praises), 
terrible in battles, the destroyer of foes, the conqueror of wealth.

3.033.01 Rushing from the flanks of the mountains, eager (to reach the sea) like 
two mares with loosened reinscontending (with each other in speed), like two 
fair mother cows (hastening) to caress (their calves), the Vipa_s'and S'utudri, 
flow readily with (united) waters.  [S'utudri: legend (also given in Nirukta 
2.24): Vis'va_mitra, thefamily priest of Suda_s, the son of Paijavana, having 
gained much wealth in his service, was returning with ithome, when his road 
brought him to the confluence of the Vipa_s' and S'utudri; in order to make them 
fordable,he addressed to them the first verses of this su_kta, to which he 
replied, and allowed him and his followers tocross]. 

3.033.02 Impelled by Indra, soliciting (his commands), you go to the ocean like 
charioteers (to their goal); flowingtogether, and swelling with (your) waves, 
bright (rivers) one of you proceeds to the other. 

3.033.03 I repaired to the most material river; I went to the wide auspicious 
Vipa_s', flowing together to a commonreceptacle, like parent cows (hastening to) 
caress the calf. 

3.033.04 The rivers speak: Fertilizing (the land) with this (our) current, we 
are flowing to the receptacle which hasbeen appointed by the deity (Indra); the 
course appointed for our going (permits) not of delay; of what is the 
sagedesirious, that he addresses the rivers? 

3.033.05 Vis'va_mitra speaks: Rivers, charged with water, rest a moment from 
your course at my request, who goto gather the Soma; I, the son of Kus'ika, 
desirous of protection, address with earnest prayer especially the riverbefore 
me. [At my request: me vacase somya_ya = to my speech importing the soma, i.e. 
the object of myaddress is, that having crossed over, I may go to gather the 
soma; cf. Nirukta 2.25; the river before me: that is,the s'utudri]. 

3.033.06 The rivers speak; Indra, the wielder of the thunder-bolt, dug our 
channels when he slew Ahi theblocker-up of rivers; the divine and well-handed 
Savita_ has led us (on our path), and obedient tohis commandswe flow (as) ample 
(streams). [The blocker-yo if ruversL tge ckiyd unorusibubg the water of the 
rains; savita_:epithet of Indra, the impeller or animator of the world: savita_ 
sarvasya jagatah prerakah; cf. Nirukta 2.26]. 

3.033.07 Vis'va_mitra speaks: Ever is that heroic exploit of Indra to be 
celebrated when he cut Ahi to pieces, andwith his thunderbolt destroyed the 
surrounding (obstructors of the rain), whence the waters proceed in thedirection 
they desire. 

3.033.08 The rivers speak: Praiser of Indra, forget not this speech, nor the 
worlds that (you have addressed tous) for future ages (to reverence); celebrator 
(of holy rites), be favourable to us in solemn prayers; treat us notafter the 
(arrogant fashion) of men; salutation be to you! 

3.033.09 Vis'va_mitra speaks: Listen, sister (streams), kindly to him who 
praises you; who has come from afarwith a waggon and chariot; bow down lowly; 
become easily fordable; remain, rivers, lower than the axle (of thewheel) with 
your currents. [With a wagon and chariot: anasa_ rathena = s'akat.ena rathena 
ca, by a cart and acarriage; anas, a cart or wagon, or truck, to convey the 

3.033.10 The rivers speak: Hymner, we hear your words, that you have come from 
afar with a wagon andchariot; we bow down before you; like a woman nursing (her 
child), like a maiden bending to embrace a man, (sowill we do) for you. [For 
you: te is repeated at the end of the line; it is repeated out of respect, te 
iti punaruktira_dara_rtham]. 

3.033.11 Vis'va_mitra speaks: (Since), rivers, (you have allowed me to cross), 
so may the Bharatas pass over(your united stream); may the troop desiring to 
cross the water, permitted (by you), and impelled by Indra, pass;then let the 
course appinted for your going (be resumed); I have recourse to the favour of 
you who are worthy ofadoration. [The Bharatas: said to be the same lineage as 
Vis'va_mitra's: bharakulaja_ madiya_h sarve; perhapsthis means, those who were 
the bearers of Vis'va_mitra's goods and chattels; Maha_bha_rata, A_di 
Parva5.3734 cites Vasis.t.ha as the family priest of the Bharatas]. 

3.033.12 The Bharata_s seeking cattle passed over; the sage enjoyed the favour 
of the rivers; streamsdispensing food, productive of wealth, spread abundance, 
fill (your beds), flow swiftly. 

3.033.13 Let your waves (rivers) so flow that the pin of the yoke may be above 
(their) waters; leave the tracesfull, and may (the two streams), exempt from 
misfortune or defect, and uncensured, exhibit no (present) increase.[The pin: 
s'amya_, yugki_la; or, the ropes that are fastened to the ends of the yoke, the 
traces: yugyakan.t.hapa_rs'va_di sam.lagna rajjavah; yoktra_n.i is also 
similarly explained; perhaps, these refer to the traces; exhibitno present 
increase: ma s'u_nam a_rata_m: s'u_nam = samr.ddhim, increase, referring merely 
to the presentmoment; i.e., may the rivers not so rise as to prevent his 
passage; or, it may convey a wish that the rivers mightnever suffer any 
diminution, taking s'u_nam in the sense of s'u_nyam, emptiness].

3.034.01 Indra, the destroyer of cities, possessed of wealth manifesting (his 
greatness), merciless to his enemieshas overspread the day with his radiance; 
attracted by prayer, increasing in bulk, and armed with many weapons,he has 
delighted both heaven and earth. [Rmed with many pweapons: bhu_rida_tra: da_tra 
fr. do, to cut, isexplained as a weapon]. 

3.034.02 Decorating you, I address sincere prayers to you who are adorable and 
mighty, for the sake of(obtaining) food; you, Indra are the preceder of men the 
descendants of manu, and of the descendants of thegods. [The preceder of men: 
pu_rvaya_va_ (ya_ pra_pan.e), agrato ganta_, the goer before]. 

3.034.03 Indra, of glorious deeds, destroyed Vr.tra; resistless in combat, he 
has overcome the deceivers resolvedto consume him; he slew the mutilated (demon 
lurking) in the woods, and made manifest the (stolen) kine (thathad been hidden) 
in the night. 

3.034.04 Indra, the giver of svarga, generating the days, has subdued victorious 
with the eager (an:girasas) thehostile hosts, and illuminingfor man the banner 
of the days, he obtained light for the great conflict. [Illumining thebanner of 
the days: pra_rocayan ketum ahna_m = lighting up, su_rya, or the sun]. 

3.034.05 Indra entered the confiding hostile (hosts) like a man distributing 
many (gifts) to (his) leaders; he hasanimated these dawns for the worshipper, 
and heightened their bright radiance (by his own). 

3.034.06 They celebrate many great and glorious exploits of this mighty Indra; 
he crushed the strong by hisstrength, and, of overpowering prowess, he overcame 
the dasyus by delusions. 

3.034.07 Lord of the virtuous, fulfiller of the wishes of men, he gave to the 
gods the wealth (that had been won)in fierce battle, and therefore far-seeing 
sages glorify those his exploits with praises in the dwelling of theworshipper. 
[To the gods: devebhyah = stotrebhyah, to the praisers or worshippers; in the 
dwelling of theworshipper: vivasvatah sadane: vivasvatah = of whom dwelling 
vasatah, where various (vi) religious rites areperformed]. 

3.034.08 Devout worshippers propitiate Indra, the victorious, the excellent, the 
bestower of strength, the enjoyerof heaven and the divine waters, and who was 
the giver of the earth and heaven and this (firmament to theirinhabitants). 

3.034.09 He gave horses, he gave also the sun, and Indra gave also the many-
nourishing cow; he gave goldentreasure, and having destroyed the dasyus, he 
protected the a_rya tribe. [The a_rya tribe: a_rya varn.am =implies only the 
best tribe, or order, uttamam varn.am, or the three first castes collectively]. 

3.034.10 Indra bestowed plants and days, he gave trees and the firmament,he 
divided the cloud, he scatteredopponents, he was the tamer of adversaries. 

3.034.11 We invoke for our protection the opulent Indra, distinguished in this 
combat, the leader in thefood-bestowing (strife), hearing (our praises), 
terrible in battles, the destroyer of foes, the conqueror of wealth.

3.035.01 Stay, Indra, having yoked the horses to the car, as Va_yu stops when he 
has put to his steds, andcome to our presence; solicited by us to drink of the 
Soma, which with reverence we offer for your exhilaration. 

3.035.02 I harness for you, who is invoked by many, the swift gliding horses to 
the shafts of the car, that theymay bear Indra to this sacrifice that is 
prepared with all (that is required). 

3.035.03 Showerer (of benefits), giver of food, guide hither your vigorous 
horses, defending (us) against foes,and protect (your worshippers); here 
unharness the bay steeds, and give them fodder, and you eat daily suitablefood. 
[Eat suitable food: sadr.s'i_r addhi dha_na_h = eat suitable grains, i.e. fried 
barley, bhr.s.tayava_n]. 

3.035.04 I harness with prayer your horses, who are to be harnessed with prayer, 
who are allies and swift-pacedin battle; arise, and all-knowing Indra, mounting 
on your firm and easy chariot, come to the libation. 

3.035.05 Let not other sacrifices attract your vigorous and smooth-backed 
steeds; disregarding others, comeperpetually hither, that we may propitiate you 
sufficiently with effused Soma libations. 

3.035.06 This soma libation is for you; come down, and well disposed, drink of 
it unceasingly; seated on thegrass at this sacrifice, take Indra, this 
(libation) into your belly. [Yajus. 26.23]. 

3.035.07 The sacred grass is strewn for you; the Soma, Indra, is poured forth; 
the grain wherewith to feed yourhorses is prepared; the oblations are offered to 
you abiding on the sacred grass, who is praised of many, and isthe showerer (of 
benefits), attended by the Maruts. 

3.035.08 The leaders (of the ceremony) have prepared for you, Indra, this 
(libation), sweetened with milk, thestones, the water; beautiful Indra, who is 
favourably disposed, and who is wise, knowing well (the worship) that 
isaccording to your peculiar paths, come and drink of this libation. [Knowing 
well the worship: praja_nan pathya_anu sva_h = righty apprehending the praises 
which are due or peculiar, and which are offered with the ritesenjoined by the 

3.035.09 Associated, Indra, with those Maruts with whom you have shared in the 
libation, who encouraged you(in battle), and are your attendant troop, drink, 
desirous of the Soma, along with them, with the tongue of Agni. 

3.035.10 Adorable Indra, drink of the effused libation, either by your own 
effort, or through the tongue of Agni;drink it, S'akra, offered by the hand of 
the adhvaryu, or accept the presentation of the oblation (from the hand) ofthe 

3.035.11 We invoke for our protection the opulent Indra distinguished in this 
combat; the leader in the foodbestowing (strife), hearing (our praises), 
terrible in battles the destroyer of foes, the conqueror of wealth.

3.036.01 Indra, who is constantly seeking (association) with your allies (the 
Maruts) accept this, our offering(made) for the grant (from you of riches); for 
you are one who grows with augmenting energies, throughreiterated libations, and 
has been renowned for glorious deeds. 

