2.001.01 Sovereign of men, Agni, you are born for the days (of sacrifice), pure 
and all-irradiating, from thewaters, from the stones, from trees, and from 
plants. [sus'uks.an.i = drying up, causing the evaporation of theearth's 
moisture; or, it may mean: destroying, consuming; Agni is produced from the 
waters, either as lightningthat accompanies rain or submarine fire; from stones 
by striking them together; so from trees or wood by attrition;from plants, such 
as bamboo, by mutual friction, causing the conflagration of a forest]. 

2.001.02 Yours Agni, is the office of the Hota_, of the Pota_, of the R.tvij, of 
the Nes.t.a_; you are the Agni_dhraof the devout; yours is the functionof the 
Pras'a_sta_; you are the Adhvaryu (adhvaryu radhvarayur adhvaramka_mayata iti 
va_ (Nirukta 1.8) and the Brahma_; and the householder in our dwelling. [Hota_ 
etc.: these are theeight of the sixteen priests employed at very solemn 
ceremonies; the duty of the Pras'a_sta_ is ascribed to theMaitra_varun.a, and 
Brahma_ is identified with the Bra_hman.a_ccahm.si; Kulluka Bhat.t.a, in his 
commentary onManu viii.210 enumerates sixteen priests, in the order and 
proportion in which they are entitled to share in adaks.in.a_ of a hundred cows, 
being arranged in four classes, of which the first four are severally the heads, 
andothers subordinate to them, in the same course of succession: 1. Hota_, 
Adhvaryu, Udgata_ and Brahma_, are tohave twelve each, or forty-eight in all; 2. 
Maitra_varun.a, Pratistota_, Bra_hman.a_ccam.si and Prastota_, sixeach, or 
twenty-four; 3. Accava_ka, Nes.t.a_, A_gni_dhra and Pratiharta_ four each, or 
sixteen; and 4.Gra_vadut, Neta_, Pota_ and Subrahman.ya, three each, or twelve 
in all; making up the total of one hundred.Thus, the percentages for the four 
groups are: 48, 24, 16, 12 respectively. Ra_mana_tha, in his commentary onthe 
Amarakos'a, viii.17 gives the names of 16 priests, but with a few variations: 
Gra_vastut replaces Gra_vadut;Prastota_, Neta_ and Pota_ are replaced with 
Prastha_ta_, Pras'a_sta_ and Balaccadaka. In the AitareyaBra_hman.a vii.1, the 
sixteen priests are enumerated with some variations: Pratistota_, Gra_vadut, 
Neta_ andSubrahman.ya are replaced with Pratiprasthata_, Upaga_ta_, A_treya and 
Sadasya. Other priests included inthis list are: Gra_vastut, Unneta_, 
Subrahman.ya and the S'amita_ (immolator), when a Bra_hman.a. 
Ma_dhava'scommentary on the Nya_ya-ma_la-Vista_ra of Jaimini, the list of 16 
priests, following Kuma_rila Bhat.t.aincludes: 1. Adhvaryu, Prati-prastha_ta_, 
Nes.t.a_, Unneta_ (ceremonial of the Yajurveda); 2. Brahma_,Bra_hman.a_ccam.si, 
A_gni_dh, Pota_ (superintend the whole according to the ritual of the three 
vedas); 3.Udga_ta_, Prastota_, Pratiharta_, Subrahman.ya (chant the hymns, 
especially, Sa_maveda); 4. Hota_,Maitra_varun.a, Acchava_ka, Gra_vastut (repeat 
the hymns of the R.ca_); the head of each class receives theentire daks.in.a_,or 
gratuity; the second, one-half; the third, one-third; and the fourth, a 

2.001.03 You, Agni, are Indra, the showerer (of bounties) on the good; you are 
adorable Vis.n.u, the hymned ofmany; you Brahman.aspati, are Brahma_, the 
possessor of riches; you, the author of various (conditions) areassociated with 

2.001.04 You, Agni, are the royal Varun.a, observant of holy vows; you are the 
adorable Mitra, the destroyer (offoes); you are Aryaman, the protector of the 
virtuous, whose (liberality) is enjoyed by all; you are a portion (of thesun); 
be the distributor (of good things), divine (Agni), at our sacrifice. [Whose 
liberality: liberality is said to be thecharacteristic of Aryaman, da_tr.tvam 
caryamn.o lin:gam; you are a portion of the sun: tvam am.s'ah = forms ofthe sun, 
or the A_ditya, named am.s'a; You, Agni, are Rudra: tvam rudro asuro maho divah: 
asura = s'atru_n.a_mnirasita_, the expeller of enemies; divas = from heaven; or, 
the giver of strength, asur, balam, tasya data_ a_dityaru_pa: a form of a_ditya, 
or an a_ditya]. 

2.001.05 You, Agni, are Tvas.t.a_, (the giver) of great wealth to (your) 
worshipper; these praises are yours; doyou, of benevolent power, (admit) our 
affinity; you, who are prompt to encourage (us), give us good (store of)horses; 
you, who abound with opulence, are the strength of men. 

2.001.06 You, Agni, are Rudra, the expeller (of foes) from the expanse of 
heaven; you are the strength of theMaruts; you are supreme over (sacrificial) 
food; you, who are pleasantly domiciled (in the hall of sacrifice), gowith ruddy 
horses, (fleet as) the wind; as Pu_s.an, you cherish, of yours own will, those 
who offer worship. 

2.001.07 You, Agni, are Dravin.oda_s, to him who honours you; you are the divine 
Savita_, the possessor ofprecious things; protector of men, you are Bhaga, and 
rule over wealth; you are the cherisher of him whoworships you in his dwelling. 

2.001.08 The people adore you, Agni, the protector of the people in their 
dwellings; they propitiate you as abenevolent sovereign; leader of a radiant 
host, you are lord over all offerings; you are the distributor of tens, 
andhundreds, and thousands (of good things). 

2.001.09 (Devout) men (worship) you, Agni, as a father, with sacred rites; they 
(cherish) you, who are theillumination of the body, with acts (of kindness), as 
a brother; you are as a son to him who propitiates you; andyou protect us, a 
faithful and firm friend. 

2.001.10 You, Agni, are (ever) resplendent, and are to be glorified when 
present; you are lord over all renownedfood and riches; you shine brightly, and 
you consume (the oblation) for him who offers it; you are the 
especialaccomplisher of the sacrifice, and bestower (of its rewards). 
[Resplendent: tvam agna r.bhuh, tvam. va_jasyai_s'is.e: r.bhu = bha_sama_nah, 
shining; va_jasya = annasya, of food]. 

2.001.11 You, divine Agni, are Aditi to the donor of the oblation; you are Hota_ 
and Bha_rati_, and thive bypraise; you are Il.a_ of a hundred winters to him who 
makes you gifts; you, lord of wealth, are the destroyer ofVr.tra, Sarasvati_. 
[Il.a_ of a hundred winters: tvam il.a_; s'atahima_si = the earth of unlimited 
duration,aparimitaka_la bhu_mih; destroyer of Vr.tra: vr.traha_ = destroyer of 

2.001.12 When, well-cherished Agni, you are (the giver of) excellent food; in 
your desirable and delightful hues,beauties (abound) you (are) food; (you are) 
the transporter (beyond sin); you are mighty; you are wealth; you aremanifold, 
and everhwhere diffused. 

2.001.13 The A_dityas have made you, Agni, their mouth; the pure (deities) have 
made you, Kavi, their tongue;the (gods), the givers of wealth, depdn upon you at 
sacrifices; they eat the offered oblation through you. 

2.001.14 All the benignant immortal gods eat the offered oblation through you, 
as their mouth; mortals taste theflavour (of all viands) through you; you are 
born pure the embryo of plants. [Corn and other grains ripen by theheat of the 
sun or fire; the text has s'uci, pure; this is interpreted as vasu, being the 
abode of all: sarves.a_mniva_sabhu_tah san]. 

2.001.15 You are associated, Agni, by your vigour, with those (gods); divine, 
well-born Agni, you exceed (them instrength); for the (sacrificial) food that is 
here prepared is, by your power, subsequently diffused through bothregions, 
heaven and earth. 

2.001.16 The pious are they who present, as a gift, to the reciters of your 
praises, an excellent cow and anexcellent horse; do you, Agni, lead both us and 
them to the best of abodes, (or heaven), that we and our worthydescendants may 
repeat the solemn prayer to you at the sacrifice.


2.002.01 Exalt with sacrifice, Agni, who knows all that has been born; worship 
him with oblations, and with amplepraise; him who is well kindled, well fed, 
much lauded, resplendent, the conveyer of oblations, the giver ofstrength (to 
the body). 

2.002.02 The mornings and evenings, Agni, are desirous (of worshipping) you, as 
cows in their stalls long fortheir calves; adored of many, you, self-controlled, 
are verily spread through the sky; you (are present at all) thesacred rites of 
men, and shine brightly by night. 

2.002.03 The gods have stationed at the root of the world, that Agni who is of 
goodly appearance; the pervaderof heaven and earth; who is to be known as a car 
(to convey men to their wishes); who shines with pureradiance, and who is to be 
honoured as a friend among mankind. [At the root of the world: budhne 
rajasahlokasya mu_le, i.e. the altar]. 

2.002.04 They have placed him in his solitary dwelling, who is shedding moisture 
upon the earth; resplendent asgold, traversing the firmament, animate with 
flames; and pervading the two parents (of all things, heaven andearth), like 
refreshing water. [Resplendent as gold: candram iva surucam = bright-
shining,like the moon; candra,when neuter, is interpreted as a synonym of gold 
in the Veda]. 

2.002.05 May he, the presenter of oblations (to the gods), be around all 
sacrifices; men propitiate him withoblations and with praises, when blazing with 
radiant tresses among the growing plants, and enlivening heavenand earth (with 
his sparks), like the sky with stars. [Blazing with radiant tresses: hiris'ipro 
vr.dha sa_na_sujarbhurat: s'ipra = chin, or jaw; or, explained as the nose; 
haran.as'i_lahanuh, having a jaw accustomed to seizeor consume; using another 
text: s'ipra s'i_rs.asu vitata_ hiran.yayi_h (RV. 5.54.11), golden locks spread 
on thehead; s'ipra in this hymn is interpreted as us'nis.a, a curl or turban; 
vr.dhasa_na_su = pravardhama_na_svos.adhis.u, among growingplants]. 

2.002.06 You, Agni, are he who, for our good, are possessed of riches; kindled 
by us, blaze as the liberal donorof wealth to us; render heaven and earth 
propitious to us so that, divine Agni, (the gods) may partake of theoblations of 
the institutor of the rite. 

2.002.07 Bestow upon us, Agni, infinite possessions; grant us thousands (of 
cattle and dependents); open to us,for your reputation, the doors of abudance; 
make heaven and earth, propitiated by sacred prayer, favourable tous, and may 
the mornings light you up like the sun. 

2.002.08 Kindled at the beautiful dawn, (Agni) shines with brilliant lustre, 
like the sun; adored by the hymns of theworshipper, Agni, the king of men, 
(comes as) an agreeable guest to the institutor of the sacrifice. [The king 
ofmen: ra_ja_ vis'a_m = king or master of the vis'as, or people]. 

2.002.09 Among men our praise, Agni, celebrate syou, who are first among the 
greatly-splendid immortals; (mayit be to us) as a cow spontaneously yielding at 
sacrifices to the worshipper, infinite and multiform (blessingsaccording to his) 

2.002.10 May we manifest vigour among other men, Agni, through the steed and the 
food (which you havegiven); and may our unsurpassed wealth shine like the sun 
over (that of) the five classes of beings. [Over the fiveclasses: pan~ca-
kr.s.t.is.u = janes.u, men; the four varn.as and nis.a_das]. 

2.002.11 Vigorous Agni, hear (our prayers); for you are he who is to be lauded; 
to whom the well-born priestsaddress (their hymns); and whom, entitled to 
worship, and radiant in thine own abode, the offerers of the oblationapproach, 
for the sake of never-failing posterity. 

2.002.12 Agni, knowing all that is born, may we, both adorers and priests, be 
thine for the sake of felicity; and doyou bestow upon us wealth of dwellings, of 
cattle, of much gold, of many dependents and virtuous offspring. 

2.002.13 The pious are they who present, as a gift, to the reciters of your 
praises, an excellent cow and anelegant horse; do you, Agni, lead us and them to 
the best of abodes, (or heaven), that we and our worthydescendants may repeat 
the solemn prayer to you at the sacrifice.

2.003.01 Agni, the well-kindled, placed upon (the altar of) the earth, stands in 
the presence of all beings; theinvoker (of the gods), the purifier, the ancient, 
the intelligent, the divine; let the venerable Agni minister to thegods. 
[A_pris: cf. 1.142; 1.188]. 

2.003.02 May the bright Nara_s'am.sa, illuminating the receptacles (of the 
offering) making manifest by hisgreatness the three radiant (regions) and 
diffusing the oblation at the season of sacrifice with butter-dispensingpurpose, 
satisfy the gods. [Nara_s'am.sa: in the preceding su_ktas, tanu_napa_t is the 
second personification ofAgni addressed; in this su_kta, he is omitted]. 

2.003.03 Agni, who are the venerable i_l.ita, do you, with mind favourably 
disposed towards us, offer todaysacrifice to the gods, before the human 
(ministrant priest) as such, bring hither the company of the Maruts, 
theundecaying Indra, to whom, seated on the sacred grass, do you priests offer 

2.003.04 Divine grass, let the Vasus, the VIs'vedevas, the adorable A_ditya, sit 
upon this flourishing, invigrating,well-grown, sacred grass, strewn for the 
sakeof wealth upon this altar, and sprinkled with butter. [Divine grass:the 
barhis, or a personification of Agni]. 

2.003.05 Let the divine doors, spacious and easily accessible, and to be saluted 
with prostrations, be set open;let them be celebrated as expansive, uninjurable, 
and conferring sanctity upon the illustrious class (ofworshippers), possessed of 
virtuous progeny. 

2.003.06 In regard of our good deeds, Day and Night, perpetually reverenced, are 
interweaving in concert, liketwo famous female weavers, the extended thread, (to 
complete) the web of the sacrifice, liberal yielders (ofrewards), containers of 
water. [Like two famous female weavers: vayyeva ran.vite = vayya iva 
va_nakus'ale ivas'abdite, stute]. 

2.003.07 Let the two divine invokers of the gods, the first (to be reverenced), 
most wise, sincerely worshippingwith sacred texts, most excellent in form, 
offering homage to the gods in due season, present oblations in thethree high 
places upon the navel of the earth. [Two divine invokers of the gods: the 
personified fires of earth andthe firmament, under the character of, two 
ministeringpriests; the navel of the earth: this is the usual altar; thethree 
high places: sa_nus.u tris.u, are the three sacred fires: ga_rhapatya, 
a_havani_ya and daks.in.a_]. 

2.003.08 May the three goddesses, Sarasvati_, perfecting our understanding, the 
divine il.a_, and all-impressiveBha_rati_, having come to our dwelling, protect 
this faultless rite, (offered) for our welfare. 

2.003.09 May a tawny-hued, well-grown (son), the bestower of food, active, 
manly, a worshipper of the gods, beborn; may Tvas.t.a_ prolong for us a 
continuous (line of) progeny, and may the food of the gods come also to us. 

2.003.10 May Agni, who is Vanaspati, approving (of our rite), approach; and by 
his especial acts fully dress thevictim; may the divine immolator convey the 
burnt-offering to the gods, knowing it to have been thriceconsecrated. [By his 
especial acts: agnir-havih su_daya_ti pra dhi_bhih =Agni, who is the supporter, 
or theinstrument of cooking or maturing fitly, cooks the oblation of the nature 
of the victim with various acts, which arethe means of cooking; he dresses the 
oblation, not under-dressing nor over-dressing it: agnih pa_kadharo 
havihpas'uru_pam karmavis.es'aih pa_kasa_dhanaih prakars.en.a su_daya_ti 
ks.a_rayatiapa_ka_dhikapa_dira_hityena havih pacati; the divine immolator: 
daivyah s'amita_: s'amita_ = the person whokills the victim; Agni is the 
immolator of the gods: deva_na_m s'amita_; thice consecrated: tridha_ samaktam 
=thrice anointed or sprinkled; the three rites or ceremonies are termed: 
upastaran.a, avada_na, abhigha_ran.a]. 

