3.001.01 Render me vigorous, Agni, since you have made me the bearer of the Soma to offer it in the sacrifice;honouring the gods who are present, I take hold of the stone (to express Soma); I propitiate them; do you, Agni,protect my person. [Vis'va_mitra was a ks.atriya, of royal or military profession, and was also a monarch for some time; hedescended from Kus'a or the lunar lineage and was the ancestor of many royal and saintly persons, who, likehimself, were called after their common ancestor, Kus'ikas, or Kaus'ikas. By the force of his austerities, hecompelled Brahma_ to admit into the Bra_hman.a order. He sought this position to be equated with Vasis.t.ha,which whom he had disputed earlier. The circumstances of his dispute with Vasis.t.ha are detailed in theRa_ma_yan.a; the legend is also told in the Maha_bha_rata, Va_yu, Vis.n.u and Bha_gavata Pura_n.as.Vis'va_mitra and Vasis.t.ha had the patronage of hostile princes; but both had friendly relations with the royalfamily of Ayodhya_, or King Das'aratha and his son, Ra_ma]. 3.001.02 We have performed, Agni, a successful sacrifice; may my praise magnify (you) as worshipping you withfuel and with reverence; (the gods) fromheaven desire the adoration of the pious, who are anxious to praise theadorable and mighty (Agni). 3.001.03 The gods discovered the graceful Agni (concealed) amidst the waters of the flowing (rivers), for thepurpose of (sacred) acts; Agni, who is intelligent,of purified vigour, and friendly; who from his birth bestowedhappiness on earth and heaven. 3.001.04 The seven great rivers augmented in might the auspicious, pure, and radiant Agni as soon as he wasborn, in like manner as mares (tend) the newborn foal; the gods cherished the body (of Agni) at his birth. 3.001.05 Spreading through the firmament with shining limbs, sanctifying the rite with intelligent and purifying(energies), and clothed with radiance, he bestows upon the worshiper abundant food and great andundiminished prosperity. 3.001.06 Agni everywhere repairs to the undevouring, undevoured (waters); the vast (offspring) of the firmament,not clothed, yet not naked, seven eternal ever youthfful rivers, sprung from the same source, received Agni astheir common embryo. [Undevouring, undevoured waters: anadatir adabdha_, not extinguishing Agni, nor yetevaporated by him; not clothed: avasa_na_ anagna_, not wearing garments but invested by the water as by arobe]. 3.001.07 Aggregated in the womb of the waters, (his rays) spread abroad; and omniform, are here effective forthe diffusion of the sweet (Soma), like kine full uddered; the mighty (Heaven and Earth) are the fitting parents ofthe graceful Agni. [The womb of the waters: the antariks.a, mid-heaven, or the firmament, the region of vapour]. 3.001.08 Son of strength, sustained by all, you shine, possessing bright and rapid rays; when the vigorous Agniis magnified by praise, then the showers of sweet rain descend. 3.001.09 At his birth he knew the udder of his parent and let forth its torrents, and its speech (of thunder); therewas no one to detect him, lurking in the deep, with his auspicious associates, (the winds), and the many (waters)of the firmament. [Knew the udder of his parent: pituru_dhan viveda: the parent here is the firmament, and theudder the clouds, or the accumulated stores of rain]. 3.001.10 He cherishes the embryo of the parent (firmament), and of the generator (of the world); he aloneconsumes many flourishing (plants); the associated brides (of the Sun, Heaven and Earth), who are kind to man,are both of kin to that pure showerer (of blessings); do you, Agni, ever preserve them. 3.001.11 The great Agni increases on the broad unbounded (firmament), for the waters supply abundantnutriment, and placid, he sleeps in the birth-place of the waters for the service of the sister streams. 3.001.12 The invincible Agni, the cherisher of the valiant in battle, the seen of all, shining by his own lustre, thegenerator (of the world), the embryo of the waters, the chief of leaders, the mighty, is he who has begotton thewaters for (the benefit of) the offerer of the libation. 3.001.13 The auspicious timber has generated the graceful and multiform embryo of the waters and the plants;the gods approached him with reverence, and worshipped the adorable and mighty (Agni) as soon as born. 3.001.14 Mighty sins, like brilliant lightning, associate with the self-shining Agni, great in his own abode, as if in a(deep) cavern, as they milk forth ambrosia into the boundless and vast ocean. 3.001.15 I, the institutor of the rite, worship you with oblations; desirous of your favour, I implore your friendship;grant, along with the gods, protection to him who praises you, preserve us with your well-regulated rays. 3.001.16 Approaching you, benevolent Agni, and performing all holy acts that are the cause of opulence, offeringoblations with earnestness and in abundance, may we overcome the hostile hosts that are without gods. [May weovercome the hostile: abhis.ya_ma pr.tana_yu_r adeva_n;or, it may mean, may we overcome the hosts of thosewho are not gods, i.e. the ra_ks.asas, or evil spirits, obstructing sacrifices]. 3.001.17 You, Agni, are the commendable announcer of the gods, cognizant of all sacred rites; placid, you abideamong mortals, and, like a charioteer, you follow the gods, accomplishing (their wishes). 3.001.18 The immortal being has sat down in the dwelling of mortals, accomplishing (their) sacrifices; Agni, whois cognizant of all sacred rites, shines with expanded bulk when fed with clarified butter. 3.001.19 Come to us with friendly, auspicious, and mighty aids, you who are great and all-pervading; bestowupon us ample riches, safe from injury, well- spoken of, desirable, and renowned. 3.001.20 I address to you, Agni, who are of old, these eternal as well as recent adorations; these solemnsacrifices are offered to the showerer of benefits, who in every birth is established (among men), cognizant of allthat exists. 3.001.21 The undecaying Ja_tavedas, who in every birth is established (among men), is kindled by theVis'va_mitras; may we, (enjoying) his favour, ever be (held) in the auspicious good-will of that adorable (deity). 3.001.22 Powerful Agni, (fulfiller) of good works, convey, rejoicing this our sacrifice towards the gods; invoker ofthe gods, bestow upon us abundant food; grant us, Agni, great wealth. 3.001.23 Grant, Agni, to the offerer of the oblation, the earth, the bestower of cattle, the means of many (piousrites), such that it may be perpetual; may there be to us sons and grandsons born in our race, and may yourgood-will ever be upon us. [This hymn is the refrain of several subsequent su_ktas; this hymn also occurs in theSa_maveda]. 3.002.01 We offer to Agni, who is Vais'va_nara, the augmenter of water, praise (as bland) as pure clarified butter;and the priests and the worshipper incite by their (pious) rites the invoker of the gods to his two-fold function, asa wheelwright fabricates a car.[To his twofold function: to the lighting of the ga_rhapatya and a_havani_ya, thedomestic and sacrificial fires; cf. vais'va_nara: (Nirukta 7.21)]. 3.002.02 By his birth he lighted up both heaven and earth; he was the praiseworthy son of his parents; theundecaying Agni, the bearer of oblations, the giver of food, the guest of men, the affluent in radiance. 3.002.03 The gods (endowed) with intelligence, gave birth to Agni in the multiform rite by the exertion ofpreserving strength; desirous of food, I eulogise the great Agni, bright with solar effulgence, and (vigorous) as ahorse. 3.002.04 Desiring excellent food, inflicting no disgrace, we solicit the boon of the adorable (Vais'va_nara) fromAgni, the benefactor of the Bhr.gus, the object of our desires, who is acquainted with past acts, and shines withcelestial splendour. 3.002.05 Men with strewn holy grass, and uplifted ladles, place before them this solemnity for the sake ofobtaining happiness, Agni, the bestower of food, the resplendent, the benefactor of all the gods, the remover ofsorrow, the perfecter of the (holy) acts of the sacrificer. [The remover of sorrow: the text has rudra, which istranslated as: duhkha_na_m dra_vakam, the driver-away of griefs or pains; otherwise, it may be a synonym ofAgni]. 3.002.06 Agni, of purifying lustre, invoker of the gods, men desirous of worshipping (you), having strewn thesacred grass, repair to your appropriate abode at sacrifices; bestow upon them wealth. 3.002.07 He has filled both heaven and earth and the spacious firmament, he whom the performers of (sacred)rites have laid hold of as soon as born; he, the sage, the giver of food, is brought like a horse to the sacrificer, for(the sake of) obtaining food. [Yajurveda, 33.75]. 3.002.08 Reverence the bearer of oblations (to the gods), him whose sacrifice is acceptable; worship him bywhom all that exists is known, who is friendly to our dwellings; for Agni is the conductor of the great sacrifice, thebeholder of all, who has been placed in front of the gods. 3.002.09 The immortals, desirous (of his presence), sanctified the three radiances of the great circumambientAgni; one of them they have placed in the world of mortals as the nourisher (of all); the other two have gone tothe neighbouring sphere. [The three radiances: tisrah samidhah = lit., the three fuels, (pa_rthiva vaidyuta su_ryaru_pa_di stisra stanu_h); here, interpreted as three forms or conditions of fire; as, earthy fire, that of thefirmament or lightning, and that of heaven, the sun;or, three Vedi cforms, two termed aghara, and one anuya_ja;the celebration of the latter is rewarded by enjoyment in this world, that of the two former by enjoyment in thefirmament and heaven]. 3.002.10 Human beings, wishing for wealth, give brightnesss, (by their praises), to the lord of men, the wise(Agni), as they add lustre, (by polishing), to an axe; spreading everywhere, he goes alike through high and lowplaces, and has taken an embryo (condition) in these regions. [In these regions: the two pieces of wood, theattrition of which produces flame]. 3.002.11 The showerer (of benefits), generated in (many) receptacles, flourishes, roaring in various (places) likea lion; Vais'va_nara, the resplendent, the immortal, giving precious treasure to the donor (of the oblation). 3.002.12 Glorified by his adorers, Vais'va_nara of old ascended to the heaven that is above the firmamentbestowing wealth upon his (present) worshipper, as he did in former times; he travels, ever vigilant, the commonpath (of the gods). [The common path: thatis, as the sun's path]. 3.002.13 We implore for present riches, the many-moving tawny-rayed, resplendent Agni, whom mightyvenerable, wise, adorable, and dwelling in the sky, the wind (brought down) and deposited (upon the earth). 3.002.14 We implore with prayer the mighty Agni, the giver of food, the unrefusing, (seated on) the front ofheaven; the radiant in the sacrifice, him who is to be sought (for by all), the beholder of all, the emblem ofheaven, the dweller in light, who is to be awakened at dawn. 3.002.15 We solicit wealth of the adorable (Agni), the invoker of the gods, the pure, the single-minded, themunificent, the commendable, the beholder of all, who is many-coloured like a chariot, elegant in form, andalways friendly to mankind. 3.003.01 Intelligent (worshippers), offer to the powerful Vais'va_nara precious things at holy rites, that they maygo (the way of the good), for the immortal Agni worships the gods; therefore, let no one violate eternal duties. 3.003.02 The graceful messenger (of the gods) goes between heaven and earth; sitting (on the altar), andplaced before men, he ornaments, the spacious chambers (of sacrifice) with his rays, animated by the gods, andaffluent in wisdom. 3.003.03 The wise worship, with (pious) rites, Agni, the sign of sacrifices, the accomplishment of the solemnity, inwhom the reciters of (his) praises have accumulated (their) acts (of devotion), and from whom the worshipperhopes for happiness. [The sign of sacrifices: ketum yajn~a_na_m: ketu = a banner; it is often used in the Veda inthe sense of prajn~a_paka, a sign, a signal, that which makes any thing known]. 3.003.04 The parent of sacrifices, the invigorator of the wise, the end (of the rite), the instruction of the priests,Agni, who has pervaded heaven and earth in many forms, the friend of man, wise, (and endowed) withsplendours, is glorified (by the worshipper). 3.003.05 The gods have placed in this world the delightful Agni in a delightful chariot, the tawny-huedVais'va_nara, the sitter in the waters, the omniscient, the all-pervading, the endowed with energies, thecherisher, the illustrious. 3.003.06 Perfecting the performance the multiform sacrifice of the worshipper, along with the gods to whomsolemnities have been addressed, and together withthe priests, Agni, the charioteer, the swift-moving, thehumble-minded, the destroyer of foes, passes along between (heaven and earth). 3.003.07 Agni, praise (the gods that we may enjoy) good offspring and long life; propitiate them by libations;bestow upon us plentiful crops; ever vigilant, gran tfood to the respectable (institutor of this ceremony), for youare the desired of the gods, the object of the pious acts of the devout. [Grant food: vay_msi anna_ni; vayahks.adma (Nirukta 2.7.7)]. 3.003.08 The leaderes (of holy rites) praise with prostration, for (the sake of) increase, the mighty lord of people,the guest (of men), the regulator eternally of acts, he desired of the priests, the exposition of sacrifices,Ja_tavedas, endowed with (divine) energies. 3.003.09 The resplendent and adorable Agni, riding in an auspicious chariot, has comprehended the whole earthby his vigour; let us glorify with fit praises the acts of that cherisher of multitudes in his own abode. 3.003.10 Vais'va_nara, I celebrate your energies, whereby, O sage, you have become omniscient; as soon asborn, Agni, you have occupied the realms (of space), and heaven and earth, and have comprehended all thesewith yourself. 3.003.11 From acts that are acceptable to Vais'va_nara comes great (wealth); for he, the sage (Agni) alone,bestows (the reward) of zeal in (the performance of) his worship; adoring both his prolific friends, heaven andearth, Agni was born. 3.004.01 Repeatedly, kindled, (Agni), wake up favourably disposed; (endowed) with reiterated lustre, entertainthe kind purpose of (granting us) wealth; bring, divine Agni, the gods to the sacrifice; do you, the friend (of thegods), minister, well-affected, to (your) parents. [Repeatedly kindled: samit sama = samiddha; or, susamiddha, anappellative of Agni in the preceding su_ktas]. 3.004.02 Tanu_napa_t, whom the deities, Mitra, Varun.a and Agni, worship daily thrice a day, render this oursacred rain-engendering sacrifice productive of water. 3.004.03 May the all-approved praise reach the invoker of the gods; may Il.a_ first proceed to worship and topraise with prostrations the showerer (of benefits) in his presence; may the adorable (Agni), instigated (by us),worship the gods. [Il.a_ = the il.ita of preceding su_ktas]. 3.004.04 An upward path has been prepared for you both in the sacrifice; the blazing oblations soar aloft; theinvoker of the gods has sat down in the centre of the radiant (hall); let us strew the sacred grass for the seats ofthe gods. [You both: Agni and the Barhis, or sacred grass, to which, as in the parallel pages, the hymn isaddressed]. 3.004.05 The gods who gratify the universe with rain are present at the seven offerings (of the ministeringpriests), when solicited with (sincerity of) mind; may the many deities who are engendered in sensible shapes atsacrifices come to this our rite. [Deities in sensible shapes: in preceding su_ktas, the doors of the hall ofsacrifice, are the personifications specified; here, the divinities presiding over the doors are implied]. 3.004.06 May the adored Day and Night, combined or separate, be manifest in bodily form, so that Mitra,Varun.a, Indra, or (the latter), attended by the Maruts, may rejoice us by their glories. 3.004.07 I propitiate the two chief divine invokers of the gods; the seven offerers of (sacrificial) food, expectant ofwater, gratify (Agni) with oblations; the illustrious observers of sacred rites have saluted him in every ceremonyas (identifiable), verily, with water. [As identifiable with water: r.tam it ta a_huh = agnim eva r.tabhu_tam a_huh,they have called Agni, verily, r.ta; r.ta is usually rendered water but it may mean truth; in the preceding phrase,r.tam s'ansanta = udakam, desirous or expectant of water]. 3.004.08 May Bha_rati_, associated with the Bha_rati_s; Il.a_ with the gods and men; and Agni, and Sarasvati_with the Sa_rasvatas; may the three goddesses sit down upon the sacred grass (strewn) before them.[bha_rati_bhih, with the connections of Bharata, or the Sun: bharatasya su_ryasya sambandhini_bhih, perhapsintending the solar rays; Bha_rati_ = va_k, speech; Il.a_ = bhu_mi, the earth; sarasvati_ = ma_dhyamika_ va_k;the sa_rasvatas are the madhyamastha_nas, the middle regions, or the firmament; Agni whose name is ratherunconnectedly inserted, is thus identified through their several personifications as goddesses, with heaven,mid-heaven, and earth, or with speech or sound in the three regions]. 3.004.09 Divine Tvas.t.a_, being well pleased, give issue to our procreative vigour, whence (a son), manly,devout, vigorous, wielder of the (Soma-bruising) stone, and reverencing the gods, may be born. 3.004.10 Vanaspati, bring the gods nigh; may Agni, the immolator, prepare the victim; let him who is truth officiateas the ministering priest, for, verily, he knows the birth of the gods. [May Agni the immolator: agnir havih s'amita_su_daya_ti: cf. RV 2.3]. 3.004.11 Agni, kindled into flame, come to our presence in the same chariot with Indra and with the swift-movinggods; may Aditi, the mother of excellent sons, sit down on the sacred grass, and may the immortal gods besatisfied with the reverentially-offered oblation. [May the immortal gods: sva_ha_ deva_ amr.ta_ ma_dayanta_m:sva_ha_ = sva_ha_ka_ren.a yuktah, joined with or addressed by the exclamation, sva_ha_]. 3.005.01 The sagacious Agni, cognizant of the dawn, is awakened to (follow) the paths of the sages; theluminous Vahni, kindled by the devout, has thrown open the gates of darkness. 3.005.02 The adorable Agni is magnified by the hymns, the prayers, the praises, of (his) worshippers; emulatingthe many glories of the sun, the messenger (of the gods) shines forth at the glimmering of the dawn. 3.005.03 Agni, the embryo of the waters, the friend (of the pious), accomplishing (all desires) with truth, has beenplaced (by the gods) among men, the descendants of Manu; desirable and adorable, he has taken his station onhigh, where the wise Agni is to receive the oblations of the devout. [Taken his station on high: sa_nvastha_ =sa_nu ucchritam; i.e. uttaravedya_khyam, the place called the north altar]. 3.005.04 Agni, when kindled, is Mitra; and, as Mitra, is the invoker (of the gods); Varun.a is Ja_tavedas; Mitra isthe ministering priest; Damunas is the agitator (Va_yu); Mitra (is the associate) of rivers and mountains. [Thehymn attempts to identify Agni with Mitra, the sun, and of both with Varun.a and Va_yu]. 3.005.05 The graceful (Agni) protects the primary station of the moving earth; mighty, he protects the path of thesun; he protects the seven-headed (troop of the Maruts) in the centre between heaven and earth; he protects theexhilarating (oblations) of the gods. 3.005.06 The mighty, divine Agni knowing all (things) that are to be known, made the commendable and beautifulwater, the glossy skin, the station of the diffused slumbering (Agni), and, ever vigilant preserves it. [Preserves it:covering as it were by extinguishing the flame of fire]. 3.005.07 Agni has taken his station in an asylum, brilliant, much-lauded, and as desirous (of receiving him) as heis (torepair to it); radiant, pure, vast and purifying, he repeatedly renovates his parents, (Heaven and Earth). 3.005.08 As soon as generated he is borne aloft by the plants, which grow flourishing by moisture, as thebeautifying waters descend; may he, in the bosom of his parents, protect us. 3.005.09 Praised and (nourished) by fuel, the mighty Agni, stationed on the (altar the) navel of the earth, in theform of the firmament, has shone (brightly); may the friendly and adorable Agni who respires in the mid- heaven,the messenger (of the gods), bring them to the sacrifice. [Who respires in the mid-heaven: ma_taris'van: ma_tari,antariks.e; s'vasiti, su_rya ru_pen.a ces.t.ate, who breathes in mid-heaven, or acts in the form of the sun; or,ma_tari may imply arn.ye, in a forest, he who abides in the woods (Nirukta 7.26); also, ma_taris'van = the wind,as in the next hymn]. 3.005.10 The mighty Agni, being the best of the heavenly luminaries, sustained the heaven with radiance, whenthe wind kindled the bearer of oblations, (till then concealed) in a cave from the Bhr.gus. [Concealed from theBhr.gus: yadi bhr.gubhyah guha_ santam: bhr.gubhyah = a_dityasya ras'mibhyah, from the rays of the sun]. 3.005.11 Grant, Agni, to the offerer of the oblation the earth, the bestower of cattle, the means of many (piousrites); such that it may be perpetual; may there be to us sons and grandsons born in our race, and may yourgood-will ever be upon us. [cf. RV. 3.1.1)]. 3.006.01 Devout ministrants, who are to be inspired by prayer, bring forth (the ladle) destined for the worship ofthe gods, which is to be conveyed to the south (of the fire-altar), and which, charged with (sacrificial) food,pointed to the east, containing the oblation, and, filled with liquefied butter, proceeds to Agni. 3.006.02 Agni, as soon as born, occupy both heaven and earth; for you, to whom sacrifice is to be offered,exceed in magnitude the firmament and the earth; may your seven-tongued fires be glorified. 3.006.03 The firmament and the earth and the adorable (gods) propitiate you their invoker, for the (completion ofthe) sacrifice, whenever the descendants of Manu, pious, and bearing oblations, glorify your radiant flame.[Descendants of Manu: vis'ah ma_nus.i_h = manoh sambandhinyah praja_h, people connected with Manu]. 3.006.04 The great and adorable Agni is firm seated on his spacious throne between heaven and earth; and thepowerful fellow-brides (of the sun), the imperishable uninjurable (heaven and earth) are the two milk-yieldingcows of the wide-extending (Agni). [The fellow-brides: sapatni_, the two brides of one; i.e. the sun: sama_naekah su_ryah patiryayoste sapatnyau]. 3.006.05 Great, Agni, are the deeds of you the mighty one; you have spread abroad by your power the heavenand earth; you have been the messenger (of the gods); as soon as begotten you have become the leader ofmen. 3.006.06 Harness with traces, to your car, your long-maned, ruddy (steeds, to come) to the sacrifice; bring hither,divine Ja_tavedas, all the gods, and make them propitious to the oblation. 