3.036.02 To Indra have libations been presented in the days of old, whereby he 
has become illustrious, theregulator of time, the granter of desires; accept, 
Indra, these prescribed (offerings), and drink of this auspicous(Soma), 
expressed by the stones. [Has become illustrious: r.bhur yebhih, vr.s.aparva_ 
viha_ya_h = with which(libations) he is r.bhu;or, di_tah, enlightened; 
vr.s.aparva_= he on whom the rainy season and other divisions oftime parva_n.i, 
depend; or, time itself, ka_la_tamakah and viha_ya_, who abandons or resigns to 
those who askanything, that which they desire; the two first, r.bhu and 
vr.s.aparva_ may also be considered proper names orappellations of Indra; 
expressed by the stones: vr.s.adhu_tasya vr.s.nah: vr.s. = showering, raining; 
i.e.rain-shaken rainer; vr.s.n.ah = Soma that bestows svarga and such other 
benefits; gra_vabhir abhis.u_tam,expressed by the stones used for the purpose; 
using the same idea of their being showerers or bestowers ofblessings]. 

3.036.03 Drink, Indra, and thrive; yours are these (present) libations, as were 
the primitive libations; you who isadorable, drink today the recent libations, 
as you drank those of old. 

3.036.04 The great Indra, the victorious in battle, the defier of foes; his 
fierce strength and resolute vigour areexerted; verily the earth does not 
contain him, neither (does the heaven), when the Soma libations exhilarate 
thelord of the tawny steeds. 

3.036.05 The mighty, fierce, auspicious Indra, the showerer (of benefits), 
augments (in power) as he is animatedfor heroic (acts) by praise; his cattle are 
generated givers of food; many are his donations. [Many are hisdonations: 
daks.in.a_ asya pu_rvi_h: these are both epithets of ga_vah: bahvyasta_ ga_vo 
daks.in.a_hpraja_yante, those many cows, givers (of milk and the like) are 

3.036.06 As the rivers pursue their course, the waters rush to the ocean like 
the drivers of cars (to a goal), so thevast Indra (hastens) from his dwelling 
(in the firmament), when the humble Som alibation propitiates him. 
[Thecomparison: as small rivers and scanty waters contribute to the vast ocean, 
so the Soma, however insignificant,contributes to the gratification of the great 

3.036.07 As the rivers are solicitious (to mix) with the ocean, so (are the 
priests) bearing the efficient libation toIndra; holding in their hands they 
milk the Soma, and purify the sweet Soma (as they fall) indrops through 
thepurifying filters. 

3.036.08 The stomach of Indra (is) as capacious (a receptacle) of Soma, as a 
lake, for he has partaken of it atmany sacrifices; and inasmuch as he has eaten 
the first (sacrificial) viands, he has been the slayer of Vr.tra, andhas shared 
the Soma (with the gods). [As capacious of Soma as a lake: hrada_ iva kuks.ayah 
soma dha_na_h:bellies udara_n.i, is used in the plural, to intimate 
capaciousness for holding the Soma]. 

3.036.09 Quickly, Indra, bring (wealth); let no one impede you, for we know you 
to be the lord of wealth, of alltreasures; and since, Indra, your greatness is 
munificence, therefore, lord of the tawny steeds, grant us (riches). 

3.036.10 Opulent Indra, receiver of the spiritless Soma, give to us riches in 
universally desired quantity; grant usto live a hundred years; bestow upon us, 
Indra wiht the handsome chin, numerous posterity. 

3.036.11 We invoke for our protection the opulent Indra, distinguished in this 
combat; the leader in thefood-bestowing (strife), hearing (our praises), 
terrible in battles, the destroyer of foes, the conqueror of wealth.

3.037.01 We excite you, Indra, to exert the strength that destroys Vr.tra, and 
overpowers hostile armies. 

3.037.02 May your praisers, Indra, who is worshipped in a hundred rites, direct 
your mind and your eyes towardsus. [Worshipped in a hundred rites: s'atakratu = 
Indra; or, an epithet, he to whom a hundred (i.e. many) sacrificesare offered,  
or by whom many great acts are performed. 

3.037.03 We recite, Indra, who is worshipped in a hundred rites, (your many) 
names in all our hymns for strengthto resist our foes. 

3.037.04 We repeat the praise of the many-lauded Indra the supporter of man, 
invested with a hundred glories. 

3.037.05 I invoke you, Indra, who is invoked of many for the slaying of Vr.tra, 
and the granting of food (as thespoil) of battle. 

3.037.06 Be victorious, Indra, in battles; we solicit you, object of many rites, 
to destroy Vr.tra. 

3.037.07 Overcome, Indra, those who are adverse to us in riches, in battle, in 
hostile hosts, in strength. 

3.037.08 Drink, Indra, object of many rites, for our preservation, the most 
invigorating, fame-conferring,sleep-dispelling, Soma. [pi_tah somah 
svapnaniva_raka = drinking the soma is preventive of sleep]. 

3.037.09 Indra, object of many rites, I regard the organs of sense, that exist 
in the five races (of beingsdependent) on you as yours. 

3.037.10 May the abundant (sacrificial) food (we offer) reach you, Indra; grant 
us wealth that may not easily besurpassed; we augment your vigour (by our 

3.037.11 COme to us S'akra, whether from afar or nigh; whatever, Indra, wielder 
of the thunderbolt, be yourregion, come from thence hither.

3.038.01 Repeat (to Indra) pious praise, as a carpenter (planes the wood), and 
engaging (zealously in sacredrites), as a quick horse bearing well his burden; 
endowed with intelligence, and refllecting upon the future actsacceptable (to 
Indra), I desire to behold the sages (whohave gone to heaven). [As a quick 
horse: the institutor ofthe rite is supposed here to address the officiating 
priests, urging them to be diligent laboureres, like thecarpenter of the pack-
horse; acts acceptable to Indra: abhipriya_n.i marmr.s'at para_n.i 
kavi_n.iccha_misandr.s'e: priya_n.i = indrasya priyatama_ni; para_n.i = 
uttama_ni, best and most dear to Indra; karma_n.i = acts;or, para_n.i = acts to 
be done on subsequent days, uttares'vahassu kriyama_n.a_ni; kavi = 
kra_ntadars'i_ a seerof the past;here, it is said to mean a holy person who, for 
his assiduous devotion, has attained deification, yahpu_rvam anus.t.hitayajn~aih 
devabhu_yam agamat; so, ye vai tena r.s.ayah purve preta_s te vai 
kavayah(Aitareya Bra_hman.a 6.20)]. 

3.038.02 Ask of the lords (of earth, the holy teachers), the birth of those 
deified sages, who with well-governedminds, and diligent in sacred rites, 
fabricated the heavens; and may these propitiatory (praises), augmenting(your 
power) and rapid as the wind, reach you at this solemn rite. 

3.038.03 Comprehending hidden (mysteries) here on earth, they have, through 
their power, made manifest (thethings of) heaven and earth; they have set limits 
to themby their elements; they connected them both mutuallyunited, wide-spread 
and vast, and fixed the intermediate (firmament) to sustain them. [They have set 
limits: samma_tra_bhir mamire = ma_tra_bhih rodasyau iyattaya_ paricchinne 
cakruh, wih the elements they madedeterminate divisions of heaven and earth by 
so much, i.e., to a definite limit or extent]. 

3.038.04 They all ornamented (Indra) standing (in his car) and, clothed in 
beauty, he proceeds self-radiant;wonderful are the acts of that showerer (of 
benefits), the influencer (of consciences), who omniform, presidesover the 
ambrosial (waters). [The influencer of consciences: the text has only asurasya; 
the term is explained byprerakasya antarya_mitava, impeller, from being in the 
inner spirit]. 

3.038.05 The showerer (of benefits), the preceder and elder (of the gods), 
generated (the waters); they are theabundant allayers of his thirst; sovereign 
Indra and Varun.a, grandsons of heaven, you possess the wealth (thatis to be 
acquired) by the rites of the splendid sacrifice. 

3.038.06 Royal Indra and Varun.a, embellish the three universal sacrifices (and 
make them) full (of all requisites)for this celebration; you have gone to the 
rite, for I have beheld in my mind, at this solemnity, the gandharvas withhair 
(waving) in the wind. [The gandharvas: gandharva_n va_yukes'a_n: the gandharvas 
are the guardians of theSoma, somaraks.aka_n; similar beings are cited in 
Taittiri_ya: sva_nabhra_ja_n, bambha_re, hasta, suhasta,kr.s'a_n.ahete vah 
somakrayan.a_s, ta_n raks.adhvamma_ vo dabhan]. 

3.038.07 Those who, for (the sake of) the showerer (of benefits), milk the 
agreeable (produce) of the cow, (whois known) by (many) names, they invested 
with the diversified strength (of the asuras) and practising delusive arthave 
deposited their own nature in him. 

3.038.08 No one (distinguishes) my golden lustre from that of this Savita_, in 
which (lustre) he has taken refuge;gratified by pious praise, he cherishes the 
all-fostering heaven and earth as a woman cherishes her offspring.[The Savita_: 
asya savitur nakir me: savita_ = Indra, sarvasya jagato antarya_mitaya_ 
prerayitur indrasya, ofIndra the impeller, through his being the internal 
pervader of the whole world]. 

3.038.09 You two secure the great felicity of the ancient (worshipper), that 
which is happiness in heaven; do you(therefore) be even about us; all those who 
exercise illusion, contemplate the manifold expoits of the everlastingand 
blandly-speaking Indra. [All those who exercise illusion: vis've ma_yinah = 
sarve deva_h, all the gods;ma_ya_ also signifies wisdom, intelligence,hence, may 
also mean the wise; ma_ya = deceivers, or asuras]. 

3.038.10 We invoke for our protection the opulent Indra, distinguished in this 
combat, the leader in thefood-bestowing (strife), hearing (our praises), 
terrible in battles, the destroyer of foes, the conqueror of wealth.

3.039.01 The praise that is prompted by the heart, and is uttered by the 
reciters of sacred hymns, proceeds tothe presence of the lord, and is his 
awakener when repeated at the sacrifice; be cognizant Indra, of this 
praise,which is born for you. 

3.039.02 That praise which is begotten before (the dawn) of day is the awakener 
of Indra, when repeated at the(morning) sacrifice; auspicious and clothed in 
white raiment is this our ancient and paternal hymn. [Auspiciousand clothed in 
white raiment: bhadra_ vastra_n.i arjuna_ vasa_na_ va_k = speech auspicious, 
wearing whitegarments, i.e., teja_m.si, splendours, energies; our ancient and 
paternal hymn: pitrya_ dhi_h pitr.krama_gata_stuti, praise come in the 
succession of progenitors]. 

3.039.03 The parent of twins (the dawn), has brought forth the twin (As'vins) on 
this occasion, (in the praise ofwhom) the tip of my tongue remains tremulous; 
they two, the dispersers of darkness, combine, assuming bodiesas a pair (of 
twins) at the origin of the day. [At the origin of the day: the as'vins are 
worshipped at the morningceremony]. 

3.039.04 There are no revilers among men of those who were our progenitors and 
combatants for (the recoveryof) the cattle; for the mighty Indra, the achiever 
of great deeds, liberated for them the numerous herds. 

3.039.05 A friend, accompanied by the faithful friends who had celebrated the 
nine months rite, and tracking thecows upon their knees, and in like manner 
accompanied by those ten who had accomplished the ten months' rite,Indra made 
manifest the true (light of the sun) (theretofore) dweling in (the) darkness (of 
the cave). [The faithfulfriends: the an:girasas; ten months' rite: navagvah and 

3.039.06 Indra discovered the sweet milk secreted in the cow, and thereupon, 
brought forth (from theirconcealment) the herd (of cattle) having feet and 
having hoofs; munificent (in gifts), he held in his right hand thatwhich had 
been hidden in the cavern, which was concealed in the waters. [he held in his 
right hand: i.e. hedelivered the rains from their imprisonments in the clouds of 
the firmament]. 