2.003.11 I sprinkle the butter, for butter is his birth-place; he is nourished 
by butter; butter is his radiance; Agni,showerer (of benefits), bring the gods 
to the offered oblation; exhilarate them; convey to them the offering thathas 
been reverently sanctified. [cf. Yajurveda 17.88; dha_ma - dwelling, or 
radiance; alternative reading:Adhvaryu, or priest, bring hither Agni to the 
oblation; exhilarate him; (and say to him). Showerer (of blessings),convey the 
consecrated oblation (to the gods).


2.004.01 I invoke, on your behalf, the resplendent, the sinless Agni, the guest 
of mortals, the accepter of(sacrificial) food, who, knowing all that has been 
born, is like a friend, the supporter (of all beings) from men togods. 

2.004.02 The Bhr.gus, worshipping Agni, have twice made him manifest; (once) in 
the abode of the waters, and(once) among the sons of men; may that Agni, the 
sovereign of the gods, mounted on a rapid courser, everovercome all (our foes). 
[Twice made him manifest: as lightning in the firmament, and as culinary fire on 

2.004.03 The gods, intending to dwell (in heaven), left, as a dear friend among 
the human races, that Agni, who,present in the chamber of sacrifice, is 
bounteous to the donor of offerings, and shines on the nights when he iswished 
for. [Shines on the nights: di_dayad us'ati_ru_rmya: us'ati_h = ka_mayama_na_h, 
to be desired; u_rmya_ra_trih = nights, all nights or the whole night: sarva_su 
ra_tris.u di_pyate; or, sarva ra_trir a_di_payati, he shineson all nights, or he 
lights up all nights]. 

2.004.04 The cherishing of Agni is as agreeable as (the cherishing) of one's 
self; (pleasant) is his appearance,when spreading abroad, and consuming (the 
fuel); he brandishes his flame among the bushes, as achariot-horse lashes with 
his tail. 

2.004.05 Whose greatness my colleagues loudly extol; who has manifested his real 
form to the priests; who isrecognized at oblations by his variegated radiance, 
and who, though frequently growing old, again and againbecomes young. 

2.004.06 Who shines amidst the forests, as if satisfying himself (with food); 
who (rushes along), like water downa declivity, and thunders like a chariot (of 
war); dark-pathed consuming, yet delightful, he is regarded like the skysmiling 
with constellations. 

2.004.07 He who is in many places, who spreads over the whole earth, like an 
animal without a herdsman, thatgoes according to its own will; Agni, the bright-
shining, consuming the dry bushes, by whom the pain ofblackness (is inflicted on 
the trees), entirely drinks up (their moisture). 

2.004.08 Verily, your praise has been recited (by us) at the third (daily) 
sacrifice, as it was in the repetition onyour first propitiation; give us, Agni, 
ample and notorious food, posterity, riches, such as may be the support 
ofnumerous dependents. 

2.004.09 By you, (Agni), may the Gr.tsamadas, repeating your praise, become 
masters of the precious secret(treasures); so that they may be possessed of 
excellent dependents, and be able to resist (their) enemies; anddo you give to 
(your) pious worshippers and to him who glorifies (you), such (abundant) food.

2.005.01 An invoker (of the gods), our instructor and protector has been born 
for the preservation of our patrons;may we, possessed of (sacrificial) food, be 
able to acquire worshipful, conquerable, and manageable riches. [Aninvoker of 
the gods: hota_; in this and following hymn, Agni is addressed, identified with 
or personified by,several of the individual priests employed at sacrifices; for 
the preservation of our patrons: pitr.bhyah u_taye, forprotection to the pitr.s; 
pitr. = pa_laka, or yajama_na, the patron or institutor of the sacrifice]. 

2.005.02 In whom, as conductor of the sacrifice, the seven rays are manifested, 
and who, as a human Pota_,officiate in the eighth place to perfect every divine 
(rite). [Conductor of the sacrifice: Neta_, and presnetlyafterwards Pota_, two 
of the sixteen priests; the rays are explained to mean the seven priests, 
engaged in theirrespective functions]. 

2.005.03 Whatever (offerings the priest) presents, whatever prayers he recites, 
he, (Agni), knows them all; hecomprehends all priestly acts, as the 
circumference (includes the spokes) of a wheel. 

2.005.04 The pure regulator (of the sacrifice) is born verily together with the 
holy act; the wise (worshipper)performs all his, (Agni's), prescribed rites in 
succession, as the branches spring (from a common stem). [Theregulator of the 
sacrifice: Pras'asta_ whose duty it is, by apporpriate acts to obviate 
allobstructions to a sacrifice].

2.005.05 The sister fingers, which are the kine of the Nes.t.a_, are those which 
accomplish him, (Agni's),worship; and in various ways are combined for this 
purpose through the three (sacred fires). 

2.005.06 When the sister (vessel), bearing the clarified butter, is placed near 
the maternal (altar), the Adhvaryurejoices at their approach, like barley (at 
the fall of) rain. 

2.005.07 May he, the ministering priest, discharge the office of priest at his 
own ceremony; and may we worthilyrepeat (his) praise, and offer (him) sacrifice. 
[The ministering priest: R.tvij or a priest in general, in whichcapacity, Agni 
is invited to officiate for himself]. 

2.005.08 And do you, Agni, (grant), that this wise (worshipper) may worthily 
offer (worship) to all the adorable(divinities), and that the sacrifice which we 
offer may also be perfected in you.

2.006.01 Agni, accept this my fuel, this my oblation; listen, well pleased, to 
my praises. 

2.006.02 May we propitiate you, Agni, by this (oblation), grandsonof strength, 
(who are) gratified by promptsacrifice, (may we please you), well-born, by this 
hymn. [Who are gratified by prompt sacrificer: as'vamis.t.e =vya_paka yajn~a, 
whose rites are expanding; or a_s'u, quick, tadiccati_, he wishes that; he 
wishes for quick orprompt worship]. 

2.006.03 Granter of riches, may we, your worshippers, propitiate you, who are 
desirous of (sacrificial) wealth,and deserving of laudation, by our praise. 

2.006.04 Lord of wealth, giver of wealth, possessor of riches, who are wise, 
understand (our prayers), andscatter our enemies. [Yajurveda 12.43; understand 
is amplified with abhimatam, wish, desire]. 

2.006.05 (For you are) he (who gives) us rain from heaven; he (who gives) us 
undecaying strenght, he (whogives) us infinite (abundance of) food. 

2.006.06 Youngest (of the gods), their messenger, their invoker, most deserving 
of worship, come, upon ourpraise, to him who offers (you) adoration, and is 
desirous of (your) protection. [To him who offers: il.a_na_ya =pu_jayitre, to 
the worshipper; avasyave = svaraks.an.am icchate, to him who wishes his own 

2.006.07 Sage Agni, you penetrate the innermost (man), knowing the birth of both 
(the worshipper and theworshipped); like a messenger favourable to men, 
especially to his friends. 

2.006.08 Do you, Agni, who are all-wise, fulfil (our desire); do you, who are 
intelligent, worship (the gods) inorder; and sit down on this sacred grass.


2.007.01 Youngest (of the gods), Agni descendant of Bha_rata, granter of 
dwellings, bring (to us) excellent,splendid and enviable riches. [Descendant of 
Bha_rata: Bha_rata = sprung from the priests; bharata = r.tvija,produced by 
their rubbing the sticks together]. 

2.007.02 Let no enemy prevail against us, whether of god or man; protect us from 
both such foes. 

2.007.03 Let us, through your favour, overwhelm all our foes like torrents of 

2.007.04 Purifier, Agni, holy, adorable, you shine exceedingly when (you are) 
worshipped with (oblations of)butter. 

2.007.05 Agni, descendantof Bharata_, you are entirely ours, when sacrificed to 
with pregnant kine, with barrencows, or bulls. [When sacrificed to with: 
vas'a_bhir uks.abhih as.t.a_padi_bhira_hutah, offered or sacrificed towith 
barren cows, vas'a_; will bulls, uks.a, and with eight-footed animals, i.e. a 
cow with calf; it is remarkable thatthese animals should be sprung of a burnt-

2.007.06 Feeder upon fuel, to whom butter is offered (you are) the ancient, the 
invoker of the gods, the excellentson of strength, the wonderful. [Feeder upon 
fuel: drvannah: fr. dru, a tree or timber; and anna, food].

2.008.01 Praise quickly the yoked chariot of the glorious and munificent Agni, 
like one who is desirous of food. 

2.008.02 Who, sagacious, invincible, and of graceful gait destroys, when 
propitiated, his foe, for him whopresents (offerings). 

2.008.03 Who invested with radiance, is glorified, morning and evening, in (our) 
dwelling; whose worship is neverneglected. 

2.008.04 Who, many-tinted, shines with radiance, like the sun with (his) lustre, 
spreading (light) over (all) by hisimperishable (flames). 

2.008.05 Our praises have increased the self-irradiating devouringn Agni; he is 
possessed of all glory. 

2.008.06 May we, uninjured, be secure in the protection of Agni, Indra, Soma and 
the gods, and confident inbattle overcome (our enemies).

2.009.01 May Agni, the invoker (of the gods), the intelligent, the resplendent, 
the radiant, the very powerful; hewho knows (how to maintain) his rites 
undisturbed; who is steady in (his own) place, and is the cherisher ofthousands, 
sit in the station of the invoking priest. [In the station of the invoking 
priest: hota_ sadane, in a placeconvenient for pouring the butter on the fire, 
or near to the uttara-vedi_, the north altar; or considering the fireitself to 
be introduced upon the altar; Yajurveda 6.36]. 

2.009.02 Showerer (of benefits), Agni, be you our messenger (to the gods); our 
preserver from evil; the conveyerto us of wealth; the protector of our sons and 
grandsons, and of our persons; understand (our prayer), everheedful and 

2.009.03 We adore you, Agni, in your loftiest birth-(place), and with hymns in 
thine inferior station; I worship thatseat whence you have issued; the priests 
have offered you, when kindled oblations. [In your loftiest birth-place:Agni is 
worshipped in heaven as the Sun; in the firmament as lightning; and as the 
sacrificial fire kindled on thealtar; Yajurveda 17.75]. 

2.009.04 Agni, who are the chief of sacrificers, worship (the gods) with the 
oblation, and earnestly commend tothem the (sacrificial) food that is to be 
given (them); for you, indeed, are the soverign lord of riches; you are 
theappreciator of our pious prayer. 

2.009.05 Beautiful Agni, the two dwelling-places (heaven and earth) of you, who 
are born day by day, neverperish; confer upon him who praises you (abundant) 
food, and make him the master of riches, (supporting)virtuous offering. 

2.009.06 Do you with this (your) host (of attendants), be of good promise to us; 
do you, the especial worshipperof the gods, their unassailable protector, as 
well as our preserver, light up (all) with shining and affluentwell-being.

2.010.01 The adorable Agni, the first (of the gods) and their nourisher when 
kindled by man upon the altar; hewho is clothed in radiance, is immortal, 
discriminating, food-bestowing, powerful; he is to be worshipped. 

2.010.02 May Agni, who is immortal, of manifold wisdom, and wonderful splendour, 
hear my invocation,(preferred) with all laudations; tawny, or red, or purple 
horses draw his car; he has been borne in variousdirections. 

2.010.03 They have generated (Agni) when soundly sleeping on his upturned 
(couch); that Agni who is anembryo in many (vegetable) forms, and who, (rendered 
manifest) by the oblations, abides conscious in the night,unenveloped by 
darkness. [When soundly sleeping: utta_na_yam sus.u_tam = on the lower of the 
two stickswhich are rubbed together]. 

2.010.04 I offer oblations with butter to Agni, who spreads through all regions, 
vast, expanding, withall-comprehending form, nourished (with sacrificial) food, 
powerful, conspicuous. [Offer oblations with butter:jigharmy agnim havis.a_ 
ghr.tena = a tva jigharmi manasa_ ghr.tena (Yajus. 11.23), I sprinkle you with 
butter,with a believing mind: s'raddha_yuktena cittena; vast, expanding: pr.thum 
tiras'ca_ = vast with crooked-going orundulating radiance; vayasa_ br.hantam = 
augmenting with smoke]. 

2.010.05 I offer oblations to Agni, who is present at all (sacrifices); may he 
accept (them), offered with anunhesitating mind, (to him) who is the refuge of 
man, endowed with any form that may be desired, blazing with aradiance (that it 
is) not (possible) to endure. [Yajus. 10.24; Ka_tya_yana notes that the hymn is 
to be repeatedwith hymn 4; first half of hymn 4 is repeated with the second half 
of hymn 5; and the first half of hymn 5 with thesecond half of hymn 4]. 

2.010.06 Overpowering (your foes) with lustre, may you recognize your portion; 
may we, having you for ourmessenger, recite (praise) like Manu; desiring wealth, 
I offer oblation with the sacrificial ladle and with praises, tothat entire 
Agni, who rewards (the worshipper) with the sweet (fruit) of the sacrifice.

2.011.01 Indra, hear (my) invocation; disregard it not; may we be (thought 
worthy) of the gift of your treasures;these oblations, designed to obtain 
wealth, flowing (abundantly) like rivers, bring to you augmented vigour. 

2.011.02 Indra, hero, you have set free the copious (waters) which were formerly 
arrested by Ahi, and which youhave distributed; invogorated by hymns, you have 
cast down headlong the slave, conceiting himself immortal. 

2.011.03 Indra, hero, these brilliant (laudations), in (the form of) hymns, in 
which you delight, and in (that of) thepraises uttered by the worshipper by 
which you are gratified, are addressed to you, to bring you (to yoursacrifice). 
[In the praises uttered by the worshippers: rudriyes.u stomes.u: rudriya = the 
means of giving pleasure,sukhasa_dhana bhu_tes.u;or, rudrah = stota_rah, 
praisers, worshipped]. 

2.011.04 We are invigorating your brilliant strength (by our praises), and 
placing the thunderbolt in your hands;do you, Indra, radiant, increasing in 
strenght, and (encouraged) by the sun, overpower, for our (good), the 
servilepeople. [And encouraged by the sun: da_si_r vis'ah su_ryen.a sahya_h = 
upaks.apayitri_h, or a_suri_h praja_h,people interrupting religious rites,or the 
race of asuras; su_ryen.a = preraken.a, urger, instigator (used like 

2.011.05 Indra, hero, you have slain by your prow the glorified Ahi, hidden 
privy in a cave, lurking inconcealment, covered by the waters in which he was 
abiding, and arresting the rains in the sky. 

2.011.06 We glorify, Indra, your mighty (deeds) of old; we glorify your (more) 
recent exploits; we praise thethunderbolt shining in your arms, and we celebrate 
the horses, the signs of (Indra as) the sun. [The sing of (Indraas) the sun: 
hari s_ryasya ketu, the two horses the signs of the sun; su_rya = instigator or 
heroic, sus.t.uprerakasya; or, su-vi_ryasya, as indicating Indra; or, Indra is 
identified with Su_rya, su_rya_tmanah indrasya]. 

2.011.07 Your swift horses, Indra, have uttered a loud sound, announcing rain; 
the level earth anxiously expectsits fall, as the gathering cloud has passed. 

2.011.08 The cloud, not heedless (of its office), is suspended (in the sky); 
resonant with maternal (waters), it hasspread about; (the winds), augmenting the 
sound in the distant horizon; have promulgated the voice uttered byIndra. 