3.006.07 When, Agni, you abide in the woods, consuming the waters at your pleasure, then your rays illuminatethe heavens, and you shine like many former radiant dawns; the gods themselves commend (the brilliancy) oftheir praise- meriting invoker. 3.006.08 The deities who sport in the spacious (firmament); those who are in the luminous sphere of heaven; theadorable Umas, who come when worthily invoked; the horses, Agni, that are fit for your car. [The adorableU_mas: u_ma_h = u_masan:jmaka_h pitarah santi, the U_mas are the pitara, called U_ma_]. 3.006.09 With all these in one chariot, Agni, or in many (chariots), come to our presence, for your horses areable; bring the three and thirty divinities with their wives, for the sake of (the sacrificial) food, and exhilarate them(all with the Soma). [The three and thirty divinities with their wives: patni_vatas trim.s'atam tri_m.s'ca deva_n: thefirst is, literally, having wives, but sometimes considered a proper name]. 3.006.10 He is the invoker (of the gods), whom the spacious heaven and earth glorify, for the sake of increase, atrepeated sacrifices; charged with water, they await like holy rites, propitious to the real presence of him who isborn of truth. 3.006.11 Grant, Agni, to the offerer of the oblation, the earth, the bestower of cattle, the means of many (piousrites); such that it may be perpetual; may there be to us sons and grandsons born in our race, and may ourgood-will ever be upon us. [End of the second as.t.aka]. 3.007.01 The (rays) of the blackbacked, all-sustaining (Agni) have arisen, and pervaded the parents (earth andheaven) and the flowing rivers; the surrounding parents co-operate with him, and bestow long life for the sake ofassiduous worship. [s'itipr.s.t.hasya dha_seh: agni is implied; so is ras'mayah, rays; dha_si = sarvasyadha_rayita_; sapta va_n.i_h = sarpan.asvabha_va_ nadi_h]. 3.007.02 The sky-traversing steeds of the showerer (of benefits) are the kine (of Agni); as he attains the divine(rivers), bearers of sweet (water). One sacred soudn glorifies you (Agni), who are desirous of repose, pacifyingyour flames) in the abode of the water (the firmament). [The kind: dhenavah; this is considered an adjectiveequivalent to pri_n.ayitryah, propitiators, pleasers]. 3.007.03 Their lord has mounted on his well-trained mares the sagacious selector of treasures, the blackbacked,many-limbed (Agni) has granted them a place of rest for the cherishing of (their) rapid speed. [atasasya dha_seh= s'atata gamanasya pos.ana_rtham, for the sake of cherishing of the perpetual going]. 3.007.04 The flowing (rivers) invigorating him, bear along the great son of Tvas.t.a_, the undecaying upholder (ofthe world), radiant with various forms in the vicinity (of the firmament); Agni is associated with heaven and earth,as (a husband with) one only wife. [One only wife: the text has eka_m iva, like one, the pronoun being feminine;the additions are: yatha_ puma_n eka_m pravis'ati, as a man cohabits with one woman]. 3.007.05 Men comprehend the service of the uninjurable showerer (of benefits), and exult in the commands ofthe mighty (Agni); their frequent and earnest hymns of praise, bright and radiant, are illuminating heaven. 3.007.06 Verily (men) bring great delight to Agni by glorifying aloud the mighty parents (heaven and earth), whenthe shedder of rain approximates his own radiance to the worshipper, (wherewith) to invest the night. 3.007.07 Seven sages with five ministering priests attend the station that is prepared for the rapid (Agni); theundecaying divine (sages), with their faces to the east, sprinkling (the libations), rejoice as they celebrate theworship of the gods. [Five ministering priests: adhvaryubhih pan~cabhih sapta vipra_h, this excludes theudga_ta_ and his class]. 3.007.08 I propitiate the two first divine offerers of sacrifices; the seven (priests) rejoice with the libation; theillustrious celebrators of holy worship, reciting (his) praises, have called Agni the true (object) of every rite. 3.007.09 Divine invoker of the gods, the vast and widespreading rays shed (moisture) for you, the mighty, thevictorius, the wonderful, the showerer (of benefits); do you who are all knowing, joy-bestowing, bring hither thegreat gods, and heaven and earth. 3.007.10 Ever-moving (Agni) may the mornings rise for us, abounding with oblations, with pious prayers, and withauspicious signs, and conferring wealth; and do you with the might of your (diffusive flame), consume all sin onbehalf of your respectable (worshipper). 3.007.11 Grant, Agni, to the offerer of the oblation, the earth, the bestower of cattle, the means of many (piousrites), such that it may be perpetual; may there be to us sons and grandsons, and may your good-will ever beupon us (productive of benefit to us). [This hymn is the refrain of several su_ktas in the preceding as.t.aka. Inone instance il.a_ is translated as bhu_mi, earth; here, she is called a female divinity in the form of a cow:goru_pa_m devata_m; vija_va_ is connected with sumati, good-will; which is explained: avandhya_, may it be notbarren, productive]. 3.008.01 Vanaspati, the devout anoint you with sacred butter at the sacrifice; and whether you stand erect, oryour abode be on the lap of this your mother (earth), grant us riches. [Vanaspati = lit. forest lord; here, thereference is to the post of wood to which the victim is tied; the hymn is cited in Aitareya Bra_hman.a 2.2; cf.Nirukta 8.18]. 3.008.02 Standing on the east of the kindled (fire), dispensing food (as the source) of undecaying (health) andexcellent progeny, keeping off our enemy at a distance, stand up for great auspiciousness. 3.008.03 Be exalted, Vanaspati upon this sacred spot of earth, being measured with careful measurement, andbestow food upon the offerer of the sacrifice. 3.008.04 Well clad and hung with wreaths comes the youthful (pillar); most excellent it is as soon as generated;steadfast and wise venerators of the gods, meditating piously in thei rminds, raise it up. 3.008.05 Born (in the forest), and beautified in the sacrifice celebrated by men, it is (again) engendered for thesanctification of the days (of sacred rites); steadfast, active and intelligent (priests) consecrate it with intelligence,and the devout worshipper recites its praise. 3.008.06 May those (posts) which devout men have cut down, or which, Vanaspati, the axe has trimmed, maythey standing resplendent with all their parts (entire) bestow upon us wealth with progeny. 3.008.07 May those posts which have been cut down upon the earth, and which have been fabricated by thepriests, those which are the accomplishers of the sacrifice, convey our acceptable (offering) to the gods. 3.008.08 May the leaders of the rite, the divine A_dityas, Rudras, Vasus, Heaven and Earth, the Earth, thefirmament, well pleased, protect our sacrifice; let them raise aloft the standard of the ceremony. 3.008.09 Arrayed in bright (garments), entire (in their parts), these pillars ranging in rows like swans, have cometo us erected by pious sages on the east( of the fire); they proceed resplendent on the path of the gods. 3.008.10 Entire in all parts and girded with rings, they appear upon the earth like the horns of horned cattle;hearing (their praises) by the priests; may they protect us in battles. 3.008.11 Vanaspati, mount upwith a hundred branches, that we may mount with a thousand, you whom thesharpened hatchet has brought for great auspiciousness. 3.009.01 We, your mortal friends have recourse for our protection to you, the divine, the grandson of the waters,the auspicious, the resplendent, the accessible, the sinless. 3.009.02 Desirous as you are of the forests since you have repaired to the maternal waters, Agni, your tarryingso far away is not to be endured; (in a moment) you are here with us. [In a moment you are: Although not yetkindled, yet as soon as the attrition of the touchwood takes place Agni appears]. 3.009.03 You wish exceedingly to convey satisfaction (to your worshippers) and are thereto well-disposed; ofthose in whose friendship you are cherished, some precede while others sit around. [Some prece: the allusion isto the sixteen priests, of whom the adhvaryu and eleven others take an active part in the ceremonial while theudga_ta_ and other three are sitting byengaged in the recital of the prayers and hymns]. 3.009.04 The benignant and long-lived deities have discovered you, Agni, when required to go against theirconstant and assembled foes, hidden in the waters like a lion (in a cave). 3.009.05 Ma_taris'van therefore brought for the gods from afar, Agni, hiding of himself, and generated by attrition,as (a father brings back) a fugitive (son). [A fugitive (son): the text has only sasr.va_msam iva, like one going; thefather and son are implied; or, the reference may be to master and slave]. 3.009.06 Bearer of oblations,men apprehend you (thus concealed) for the service of the gods, and that youyoungest (of the deities) and friendly to manking, may recompense by your acts all their pious rites. 3.009.07 Auspicious is your worship for it prospers the ignorant (worshipper), wherefore animals reverence, youAgni, kindled in the beginning of the night. [Animals: pas'avah; bipeds as well as quadrupeds]. 3.009.08 Offer oblations to the object of holy sacrifice, the brilliant purifier, who is dormant (in fuel); worshipquietly the pervader (of the rite), the messenger (of the gods), the rapid, the ancient deity who is entitled tolaudation. 3.009.09 Three thousand three hundred and thirty-nine divinities have worshipped Agni; they have sprinkled himwith melted butter; they have spread for him the sacred grass; and have seated him upon it as their ministrantpriest. [Yajus. 33.7; three thousand: Br.hada_ran.yaka (3.9), gives the number as 3333 according to the gloss ofA_nandagiri, adding eight Vasus, eleven Rudras, and twelve A_dityas, with Indra and Praja_pati]. 3.010.01 You, the king of men; Agni, the divine; prudent mortals kindle you at the sacrifice. 3.010.02 They praise you as the priest, the invoker (of the gods) at sacrifice; shine forth the protector of thepious rite in your own abode. 3.010.03 He verily who presents oblations to you, the knower of all things, he acquires (Agni) excellent progeny;he prospers. 3.010.04 May (Agni), the banner (flag) of sacrifices, offering oblations on the part of the worshiper through (theministry of) the seven offering priests, come hither with the gods. 3.010.05 Offer to the ministering Agni as if to the Creator (of the world), the great praise recited of old, for thesake of animating the energies of the pious (worshipper). 3.010.06 May ourhymns exalt Agni, so that he may be born more worthy of praise, and may become manifest forthe purpose of (bestowing) abundant food and riches. 3.010.07 Agni, you are to be especially worshipped at the sacrifice; worship the gods (on behalf of) the devout(worshiper); you shine the invoker (of the gods) the exhilarator (of the pious) overcoming your foes. 3.010.08 Do you, our purifier, light up for us a brilliant progeny; be ever nigh to those who praise you for theirwell-being. 3.010.09 The wise, intelligent, and vigilant (worshipers) kindle you, such as you (have been described), thebearer of oblations, the immortal, generated by strength. [Intelligent: vipas'cit vipanyuh (Nirukta 3.15.17);sahovr.dham = produced by the strength required for attrition]. 3.011.01 Agni, the invoker of the gods, the minister (of the gods), the supervisor of the sacrifice, understands thesolemn rite in its due course. 3.011.02 That Agni, who is the bearer of oblations, the immortal, the desirer (of offerings), the messenger (of thegods), and is the receiver of sacrificial viands, is associated with understanding. [dhiya_ samr.n.vati, i.e. Agni isfully aware of the objects of the ceremony, and a wish is implied that he may communicate similar knowledge toits performers, ta_n ta_dr.k prajn~a_nvita_n karotu; another interpretation: Yajus. 22.16: through knowledge Agniassociates with the gods, for the purpose of conveying the oblations to them]. 3.011.03 Agni, the ancient banner (flag) of sacrifice, knows (all things) through understanding; his radiancetraverses (the darkness). [artham hyasya taran.i = his meaning or object is crossing; or, that which crosses; hislight or radiance is the end or object of Agni, which passes over or through, darkness (understood)]. 3.011.04 The gods have made Agni, who is the son of strength, the eternally- renowned, the knower of all that isborn, the bearer (of oblations). 3.011.05 Agni, the preceder of human beings, (ever) alert, the vehicle of their offerings, is ever new, isunsusceptible of harm. [vis'am ma_nus.i_n.a_m = men the descendants of Manu, manor ja_ta_na_m]. 3.011.06 Agni, the most liberal contributor of food, is able to resist all assailants unharmed, the nourisher of thegods. 3.011.07 From Agni of purifying radiance the mortal presenter (of offerings) obtains by his conveyance (of themto the gods) abundant viands and a dwelling. 3.011.08 May we, endowed with intelligence, obtain all good things by our praises of Agni, to whom all is known. 3.011.09 May we obtain, Agni, all precious things (as booty) in battles, since the gods are concentrated in you. 3.012.01 Indra and Agni, come to this acceptable libation, (brought) by our praises from heaven, and induced by(our) devotion to drink of it. [Yajus. 7.31; gi_rbhir nabho varen.yam: sambhajani_yam somam pratiasmadi_ya_bhih stutiru_pa_bhir, va_gbhir, ahu_tau: nabho, nabhasah svargastha_na_d a_gatam = called by ourpraises, come you two from the place of svarga to this enjoyable Soma; another interpretation for nabha =a_ditya; come to the Soma which is like the desirable sun; or, those dwelling in heaven, nabhahsthah the gods:come to the Soma that is sought for by the gods]. 3.012.02 Indra and Agni, the conscious sacrifice associated with the worshipper proceeds to you; (summoned) bythis (invocation) drink the libation. [jarituh saca_ yajn~o jiga_ti cetanah: yajn~a and cetana are both applied toSoma, as the material of the sacrifice, yajn~a-sa_dhanam, and the animator or giver of consciousness to theorgans of perception, indriya_n.a_ cetayita_, and the cooperator with the worshipper in obtaining heaven or otherbenefits-- jarituh saca_ svarga_diphalapra_ptau saha_yabhu_tah]. 3.012.03 Urged by the energy of the sacrifice, I have recourse to Indra and Agni, the protectors of the pious; maythey be satiated with the Soma here presented. 3.012.04 I invoke Indra and Agni, the discomfiters of foes, the destroyers of Vr.tra, the victorious, the invincible,the bestowers of most abundant food. 3.012.05 The reciters of prayers, the repeaters of praise, who are skilled in sacred song, worship you both; Ihave recourse to Indra and Agni for food. 3.012.06 Indra and Agni, with one united effort you over-threw ninety cities ruled over by (your) foes. [da_sapatnih purah, cities of which da_sas were the lords]. 3.012.07 Indra and Agni the pious ministers, are present at our holy rite, according to the wave of worship. 3.012.08 Indra and Agni, in you, vigour and food are abiding together, and therefore in you is deposited thedispensing of water. 3.012.09 Indra and Agni, illuminators of heaven, be ever graced (with victory) in battles, for such your prowessproclaims. [All the hymns of this Su_kta are found in the Sa_maveda]. 3.013.01 (Priests) utter devout (praises) to this your divine Agni, that so glorified he may come to us with gods,and sit down on the sacrificial grass. 3.013.02 The observer of truth, of whom (are) heaven and earth, and whose vigour the protecting (deities) assist;him, the offerers of oblations adore, and those desirous of riches (have recourse) to him for protection. 3.013.03 He, the sage, is the director of those (who sacrifice), he is (the regulator) of sacrifices; worship him you(benefactor), the donor, who is the bestower of wealth. [magham rekan.ah (Nirukta 2.10.1) = mahani_yamdhanam]. 3.013.04 May that Agni bestow upon us prosperous dwellings for our maintenance, so that from him infinitewealth, whether it may be in heaven or from earth, or in the waters (may come to us). 3.013.05 The devout kindle (the fire) with his wealth-obtaining rites, (to worship) the radiant, unpreceded Agni,the invoker (of the gods), the protector of men. 3.013.06 Perfect our prayer, invoker of the gods, as well as our hymns; Agni, who increases with the winds andthe giver of thousands, augment our felicity. 3.013.07 Grant us indeed, Agni, wealth (that may be counted) by thousands, and comprising offspring,nourishment, brilliant treasure, and vigour, and be infinite and inexhaustible. [pus.t.imat : cattle from whose milkand the like, support is derived; dyumat = precious metals and jewels]. 3.014.01 The invoker (of the gods), the exhilarator (of his worshippers), the true, the offerer of sacrifice, the mostwise, the creator, is present at our sacred rites. Agni, the son of strength, whose chariot is the lightning, whosehair is flame, manifests his glory on the earth. 3.014.02 I utter to you the words of adoration, be pleased by them observer of truth; endowed with strength,(they are addressed) to you who are the expounder (of sacred rites); wise (as you are), bring (hither) the wise;object of sacrifice, sit down in the midst upon the sacred grass for our protection. 3.014.03 May the good-bestowing day and night hasten to you while you, Agni meet them on the paths of thewind; since (the priests) ever worship you preceding (them) with oblations, whilst they (united) like the pole (andthe yoke of a wagon), abide successively in our dwelling. [Preceding: pu_rvyam = sa_yam pra_tah ka_layohpu_rvyam, i.e., Agni is worshipped at dawn before the day, and in the evening before night]. 3.014.04 Vigorous Agni, you Mitra and Varun.a, and all the Maruts, offer praise; since, son of strength, you standa sun, shedding your rays with lustre on manking. [You stand a son: tis.t.a_h su_rya: su, good; arya, master; oras, urger, impeller, preraka, or vigour, energy, vi_rya]. 3.014.05 With uplifted hands, approaching you with reverence we present you today our oblation do you who arewise, worship the gods with most devout mind and with unwearied praise. [Yajus. 18.75: with uplifted hands:utta-anahastah; also means, with open hands, not niggardly; oblation: ka_mam = oblation, purod.a_s'a_dihavis,as that which is desirable to the gods, kamani_yam]. 3.014.06 From you, verily, son of strength, many and various benefactions and various kinds of food devolveupon the devout (worshipper) do you grant us, Agni, infinite wealth, and (a son) observant of truth, with speechdevoid of guile. 3.014.07 Divine (Agni), mighty and omniscient, these (are the offerings) which we mortals present to you in thesacrifice; do you be cognizant of every respectable worshipper, and partake, immortal of all (his offerings) on thisoccasion. [Be cognizant: vis'vasya surathasya bodhi: know that I am his protector, gopa_yita_ bhava_mi itibudhyasva; suratha = lit., one who has a good chariot, s'obhanaya_nopetasya]. 3.015.01 Radiant with great glory, repel the hostile ra_ks.asas and pis'a_cas; may I be in (the enjoyment) of thefavour of the great (Agni), the giver of prosperity, and in the service of (him who is) easily invoked. [Yajus. 2.49;dvis.o raks.aso ami_va_h: ami_va_ is either an epithet of the ra_ks.asas, free from sickness, vigorous, strong; or,it may be a synonym of pis'a_cika, as hovering about the sacrifice in order to interrupt it; ami_va_ may meankeep off diseases (vya_dhi), vya_dham.s'ca badhasva]. 3.015.02 Consider yourself our protector at the breaking of the dawn today and when the sun has risen; Agni,who is engendered with (embodied) form, be pleased with my constant praise, as a father (is pleased with) hisson. [When the sun has risen: some perform the worship of fire before the sun-rise, some after the sun has risen;with (embodied) form: tanva_ suja_tah, well-born with a body, i.e. with flames; or, it may mean self-born,svayambhu; as a father: janmeva tanayam, yatha_ pita_ putram sevate, janma, being put for janaka]. 3.015.03 Showerer (of benefits),beholder of men, radiant amid darkness, shine, Agni, with abundant (rays) in dueorder; granter of dwellings, conduct us (to good), keep off all ill, and youngest (of all the gods), gratify our desiresfor wealth. 3.015.04 Agni, who is irresistible and the showerer (of benefits), consume victorious all the cities (of the foe) and(all their) precious things; do you, the duly worshipped, the knower of all that is born, (be for us) the conductor ofthe first great preserving sacrifice. [The first great preserving sacrifice: of the jyotis.t.oma which is the first andthe most important of sacrifices]. 3.015.05 Destroyer (of the world), do you who is endowed with intelligence and radiance celebrate manyfaultless sacred rites in honour of the gods, and restraining (your impatience), convey to them like a wagon our(sacrificial) food; illume (with your rays) the beautiful heaven and earth. 3.015.06 Be propitious, showerer (of benefits); grant (abundant) food, Agni; (make) heaven and earth yield usmilk; divine (Agni), associated with the gods, shining with bright radiance, let not the ill-will of any mortal prevailagainst us. 3.015.07 Grant, Agni, to the offerer of the oblation, earth the giver of cattle the means of many sacred rites, suchthat it may long endure; may there be to us sons and grandsons, and may your favour, Agni, be productive ofgood to us. 3.016.01 This Agni, is the lord of heroism and of great good fortune; he is the lord of wealth comprising progenyand cattle; he is the lord of the slayers of Vr.tra; [vr.trahatha_na_m i_s'e: vr.tra may imply an enemy, or iniquity;tvayi samarpita karma_n.a_m asma_kam tvat prasa_da_t pa_paks.ayo bhavati, through your favour is thedestruction of the sins of us whose good works have been delivered to you]. 3.016.02 Maruts, leaders (of rites), associate with this augmenter (of our prosperity), in whom (abide) richescontributing to felicity, you who (are victorious) over (your) enemies in battle, who daily humble (your) foes. 3.016.03 Do you, opulent Agni, showerer (of benefits), prosper us with riches comprising vigour, numerousprogeny health, and happiness. 3.016.04 He who is the maker pevades all worlds; he the enduring maker (of all) bears our offerings to the gods;he is present with the devout (worshippers) and amidst th eheroism and the devotions of men. 3.016.05 Consign us not, Agni to malignity; (doom) us not to the absence of posterity; nor, son of strength, to thewant of cattle, nor to reproach; drive away (all) animosities. 3.016.06 Auspicious Agni, bestow (upon us) at the rite, food (the source of) happiness and renown. [Happiness:maya iti sukhana_ya 's'evr.dhammayah' (Nirukta 3.6.7) 3.017.01 The righteous (Agni) when first kindled on the several (altars) the object of adoration by all, whose hairis flame, and who is cleansed with butter, the purifier, the worthy-worshipped, is sprinkled with oblations for theworship of the gods. [The righteous Agni: prathama_nudharma_: dharma is a synonym of agni; or, theconstruction may be anudharma, according to law or religion]. 