3.039.07 The discriminating (Indra) has separated the light from the darkness; 
may we, removed afar from evil,be ever in security; Indra, drinker of the Soma, 
who is nurished by Soma, be pleased with these praises of yourworshipper who is 
the discomfiter of his foes. 

3.039.08 May light be spread throughout heaven and earth for (the promotion of 
the) sacrifice; may we be farremoved from exceeding ill; Vasus, who are to be 
rendered present (by pious praise), bestow increasingaffluence upon the men who 
is liberal of gifts. 

3.039.09 We invoke for our protection the opulent Indra, distinguished in this 
combat, the leader in thefood-bestowing (strife), hearing (our praises), 
terrible in battles, the destroyer of foes, the conqueror of wealth.

3.040.01 We invoke you, Indra, showerer (of benefits), to the effused libation; 
you drink of the exhilarating Soma.[Indra: a number of etymologies: fr. Nirukta 
and Taittiri_ya A_ran.yaka: he who sports (ramate), in the Soma(indu); or, he 
who shows this (idam) universe; or, he who divides (dr.n.a_ti), or gives 
(dada_ti), or takes(dadha_ti_), or causes to worship (da_rayati), or possesses 
(dha_rayati) spiritous liquor (iram), or who runs orpasses (dravadi), the Soma 
(indau); or kindles or animates (inddhe) living beings; or he who beholds the 
purespirit, or Brahma_, which is this (idam) universe; the grammarians derive it 
from idi, to rule with the affix -ran]. 

3.040.02 Indra, the praised of many, accept the effused Soma, the conferrer of 
knowledge; drink, imbibe thesatisfactory draught. [Imbibe: vr.s.asva, sprinkle, 
shower, that is, into the stomach, so that it may not descendbelow the stomach]. 

3.040.03 Indra, lord of men, who is praised (by the devout) and aided by the 
gods, perfect this our sacrifice inwhich the oblation is offered (to you). 

3.040.04 Indra, lord of the virtuous, these effused Soma juices, exhilarating 
and brilliant, proceed to your abode.[Your abode: ks.ayam tava: ks.aya = abode; 
here, it refers to Indra's belly, jat.hara]. 

3.040.05 Receive, Indra, into your stomach this excellent effused libation, 
these bright (drops) abide with you inheaven. 

3.040.06 Indra, who is glorified with praise, drink this our libation, for you 
are sprinkled with the drops of theexhilarating (draught); the (sacrificial) 
food is verily purified by you. 

3.040.07 The brilliant and imperishable (Soma), offered by the worshipper, 
encompasses Indra; having drunk ofthe libation, he increases (in vigour). 

3.040.08 Slayer of Vr.tra, whether from nigh or from afar, come to us, accept 
these our praises. 

3.040.09 Whether you are called from nigh or from afar, or from mid-space, come 
hither, Indra, from thence.

3.041.01 Indra, wielder of the thunderbolt, come to me with your horses, when 
invoked to drink the Soma at our(sacrifice). 

3.041.02 The invoking priest is seated at the proper season; the sacred grass 
woven together has been spread;the stones are placed in contact for the morning 

3.041.03 Bearer of prayers, these prayers are offered (by us); sit down on the 
sacred grass; partake, hero, of theoblation. [Bearer of prayers: brahmava_hah, 
stotra_n.i vahati, who bears or receives praise; or it may meanbrahman.a_ 
stotren.a pra_pyate, who is attained by praise or prayer]. 

3.041.04 Slayer of Vr.tra, Indra, who is gratified by praise, be pleased with 
these our praises and prayers at our(daily) sacrifices. 

3.041.05 Our praises caress the mighty Indra, the drinker of the Soma, as cows 
lick their calves. 

3.041.06 Be exhilarated bodily (by drinking) of the libation which we offer for 
the sake of ample wealth; exposenot your adorer to reproach. 

3.041.07 Devoted, Indra, to you and offering oblations, we glorify you giver of 
dwellings; do you be favourablydisposed to us. [Devoted to you: tva_yavah  = fr. 
tvam, you with kyac (supa a_tmanah kyac), converting it totva_yu; so, presently, 
asmayuh, devoted or inclined to us]. 

3.041.08 Lover of horses, Indra, loosen not your steeds while far from us, but 
come (with them) to our presence;enjoyer of the offering, be exhilarated at this 

3.041.09 May your long-maned and sleek-coated steeds bring you down in your easy 
chariot to sit upon thesacred grass.

3.042.01 Come, Indra, to this our effused Soma mixed with milk and curds, with 
your horses (yoked to your car),which is favourably disposed to us. 

3.042.02 Come, Indra, to the exhilarating (Soma) expressed by the stones, poured 
upon the sacred grass; drinkof it to satiety, for there is plenty. 

3.042.03 May my praises, addressed from hence and in thi smanner, attain Indra, 
to bring him hither to drink theSoma. 

3.042.04 We invoke Indra to this rite with prayers to drink the Soma; may he, 
repeatedly invoked, come hither. 

3.042.05 Indra, these Soma are poured out; take them, S'atakratu, into your 
stomach; you who is rich in(abundant) food. 

3.042.06 Far-seeing Indra, we know you to be victorious and winner of wealth in 
battles; therefore we ask of youriches. 

3.042.07 Having come (to our rite) drink, Indra, this our (libation), effused by 
the stones, and mixed with milk andcurds, and with barley. 

3.042.08 I offer to you, Indra, this Soma for your drinking, to be taken into 
its proper receptacle;may it delight yourheart. 

3.042.09 Descendants of Kus'a, desirous of protection, we invoke you, Indra, who 
is of old, to drink of thelibation.

3.043.01 Descend to us riding in your car, for verily yours is this ancient 
libation; unharness your beloved andfriendly (horses) near to the sacred grass, 
for these offerers of the oblation present it to you. 

3.043.02 Passing by multitudes, come hither, noble Indra, with your steeds, (to 
receive) our benedictions; forthese praises, Indra, composed by the devout, 
invoke you propitiating your friendship. 

3.043.03 Divine Indra, come quickly with your steeds, and well pleased, to our 
food-augmenting sacrifice; offering(sacred) food with butter, I invoke you 
verily with praises in the chamber of the sweet libations. 

3.043.04 May these two vigorous friendly burden-bearing and well-limbed steeds 
convey you hither, where,Indra, approving of the ceremony (in wihc the offering) 
is parched grain, may hear as a friend the praises of hisfriend (the 

3.043.05 Possessor of wealth, accept of the spiritless Soma; make me the 
protector, or rather a monarch of men;make me verily a holy sage, a drinker of 
the libation; make me verily the possessor of imperishable wealth. [Orrather a 
monarch of men: kuvid ma_m gopa_m karase janasya kuvid ra_ja_nam: kuvid = api, 
surely, verily]. 

3.043.06 May your mighty horses, Indra, harnessed (in your car), and alike 
exhilaarated (by Soma), bring you ourpresence, for they are the destroyers (of 
the foes) of the showerer (of benefits), and kindly rubbed by his handthey 
traverse, going quickly, the regions of the sky, making them as it were twofold. 
[Making them as it weretwofold: pra ye dvita_ diva r.n~janti; sarva_ dis'o 
dvita_, dvidha_m, yatha_ bhavati tatha_ prakars.en.asa_dhayanti, they especially 
make all the quarters of the horizon double, so that it (the sky) becomes 

3.043.07 Drink, Indra, of the bountiful (libation) expressed by the beneficent 
(stones); that which the falcon hasborne to you desiring it, in whose 
exhilaration you cast down (opposing) men, in whose exhilaration you have 
setopen the clouds. [That which the falcon: A legend in Aitareya Bra_hman.a, 
Pan~cika_ III, Adhya_ya 13: Somagrew formerly only in heaven, the r.sis and the 
gods considered how it might be brought down to earth, anddesired the 
Cha_ndasas, the metres of the Vedas, to bring it; changing themselves to birds 
(suparn.as), theyundertook the office; the only one who succeeded, however, was 
the ga_yatri_, in the shape of a hawk (s'yeni_),and she was wounded by an arrow 
shot by one of the somapa_las, or gandharvas, the guardians of the Soma,thence 
termed somabhra_ja_s, which cut off anail of her left foot; the ichor (blood-
tinged discharge) from thewound became the vasa_ of the burnt offering]. 

3.043.08 We invoke for our protection the opulent Indra distinguished in this 
combat, the leader in thefood-bestowing (strife), hearing (our praises), 
terrible in battles, the destroyer of foes, the conqueror of wealth.

3.044.01 May this desirable and gratifying Soma expressed by the stones,by, 
Indra, for you ascend the verdantchariot, and with your tawny (steeds) come to 
us. [The su_kta highlights the changes on the derivatives of theroot hri, to 
take; the former su_kta used the root vr.s., shower. haryatah = taking, 
captivating, desirable; harit, thestone that bruises the Soma; Indra's horses in 
the dual or plural, are hari, harayah; harit = green; haryas'vah = hewho has the 
horses called hari; haridhayasam = yellow-rayed; harivarpasam = green-coloured]. 

3.044.02 Desiring (the Soma), you honour the dawn; desirng the Soma, yu have 
lighted up the sun; knowing anddiscriminating (all our wishes), lord of the 
tawny steeds, you augment upon us all (sorts of) prosperity. 

3.044.03 Indra has upheld the yellow-rayed heaven; the verdant tinted earth; 
there is abundant pasture (for hissteeds) in the two azure spheres of heaven and 
earth, between which Hari travels. 

3.044.04 The azure-coloured showerer (of benefits), illumes, as soon as born, 
the whole luminous region; thelord of the tawny steeds holds in his hands the 
yellow weapon, the destroying thunderbolt. 

3.044.05 Indra has uncovered the desirable white-coloured, fast-flowing Soma, 
effused by the expressing stones,and overlaid with the shining (milk and other 
liquids), in like manner as when, borne by his tawny steeds, herescued the 
cattle. [Indra discovers or uncovers the hidden Soma; this act was ascribed to 
Pu_s.an in anothertext].

3.045.01 Come,Indra, with your exulting peacock-haired steeds; let no persons 
detain you, as (fowlers) throwingsnares catch a bird;pass them by (quickly) as 
(travellers cross) a desert. [Yajus. 20.53; peacock-haired: mayu_raromabhih, 
withhair like the feathers of the peacock]. 

3.045.02The evourer of Vr.tra, the fracturer of the cloud, the sender of the 
waters, the demolisher of cities, Indra,the destroyer of powerful enemies, has 
mounted his chariot to urge his horses to our presence. 

3.045.03 You cherish the celebrator of the pious rite as you fill the deep seas 
(with water); or as a carefulherdsman (cherishes) the cows; (you imbibe the 
Soma) as cows (obtain) fodder, (and the Soma juices) flow intoyou as rivulets 
flow into a lake. 

3.045.04 Grant us riches, securing (us against foes), (as a father bestows) his 
portion on (a son) arrived atmaturity; send down upon us, Indra, wealth adequate 
(to our desires), as a crookbringd down the ripe fruit from atree. 

3.045.05 You are possessed of opulence, Indra; you are the lord of heaven, 
auspicious and renowned; may youwho is adored of many, increasing in vigour, be 
to us a most (bountiful bestower) of food.