2.011.09 The mighty Indra has shattered the guileful Vr.tra reposing in the 
cloud;heaven and earth shook,alarmed at the thundering bolt of the showerer. 

2.011.10 The thunderbolt of the showerer roared aloud, when (Indra), the friend 
of man, sought to slay theenemy of mankind. Drinking the Soma, he (Indra), 
baffled the devices of the guileful Da_nava. [The friend of mansought to: 
ama_nus.am yan ma_nus.o niju_rva_t, when the man, or the benefactor of man, 
manus.ya_n.a_mhitaka_ri_, destroyed the no-man (manus.ya_n.am rahitam); i.e. the 
manus.ya_n.a_m ahitam, not friendly toman]. 

2.011.11 Drink, hero, Indra, drink the Soma;may the exhilarating juices delight 
you; may they, distending yourflanks, augment (your prowess), and in this manner 
may the replenishing effused libation satisfy Indra. 

2.011.12 May we, your pious (worshipper), abide in you; approaching you with 
devotion, may we enjoy (thereward of) our adoration; desirous of protection, we 
meditate your glorification; may we ever be (thought worthy)of the gift of your 

2.011.13 May we, (through) your (favour), Indra, be such as those are, who, 
desirous of your protection, augment(by their praises) your vigour; divine 
(Indra), you grant the wealth which we desire, (the source of) great powerand of 
(numerous) progeny. 

2.011.14 You grant a habitation; you grant friends; you grant us, Indra, the 
strength of the Maruts; the winds,who, propitious and exulting, drink copiously 
of the first offering (of the Soma). [The winds: va_yavah is usedhonorifically 
for va_yu, in the singular, who is the first drinker of the Soma: vayur hi 
somasya agrapa_]. 

2.011.15 Let those in whom you are delighted repair (to the libation), and do 
you, Indra, confiding, drink thesatiating Soma; liberator (from evil), 
associated with the mighty and adorable (Maruts), augment our prosperity,and 
(that of) heaven. [Let those in whom you are: may those Maruts or those Soma, in 
which you delight;associated with the mighty: asma_ntsu pr.tsva_ tarutra_ 
avardhayo dya_m br.hadbhir arkaih: pr.tsu qualifiedavardhaya, increase; i.e. 
with children, cattle, and the like; in consequence of which prosperous 
condition, mencan offer sacrifices, to heaven to thrive; arkaih = arcani_yaih, 
to be adored (the Maruts)]. 

2.011.16 Liberator (from evil), they who worship you, the giver of happiness, 
with holy hymns, quickly becomegreat; they who strew the sacred grass (in honour 
of you) are protected by you, and, together with their famiies,obtain (abundant) 

2.011.17 Indra, hero, exulting in the solemn Trikadruka rites quaff the Soma, 
and repeatedly shaking it from yourbeard, repair, well pleased with your steeds, 
to the drinking of the effused libation. [Trikadruka rites: thesedenote three 
days, or celebrations of the ceremonial, termed abhiplava; abhiplavikes.u ahah 
su: these are,jyotis., gauh, a_yus; the text designates them as ugres.u, fierce, 
angry; but here, ugra = having many praises andprayers, bahu stotra s'astravat]. 

2.011.18 Indra, hero, keep up the strength wherewith you have crushed Vr.tra, 
the spider-like son of Da_nu, andlet open the light to the A_rya; the Dasyu has 
been set aside on your left hand. [The spider-like son of Da_nu:da_num 
aurn.ava_bham: aurn.ava_bham = aurn.ana_bham; aurn.a = a spider; a_bha = 

2.011.19 Let us honour those men, who, through your protection, surpass all 
their rivals, as the Dasyus (aresurpassed) by the Arya; this (have you wrought) 
for us; you have slain Vis'varu_pa, the son of Tvas.t.a_, throughfriendship of 
Trita. [Trita: in this and next hymn, he is referred to as a mahars.i]. 

2.011.20 Invigorated (by the libation) of the exulting Trita, offering you the 
Soma, you have annihilated Arbuda;Indra, aided by the An:girasa, has whirled 
round his bolt, as the tun turns round his wheel, and slain Bala. [As thesun 
turns round his wheel: su_ryo na cakram; if na is used in the negative sense, 
the phrase means: when thesun did not turn his wheel or stool still through fear 
of the asura; or, that Indra whirled the wheel like the sun,having taken one of 
the wheels of the sun's chariot as a weapon against Bala]. 

2.011.21 That opulent donation, which proceeds, Indra, from you, assuredly 
bestows upon him who praises youthe boon (which he desires); grant it to us, 
your prisers; do not you, who are the object of adoration, disregard(our 
prayer); so that, blessed with worthy descendants, we may glorify you at this 
sacrifice. [Do not you who are:ma_ti dhag bhago no = bhajantyastvam asma_kam 
ka_ma_n ma_ dha_ks.i_h, you who are adorable,consumenot our desires; bhago no 
astu = may fortune be to us (Nirukta 1.7)].

2.012.01 He, who as soon as born,is the first (of the deities); who has done 
honour to the gods by his exploits;he, at whose might heaven and earth are 
alarmed, and (who is known) by the greatness of his strength, he, men,is Indra. 
[Who has done honour to the gods by his exploits: who has preserved or protected 
them, or hassurpassed them: prayaraks.ad atyakra_mad iti va_ (Nirukta 10.10); 
Atharvaveda 20.34; he, men, is Indra: sajana_sa Indra = jana_, he asura_h; the 
legend: Gr.tsamada,by his devotions, acquired a form as vast as that ofIndra, 
visible at once in heaven, in the firmament, and on earth; the two asuras, Dhuni 
and Cumuri[Br.haddevata_ 4.66-67), mistaking him, therefore, for Indra, were 
proceeding to attack him, when he arrestedtheir advance by repearing this hymn, 
intimating that he was not Indra; another legend: when Indra and the godswere 
present at a sacrifice celebrated by Vainya, Gr.tsamada was one of the 
officiating priests; the asuras cameto the spot to kill Indra, who, assuming the 
likeness of Gr.tsamada, went away without question; when theassembly broke up, 
and Gr.tsamada went out, the asuras, who had been lying in wait, considered him 
to beIndra, and were about to fall upon him, when he diverted from their purpose 
by reciting this hymn, showing thatIndra was a different person; another legend: 
Indra came alone to the sacrifice of Gr.tsamada, and being, asbefore away laid 
by the asuras, asumed the person of the r.s.i and coming forth, returned to 
svarga; after waitingsometime, the asuras entered the chamber of sacrifice, and 
laid hold of Gr.tasamads, conceving that Indra hadassumed his person until they 
were persuaded of their mistake by the repetition of the entire 

2.012.02 He, who fixed firm the moving earth; who tranquilized the incensed 
mountains; who spread the spaciousfirmament; who consolidated the heaven; he, 
men, is Indra. [Who tranquilized the incensed mountains: yahparvata_n prakupta_n 
aramn.a_t = he quited the mountains, going hither and thither, as long as they 
had wings:Indra cut them off]. 

2.012.03 He, who having destroyed Ahi, set free the seven rivers; who recovered 
the cows detained by Bala;who generated fire in the clouds; who is invincible in 
battle; he, men, is Indra. 

2.012.04 He, by whom all these perishable (regions) have been made; who 
consigned the base servile tribe tothe cavern; who seizes triumphant the 
cherished (tresures) of the enemy, as a hunter (strikes) his prey; he, men,is 

2.012.05 He, whom, terrible, they ask for, (saying), Where is he? or, verily, 
they say of him, he is not (in any oneplace); but who, inflicting 
(chastisement), destroys the cherisshed (treasures) of the enemy; in him have 
faith; forhe, men, is Indra. 

2.012.06 He, who is the encourager of the rich, and of the poor, and of the 
priest, who recites his praise, and is asuppliant; who, of goodly features, is 
the protector of him, who, with ready stones, expresses the Soma juice; he,men, 
is Indra. 

2.012.07 He, under whose control are horses and cattle, and villages, and all 
chariots; he who gave birth to thesun and to the dawn; and who is the leader of 
the waters; he, men, is Indra. 

2.012.08 Whom (two hosts), calling and mutually encountering, call upon; whom 
both adversaries, high and low,(appeal to); whom two (charioteers), standing in 
the same car, severally invoke; he, men, is Indra. [Whom (twohosts): yam 
krandasi_ sanyati_ vihvayete = whom, crying aloud, encountering (two), invoke; 
the substantive issupplied: rodasi_, heaven and earth; or, dve sene, two armies; 
whom (two charioteers): here also a substantiveis supplied: rathinau, two 
charioteers; or Agni and Indra]. 

2.012.09 Without whom men do not conquer; whom, when engaged in conflict, they 
invoke for succour; he, whois the prototype of the universe and the caster down 
of the unyielding; he, men, is Indra. 

2.012.10 He, who with the thunderbolt has destroyed many committing great sin, 
and offering (him) no homage;who grants not success to the confident; who is the 
slayer of the Dasyus; he, men, is Indra. 

2.012.11 He, who discovered S'ambara dwelling in the mountains for forty years; 
who slew Ahi, growing instrength, and the sleeping son of Da_nu; he, men, is 
Indra. [Who slew Ahi: ahi = the slayer, a_hanta_ram; um =son of Da_nu; both are 
epithets of S'ambara]. 

2.012.12 He, the seven-rayed, the showerer, the powerful, who let loose the 
seven rivers to flow; who, armedwith the thunderbolt, crushed Rauhin.a when 
scaling heaven; he, men, is Indra. [The seven-rayed: the sevenrays, ras'mayah = 
seven forms of Parjanya (Taittiri_ya A_ran.yaka 1.9.4-5), or Indra, as the rain-
cloud; or sevenkinds of rain-clouds]. 

2.012.13 He, to whom heaven and earth bow down; he, at whose might the mountains 
are appalled; he, who isthe drinker of the Soma, the firm (of frame), the 
adamant-armed, the wielder of the thunderbolt; he, men, is Indra. 

2.012.14 He, who protects (the worshipper) offering the libation, or preparing 
(the mixed curds and butter),repeating his praise and soliciting his assistance, 
he, of whom the sacred prayer, the (offered) Soma, the(presented sacrificial) 
food, augment (the vigour); he, men, is Indra. 

2.012.15 Indra, who are difficult of approach; you, verily, are a true 
(benefactor), who bestows (abundant) foodupon him who offers the libation, who 
prepares (the mixed curds and butter); may we, enjoying your favour,blessed with 
progeny, daily repeat (your praises) at the sacrifice.

2.013.01 The season (of the rains) is the parent (of the Soma), which, as soon 
as born of her, enters into thewaters in which it grows; thence it is fit for 
expression, as concentrating (the essence of the) water, and the juiceof the 
Soma is especially to be praised (as the libation proper for Indra). 

2.013.02 The aggregated (streams) come, bearing everywhere the water, and 
conveying it as sustenance for theasylum of all rivers, (the ocean); the 
samepath is (assigned) to all the descending (currents) to follow; and as he,who 
has (assigned) them (their course), you, (Indra), are especially to be praised. 

2.013.03 One (priest) announces (the offering) that he, (the institutor of the 
rite) presents; another performs theact that apportions the limbs (of the 
victim); a third corrects all the deficiencies of either, and as he, who 
hasenjoyed these (functions), your, (Indra), are especially to be praised. 
[Hota_, Adhvaryu and Brahma_ are thethree priests indicated]. 

2.013.04 Distributing nourishment to their progeny, they, (the householders), 
abide (in their dwellings), as ifoffering ample and sustaining wealth to a 
guest; constructing (useful works, a man) eats with his teeth the food(given 
him) by (his) protector and as he, who has enjoined these (things to be done), 
you, (Indra), are especiallyto be praised. [Constructing useful works: asinvan 
dam.s.t.raih pitur atti bhojanam: asinvan = setubandha_dikamkarma kurvan, doing 
acts, such as building bridges and the like; pituh = pa_laka, the fostering 
heaven, fromwhich comes the rain that causes the growth of grain, for the 
sustenance of man]. 

2.013.05 Inasmuch as you have rendered earth visible to heaven, and have set 
open the path of the rivers byslaying Ahi; therefore the gods have rendered you 
divine by praises, as (men) invigorate a horse by water; (and)you are, (Indra), 
to be praised. 

2.013.06 (You are he) who bestows both food and increase, and milk the dry 
nutritious (grain) from out of thehumid stalk; he, who gives wealth to the 
worshipper, and are sole sovereign of the universe you are he, (Indra),who is to 
be praised. 

2.013.07 You who have caused, by culture, the flowering and fruitful (plants) to 
spread over the field; who havegenerated the various luminaries of heaven; and 
who, of vast bulk, comprehend vast (bodies); you are he who isto be praised. 

2.013.08 You, who are (famed for) many exploits, put on today an unclouded 
countenance, (as prepared) to slaySahavasu, the son of Nr.mara, with the 
sharpened (edge of the thunderbolt), in defence of the (sacrificial) food,and 
for the destruction of dasyu; you are he who is to be praised. [Sahavasu, the 
son of Nr.mara: two asuras;nr.man and mara = who kills; saha = with; vasu = 

2.013.09 You, for whose sole pleasure a thousand (steeds are ready); by whom all 
are to be fed; and whoprotects the institutor (of the sacrifice); who, for the 
sake of Dabhi_ti, has caste the Dasyus into unfettered(captivity), and who are 
to be approached (by all), you are he who is to be praised. [Dabhi_ti: a r.s.i; 
he iselsewhere called a ra_ja_; several exploits here attributed to Indra are 
attributed to As'vins]. 

2.013.10 You are he, from whose manhood all the rivers (have proceeded); to whom 
(the pious) have given(offerings); to whom, doer of mighty deeds, they have 
presented wealth; you are he, who have regulated the sixexpansive (objects), and 
are the protector of the five (races), that look up to you; you are he who is to 
be praised.[Six expansive objects: s.ad. vistirah = heaven, earth, day, night, 
water and plants]. 

2.013.11 Your heroism, hero, is to be glorified, by which, with single effort, 
you have acquired wealth;(wherewith) the (sacrificial) food of (every) solemn 
and constant (ceremony is provided); for all (the acts) youhave performed, you, 
Indra, are he who is to be praised. [Wherewith the sacrificial food: 
ja_tu_s.t.hirasya pravayah sahasvato: ja_tus.t.hara may be a proper name; i.e. 
you have given (pra = pradah) food to the vigorousja_tus.t.hara; alternatively, 
Indra being the occasional (ja_tu) agent in sacrificial offerings (vayas) in 
relation toconstant and essential ceremonies: sthirasya balavato yajn~a_deh 
karman.ah sambandhi vayas]. 

2.013.12 You have provided a passage for the easy crossing of the flowing waters 
for Turvati and Vayya;rendering (yourself) renowned, you have uplifted the blind 
and lame Paravr.j from the lowliness (of affliction); youare he who is to be 
praised. [You have provided a passage: aramaya sarapasastara_ya srutim: apas = 
karma;saran.am apah karma ya_sah, they of whom the act is going or proceeding; 
the persons named beheld a largeriver, which they were unable to cross, when the 
prayed to Indra, and were conveyed across by him; the blindand lame Para_vr.j: 
para_vr.jam pra_ndham s'ron.am: added, caks.ase etave, to see and to walk; the 
name ofR.jras'va is understood, as the individual who was made to see; Sron.a 
was the name of him who was made towalk; pra_ndha (blind) and s'rona (lame) were 
epithets of Para_vr.j]. 

2.013.13 Possessor of riches, exert your ability to bestow wealth upon us; for 
yours is great affluence; may you,Indra, be disposed to grant us exceeding 
abundance day by day, so that, blessed with worthy descendants, wemay glorify 
you at (our) sacrifice.

2.014.01 Priests, bring the Soma libation for Indra; sprinkle with ladles the 
exhilarating beverage; he, the hero, isever desirous of the draught; offer the 
libation to the showerer (of benefits), for, verily, he desires it. 