3.017.02 As you did offer the burnt-offering, Agni, (on behalf of) earth; as you, Ja_tavedas, who are cognizant (ofsacred rites, did offer sacrifice on behalf) of heaven; so with this oblation worship the gods, and perfect this ritetoday (as you did) that of Manu. 3.017.03 Three are your existences Ja_tavedas; three, Agni, are your parent dawns; with them offer the oblationof the gods, the knowing (his wishes) be the bestower of happiness on the institutor of the sacrifice. [Threeexistences: tri_n.ya_yum.si, three lives, as supported by butter, by fuel and the Soma; parent dawns: tisraagni_rus.asah: a_ja_ni_ may mean sisters, or mothers; the dawns personified as the parents or sisters of Agni,as prior or subsequent to the lighting of the sacrificial fire in the early morning; 'three' may relate to three diurnalfires; as sisters, separate offices are assigned to them: praja_m eka_ raks.aty u_rjam eka_, ra_s.t.ram eka_raks.ati, one preserves the people, one vigour, one the kingdom]. 3.017.04 Ja_tavedas, we venerate you, glorifying the brilliant, beautiful, adorable Agni; the gods have made youtheir messenger, the disinterested bearer of oblations, the centre of ambrosia. 3.017.05 He is the most diligent offerer of worship who is the presenter of oblations before you are and who intwo places (the middling and the best) seated with the sacrificial food is (the source of) happiness (to theworshippers); do you cognizant (of the objects of devotion), officiate in accordance with his piety, and thus renderour rite acceptable to the gods. 3.018.01 Be favourably disposed Agni, on approaching us (at this rite); be the fulfiller (of our objects) like a friend(to a friend) or parents (to a child); since men are the grievous oppressors of men, do you consume the foes whocome against us. 3.018.02 Vex thoroughly, Agni, our assailing enemies, disappoint the purpose of the adversary who offers notworship; giver of dwellings, who are cognizant (of sacred rites), vex those who have no thought (of pious acts) sothat your undecaying, all-pervading (rays), may ever abide. 3.018.03 Desirous (of wealth) I offer to you Agni, an oblation with butter and with fuel for your speed andinvigoration, praising you with a holy prayer as much as I am able; I propitiate you that you may render this praiseresplendent with infinite treasure. 3.018.04 Rise up, son of strength, with your splendour when hymned, and bestow abundant food and wealth,Agni, upon the descendants of Vis'va_mitra celebrating your praise; and grant them exemption from sickness anddanger; encourager of pious works (Agni), we repeatedly sprinkle your substance (with milk and butter). [Uponthe descendants of Vis'va_mitra: vis'va_mitres.u, on the Vis'va_mitras, or the plural may be used honorifically inthe sense of the singular]. 3.018.05 Liberal donor (of riches) bestow upon us the most precious of treasures, for therefore is it, Agni, thatyou are kindled; you have aims promptly stretched forth, whose (radiant) forms (bestow) wealth on the dwellingof your fortunate adorer. 3.019.01 I have recourse in this sacrifice to Agni, the invoker and praiser (of the gods), theintelligent, theall-knowing the unbeguiled; may he, the adorable, sacrificer for us to the gods, (and) accept the precious(offerings) we make for food and riches. 3.019.02 Reverencing the gods, I place before you Agni, the brilliant oblation- yielding, food-bestowing,butter-charged (offering); may you (propitiated) by the present wealth, sanctify (this) sacrifice by yourcircumambulation. 3.019.03 He who isprotected, Agni, by you, becomes endowed with a most luminous mind; bestow upon himexcellent progeny; may we ever be under the power of you who is the willing dispenser of riches; glorifying you(may we be) the receptacles of wealth. 3.019.04 The ministering priests have concentrated in you Agni, who are divine, many hosts (of flames); do youbring hither the gods, youngest (of the deities), that you may worship today the divine effulgence. 3.019.05 Inasmuch as the attendant divine (priests) anoint you as the invoker of the gods to offer worship in thesacrifice, therefore do you assent to be our protector on this occasion, and grant abundant food to ourdescendants. 3.020.01 The bearer (of the oblation) invokes with praises at the break of day, Agni, the dawn, the As'vins, andDadhikra); may the resplendent divinities, desirous of our sacrifice, hear in unison (the invocation). [Dadhikra_ =ordinarily means a horse; here, it implies a divinity: dadhikra_va na_ma kas'cidevah tam dadhika_van.am]. 3.020.02 Agni, born of sacrifice, three are your viands; three your abiding places, three the tongue satisfying(thegods); three verily are your forms acceptable to the deities, and with them never heedless (of our wishes),bepropitious to our praises. [Three viands: butter, fuel and the Soma; three abiding places: three altars, or thethree daily sacrifices, or the three worlds; three tongues: three fires, ga_rhapatya, a_havani_ya and daks.in.a_;three forms: three fires termed pa_vaka, pavama_na and s'uci]. 3.020.03 Divine Agni, knowing all that exists and distributor of food, many are the names of you who are immortalsatisffier of all men, friend of the suppliant, the gods have deposited in you whatever are the delusions of thedeluding (ra_ks.asas). [Many are the names of you: bhu_ri_n.i na_ma, for na_ma_ni; the substantive is explainedby teja_m.si, splendours; the gods have deposited: therefore agni is able to counteract their devices fordisturbing sacrifices. 3.020.04 The divine Agni is the guide of devout men, as the sun is the regulator of the seasons; may he, theobserver of truth, the slayer of Vr.tra, the ancient, the omniscient convey his adorer (safe) over all difficulties. 3.020.05 I invoke to this rite, Dadhikra_, Agni, the divine Us.as, Br.haspati, the divine Savita_, the As'vins, Mitraand Varun.a, Bhaga, the Vasus, the Rudras, and A_dityas. 3.021.01 Convey our sacrifice, Ja_tavedas, to the immortals and do you accept these oblations; Agni, invoker (ofthe gods) seated (on the altar) first partake of the drops of the marrow and of the butter. [Stoka_h = any smallportion; further explained as bindavah, drops; the hymn is proper to animal sacrifices, pas'u-ya_gam]. 3.021.02 The drops of the marrow charged with butter fall, purifier, to you, at your own rite, for the food of thegods; therefore grant us excellent affluence. 3.021.03 The drops (of the marrow) dripping with butter are offered, Agni, to you who are wise; you the mostexcellent are kindled; be the protector of the sacrifice. 3.021.04 Irrepressible and powerful, Agni, the drops of marrow and of butter distil for you; therefore you, who arepraised by sages, come with great splendour, and be pleased ever intelligent Agni, with our oblations. 3.021.05 We present to you the densest marrow that has been extracted for you from the interior (of the victim);grant of dwellings, the drops fall for you upon the skin; distribute them amongst the gods. [ojis.t.ham te madhyatomeda udbhr.tam: the meda or vapa_ is described as the fatty matter that lubricates the abdomen like coagulatedbutter]. 3.022.01 This is that Agni in whom Indra, desirous (of the oblation), placed the effused Soma for (his own) belly;you are praised by us, Ja_tavedas, enjoying the sacrificial food of many sorts like a rapid courser (enjoying manypleasures in battle). [pan~cacitiru_pa_ agnayo devata_: each hymn is separately recited as the adhvaryuconstructs a pit or an altar, is.t.aka_, for collecting cayana or citi a sacrificial fire; cf. Yajus. 12.47.51; placed:dadhe jat.hare svodare d_dha_ra: one verb is also applied to yasmin, the fire in which the Soma was placed;sahasrin.am va_jam atyam na saptim sasava_n = enjoying a thousandfold food like a quick-going horse; i.e. likea horse that enjoys various properties in battle, sahasram na_na_ru_pata_m yuddhe yo bhajati sa sahasri tamas'vamiva; another interpretation: sahasrin.am is related to somam, worthy or fit for a thousand libations, somamsahara_rham; atyam and saptim to va_jam food, exhilarating, modakaram, and satisfying tr.ptikaram na, meaning'now' samprati]. 3.022.02 Adorable Agni, your radiance that is in the heaven, on the earth, in the plants, in the waters andwherewith you overspread the firmament, that is shining and resplendent, overlooking man (vast as) the ocean.[In the heaven: Agni, severally, as the sun, as sacrificial fire, as the fire that is illuminated by attrition from wood,as submarine fire and as wind; overlooking man (vast as) the ocean: tves.a sa bha_nur arn.avo nr.caks.ah =di_ptima_n eva bha_samano nr.n.a_m dras.t.a_ samudravan maha_n, shining ocean (sa bha_nurarn.avonr.caks.a_ iti maha_ntsa (S'atapatha Bra_hman.a 7.1.23); another explanation: arn.avah = arn.a_nsi, udaka_niyatra santi, the place where the waters are: after this verse the priest adds, idr.s'o yaste bha_nus, tameves.t.aka_ru_pam upadadha_mi, such being your lustre, I place it in the form of the is.t.ka_]. 3.022.03 You move, Agni, to the vapour in heaven; you congregate the divinities who are the vital airs (of thebody); you animate the waters in the bright region above the sun, as well as those that are in the firmamentbeneath. [Vapour in heaven: i.e. in the form of smoke; congregate the divinities: deva_n u_cis.e dhis.n.ya_ ye:dhis.n.a = pra_n.ya; or, the deva_s presiding over the vital airs, pra_n.a_bhima_nino deva_h; u_cis.e =samaveta_n karos.i; the bright region above the sun: rocane parasta_t su_ryasya: rocana = loka or region wherethe fiery radiance burns, rocano na_ma_yam loko yatra a_gneyam jyotis. tapati_, above the sun,su_ryasyoparis.t.a_t]. 3.022.04 May the benignant fires termed puris.ya_s, together with the instruments (that have dug the pits inwhich they are placed) combined, accept the sacrifice (and grant us) salutary and abundant food. [pur_is.yas:puri_s.ya_so agnayah = sikata_ sammis.ra_h, mixed with sand; puri_s.am is a synonym of water and also thatwhich pleases or fills : puri_s.am pr.na_teh pu_rayaterva_ (Nirukta 2.22); with the instruments: pra_vanebhih =mr.tkhananasa_dhanabhu_tair abhrya_dibhih: abhrya and others, which are the implements for digging theearth]. 3.022.05 Grant, Agni, to the offerer of the oblation earth the giver of cattle, the means of many sacred ries, suchthat it may long endure; may there be to us sons and grandsons, and may your favour, Agni, be productive ofgood to us. 3.023.01 Churned (by the friction of the sticks), duly placed in the sacrificial chamber, the young and sage leaderof the rite, Ja_tavedas, the imperishable Agni, (blazing) amidst consuming forests, grants us on this occasionambrosial (food). 3.023.02 The two sons of Bharata, Devas'ravas and Devava_ta, have churned the very powerful andwealth-bestowing Agni; look upon us, Agni, with vast riches, and be the bringer of food (to us) every day. 3.023.03 The ten fingers have generated this ancient (Agni); praise, Devas'ravas, this well-born, beloved (son) ofhis parents, generated by Devava_ta, Agni, who is the servant of men. [His parents: the two pieces of stick thathave been rubbed together by Devava_ta]. 3.023.04 I place you in an excellent spot of earth on an auspicious day of days; do you, Agni, shine on thefrequent (banks) of the Dr.s.advati, A_paya_ and Sarasvati_ rivers. [In an excellent spot of earth: pr.thivya_il.a_yaspade, in the footmark of the earth in the form of a cow; i.e. on the northern altar; frequented banks:ma_nus.e, relating to man or to Manu; implies, manus.yasam.caran.avis.aye ti_re, on a bank, a place frequentedby men; the Dr.s.advati_ and Sarasvati_ rivers are well known (r.s.ayo vai sarasvatya_m satrama_sata : AitareyaBra_hman.a 2.19)]. 3.023.05 Grant, Agni, to the offerer of the oblation earth the giver of cattle, the means of many sacred rites, suchthat it may long endure; may there be to us sons and grandsons, and may your favour, Agni, be productive ofgood to us. 3.024.01 Repel, Agni, (hostile) hosts; drive away (all) assailants; insuperable, foe-surpassing, give food to theinstitutor of this sacrifice. [Yajurveda 9.37]. 3.024.02 Agni (who is) immortal and who is gratified by oblations, you are kindled upon the altar; be pleased bythis our sacrifice. 3.024.03 Agni, son of strength, vigilant (in the exercise of) your energy, take your seat when invoked on thesacred grass (strewn at) my (sacrifice). [Vigilant: dyumnena ja_gr.ve = svatejasa_ sarvada_ ja_garan.opeta(ja_gr.vir ja_garan.a_t: Nirukta 9.8), always endowed with his vigilance by own lustre or energy,loka- raks.a_rtham, for the preservation of the world]. 3.024.04 Agni, with all the divine fires, respect the praises of those who in (their) sacrifices are (your especial)worshippers. 3.024.05 Grant, Agni, ample wealth and progeny to the donor (of the oblation); make us prosperous, possessedof offspring. 3.025.01 Agni, who is omniscient, and the discriminator (of acts), you are the son of heaven or the son of earth;do you who is intelligent worship severally the gods on this occasion. 3.025.02 The wise Agni bestows faculties (securing prosperity and descendants); adorning (the world with lustre)he gives (sacrificial food) to the immortals; Agni, (to whom) many oblations (are offered), bring hither to us thegods. 3.025.03 Agni, the unbewildered, the ruler (of the world), the radiant, associated with vigour and food, illuminesthe divine immortal parents of all things, heaven and earth. 3.025.04 Agni, do you and Indra, gods disdaining not (our rite), come to the sacrifice in the dwelling of the offererof the libation to drink the Soma. 3.025.05 Agni, son of strength, Ja_tavedas the eternal traversing the inhabited regions with your protection, youare kindled in the dwelling of the waters. [You are kindled in the dwelling of the waters: i.e. as lightning in thefirmament]. 3.026.01 We of the race of Kus'ika offering oblations, desirous of wealth, having contemplated him in our minds,invoke with praises the divine Vais'va_nara, the observer of truth, the cognizant of heaven, the bountiful, thecharioteer, the frequenter (of sacrifices). [Observer of truth: anusatya_: from anu and satya; the notion is not thatof observing truth in the abstract, but of keeping faith with the sacrificer, by giving him the desired recompense towhich he is justly entitled]. 3.026.02 We invoke you for our own protection and for the devotions of mankind, the radiant Agni, Vais'va_nara,the illuminator of the firmament, the adorable lord of sacred rites, the wise, the hearer (of supplications), theguest (of man), the quick-moving. [The adorable lord of sacred rites: br.haspati, explained here: br.hatoyajn~asya patim, the lord of the great sacrifice, tatpa_lakataya_ sva_minam, lord through protecting it]. 3.026.03 Vais'va_nara is kindled in every age by the Kus'ikas as a neighing foal (is nourished) by its mother; maythat Agni, vigilant among the immortals, give us wealth with excellent offspring and good horses. 3.026.04 May the swift fires combined with the vigorous winds proceed to the pure (region of the water), unitingthe drops (of rain); the Maruts irresistible, all-knowing, agitate the copious-shedding clouds. 3.026.05 The fire-beautified, all-agitating Maruts; we seek their fierce radiance for protection; they, the sons ofRudra, the bountiful Maruts, whose form is the rain, are loudlike roaring lions. 3.026.06 We solicit the might of the Maruts, the irradiation of Agni with solemn prayers in every assembly andcompany (of worshippers); those Maruts who ahve partly-coloured steeds, who are dispensers of unfailingwealth, firm (of purpose), and frequenters of sacrifices. 3.026.07 I, Agni, am by birth endowed with knowledge of all that exists; clarified butter is my eye; ambrosia is mymouth; I am the living breath of threefold nature, the measure of the firmament, eternal warmth; I am also theoblation. [Yajus. 18.66; I, Agni, am by birth: agni asmi janmana_ ja_taveda_; clarified butter is my eye: a mysticaldescription of the universality of Agni in the double capacity of the enjoyer and enjoyed, the food and the feeder,and in the three forms of fire, air, and the sun, presiding over earth, mid-heaven, and heaven; the eye of Agni isthe light of all, which light is fed by oblations of butter; ambrosia is the reward of pious acts or enjoyment ofheaven and the like, which is procurable through oblations to fire, as if through his mouth or countenance,amr.tam me a_san; arkastridha_tu_: arka = jagatsras.t.a_ pra_n.ah, world-creating vital air, which, becomingthreefold is va_yu, in the firmament, agni, on earth and a_ditya as the source of eternal warmth and life. (AitareyaBra_hman.a 10.6.5). Another interpretation: as the eye lights up the world, so ghi_ thrown upon the fire causes itot burn fiercer and dispense more light; amr.ta = prabha_, light, light is in my countenance; tridha_t = the threevital airs termed pra_n.a, apa_na and vya_na; the identity with the air and the sun is similarly explained. Yetanother interpretation: It is the yajama_na who identifies himself with Agni, saying, I am by birth, Agni, or of thisform of Agni, Agni-ru_pa, the lord of all that is born, the sacrifice (arka), the three vedas, the measure of thewater, the eternal sun; ghi_ is the eye; i.e., I behold the offerer of ghi_ on the fire; I convert the oblation that is putinto my mouth into ambrosia; thus there is no duality between Agni and the individual,evama_tma_nyagnya_dvaitam]. 3.026.08 Agni, thoroughly comprehending the light that is to be understod by the heart, has purified himself (bythe three) purifying (forms); he has made himself most excellent treasure by (these) self-manifestations, and hasthence contemplated heaven and earth. [Having by self-contemplation recognized his identity with the threemanifestations, Agni, Va_yu and A_ditya, he comes to know his identity with the universe, as by the text, a_tmanivijn~a_te sarvam idam vijn~a_tam bhavati, the self being known, all this (universe) is known]. 3.026.09 Heaven and earth be kind to that stage who is as it were a many- cahnneled and inexhaustible stream(of knowledge); the parent (of his disciples), the collater of holy texts, rejoicing on the lap of his parents,, whosewords are truth. [That sage: That is, Vis'va_mitra himself; in consequence of his discovery that vais'va_nara ispara-brahma the supreme spirit; perhaps, this hymn may be ascribed to Brahma]. 3.027.01 The months, the half months, (the gods) who are the receivers of oblations, with the butter-yieldingkine, preside over your rite; the sacrificer, desirous of prosperity, worships the gods. [The months: pra vo va_ja_abhidyavo havis.manto ghr.ta_cya_: va_ja_ = ma_sa_h, months; abhi_dyavah = arddha ma_sa_h, half months;havis.manta = having the havis. or oblation of butter; an epithet of deva_h, gods (Taittiri_ya Samhita_ 126.96.36.199);also explaiend by pas'vah, animals yielding milk, of which havis. ismade; ghr.ta_ci = gau; another meaning is,sruk, a ladle; pra implies prabhavanti, all these preside over your sacrificing]. 3.027.02 I worship with praise the wise Agni, the accomplisher of sacrifice, the possessor of happiness, therepository of wealth. 3.027.03 May we offering oblations effect the detention of you is divine (until the completion of the rite), and maywe (thereby) overcome all animosities. [Animosities: dves.a_m.si, hatreds; added, pa_pa_ni, sins]. 3.027.04 We solicit that Agni, who is being kindled at the sacrifice, the purifier, the adorable, whose hair is flame. 3.027.05 Agni, the bright-shining, the immortal, the cleanser with clarified butter, the fitly-involved, the bearer ofthe oblation in the sacrifice. 3.027.06 The exorcisers (of the demons), lifting up their ladles, and offering sacrifice, have called upon Agni bythis ceremony for their protection. [The exorcisers: saba_dhah, repelling; the disturbers of sacred rites byrepeating the mantras or charm for their destruction, raks.oghna mantrocca_ran.ena tadvis.ayaba_dhah]. 3.027.07 The offerer of the oblation, the divine, immortal, Agni, comes first (at the ceremony) directingsolemnities by his experiences. [By his experiences: ma_yaya_, usually illusion or guile; explained here askarmavis.ayajn~a_nam, knowledge of the objects of sacred rites]. 3.027.08 The mighty Agni is placed (foremost by the gods) in battle; he is brought forward reverently at holy rites;for he is the sage fulfiller of the sacrifice. 3.027.09 He who has been made by the sacred rite, the choice (of the worshipper), who comprehends (withinhimself) the germ of all creatures, and whom the daughter of Daks.a (receives) as the parent of the world.[daks.asya pitaram tana_ = daks.asya praja_pater tanaya_, the daughter of the Praja_pati Daks.a; i,e, the earth,here identified with the altar, vediru_pa; she sustains, dha_rayati, understood, him, Agni, the protector or fatherof the world, sarvasya jagatah pa_lakam dha_rayati]. 3.027.10 Agni, strength-engendered, Il.a_ (the daughter) of Daks.a has sustained you, the desirable, theresplendent, and longing (for the oblation). [Il.a_ = earth or the altar]. 3.027.11 The wise (priests) performers (of the ceremony) kindle with oblations for the due celebration of the rite,Agni, the regulator (of all), the sender of the rain. 3.027.12 I adore at this sacrifice Agni the grandson of (sacrificial) food, shining above in the firmament, thecreation of the wise. [Grandson of food: u_rjo napa_tam or the son of the oblation, as blazing when fed by butterand the like; or the descent may be differently accounted for, from the oblation proceed: A_ditya, and fromA_ditya, Agni; the creation of the wise: kavikratum of whom, kavayah, the wise, that is the adhvaryu and the rest,are the makers, karta_rah, by their rubbing the sticks to evolve flame]. 3.027.13 Agni, who is to be worshipped with praise and with prostration, the dispeller of darkness, the beautiful,the showerer (of benefits) is kindled. 3.027.14 The offerers of oblations glorify that Agni who is the showerer (of benefits) and is the bearer of theofferings to the gods as a horse (bears his rider to his home). 3.027.15 Showerer (of benefits) we profusely offering (oblations) kindle you mighty and resplendent Agni, who isthe sender of showers. [The sender of showers: Manu III.76: (on the property of Agni), the offering that issacrificed with fire proceeds entirely to the sun, from the sun generated rain, and from rain food; from thencemankind]. 3.028.01 Agni, by whom all is known, who rewards pious acts with wealth, accept our cakes offered with butter atthe morning worships. 3.028.02 The cakes and butter are dressed, Agni, and verily prepared for you; accept them youngest (of thegods). 3.028.03 Eat, Agni, the cakes and butter offered as the day disappears; you, son of strength, are stationed (byus) at the sacrifice. 