3.046.01 Vast are the energies of you, Indra, the warrior, (the showerer of 
benefits), the lord of wealth, the fierce;who is (both) young and old; the 
overcomer of foes, the undecaying, the wielder of the thunderbolt, and who 
ismighty and renowned. 

3.046.02 Adorable and powerful Indra, you are great and magnificent, overcoming 
adversaries by your prowess;you alone are lord of all the world; do you war 
(upon our enemies), and give safe dwellings to men. 

3.046.03 The resplendent and every way unlimited Indra, drinking the spiritless 
Soma, far surpasses theelements, (far exceeds) the gods in power; he is more 
vast than heaven and earth, or the widespread spaciousfirmament. 

3.046.04 The Soma daily poured out enter into the vast and profund Indra, fierce 
from his birth, all-pervading, theprotector of the pious (worshipper), as rivers 
flow into the sea. 

3.046.05 Which Soma, Indra, the heaven and earth, containing for you, as a 
mother contains the embryo;showerer (of benefits), the priests pour it out for 
you they purify it for your drinking.

3.047.01 Indra, attended by the Maruts, the showerer (of benefits), drink the 
Soma offered after the otherpresentations, for your exhilaration for battle; 
take into your belly the (full) wave of the inebriating (Soma), for youare lord 
of libations from the days of old. [Yajus. 7.38 has prati_pah for pradivah; 
prati_pah = first andother lunardays, or tithis, until the full moon, during 
which offerings of Soma are daily presented]. 

3.047.02 Indra, hero, rejoicing with and accompanied by the host of Maruts, 
drink the Soma, for you are theslayer of Vr.tra the sage; subdue our enemies, 
drive away the malevolent, make us safe on every side from peril.[Yajus. 7.37; 
drive away the malevolent: apanudasva mr.dhah = drive away all those who are 
engaged in battle,i.e. enemies; or keep off from us battles; mr.dh = war, 
battle, san:gra_ma]. 

3.047.03 Drinker of the Soma in season, drink with your divine friend the Maruts 
the Soma that is presented byus; those Maruts whose aid you have enjoyed (in 
battle), and who, following you have given you the strengthwhereby you have 
slain Vr.tra. 

3.047.04 They who encouraged you, Maghavan, to slay Ahi, who (aided you) in the 
conflict with S'ambara, and inthe recovery of the cattle, and who, possessed of 
wisdom, contribute verily to your exhilaration, with them, thetroop of the 
maruts, do you Indra, drink the Soma. 

3.047.05 We invoke to this sacrifice for present protection Indra, the chief of 
the Maruts, the showerer (ofbenefits) augmenting (in glory), overcoming many 
foes, divine regulator (of good and ill), the subduer of all(enemies), the 
fierce, the bestower of strength.

3.048.01 May the showerer (of rain), who, as soon as born, is the object of 
affection, protect the offerer of theeffused libation; drink at will, Indra, 
before (the other gods), of the pure Soma mixed with milk. 

3.048.02 On the day on which you were born, you did drink at will the mountain-
abiding nectar of this Soma, foryour youthful parent mother (Aditi), in the 
dwelling of your great sire (Kas'yapa), gave it to you before she gavethe 

3.048.03 Approaching his mother he asked for food, and beheld the acrid Soma 
upon her bosom; eager heproceeds, dislodging the adversaries (of the gods); and, 
putting forth manifold (energy), he performed great(deeds). 

3.048.04 Fierce, rapid in assault, of overpowering strength he made his form 
obedient to his will; havingovercome Tvas.t.a_ by his innate (vigour), and 
carried off the Soma, he draink it (deposited) in the ladles. [Madehis form 
obedient to his will: According to su_kta 3.8, ru_pam ru_pam maghavan 
bobhavi_ti, Maghavan isrepeatedy of various forms; he can take what form he 

3.048.05 We invoke for our protection the opulent Indra, distinguished in this 
combat, the leader in thefood-bestowing (strife), hearing (our praises), 
terrible in battles, the destroyer of foes, the conqueror of wealth.

3.049.01 I glorify the mighty Indra, in whom all men, drinking the Soma, obtain 
their wishes; whom the powerful(heaven and earth) and the gods begot, the doer 
of great deeds, the slayer of the Vr.tras, who was fashioned byVibhu (the 
creator). [Fashioned by Vibha: vibhvatas.t.am = appointed by Brahma for the 
government of the world,jagada_dhipatye brahman.a_ stha_pitam]. 

3.049.02 Whom, when borne by his steeds, foremost and eminent in battles, 
breaking in two the (hostile host), noone ever surpasses; supreme in a way, 
attended by his faithful Maruts, and hastening to combat, he hasdestroyed with 
foe-withering (energies) the existence of the Dasyu. 

3.049.03 Vigorous, rushing through (hostile hosts), like a war-horse, he has 
pervaded heaven and earth, sendingdown rain; he is to be worshipped with 
oblations at the solemn (rite) like Bhaga; he is as the father of those whoadore 
(him); he is beautiful, worthy of invocation, the bestower of food. 

3.049.04 The upholder of heaven and of the firmament, the wind, like a chariot 
traversing the upper (region)accompanied by the Vasus; the clother of the night 
(with gloom), the parent of the sun, the distributor of theportion (allotted to 
the pious), like the words (of the wealthy appropriating to all) the food. 
[pris.t.ah u_rdhvo rathona va_yur vasubhir niyutva_n: indra is also designated 
here as va_yu; the vasus are said to be the maruts;another explanation: as, 
va_yu, having the niyuts for his steeds, moves like a chariot on high, so does 
Indra,accompanied by the Maruts]. 

3.049.05 We invoke for our protection the opulent Indra, distinguished in this 
combat, the leader in thefood-bestowing (strife), hearing (our praises), 
terrible in battles, the destroyer of foes, the conqueror of wealth.

3.050.01 May Indra drink the libation; he of whom is the Soma, having come to 
the sacrifice; he who is therepeller (of adversaries), the showerer (of 
benefits), the lord of the Maruts; may he, the wide-pervading, bepleased with 
these (sacrificial) viands; may the oblation be adequate to the wants of his 

3.050.02 I yoke (to your car), to bring you quickly, your two docile horses, 
whose speed you have of oldemployed; may your horses, handsome Indra, bring you 
hither, and drink promptly of this well-effused agreeablelibation. 

3.050.03 His adorers support with cattle, Indra, who is willing to bestow upon 
them their desires, and ready tocome to the sacrifice, for the sake of obtaining 
eminent prosperity and prolonged life; acceptor of the spiritlessSoma, who are 
the drinker of the Soma, and are exhilarated (by the draught), grant to us 
freely cattle inabundance. 

3.050.04 Gratify this our desire (of wealth) with cows, with horses, with 
shining treasure, and make us renowned;the wise Kus'ikas, desirous of heaven, 
offer praise of you, Indra, with pious (prayers). 

3.050.05 We invoke for our protection the opulent Indra, distinguished in this 
combat, the leader in thefood-bestowing (strife), hearing (our praises), 
terrible in battles, the destroyer of foes, the conqueror of wealth.

3.051.01 Let abundant praises celebrate Indra, the stay of man, the possessor of 
opulence, the adorable,prospering with increase, the invoked of many, the 
immortal, who is daily to be propitiated with sacred hymns. 

3.051.02 My praises constantly propitiate Indra, the object of many rites, the 
sender of rain, attended by theMaruts, the leader (of all), the giver of food, 
the destroyer of cities, the swift (in combat), the prompt (dispenser)of waters, 
the distributor of riches, the subduer of foes, the conferrer of heaven. 

3.051.03 Indra, the enfeebler (of adversaries), is praised as a mine of wealth; 
he is propitiated by righteouscommendations; he is gratified in the dwelling of 
the offerer of oblations; glorify Indra, the conqueror, thedestroyer of his 
enemies. [As a mine of wealth: a_kare vasoh = he is praised to procure his aid 
in battle, whichwhen successful, is the source of wealth or booty; a_ki_ryate 
yuddha_rtham dhanam atra itya_karo yuddhak, heis celebrated for the sake of war, 
for therein is wealth, therefore, a_kara is the same as yuddha; or, 
vasohjarayita_ = weakener of the foe, vasu here meaning enemy]. 

3.051.04 The priests glorify you, heroic leader of men, with praises and with 
prayers; Indra, the author of manydelusions, exerts himself for (the acquisition 
of) strength; he from of old is the lord of this (oblation). 

3.051.05 Many are his prohibitions (against evil enjoined) to men; many are the 
treasures that the earthenshrines; for Indra the heavens, the plants, the 
waters, men and priests, preserve their riches. [Many are hisprohibitions: 
purvi_r asya nis.idho martyes.u = na_na_ praka_ra_n.i anus'a_sana_ni, various 
kinds of commandsor regulations; in RV. 1.95, puru_n.is. idha = repeller of many 
foes; in both cases the substantive is fr. s.idh, tosucceed, to go, with the 
proposition nir, out, ex, to exclude to prohibit]. 

3.051.06 To you, Indra, (the pious) address prayers, and praises, and 
sacrifices; accept them, lord of horses;give all things, partake of this present 
oblation, and grant food to the worshippers. 

3.051.07 Indra, accompanied, by the Maruts, drink the Soma at this ceremony as 
you have drunk of this libationof the son of S'a_rya_ti; your far-reaching and 
devout worshippers, being in security, adore you through theirofferings. 
[S'a_rva_ti: RV. 1.051.12; Yasus. 7.35; being in security: tava s'arman a 
viva_santi, they worship you inthe security, or unassailable place, dependent 
on, or protected by you, tavasambandhini s'armaninirba_dhastha_ne stitha_h; 
s'arman = sukha-nimitte, for the sake of happiness; or, yajn~a-gr.ha, the 
chamber ofsacrifice]. 

3.051.08 Do you, Indra, who is gratified by the Soma, drink the Soma that has 
been effused by us, together withyour friends, the Maruts, at this ceremony; you 
who is invoked of many, and whom all the gods equipped as soonas born for the 
great battle (with the asuras). 

3.051.09 Maruts, this is your friend for sending of the waters; they (the 
Maruts), the givers of strength, haveyielded Indra gratification; may the 
devourer of Vr.tra drink with them the libation offered by the worshipper in 

3.051.10 Lord of riches, entitled to praise, this libation has been effused 
agreeably to (our) strength; do you drinkof it quickly. 

3.051.11 Invigorate your body with the Soma that has been poured out as food for 
you; may it exhilarate you,delighting in the Soma draught. 

3.051.12 May this libation, Indra, penetrate to your flanks; may it, (aided) by 
prayer, reach your head; may itspread, hero, through your arms, (that they may 
distribute) wealth.

3.052.01 Accept, Indra, at our morning sacrifice, this libation, combined with 
fresh barley, with parched grain andcurds, and with cakes, and sanctified by 
holy prayer. [Yajus. 20.29]. 

3.052.02 Accept, Indra, the prepared cakes and butter; eat them eagerly; the 
oblations flow for you. 

3.052.03 Eat, Indra, our (offered) cakes and butter, derive enjoyment from our 
praises, as a lover from hismistress. [As a lover from his mistress: vadhu_yur 
iva yos.an.a_m, as one fond of women, a libertine, enjoys ayouthful female]. 

3.052.04 Indra, renowned of old, accept our cakes and butter, offered at dawn; 
for great are your deeds. 

3.052.05 Partake, Indra, of the barley and the delicious cakes and butter of the 
midday sacrifice, when yourzealous worshipper, hastening to adore you, and eager 
as a bull, is present, and celebrates (yo) with hymns. 