2.014.02 Priests, offer the libation to him who slew the rain-arresting Vr.tra, 
as (he strikes down) a tree with (his)thunderbolt; to him who desires it; and 
Indra is worthy of (Soma). 

2.014.03 Priests, offer this libation, which, like the wind in the firmament, 
(is the cause of rain), to him who slewDr.bhi_ka, destroyed Bala, andliberated 
the cows; heap Indra with Soma, as an old man (is covered) withgarments. 
[Dr.bhi_ka, an asura]. 

2.014.04 Priests, propitiate, by the offering of the Soma that Indra, who slew 
Uran.a, displaying nine and ninetyarms; and hurled Arbuda down headlong. 

2.014.05 Priests, offer the Soma to that Indra, who slew Svas'na, the 
unabsorbable S'us.n.a, and mutilated(Vr.tra), who destroyed Pipru, Namuci and 
Rudhikra_. [svas'na su as'nate = he who devours; su may also relateto the verb 
jagha_na, well-slew; Namuci destroys by the foam of the sea: apa_m phenena 
namuci s'irah indraudavartayat (Taittiri_ya Sam.hita_]. 

2.014.06 Priests, present the Soma to him who, with the adamantine (thuderbolt), 
demolished the hundredancient cities of S'ambara, and cast down the hundred 
thousand (descendants) of Varcin. [Varcin, an asura whoreviled Indra and was 
consequently destroyed, with all his children and dependants]. 

2.014.07 Priests, present the Soma to him, who, slaying hundreds and thousands 
(of asuras), cast them downupon the lap of the earth; who destroyed the 
assailants of Kutsa, A_yu and Atithigva. 

2.014.08 Priests, leaders (of the ceremony), may you, quickly bringing the 
offering to Indra, receive that(recompense) which you may desire; solemnizing 
the sacrifice, offer the Soma, purified by expressing, to therenowned Indra. 

2.014.09 Priests, offer to him the prompt (libation); lift it up, purified with 
water, in the ladle; well pleased, hedesires it from your hand; present the 
exhilarating Soma to Indra. 

2.014.10 Priests, fill the bountiful Indra with libations as the udder of a cow 
is filled with milk; so shall theadorable (Indra) fully comprehend (the 
liberality) of him who desires to present the gift, and shall say (to him), 
Iacknowledge the secret (virtue) of this my (draught). 

2.014.11 Priests, fill with libations, as a granary (is filled) with barley, 
Indra, who is the lord of the riches ofheaven, of mid-heaven, of earth; and may 
such (pious) act be for your (good). 

2.014.12 Possessor of riches, exert your ability to bestow wealth upon us; for 
yours is great affluence; may, you,Indra, be disposed to grant us exceeding 
abundance day by day, so that, blessed with worthy descendants, wemay glorify 
you at our sacrifice.

2.015.01 Verily, I proclaim the great and authentic deeds of the mighty and true 
(Indra); of him who drank theeffused Soma at the Trikadruka rites, and in his 
exhilaration slew Ahi. 

2.015.02 Who fixed the heaven in unsupported (space) and filled the spacious 
firmament, and heaven and earth,(with light); he it is who has upheld, and has 
made the earth renowned; in the exhilaration of the Soma, Indra hasdone these 

2.015.03 (He it is) who has measured the eastern (quarters) with measures like a 
chamber; who has dug with thethunderbolt the beds of the rivers, and has easily 
sent them forth by long-continued paths; in the exhilaration ofthe Soma, Indra 
has done these (deeds). 

2.015.04 Encountering the (asuras), carrying off Dabhiti, he burnt all their 
weapons in a kindled fire, and enriched(the prince) with their cattle, their 
horses and their chariots; in the exhilaration of the Soma, Indra has done 
these(deeds). [The legend: asuras had besieged and taken the city of a royal 
sage, named Dabhi_ti; on their retreat,they were intercepted and defeated by 
Indra, who recovered the booty, and restored it to the prince]. 

2.015.05 He tranquilized this great river, (so that it) might be crossed; he 
conveyed across it in safety (the sages)who had been unable to pass over it, and 
who, having crossed, proceeded to realize the wealthy they sought; inthe 
exhilaration of the Soma, Indra has done these (deeds). [sa i_m mahi_m dhunim 
eto aramn.a_t: dhuni =parus.n.i or ira_vati_ river, because of its shaking or 
dissipating the sins of the worshippers: stotrn.n.a_mpa_pa_ni dhunoti parus.n.i 

2.015.06 By his great power he turned the Sindhu towards the north; with his 
thunderbolt he ground to pieces thewagon of the dawn, scattering the tardy enemy 
with his swift forces; in the exhilaration of the Soma, Indra hasdone these 
(deeds). [He turned the Sindhu towards the north: sodan~cam sindhum arin.a_t = 
sindhumpra_n~cam santam udanmukham akarot, he made the Sindhu being to the east, 
facing towards the north]. 

2.015.07 Conscious of the disappearance of the damsels, the (r.s.i) Parivr.j, 
becoming manifest, stood up; thelame man overtook (them), the blind man beheld 
(them); in the exhilaration of the Soma, Indra has done these(deeds). 

2.015.08 Praised by the An:girasas, he destroyed Bala; he forced upon the firm 
shut (doors) of the mountain; hebroke down their artificial defences; in the 
exhilaration of the Soma, Indra has done these (deeds). 

2.015.09 You have slain the Dasyus Cumuri and Dhuni, having cast them into 
(profound) sleep; you haveprotected Dabhi_ti, while his chamberlain gained in 
that (contest) the gold (of the asuras); in the exhilaration ofthe Soma, Indra 
has done these (deeds). [His chamberlain: rambhi_ cid atra vivide hiran.yam: 
rambhi_ =vetradha_ri_, staff bearer; or, dauva_rika, porter or door-keeper]. 

2.015.10 That opulent donation which proceeds, Indra, from you, assuredly 
bestows upon him who praises youthe boon (that he desires); grant it to (us) 
your adorers; do not you, who are the object of adoration, disregardour prayers; 
so that, blessed with worthy descendants, we may glorify you at this sacrifice. 
[This hymn is a refranin su_ktas 2.11, 2.13 and in several which follow].

2.016.01 I bear the libation for you to the best of the holy (gods, to be 
poured) on the kindled fire, (and I offer tohim fitting praise); we invoke for 
(our) protection the ever-youthful Indra, the undecaying, the causer of 
decay,sprinkled (with the Soma). 

2.016.02 For without that mighty Indra, this (world) were nothing; in him all 
powers whatever are aggregated; hereceives the Soma into his stomach, and in his 
body (exhibits) strength and energy; he bears the thunderbolt inhis hand, and 
wisdom in his head. 

2.016.03 Your might, Indra, is not to be overcome by (that of) heaven and earth; 
nor is your chariot (to bestopped) by oceans or by mountains; no one can escape 
from your thunderbolt, when you traverse manyleagues with rapid (horses). 

2.016.04 All men offer worship to that adorable, powerful, and munificent 
(Indra), who is associated (with praise);therefore, (do you), who are liberal 
and most wise, worship him with oblations; and drink, Indra, the Soma,together 
with the Sun, the showerer (of benefits). [Together with the Sun: vr.s.abhen.a 
bha_nuna_: bha_nu =agni, fire]. 

2.016.05 The juice of the gratifying and exhilarating (Soma), the exciter (of) 
those who drink it, flows to theshowerer (of benefits), the dispenser of food, 
for his beverage; the two priests, the sprinklers of the oblation; andthe stones 
(that express the Soma), offer to the best (of the deities), the Soma, the 
shedder (of blessings). [Somajuice which is vr.s.an flows (to) vr.s.abha, Indra, 
who is also vr.s.abha_nau; the two priests, adhvaryu andpratis.t.ha_ta are both 
vr.s.abhas;so are the stones used to bruise the Soma; Soma juice is vr.s.an.a; 
so, thethunderbolt is vr.s.a; the car is vr.s.a; the horses, vr.s.n.au; the 
weapons are vr.s.abha_n.i; Indra and Soma areboth designated vr.s.abha; all 
these forms such vr.s.an, vr.s.an.a, vr.s.abha are from the radical vr.s. = lit. 
to rain,and implying raining, shedding, showering, sprinkling; or bestowing 
freely or liberally, when used, as they mostcommonly are, in a figurative 

2.016.06 Your thunderbolt, Indra, is the rainer (of bounties); your chariot, the 
showerer (of blessings); your twohorses, the shedders (of desires); your weapons 
the diffusers (of wishes); you reign, showerer (of benefits), overthe 
inebriating Soma, the sprinkler (of delight); satiate yourself, Indra, with the 
good-diffusing Soma. 

2.016.07 Victorious in battle, (through) your (favour) I approach you, who are 
gratified by praise, in sacred riteswith prayer, as a boat (to bear me over 
misfortune); may Indra listen attentively to these our words; we pour 
outlibations to Indra, (who is a receptacle) of treasure, as a well (is of 

2.016.08 Conduct us beforehand away from evil, as a cow grazing in a meadow 
leads her calf (out of peril); maywe, S'atakratu, envelop you, if but once, with 
acceptable praises, as youthful husbands (are embraced) by theirwives. 

2.016.09 That opulent donation which proceeds, Indra, from you, assuredly 
bestows upon him who praises you,the boon (that he desires); grant (it) to (us) 
your adorers; do not you, who are the object of adoration, disregardour prayers; 
so that, blessed with worthy descendants, we may glorify you at this sacrifice.

2.017.01 Address, worshippers, after the manner of An:giras, a new (hymn) to 
that Indra, whose withering(energies) were developed of old; who, in the 
exhilaration of the Soma, forced open the obstructed and solidclouds. [yad 
gotra_, i.e. gotra_n.i, clouds; fr. go, water; tra, to preserve or contain; 
gotra = herds of cattle, thecows of the An:girasas recovered by Indra]. 

2.017.02 May that (Indra) be (excited), who, manifesting his energy, exerted his 
might for the first drinking of theSoma; a hero, who in combats protected his 
own person and by his greatness sustained the heaven upon hishead. 

2.017.03 Verily, Indra, you have displayed your first great prowess, when, 
(propitiated) by the prayer (of theworshipper), you have put forth your 
withering (vigour) in his presence; and when the congregated enemies (ofthe 
gods), hurled down by you in youur chariot, drawn by your horses, fled, 

2.017.04 He indeed, the ancient Indra, making himself by his might sovereign 
over all worlds, became supremeover (all); and thenceforth sustaining heaven and 
earth, he overspread them with effulgence, and scattering themalignant glooms, 
he pervaded (all things). 

2.017.05 By his strength, he fixed the wandering mountains; he directed the 
downward course of the waters; heupheld the earth, the nurse (of all creatures); 
and by his craft he stopped the heaven from falling. 

2.017.06 Sufficient was he for (the protection of) this (world), which he, its 
defender, fabricated with his two armsfor the sake of all mankind, over whom he 
was supreme by his wisdom; whereby, (also), he the loud-shouting,having struck 
Krivi (asura) with the thunderbolt, consigned him to (eternal) slumber on the 

2.017.07 As a virtuous (maiden), growing old in the same dwelling with her 
parents, (claims from them hersupport), so come I to you for wealth; make it 
conspicuous, measure it, bring it (hither), grant (a sufficient) portionfor my 
bodily sustenance, (such as that) wherewith you honour (your worshippers). [As a 
virtuous maiden:ama_jur iva pitroh saca_ sati_ sama_na_t: ama_juh = living at 
home during life; sati_ = daughter, duhita_, whoclaims her portion]. 

2.017.08 We invoke you, Indra, the bestower of enjoyment; you grant food, Indra, 
(in requital of pious) works;protect us, Indra, with manifold protections; 
Indra, showerer (of benefits), render us affluent. 

2.017.09 That opulent donation which proceeds, Indra, from you, assuredly 
bestows upon him who praises you,the boon that he desires; grant (it) to (us) 
your adorers; do not you, who are the object of adoration, disregardour prayers; 
so that, blessed with worthy descendants, we may glorify you at this sacrifice.

2.018.01 A laudable and pure sacrifice, has been instituted at dawn; having four 
pairs (of stones for bruising theSoma); three tones (of prayer); seven metres, 
and ten vessels; beneficial to man, conferring heaven, andsanctifiable with 
solemn rites and praises. [A laudable and pure sacrifice: pra_ta ratho navo yoji 
ratho ranhan.a_dyajn~ah: the word ratha, as derived from ranh., to ho = worship, 
sacrifice; as a chariot, it has been harnessed,ayoji; provided with four yokes, 
catur yuga; three whips, trikas.a; seven reins, saptaras'mi; and ten sides or 
faces,das'a aritra; such a figurative chariot is a conveyance to svarga, 
applicable to yajn~a,, sacrifice]. 

2.018.02 That (sacrifice) is sufficient for him, (Indra), whether (offered) for 
the first, the second, or the third time; itis the bearer (of good) to man; 
other (priests) engender the embryo of a different (rite), but this 
victorious(sacrifice), the showerer (of benefits) combines with other 
(ceremonies). [For the first: alluding to the three dailysacrifices; with other 
(ceremonies): anyasya_y, anye, anyebhih, of another, others, with others; the 
substantivesare supplied; anyo vr.s.a_: indra_dibhih devair san:gacchate, Indra 
andother deities]. 

2.018.03 I harness quickly and easily the horses to the car of Indra for its 
journey, by new and well-recitedprayer; many wise (worshippers) are present 
here; let not other institutors of sacred rites tempt you (away). 

2.018.04 Come, Indra, when invoked, with two horses, or with four, or with six, 
or with eight, or with ten, to drinkthe Soma; object of worship, Soma is poured 
out; do not wrong (to the libation). [With two horses: Although thehorses of 
Indra are but two, yet, from their supernatural faculties, they may multiply 
themselves without limit]. 

2.018.05 Come to our presence, Indra, having harnessed your car with twenty, 
thirty, or forty horses; or with fiftywell-trained steeds; or with sixty or with 
seventy, Indra, to drink the Soma. 

2.018.06 Come, Indra, to our presence, conveyed by eighty, ninety, or a hundred 
horses; this Soma has beenpoured into the goblet, Indra, for your exhilaration. 

2.018.07 Come hither, Indra, (having heard) my prayer; yoke your two universal 
steeds to the pole of yourchariot; you have been the object of invocation in 
many ways by many (worshippers), but now, hero, beexhilarated in this (our) 

2.018.08 Never may my friendship with Indra be disunited; may his liberality 
(ever) yield us (our desires); may webe within the excellent defence of (his 
protecting) arms; may we be victorious in every battle. [pra_ye 
pra_yejigi_vam.sah sya_ma: pra_ye = yuddhe, in war or battle; it also means, 
entering; may we be victorious inconsequence of Indra's repeatedly entering or 
frequenting the chamber of sacrifice]. 

2.018.09 That opulent donation which proceeds, Indra, from you, assuredly 
bestows upon him who praises you,the boon that he desires; grant (it) to (us) 
your adorers; do not you, who are the object of adoration, disregardour prayers; 
so that, blessed with worthy descendants, we may glorify you in this sacrifice.

2.019.01 It has been partaken (by Indra) for his exhilaration, of this agreeable 
(sacrificial) food, the libation of hisdevout (worshipper); thriving by which 
ancient (Soma),he has bestowed a (fitting) dwelling, where the adoringconductors 
(of the ceremony) abide. [It has been partaken: apa_yi asya andhasah: used 
impersonally, 3rd pers.sg. of the 3rd preterite, passive voice; it may as well 
be used for the imperative and is equated to: indrah somampitabu = may Indra 
drink the Soma]. 

2.019.02 Exhilarated by the Soma, Indra, armed with the thunderbolt, severed the 
rain-confining cloud;whereupon the currents of the rivers proceeded (towards the 
ocean), like birds to their own nests. 