3.028.04 Wise Ja_tavedas accept the cakes and butter offered in this sacrifice at the mid-day rite; prudent(worshippers), withhold not at solemn ceremonies the portion of you who are mighty. 3.028.05 Be pleased, Agni, son of strength, with the cakes and butter offered at the third (daily sacrifice), and doyou (propitiated) by praise convey the precious imperishable and awakening (oblation) to the immortal gods.[Awakening oblation: ja_gr.vim; the Soma is offered at dawn is termed ja_gr.vi, the sleep- dispelling,svapnaniva_rakah; but, the reference here is to the third or evening worship]. 3.028.06 Agni who is Ja_tavedas and is thriving upon oblations accept the cakes the butter as the daydisappears. 3.029.01 This, the apparatus of attrition is ready; the generation (of the flame) is ready; take up this (stick) theprotectress of mankind, and let us churn the fire as has been done of old. [The apparatus of attrition is ready:asti_dam adhimanthanam = asti prajananam kr.tam: adhimanthana is the stick, the string and the like placedupon the two pieces of wood to assist in their attrition; prajananam = begetting; may also connote a tuft of drygrass used to catch and carry the flame]. 3.029.02 Ja_tavedas has been deposited in the two sticks as the embryo is deposited in pregnant women; Agniis to be adored day by day by vigilant men laden with oblations. 3.029.03 Let the intelligent priest place the lower of the sticks with the face upwards, the upper (with the surface)downwards, so that quickly impregnated it may generate the showerer (of benefits) Agni; then the bright blazingson of Il.a_ whose light dissipates the darkness is born of the wood of attrition. [Son of il.a_: the fire of the altar]. 3.029.04 Agni who is Ja_tavedas, we place you upon the earth in the centre, in the place of Il.a_, for the purposeof receiving the oblation. [Yajus. 34.14-15; in the place of il.a_: il.a_ya_spade na_bha_ pr.thivya_h adhi, i.e. inthe middle of the northern altar; the hymn is also cited in Aitareya Bra_hman.a 1.5]. 3.029.05 Conductors of the rite, produce by attrition the far-seeing, single- minded, intelligent, immortal,radiant-limbed Agni; generate him, leaders (of the solemnity), in the first place the chief standard of the sacrifice,who is the source of felicity. 3.029.06 When they rub (the sticks) with their arms the radiant Agni bursts forth from the wood like a fleetcourser, and like the many-coloured car of the As'vins unresisted in its course, Agni spreads wide aroundconsuming stones and trees. 3.029.07 As soon as born Agni, shines intelligent, swift-moving, skilled in rites, praised by the wise, and liberal ingifts; (and it is he) whom the gods have held as the bearer of oblations at sacrifices, adorable and all-knowing. 3.029.08 Offerer of oblations sit down in your own sphere, for you are cognizant (of holy acts), and station theinstitutor of the ceremony in the chief place of the sacred rite; cherisher of the gods, worship the gods, Agni, andbestow abundant food on the founder of the sacrifice. [Yajus. 11.35; in your own sphere: sva u loke:uttaravedya_h na_bhau, on the centre of the north altar; or, alternatively, sukr.ta yonih = kr.s.na_jine, on the hideof the black antelope; in the chief place of the sacred rite: sa_daya_ yajn~am sukr.tasya yonau: yajn~a =yajama_na, yajn~asya karta_ram, who is to be stationed uttame loke, in the best place, or that which enjoys thefruit of the holy rite, sukr.tajanyopabhogasya stha_ne]. 3.029.09 Produce, friends, smoke, the showerer (of benefits); indefatigable persist in the contest with (Agni); theheroic Agni is able to encounter hosts, and by him the gods overcome their foes. [Produce smoke: kr.n.otadhu_mam, produce fire,by metonymy]. 3.029.10 This in every season, Agni, is your place, whence, as soon as generated, you have ever shone;knowing that to be so, Agni, there abide, and thrive by our praises. [Yajurveda 3.14; your place: the allusion is tothe aran.i, the stick of vetasa of as'vattha, or other trees; alternatively, may refer to ga_rhapatya or householdfire; vardhaya_ girah = give us increase of riches]. 3.029.11 When (existing) as an embryo (in the wood), Agni is called Tanunapa_t; when he is generated (he iscalled) the asura-destroying nara_s'am,sa; when he has displayed (his energy) in the material firmament,Ma_taris'van; and the creation of the wind is in his rapid motion. [Tanu_napa_t = he who does not consume thepersons of the worshippers, yas.t.r.na_m tanu_h, s'ari_ra_n.i nu pa_tayati, na dahati; or, it may refer to thegrandson of the waters; ma_taris'van = who breathes, s'vasiti, in the material atmosphere ma_tari]. 3.029.12 Agni, who is pronounced by reverential attrition, and deposited with reverential care, and who arefar-seeing, render our rites (exempt from defects), and worship the gods (on behalf) of the devout worshipper. 3.029.13 Mortals have begotten the immortals, the undecaying (Agni), the devourer of oblations, the conveyance(by which they cross over sin), the ten sister fingers intertwined proclaim him born as if it was a male (infant).[Proclaim him born: when the priests and assistants behold the flame break forth, they clap their hands and makesounds of rejoicing, like the parents of a new-born son]. 3.029.15 Agni, who has seven ministering priests, shines eternally; when he has blazed upon the bosom and lapof his mother (earth), he is vociferous (with delight); day by day he never slumbers after he is born from theinterior of the (spark) emitting wood. 3.029.15 The Kus'ikas, the first-born of Brahma_, armed against enemies like the energies of the Maruts,comprehend the universe; they have uttered the prayer accompanied by the oblation; they have one by onelighted Agni in this dwelling. 3.029.16 Agni, offerer of oblations, cognizant of rites, inasmuch as we have recourse to you today in thisprogressing sacrifice, therefore do you steadily convey (the offering to the gods), or tranquilly be at rest, andknowing (the purport of our acts), and wise (in all respects), approach (and accept) the Soma. 3.030.01 The bearers of the libations desire you; your friends pour forth the Soma; they offer copious oblations;(supported by) you they endure patiently the calumny of men, for who is so renowned as you are. 3.030.02 Master of tawny steeds, the remotest regions are not remote for you; then come quickly with yourhorses; to you the steady showerer (of benefits), these sacrifices are presented; the stones (for bruising theSoma) are ready, as the fire is being kindled. 3.030.03 Showerer (of benefits), who are Indra, the wearer of the helmet, the professor of opulence, theconveyor (of men beyond the evil), the leader of the numerous troops (of the Maruts), the achiever of many greatdeeds, the devastation of hostile (regions), the terror of your foes, where are those heroic deeds (which you haveperformed) against the mortal (asuras) when opposed (by them in battle). [The wearer of the helmet: su'sipra =having a handsome nose, or chin (Nirukta 6.17); now a new meaning is given: s'iras stra_n.am = a guard of thehead, a helmet; the conveyor of men beyond evil: tarutra = he by whom the gods surpass or defeat the asuras]. 3.030.04 You alone casting down the firmly-footed (asuras) proceed, destroying the Vr.tras, and obedient to yourcommand the heaven and earth and the mountains stood as if immoveable. 3.030.05 You alone, when invoked by many, and the slayer of Vr.tra, by your prowess, did say firmly (to thegods), fear not! Indra, endowed with opulence, vast is your grasp, wherewith you have seized these unboundedregions, heaven and earth. 3.030.06 Let (your car), Indra, drawn by your horses (rush) downwards (upon the asuras); let your destroyingthunder-bolt fall upon your enemies; slay those that assail in front or in rear, or that fly (from the combat); makethe universe (the abode of) truth; (let such power) be concentrated in you. 3.030.07 The man to whom you grant, lord of power, (your good-will), enjoys unprecedented domestic(prosperity); Indra, who are invoked by many, your auspicous favour, which is obtained by oblations, is the giverof unbounded wealth. [Which is obtained by oblation: sumatirghr.ta_ci_ = that which goes to or obtains clarifiedbutter, havir an~cati, pra_pnoti]. 3.030.08 Indra, who is invoked by many, grind to dust the reviling malevolent Vr.tra opposing you, dwelling withthe mother of the Da_navas, and increasing in might, until having deprived him of hand and foot, you havedestroyed him by your strength. [Yajus. 18.69; having deprived him of hand: sahada_num ks.iyantam sampin.akkun.a_rum: the allegory is the destruction of the cloud; or, it may mean, united with the da_navas; sahau =sahas, strength; ks.iyantam = badhama_nam, rain opposing; or, nikat.avartama_nam, being near to; kun.a_ru =either a proper name of an asura, a noisy one, kvan.anas'i_lam, or evil speaking, durvacavadanam; or,parikavan.ana, loud-sounding; anothe rinterpretation: crush the increasing cloud shedding water, sahada_numudakada_napetam; abiding in the sky, ks.iyantam a_ka_s'e nivasantam; and thundering, kun.a_rum = garjantam]. 3.030.09 You have fixed tranquil in its position the vast unbounded and wandering earth; the showerer (ofbenefits) has upheld the heaven and the firmament; let the waters engendered by you here descend. 3.030.10 The heavy cloud, the receptacle of water, dreading you its destroyer, opened out before (you had castyour bolt); then Indra made easily-traversed paths for the waters to issue, and desirable and loud sounding theyproceeded to the (waters of the earth) invoked of many. [Heavy cloud: ala_tr.n.o valah = a cloud, that which byits abundance of water, is able to do mischief; cf. Nirukta 6.2; desirable and loud-sounding: pra_van puruhu_tam,va_n.irdhamanti_h = vanani_yah 'sabda_yama_na_s-ta_ a_pah puruhu_tam bahubhira_hu_tam pa_rthivamudakam abhyagacchan; dhamanti_h = dhamatirgatikarma_ (Nirukta 6.2)]. 3.030.11 Indra alone has filled the two,both earth and heaven mutually combined, and abounding with wealth; doyou hero, mounted in your car, come with your harnessed horses from the firmament, impatient to be near us. 3.030.12 Su_rya harms not the quarters (of the horizon), set open daily (for his journey), the progeny ofHaryas'va; when he has traversed the roads (he is to travel), then he lets loose his horses, for such is his office.[Harms not the quarters: dis'ah su_ryo na mina_ti na him.sati = he does not injure; haryas'va = Indra, or he withthe tawny horses]. 3.030.13 Al,l me are anxious to behold the great and variegated host (of the solar rays) at the issuing of the dawnafter the night has been displaced; and when the morning has come, they recognize the many great and gloriousacts of Indra. 3.030.14 A great light has been shed upon the rivers; the cow yet immature grazes, charged with the ripe (milk),for Indra has placed in the cow all this collected sweetness for food. 3.030.15 Indra, be firm, for there are obstructors of your path; secure to the worshipper and his friends (themeans of completing) the sacrifice; mortal enemies bearing bows, armed with mischievous weapons, and comingwith evil intent, must be destroyed (by you). [Mortal enemies: martya_sah = ma_rayita_rah, killers, murderers]. 3.030.16 The sound (of your bolt) has been heard by the approaching foes; hurl upon them the consumingthunder-bolt, cut them up by the root, oppose; Maghavan, overcome, slay the ra_ks.asas, complete (thesacrifice). 3.030.17 Pluck the ra_ks.asas, Indra, by the root; cut as under the middle, blight the summit; to whatever remote(regions) you have driven the sinner, cast upon the enemy of the Veda your consuming weapon. [The enemy ofthe Veda: brahmadvis.e = brahman.adves.aka_rin.e, or him who entertains hatred against the Brahman; but,brahma may mean the prayer of the Vedas, or the Vedas, or perhaps, the religion or ritual of the followers of theVeda]. 3.030.18 Regulator (of the world, provide us) with horses for our welfare, and when you are seated near to usmay we become mighty, enjoying abundant food, and ample riches, and may there be to us wealth accompaniedby progeny. 3.030.19 Bring to us, Indra, splendid affluence; we rely on the bounty of you who are fond of giving; our desire isas insatiable as the fire of the ocean; appease it, lord of infinite riches. 3.030.20 Gratify this our desire (of wealth) with cows, with horses, with shining treasure, and make us renowned;the wise Kus'ikas, desirous of heaven, offer praise to you Indra, with pious (prayers). 3.030.21 Indra, lord of cattle, (divide the clouds and send us) rain, whence nutritious food may come to us;showerer (of benefits), you are spread through the sky, and powerful through truth; Maghavan, consider yourselfas our protector. 3.030.22 We invoke for our protection the opulent Indra distinguished in this combat; the leader in thefood-bestowing (strife), hearing (our praises), terrible in battles the destroyer of foes, the conqueror of wealth. 3.031.01 The sonless father, regulating (the contract), refers to his grandson, (the son) of his daughter, andrelying on the efficiency of the rite, honours (his son-in-law) with valuable gifts; the father, trusting to theimpregnation of the daughter, supports himself with a tranquil mind. [The sonless father: s'a_sadvahnih; the latteris said to be the father of a daughter only, not of a son, because he conveys away (vahati, pra_payati) hisproperty through his married daughter into another family; s'a_sad, s'a_sti, he stipulates, that this daughter's son,his grandson, duhitur naptyam, shall be his son, a mode of affiliation recognized by law; and relying on an heirthus obtained, and one who can perform his funeral rites, he is satisfied]. 3.031.02 (A son) born of the body, does not transfer (paternal) wealth to a sister; he has made (her) the recptacleof the embryo of the husband; if the parents procreate children (of either sex), one is the performer of holy acts,the other is to be enriched (with gifts). [Born of the body: ta_nvah = tanujah na ja_maye riktham a_raik, if therebe a son the inheritance does not go to the sister, ja_maye, bhaginyai; he has made her the receptacle: and byso doing he makes her sanskr.ta-- he secures for her one of the essential purificatory rites; if the parentsprocreate children: yadi ma_taro janayanti vahnim: vahni = offspring, or male offspring, a son; avahni = adaughter; one, the son, the performer of obsequial and other rites, is the heir, while the other is rindhan,ridhyama_na, to be increased or made wealthy, with dresses, ornaments and the like; cf. Nirukta 3.4-6]. 3.031.03 For the worship of the resplendent (Indra), Agni, glowing with flame, has begotten mighty sons; greatwas the germ, and great was their birth, and great was their efficacy, for the worship of Haryas'va. 3.031.04 The victorious (Maruts) associated (with Indra when contending with Vr.tra) perceived a great lightissuing from the darkness. The dawns recognizing him (as the sun) arose, and Indra was the sole sovereign ofthe rays (of light). 3.031.05 The seven intelligent ages (the an:girasas) having ascertained that (the cows) were concealed in thestrong (cavern), propitiated (Indra) by mental devotion; they recovered them all by the path of sacrifice; for Indra,knowing (their pious acts), and offering them homage, entered (the cave). 3.031.06 When Sarama_ discovered the broken (entrance) of the mountain, then Indra made great and ample(provision) for her young, as previously (promised); then the sure-footed (animal), forest recognizing their lowing,proceeded, and came to the presence of the imperishable kine. [yajus. 33.59; sarama_ = va_k, speech, that inwhich the gods saharamante, delight together]. 3.031.07 The most sage (Indra), desirous of the friendship of the (an:girasas), went to the cave, and themountain yielded its contents to the valiant (deity), aided by the youthful Maruts, equally wishing (to conciliate thesages); the destroyer (of the asuras) recovered (the cattle), and immediately an:girasas became his worshipper. 3.031.08 May he who is the type of all that is excellent the anticipator (of his foes), he who knows all that is born,who destroys S'us.n.a, the far-seeing, the restorer of cattle may he, a friend coming from heaven, honouring usas his friends, be free from all reproach. [Far-seeing: padavi_h, kavitama, most wise or far-seeing as to the past,from pada, on object, and vih, who knows; may he be free from all reproach: mun~canniravadya_t: always,nitara_m, be free, mun~catu-- from such a fault as that of the nature of the death of Vr.tra: vr.travadharu_pa_ddos.a_t; the paura_n.ika notion is that Vr.tra was a brahman, and by killing him, Indra was guilty of the heinoussin of brahmahatya_]. 3.031.09 The an:girasas, with minds intent on their cattle, (sat down to worshipIndra) with hymns, following theroad to immortality; great was their perseverance by which they sought for months to accomplish (their ends). 3.031.10 Contemplating their own (cattle) giving milk to their former progeny (the an:girasas) were delighted;their shouts spread through heaven and earth; they replaced the recovered kine in their places, and stationedguards over the cows. 3.031.11 Indra, the slayer of Vr.tra,let loose the milch kine, assisted by the Maruts, born for his aid, and entitledto praises and oblations, and the excellent (cows) contributing abundantly to sacred offerings, and yielding thebutter of libation, milked for him sweet (sacrificial) food. 3.031.12 They (the an:girasas) performing pious acts made for their protector a spacious and splendid abodewhich they celebrated; seated (at the sacrifice) and supporting with the pillar (of the firmament) the parents (of allthings heaven and earth), they established the rapid Indra on high (in heaven). 3.031.13 Inasmuch as our devout praise has appointed a thiriving ruler for the regulation of heaven and earth, towhom faultless and appropriate commendations (are due), therefore are all the energies of Indra spontaneouslyexerted. 3.031.14 I wish, Indra, for your friendship, and (the exercise of) your powers;many heroes come to the slayer ofVr.tra; we offer to you, sage, great praise and oblations; consider yourself, Maghavan, as our protector. 3.031.15 Wide fields, vast treasure, (spacious) pastures has the much-knowing (Indra) bestowed upon hisfriends; the radiant Indra with the leaders (of rites, the Maruts) generated the sun, the dawn, the earth and fire. 3.031.16 This lowly-minded Indra has created the wide-spread, commingled, all- delighting waters; and they,purifying the sweet (libations) with the sage purifiers, and being benevolent (to all), proceed with (the revolutions)of days and nights. [With the sage purifiers: kavibhih pavitraih = the sages, who are as it were with the filters orpurifiers of the soma, are the divinities: agni, va_yu and su_rya; proceed with days and nights:dyubhir-hinvantyuktabhih = they go with days and nights, i.e. they regulate by day and night the respectivefunctions of all the world: ra_tridivam saravam jagat sva svavya_parapravanam kurvanti, they make the wholeworld diligent in its respective functions by night and day]. 3.031.17 The two adorable (alternations of) day and night, upholding (all things) by the might of the sun,successively revolve; your sincere and acceptable friends (the Maruts) are ready to encounter (your foes) andmaintain your greatness. [Day and night: the text has ubhe kr.s.n.e = both the blacks, i.e. ahora_tre, day andnight; by the might of the sun: su_ryasya mam.hana_: su_rya = Indra, the impeller, preraka, of the world]. 3.031.18 Slayer of Vr.tra, do you, who is long lived the showerer (of benefits), the giver of food, be the lord of ourtrue praises, repairing (to the sacrifice), come to us great, with great, friendly, and auspicious protections. 3.031.19 Worshipping him with reverence, like an an:giras, I make the ancient (Indra) renovate to accept theoblation; destroy the many impious oppressors (of your worshippers) and bestow upon us, Maghavan, yours own(wealth) for our acceptance. 3.031.20 You purifying water have been spread abroad; fill their beds for our welfare; riding on the car, defend usfrom the malevolent, and make us quickly the conquerors of cattle. 3.031.21 Indra, the slayer of Vr.tra, the lord of herds, has discovered the cattle, and by his radiant effulgencedriven away the black (asuras), and indicating with veracity (to the an:girasas) the honest (kine), he shut the gateuon all their own cattle. [He shut the gate upon all: duras'ca vis'va_ av.r.n.od apa sva_h = having placed thecattle in the cow-pens, he covered or closed the doors, vraje ga_h stha_payitva_ ta_ni dva_ra_nyaccha_ditava_n]. 3.031.22 We invoke for our protection the opulent Indra, distinguished in this combat, the leader in thefood-bestowing (strife), hearing (our praise), terriblein battles, the destroyer of foes, the conqueror of wealth. 3.032.01 Indra, lord of the Soma, drink this Soma which is grateful to you at noon-day sacrifice, Maghavan,partake of the spiritless Soma, unyoke your horses, and filling their jaws (with fodder), exhilarate them at thisceremony. [Spiritless soma: r.jis.in, possessing r.jis.am, gatasa_ram somam, soma having lost its strength]. 3.032.02 Indra, drink the Soma mixed with milk, with butter-milk, or fresh; we offer it for your exhilaration,associated with the devout company of the Maruts and the Rudras; drink it till you are satisfied. [Mixed with milk:gavas'iram, manthinam, s'ukram: manthinam = manthasam.yuktam, mixed with butter-milk; s'ukram = abhinavan,new or fresh; or, the terms may mean s'ukramanthigrahe vartama_nam, being in the vessel of acid butter-milk;devout: brahmakr.ta_ = indrastotram kurva_n.ena, making the praise of Indra]. 3.032.03 These are the Maruts, Indra, who, worshipping your prowess, augment your withering force (by theiraid); attended by the Rudras, drink, wielder of the thunder-bolt, and handsome-chinned, at the noon-daysacrifice. 3.032.04 Those were the Maruts who were the strength of Indra, and gently encouraged him; animated by whomhe pierced the vital part of Vr.tra, fancying himself vulnerable. 3.032.05 Phased with the sacrifice, as if it was that of Manu, drink, Indra, the Soma, for the sake of perpetualvigour; come, lord of the tawny steeds, with the adorable Maruts, and with the traversers (of the air); send downthe waters (of the firmament) to (blend with) the waters of the earth. [Send down the waters: apo arn.a_ sisar.si =antariks.asthita_n yudaka_ni pa_rthiva_n yudaka_ni, pra_paya, cause the waters staying in mid-air to reach, orbecome those of, earth]. 3.032.06 Inasmuch as you have slain with active strife the slumbering, darking, water-investing Vr.tra, you havelet forth the bright waters like horses (rushing) into battle. 3.032.07 Therefore we sacrifice with reverence to the vast and mighty Indra, who is adorable, undecaying,young; whose magnitude the unbounded heaven and earth have not measures, nor can measure. 