3.052.06 Indra, who is praised of many, accept readily from our friend of 
barley, and cakes, and butter, offered atthe third (or evening) sacrifice; 
ladenwith sacrificial viands, we approach with praises to your sage Indra, who 
isaccompanied by the r.bhus and by Va_ja. 

3.052.07 We have prepared the parched grain and curds for you, associated with 
Pu_s.an; the fried barley foryou, lord of the tawny horses, associated with your 
steeds; attend by the troop of Maruts, eat the cakes; hero,who is wise, and the 
slayer of Vr.tra, drink the libation. 

3.052.08 Offer to him quickly (priests) the fried barley; offer to the most 
heroic of leaders the cakes and butter;may the like offerings, victorious Indra, 
presented to you daily, augment your vigour for the drinking of the Soma.

3.053.01 Indra and Parvata, bring hither, in a spacious car, delightful viands 
(generative of) good progeny;partake, deities, of the oblations (offered)at 
(our) sacrifices, and gratified by the (sacrificial) food, be elevated byour 

3.053.02 Tarry a while contentedly, Maghavan (at our rite); go not away; for I 
offer to you (the libation) of thecopiously-effused Soma; powerful Indra, I lay 
hold of the skirts (of your robe) with sweet-flavouredcommendations, as a son 
(clings to the garment) of a father. 

3.053.03 Adhvaryu, let us two offer praise; do you concur with me; let us 
address pleasing praise to Indra; sitdown, Indra, on the sacred grass (prepared 
by) the institutor of the rite; and may our commendations be mostacceptable to 
Indra. [Do you concur with me: prati me gr.n.i_hi; the Hota_ is supposed to 
speak to Adhvaryu todirect their joint performance of some part of the 

3.053.04 A man's wife, Maghavan, is hiw dwelling; verily she is his place of 
birth; thither let your horses,harnessed (to your car), convey you; we prepare 
the Soma at the fit season; may Agni come as our messengerbefor eyou. [His place 
of birth: ja_ya_ id astam sedu yonih: astam = gr.ham (gr.hin.i_ gr.ham ucyate 
iti smr.teh;na gr.ham gr.hamisya_hurgr.hi.n.o gr.hamucyate)]. 

3.053.05 Depart, Maghavan; come Indra; both ways, protector, there is a motive 
for you whether it be standing inyour vast chariot, or liberating your neighing 
steed. [Both ways: ubhayatra te artham: Indra's wife awaits hisreturn, the Soma 
libation invites his stay; protectorL bhra_ta_ = lit., brother; but here 
explained as pos.aka,nourisher]. 

3.053.06 When you have drunk the Soma, then, Indra, go home; an auspicious life 
(abides) pleasantly in yourdwelling; in either (case) there is the standing in 
your car or liberating the steeds for provender. 

3.053.07 These (sacrificers) are the Bhojas, of whom the diversified An:girasas 
(are the priests); and the heroicsons of the expeller (of the foes of the gods) 
from heaven, bestowing riches upon Vis'va_mitra at the sacrifice ofa thousand 
(victims), prolong (his) life. [These sacrificers are the Bhojas: ime bhoja_ 
an:giraso viru_pa_: bhoja_= ks.atriya descendants of Suda_s, suda_sah ks.atriya, 
ya_gam kurva_n.ah, instituting the sacrifice at which thelatter, Medha_tithi, 
and the rest of the race of an:giras were their ya_jakas, or officiating 
priests; the expeller:rudra, his sons are the maruts; sacrifice of a thousand 
victims: sahasrasave = the as'vamedha]. 

3.053.08 Maghavan becomes repeatedly (manifest) in various forms, practising 
delusions with respect to his ownpeculiar person; and invoked by his appropriate 
prayers, he comes in a moment from heaven to the three (dailyrites), and, 
although observant of seasons, is the drinker (of the Soma) irrespective of 

3.053.09 The great r.s.i the generator of the gods, the attracted by the 
deities, the overlooker of the leaders (atholy rites), Vis'va_mitra attested the 
watery stream when he sacrificed for Suda_s; Indra, with the Kus'ikas 
waspleased. [The generator of the gods: devaja_h = the generator of radiances or 
energies, tejasa_m janayita_;arrested the watery stream: astabhna_t sindhum 
arn.avam: he is said to have stoped the current of theconfluence of the 
vipa_s/a_ and s'utudri rivers; indra with the kus'ikas was pleased: apriyayata 
kus'ikebhir Indra =kus'ikagotrotpannair r.s.ibhih saha, with the r.s.is of the 
kus'ika lineage, or it might be rendered, pleased by theKus'ikas]. 

3.053.10 Sages and saints overlookers of the leaders (of sacred rites), 
Kus'ikas, when the Soma is expresssedwith stones at the sacrifice, then 
exhilarating (the gods) with praises, sing the holy strain (aloud) like 
(screaming)swans, and, together with the gods, drink the sweet juice of the 

3.053.11 Approach, Kus'ikas, the steed of Suda_s; animate (him), and let him 
loose to (win) riches (for the raja);for the king (of the gods) has slain Vr.tra 
in the East, in the West, in the North, therefore let (Suda_s) worship himin the 
best (regions) of the earth. 

3.053.12 I have made Indra glorified by these two, heaven and earth, and this 
prayer of Vis'va_mitra protects therace of Bharata. [Made Indra glorified: 
indram atus.t.avam-- the verb is the third preterite of the casual, I havecaused 
to be praised; it may mean: I praise Indra, abiding between heaven and earth, 
i.e. in the firmament]. 

3.053.13 The Vis'va_mitras have addressed the prayer to Indra, the wielder of 
the thunderbolt; may he thereforerender us very opulent. [The Vis'va_mitras: The 
bharatas, or descendants of Bharata, are descendants ofVis'va_mitra; Bharata is 
the son of S'akuntala_, the daughter of the sage, Visva_mitra 
(Maha_bha_rataA_diparva); Vasis.t.ha is the family priest of the Bharats and was 
the restorer to dominion from which they hadbeen expelled by the Pan~ca_las]. 

3.053.14 What do the cattle for you among the Ki_kat.as; they yield no milk to 
mix with the Soma, they need notthe vessel (for the libation); bring them to us; 
(bring also) the wealth of the son of the usurer, and give usMaghavan, (the 
possessions) of the low branches (of the community). [The Ki_kat.as: (Nirukta 
6.32) are peoplewho do not perform worship, who are infidels, na_stikas; in 
countrie sinhabited by ana_ryas (ki_kat.a_ na_mades'ona_ryaniva_sah); na tapanti 
gharma_n.i: harmyam = a house; gharma_n.i = a vessel termed maha_vi_raused at 
the rite called pragr.hya: pragr.h ya_khya_ karmopa yuktam maha_vi_rapa_tram, 
which the cattle do notwarm by yielding their milk to it; usurer: a_ bhara 
pramagandasya vedas: maganda = kusidin, or usurer, one whosays to himself, the 
money that goes from me will come back doubled, and pra = a patronymic; low 
branches ofthe community: naica_s'a_kham, that which belongs to a low (ni_ca) 
branch, or class (s'a_kha); the posterity bornof S'u_dras and the like]. 

3.053.15 The daughter of Su_rya given by Jamadagni gliding everywhere and 
dissipating ignorance, has emitteda mighty (sound), and has diffused ambrosial 
imperishable food among the gods. [Given by Jamadagni:jamadagni datta_ = given 
by the r.s;is maintaining a blazing jamat-jvalat, fire, agni; mighty sound: the 
sound ofthunder or the like in the sky; food among the gods: as the prayers or 
exclamation which accompanies the burntoffering]. 

3.053.16 May she, gliding everywhere, quickly bring us food (suited) to the five 
races of men; may she, thedaughter of the sun whom the grey-haired jamadagnis 
gave to me, (be) the bestower of new life. [Five races ofmen: pan~cajanya_su 
kr.s.t.is.u: five distinctions are restricted to human beings; hence, the 
reference may be tofour castes and barbarians; daughter of the sun: paks.ya_, 
the daughter of Paks.a: paks.a nirva_hakasya, thedistributor of the parts (of 
the year?), i.e. su_ryasya, of the sun; bestower of new life: navyam a_yur 
dadha_na,having new life or food: mama kurvan.a_ bhavatu]. 

3.053.17 May the horse be steady, the axle be strong, the pole be not defective, 
the yoke not be rotten; mayIndra preserve the two yoke-pins from decay; car with 
uninjured felloes, be ready for us. [The horses: ga_vaugaccheta iti ga_vau 
as'vau: ga_va_ implies those who go, or, in this place, horses; car be ready for 
us:Vis'va_mitra being about to depart from the sacrifice of Suda_s, invokes good 
fortune for his conveyance]. 

3.053.18 Give strength, Indra, to our bodies; give strength to our vehicles; 
(give) strength to our sons andgrandsons; that they may live (long); for you are 
giver of strength. 

3.053.19 Fix firmly the substance of the khayar (axle), give solidity to the 
s'is'u (floor) of the car; strong axle,strongly fixed by us, be strong; cast us 
not from out of our conveyance. [khayar and s'is'u: khadirasya sa_ram isthe 
text; khadira = mimosa catechu of which the bolt of the axle is made; while the 
s'im.s'apa, dalbergia sisufurnishes wood for the floor; these are still timber-
trees in common use]. 

3.053.20 May this lord of the forest never desert us nor do us harm; may we 
travel prosperously home until thestopping (of the car), until the unharnessing 
(of the steeds). [This lord of the forest: vanaspati, i.e. the timber ofwhich 
the car is made]. 

3.053.21 Indra, hero,possessor of wealth, protect us this day against our foes 
with many and excellent defences;may the vile wretch who hates us fall (before 
us); may the breath of life depart from him whom we hate. 

3.053.22 As (the tree) suffers pain from the axe, as the s'imbal flower is 
(easily) cut off, as the injured cauldronleaking scatters foam, so may mine 
enemy perish. [The ellipse: as the tree is cut down by the axe, so may theenemy 
be cut down; as one cuts off without difficulty the flower of the s'imbal, so 
may he be destroyed; as theukha_ (cauldron) when struck (prahata), and thence 
leaking (yes.anti_, sravanti_), scatters foam or breath fromits mouth, so 
(dves.t.a madi_ya, mantra sa_marthyena prahatah san, phenam mukha_d udgirtu), 
may that hater,struck by the power of my prayer vomit foam fromhis mouth]. 

3.053.23 Men, (the might) of the destroyer is not known toyou; regarding him as 
a mere animal, they lead himaway desirous (silently to complete his devotions); 
the wise condescend not to turn the foolish into ridicule, theydo not lead the 
ass before the horse. [Legend: Vis'va_mitra was seized and bound by the 
followers of Vasis.t.ha,when observing a vow of silence. These were the 
reflections of the sage on the occasion: disparaging the rivalryof Vasis.t.ha 
with himself, as if between an ass and a horse: sa_yakasya = of an arrow;here 
explained, todestroy, avasa_naka_rin.ah; lodham nayanti = they lead the sage; 
lodha = fr. lubdham, desirous that hispenance might not be frustrated, tapasah 
ks.ayo ma_ bhu_d iti, lobhena tus.n.i_m sthitam r.s.im pas'ummanyama_na, 
thinking the r.s.i silent through his desire, to be an animal, i.e., stupid; 
another interpretation inNirukta:lubdham r.s.im nayanti pas'um manyama_nah, they 
take away the desiring r.s.i, thinking him an animal;na ava_jinam va_jina_ 
ha_sayanti: va_jina = fr. vac, speed, with ina affix; interpreted as srvajn~a, 
all knowing;the contrary avajina = mu_rkha, a fool]. 