2.019.03 The adorable Indra, the slayer of Ahi, sent the current of the waters 
towards the ocean; he generatedthe sun; he discovered the cattle; he effected 
the manifestation of the days by light. [aktuna_ ahna_m vayuna_nisa_dhat = 
tejasa_ praka_s'a_n divasa_na_m asa_dhayat, effected hte manifestation of the 
days by light]. 

2.019.04To the presenter (ofthe libation) Indra gives many unparalleled gifts; 
he slays Vr.tra; he who was thearbiter among his worshippers when contending for 
the possession of the Sun. [Who was the arbiter: atasa_yyobhu_t 
paspr.dha_nebhyah su_ryasya sa_tau: pra_ptihetubhu_tah san, being the cause of 
obtaining, to thosewho were contending; saying, let me be the first to have the 
sun-- aham eva prathamam su_ryam pra_pnuya_m;or, sa_ti_ may mean war; to those 
contending in battle with the sun; the next hymn alludes to a legend of adispute 
between su_rya and etas'a, in which Indra supported the latter]. 

2.019.05 The divine Indra, when lauded (by Etas'a), humbled the Sun (in behalf) 
of the mortal who offered to himthe libation; for the munificent Etas'a 
presented him with mysterious and inestimable riches; as (a father gives)his 
portion (to a son). 

2.019.06 The radiant Indra subjected to Kutsa, his charioteer, (the asuras), 
S'us.n.a, As'us.a, and Kuyava; and,for the sake of Divoda_sa, demolished the 
ninety and nine cities of S'ambara. [As'us.a, he who is not to be driedup; 
perhaps, an epithet of S'us.n.a, an asura]. 

2.019.07 Through desire of food, Indra, we, contributing to your vigour, 
spontaneously address to you (our)praise; secure of you, may we rely upon your 
friendship; hurl your thunderbolt against the godless Pi_yu. [Maywe rely upon 
your friend: as'ya_ma tat saptam: sapta = fr. sapta, seven; a synonym of sapta 
padi_nam,orsakhyam, friendship; Pi_yu = either an asura, in general or the name 
of a particular asura]. 

2.019.08 Thus, hero, have the Gr.tsamadas [gr.n.a_teh stutikarman.ah (Nirukta 
9.5) fabricated praises to you, asthey who are desirous of travelling 
(construct) roads; may those who worship you, adorable Indra, obtain 
food,strength, habitations and felicity. [As they who are desirous: avasyavo na 
vayuna_ni = gamanam icchantahpuma_m.so ma_rga_n yatha_ kurvanti = as men, 
wishing to go,make roads]. 

2.019.09 That opulent donation which proceeds, Indra, from you, assuredly 
bestows upon him who praises you,the boon (that he desires); grant it to us yor 
adorers; do not you, who are the object of adoration, disregard ourprayers; so 
that, blessed with worthy descendants, we may glorify you in this sacrifice.

2.020.01 We bring to you, Indra, (sacrificial) food, as one desiring food brings 
his wagon; regard us benevolentlywhen glorifying you, rendering (you) 
illustrious by (our) praise, and soliciting such guides as you are to 
felicity.[As one desiring food brings: va_jayurna ratham: yatha_ 
annamiccahanpuma_n s'akat.am sampa_dayati, as aman, wishing food, provides his 
cart or barrow to take it away]. 

2.020.02 (Defend us), Indra, with your protections, for you are the defender 
against enemies of those men whorely upon you; you are the lord of the offerer 
(of the libation) and the repeller (of foes), and with these acts(protect) him 
who worships you. 

2.020.03 May that young, adorable Indra, ever be the friend, the benefactor, and 
protector of us, his worshipper;who, with his protection, may conduct (to the 
object of his worship) him who repeats (to him) prayer and praise,who prepares 
the oblation, and recites (his) commendations. 

2.020.04 I laud that Indra, I glorify him, in whom of old (his worshippers) 
prospered, and overcame (theirenemies); may he, when solicited, gratify the 
desire of wealth of his present pious adorer. 

2.020.05 Propitiated by the hymns of the An:girasas, Indra granted their prayer, 
and directed them on the way (torecover their cattle); carrying off the dawns by 
the (light of the) sun, he, animated by praise, demolished theancient cities of 

2.020.06 May the renowned and graceful Indra, who is verily divine, be present 
over men; may he, the vigorousconqueror of foes, cast down the precious head of 
the malignant Da_sa. [Da_sa = a slave, here said to be thenameof an asura]. 

2.020.07 Indra, the slayer of Vr.tra, the destroyer of cities, has scattered the 
black-sprung servile (hosts); heengendered the earth and the waters for Manu; 
may he fulfill the entire prayer of the sacrificer. [Has scatteredthe black-
sprung servile hosts: kr.s.nayonir da_si_r airyad vi, he scattered the 
sacrifice-disturbing asura armies{kr.s.n.ayoni = nikr.s.t.a ja_ti; da_si_ = 
upaks.apayitri_, a_suri_ sena_ (army}; another interpretation: pregnantwife of 
the asura named kr.s.n.a (yah kr.s.n.a_garbha_h nirahanr.jis'vana_: RV 

2.020.08 Vigour has been perpetually imparted to Indra by his worshippers (with 
oblations), for the sake ofobtaining rain; for which purpose they have placed 
the thunderbolt in his hands, wherewith,having slain theDasyus, he has destroyed 
their metal cities. 

2.020.09 That opulent donation which proceeds, Indra, from you, assuredly 
bestows upon him who praises you,the boon (that he desires); grant it to us yor 
adorers; do not you, who are the object of adoration, disregard ourprayers; so 
that, blessed with worthy descendants, we may glorify you in this sacrifice.

2.021.01 Bring the desired Soma to the adorable Indra the lord of all, the lord 
of wealth, the lord of heaven, theperpetual lord, the lord of man, the lord of 
earth, the lord of horses, the lord of cattle, the lord of water. [The lordof 
all: all the terms are compounds with jit = lit. conqueror, as vis'vajite, 
dhanajite, svarjite; but, the sense is bestexpressed by adhipati, lord of or 
lord over]. 

2.021.02 Offer adoration to Indra, the overcomer, the destroyer, the munificent, 
the invincible, the all-enduring,the creator, the all-adorable; the sustainer, 
the unassailable, the ever-victorious. 

2.021.03 I proclaim the mighty exploits of that Indra, who is, ever victorious; 
the benefactor of man, theoverthrower of (the strong) man, the caster down (of 
foes), the warrior, who is gratified by our libations, thegranter of desires, 
the subduer of enemies, the refuge of the people. 

2.021.04 Unequalled in liberty, the showerer (of benefits), the slayer of the 
malevolent, profound, mighty,(endowed with) impenetrable sagacity, the dispenser 
of prosperity, the enfeebler (of foes), firm (of frame), vast (inbulk) the 
performer of pious acts, Indra has given birth to the light of the morning. 
[us.asah svar janat: svar maymean the sun; Indra, or the sky, makes manifest the 
morning sun]. 

2.021.05 The wise Us'ijas, celebrating his praises, have obtained by their 
sacrifice, from the sender of water(knowledge) of the path (of their cattle); 
seeking the aid of Indra, and celebrating his praises, they have acquired,whilst 
uttering hymns and offering adoration (valuable) treasures. 

2.021.06 Indra, bestow upon us most excellent treasures; (give us) the 
reputation of ability (to celebrate sacredrites); grant us prosperity, increase 
of wealth, security of person, sweetness of speech, and auspiciousness ofdays.

2.022.01 The adorable and powerful (Indra), partaking of the Soma, mixed with 
barley, effused at the Tr.kadrukarites, has drunk with Vis.n.u as much as he 
wished; the draught has excited that great and mighty Indra toperform great 
deeds; may that divine (Soma) pervade the divine (Indra), the true Soma 
(pervade) the true Indra.[All the hymns in this su_kta occur in the Sa_maveda; 
mahis.a = maha_n, grea, pu_jya, worshipfult (epithte ofIndra); each hymn has a 
refrain: sa enam sas'cad devo devam satyam indram satya induh: sa refers to Indu 
orthe Soma, of which deva as well as satya are epithets; the verb sas'cat = 
vya_pti karma, pervading, in theimperative, vya_pnotu]. 

2.022.02 Thereupon, resplendent, he has overcome Krivi in conflict by his 
prowess;he has filled heaven andearth (with his lustre), and has been 
invigorated by the efficacy of the draught; one portion he has taken tohimself; 
the other he has distributed (to the gods); may that divine (Soma) pervade the 
divine (Indra), the trueSoma, the true (Indra). [Krivi: krivim na_ma_suram, an 
asura so named; one portion he has taken to himself:adhatta_nyam jat.hare prem 
aricyata = lit. he has taken the other in the belly, he has left over that; i.e. 
(basedonthe Taittiri_ya): Indra, having divided the Soma into two portions, took 
one to himself, and gave the other to thegods; or, a half to Indra, a half to 
the other gods: etena ardham indra_ya, ardham anyebhyo devebhyah]. 

2.022.03 Cognate with (pious) works and with power, you desire to support (the 
universe); mighty with heroic(energies); you are the subduer of the malevolent; 
(you are) the distinguisher (between the doer of good and ill);the giver of the 
substantial wealth he desires to him who praises you; may the divine (Soma) 
pervade the divine(Indra), the true Soma, the true (Indra). 

2.022.04 Indra, the delighter (of all), the first act performed by you in 
ancient time was for the good of man, anddeserving of renown in heaven, when, 
arresting by force the breath of the (enemy) of the gods, you did senddown the 
rain; may Indra prevail by his prowess over all that is godless; may S'atakratu 
obtain vigour; may heobtain (sacrificial) food. [The delighter of all: nr.to = 
lit. dancer; one who dances of exults in battle; here, it meansnartayitri_, one 
who causes to dance or to rejoice; of the enemy of the gods: the text has only 
devasya, of thedivine, or the deity; this is explained as asurasya; asum rin.an 
= pra_n.am himsan, injuring or taking away thebreath or life, in consequence of 
which Indra sends down the water or rain, pra_rin.a_h a_pah].

2.023.01 We invoke the Brahman.aspati, chief leaderof the (heavenly) bands; a 
sage of sage;aboundingbeyondmeasure in (every kind of) food;best lord of prayer; 
hearing our invocations, come with yourprotections, and sit down in the chamber 
of sacrifice. [Brahman.aspati = brahman.o annasya parivr.d.hasyakarman.o va_ 
pa_layita_, the protector or cherisher of food,or of any great or solemn acts of 
devotion; he hasother attributes in the text, as, gan.a_na_m gan.apatih, chief 
of the gan.as (inferior deities); jyes.t.hara_jambrahman.a_m, the best lord of 
mantras, or prayers: pras'asyam sva_minam mantra_n.a_m]. 

2.023.02 Br.haspati, destroyer of the asuras, through you the intelligent gods 
have obtained the sacrificialportion;in like manner as the adorable sun 
generates the (solar) rays by his radiance, so are you the generator of 
allprayers. [Br.haspati = Brahman.aspati; perhaps Br.haspati is of a more 
martial character; his protection issouhght for against enemies and evil 
spirits; perhaps, br.hata_m veda_na_m pa_lakah: br.hat = mantra, 
br.hatomantrasya, sva_min]. 

2.023.03 Having repelled revilers and (dispersed) the darkness you stand 
Br.haspati, on the radiant chariot ofsacrifice, (which is) formidable (to foes), 
the humiliator of enemies, the destroyer of evil spirits, the cleaver of 
theclouds, the attainer of heaven. 

2.023.04 You lead men, Br.haspati, by virtuous instructions; you preserve them 
(from calamity); sin will neverovertake him who presents (offerings) to you; you 
are the afflicter of him who hates (holy) prayers; you are thepunisher of wrath; 
such is your great mightiness. [Him who hates holy prayers: brahmadvis.ah = 
those who hateeither the bra_hman.as,or the mantras or prayers]. 

2.023.05 The man whom you, Brahman.aspati, a kind protector, defend, neither 
sorrow nor sin, nor adversariesnor dissemblers ever harm, for you drive away 
from him all injurious (things). 

2.023.06 You, Br.haspati, are our protector and the guide of (our) path; (you 
are) the discerner (of all things); weworship with praises for your adoration; 
may his own precipitate malice involve him (in destruction) who practisesdeceit 
against us. 

2.023.07 Turn aside from (the true) path, Br.haspati, the arrogant and savage 
man who advances to injure us,although unoffending and keep us in the right way 
for (the completion of) this offering to the gods. 

2.023.08 Br.haspati, defender (from calamity), we invoke you, the protector of 
our persons, the speaker ofencouraging words and well disposed towards us; do 
you destroy the revilers of the gods; let not the malevolentattain supreme 

2.023.09 Through you, Brahman.aspati, (our) benefactor, may we obtain desirable 
wealth from men destroythose (our) unrighteous enemies, whether nigh or far off, 
who prevail against us. 

2.023.10 Through you, Br.haspati, (who are) the fulfiller of our desires; pure, 
and associated (with us), wepossess excellent food; let not the wicked man who 
wishes to deceive us be our master; but let us, excelling in(pious) praises, 
attain (prosperity). 

2.023.11 You, Brahman.aspati, who have no requiter (of your bounty), who are the 
showerer (of benefits), therepairer to combat, the consumer of foes, the victor 
in battles, you are true, the discharger of debts, the humiliatorof the fierce 
and of the exulting. 

2.023.12 Let not, Br.haspati, the murderous (weapon) of that man reach us, who, 
with unrighteous mind, seeks toharm us; who, fierce and arrogant, designs to 
kill (your) worshippers; may we baffle the wrath of the strongevil-doer]. 

2.023.13 Br.haspati is to be invoked in battles; he is to be approached with 
reverence; he who moves amidstcombats, the distributor of repeated wealth; the 
lord Br.haspati has verily overturned all the assailing malignant(hosts), like 
chariots (overturned in battle). 

2.023.14 Consume with your brightest (weapon) the ra_ks.asas, who have held your 
witnessed prowess indisdain; manifest, Br.haspati, your glorified (vigour), such 
as it was (of old), and destroy those who speak againstyou. 

2.023.15 Br.haspati, born of truth, grant us that wonderful treasure, wherewith 
the pious man may worshipexceedingly; that (wealth) which shines amongst men; 
which is endowed with lustre, (is) the means of(performing holy) rites, and 
invogirates (its possessor) with strength. [dravin.am citram = lit., various or 
wonderfulwealth; in the Bra_hman.as it is interpreted as brahma varcas or tejas, 
brahmanical virtue or energy (cf. Yajus.26.3; dravin.am = dhanam (Aitareya 
Bra_hman.a 4.11)]. 

2.023.16 Deliver us not to the thieves, the enemies delighting in violence, who 
seize ever upon the food (ofothers); those who cherish in their hearts the 
abandonment (of the gods); (they), Br.haspati, who do not know theextent of 
(your) power (against evil spirits). [Who do not know the extenf of your power: 
na parah sa_mno viduh =ye puma_msah sa_mnah sa_maya_t tvattah parah parasta_d 
anyadukr.s.t.am sa_ma yad raks.oghnam naja_nanti, those men who do not know 
anything greater than the faculty of destroying ra_ks.asas, derived fromyou made 
up of that faculty; sa_ma vai raks.oha = sa_ma is the killer of ra_ks.asas]. 