3.032.08 All the gods cannot detract from the many glorious exploits, and pious works of Indra; he who hasupheld earth, and heaven, and the firmament, and who, the performer of great deeds, has engendered the sunand the dawn. 3.032.09 Doer of no wrong, such was your true greatness, that as soon as born, you have quaffed the Soma;neither the heavens, nor days, nor months, nor years, resist the force of you who is mighty. 3.032.10 As soon as born in the highest heaven, you have quaffed, Indra, the Soma for your exhilaration; andwhen you had pervaded the heaven and earth, you became the primary artificer (of creation). 3.032.11 Indra, from whom many are born; you who is vigorous have slain Ahi, enveloping the slumbering waterand confiding in his prowess; yet the heaven apprehended not your greatness as you remained concealing theearth by on eof your flames. [As you remained concealing: anyaya_ sphigya_ ks.a_m avastha_ = ekataraya_kat.ya_ bhu_mim avaccha_dya tis.t.hasi]. 3.032.12 This our sacrifice, Indra, is your augmentation, for the rite in which the Soma is effused is acceptable toyou do you who is deserving of worship protect the worshipper by (the efficacy of) the worship, and may thissacrifice strengthen your thunderbolt for the slaying of Ahi. 3.032.13 The worshipper, by his conservatory sacrifice, has made Indra present; may Ibring him to my presenceto obtain new wealth, him who has been exalted by praise, whether ancient, medieval, or recent. 3.032.14 When the thought of glorifying Indra entered my mind, then I gave birth (to his praises); may I laud himbefore encountering distant (evil) days, whereby he may guide us beyond sin; for those on both sides of usinvoke him, as (those on either bank of a river hail) a passenger in a boat. 3.032.15 The vase is filled for him (with Soma); welcome Indra; I pour it out for you to drink, as a water-carrier(pours water) from his bag; may the grateful Soma flow in reverence round Indra for his exhilaration. 3.032.16 Invoked of many, the deep ocean arrests you not, nor do the accompanying mountains (stay you); andtherefore, summoned by your friends, you have repressed the strong flame abiding in the abyss. [You haverepressed the strong flame: dr.l.ham cid arujo gavyam u_rvam = prabalam api avate vartama_nam u_rva_nalamsamyagabha_n:ks.i_h, you have entirely broken the strong (u_rva) fire abiding in the deep]. 3.032.17 We invoke for our protection the opulent Indra, distinguished in this combat, the leader in thefood-bestowing (strife), hearing (our praises), terrible in battles, the destroyer of foes, the conqueror of wealth. 3.033.01 Rushing from the flanks of the mountains, eager (to reach the sea) like two mares with loosened reinscontending (with each other in speed), like two fair mother cows (hastening) to caress (their calves), the Vipa_s'and S'utudri, flow readily with (united) waters. [S'utudri: legend (also given in Nirukta 2.24): Vis'va_mitra, thefamily priest of Suda_s, the son of Paijavana, having gained much wealth in his service, was returning with ithome, when his road brought him to the confluence of the Vipa_s' and S'utudri; in order to make them fordable,he addressed to them the first verses of this su_kta, to which he replied, and allowed him and his followers tocross]. 3.033.02 Impelled by Indra, soliciting (his commands), you go to the ocean like charioteers (to their goal); flowingtogether, and swelling with (your) waves, bright (rivers) one of you proceeds to the other. 3.033.03 I repaired to the most material river; I went to the wide auspicious Vipa_s', flowing together to a commonreceptacle, like parent cows (hastening to) caress the calf. 3.033.04 The rivers speak: Fertilizing (the land) with this (our) current, we are flowing to the receptacle which hasbeen appointed by the deity (Indra); the course appointed for our going (permits) not of delay; of what is the sagedesirious, that he addresses the rivers? 3.033.05 Vis'va_mitra speaks: Rivers, charged with water, rest a moment from your course at my request, who goto gather the Soma; I, the son of Kus'ika, desirous of protection, address with earnest prayer especially the riverbefore me. [At my request: me vacase somya_ya = to my speech importing the soma, i.e. the object of myaddress is, that having crossed over, I may go to gather the soma; cf. Nirukta 2.25; the river before me: that is,the s'utudri]. 3.033.06 The rivers speak; Indra, the wielder of the thunder-bolt, dug our channels when he slew Ahi theblocker-up of rivers; the divine and well-handed Savita_ has led us (on our path), and obedient tohis commandswe flow (as) ample (streams). [The blocker-yo if ruversL tge ckiyd unorusibubg the water of the rains; savita_:epithet of Indra, the impeller or animator of the world: savita_ sarvasya jagatah prerakah; cf. Nirukta 2.26]. 3.033.07 Vis'va_mitra speaks: Ever is that heroic exploit of Indra to be celebrated when he cut Ahi to pieces, andwith his thunderbolt destroyed the surrounding (obstructors of the rain), whence the waters proceed in thedirection they desire. 3.033.08 The rivers speak: Praiser of Indra, forget not this speech, nor the worlds that (you have addressed tous) for future ages (to reverence); celebrator (of holy rites), be favourable to us in solemn prayers; treat us notafter the (arrogant fashion) of men; salutation be to you! 3.033.09 Vis'va_mitra speaks: Listen, sister (streams), kindly to him who praises you; who has come from afarwith a waggon and chariot; bow down lowly; become easily fordable; remain, rivers, lower than the axle (of thewheel) with your currents. [With a wagon and chariot: anasa_ rathena = s'akat.ena rathena ca, by a cart and acarriage; anas, a cart or wagon, or truck, to convey the Soma]. 3.033.10 The rivers speak: Hymner, we hear your words, that you have come from afar with a wagon andchariot; we bow down before you; like a woman nursing (her child), like a maiden bending to embrace a man, (sowill we do) for you. [For you: te is repeated at the end of the line; it is repeated out of respect, te iti punaruktira_dara_rtham]. 3.033.11 Vis'va_mitra speaks: (Since), rivers, (you have allowed me to cross), so may the Bharatas pass over(your united stream); may the troop desiring to cross the water, permitted (by you), and impelled by Indra, pass;then let the course appinted for your going (be resumed); I have recourse to the favour of you who are worthy ofadoration. [The Bharatas: said to be the same lineage as Vis'va_mitra's: bharakulaja_ madiya_h sarve; perhapsthis means, those who were the bearers of Vis'va_mitra's goods and chattels; Maha_bha_rata, A_di Parva5.3734 cites Vasis.t.ha as the family priest of the Bharatas]. 3.033.12 The Bharata_s seeking cattle passed over; the sage enjoyed the favour of the rivers; streamsdispensing food, productive of wealth, spread abundance, fill (your beds), flow swiftly. 3.033.13 Let your waves (rivers) so flow that the pin of the yoke may be above (their) waters; leave the tracesfull, and may (the two streams), exempt from misfortune or defect, and uncensured, exhibit no (present) increase.[The pin: s'amya_, yugki_la; or, the ropes that are fastened to the ends of the yoke, the traces: yugyakan.t.hapa_rs'va_di sam.lagna rajjavah; yoktra_n.i is also similarly explained; perhaps, these refer to the traces; exhibitno present increase: ma s'u_nam a_rata_m: s'u_nam = samr.ddhim, increase, referring merely to the presentmoment; i.e., may the rivers not so rise as to prevent his passage; or, it may convey a wish that the rivers mightnever suffer any diminution, taking s'u_nam in the sense of s'u_nyam, emptiness]. 3.034.01 Indra, the destroyer of cities, possessed of wealth manifesting (his greatness), merciless to his enemieshas overspread the day with his radiance; attracted by prayer, increasing in bulk, and armed with many weapons,he has delighted both heaven and earth. [Rmed with many pweapons: bhu_rida_tra: da_tra fr. do, to cut, isexplained as a weapon]. 3.034.02 Decorating you, I address sincere prayers to you who are adorable and mighty, for the sake of(obtaining) food; you, Indra are the preceder of men the descendants of manu, and of the descendants of thegods. [The preceder of men: pu_rvaya_va_ (ya_ pra_pan.e), agrato ganta_, the goer before]. 3.034.03 Indra, of glorious deeds, destroyed Vr.tra; resistless in combat, he has overcome the deceivers resolvedto consume him; he slew the mutilated (demon lurking) in the woods, and made manifest the (stolen) kine (thathad been hidden) in the night. 3.034.04 Indra, the giver of svarga, generating the days, has subdued victorious with the eager (an:girasas) thehostile hosts, and illuminingfor man the banner of the days, he obtained light for the great conflict. [Illumining thebanner of the days: pra_rocayan ketum ahna_m = lighting up, su_rya, or the sun]. 3.034.05 Indra entered the confiding hostile (hosts) like a man distributing many (gifts) to (his) leaders; he hasanimated these dawns for the worshipper, and heightened their bright radiance (by his own). 3.034.06 They celebrate many great and glorious exploits of this mighty Indra; he crushed the strong by hisstrength, and, of overpowering prowess, he overcame the dasyus by delusions. 3.034.07 Lord of the virtuous, fulfiller of the wishes of men, he gave to the gods the wealth (that had been won)in fierce battle, and therefore far-seeing sages glorify those his exploits with praises in the dwelling of theworshipper. [To the gods: devebhyah = stotrebhyah, to the praisers or worshippers; in the dwelling of theworshipper: vivasvatah sadane: vivasvatah = of whom dwelling vasatah, where various (vi) religious rites areperformed]. 3.034.08 Devout worshippers propitiate Indra, the victorious, the excellent, the bestower of strength, the enjoyerof heaven and the divine waters, and who was the giver of the earth and heaven and this (firmament to theirinhabitants). 3.034.09 He gave horses, he gave also the sun, and Indra gave also the many- nourishing cow; he gave goldentreasure, and having destroyed the dasyus, he protected the a_rya tribe. [The a_rya tribe: a_rya varn.am =implies only the best tribe, or order, uttamam varn.am, or the three first castes collectively]. 3.034.10 Indra bestowed plants and days, he gave trees and the firmament,he divided the cloud, he scatteredopponents, he was the tamer of adversaries. 3.034.11 We invoke for our protection the opulent Indra, distinguished in this combat, the leader in thefood-bestowing (strife), hearing (our praises), terrible in battles, the destroyer of foes, the conqueror of wealth. 3.035.01 Stay, Indra, having yoked the horses to the car, as Va_yu stops when he has put to his steds, andcome to our presence; solicited by us to drink of the Soma, which with reverence we offer for your exhilaration. 3.035.02 I harness for you, who is invoked by many, the swift gliding horses to the shafts of the car, that theymay bear Indra to this sacrifice that is prepared with all (that is required). 3.035.03 Showerer (of benefits), giver of food, guide hither your vigorous horses, defending (us) against foes,and protect (your worshippers); here unharness the bay steeds, and give them fodder, and you eat daily suitablefood. [Eat suitable food: sadr.s'i_r addhi dha_na_h = eat suitable grains, i.e. fried barley, bhr.s.tayava_n]. 3.035.04 I harness with prayer your horses, who are to be harnessed with prayer, who are allies and swift-pacedin battle; arise, and all-knowing Indra, mounting on your firm and easy chariot, come to the libation. 3.035.05 Let not other sacrifices attract your vigorous and smooth-backed steeds; disregarding others, comeperpetually hither, that we may propitiate you sufficiently with effused Soma libations. 3.035.06 This soma libation is for you; come down, and well disposed, drink of it unceasingly; seated on thegrass at this sacrifice, take Indra, this (libation) into your belly. [Yajus. 26.23]. 3.035.07 The sacred grass is strewn for you; the Soma, Indra, is poured forth; the grain wherewith to feed yourhorses is prepared; the oblations are offered to you abiding on the sacred grass, who is praised of many, and isthe showerer (of benefits), attended by the Maruts. 3.035.08 The leaders (of the ceremony) have prepared for you, Indra, this (libation), sweetened with milk, thestones, the water; beautiful Indra, who is favourably disposed, and who is wise, knowing well (the worship) that isaccording to your peculiar paths, come and drink of this libation. [Knowing well the worship: praja_nan pathya_anu sva_h = righty apprehending the praises which are due or peculiar, and which are offered with the ritesenjoined by the Vedas. 3.035.09 Associated, Indra, with those Maruts with whom you have shared in the libation, who encouraged you(in battle), and are your attendant troop, drink, desirous of the Soma, along with them, with the tongue of Agni. 3.035.10 Adorable Indra, drink of the effused libation, either by your own effort, or through the tongue of Agni;drink it, S'akra, offered by the hand of the adhvaryu, or accept the presentation of the oblation (from the hand) ofthe Hota_. 3.035.11 We invoke for our protection the opulent Indra distinguished in this combat; the leader in the foodbestowing (strife), hearing (our praises), terrible in battles the destroyer of foes, the conqueror of wealth. 3.036.01 Indra, who is constantly seeking (association) with your allies (the Maruts) accept this, our offering(made) for the grant (from you of riches); for you are one who grows with augmenting energies, throughreiterated libations, and has been renowned for glorious deeds. 3.036.02 To Indra have libations been presented in the days of old, whereby he has become illustrious, theregulator of time, the granter of desires; accept, Indra, these prescribed (offerings), and drink of this auspicous(Soma), expressed by the stones. [Has become illustrious: r.bhur yebhih, vr.s.aparva_ viha_ya_h = with which(libations) he is r.bhu;or, di_tah, enlightened; vr.s.aparva_= he on whom the rainy season and other divisions oftime parva_n.i, depend; or, time itself, ka_la_tamakah and viha_ya_, who abandons or resigns to those who askanything, that which they desire; the two first, r.bhu and vr.s.aparva_ may also be considered proper names orappellations of Indra; expressed by the stones: vr.s.adhu_tasya vr.s.nah: vr.s. = showering, raining; i.e.rain-shaken rainer; vr.s.n.ah = Soma that bestows svarga and such other benefits; gra_vabhir abhis.u_tam,expressed by the stones used for the purpose; using the same idea of their being showerers or bestowers ofblessings]. 3.036.03 Drink, Indra, and thrive; yours are these (present) libations, as were the primitive libations; you who isadorable, drink today the recent libations, as you drank those of old. 3.036.04 The great Indra, the victorious in battle, the defier of foes; his fierce strength and resolute vigour areexerted; verily the earth does not contain him, neither (does the heaven), when the Soma libations exhilarate thelord of the tawny steeds. 3.036.05 The mighty, fierce, auspicious Indra, the showerer (of benefits), augments (in power) as he is animatedfor heroic (acts) by praise; his cattle are generated givers of food; many are his donations. [Many are hisdonations: daks.in.a_ asya pu_rvi_h: these are both epithets of ga_vah: bahvyasta_ ga_vo daks.in.a_hpraja_yante, those many cows, givers (of milk and the like) are born]. 3.036.06 As the rivers pursue their course, the waters rush to the ocean like the drivers of cars (to a goal), so thevast Indra (hastens) from his dwelling (in the firmament), when the humble Som alibation propitiates him. [Thecomparison: as small rivers and scanty waters contribute to the vast ocean, so the Soma, however insignificant,contributes to the gratification of the great Indra]. 3.036.07 As the rivers are solicitious (to mix) with the ocean, so (are the priests) bearing the efficient libation toIndra; holding in their hands they milk the Soma, and purify the sweet Soma (as they fall) indrops through thepurifying filters. 3.036.08 The stomach of Indra (is) as capacious (a receptacle) of Soma, as a lake, for he has partaken of it atmany sacrifices; and inasmuch as he has eaten the first (sacrificial) viands, he has been the slayer of Vr.tra, andhas shared the Soma (with the gods). [As capacious of Soma as a lake: hrada_ iva kuks.ayah soma dha_na_h:bellies udara_n.i, is used in the plural, to intimate capaciousness for holding the Soma]. 3.036.09 Quickly, Indra, bring (wealth); let no one impede you, for we know you to be the lord of wealth, of alltreasures; and since, Indra, your greatness is munificence, therefore, lord of the tawny steeds, grant us (riches). 3.036.10 Opulent Indra, receiver of the spiritless Soma, give to us riches in universally desired quantity; grant usto live a hundred years; bestow upon us, Indra wiht the handsome chin, numerous posterity. 3.036.11 We invoke for our protection the opulent Indra, distinguished in this combat; the leader in thefood-bestowing (strife), hearing (our praises), terrible in battles, the destroyer of foes, the conqueror of wealth. 3.037.01 We excite you, Indra, to exert the strength that destroys Vr.tra, and overpowers hostile armies. 3.037.02 May your praisers, Indra, who is worshipped in a hundred rites, direct your mind and your eyes towardsus. [Worshipped in a hundred rites: s'atakratu = Indra; or, an epithet, he to whom a hundred (i.e. many) sacrificesare offered, or by whom many great acts are performed. 3.037.03 We recite, Indra, who is worshipped in a hundred rites, (your many) names in all our hymns for strengthto resist our foes. 3.037.04 We repeat the praise of the many-lauded Indra the supporter of man, invested with a hundred glories. 3.037.05 I invoke you, Indra, who is invoked of many for the slaying of Vr.tra, and the granting of food (as thespoil) of battle. 3.037.06 Be victorious, Indra, in battles; we solicit you, object of many rites, to destroy Vr.tra. 3.037.07 Overcome, Indra, those who are adverse to us in riches, in battle, in hostile hosts, in strength. 3.037.08 Drink, Indra, object of many rites, for our preservation, the most invigorating, fame-conferring,sleep-dispelling, Soma. [pi_tah somah svapnaniva_raka = drinking the soma is preventive of sleep]. 3.037.09 Indra, object of many rites, I regard the organs of sense, that exist in the five races (of beingsdependent) on you as yours. 3.037.10 May the abundant (sacrificial) food (we offer) reach you, Indra; grant us wealth that may not easily besurpassed; we augment your vigour (by our offerings). 3.037.11 COme to us S'akra, whether from afar or nigh; whatever, Indra, wielder of the thunderbolt, be yourregion, come from thence hither. 3.038.01 Repeat (to Indra) pious praise, as a carpenter (planes the wood), and engaging (zealously in sacredrites), as a quick horse bearing well his burden; endowed with intelligence, and refllecting upon the future actsacceptable (to Indra), I desire to behold the sages (whohave gone to heaven). [As a quick horse: the institutor ofthe rite is supposed here to address the officiating priests, urging them to be diligent laboureres, like thecarpenter of the pack- horse; acts acceptable to Indra: abhipriya_n.i marmr.s'at para_n.i kavi_n.iccha_misandr.s'e: priya_n.i = indrasya priyatama_ni; para_n.i = uttama_ni, best and most dear to Indra; karma_n.i = acts;or, para_n.i = acts to be done on subsequent days, uttares'vahassu kriyama_n.a_ni; kavi = kra_ntadars'i_ a seerof the past;here, it is said to mean a holy person who, for his assiduous devotion, has attained deification, yahpu_rvam anus.t.hitayajn~aih devabhu_yam agamat; so, ye vai tena r.s.ayah purve preta_s te vai kavayah(Aitareya Bra_hman.a 6.20)]. 3.038.02 Ask of the lords (of earth, the holy teachers), the birth of those deified sages, who with well-governedminds, and diligent in sacred rites, fabricated the heavens; and may these propitiatory (praises), augmenting(your power) and rapid as the wind, reach you at this solemn rite. 3.038.03 Comprehending hidden (mysteries) here on earth, they have, through their power, made manifest (thethings of) heaven and earth; they have set limits to themby their elements; they connected them both mutuallyunited, wide-spread and vast, and fixed the intermediate (firmament) to sustain them. [They have set limits: samma_tra_bhir mamire = ma_tra_bhih rodasyau iyattaya_ paricchinne cakruh, wih the elements they madedeterminate divisions of heaven and earth by so much, i.e., to a definite limit or extent]. 3.038.04 They all ornamented (Indra) standing (in his car) and, clothed in beauty, he proceeds self-radiant;wonderful are the acts of that showerer (of benefits), the influencer (of consciences), who omniform, presidesover the ambrosial (waters). [The influencer of consciences: the text has only asurasya; the term is explained byprerakasya antarya_mitava, impeller, from being in the inner spirit]. 3.038.05 The showerer (of benefits), the preceder and elder (of the gods), generated (the waters); they are theabundant allayers of his thirst; sovereign Indra and Varun.a, grandsons of heaven, you possess the wealth (thatis to be acquired) by the rites of the splendid sacrifice. 3.038.06 Royal Indra and Varun.a, embellish the three universal sacrifices (and make them) full (of all requisites)for this celebration; you have gone to the rite, for I have beheld in my mind, at this solemnity, the gandharvas withhair (waving) in the wind. [The gandharvas: gandharva_n va_yukes'a_n: the gandharvas are the guardians of theSoma, somaraks.aka_n; similar beings are cited in Taittiri_ya: sva_nabhra_ja_n, bambha_re, hasta, suhasta,kr.s'a_n.ahete vah somakrayan.a_s, ta_n raks.adhvamma_ vo dabhan]. 3.038.07 Those who, for (the sake of) the showerer (of benefits), milk the agreeable (produce) of the cow, (whois known) by (many) names, they invested with the diversified strength (of the asuras) and practising delusive arthave deposited their own nature in him. 3.038.08 No one (distinguishes) my golden lustre from that of this Savita_, in which (lustre) he has taken refuge;gratified by pious praise, he cherishes the all-fostering heaven and earth as a woman cherishes her offspring.[The Savita_: asya savitur nakir me: savita_ = Indra, sarvasya jagato antarya_mitaya_ prerayitur indrasya, ofIndra the impeller, through his being the internal pervader of the whole world]. 3.038.09 You two secure the great felicity of the ancient (worshipper), that which is happiness in heaven; do you(therefore) be even about us; all those who exercise illusion, contemplate the manifold expoits of the everlastingand blandly-speaking Indra. [All those who exercise illusion: vis've ma_yinah = sarve deva_h, all the gods;ma_ya_ also signifies wisdom, intelligence,hence, may also mean the wise; ma_ya = deceivers, or asuras]. 