3.053.24 These sons of Bharata, Indra, understand severance (from the 
Vasis.t.has), not association (with them);they urge their steeds (against them) 
as against a constant foe; they bear a stout bow (for their destruction) 
inbattle. [Sons of Bharata: descendants of Vis'va_mitra whose enmity to the 
lineage of Vasis.t.ha is hereexpressed; the enmity reportedly occurred  on 
account of Vis'va_mitra's disciple the Ra_ja_ suda_s;Anukraman.ika_ states that 
Vasis.t.has hear not the  inimical imprecations: antya abhis'aparthas 
tavasis.t.adevas.in.yah na vasis.t.hah s'r.n.vanti; Niruktam: sa 
vasis.t.hadves.i_ r.k-aham ca kapis.thalo vasi.s.hahatas tana nirbravi_mi, this 
and the previous verse are inimical to the Vasis.t.has and he is of the race 
ofVasis.t.ha, of the Kapis.t.hala branch].

3.054.01 They recite repeatedly this gratifying praise to the great product of 
sacrifice (Agni); may he who is(endowed) with domestic radiance hear us; may the 
imperishable Agni, (endowed) with divine radiance, hear us. 

3.054.02 Knowing their greatness, offer worship to the vast heaven and to the 
earth; my desire, wishing (forfelicity) proceed (to them), in whose praise the 
gods,desirous of adoration, delight together with their worshippersat the 
sacrifice. [My desire proceeds: ka_ma me icchan carati = lit., my  desire 
wishing goes, or exists; added toicchan, sarva_n bhoga_n, all enjoyments]. 

3.054.03 Heaven and earth, may your truth be ever inviolable; be propitious to 
us for the due completion of therite; this adoration (Agni) is offered to heaven 
and earth; I worship (them) with (sacrificial) food; I solicit of themprecious 

3.054.04 Heaven and earth, endowed with truth, they who are the ancient 
declarers of the truth, have obtainedfrom you (what they desired); and so, 
earth, men cognizant (of the greaness of you both) have worshipped youfor the 
sake of triumphing over (hostile) heroes in battle. 

3.054.05 Who knows what is the truth, or who may here declare it? What is the 
proper path that leads to thegods? Their inferior abiding places are beheld, as 
are those which (are situated) in superior mysterious rites.[Abiding places are 
beheld: as the constellations; superior mysterious rites: in the latter they are 
made known, itis said, by the Veda]. 

3.054.06 The far-seeing beholder of mankind (the sun), surveys this heaven and 
earth, rejoicing when deficientin moisture in the womb of the waters (the 
firmament), both concurring in community (of function), although theyoccupy 
various dwellings, like the diversified nests of a bird. [In community of 
function: in the interchange ofmoisture]. 

3.054.07 Common (in function), disjoined, of distant termination, they remain 
vigilant in a permanent station;being, as it were, sisters, and ever young; they 
therefore address each other by twin appellations. [Heaven andearth are the 
personifications here alluded to; address each other by twin appellations: a_du 
bruva_temithuna_ni na_ma; heaven and earth are designated together by urvi and 
other duplicate terms: urvya_dibhirdvandva na_ma_bhir dya_va_pr.thivyavucyate]. 

3.054.08 These two keep all born things discrete, and, although comprehending 
the great divinities, are notdistressed; all moving and stationary beings rest 
upon one (basis), whether animals, or birds, or creatures ofvarious kinds. [Keep 
all born things discrete: heaven and earth all that is born distinct, by 
furnishing interval orspace, avaka_s'aprada_nena]. 

3.054.09 I consider at present the eternal and ancient sisterhood to us of you, 
our great protectress andprogenitrix, within whose vast and separated path your 
eulogists, the gods, travel in their chariots. [Protectressand progenitrix: 
mahah pitur janitur ja_mi tan nah = mahatyah pa_layitryah janayitryastava, of 
you, that is, of theheaven; ja_mi = ja_mitva, or bhaginitvam, sisterhood, the 
condition of a relative sister; this will not allow of pita_and janita_ being 
rendered father and progenitor]. 

3.054.10 I repeat this hymn, heaven and earth, to you; and may the soft-bellied, 
fire-tongued Mitra, royal Varun.a,the youthful A_dityas, all cognizant of the 
past, and proclaiming (their own acts), hear it. [Proclaiming:papratha_na_h = 
sva_ni sva_ni karma_n.i prathayantah]. 

3.054.11 The golden-handed, soft-tongued Savita_ is descending from heaven (to 
be present) thrice (daily) atthe sacrifice; accept, Savita_, the praise 
(recited) by the worshippers, and thereupon grant to us all our desires. 

3.054.12 May the divine Tvas.t.a_, the able artificer, the dextrous-handed, the 
possessor of wealth, the observerof truth, bestow upon us those things (which 
are necessary) for our preservation; r.bhus, associated withPu_s.an, make us 
joyful, as they (the priests), with uplifted stones, prepare the sacred 

3.054.13 May the Maruts, whose cars are the lightning, who are armed with 
spears, resplendent, destroyers offoes, from whom the waters proceed, (who are) 
unresting and adorable, and may Sarasvati_ hear (my prayer);and may you 
(maruts), speedy in your liberality, bestow (upon us) riches and good offspring. 

3.054.14 May (our) praises and prayers, the causes of good fortune, attain at 
this sacrifice Vis.n.u, the object ofmany rites; he, the wide-stepping; whose 
commands the many-blending regions of space, the generators (of allbeings), do 
not disobey. 

3.054.15 Indra, invested with all energies, has filled both heaven and earth 
with his greatness; do you, who arethe destroyer of cities, the slayer of 
Vr.tra, the leader of a conquering host, collect cattle and bestow 
themabundantly upon us. 

3.054.16 Na_satyas, my protectors, inquirers (after the wishes) of your kinsman, 
beautiful is your cognateappellation of As'vins; be to us the liberal donors of 
riches; do you, who are irresistible, protect the offerer (of theoblation) with 
unblameable (defences).] 

3.054.17 Sages acquainted with the past, excellent is that beautiful appellation 
under which you have bothbecome gods in (the sphere of) Indra; do you, Indra, 
the invoked of many, a friend, (associated) with the belovedr.bhus, shape this 
prayer for our benefit. [That beautiful appellation: ca_ru na_ma = agreeable or 
acceptable actor devotion, na_makarma na_ma_na_m va_, ca_ru, manoharam, by which 
the As'vins attained deification, yenadevatvam pra_pnutha; in the preceding 
verse, saja_tyam ca_ru na_ma is explained as saja_te bhavamkamani_yam, desirable 
cognate appellation]. 

3.054.18 May Aryaman, Aditi, the adorable (gods), and the unimpeded functions of 
Varun.a (protect) us; keep usfrom (following) the course unpropitious to 
offspring, and may our dwelling be abundant in progeny and cattle.[Keep us from 
the course: yuyota no anapatya_ni gantoh: anapatya_ni = putra_n.a_m ahita_ni 
karman.itanma_rga_t pr.thak kuruta]. 

3.054.19 May the messenger of the gods, engendered in many places, everywhere 
proclaim us void of offence;may earth and heaven, the waters, the sun, and the 
vast firmament, with the constellation, hear us. 

3.054.20 May the (divine) showerers (of benefits), the deities of the mountains, 
and those abiding in fixedhabitations, propitiated by the sacrificial food, hear 
us; may Aditi, with the A_dityas, heqar us; may the Marutsgrant us auspicious 
felicity. [Abiding in fixed habitations: dhruvaks.ema_sah nis'calastha_nah, 
those of fixedplaces; it may be an epithet of parvata_sah]. 

3.054.21 May our path ever be easy of going, and provided with food; sprinkle, 
gods, the plants with sweetwater; (safe) in your friendship, Agni, may my 
fortune never be impaired, but may I occupy a dwelling (abounding)with riches 
and ample food. 

3.054.22 Taste (Agni) the oblations, make manifest (for us) abundant food 
measure out the viands before us; youovercome all those (who are) our enemies in 
conflict;  favourably inclined towards us lighten up all our(ceremonies) day by 

3.055.01 When the preceding dawns appear, the great imperishable (light) is 
engendered in the (firmament, the)sphere of the waters, and then the worshipper 
is alert to perform the rites (due to) the gods, for great andunequalled is the 
might of the gods. [mahad deva_na_m asuratvam ekam: this is the burden of this 
and followingverses; asuratvam is the abstract form of asura, explained strong, 
powerful, prabala_, from asyati, who or whatthrows or impels all things or 
beings, asyati, s'ipati sarvan: the abstract ispra_balyam or ais'varyam, might 
orsovereigny; ekam = one, is explained mukhyam, chief]. 

3.055.02 Let not the gods, Agni, now do us harm, nor the ancient progenitors, 
who have come to know thedegree (of divinity); nor the manifester of light 
between the two ancient dwellings (earth and heaven, the sun); forgreat and 
unequalled is the might of the gods. 

3.055.03 Variously do my manifold desires alight; present at the solemnity,  I 
recite ancient (hymns); when the fireis kindled we speak indeed the truth, for 
great and unequalled is the might of the gods. 

3.055.04 The universal sovereign is conveyed to many directions; he sleeps in 
the places of repose; he isconnected with the forests; one mother (heaven) 
nourishes the child; the other (earth) gives him a dwelling; greatand unequalled 
is the might of the gods. [The universal sovereign: sama_na_ ra_ja may imply 
either Agni or theSoma]. 

3.055.05 Existing in ancient plants, abiding afterwards in new, he enters into 
the young (herbs) as soon as theyare produced; unimpregnated they become 
pregnant and bear fruit; great and unequalled is the might of thegods.  
[Existing in ancient plants: Said of either Agni or the Sun]. 

3.055.06 The child of two mothers sleeps in the west, but (in the morning) the 
single infant proceedsunobstructed (through the sky); these are the functions of 
Mitra and Varun.a; great and unequalled is the might ofthe gods. [Mitra and 
Varun.a: Mitra presiding over day; Varun.a over the night, both being forms of 
one Agni]. 

3.055.07 The child of two mothers, the invoker of the gods at sacrifices, the 
universal sovereign, proceedsthenceforward (in the sky); the root (of all), he 
abides (in the houses of the pious); the reciters of pleasant(words) offer him 
agreeable (praises); great and unequalled is the might of the gods. 

3.055.08 All (creatures) approaching too near his confines are beheld with their 
faces turned away as (an enemy)flies from a combatant; obvious (to all), he 
penetrates the water for its destruction; great and unequalled is themight of 
the gods. 

3.055.09 In those (plants) the aged messenger (of the gods) constantly abides; 
mighty, he presses with theradiant (sun) through the region of space; assuming 
various forms, he looks (complacently) upon us; great andunequalled is the might 
of the gods. 

3.055.10 Pervading and protecting (all), possessing grateful and immortal 
radiance, he preserves the supremepath (or the rains), for Agni knows all these 
worlds; great and unequalled is the might of the gods. 

3.055.11 The twin pair (day and night) adopt various forms; one of them shines 
brightly, the other is black; twinsisters are they, one black and the other 
white; great and unequalled is the might of the gods. 