2.023.17 Tvas.t.a_ engendered you (chief) amongst all beings, (whence) you are 
the reciter of many a holyhymn: Brahman.aspati acknowledges a debt to the 
performer of a sacred rite; he is the acquitter (of the debt),and the destoyer 
of the oppressor. [When you are the reciter: sa_mnah sa_mnah kavih, the reicter 
or another ofevery sa_ma, sarvasya sa_mnah ucca_rayita_ karta_si; or kavi refers 
to tvas.t.a_, further explained as the sagewho created Brahman.aspati by the 
efficacy of the sa_ma: sa_mnah sa_ren.a tvam aji_janat; acknowledges adebt: 
r.n.acit stotr.ka_mam r.n.am iva cinoti, he takes the intention of the praiser 
as if it was a debt, or obligation;acquitter of the debt: r.n.aya is explained 
as the discharger or remover of the debt which is of the nature of 
sin:pa_paru_pasya r.n.asya pr.thak karta_]. 

2.023.18 When Br.haspati, descendant of An:giras, for your glory, Parvata had 
concealed the herd o fkine, youdid set them free, and with thine associate, 
Indra, did send down the ocean of water which had been envelopedby darkness. 

2.023.19 Brahman.aspati, who are the regulator of this (world), understand (the 
purport) of (our) hymn, and grantus posterity; for all is prosperous that the 
gods protect; (and therefore) may we blessed with excellent

2.024.01 Inasmuch, Br.haspati, as you rule (over all), accept this our 
propitiation; we worship you with this newand solemn hymn; since this your 
friend, our benefactor, celebrates you, do you fulfil our desires. 

2.024.02 (You are) that Brahman.aspati who, by his might, has humbled those who 
deserved humiliation; who inhis wrath rent the clouds asunder; who sent down the 
undescending (waters); and made way into the mountain(cave), opulent (in 

2.024.03 That was the exploit, (performed) for the most divine of the gods, by 
which the firm (shut gates) werethrown open, the strong (barriers) were relaxed, 
(by him) who set the cows at liberty; who, by the (force of the)sacred prayer, 
destroyed Bala who dispersed the darkness and displayed the light. 

2.024.04 That stone-like, solid, down-hanging, water-laden (cloud), which 
Brahman.aspati has with his strengthdivided, the universal solar rays have drunk 
up; but they have again shed together the showering andwater-spreading (rain). 

2.024.05 For you, (worshipper), the constant and manifold (bounties of 
Brahman.aspati), through months andthrough years, set open the gates of the 
future rains, and he has appointed those results of prayer, which the tworegions 
mutually and without effort provide. [Of the future rains: bhuvana bhavitva_ = 
udaka_na_mbhavya_na_m; which the two regions mutually: vayuna_ caka_ra: 
jn~a_na_ni mantra vis.aya_n.i, he made theknowledge the object of prayer; which 
the a_yatama_nau aprayatnau;or, the two, to mean heaven and earth,which without 
effort, pass to one another, anyadanyati caratah; i.e., by virtue of prayer and 
sacrifice, rain isengendered in the sky, which coming down upon the earth, 
causes fertility, whence food for men or for sacrificeis provided; which, being 
offered, is again productive of rain, and thus, as the result of prayer, a 
mutual andspontaneous interchange of benefits between heaven and earth is 

2.024.06 Those sages, who searching on every side, discovered the precious 
treasure (of cattle) hidden in thecave of the Pan.is, having seen through the 
false (illusions of the asura), and again coming (thither) forced anentrance. 
[Those sages: the an:girasas; the allegory is explained: the cows hidden in the 
caves are the rainsaccumulated in the clouds, which are set free by the 
oblations with fire, of which the an:girasas were, no doubt,the authors]. 

2.024.07 Those sages, eminent for truth, having seen through the false 
(illusions of the asura), again pursuedthe main road thither, and with their 
hands cast against the rock the destructive fire, which, till then, was 
notthere. [nakh s.o asti = that is not; i.e. so agnih pu_rvam tatra nakir asti, 
na vidyate, that fire formerly is not there,is not known; but they, of their own 
power, having produced the fire that was not known, or was not extant, threwit 
there: avidyama_nam agnim svasa_marthya_d utpa_dya tatra praciks.ipuh; this is 
an allusion to thedissemination of fire-worship by the an:girasas]. 

2.024.08 Whatever Brahman.aspati aims at with the truth-strung quick-darting 
bow, that (mark) he surely attains;holy are its arrows with which he shoots 
(intended) for the eyes of men, and having their abode in the ear. [Forthe eyes 
of men: nr.caks.asah karn.ayonayah: the arrows are oblations and mantras; the 
first is obvious to thesight; the second is addressed to the ears of men]. 

2.024.09 He, Brahman.aspati, is the aggregator and subjugator (of objects); the 
family priest (of the gods) andthe renowned in battle; the beholder (of all), 
who bestows food and desired treasures, whence the radiant sunshines without 

2.024.10 Expansive, vast, and excellent riches, are the attainable (bounties) of 
Br.haspati, the sender of the rain;these are the gifts of the adorable giver of 
food, whereby both (descriptions of worshippers) entering here enjoy(abundance). 
[Whereby both: yena jana_ ubhaye bhun~jate vis'ah: the two sorts of persons are 
either theyajama_na, or host and the officiating priests; or they may be gods 
and men; vis'o nivis.t.ah santo bhun~jatebhoga_n labhanti, being entered or 
seated, they enjoy; they obtain enjoyments]. 

2.024.11 He, who is all-pervading and delighting, is willing to sustain by his 
strength the noble, worshipper, aswell as one who is in low distress; greatly is 
that Brahman.aspati renowned amongst the gods, and therefore ishe verily supreme 
above all (beings). 

2.024.12 All truth, lords of wealth, (Indra and Brahman.aspati), is (inherent) 
in you both; the waters injure not yourrites; come to our presence (to receive) 
our oblations, like a pair of steeds (to receive) their provender. [Thewaters 
injure not your rites: a_pas'ca na praminanti vratam va_m: a_pah = by metonymy, 
for all human beings,sarva_n.i bhu_tani]. 

2.024.13 The very swift horses (of Brahman.aspati) listen to (our invocation); 
the priest of the assembly offerswith praise the (sacrificial) wealth; may 
Brahman.aspati, the hater of the oppressor, accept (the payment of) thedebt, 
agreeably to his pleasure; may he be the accepter of the (sacrificial) food 
presented at this ceremony. 

2.024.14 The purpose of Brahman.aspati, engaging in a great work, has been 
successful, according to his wish;for he it was who recovered (the stolen) 
cattle for (the dwellers in) heaven; and distrubuted them; so that of theirown 
power they took different directions, like (the branches of) a mighty river. 

2.024.15 May we, Brahman.aspati, be daily in the possession of well-regulated 
and food-supplying wealth; doyou add for us posterity to posterity, since you, 
who are the ruler (of all) accept my invocation with (offeredsacrificial) food. 

2.024.16 Brahman.aspati, who are the regulator of this (world), understand (the 
purport of) our hymn, and grantus posterity; for all is prosperous that the gods 
protect; (and therefore) may we, blessed with excellentdescendants, glorify you 
at this sacrifice.

2.025.01 Kindling the fire, may (the worshipper) overcome the malevolent 
(disturbers of the rite); may he,repeating prayers, and laden with oblations, 
prosper; he whom Brahman.aspati makes his associates, lives tobehold the son of 
his son. 

2.025.02 (Surrounded) by his descendants, may he surpas the malevolent 
descendants (of his adversaries), forhe is famed for great wealth of cattle, and 
understands (all things) of himself; his sons and grandsons prosperwhom 
Brahman.aspati makes his associate. 

2.025.03 As a river (washes away) its banks, so the devout worshipper, (of 
Brahman.aspati), overpowers hisenemies by his strength, as a bull (overcomes) an 
ox; like the spreading flame of fire, it is impossible to stop him,whom 
Brahman.aspati makes his associate. [The father of the gods: deva_na_m pitaram: 
pitaram =pa_layita_ram, the protector or cherisher]. 

2.025.04 For him, the unobstructed rains of heaven descend; first among the 
devout, he acqires (wealth) incattle; of irresistible vigour, he destroys his 
enemies by his strength, whom Brahman.aspati makes his associate. 

2.025.05 Verily, for him all rivers flow; him do uninterrupted and numerous 
pleasures await; blessed with thefelicity of the gods, he ever prospers, whom 
Brahman.aspati makes his associate.

2.026.01 May the sincere praiser (of Brahman.aspati) verily overcome (his) 
enemies; may the worshipper of thegods overcome him assuredly who does not 
reverence them; may the propitiatir (of Brahman.aspati) overcomehim who is 
difficult to be overcome in battles; may he who offers sacrifice appropriate the 
food of him who doesnot sacrifice. 

2.026.02 Offer worship, O man, (to Brahman.aspati); proceed resolutely against 
those who are meditating(hostility); keep your mind firm in contending against 
foes; offer oblations whereby you may be prosperous; wealso solicit the 
protection of Brahman.aspati. 

2.026.03 He who with a believing mind worships Brahman.aspati, the father of the 
gods, with oblations, he verilyreceives food, together with his sons, his 
kindred, his descendants, his people, and (obtains) riches together with(all) 

2.026.04 Brahman.aspati leads by a straight path (to his reward), the worshipper 
who propitiates him withoblations of butter; he guards him against sin; he 
protects him from foes and from distress; and wonderful (inmight) confers upon 
him many (favours).

2.027.01 I present continually, with the ladle (of speech), these oblation-
dropping hymns to the royal A_dityas;may Mitra, Aryaman, Bhaga, the multi-
present Varun.a, the powerful Am.s'a, hear us. [A_dityas, sons of Aditi:here 
only five are enumerated. Taittiri_ya adds: dha_ta_, indra and vivasvat to make 
the total eight;  am.s'u (foram.s'a). Pura_n.as enumerate twelve, adding to the 
eight of the Taittiri_ya: vis.n.u, pu_s.an, tvas.t.a_ andsavita_). 

2.027.02 May those of equal exploits, Mitra, Aryaman, Varun.a, be pleased today 
by this my praise; they who areA_dityas, luminous, purified by showers, who 
abandon none (that worship them), who are irreproachableunassailable. [Purified 
by showers: dha_rapu_ta_, cleansed by water, clean (nirmala)]. 

2.027.03 Those A_dityas, mighty, profound, unsubdued, subduing, many-eyed, 
behold the innermost (thoughtsof men), whether wicked or virtuous, whether far 
from or nigh to those royal (deities). [Many-eyed: bhu_ryaks.ah= lit., having 
many eyes; figuratively, it implies the universal penetration of the rays of 
light; or, very brilliant,bahutejasah; behold the innermost (thoughts of men): 
antahpas'yanti, they look within; i.e. pra_n.ina_mormanus.ya_na_m hr.tsu, into 
the hearts of living beings, or men]. 

2.027.04 The divine A_dityas are the upholders (of all things), moveable or 
immoveable; the protectors of theuniverse; the provident in acts; the collectors 
of rain; the possessors of veracity; the acquitters of our debts. [Thecollectors 
of rain: asuryam raks.ama_n.a_h: asura_ = a cloud; fr. asu = water, as the same 
with life; ra = whatyields; hence, asuryam is the water of the cloud, or rain, 
which the A_dityas keep collected until the season of itsfull tat tat ka_le 
vr.s.t.yutpa_dana_ya raks.anti; the acquitter of our debts: the debts are 
literally so; those whichare to be paid by the worshippers to other persons; 
r.n.an stotr.bhiranyebhyah pradeya_ni]. 

2.027.05 May I be conscious, A_dityas, of this your protection, the cause of 
happiness (and security) in danger;Aryaman, Mitra and Varun.a, may I, through 
your guidance, escape the sins which are like pitfalls (in my path).[Like 
pitfalls: s'vabhreva, s'vabhra_n.i_va, gartavanti sthala_ni_va, like places of 
land having holes or pits]. 

2.027.06 Aryaman, Mitra and Varun.a, easy is the path (you show us), and free 
from thorns, and pleasant;therefore, A_dityas (lead us) by (it); speak to us 
favourably, and grant us happiness difficult to be disturbed. 

2.027.07 May Aditi, the mother of royal song, place us beyond the malice (of our 
enemies); may Aryaman lead usby easy paths, and may we, blessed with many 
descendants, and safe from harm, attain the great happiness of Mitra and 

2.027.08 They uphold the three worlds, the three heavens, and in their 
sacrifices three ceremonies (arecomprised); by truth, A_dityas, has your great 
might (been produced), such as is most excellent; Aryaman, Mitraand Varun.a. 
(They uphold the three worlds: tisro bhumir dha_rayan: bhu_mi  = loka, world, or 
sphere; earth,firmament, and heaven which the A_dityas support by supplying them 
with rain; the three heavens: tri_h dyu_n,the three luminous objects, di_ptan; 
the three lokas above the sky: mahar, jana, satya; or the three luminousdeities: 
agni, va_yu and su_rya; three ceremonies: tri_n.i vrata_ vidathe antar es.a_m = 
lit. the three ceremoniesin the sacrifice, in the midst of them; the three daily 
ceremonials are essentially one worship of the A_dityas;alternative meaning:in 
the midst of those worlds, there are three acts intended especially as the acts 
of theA_dityas, the absorption, retention, and redistribution of dew on rain]. 

2.027.09 The A_dityas, decorated with golden ornaments, brilliant, purified by 
showers, who never slumber, norclose their eyelids, who are unassailable, and 
praised by many, uphold the three bright heavenly regions for thesake of the 
upright man. 

2.027.10 Varun.a, destroyer of foes, you are the sovereign over all, whether 
they be gods or mortals; grant to usto behold a hundred years, and that we may 
enjoy lives such as were enjoyed by ancient (sages). [The text haspu_rva_, 
prior, former; explained as: pu_rvair devaih, by the former gods or divine 

2.027.11 Neither is the right hand known to us, A_dityas, nor is the left; 
neither is that which is in front, nor thatwhich is behind, (discerned by me); 
givers of dwellings, may I, who an immature (in knowledge), and timid 
(inspirit), obtain, when guided by you, the light that is free from fear. 
[Either the light of day, or the light ofknowledge]. 

2.027.12 He who presents offerings to the royal and true (A_dityas); he whom 
their constant favours exalt; heproceeds, wealthy, renowned, munificent, and 
honoured, to sacrifices, in his chariot. 

2.027.13 Pure, unmolested, possessing (abundant) food and virtuous descendants, 
he dwells amidst fertilizingwaters; no one, whether nigh or afar, harms him who 
is (safe) in the good guidance of the A_dityas. [He dwellsamidst fertilizing 
waters: apah su_ryavasa_ upaks.eti, he dwells near to waters that are productive 
of corn; i.e.,he obtains rain when needed]. 

2.027.14 Aditi, Mitra, Varun.a, have pity upon us, even though we may have 
committed some offence againstyou; may I obtain, Indra, that great light which 
is free from peril; let not the protracted glooms (of night) envelopus. 

2.027.15 Both (heaven and earth) combined, cherish him (whom the A_dityas 
protect); verily prosperous, hethrives, with the rain of heaven; victorious in 
battles, (he defends) both his own dwelling (and assails) that of hisfoe; to him 
both portions (of creation) are propitious. [He defends both: ubha_ ks.aya_ 
va_jayan ya_ti = lit., hegoes, conquering, to both habitations; both portions of 
creation: ubhau ardhau, the two parts of the world; eithermoveable and 
immoveable things, or mortal and immortal beings]. 

2.027.16 Adorable A_dityas, may I pass (safe) in your car from the illusions 
which (you devise) for the malignant,the snares which are spread for your foes, 
(in like manner) as a horseman (passes over a road); and thus maywe abide secure 
in infinite felicity. 

2.027.17 May I never (have to) represent, Varun.a, the destittution of a (once) 
opulent, dear, and munificentkinsman; may I never, royal Varun.a, be devoid of 
well-regulated riches; (and) may we, blessed with excellentdescendants, worthily 
glorify you at this sacrifice. [May I never have: ma_ham a_vidam s'u_nam a_peh; 
a_peh =jn~a_ti, a relative; s'u_nam = s'u_nyam, emptiness; da_ridryam = poverty; 
explanation: may I not be under thenecessity of begging of different princes, 
saying, my sons, or other relatives are hungry: asmadi_yahputra_dayah ks.udhita 
iti prabhu prabhu sami_pe abhidyha_ya ya_cama_no ma_ bhu_vam; may I never, 
royalVarun.a: refrain from su_kta 15].