3.038.10 We invoke for our protection the opulent Indra, distinguished in this combat, the leader in thefood-bestowing (strife), hearing (our praises), terrible in battles, the destroyer of foes, the conqueror of wealth. 3.039.01 The praise that is prompted by the heart, and is uttered by the reciters of sacred hymns, proceeds tothe presence of the lord, and is his awakener when repeated at the sacrifice; be cognizant Indra, of this praise,which is born for you. 3.039.02 That praise which is begotten before (the dawn) of day is the awakener of Indra, when repeated at the(morning) sacrifice; auspicious and clothed in white raiment is this our ancient and paternal hymn. [Auspiciousand clothed in white raiment: bhadra_ vastra_n.i arjuna_ vasa_na_ va_k = speech auspicious, wearing whitegarments, i.e., teja_m.si, splendours, energies; our ancient and paternal hymn: pitrya_ dhi_h pitr.krama_gata_stuti, praise come in the succession of progenitors]. 3.039.03 The parent of twins (the dawn), has brought forth the twin (As'vins) on this occasion, (in the praise ofwhom) the tip of my tongue remains tremulous; they two, the dispersers of darkness, combine, assuming bodiesas a pair (of twins) at the origin of the day. [At the origin of the day: the as'vins are worshipped at the morningceremony]. 3.039.04 There are no revilers among men of those who were our progenitors and combatants for (the recoveryof) the cattle; for the mighty Indra, the achiever of great deeds, liberated for them the numerous herds. 3.039.05 A friend, accompanied by the faithful friends who had celebrated the nine months rite, and tracking thecows upon their knees, and in like manner accompanied by those ten who had accomplished the ten months' rite,Indra made manifest the true (light of the sun) (theretofore) dweling in (the) darkness (of the cave). [The faithfulfriends: the an:girasas; ten months' rite: navagvah and das'agvah]. 3.039.06 Indra discovered the sweet milk secreted in the cow, and thereupon, brought forth (from theirconcealment) the herd (of cattle) having feet and having hoofs; munificent (in gifts), he held in his right hand thatwhich had been hidden in the cavern, which was concealed in the waters. [he held in his right hand: i.e. hedelivered the rains from their imprisonments in the clouds of the firmament]. 3.039.07 The discriminating (Indra) has separated the light from the darkness; may we, removed afar from evil,be ever in security; Indra, drinker of the Soma, who is nurished by Soma, be pleased with these praises of yourworshipper who is the discomfiter of his foes. 3.039.08 May light be spread throughout heaven and earth for (the promotion of the) sacrifice; may we be farremoved from exceeding ill; Vasus, who are to be rendered present (by pious praise), bestow increasingaffluence upon the men who is liberal of gifts. 3.039.09 We invoke for our protection the opulent Indra, distinguished in this combat, the leader in thefood-bestowing (strife), hearing (our praises), terrible in battles, the destroyer of foes, the conqueror of wealth. 3.040.01 We invoke you, Indra, showerer (of benefits), to the effused libation; you drink of the exhilarating Soma.[Indra: a number of etymologies: fr. Nirukta and Taittiri_ya A_ran.yaka: he who sports (ramate), in the Soma(indu); or, he who shows this (idam) universe; or, he who divides (dr.n.a_ti), or gives (dada_ti), or takes(dadha_ti_), or causes to worship (da_rayati), or possesses (dha_rayati) spiritous liquor (iram), or who runs orpasses (dravadi), the Soma (indau); or kindles or animates (inddhe) living beings; or he who beholds the purespirit, or Brahma_, which is this (idam) universe; the grammarians derive it from idi, to rule with the affix -ran]. 3.040.02 Indra, the praised of many, accept the effused Soma, the conferrer of knowledge; drink, imbibe thesatisfactory draught. [Imbibe: vr.s.asva, sprinkle, shower, that is, into the stomach, so that it may not descendbelow the stomach]. 3.040.03 Indra, lord of men, who is praised (by the devout) and aided by the gods, perfect this our sacrifice inwhich the oblation is offered (to you). 3.040.04 Indra, lord of the virtuous, these effused Soma juices, exhilarating and brilliant, proceed to your abode.[Your abode: ks.ayam tava: ks.aya = abode; here, it refers to Indra's belly, jat.hara]. 3.040.05 Receive, Indra, into your stomach this excellent effused libation, these bright (drops) abide with you inheaven. 3.040.06 Indra, who is glorified with praise, drink this our libation, for you are sprinkled with the drops of theexhilarating (draught); the (sacrificial) food is verily purified by you. 3.040.07 The brilliant and imperishable (Soma), offered by the worshipper, encompasses Indra; having drunk ofthe libation, he increases (in vigour). 3.040.08 Slayer of Vr.tra, whether from nigh or from afar, come to us, accept these our praises. 3.040.09 Whether you are called from nigh or from afar, or from mid-space, come hither, Indra, from thence. 3.041.01 Indra, wielder of the thunderbolt, come to me with your horses, when invoked to drink the Soma at our(sacrifice). 3.041.02 The invoking priest is seated at the proper season; the sacred grass woven together has been spread;the stones are placed in contact for the morning (libation). 3.041.03 Bearer of prayers, these prayers are offered (by us); sit down on the sacred grass; partake, hero, of theoblation. [Bearer of prayers: brahmava_hah, stotra_n.i vahati, who bears or receives praise; or it may meanbrahman.a_ stotren.a pra_pyate, who is attained by praise or prayer]. 3.041.04 Slayer of Vr.tra, Indra, who is gratified by praise, be pleased with these our praises and prayers at our(daily) sacrifices. 3.041.05 Our praises caress the mighty Indra, the drinker of the Soma, as cows lick their calves. 3.041.06 Be exhilarated bodily (by drinking) of the libation which we offer for the sake of ample wealth; exposenot your adorer to reproach. 3.041.07 Devoted, Indra, to you and offering oblations, we glorify you giver of dwellings; do you be favourablydisposed to us. [Devoted to you: tva_yavah = fr. tvam, you with kyac (supa a_tmanah kyac), converting it totva_yu; so, presently, asmayuh, devoted or inclined to us]. 3.041.08 Lover of horses, Indra, loosen not your steeds while far from us, but come (with them) to our presence;enjoyer of the offering, be exhilarated at this sacrifice. 3.041.09 May your long-maned and sleek-coated steeds bring you down in your easy chariot to sit upon thesacred grass. 3.042.01 Come, Indra, to this our effused Soma mixed with milk and curds, with your horses (yoked to your car),which is favourably disposed to us. 3.042.02 Come, Indra, to the exhilarating (Soma) expressed by the stones, poured upon the sacred grass; drinkof it to satiety, for there is plenty. 3.042.03 May my praises, addressed from hence and in thi smanner, attain Indra, to bring him hither to drink theSoma. 3.042.04 We invoke Indra to this rite with prayers to drink the Soma; may he, repeatedly invoked, come hither. 3.042.05 Indra, these Soma are poured out; take them, S'atakratu, into your stomach; you who is rich in(abundant) food. 3.042.06 Far-seeing Indra, we know you to be victorious and winner of wealth in battles; therefore we ask of youriches. 3.042.07 Having come (to our rite) drink, Indra, this our (libation), effused by the stones, and mixed with milk andcurds, and with barley. 3.042.08 I offer to you, Indra, this Soma for your drinking, to be taken into its proper receptacle;may it delight yourheart. 3.042.09 Descendants of Kus'a, desirous of protection, we invoke you, Indra, who is of old, to drink of thelibation. 3.043.01 Descend to us riding in your car, for verily yours is this ancient libation; unharness your beloved andfriendly (horses) near to the sacred grass, for these offerers of the oblation present it to you. 3.043.02 Passing by multitudes, come hither, noble Indra, with your steeds, (to receive) our benedictions; forthese praises, Indra, composed by the devout, invoke you propitiating your friendship. 3.043.03 Divine Indra, come quickly with your steeds, and well pleased, to our food-augmenting sacrifice; offering(sacred) food with butter, I invoke you verily with praises in the chamber of the sweet libations. 3.043.04 May these two vigorous friendly burden-bearing and well-limbed steeds convey you hither, where,Indra, approving of the ceremony (in wihc the offering) is parched grain, may hear as a friend the praises of hisfriend (the worshipper). 3.043.05 Possessor of wealth, accept of the spiritless Soma; make me the protector, or rather a monarch of men;make me verily a holy sage, a drinker of the libation; make me verily the possessor of imperishable wealth. [Orrather a monarch of men: kuvid ma_m gopa_m karase janasya kuvid ra_ja_nam: kuvid = api, surely, verily]. 3.043.06 May your mighty horses, Indra, harnessed (in your car), and alike exhilaarated (by Soma), bring you ourpresence, for they are the destroyers (of the foes) of the showerer (of benefits), and kindly rubbed by his handthey traverse, going quickly, the regions of the sky, making them as it were twofold. [Making them as it weretwofold: pra ye dvita_ diva r.n~janti; sarva_ dis'o dvita_, dvidha_m, yatha_ bhavati tatha_ prakars.en.asa_dhayanti, they especially make all the quarters of the horizon double, so that it (the sky) becomes twofold]. 3.043.07 Drink, Indra, of the bountiful (libation) expressed by the beneficent (stones); that which the falcon hasborne to you desiring it, in whose exhilaration you cast down (opposing) men, in whose exhilaration you have setopen the clouds. [That which the falcon: A legend in Aitareya Bra_hman.a, Pan~cika_ III, Adhya_ya 13: Somagrew formerly only in heaven, the r.sis and the gods considered how it might be brought down to earth, anddesired the Cha_ndasas, the metres of the Vedas, to bring it; changing themselves to birds (suparn.as), theyundertook the office; the only one who succeeded, however, was the ga_yatri_, in the shape of a hawk (s'yeni_),and she was wounded by an arrow shot by one of the somapa_las, or gandharvas, the guardians of the Soma,thence termed somabhra_ja_s, which cut off anail of her left foot; the ichor (blood- tinged discharge) from thewound became the vasa_ of the burnt offering]. 3.043.08 We invoke for our protection the opulent Indra distinguished in this combat, the leader in thefood-bestowing (strife), hearing (our praises), terrible in battles, the destroyer of foes, the conqueror of wealth. 3.044.01 May this desirable and gratifying Soma expressed by the stones,by, Indra, for you ascend the verdantchariot, and with your tawny (steeds) come to us. [The su_kta highlights the changes on the derivatives of theroot hri, to take; the former su_kta used the root vr.s., shower. haryatah = taking, captivating, desirable; harit, thestone that bruises the Soma; Indra's horses in the dual or plural, are hari, harayah; harit = green; haryas'vah = hewho has the horses called hari; haridhayasam = yellow-rayed; harivarpasam = green-coloured]. 3.044.02 Desiring (the Soma), you honour the dawn; desirng the Soma, yu have lighted up the sun; knowing anddiscriminating (all our wishes), lord of the tawny steeds, you augment upon us all (sorts of) prosperity. 3.044.03 Indra has upheld the yellow-rayed heaven; the verdant tinted earth; there is abundant pasture (for hissteeds) in the two azure spheres of heaven and earth, between which Hari travels. 3.044.04 The azure-coloured showerer (of benefits), illumes, as soon as born, the whole luminous region; thelord of the tawny steeds holds in his hands the yellow weapon, the destroying thunderbolt. 3.044.05 Indra has uncovered the desirable white-coloured, fast-flowing Soma, effused by the expressing stones,and overlaid with the shining (milk and other liquids), in like manner as when, borne by his tawny steeds, herescued the cattle. [Indra discovers or uncovers the hidden Soma; this act was ascribed to Pu_s.an in anothertext]. 3.045.01 Come,Indra, with your exulting peacock-haired steeds; let no persons detain you, as (fowlers) throwingsnares catch a bird;pass them by (quickly) as (travellers cross) a desert. [Yajus. 20.53; peacock-haired: mayu_raromabhih, withhair like the feathers of the peacock]. 3.045.02The evourer of Vr.tra, the fracturer of the cloud, the sender of the waters, the demolisher of cities, Indra,the destroyer of powerful enemies, has mounted his chariot to urge his horses to our presence. 3.045.03 You cherish the celebrator of the pious rite as you fill the deep seas (with water); or as a carefulherdsman (cherishes) the cows; (you imbibe the Soma) as cows (obtain) fodder, (and the Soma juices) flow intoyou as rivulets flow into a lake. 3.045.04 Grant us riches, securing (us against foes), (as a father bestows) his portion on (a son) arrived atmaturity; send down upon us, Indra, wealth adequate (to our desires), as a crookbringd down the ripe fruit from atree. 3.045.05 You are possessed of opulence, Indra; you are the lord of heaven, auspicious and renowned; may youwho is adored of many, increasing in vigour, be to us a most (bountiful bestower) of food. 3.046.01 Vast are the energies of you, Indra, the warrior, (the showerer of benefits), the lord of wealth, the fierce;who is (both) young and old; the overcomer of foes, the undecaying, the wielder of the thunderbolt, and who ismighty and renowned. 3.046.02 Adorable and powerful Indra, you are great and magnificent, overcoming adversaries by your prowess;you alone are lord of all the world; do you war (upon our enemies), and give safe dwellings to men. 3.046.03 The resplendent and every way unlimited Indra, drinking the spiritless Soma, far surpasses theelements, (far exceeds) the gods in power; he is more vast than heaven and earth, or the widespread spaciousfirmament. 3.046.04 The Soma daily poured out enter into the vast and profund Indra, fierce from his birth, all-pervading, theprotector of the pious (worshipper), as rivers flow into the sea. 3.046.05 Which Soma, Indra, the heaven and earth, containing for you, as a mother contains the embryo;showerer (of benefits), the priests pour it out for you they purify it for your drinking. 3.047.01 Indra, attended by the Maruts, the showerer (of benefits), drink the Soma offered after the otherpresentations, for your exhilaration for battle; take into your belly the (full) wave of the inebriating (Soma), for youare lord of libations from the days of old. [Yajus. 7.38 has prati_pah for pradivah; prati_pah = first andother lunardays, or tithis, until the full moon, during which offerings of Soma are daily presented]. 3.047.02 Indra, hero, rejoicing with and accompanied by the host of Maruts, drink the Soma, for you are theslayer of Vr.tra the sage; subdue our enemies, drive away the malevolent, make us safe on every side from peril.[Yajus. 7.37; drive away the malevolent: apanudasva mr.dhah = drive away all those who are engaged in battle,i.e. enemies; or keep off from us battles; mr.dh = war, battle, san:gra_ma]. 3.047.03 Drinker of the Soma in season, drink with your divine friend the Maruts the Soma that is presented byus; those Maruts whose aid you have enjoyed (in battle), and who, following you have given you the strengthwhereby you have slain Vr.tra. 3.047.04 They who encouraged you, Maghavan, to slay Ahi, who (aided you) in the conflict with S'ambara, and inthe recovery of the cattle, and who, possessed of wisdom, contribute verily to your exhilaration, with them, thetroop of the maruts, do you Indra, drink the Soma. 3.047.05 We invoke to this sacrifice for present protection Indra, the chief of the Maruts, the showerer (ofbenefits) augmenting (in glory), overcoming many foes, divine regulator (of good and ill), the subduer of all(enemies), the fierce, the bestower of strength. 3.048.01 May the showerer (of rain), who, as soon as born, is the object of affection, protect the offerer of theeffused libation; drink at will, Indra, before (the other gods), of the pure Soma mixed with milk. 3.048.02 On the day on which you were born, you did drink at will the mountain- abiding nectar of this Soma, foryour youthful parent mother (Aditi), in the dwelling of your great sire (Kas'yapa), gave it to you before she gavethe breast. 3.048.03 Approaching his mother he asked for food, and beheld the acrid Soma upon her bosom; eager heproceeds, dislodging the adversaries (of the gods); and, putting forth manifold (energy), he performed great(deeds). 3.048.04 Fierce, rapid in assault, of overpowering strength he made his form obedient to his will; havingovercome Tvas.t.a_ by his innate (vigour), and carried off the Soma, he draink it (deposited) in the ladles. [Madehis form obedient to his will: According to su_kta 3.8, ru_pam ru_pam maghavan bobhavi_ti, Maghavan isrepeatedy of various forms; he can take what form he wills]. 3.048.05 We invoke for our protection the opulent Indra, distinguished in this combat, the leader in thefood-bestowing (strife), hearing (our praises), terrible in battles, the destroyer of foes, the conqueror of wealth. 3.049.01 I glorify the mighty Indra, in whom all men, drinking the Soma, obtain their wishes; whom the powerful(heaven and earth) and the gods begot, the doer of great deeds, the slayer of the Vr.tras, who was fashioned byVibhu (the creator). [Fashioned by Vibha: vibhvatas.t.am = appointed by Brahma for the government of the world,jagada_dhipatye brahman.a_ stha_pitam]. 3.049.02 Whom, when borne by his steeds, foremost and eminent in battles, breaking in two the (hostile host), noone ever surpasses; supreme in a way, attended by his faithful Maruts, and hastening to combat, he hasdestroyed with foe-withering (energies) the existence of the Dasyu. 3.049.03 Vigorous, rushing through (hostile hosts), like a war-horse, he has pervaded heaven and earth, sendingdown rain; he is to be worshipped with oblations at the solemn (rite) like Bhaga; he is as the father of those whoadore (him); he is beautiful, worthy of invocation, the bestower of food. 3.049.04 The upholder of heaven and of the firmament, the wind, like a chariot traversing the upper (region)accompanied by the Vasus; the clother of the night (with gloom), the parent of the sun, the distributor of theportion (allotted to the pious), like the words (of the wealthy appropriating to all) the food. [pris.t.ah u_rdhvo rathona va_yur vasubhir niyutva_n: indra is also designated here as va_yu; the vasus are said to be the maruts;another explanation: as, va_yu, having the niyuts for his steeds, moves like a chariot on high, so does Indra,accompanied by the Maruts]. 3.049.05 We invoke for our protection the opulent Indra, distinguished in this combat, the leader in thefood-bestowing (strife), hearing (our praises), terrible in battles, the destroyer of foes, the conqueror of wealth. 3.050.01 May Indra drink the libation; he of whom is the Soma, having come to the sacrifice; he who is therepeller (of adversaries), the showerer (of benefits), the lord of the Maruts; may he, the wide-pervading, bepleased with these (sacrificial) viands; may the oblation be adequate to the wants of his body. 3.050.02 I yoke (to your car), to bring you quickly, your two docile horses, whose speed you have of oldemployed; may your horses, handsome Indra, bring you hither, and drink promptly of this well-effused agreeablelibation. 3.050.03 His adorers support with cattle, Indra, who is willing to bestow upon them their desires, and ready tocome to the sacrifice, for the sake of obtaining eminent prosperity and prolonged life; acceptor of the spiritlessSoma, who are the drinker of the Soma, and are exhilarated (by the draught), grant to us freely cattle inabundance. 3.050.04 Gratify this our desire (of wealth) with cows, with horses, with shining treasure, and make us renowned;the wise Kus'ikas, desirous of heaven, offer praise of you, Indra, with pious (prayers). 3.050.05 We invoke for our protection the opulent Indra, distinguished in this combat, the leader in thefood-bestowing (strife), hearing (our praises), terrible in battles, the destroyer of foes, the conqueror of wealth. 3.051.01 Let abundant praises celebrate Indra, the stay of man, the possessor of opulence, the adorable,prospering with increase, the invoked of many, the immortal, who is daily to be propitiated with sacred hymns. 3.051.02 My praises constantly propitiate Indra, the object of many rites, the sender of rain, attended by theMaruts, the leader (of all), the giver of food, the destroyer of cities, the swift (in combat), the prompt (dispenser)of waters, the distributor of riches, the subduer of foes, the conferrer of heaven. 3.051.03 Indra, the enfeebler (of adversaries), is praised as a mine of wealth; he is propitiated by righteouscommendations; he is gratified in the dwelling of the offerer of oblations; glorify Indra, the conqueror, thedestroyer of his enemies. [As a mine of wealth: a_kare vasoh = he is praised to procure his aid in battle, whichwhen successful, is the source of wealth or booty; a_ki_ryate yuddha_rtham dhanam atra itya_karo yuddhak, heis celebrated for the sake of war, for therein is wealth, therefore, a_kara is the same as yuddha; or, vasohjarayita_ = weakener of the foe, vasu here meaning enemy]. 3.051.04 The priests glorify you, heroic leader of men, with praises and with prayers; Indra, the author of manydelusions, exerts himself for (the acquisition of) strength; he from of old is the lord of this (oblation). 3.051.05 Many are his prohibitions (against evil enjoined) to men; many are the treasures that the earthenshrines; for Indra the heavens, the plants, the waters, men and priests, preserve their riches. [Many are hisprohibitions: purvi_r asya nis.idho martyes.u = na_na_ praka_ra_n.i anus'a_sana_ni, various kinds of commandsor regulations; in RV. 1.95, puru_n.is. idha = repeller of many foes; in both cases the substantive is fr. s.idh, tosucceed, to go, with the proposition nir, out, ex, to exclude to prohibit]. 3.051.06 To you, Indra, (the pious) address prayers, and praises, and sacrifices; accept them, lord of horses;give all things, partake of this present oblation, and grant food to the worshippers. 3.051.07 Indra, accompanied, by the Maruts, drink the Soma at this ceremony as you have drunk of this libationof the son of S'a_rya_ti; your far-reaching and devout worshippers, being in security, adore you through theirofferings. [S'a_rva_ti: RV. 1.051.12; Yasus. 7.35; being in security: tava s'arman a viva_santi, they worship you inthe security, or unassailable place, dependent on, or protected by you, tavasambandhini s'armaninirba_dhastha_ne stitha_h; s'arman = sukha-nimitte, for the sake of happiness; or, yajn~a-gr.ha, the chamber ofsacrifice]. 3.051.08 Do you, Indra, who is gratified by the Soma, drink the Soma that has been effused by us, together withyour friends, the Maruts, at this ceremony; you who is invoked of many, and whom all the gods equipped as soonas born for the great battle (with the asuras). 