3.055.12 Where the mother and daughter, two productive kine, unite, they nourish 
each other; I worship themboth in (the firmament), the dwelling of the waters 
great and unequalled is the might of the gods. [They nourisheach other: earth 
and heaven by the interchange of moisture]. 

3.055.13 Licking the calf of the other, one of them lows aloud; the cow offers 
her udder for the one that is withoutmosture (the earth), and she (the earth) is 
refreshed by the milk of the rain; great and unequalles is the might ofthe gods. 
[Licking the calf: the calf is said to be Agni, the cow with milk is the sky, 
whose udder is the cloud,whence the rain of which the earth is in want descends: 
r.tasya sa_ prayasa_ pinvatel.a_ = jalavarjita_ pr.thivya_dityasyodakena sikta_ 
bhavati vars.a_ka_le (a_ditya_jjayte vr.s.tih--Manu 3.76), the earth without 
water issprinkled by the water of the sun in the rainy season]. 

3.055.14 The earth wears bodies of many forms; she abides on high cherishing her 
year and a half old (calf);knowing the abode of the truth (the sun), I offer 
worship; great and unequalled is the might of the gods. [Theearth: padya in the 
text is explained as bhu_mi, deriving it from pad, or foot, the earth, i.e. 
having been createdfrom the feet of the Creator; abides on high: on the altar; 
year and a half old calf: tryavim sardha_ sam.vatsaravayasko vatsah, a calf a 
year and half old; i.e, the sun of that period, or it may apply to the sun, as 
the protector(avih) of the three (tri) worlds; the abode of truth: r.tasya 
sadman, satyabhu_tasya_dityasya stha_nam, the placeof the sun, who is one with 
the truth]. 

3.055.15 Like two (distinguishing) impressions, they (day and night) are placed 
visible in the midst (betweenheaven and earth), one hidden, one manifest; the 
path (of both) is common, and that is universal (for good andevil) great and 
unequalled is the might of the gods. 

3.055.16 May the kine without their young, abiding (in the heaven), and though 
unmilked, yet yielding milk andever fresh and youthfu,l be shaken (so as to 
perform their functions); great and unequalled is the might of thegods. [The 
kind: either the regions of space of the clouds]. 

3.055.17 When the showerer roars in other (regions) he sends down the rain upon 
a different herd, for he is thevictor, the auspicious, the sovereign; great and 
unequalled is the might of the gods. [Upon a different herd:anyasmin yu_the, a 
herd, or troop,of regions, dis'a_m vr.nde]. 

3.055.18 We proclaim, people, the wealth of the hero, (Indra), in horses; the 
gods know his (affluence); six, orfive and five, harnessed to his car, convey 
him; great and unequalled is the might of the gods. [Six or five:s.ol.ha_ 
yukta_h pan~capan~ca vahanti = either the six seasons of the year, or, by 
combining the cold and dewyseasons, five; these are figurately Indra's horses. 

3.055.19 The divine Tvas.t.a_ the impeller (of all), the multiform, has begotten 
and nourished a numerousprogeny, for all these worlds are of him; great and 
unequalled is the might of the gods. 

3.055.20 He has filled the two vast receptacles (heaven and earth) united (with 
creatures); they are bothpenetrated by his lustre; the hero spoiling the 
treasures (of the foe) is renowned; great and unequalled is themight of the 
gods. [The two vast receptacles: camvau, the two vessels in which gods and men 
and men eat,camanty adanty anayor devamanus.ah; this would imply vessels or 
ladles, but the explanation is that the two thatare or enjoyed by living beings, 
i.e. heaven and earth]. 

3.055.21 Our king, the nourisher of all, abides (in the firmament) nearest to 
this earthlike a benevolent friend; thevaliant (Maruts) precede him (when 
abroad), and dwell in his mansion; great and unequalles is the might of thegods. 

3.055.22 The plants, Indra, come to perfection by you; from you the waters 
(flow); earth bears her treasures foryou; may we, your friends, be sharers of 
these blessings; great unequalled is the might of the gods.

3.056.01 Neither the deceptive nor the resolute interrupt the primitive and 
permanent operations of the gods, nordo the innocuous heaven and earth 
(interrupt them), nor are the mountains standing (on the earth) to be boweddown. 
[The condition of all created things in earth and heaven, and the elevation of 
the mountains, are the workof the gods, and no one can make them otherwise]. 

3.056.02 One stationary (year) sustains six burdens (in the season); the (solar) 
rays spread through that true andextensive (term); three revolving spheres are 
severally above, two of which are placed in secret, and one isvisible. [One is 
visible: heaven and the firmament are not wholly discernible, earth is]. 

3.056.03 The tree-breasted, the showerer (of rain), the omniform, the three-
uddered, the parent of multiformprogeny, the possessor of magnitude, followed by 
three hosts (the year), advances, the vigorous impregnator ofthe perpetual 
plants. [Three-breasted: thatis, as subsequently specified, the year, 
personified; the number three,repeatedly mentioned, is said to apply to the 
seasons of the year, reduced from the usual number of six to three,the hot, 
rainy, and cold, by merging into them, severally, the vernal, autumnal, and 

3.056.04 (The year) is awake, the path in the vicinity of those (plants); I call 
upon the beautiful name of theA_dityas; the divine waters wandering severally 
(now) give it delight, and (now) depart from it. [A_dityas: that is,upon the 
months over which the twelve A_dityas preside; now give it delight and now 
depart from it: during thefour months of the year when the rains fall the rivers 
are filled; during the other eight  they are more or less driedup]. 

3.056.05 Rivers, the dwelling-places of the intelligent gods are thrice three; 
the measurer of the three (worlds) isthe sovereign at sacrifices; three female 
(divinities) of the waters charged with the rains descend from heaven atthe 
thrice (repeated) solemnity. [Each of the three lokas has three divisions; this 
information is addressed to theriver, Sindhavah being in the vocative case; the 
measurer of the three worlds: the sun or the year; three femaledivinities: 
il.a_, sarasvati_ and bha_rati_]. 

3.056.06 Savita_, descended from heaven, bestow upon us blessings thrice 
everyday; Bhaga, saviour, grant usthrice a day riches of three elements; 
Dhis.an.a enable us to acquire (wealth). [Riches of three elements:tridha_tu 
ra_yas, cattle, gold and gems; dhis.an.a = the goddess of speech]. 

3.056.07 May Savita_ bestow upon us wealth at the (three periods) of the day, 
for the well-handed Mitra andVarun.a, the waters, the vast heaven and earth, 
solicit precious things from the liberality of Savita_. 

3.056.08 Three are the excellent  uninjurable bright regions, three scions of 
the powerful (year) are shining;practisers of truth, quick moving, of surpassing 
radiance; may the deities be present thrice daily at the 
sacrifice.[Three..bright regions: heaven, earth, firmament; three scions of the 
year: Agni, Va_yu and Su_rya; the tet callsthem asurasya vi_ra: asurah = 
ka_la_tma sam.vatsara, th eyear, identical with time, tasya putrah, its sons].

3.057.01 May the discriminating Indra apprehend my glorification (of the gods), 
which is (free) as a cow, grazingalone, without a cowherd, one who is readily 
milked, yielding abundant nourishment, and of whom Agni and Indra(and we), are 
the commenders. 

3.057.02 Indra and Pu_s.an, the showerers (of benefits) and happy-handed 
As'vins, well affected towards us,have milked the (cloud) reposing in heaven, 
wherefore, Vasus, universal deities, sporting on this (altar), may Ihere obtain 
the happiness derived from you. 

3.057.03 The plants that desire for the showerer (Indra) the power (of sending 
rain) appreciate, when manifest,the embryo (blossom) deposited in him; the kine 
desirous of reward come to the presence of the calf, investedwith many forms. 
[The calf: the vegetable world, as characterized by rice, barley, wild rice, and 
the like, vr.hiyavani va_ra_di phala laks.an.am, putram, tanayam, vatsam iva]. 

3.057.04 I glorify with praise the beautiful heaven and earth, taking in hand 
the stones (to express the libation) atthe sacrifice, as these your graceful, 
adorable, and many-blessing rays (Agni) mount up for the good of man. 

3.057.05 With your wide-spreading tongue, Agni, sweet and intelligent, which is 
renowned amongst the gods,bring hither all the adorable deities for our 
protection, and give them to drink of the sweet (libations). 

3.057.06 Divine Agni, giver of dwellings, knower of all that exists, extend to 
us that benevolence which, unsharedby others, cherishes us like the showers of 
the rain-cloud; that kindness which is beneficent for all mankind.

3.058.01 The cow (the dawn) yields the desired milk to the ancient (Agni); the 
son of the south passes within (thefirmament); the bright-houred (day) brings 
the illuminative (sun); the praiser awakes (to glorify) the As'vinspreceding the 
dawn. [The son of the south: daks.ina_ya_h putrah = us.asah putrah Su_rya, the 
sun, the son ofthe dawn]. 

3.058.02 The well-yoked (horses) bear you both in your truth (preserving car); 
the offerings proceed towards youas (children to their parents); discard from us 
the disposition of the niggard; we have made ready for you ouroffering; come to 
our presence. 

3.058.03 Dasras, with well-yoked horses and well-constructed car, hear this 
praise of the worshipper, for havenot the ancient sages declared you, As'vins, 
to be most ready to come to the aid of the destitute? 

3.058.04 I glorify with praise the beautiful heaven and earth taking in hand the 
stones (to express the libation) atthe sweet (Soma) juice mixed with milk, as 
friends (give gifts to friends); the sun is in advance, (therefore come tothis 

3.058.05 Eclipsing (by your splendour) many regions, As'vins, (come hither); 
loud priase awaits you opulent(As'vins) among men; come to this rite by the 
paths traversed by the gods; here, Dasras, are ample stores of theexhilarating 
(Soma) juices. [nidhayo madhu_na_m: nidh is a kind of vessel, pa_tra vis'es.ah]. 

3.058.06 Your ancient friendship is desirable and auspicious; your wealth, 
leaders (of rites), is in the family ofJahnu; renewing that auspicious 
friendship, may we, your associates, delight you with the sweet (Soma). 
[Jahnu:yuvor dravin.am jahna_vya_m: fr. jahnu = jahna_vya_m = jahnukulaja_ya_m, 
born in the lineage of Jahnu; it mayimply the Gan:ga_, Ja_hnavi_, following the 
legend of her origin from Jahnu]. 

3.058.07 As'vins, endowed with power, ever young, in whom is no untruth, 
unwearied, munificent, accepters (oflibations), drink with Va_yu and your 
steeds, rejoicing together, of the Soma libation offered at the close of day. 

3.058.08 As'vins, abundant (sacrificial) viands are presented to you, and 
blameless worshippers (salute you) withpraises; your water-shedding car, 
attracted by the sacrificers, quickly compasses earth and heaven. 

3.058.09 As'vins, this most sweet Soma is mixed; drink it; come to (our) 
dwelling; your car, repeatedly bestowingwealth, is coming to the appointed place 
of the offerer of the libation. [The appointed place: nis.kr.tam = the placeof 
agreement, nir ityes.ah; samitye tasya stha_ne = gr.ha, house (Nirukta 12.7)].

3.059.01 Mitra, when praised, animates men to exertion; Indra sustains both the 
earth and heaven; Mitra looksupon men with unclosing eyes; offer to Mitra the 
oblations of clarified butter. [Mitra: signifies the sun, who ismeasured or 
appreciated (miyate) by all, and who preserves (tra_yate) the world, by 
bestowing rain; cf. Nirukta.10.22]. 