2.028.01 (The worshipper repeats) this praise of the sage; the self-radiant 
A_ditya; may he preside over allbeings by his power; I beg for fame of the 
sovereign Varun.a, a deity who, when much pleased (is propitious) tohsi adorer. 

2.028.02 May we, Varun.a, deeply meditating on you, earnestly praising you, and 
(engaged) in your worship, beprosperous; glorifying you daily, like the fires 
(that are kindled in your honour) at the coming of the luminousdawns. 

2.028.03 Varun.a, chief guide (of men), may we abide in the felicity of you, who 
are endowed with great powers,and are glorified by many; divine sons of Aditi, 
unharmed (by foes), have compassion upon us through yourbenevolence. 

2.028.04 The A_ditya, the upholder, has created all this water; the rivers flow 
by the power of Varun.a; theynever weary, they never stop; they have descended 
with swiftness, like birds upon the circumambient (earth).[Has created all this 
water: pra si_m as.rjad r.tam; the word r.tam has many interpretations: truth, 
sacrifice, water;sindhavo varun.asya yanti, rivers go of Varun.a, or by his will 
or power; like birds upon the circumambient earth:paptu_ raghuya_ parijman; 
parijman = lit. that which goes about or round; or, revolving; this is an 
epithet ofbhu_mi: parijmani bhu_mya_m]. 

2.028.05 Cast off from me sin, Varun.a, as if it were a rope; may we obtain from 
you a channel (filled) with water;cut not the thread of me (engaged in) weaving 
pious works; blight not the elements of holy rites before theseason (of their 

2.028.06 Keep off all danger from me, Varun.a; supreme monarch, endowed with 
truth, bestow your favour uponme; cast off (from me) sin, like a tether from a 
calf; no one rules for the twinkling of an eye, apart from you. 

2.028.07 Harm us not, Varun.a, with those destructive (weapons), repeller (of 
foes), demolish him who does evilat your sacrifice; let us not depart (before 
our time) from the regions of light; scatter the malevolent, that we maylive. 

2.028.08 As we have offered adoration to you, Varun.a, of old, in like manner as 
we offer it now, so may we offerit in future (to you), who are everywhere 
present; for in you, who are difficult of attainment, as in an 
(immoveable)mountain, all holy acts are assembled, and are not to be dissevered. 

2.028.09 Discharge, Varun.a, the debts (contracted), by my progenitors, and 
those now (contracted) by me; andmay I not, royal Varun.a, be dependent (on the 
debts contracted) by another; many are the mornings that have,as it were, indeed 
not dawned; make us, Varun.a, alive in them. [May I not be dependent: 
ma_hamra_jannanyakr.tena bhojam = lit. may I not enjoy by what is made by 
another; i.e., may I not obtain enjoyment bythe wealth that is acquired by 
another; but,mat-kr.ta_ni, made by me, refers to r.n.a (for r.n.a_ni, debts); 
many arethe mornings: avyus.t.a_ innu bhu_yasi_rus.a_sah a_ no ji_va_n ta_su 
s'a_dhi = lit., unrisen, verily indeed, manymorning dawns, make us alive in 
them; i.e., persons involved in debt are so overcome with anxiety that they 
arenot conscious of the dawn of day, to them the morning has not dawned, they 
are dead tothe light of day]. 

2.028.10 Protect us, Varun.a, against every peril which a kinsman or a friend 
threatens me with alarmed in sleep;or from a thief or a wolf that attempts to 
destroy us. [mahyam = to me, in the singular (first line); asmam = us, inthe 
plural (second line); this hymn is said to remove sin and danger, debt and 
poverty and counteract baddreams: idam eka_das'arcam tu varun.qam bhayapa_panut 
r.nada_ridrya_ duh svapnana_s'anam it s'us'ruma]. 

2.028.11 May I nver (have to) represent, Varun.a, the destitution of a (once) 
opulent, dear, and munificentkinsman; may I never, royal (Varun.a), be devoid of 
well-regulated riches; and may we, blessed with excellentdescendants, worthily 
glorify you at this sacrifice.

2.029.01 A_dityas, upholders of pious works, and who are to be sought by all, 
remove sin far from me, like awoman delivered in secret; knowing, Mitra, Varun.a 
and (universal) gods, the good that follows from your hearingour prayers, I 
invoke you for (our) protection. [Delivered in secret: rahasu_riva; 
rahasyanyairajn~a_te prades'esu_yata iti rahasu_rvabhica_rin.i_ = like a loose 
woman who has child privately and who abandons it in somedistant place; this 
comparison is to the distant removal of sin prayed for]. 

2.029.02 You, gods, are intelligence, you are vigour; do you drive away the 
malevolent subduers (of enemies),overcome them entirely, and grant us felicity 
both now and in future. 

2.029.03 What may we do for you, gods, either now, or in the future; what may we 
do, Vasus, by perpetual andpracticable (acts of devotion); do you, Mitra, 
Varun.a, Aditi, Indra and the Maruts, maintain our bell-being. 

2.029.04 O Gods, you, verily, are our kinsmen; being so, grant felicity to me 
your suppliant; let not your chariotbe tardy in coming to the sacrifice; let us 
never be weary of relatives such as you are. 

2.029.05 Alone among you, I have committed many offences, (which correct) as a 
father corrects a naughty(son); far from me, gods, bebonds; far from be sins; 
size not upon me (your) son as (a fowler) catches a bird. 

2.029.06 Adorable (deities), be present today, that, apprehensive of danger, I 
may feel sure of your healthy(support); protect us, gods, from the rapacity of 
the wolf; protect us, adorable (deities), from him who would workus misfortune. 
[Yajus. 33.51; nijuro vr.kasya = protect us from the mischievous wolf; karta_t 
avapado = protect usfrom a well into which we might fall]. 

2.029.07 May I never (have to) represent, Varun.a, the destitution of a (once) 
opulent, dear, and munificentkinsman; may I never, royal (Varun.a), be devoid of 
well-regulated riches, and may we, blessed with excellentdescendants, worthily 
glorify you at this sacrifice.

2.030.01 The waters cease not (to flow in libations) to the divine Indra, the 
sender of rain, the animator (of all),the slayer of Ahi; day by day proceeds the 
current of the waters; at what period of time was their first creation.[The 
animator of all: savitre = to the sun, as one with Indra; this may also be 
rendered as sarvasya preraka_ya,to the instigator, impeller, or animator of all; 
at what period of time: nitya_ eva hi ta_ ityarthah, the drift of thequestion is 
the non-creation or eternity of the waters]. 

2.030.02 His mother, (Aditi), declared to him the man who had offered 
(sacrificial) food to Vr.tra;obedient to hispleasure, the rivers, tracing out 
their paths, flow day by day to their object, (the ocean). 

2.030.03 Inasmuch as he had soared aloft above the firmament Indra hurled 
against Vr.tra his destructive(thunderbolt); enveloped in a cloud, he rushed 
upon Indra, but the wielder of the sharp-edged weapon triumphedover his foe. 

2.030.04 Pierce, Br.haspati, with a radiant shaft,  as with a thunderbolt, the 
sons of the asura guarding his gates;in like manner as you did formerly slay 
Vr.tra by your own prowess, so do you now destroy our enemy.[Br.haspati = 

2.030.05 Do you, who are on high, cast down fromheaven the adamantine 
(thunderbolt), wherewith, whenexhilarated, you did slay your foe; and make us 
affluent in the possession of many sons, and grandsons, andcattle. 

2.030.06 Indra and Soma, eradicate the worker (of evil), whom you hate; be the 
encouragers of the liberalinstitutor of the rite; protect us in this place of 
peril, and make the world (free from fear). [Make the world freefrom fear: 
kr.n.utam u lokam = lit., make the world; the verb is not used in the sense of 
creating; to specify what isdone, added: bhayarahitam = freed from fear]. 

2.030.07 Let not Indra vexme, or weary me, or make me slothful; never may we say 
(to another), do not offer theSoma; (for it is Indra) who will fulfil (my 
wishes), who will give (me riches), who will hear (my prayers), who willreward 
me, presenting libations, with cattle. 

2.030.08 Sarasvati_, do you protect us; associated with the Maruts and firm (of 
purpose), overcome our foes,whiilst Indra slays the chief of the S'an.d.ikas, 
defying him and confiding in his strength. [S'an.d.ikas :vr.s.aqbham 
s'an.d.ika_na_m, descendants of s'an.d.a, who, with Amarka, is the purohita, or 
priest of the asuras[s'an.d.a_marka_vasurapurohitau (Taittiri_ya Sam.hita_:]. 

2.030.09 Detecting him who is lying in ambush (against us), who is purposing our 
death, pierce him, Br.haspati,with your sharp (thunderbolt), and overthrow (our) 
enemies with (your) weapons; hurl, monarch, your destroying(shaft) against the 

2.030.10 Achieve, hero, along with our valiant heroes, the exploits that are to 
be achieved by you; long have (ourenemies) been inflated (with pride); slay 
them, and bring to us their treasures. 

2.030.11 Desirous of felicity, Maruts, I glorify with praise and homage you 
divine, manifest and congregatedstrength; that we may thereby daily enjoy 
distinguished affluence, accompanied by valiant dependants andposterity.

2.031.01 Mitra and Varun.a, associated with the A_dityas, the Rudras and the 
Vasus, protect our (sacrificial)chariot, when (it goes) about (from one place to 
another); like birds that fly down, seeking for food, rejoicing, andresting in 
the woods. [Protect our sacrificial chariot: asma_kam avatam ratham: the cart or 
wagon to bring food(as mentioned in the next hymn), perhaps, Soma, to prepare 
the libation]. 

2.031.02 Propitiated divinities, protect our chariot, gone forth in quest of 
food among the people, when the quick(horses), raising the dust with their 
paces, trample with their feet upon the high places of the earth. [Upon thehigh 
places of the earth: pr.thivya_h sa_nau jan:ghananta pa_n.ibhih = going heavily 
on the precipice of theearth with their feet; lit., with their hands]. 

2.031.03 Or, may that all beholding Indra, the accomplisher of great deeds, by 
the collective vigour of the Maruts,(coming) from heaven, protect our chariot 
with unassailable protection, (for the sake of securing to us) amplewealth and 
abundant food. 

2.031.04 Or, may the divine Tvas.t.a_, the defender of the world, together with 
the wives (of the gods), wellpleased, urge on the chariot; or may Il.a_, the 
resplendent Bhaga, Heaven and Earth, the sagacious Pu_s.an,and the As'vins, the 
two husbands (of Su_rya_), urge on the chariot. [The wives of the gods: the text 
as gnabhih,with the wives; as accompanying Tvas.t.a_, they are devapatni_h, 
wives of the gods, the personified metres ofthe Veda, according to Taittiri_ya: 
chanda_m.si vai gnah]. 

2.031.05 Or, may the two divine auspicious and mutually contemplating Day and 
Night, the animators of moving(creatures, urge it on); and, Earth and Heaven, 
whilst I praise you both with a new hymn, I offer you food of thestanding 
(corn), although provided with the three (sorts of sacrificial) viands. [I offer 
you food: stha_tus'ca vayastrivaya_ upastire = I, who am able to offer you three 
sorts of sacrificial food, vegetable substances, animalvictims, or the Soma: 
os.adhipas'usoma_tmaka_ni anna_ni; spread, upastr.n.a_mi; the food, or cakes and 
butter,carupurod.a_s'a_di laks.an.a_ni of that which is stationary, that is, 
vri_hya_deh, or rice and other grains]. 

2.031.06 We desire, gods, to repeat the praise of you, who are propitiated by 
praise; may Ahirbudhnya, Ajaekapa_d, Trita, R.bhuks.in, Savita_, bestow upon us 
food, and may the swift-moving grandson of the waters,(Agni, be gratified by) 
our praises and our worship. [Ahirbudhnya and Aja ekapa_d are two rudras; 
ahirbudhnya =ahi, the epithet budhnya implies his origin in the firmament: 
budhnam antariks.am tatra bhavo ahi na_ma_ deva;aja ekapa_d is the name of the 
sun, the unborn, who goes with one foot; trita is an epithet: tritasti_rn.atama, 
mostexpanded, an epithet of Indra; r.bhuks.in is an appellative of Indra. 
Savita_ = the generator of all, sarvasyaprasavita_]. 

2.031.07 Adorable (gods), I desire that these (my) earnest praises (should 
please) you; men wishing for food,desirous of vigour, have constructed (hymns) 
for your celebration; may you hasten like a (swift) chariot-horse toour (pious) 

2.032.01 Heaven and Earth, be the protectors of me your worshipper, anxious to 
propitiate you by worship andadoration, for of you two is abundant food; 
desiring riches, I glorify you both and celebrate you with great(laudation). 

2.032.02 Let not the secret guile of man, (Indra), harm us by day (or night); 
leave us not subject to themalevolent, disunite us not from your frienship; 
regard us with the favourable thoughts that (spring) from it; weask this (boon) 
of you. 

2.032.03 Bring to us, with benignant mind, the well-nourished and compactly-
limbed cow, yielding milk, andconferring happiness; daily I glorify you, who are 
adored by many, quick in (your) steps, and rapid in (your)words. [Quick in your 
steps: padya_bhir a_s'um vacasa_ ca va_jinam: this and the preceding hymn may 
apply toIndra or Tvas.t.a_]. 

2.032.04 I invoke, with suitable praise, Ra_ka_, who is worthily invoked; may 
she, who is auspicious of goodfortune, hear us, and spontaneously understand 
(our purpose); may she sew her work with an infallible needle;may she grant us 
excellent and opulent descendants. [May she sew her work: si_vyatu 
apahsu_cya_cchidyama_naya_ = may she sew the work with a needle that is not 
capable of being cut or broken; withone, of which the stitches will endure, in 
like manner as clothes and th elike wrought with a needle last a longtime]. 

2.032.05 Ra_ka_, with those your kind and gracious intentions, wherewith you 
grant riches to the donor (ofoblations), approach us today; you who are 
auspicious of good fortune, favourably inclined, and bestowing athousand 

2.032.06 Wide-hipped Siniva_li_, who are the sister of the gods, accept the 
offered oblation, and grant us,goddess, progeny. [Yajus. 34.10; Sini_va_li_ is 
the moon on the first day on which it is visible; she is deva_na_msvasa_, either 
the sister of the gods, or one who is independent of them; pr.thus.t.uke = 
pr.thu jqaghane; or,pr.thu kes'abhare, abundant-haired, or much-praised, or 
desired of many, s.t.uka = a head of hair, praise, ordesire]. 

2.032.07 Offer the oblation to that Sini_va_li_, the protectress of mankind who 
has beautiful arms, beautifulfingers, who is the parent of many children, and 
who has numerous children. 

2.032.08 I invoke her who is Gan:gu_, who is Sini_va_li_, who is Ra_ka_, who is 
Sarasvati_; (I invoke) Indra_n.i_for protection, Varun.a_ni_ for welfare. 
[Gan:gu_ = kuhu, the day of conjunction, when the moon rises invisible;these 
phases of moon were perhaps, identifiable with Indra_n.i_ or Varun.a_ni_, or 
with both].

2.033.01 Father of the Maruts [idam pitre maruta_m: RV 1.114.6], may the 
felicity extend to us; exclude us notfrom the sight of the sun; (grant that) our 
valiant (descendants) may overcome (these) foes, and that we may bemultiplied, 
Rudra, by (our) progeny. 

2.033.02 Nourished by the curative vegetables which are bestowed by you, may I 
live a hundred winters;extirpate mine enemies, my exceeding sin, and my manifold 

2.033.03 You, Rudra, are the chief of beings in glory; you, wielder of the 
thunderbolt, are the might of themighty;do you waft us in safety over (the 
ocean) of sin; repel all the assaults of iniquity. 