3.051.09 Maruts, this is your friend for sending of the waters; they (the Maruts), the givers of strength, haveyielded Indra gratification; may the devourer of Vr.tra drink with them the libation offered by the worshipper in hisabode. 3.051.10 Lord of riches, entitled to praise, this libation has been effused agreeably to (our) strength; do you drinkof it quickly. 3.051.11 Invigorate your body with the Soma that has been poured out as food for you; may it exhilarate you,delighting in the Soma draught. 3.051.12 May this libation, Indra, penetrate to your flanks; may it, (aided) by prayer, reach your head; may itspread, hero, through your arms, (that they may distribute) wealth. 3.052.01 Accept, Indra, at our morning sacrifice, this libation, combined with fresh barley, with parched grain andcurds, and with cakes, and sanctified by holy prayer. [Yajus. 20.29]. 3.052.02 Accept, Indra, the prepared cakes and butter; eat them eagerly; the oblations flow for you. 3.052.03 Eat, Indra, our (offered) cakes and butter, derive enjoyment from our praises, as a lover from hismistress. [As a lover from his mistress: vadhu_yur iva yos.an.a_m, as one fond of women, a libertine, enjoys ayouthful female]. 3.052.04 Indra, renowned of old, accept our cakes and butter, offered at dawn; for great are your deeds. 3.052.05 Partake, Indra, of the barley and the delicious cakes and butter of the midday sacrifice, when yourzealous worshipper, hastening to adore you, and eager as a bull, is present, and celebrates (yo) with hymns. 3.052.06 Indra, who is praised of many, accept readily from our friend of barley, and cakes, and butter, offered atthe third (or evening) sacrifice; ladenwith sacrificial viands, we approach with praises to your sage Indra, who isaccompanied by the r.bhus and by Va_ja. 3.052.07 We have prepared the parched grain and curds for you, associated with Pu_s.an; the fried barley foryou, lord of the tawny horses, associated with your steeds; attend by the troop of Maruts, eat the cakes; hero,who is wise, and the slayer of Vr.tra, drink the libation. 3.052.08 Offer to him quickly (priests) the fried barley; offer to the most heroic of leaders the cakes and butter;may the like offerings, victorious Indra, presented to you daily, augment your vigour for the drinking of the Soma. 3.053.01 Indra and Parvata, bring hither, in a spacious car, delightful viands (generative of) good progeny;partake, deities, of the oblations (offered)at (our) sacrifices, and gratified by the (sacrificial) food, be elevated byour praises. 3.053.02 Tarry a while contentedly, Maghavan (at our rite); go not away; for I offer to you (the libation) of thecopiously-effused Soma; powerful Indra, I lay hold of the skirts (of your robe) with sweet-flavouredcommendations, as a son (clings to the garment) of a father. 3.053.03 Adhvaryu, let us two offer praise; do you concur with me; let us address pleasing praise to Indra; sitdown, Indra, on the sacred grass (prepared by) the institutor of the rite; and may our commendations be mostacceptable to Indra. [Do you concur with me: prati me gr.n.i_hi; the Hota_ is supposed to speak to Adhvaryu todirect their joint performance of some part of the ceremony]. 3.053.04 A man's wife, Maghavan, is hiw dwelling; verily she is his place of birth; thither let your horses,harnessed (to your car), convey you; we prepare the Soma at the fit season; may Agni come as our messengerbefor eyou. [His place of birth: ja_ya_ id astam sedu yonih: astam = gr.ham (gr.hin.i_ gr.ham ucyate iti smr.teh;na gr.ham gr.hamisya_hurgr.hi.n.o gr.hamucyate)]. 3.053.05 Depart, Maghavan; come Indra; both ways, protector, there is a motive for you whether it be standing inyour vast chariot, or liberating your neighing steed. [Both ways: ubhayatra te artham: Indra's wife awaits hisreturn, the Soma libation invites his stay; protectorL bhra_ta_ = lit., brother; but here explained as pos.aka,nourisher]. 3.053.06 When you have drunk the Soma, then, Indra, go home; an auspicious life (abides) pleasantly in yourdwelling; in either (case) there is the standing in your car or liberating the steeds for provender. 3.053.07 These (sacrificers) are the Bhojas, of whom the diversified An:girasas (are the priests); and the heroicsons of the expeller (of the foes of the gods) from heaven, bestowing riches upon Vis'va_mitra at the sacrifice ofa thousand (victims), prolong (his) life. [These sacrificers are the Bhojas: ime bhoja_ an:giraso viru_pa_: bhoja_= ks.atriya descendants of Suda_s, suda_sah ks.atriya, ya_gam kurva_n.ah, instituting the sacrifice at which thelatter, Medha_tithi, and the rest of the race of an:giras were their ya_jakas, or officiating priests; the expeller:rudra, his sons are the maruts; sacrifice of a thousand victims: sahasrasave = the as'vamedha]. 3.053.08 Maghavan becomes repeatedly (manifest) in various forms, practising delusions with respect to his ownpeculiar person; and invoked by his appropriate prayers, he comes in a moment from heaven to the three (dailyrites), and, although observant of seasons, is the drinker (of the Soma) irrespective of season. 3.053.09 The great r.s.i the generator of the gods, the attracted by the deities, the overlooker of the leaders (atholy rites), Vis'va_mitra attested the watery stream when he sacrificed for Suda_s; Indra, with the Kus'ikas waspleased. [The generator of the gods: devaja_h = the generator of radiances or energies, tejasa_m janayita_;arrested the watery stream: astabhna_t sindhum arn.avam: he is said to have stoped the current of theconfluence of the vipa_s/a_ and s'utudri rivers; indra with the kus'ikas was pleased: apriyayata kus'ikebhir Indra =kus'ikagotrotpannair r.s.ibhih saha, with the r.s.is of the kus'ika lineage, or it might be rendered, pleased by theKus'ikas]. 3.053.10 Sages and saints overlookers of the leaders (of sacred rites), Kus'ikas, when the Soma is expresssedwith stones at the sacrifice, then exhilarating (the gods) with praises, sing the holy strain (aloud) like (screaming)swans, and, together with the gods, drink the sweet juice of the Soma. 3.053.11 Approach, Kus'ikas, the steed of Suda_s; animate (him), and let him loose to (win) riches (for the raja);for the king (of the gods) has slain Vr.tra in the East, in the West, in the North, therefore let (Suda_s) worship himin the best (regions) of the earth. 3.053.12 I have made Indra glorified by these two, heaven and earth, and this prayer of Vis'va_mitra protects therace of Bharata. [Made Indra glorified: indram atus.t.avam-- the verb is the third preterite of the casual, I havecaused to be praised; it may mean: I praise Indra, abiding between heaven and earth, i.e. in the firmament]. 3.053.13 The Vis'va_mitras have addressed the prayer to Indra, the wielder of the thunderbolt; may he thereforerender us very opulent. [The Vis'va_mitras: The bharatas, or descendants of Bharata, are descendants ofVis'va_mitra; Bharata is the son of S'akuntala_, the daughter of the sage, Visva_mitra (Maha_bha_rataA_diparva); Vasis.t.ha is the family priest of the Bharats and was the restorer to dominion from which they hadbeen expelled by the Pan~ca_las]. 3.053.14 What do the cattle for you among the Ki_kat.as; they yield no milk to mix with the Soma, they need notthe vessel (for the libation); bring them to us; (bring also) the wealth of the son of the usurer, and give usMaghavan, (the possessions) of the low branches (of the community). [The Ki_kat.as: (Nirukta 6.32) are peoplewho do not perform worship, who are infidels, na_stikas; in countrie sinhabited by ana_ryas (ki_kat.a_ na_mades'ona_ryaniva_sah); na tapanti gharma_n.i: harmyam = a house; gharma_n.i = a vessel termed maha_vi_raused at the rite called pragr.hya: pragr.h ya_khya_ karmopa yuktam maha_vi_rapa_tram, which the cattle do notwarm by yielding their milk to it; usurer: a_ bhara pramagandasya vedas: maganda = kusidin, or usurer, one whosays to himself, the money that goes from me will come back doubled, and pra = a patronymic; low branches ofthe community: naica_s'a_kham, that which belongs to a low (ni_ca) branch, or class (s'a_kha); the posterity bornof S'u_dras and the like]. 3.053.15 The daughter of Su_rya given by Jamadagni gliding everywhere and dissipating ignorance, has emitteda mighty (sound), and has diffused ambrosial imperishable food among the gods. [Given by Jamadagni:jamadagni datta_ = given by the r.s;is maintaining a blazing jamat-jvalat, fire, agni; mighty sound: the sound ofthunder or the like in the sky; food among the gods: as the prayers or exclamation which accompanies the burntoffering]. 3.053.16 May she, gliding everywhere, quickly bring us food (suited) to the five races of men; may she, thedaughter of the sun whom the grey-haired jamadagnis gave to me, (be) the bestower of new life. [Five races ofmen: pan~cajanya_su kr.s.t.is.u: five distinctions are restricted to human beings; hence, the reference may be tofour castes and barbarians; daughter of the sun: paks.ya_, the daughter of Paks.a: paks.a nirva_hakasya, thedistributor of the parts (of the year?), i.e. su_ryasya, of the sun; bestower of new life: navyam a_yur dadha_na,having new life or food: mama kurvan.a_ bhavatu]. 3.053.17 May the horse be steady, the axle be strong, the pole be not defective, the yoke not be rotten; mayIndra preserve the two yoke-pins from decay; car with uninjured felloes, be ready for us. [The horses: ga_vaugaccheta iti ga_vau as'vau: ga_va_ implies those who go, or, in this place, horses; car be ready for us:Vis'va_mitra being about to depart from the sacrifice of Suda_s, invokes good fortune for his conveyance]. 3.053.18 Give strength, Indra, to our bodies; give strength to our vehicles; (give) strength to our sons andgrandsons; that they may live (long); for you are giver of strength. 3.053.19 Fix firmly the substance of the khayar (axle), give solidity to the s'is'u (floor) of the car; strong axle,strongly fixed by us, be strong; cast us not from out of our conveyance. [khayar and s'is'u: khadirasya sa_ram isthe text; khadira = mimosa catechu of which the bolt of the axle is made; while the s'im.s'apa, dalbergia sisufurnishes wood for the floor; these are still timber- trees in common use]. 3.053.20 May this lord of the forest never desert us nor do us harm; may we travel prosperously home until thestopping (of the car), until the unharnessing (of the steeds). [This lord of the forest: vanaspati, i.e. the timber ofwhich the car is made]. 3.053.21 Indra, hero,possessor of wealth, protect us this day against our foes with many and excellent defences;may the vile wretch who hates us fall (before us); may the breath of life depart from him whom we hate. 3.053.22 As (the tree) suffers pain from the axe, as the s'imbal flower is (easily) cut off, as the injured cauldronleaking scatters foam, so may mine enemy perish. [The ellipse: as the tree is cut down by the axe, so may theenemy be cut down; as one cuts off without difficulty the flower of the s'imbal, so may he be destroyed; as theukha_ (cauldron) when struck (prahata), and thence leaking (yes.anti_, sravanti_), scatters foam or breath fromits mouth, so (dves.t.a madi_ya, mantra sa_marthyena prahatah san, phenam mukha_d udgirtu), may that hater,struck by the power of my prayer vomit foam fromhis mouth]. 3.053.23 Men, (the might) of the destroyer is not known toyou; regarding him as a mere animal, they lead himaway desirous (silently to complete his devotions); the wise condescend not to turn the foolish into ridicule, theydo not lead the ass before the horse. [Legend: Vis'va_mitra was seized and bound by the followers of Vasis.t.ha,when observing a vow of silence. These were the reflections of the sage on the occasion: disparaging the rivalryof Vasis.t.ha with himself, as if between an ass and a horse: sa_yakasya = of an arrow;here explained, todestroy, avasa_naka_rin.ah; lodham nayanti = they lead the sage; lodha = fr. lubdham, desirous that hispenance might not be frustrated, tapasah ks.ayo ma_ bhu_d iti, lobhena tus.n.i_m sthitam r.s.im pas'ummanyama_na, thinking the r.s.i silent through his desire, to be an animal, i.e., stupid; another interpretation inNirukta:lubdham r.s.im nayanti pas'um manyama_nah, they take away the desiring r.s.i, thinking him an animal;na ava_jinam va_jina_ ha_sayanti: va_jina = fr. vac, speed, with ina affix; interpreted as srvajn~a, all knowing;the contrary avajina = mu_rkha, a fool]. 3.053.24 These sons of Bharata, Indra, understand severance (from the Vasis.t.has), not association (with them);they urge their steeds (against them) as against a constant foe; they bear a stout bow (for their destruction) inbattle. [Sons of Bharata: descendants of Vis'va_mitra whose enmity to the lineage of Vasis.t.ha is hereexpressed; the enmity reportedly occurred on account of Vis'va_mitra's disciple the Ra_ja_ suda_s;Anukraman.ika_ states that Vasis.t.has hear not the inimical imprecations: antya abhis'aparthas tavasis.t.adevas.in.yah na vasis.t.hah s'r.n.vanti; Niruktam: sa vasis.t.hadves.i_ r.k-aham ca kapis.thalo vasi.s.hahatas tana nirbravi_mi, this and the previous verse are inimical to the Vasis.t.has and he is of the race ofVasis.t.ha, of the Kapis.t.hala branch]. 3.054.01 They recite repeatedly this gratifying praise to the great product of sacrifice (Agni); may he who is(endowed) with domestic radiance hear us; may the imperishable Agni, (endowed) with divine radiance, hear us. 3.054.02 Knowing their greatness, offer worship to the vast heaven and to the earth; my desire, wishing (forfelicity) proceed (to them), in whose praise the gods,desirous of adoration, delight together with their worshippersat the sacrifice. [My desire proceeds: ka_ma me icchan carati = lit., my desire wishing goes, or exists; added toicchan, sarva_n bhoga_n, all enjoyments]. 3.054.03 Heaven and earth, may your truth be ever inviolable; be propitious to us for the due completion of therite; this adoration (Agni) is offered to heaven and earth; I worship (them) with (sacrificial) food; I solicit of themprecious (wealth). 3.054.04 Heaven and earth, endowed with truth, they who are the ancient declarers of the truth, have obtainedfrom you (what they desired); and so, earth, men cognizant (of the greaness of you both) have worshipped youfor the sake of triumphing over (hostile) heroes in battle. 3.054.05 Who knows what is the truth, or who may here declare it? What is the proper path that leads to thegods? Their inferior abiding places are beheld, as are those which (are situated) in superior mysterious rites.[Abiding places are beheld: as the constellations; superior mysterious rites: in the latter they are made known, itis said, by the Veda]. 3.054.06 The far-seeing beholder of mankind (the sun), surveys this heaven and earth, rejoicing when deficientin moisture in the womb of the waters (the firmament), both concurring in community (of function), although theyoccupy various dwellings, like the diversified nests of a bird. [In community of function: in the interchange ofmoisture]. 3.054.07 Common (in function), disjoined, of distant termination, they remain vigilant in a permanent station;being, as it were, sisters, and ever young; they therefore address each other by twin appellations. [Heaven andearth are the personifications here alluded to; address each other by twin appellations: a_du bruva_temithuna_ni na_ma; heaven and earth are designated together by urvi and other duplicate terms: urvya_dibhirdvandva na_ma_bhir dya_va_pr.thivyavucyate]. 3.054.08 These two keep all born things discrete, and, although comprehending the great divinities, are notdistressed; all moving and stationary beings rest upon one (basis), whether animals, or birds, or creatures ofvarious kinds. [Keep all born things discrete: heaven and earth all that is born distinct, by furnishing interval orspace, avaka_s'aprada_nena]. 3.054.09 I consider at present the eternal and ancient sisterhood to us of you, our great protectress andprogenitrix, within whose vast and separated path your eulogists, the gods, travel in their chariots. [Protectressand progenitrix: mahah pitur janitur ja_mi tan nah = mahatyah pa_layitryah janayitryastava, of you, that is, of theheaven; ja_mi = ja_mitva, or bhaginitvam, sisterhood, the condition of a relative sister; this will not allow of pita_and janita_ being rendered father and progenitor]. 3.054.10 I repeat this hymn, heaven and earth, to you; and may the soft-bellied, fire-tongued Mitra, royal Varun.a,the youthful A_dityas, all cognizant of the past, and proclaiming (their own acts), hear it. [Proclaiming:papratha_na_h = sva_ni sva_ni karma_n.i prathayantah]. 3.054.11 The golden-handed, soft-tongued Savita_ is descending from heaven (to be present) thrice (daily) atthe sacrifice; accept, Savita_, the praise (recited) by the worshippers, and thereupon grant to us all our desires. 3.054.12 May the divine Tvas.t.a_, the able artificer, the dextrous-handed, the possessor of wealth, the observerof truth, bestow upon us those things (which are necessary) for our preservation; r.bhus, associated withPu_s.an, make us joyful, as they (the priests), with uplifted stones, prepare the sacred libation. 3.054.13 May the Maruts, whose cars are the lightning, who are armed with spears, resplendent, destroyers offoes, from whom the waters proceed, (who are) unresting and adorable, and may Sarasvati_ hear (my prayer);and may you (maruts), speedy in your liberality, bestow (upon us) riches and good offspring. 3.054.14 May (our) praises and prayers, the causes of good fortune, attain at this sacrifice Vis.n.u, the object ofmany rites; he, the wide-stepping; whose commands the many-blending regions of space, the generators (of allbeings), do not disobey. 3.054.15 Indra, invested with all energies, has filled both heaven and earth with his greatness; do you, who arethe destroyer of cities, the slayer of Vr.tra, the leader of a conquering host, collect cattle and bestow themabundantly upon us. 3.054.16 Na_satyas, my protectors, inquirers (after the wishes) of your kinsman, beautiful is your cognateappellation of As'vins; be to us the liberal donors of riches; do you, who are irresistible, protect the offerer (of theoblation) with unblameable (defences).] 3.054.17 Sages acquainted with the past, excellent is that beautiful appellation under which you have bothbecome gods in (the sphere of) Indra; do you, Indra, the invoked of many, a friend, (associated) with the belovedr.bhus, shape this prayer for our benefit. [That beautiful appellation: ca_ru na_ma = agreeable or acceptable actor devotion, na_makarma na_ma_na_m va_, ca_ru, manoharam, by which the As'vins attained deification, yenadevatvam pra_pnutha; in the preceding verse, saja_tyam ca_ru na_ma is explained as saja_te bhavamkamani_yam, desirable cognate appellation]. 3.054.18 May Aryaman, Aditi, the adorable (gods), and the unimpeded functions of Varun.a (protect) us; keep usfrom (following) the course unpropitious to offspring, and may our dwelling be abundant in progeny and cattle.[Keep us from the course: yuyota no anapatya_ni gantoh: anapatya_ni = putra_n.a_m ahita_ni karman.itanma_rga_t pr.thak kuruta]. 3.054.19 May the messenger of the gods, engendered in many places, everywhere proclaim us void of offence;may earth and heaven, the waters, the sun, and the vast firmament, with the constellation, hear us. 3.054.20 May the (divine) showerers (of benefits), the deities of the mountains, and those abiding in fixedhabitations, propitiated by the sacrificial food, hear us; may Aditi, with the A_dityas, heqar us; may the Marutsgrant us auspicious felicity. [Abiding in fixed habitations: dhruvaks.ema_sah nis'calastha_nah, those of fixedplaces; it may be an epithet of parvata_sah]. 3.054.21 May our path ever be easy of going, and provided with food; sprinkle, gods, the plants with sweetwater; (safe) in your friendship, Agni, may my fortune never be impaired, but may I occupy a dwelling (abounding)with riches and ample food. 3.054.22 Taste (Agni) the oblations, make manifest (for us) abundant food measure out the viands before us; youovercome all those (who are) our enemies in conflict; favourably inclined towards us lighten up all our(ceremonies) day by day. 3.055.01 When the preceding dawns appear, the great imperishable (light) is engendered in the (firmament, the)sphere of the waters, and then the worshipper is alert to perform the rites (due to) the gods, for great andunequalled is the might of the gods. [mahad deva_na_m asuratvam ekam: this is the burden of this and followingverses; asuratvam is the abstract form of asura, explained strong, powerful, prabala_, from asyati, who or whatthrows or impels all things or beings, asyati, s'ipati sarvan: the abstract ispra_balyam or ais'varyam, might orsovereigny; ekam = one, is explained mukhyam, chief]. 3.055.02 Let not the gods, Agni, now do us harm, nor the ancient progenitors, who have come to know thedegree (of divinity); nor the manifester of light between the two ancient dwellings (earth and heaven, the sun); forgreat and unequalled is the might of the gods. 3.055.03 Variously do my manifold desires alight; present at the solemnity, I recite ancient (hymns); when the fireis kindled we speak indeed the truth, for great and unequalled is the might of the gods. 3.055.04 The universal sovereign is conveyed to many directions; he sleeps in the places of repose; he isconnected with the forests; one mother (heaven) nourishes the child; the other (earth) gives him a dwelling; greatand unequalled is the might of the gods. [The universal sovereign: sama_na_ ra_ja may imply either Agni or theSoma]. 3.055.05 Existing in ancient plants, abiding afterwards in new, he enters into the young (herbs) as soon as theyare produced; unimpregnated they become pregnant and bear fruit; great and unequalled is the might of thegods. [Existing in ancient plants: Said of either Agni or the Sun]. 3.055.06 The child of two mothers sleeps in the west, but (in the morning) the single infant proceedsunobstructed (through the sky); these are the functions of Mitra and Varun.a; great and unequalled is the might ofthe gods. [Mitra and Varun.a: Mitra presiding over day; Varun.a over the night, both being forms of one Agni]. 3.055.07 The child of two mothers, the invoker of the gods at sacrifices, the universal sovereign, proceedsthenceforward (in the sky); the root (of all), he abides (in the houses of the pious); the reciters of pleasant(words) offer him agreeable (praises); great and unequalled is the might of the gods. 3.055.08 All (creatures) approaching too near his confines are beheld with their faces turned away as (an enemy)flies from a combatant; obvious (to all), he penetrates the water for its destruction; great and unequalled is themight of the gods. 3.055.09 In those (plants) the aged messenger (of the gods) constantly abides; mighty, he presses with theradiant (sun) through the region of space; assuming various forms, he looks (complacently) upon us; great andunequalled is the might of the gods. 3.055.10 Pervading and protecting (all), possessing grateful and immortal radiance, he preserves the supremepath (or the rains), for Agni knows all these worlds; great and unequalled is the might of the gods. 3.055.11 The twin pair (day and night) adopt various forms; one of them shines brightly, the other is black; twinsisters are they, one black and the other white; great and unequalled is the might of the gods. 3.055.12 Where the mother and daughter, two productive kine, unite, they nourish each other; I worship themboth in (the firmament), the dwelling of the waters great and unequalled is the might of the gods. [They nourisheach other: earth and heaven by the interchange of moisture]. 