3.059.02 May that mortal enjoy abundance, Mitra, who presents you, A_ditya, 
(with offerings) at the sacred rite;protected by you he is not harmed; he is not 
overcome by any one; son reaches him not, either from afar or nigh. 

3.059.03 May we, exempt from disease, rejoicing in (abundant) food, roaming free 
over the wide (expanse) of theearth, diligent in the worship of A_ditya, ever be 
in the good favour of Mitra. [Roaming free: mitajn~avah =mitaja_nuka, with 
measured knees; i.e. yatha_ka_mam sarvatra gacchantah, going everywhere at 

3.059.04 This Mitra has been engendered adorable and to be served, the sovereign 
(over all), endowed withvigour, the creator (of the universe); may we ever be in 
the good favour, in the auspicious approbation, of thisadorable (A_ditya). 

3.059.05 The great A_ditya, the animator of men to exertion, is to be approached 
with reverence; he is the giverof happiness to him who praises him; offer with 
fire the acceptable libation to that most glorifiable Mitra. 

3.059.06 Desirable food and most renowned wealth are (the gifts) of the divine 
Mitra, the supporter of man.[Yajus. 2.62; avah = protection; or, annam, food; 
dyumnam = dhanam, wealth; or, fame or food, yas'o annam va_;the epithet sanasi = 
sarvaih sambhajani_yam; or, santa_nam, eternal; fr. sanasi = pura_n.a, old]. 

3.059.07 The renowned Mitra, who by his might presides over heaven, is he who 
presides over the earth by (thegift of) food. 

3.059.08 The five classes of men have repaired to the victorious Mitra, for he 
supports all the gods. 

3.059.09 Mitra is he who among tods and men bestows food as the reward of pious 
acts upon the man who hasprepared (for him) the lopped sacred grass.

3.060.01 Your connection (with the consequences of acts) r.bhus is here 
(acknowledged) by the minds of all;desiring their share (of the sacrifice), oh 
men, they have come with a knowledge (of their claims) to these (rites);the sons 
of Sudhanvan, with the devices by which they are victorious over foes, you have 
accepted the share ofthe sacrifice. [Your connection: vo bandhuta_ = your 
affinity or friendship; i.e. they who connect acts with theirfruits, badhnanti 
phalena karma_n.i; you have accepted the share of the sacrifice: yajn~iyam 
bha_gam a_nas'a:the verb is explained in the second pers. pl. of the reduplicate 
preterite, yu_yam vya_ptah stha, you havepervaded, the as' is conjugated in 
parasmaipada, instead of a_tmanepada; in the third stanza we havesama_nas'uh 
instead of sama_nas'ire]. 

3.060.02 With those faculties by which you have divided the ladles; with that 
intelligence wherewith you havecovered the (dead) cow with skin; with that will 
by which you have fabricated the two horses (of Indra); with those(means), 
r.bhus, you have attained divinity. 

3.060.03 The r.bhus, the performers of (good) works, the grandsons of a man, 
have attained the friendship ofIndra, they have perpetuated (existence); the 
sons of Sudhanvan have attained immortality; performers of piousacts influencing 
(the result), through their devotion (they have attained divinity) by their 
works. [Perpetuated:dadhanvire (as in adha_rayanta, RV. 1.202) has no 
accusative; so, aded is: pra_n.am, vitality, meaning immortallife]. 

3.060.04 Go with Indra in his chariot when the libation is poured out, and be 
(welcomed) with honour by the(worshipper) desiring (your favour); r.bhus, sons 
of Sudhanvan, bestowers (of the rewards of pious acts), yourvirtuous deeds, your 
great faculties, arenot to be mesured. 

3.060.05 Indra, along with the food-bestowing r.bhus, accept with both hands the 
(cup of the) effused Somalibation; excited Maghavan, by worship, rejoice with 
the human sons of Sudhanvan in the dwelling of the donor(of the offering). 

3.060.06 Indra, the praised of many, associated with R.bhu, and with Va_ja, 
exult with S'aci, at this our sacrifice;these self-revolving (days) are devoted 
to you, as well as the ceremonies (addressed) to the gods, and thevirtuous acts 
of man. [S'aci = karman, act, rite]. 

3.060.07 Indra, with the food-bestowing R.bhus rewarding (worship) with food, 
come hither to (receive) thereverential praise of the adorer, with a hundred 
quick-going steeds, the indications (of the Maruts); come to theburnt offering 
of the sacrifice, yielding a thousand blessings to the sacrificer. [Food-
bestowing R.bhus: R.bhubhirva_jibhir va_jayan, imples a quibble on the word 
va_ja: which is the name of one of the R.bhus, used for all theR.bhus; it also 
means, food].

3.061.01 Affluent Us.as, giver of sustenance, possessed of intelligence, be 
propitiated by the praise of him wholauds you, (and worships) with (sacrificial) 
food; divine Us.as, adored by all, who (though) ancient are (still)young, the 
object of manifold worship, you are present at the recurring (morning) rite. 
[RV. 1.48.16; 1.123.11]. 

3.061.02 Us.as, who are divine and immortal, mounted in a golden chariot, do you 
shine radiant causing to behead the sounds of truth; may your vigorous and well-
trained horses bring you, who are golden-haired, (hither).[Causing up to be 
heard the sound of truth: sunr.ta irayanti (also used in RV. 1.113.12: sunr.ta 
irayanti renderedas awakener of pleasant voices, the dawn exciting or awakening 
the true or agreeable cries of beasta nd birds)]. 

3.061.03 Us.as, who spread over all the regions, you abide on high, the ensign 
of the immortal (sun), purposingto travel the same road, repeatedly turn back 
over new, (revolving) like a wheel. 

3.061.04 The opulent Us.as, the bride of the far-darting (sun), throwing off 
(darkness) like a garment, proceeds;diffusing her own (lustre), auspicious, 
promoting sacred acts, she is renowned to the ends, she is renowned tothe ends 
of the heaven and of the earth. 

3.061.05 Offer, with your prostrations, due praise to the divine Us.as, shining 
upon yoou; the repository ofsweetness manifests her brightness aloft in the sky, 
and radiant and lovely lights the regions. [The repository ofsweetness: 
madhudha_: madhu may mean sweet words of praise, madhura_n.i stuti laks.an.a_ni 
va_kya_ni, orsimply praise, stoma; or, it may be the name of Us.as; dha_ is that 
which has or holds; lights the regions: cf. RV.1.49.4]. 

3.061.06 The possessor of truth is recognized in the sky by her rays; the 
possessor of wealth has taken amarvellous station in earth and heaven; Agni, 
soliciting alms of the radiant advancing Us.as, you obtain yourdesired treasure 
(of oblations). [Your desired treasures: that is, the sacrificial fire is 
kindled at dawn]. 

3.061.07 The showerer (of rain, the sun), urging on the lawn, at the root of the 
truthful (day) has pervaded thevast heaven and earth; the mighty Us.as, the 
golden light, as it were, of Mitra and Varun.a, diffuses her lustre indifferent 
directions. [The truthful day: r.tasya satyabhu_tasya: it is identified with 
truth as the season in theperformance of religious rites].

3.062.01 Indra and Varun.a, may these people who are relying upon you, and 
wandering about (in alarm),sustain no injury from a youthful (adversary); for 
where is that reputation (you enjoy) on account that you bestowsustenance on 
your friends. 

3.062.02 Most diligent (in pious rites) this (your worshipper), Indra and 
Varun.a, desirous of wealth, incessantlyinvokes, you for protection; associated 
with the Maruts, with heaven and earth, hear my invocation. 

3.062.03 May there be to us, Indra and Varun.a, such wealth (as we covet); may 
there be, Maruts, to us wealth(of cattle) and numerous descendants; may the 
delightful (wives of the gods) shelter us with dwellings; may Hota_and Bha_rati_ 
(enrich) us with gifts. [Wives of the gods: the text has only varutri_h; this is 
explained as sarvaihsambhajani_ya, devapatnayah, to be admired by all; the wives 
of the gods]. 

3.062.04 Br.haspati, friend of all the gods, accept our oblations; grant 
precious treasures to the offerer. 

3.062.05 Adore the pure Br.haspati at sacrifices with hymns; I solicit of him 
unsurpassable strength. 

3.062.06 The showerer (of benefits) on men, the omniform, the irreproachable, 
the excellent Br.haspati. 

3.062.07 Divine, resplendent, Pu_s.an, this, your most recent laudation, is 
uttered by us to you. 

3.062.08 Be pleased by this my praise, and incline to this food-supplicating 
laudation as an excessivelysubmissive (husband) to his wife. 

3.062.09 May that Pu_s.an, who looks upon all the worlds, who thoroughly 
contemplates them, be our protector. 

3.062.10 We meditate on that desirable light of the divine Savita_, who 
influences our pious rites. [Yajus. 3.35;pracodaya_t = who may animate, or 
enlighten our intellect; savita_ = the soul, as one with the soul of the 
world,Brahma; when we meditate on the light which is one with Brahma, his own 
light, which, from its consuminginfluences on ignorance and its consequences, is 
termed Bhargas, and is that which is desirable, from its beingto be known or 
worshiped by all (varen.yam) the property of the supreme being, (parames'vara), 
the creator ofthe world, and the animator, impeller or urger (savita_), through 
the internally abiding spirit (antarya_m) of allcreatures; yah, although 
masculine, may be relative to the neuter noun bhargas, that light which animates 
all(dhiyah) acts (karma_n.i), or illumes all understanding (buddhih); again, 
devasya savituh may mean, of the brightor radiant sun, as the progenitor of all, 
sarvasya prasavitur, and bhargas may be understood as the sphere or orbof light, 
the consumer of sins, pa_pa_na_m ta_pakam tejo man.d.alam; bhargas may also mean 
food, and theprayer may only implore the sun to provide sustenance, tasya 
prasa_da_d anna_di laks.an.am phalam dhi_mahitasya a_dha_rabhu_ta bhavema, we 
anticipate from his favour the reward that is characterized by food and thelike, 
that is, may we be supported by him]. 

3.062.11 Desirous of food, we solicit with praise of the divine Savita_, the 
gift of affluence. 

3.062.12 Devout and wise men, impelled by intelligence, adore the divine Savita_ 
with sacrifices and sacredhymns. 

3.062.13 Soma, knowing the right path, proceeds (by it); he goes to the 
excellent seat of the gods, the place ofsacrifice. 

3.062.14 May Soma grant to us and to (our) biped and quadruped animals, 
wholesome food. 

3.062.15 May Soma, prolonging our lives and overcoming our adversaries, sit down 
in our place of sacrifice. 

3.062.16 Mitra and Varun.a, sprinkle our cow-stalls with butter; performers of 
good works, (sprinkle) the worldswith honey. [Sprinkle the worlds with honey: 
ghr.tair gavyu_tim uks.atam madhva_ raja_m.si: gavyu_ti = gava_mma_rgam, or 
goniva_sastha_nam, and the prayer implies, give us cows abounding in milk; 
gavyu_ti = the path orsacrifice, or a field; thr.taih = pure water, sprinkle our 
pastures with rain]. 

3.062.17 Performers of pure rites, glorified by many, exalted by adoration, 
(celebrated) by prolonged praises, youreign by the greatness of (your) strength. 

3.062.18 Glorified by Jamadagni, sit down in the place of sacrifice (the altar); 
drink, augmenters (of the reward)of sacrifice, the Soma libation. [Jamadagni = 
VIs'va_mitra, he by whom the fire has been kindled].

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