3.055.13 Licking the calf of the other, one of them lows aloud; the cow offers her udder for the one that is withoutmosture (the earth), and she (the earth) is refreshed by the milk of the rain; great and unequalles is the might ofthe gods. [Licking the calf: the calf is said to be Agni, the cow with milk is the sky, whose udder is the cloud,whence the rain of which the earth is in want descends: r.tasya sa_ prayasa_ pinvatel.a_ = jalavarjita_ pr.thivya_dityasyodakena sikta_ bhavati vars.a_ka_le (a_ditya_jjayte vr.s.tih--Manu 3.76), the earth without water issprinkled by the water of the sun in the rainy season]. 3.055.14 The earth wears bodies of many forms; she abides on high cherishing her year and a half old (calf);knowing the abode of the truth (the sun), I offer worship; great and unequalled is the might of the gods. [Theearth: padya in the text is explained as bhu_mi, deriving it from pad, or foot, the earth, i.e. having been createdfrom the feet of the Creator; abides on high: on the altar; year and a half old calf: tryavim sardha_ sam.vatsaravayasko vatsah, a calf a year and half old; i.e, the sun of that period, or it may apply to the sun, as the protector(avih) of the three (tri) worlds; the abode of truth: r.tasya sadman, satyabhu_tasya_dityasya stha_nam, the placeof the sun, who is one with the truth]. 3.055.15 Like two (distinguishing) impressions, they (day and night) are placed visible in the midst (betweenheaven and earth), one hidden, one manifest; the path (of both) is common, and that is universal (for good andevil) great and unequalled is the might of the gods. 3.055.16 May the kine without their young, abiding (in the heaven), and though unmilked, yet yielding milk andever fresh and youthfu,l be shaken (so as to perform their functions); great and unequalled is the might of thegods. [The kind: either the regions of space of the clouds]. 3.055.17 When the showerer roars in other (regions) he sends down the rain upon a different herd, for he is thevictor, the auspicious, the sovereign; great and unequalled is the might of the gods. [Upon a different herd:anyasmin yu_the, a herd, or troop,of regions, dis'a_m vr.nde]. 3.055.18 We proclaim, people, the wealth of the hero, (Indra), in horses; the gods know his (affluence); six, orfive and five, harnessed to his car, convey him; great and unequalled is the might of the gods. [Six or five:s.ol.ha_ yukta_h pan~capan~ca vahanti = either the six seasons of the year, or, by combining the cold and dewyseasons, five; these are figurately Indra's horses. 3.055.19 The divine Tvas.t.a_ the impeller (of all), the multiform, has begotten and nourished a numerousprogeny, for all these worlds are of him; great and unequalled is the might of the gods. 3.055.20 He has filled the two vast receptacles (heaven and earth) united (with creatures); they are bothpenetrated by his lustre; the hero spoiling the treasures (of the foe) is renowned; great and unequalled is themight of the gods. [The two vast receptacles: camvau, the two vessels in which gods and men and men eat,camanty adanty anayor devamanus.ah; this would imply vessels or ladles, but the explanation is that the two thatare or enjoyed by living beings, i.e. heaven and earth]. 3.055.21 Our king, the nourisher of all, abides (in the firmament) nearest to this earthlike a benevolent friend; thevaliant (Maruts) precede him (when abroad), and dwell in his mansion; great and unequalles is the might of thegods. 3.055.22 The plants, Indra, come to perfection by you; from you the waters (flow); earth bears her treasures foryou; may we, your friends, be sharers of these blessings; great unequalled is the might of the gods. 3.056.01 Neither the deceptive nor the resolute interrupt the primitive and permanent operations of the gods, nordo the innocuous heaven and earth (interrupt them), nor are the mountains standing (on the earth) to be boweddown. [The condition of all created things in earth and heaven, and the elevation of the mountains, are the workof the gods, and no one can make them otherwise]. 3.056.02 One stationary (year) sustains six burdens (in the season); the (solar) rays spread through that true andextensive (term); three revolving spheres are severally above, two of which are placed in secret, and one isvisible. [One is visible: heaven and the firmament are not wholly discernible, earth is]. 3.056.03 The tree-breasted, the showerer (of rain), the omniform, the three- uddered, the parent of multiformprogeny, the possessor of magnitude, followed by three hosts (the year), advances, the vigorous impregnator ofthe perpetual plants. [Three-breasted: thatis, as subsequently specified, the year, personified; the number three,repeatedly mentioned, is said to apply to the seasons of the year, reduced from the usual number of six to three,the hot, rainy, and cold, by merging into them, severally, the vernal, autumnal, and dewy. 3.056.04 (The year) is awake, the path in the vicinity of those (plants); I call upon the beautiful name of theA_dityas; the divine waters wandering severally (now) give it delight, and (now) depart from it. [A_dityas: that is,upon the months over which the twelve A_dityas preside; now give it delight and now depart from it: during thefour months of the year when the rains fall the rivers are filled; during the other eight they are more or less driedup]. 3.056.05 Rivers, the dwelling-places of the intelligent gods are thrice three; the measurer of the three (worlds) isthe sovereign at sacrifices; three female (divinities) of the waters charged with the rains descend from heaven atthe thrice (repeated) solemnity. [Each of the three lokas has three divisions; this information is addressed to theriver, Sindhavah being in the vocative case; the measurer of the three worlds: the sun or the year; three femaledivinities: il.a_, sarasvati_ and bha_rati_]. 3.056.06 Savita_, descended from heaven, bestow upon us blessings thrice everyday; Bhaga, saviour, grant usthrice a day riches of three elements; Dhis.an.a enable us to acquire (wealth). [Riches of three elements:tridha_tu ra_yas, cattle, gold and gems; dhis.an.a = the goddess of speech]. 3.056.07 May Savita_ bestow upon us wealth at the (three periods) of the day, for the well-handed Mitra andVarun.a, the waters, the vast heaven and earth, solicit precious things from the liberality of Savita_. 3.056.08 Three are the excellent uninjurable bright regions, three scions of the powerful (year) are shining;practisers of truth, quick moving, of surpassing radiance; may the deities be present thrice daily at the sacrifice.[Three..bright regions: heaven, earth, firmament; three scions of the year: Agni, Va_yu and Su_rya; the tet callsthem asurasya vi_ra: asurah = ka_la_tma sam.vatsara, th eyear, identical with time, tasya putrah, its sons]. 3.057.01 May the discriminating Indra apprehend my glorification (of the gods), which is (free) as a cow, grazingalone, without a cowherd, one who is readily milked, yielding abundant nourishment, and of whom Agni and Indra(and we), are the commenders. 3.057.02 Indra and Pu_s.an, the showerers (of benefits) and happy-handed As'vins, well affected towards us,have milked the (cloud) reposing in heaven, wherefore, Vasus, universal deities, sporting on this (altar), may Ihere obtain the happiness derived from you. 3.057.03 The plants that desire for the showerer (Indra) the power (of sending rain) appreciate, when manifest,the embryo (blossom) deposited in him; the kine desirous of reward come to the presence of the calf, investedwith many forms. [The calf: the vegetable world, as characterized by rice, barley, wild rice, and the like, vr.hiyavani va_ra_di phala laks.an.am, putram, tanayam, vatsam iva]. 3.057.04 I glorify with praise the beautiful heaven and earth, taking in hand the stones (to express the libation) atthe sacrifice, as these your graceful, adorable, and many-blessing rays (Agni) mount up for the good of man. 3.057.05 With your wide-spreading tongue, Agni, sweet and intelligent, which is renowned amongst the gods,bring hither all the adorable deities for our protection, and give them to drink of the sweet (libations). 3.057.06 Divine Agni, giver of dwellings, knower of all that exists, extend to us that benevolence which, unsharedby others, cherishes us like the showers of the rain-cloud; that kindness which is beneficent for all mankind. 3.058.01 The cow (the dawn) yields the desired milk to the ancient (Agni); the son of the south passes within (thefirmament); the bright-houred (day) brings the illuminative (sun); the praiser awakes (to glorify) the As'vinspreceding the dawn. [The son of the south: daks.ina_ya_h putrah = us.asah putrah Su_rya, the sun, the son ofthe dawn]. 3.058.02 The well-yoked (horses) bear you both in your truth (preserving car); the offerings proceed towards youas (children to their parents); discard from us the disposition of the niggard; we have made ready for you ouroffering; come to our presence. 3.058.03 Dasras, with well-yoked horses and well-constructed car, hear this praise of the worshipper, for havenot the ancient sages declared you, As'vins, to be most ready to come to the aid of the destitute? 3.058.04 I glorify with praise the beautiful heaven and earth taking in hand the stones (to express the libation) atthe sweet (Soma) juice mixed with milk, as friends (give gifts to friends); the sun is in advance, (therefore come tothis rite). 3.058.05 Eclipsing (by your splendour) many regions, As'vins, (come hither); loud priase awaits you opulent(As'vins) among men; come to this rite by the paths traversed by the gods; here, Dasras, are ample stores of theexhilarating (Soma) juices. [nidhayo madhu_na_m: nidh is a kind of vessel, pa_tra vis'es.ah]. 3.058.06 Your ancient friendship is desirable and auspicious; your wealth, leaders (of rites), is in the family ofJahnu; renewing that auspicious friendship, may we, your associates, delight you with the sweet (Soma). [Jahnu:yuvor dravin.am jahna_vya_m: fr. jahnu = jahna_vya_m = jahnukulaja_ya_m, born in the lineage of Jahnu; it mayimply the Gan:ga_, Ja_hnavi_, following the legend of her origin from Jahnu]. 3.058.07 As'vins, endowed with power, ever young, in whom is no untruth, unwearied, munificent, accepters (oflibations), drink with Va_yu and your steeds, rejoicing together, of the Soma libation offered at the close of day. 3.058.08 As'vins, abundant (sacrificial) viands are presented to you, and blameless worshippers (salute you) withpraises; your water-shedding car, attracted by the sacrificers, quickly compasses earth and heaven. 3.058.09 As'vins, this most sweet Soma is mixed; drink it; come to (our) dwelling; your car, repeatedly bestowingwealth, is coming to the appointed place of the offerer of the libation. [The appointed place: nis.kr.tam = the placeof agreement, nir ityes.ah; samitye tasya stha_ne = gr.ha, house (Nirukta 12.7)]. 3.059.01 Mitra, when praised, animates men to exertion; Indra sustains both the earth and heaven; Mitra looksupon men with unclosing eyes; offer to Mitra the oblations of clarified butter. [Mitra: signifies the sun, who ismeasured or appreciated (miyate) by all, and who preserves (tra_yate) the world, by bestowing rain; cf. Nirukta.10.22]. 3.059.02 May that mortal enjoy abundance, Mitra, who presents you, A_ditya, (with offerings) at the sacred rite;protected by you he is not harmed; he is not overcome by any one; son reaches him not, either from afar or nigh. 3.059.03 May we, exempt from disease, rejoicing in (abundant) food, roaming free over the wide (expanse) of theearth, diligent in the worship of A_ditya, ever be in the good favour of Mitra. [Roaming free: mitajn~avah =mitaja_nuka, with measured knees; i.e. yatha_ka_mam sarvatra gacchantah, going everywhere at pleasure]. 3.059.04 This Mitra has been engendered adorable and to be served, the sovereign (over all), endowed withvigour, the creator (of the universe); may we ever be in the good favour, in the auspicious approbation, of thisadorable (A_ditya). 3.059.05 The great A_ditya, the animator of men to exertion, is to be approached with reverence; he is the giverof happiness to him who praises him; offer with fire the acceptable libation to that most glorifiable Mitra. 3.059.06 Desirable food and most renowned wealth are (the gifts) of the divine Mitra, the supporter of man.[Yajus. 2.62; avah = protection; or, annam, food; dyumnam = dhanam, wealth; or, fame or food, yas'o annam va_;the epithet sanasi = sarvaih sambhajani_yam; or, santa_nam, eternal; fr. sanasi = pura_n.a, old]. 3.059.07 The renowned Mitra, who by his might presides over heaven, is he who presides over the earth by (thegift of) food. 3.059.08 The five classes of men have repaired to the victorious Mitra, for he supports all the gods. 3.059.09 Mitra is he who among tods and men bestows food as the reward of pious acts upon the man who hasprepared (for him) the lopped sacred grass. 3.060.01 Your connection (with the consequences of acts) r.bhus is here (acknowledged) by the minds of all;desiring their share (of the sacrifice), oh men, they have come with a knowledge (of their claims) to these (rites);the sons of Sudhanvan, with the devices by which they are victorious over foes, you have accepted the share ofthe sacrifice. [Your connection: vo bandhuta_ = your affinity or friendship; i.e. they who connect acts with theirfruits, badhnanti phalena karma_n.i; you have accepted the share of the sacrifice: yajn~iyam bha_gam a_nas'a:the verb is explained in the second pers. pl. of the reduplicate preterite, yu_yam vya_ptah stha, you havepervaded, the as' is conjugated in parasmaipada, instead of a_tmanepada; in the third stanza we havesama_nas'uh instead of sama_nas'ire]. 3.060.02 With those faculties by which you have divided the ladles; with that intelligence wherewith you havecovered the (dead) cow with skin; with that will by which you have fabricated the two horses (of Indra); with those(means), r.bhus, you have attained divinity. 3.060.03 The r.bhus, the performers of (good) works, the grandsons of a man, have attained the friendship ofIndra, they have perpetuated (existence); the sons of Sudhanvan have attained immortality; performers of piousacts influencing (the result), through their devotion (they have attained divinity) by their works. [Perpetuated:dadhanvire (as in adha_rayanta, RV. 1.202) has no accusative; so, aded is: pra_n.am, vitality, meaning immortallife]. 3.060.04 Go with Indra in his chariot when the libation is poured out, and be (welcomed) with honour by the(worshipper) desiring (your favour); r.bhus, sons of Sudhanvan, bestowers (of the rewards of pious acts), yourvirtuous deeds, your great faculties, arenot to be mesured. 3.060.05 Indra, along with the food-bestowing r.bhus, accept with both hands the (cup of the) effused Somalibation; excited Maghavan, by worship, rejoice with the human sons of Sudhanvan in the dwelling of the donor(of the offering). 3.060.06 Indra, the praised of many, associated with R.bhu, and with Va_ja, exult with S'aci, at this our sacrifice;these self-revolving (days) are devoted to you, as well as the ceremonies (addressed) to the gods, and thevirtuous acts of man. [S'aci = karman, act, rite]. 3.060.07 Indra, with the food-bestowing R.bhus rewarding (worship) with food, come hither to (receive) thereverential praise of the adorer, with a hundred quick-going steeds, the indications (of the Maruts); come to theburnt offering of the sacrifice, yielding a thousand blessings to the sacrificer. [Food- bestowing R.bhus: R.bhubhirva_jibhir va_jayan, imples a quibble on the word va_ja: which is the name of one of the R.bhus, used for all theR.bhus; it also means, food]. 3.061.01 Affluent Us.as, giver of sustenance, possessed of intelligence, be propitiated by the praise of him wholauds you, (and worships) with (sacrificial) food; divine Us.as, adored by all, who (though) ancient are (still)young, the object of manifold worship, you are present at the recurring (morning) rite. [RV. 1.48.16; 1.123.11]. 3.061.02 Us.as, who are divine and immortal, mounted in a golden chariot, do you shine radiant causing to behead the sounds of truth; may your vigorous and well- trained horses bring you, who are golden-haired, (hither).[Causing up to be heard the sound of truth: sunr.ta irayanti (also used in RV. 1.113.12: sunr.ta irayanti renderedas awakener of pleasant voices, the dawn exciting or awakening the true or agreeable cries of beasta nd birds)]. 3.061.03 Us.as, who spread over all the regions, you abide on high, the ensign of the immortal (sun), purposingto travel the same road, repeatedly turn back over new, (revolving) like a wheel. 3.061.04 The opulent Us.as, the bride of the far-darting (sun), throwing off (darkness) like a garment, proceeds;diffusing her own (lustre), auspicious, promoting sacred acts, she is renowned to the ends, she is renowned tothe ends of the heaven and of the earth. 3.061.05 Offer, with your prostrations, due praise to the divine Us.as, shining upon yoou; the repository ofsweetness manifests her brightness aloft in the sky, and radiant and lovely lights the regions. [The repository ofsweetness: madhudha_: madhu may mean sweet words of praise, madhura_n.i stuti laks.an.a_ni va_kya_ni, orsimply praise, stoma; or, it may be the name of Us.as; dha_ is that which has or holds; lights the regions: cf. RV.1.49.4]. 3.061.06 The possessor of truth is recognized in the sky by her rays; the possessor of wealth has taken amarvellous station in earth and heaven; Agni, soliciting alms of the radiant advancing Us.as, you obtain yourdesired treasure (of oblations). [Your desired treasures: that is, the sacrificial fire is kindled at dawn]. 3.061.07 The showerer (of rain, the sun), urging on the lawn, at the root of the truthful (day) has pervaded thevast heaven and earth; the mighty Us.as, the golden light, as it were, of Mitra and Varun.a, diffuses her lustre indifferent directions. [The truthful day: r.tasya satyabhu_tasya: it is identified with truth as the season in theperformance of religious rites]. 3.062.01 Indra and Varun.a, may these people who are relying upon you, and wandering about (in alarm),sustain no injury from a youthful (adversary); for where is that reputation (you enjoy) on account that you bestowsustenance on your friends. 3.062.02 Most diligent (in pious rites) this (your worshipper), Indra and Varun.a, desirous of wealth, incessantlyinvokes, you for protection; associated with the Maruts, with heaven and earth, hear my invocation. 3.062.03 May there be to us, Indra and Varun.a, such wealth (as we covet); may there be, Maruts, to us wealth(of cattle) and numerous descendants; may the delightful (wives of the gods) shelter us with dwellings; may Hota_and Bha_rati_ (enrich) us with gifts. [Wives of the gods: the text has only varutri_h; this is explained as sarvaihsambhajani_ya, devapatnayah, to be admired by all; the wives of the gods]. 3.062.04 Br.haspati, friend of all the gods, accept our oblations; grant precious treasures to the offerer. 3.062.05 Adore the pure Br.haspati at sacrifices with hymns; I solicit of him unsurpassable strength. 3.062.06 The showerer (of benefits) on men, the omniform, the irreproachable, the excellent Br.haspati. 3.062.07 Divine, resplendent, Pu_s.an, this, your most recent laudation, is uttered by us to you. 3.062.08 Be pleased by this my praise, and incline to this food-supplicating laudation as an excessivelysubmissive (husband) to his wife. 3.062.09 May that Pu_s.an, who looks upon all the worlds, who thoroughly contemplates them, be our protector. 3.062.10 We meditate on that desirable light of the divine Savita_, who influences our pious rites. [Yajus. 3.35;pracodaya_t = who may animate, or enlighten our intellect; savita_ = the soul, as one with the soul of the world,Brahma; when we meditate on the light which is one with Brahma, his own light, which, from its consuminginfluences on ignorance and its consequences, is termed Bhargas, and is that which is desirable, from its beingto be known or worshiped by all (varen.yam) the property of the supreme being, (parames'vara), the creator ofthe world, and the animator, impeller or urger (savita_), through the internally abiding spirit (antarya_m) of allcreatures; yah, although masculine, may be relative to the neuter noun bhargas, that light which animates all(dhiyah) acts (karma_n.i), or illumes all understanding (buddhih); again, devasya savituh may mean, of the brightor radiant sun, as the progenitor of all, sarvasya prasavitur, and bhargas may be understood as the sphere or orbof light, the consumer of sins, pa_pa_na_m ta_pakam tejo man.d.alam; bhargas may also mean food, and theprayer may only implore the sun to provide sustenance, tasya prasa_da_d anna_di laks.an.am phalam dhi_mahitasya a_dha_rabhu_ta bhavema, we anticipate from his favour the reward that is characterized by food and thelike, that is, may we be supported by him]. 3.062.11 Desirous of food, we solicit with praise of the divine Savita_, the gift of affluence. 3.062.12 Devout and wise men, impelled by intelligence, adore the divine Savita_ with sacrifices and sacredhymns. 3.062.13 Soma, knowing the right path, proceeds (by it); he goes to the excellent seat of the gods, the place ofsacrifice. 3.062.14 May Soma grant to us and to (our) biped and quadruped animals, wholesome food. 3.062.15 May Soma, prolonging our lives and overcoming our adversaries, sit down in our place of sacrifice. 3.062.16 Mitra and Varun.a, sprinkle our cow-stalls with butter; performers of good works, (sprinkle) the worldswith honey. [Sprinkle the worlds with honey: ghr.tair gavyu_tim uks.atam madhva_ raja_m.si: gavyu_ti = gava_mma_rgam, or goniva_sastha_nam, and the prayer implies, give us cows abounding in milk; gavyu_ti = the path orsacrifice, or a field; thr.taih = pure water, sprinkle our pastures with rain]. 3.062.17 Performers of pure rites, glorified by many, exalted by adoration, (celebrated) by prolonged praises, youreign by the greatness of (your) strength. 3.062.18 Glorified by Jamadagni, sit down in the place of sacrifice (the altar); drink, augmenters (of the reward)of sacrifice, the Soma libation. [Jamadagni = VIs'va_mitra, he by whom the fire has been kindled].