2.033.04 Let us not provoke you, Rudra, to wrath by our (imperfect) adorations; 
nor, showerer (of benefits), byour unworthy praise, nor by our invocation (of 
other deities); invigorate our sons by your medicinal plants, for Ihear that you 
are a chief physician amongst physicians. [bhis.aktamam tva_ bhis.aja_m 
s'r.n.omi: an emphaticattribution of qualities of a physician to Rudra]. 

2.033.05 May I pacify by my praises that Rudra, who is worshipped with 
invocations and oblations; and nevermay he who is soft-bellied, of a tawny hue, 
and handsome chin; who is reverently invoked; subject us to thatmalevolent 
disposition (that purposes our destruction). [Soft-bellied: r.du_dara 
babhruvarn.a sus'ipra: r.du_dara =mr.du udara, having a soft belly (Nirukta 
6.4); that malevolent disposition: ma_ no asyai ri_radhan mana_yai:mana_ = 
hanni_ti manyama_na_ buddhih, the mind meditating, I kill]. 

2.033.06 May the showerer of benefits, the lord of the Maruts, gratify me his 
suppliant with invogorating food;may I, free from sin, so propitiate Rudra, that 
I may attain to his felicity, as a man, distressed by heat, (finds relief)in the 

2.033.07 Where, Rudra, is your joy-dispending hand, which is the healer and 
delighter (of all); showerer (ofbenefits), who are the dispeller of sins of the 
gods, quickly have compassion upon me. [The dispeller of the sinsof the gods: 
apabharta_ rapaso daivyasya = devakr.tasya pa_pasya apaharta_, the taker-away of 
sin committedby a divinity; daivya may also connote sin against the gods]. 

2.033.08 I address infinite and earnest praise to the showerer (of benefits), 
the cherisher (of all), thewhite-complexioned; adore the consumer (of sin), with 
prostrations; we glorify the illustrious name of Rudra.[White-complexioned: 
s'viti_ce = s'vaityam an~cate, he who goes to or obtains whiteness]. 

2.033.09 (Firm) with strong limbs, assuming many forms fierce, and tawny-
coloured, he shines with brilliantgolden ornaments; vigour is inseparable from 
Rudra, the supreme ruler and lord of this world. [Vigour: asuryam =bala, 
strength; or, it may connect Rudra with the asuras]. 

2.033.10 Worthy (of reverence), you bear arrows and a bow; worthy (of praise), 
you wear an adorable andomniform necklace; worthy (of adoration), you preseve 
all this vast universe; there is no one more powerful thanyou. [Worship of 
reverence: arhan = arha, yogya, fit for, or worthy of; necklace: nis.ka = 

2.033.11 Glorify the renowned Rudra, riding in his car, ever youthful, 
destructive, fierce like a formidable wildbeast; Rudra, propitiated by praise, 
grant happiness to him who praises (you), and let your hosts destroy himwho is 
our adversary. 

2.033.12 I bow, Rudra, to you, approaching (our rite), as a boy to his father 
when pronouncing a blessing uponhim; I glorify you, the giver of much (wealth), 
the protector of the virtuous; do you, thus glorified, bestow healingherbs upon 

2.033.13 Maruts, I solicit of you those medicaments which are pure; those, 
showerers (of benefits), which givegreat pleasure; those which fonfer felicity; 
those which (our) sire, Manu, selected; and those (medicaments) ofRudra which 
are the alleviation (of disease), and defence (against danger). [Those which our 
sire Manuselected: ya_ni manur avr.n.i_ta_ pita_ nah: Maha_bha_rata legend: 
reference to the vegetable seeds whichManu was directed to take with him into 
the vessel in which he was preserved at the time of the deluge]. 

2.033.14 May the javelin of Rudra avoid us; may the great displeasure of the 
radiant deity pass away (from us);showerer of benefits, turn away your strong 
(bow) from the wealthy (offerers of oblations), and bestow happinessupon (our) 
sons and grandsons. [Yajus. 16.50: the end of the first half of the hymn reads: 
durmatir-agha_yoh, thedispleasure of the sinful or the malevolent; durmati-mahi_ 
ga_t = may the great displeasure pass away]. 

2.033.15 Cherisher of the world, showerer (of benefits), omniscient and divine 
(Rudra), hearer of our invocation,so consider us on this occasion, that you may 
not be irate, nor slay us; but that, blessed with excellentdescendants, we may 
worthily glorify you at this sacrifice.

2.034.01 The Maruts, shedders of showers, endowed with resistless might, like 
formidable lions, reverencing (theworld) by their energies, resplendent as 
fires, laden with water, and blowing about the wandering cloud, give ventto its 
(collected) rain. [Laden with water: r.ji_s.in.ah = fr. f.ji_s.a, water; or it 
may mean, soma that has lost itsstrength: r.ji_s.a, apagata sa_rah somah]. 

2.034.02 Since, golden-breasted Maruts, the vigorous (Rudra) begot you of the 
pure wombof Pr.s'ni_, thereforethey, the devourers (of their enemies), are 
conspicuous (by their ornaments), as the heavens are by theconstellations; and, 
senders of rain, they are brilliant as the cloud-born (lightning). [The pure 
womb of Pr.s'ni_:pr.s'nya_h s'ukra u_dhani = lit. in the pure udder of Pr.s'ni_, 
i.e. on the elevated places of the earth in themountains; or, an allusion to the 
legend of the earth's consuming the form of a bridled cow, and Rudra's 
begettingthe Maruts of her in the shape of a bull]. 

2.034.03 They sprinkle the wide-extended (lands) with water, as (men sprinkle) 
horses (when heated) in battles;and they rush along with swift (horses) on the 
skirts of the sounding (cloud); Maruts, golden-helmeted, andof onemind, 
agitating (the trees), come with your spotted deer to (receive the sacrificial) 
food. [With swift horses on theskirts: nadasya karn.aisturayanta a_s'ubhih = 
lit., they hasten with quick ears of the sound; horses are implied;the ears 
signify the middle parts of that which emits sound, i.e. the cloud; golden-
helmeted: hiran.yas'iprah: s'ipra= the nose, or the lower law; here explained as 
s'irastra_n.a = a head-guard, a helmet]. 

2.034.04 The prompt-giving Maruts ever confer upon the (offerer of sacrificial) 
food, as upon a friend, all these(world-supporting) waters; they who have 
spotted deer for steeds, who are possessed of inexhaustible riches,and who, 
seated in their chariots, (proceed) amongst the moving (clouds), like horses 
going straight (to the goal).[Like horses going straight: r.jipya_so na = r.ju 
akut.ilam pra_pnuvantah gacchanto as'va_, like horses going by,or arriving at, 
that which is straight, not crooked]. 

2.034.05 Maruts, who are of one mind, and are armed with shining lances, come 
with the bright, full-udderedkine, by obstructed paths, to partake of the 
exhilaration of the (Soma) juice, as swans (fly) to their nests. 

2.034.06 Maruts, who are of one mind, come to the food that is offered at (our) 
sacrifices, as (you come) to thepraises of men; nourish the cow, (the cloud), so 
that it may be like a mare with a full udder, and render the piousrite 
productive of abundant food to the worshipper. 

2.034.07 Bestow upon us, Maruts, that (son) who shall enjoy abundance, and who 
shall be repeating yourappropriate praises day by day to (induce) your coming; 
give food to those who praise you; to him who glorifiesyou in battles; (grant 
him) liberality, intelligence, and unimpaired unsurpassable vigour. 

2.034.08 When the golden-breasted munificent Maruts, yoke their horses to their 
chariots on an auspicious(occasion), they shed in their peculiar (directions) 
abundant food upon him who offers them oblations, as a cow(gives milk) to her 

2.034.09 Maruts, granters of dwellings, protect us from the malignity of the man 
who cherishes wolf-like enmityagainst us; encompass him with your burning 
diseases; ward off the murderous (weapon) of the devourer. 

2.034.10 Maruts, your marvellous energy is well known, whereby, seizing the 
udder of heaven, you milked it (ofthe rain, destroyed) the reviler of your 
worshipper, and (came), irresistible sons of Rudra, to Trita for thedestruction 
of enemies. [Seizing the udder of heaven: pr.s'nya_ yad u_dhar api a_payo duhuh: 
pr.s'ni is identifiedwith the firmament, and the udder is the cloud; changing 
the person: your energy is known, by which they milked;Trita = a r.s.i]. 

2.034.11 We invoke you, mighty Maruts, who frequent such sacrifices (as this, to 
be present) at the offering ofthe diffusive and desirable (libation); lifting up 
our ladles, and reciting their praise, we solicit the golden-hued andlofty 
Maruts for excellent wealth. [Who frequent such sacrifices: evaya_vnah = fr. 
eva, that which is to be goneto, gantavyam, i.e. worship, or a sacrifice, 
stotram, yajn~am va_; ya_van, who goes to]. 

2.034.12 May they, who, the first celebrators of the ten-months' rite, 
accomplished this sacrifice, reanimate us atthe rising dawn; for as the dawn 
with purple rays drives away the night, so (do they scatter the darkness) 
withgreat, and pure, and mist-dispelling radiance. [The first celebration of the 
ten-months' rite: te das'agva_hprathama_ yajn~am u_hire: in RV. 2.5.4, 
das'agva_h = those who originally were priests of the school ofan:giras, 
conducting ceremonies that lasted nine or ten days; here, the office is assigned 
to the Maruts, as thefirst celebrators of the rite; they are, therefore, 
identified with the an:girasas-- an:girasas tad ru_pa bhu_tva_marutah, who were 
the first, or prior to the A_dityas; the legend: there was a competition for 
precedence in goingto svarga, between the a_dityas and the an:girasas, and the 
latter acquired it, by first instituting sacrifices withfire, a_dityas'caiva iha 
asann an:girasas'ca te agre agnina_ agnim ayajanta = the a_dityas were also here 
andthe an:girasas; they (the latter) first worshipped Agni with fire]. 

2.034.13 They, the Rudras, (equipped) with melodious (lutes), and decorated with 
purple ornaments, exult in thedwellings of the waters; and scattering the clouds 
with rappid vigour, they are endowed with delightful andbeautiful forms. [With 
melodious lutes: te ks.on.i_bhih: ks.on.i_bhih = s'abda ka_ri_bhir va_n.a_kyair 
vi_n.a_vis'es.aih, with sounding instruments, called vinas, a sort of vi_n.a_s, 
string instruments]. 

2.034.14 Imploring them for ample wealth, and (having recourse to him) for 
protection, we glorify them with thispraise; like the five chief priests whom 
Trita detained for the (performance of) the sacrifice, and to protect it 
withtheir weapons. [Like the five chief priests: trita na ya_n pan~ca hotr.n 
abhis.t.aye a_vavartad avara_n cakriyaa_vase: the allusion is to the practice of 
mysticism, or yoga; the five hotr.s or offerers of the Soma, being the fivevital 
airs, whom Trita, as a Yogi, suppressed, and compelled to concentrate themselves 
in the Cakra, or umbilicalregion for the attainement of superhuman faculties; 
avara_n = homanis.pa_daka_n mukhya_n, the chief offerersof the Soma; pan~ca 
hotr.n adhya_tmapra_n.a_pa_na_di pan~ca vr.ttya_tmana_ vartma_na_n, ata 
evahomanis.pa_daka_n mukhya_n, abis.t.aye abhilas.itasiddhyartham cakriya_ 
na_bhi_cakren.a avitum san:gantuma_vavartat; svasma_n nirjigamis.u_n pra_n.a_n 
sva_tma_bhimukuham a_vartayat, he compelled the vital airs,desirous of issuing 
from himself to turn back into the presence of himself, and to concentrate with 
the umbilicalcakra, for the entire completion of the rite; (those airs being) 
the chief offerers of the oblation abiding in the spirit,as pra_n.a, apa_na and 
the rest, constituting the five ministering priests; a less mystical 
interpretation turns uponthe sense of cakriya_, with a spear or lance, 
r.s.t.ya_khyena a_yudhena]. 

2.034.15 Maruts, may that protection wherewith you convey the worshipper beyond 
sin, wherewith you rescuethe reciter of your praise from the scoffer, be present 
with us; may your benign disposition tend towards us, like alowing (cow towards 
her calf).

2.035.01 Desiring food, I put forth this laudatory hymn; may the sounding and 
swift-moving grandson of thewaters bestow abundant food upon me his worshipper; 
may he make us of goodly appearance, for verily he ispropitiated by praise. 
[Grandson of the waters: apa_m napa_t, the son of the trees or fuel which are 
the progenyof the rains; a different etymology makes the term an epithet of the 

2.035.02 Let us address to him the prayer that is conceived in our hearts, and 
may he fully understand (itspurport); for he, the lord, the grandson of the 
waters, has generated all beings by the greatness of his might. 

2.035.03 Some waters collect together (from the rain); others, (already 
collected on earth), unite with them; asrivers, they flow together to propitiate 
the ocean-fire; the pure waters are gathered round the pure and 
brilliantgrandsons of the waters. [The ocean-fire: u_rvam nadyah pr.n.anti: 
u_rva = submarine fire, samudramadhyevartama_nam vad.ava_nalam; another 
explanation for the hymn: the ference is to two sorts of water:one 
termedekadhana_h, the other vasati_varya_h, apparently the juice of the Soma, as 
distinguished by their employment inthe Agni-s.omi_ya sacrifice, after 
collecting the fat of the victim, and which are to be mixed for the completion 
ofthe ceremony; the mantra used on the occasion is yajus. 6.23; in this yajus., 
vasati_vari_ = vasati_vari_sam.jn~a_m soma_rtha_na_m apa_m grahan.am ka_ryam, 
the taking of the waters named vasati_vari_, whichmean, the Soma is observed; 
cf. Ka_tya_yana su_tras 8.9, 7.10]. 

2.035.04 The young and modest (waters) wait upon the youth, assiduous in bathing 
him, and he, although unfedwith fuel, yet cleansed with clarified butter, shines 
with bright rays amidst the waters, the abundance (may be) tous. [Bright rays 
amidst the waters: allusion either to the submarine fire or to the lightning 
amidst the rain-clouds]. 

2.035.05 THree divine females present food to that uninjurable divinity; as if 
formed in the waters they spreadabroad, and he drinks the ambrosia of the first-
created (elements). [The three divine females: il.a_, sarasvati_and 
bha_rati_,personifications of sacred prayer or praise; as if formed in the 
waters: kr.ta_ iva upa hi prasarsreapsu, they have proceeded or issued, as if 
made, in the waters; sa pi_yus.am dhayati pu_r vasu_na_m, he drinksthe nectar, 
that is, the Soma, of those first born; the essence of the waters which were the 
first created things byBrahma_; pu_rvam bra_hman.ah saka_s'a_d utpanna_na_m 
apa_m sa_rabhu_tam]. 

2.035.06 In him is the birth of the horse, of him is (the origin of) the world; 
do you, grandson of the (waters),protect the pious worshippers from the 
malevolence of the oppressor; those who give no offerings, those whopractise 
untruths, attain not the inconceivable deity, whether abiding in the  immature 
or the perfect waters. [Inhim is the birth of the horse: as'vasya atra janima_ = 
here, or in him is the birth of the horse; allusion to theproduction of 
uccaiss'ravas, the horse of Indra, among the precious things obtained by the 
churning of the ocean;the birth of the horse from water, whethere of the ocean 
or not, is a legend; of him is the origin of the world: asyaca svah: su, well, 
varan.i_ya, to be chosen; implying the whole world; i.e. the deity residing amid 
the waters, orthe rains, may be considered as the origin of all earthly things]. 

2.035.07 He, the grandson of the waters, who abides in his own dwelling; of whom 
is the readily-milked cow; whoaugments the nectar (of the skies), and (thence) 
eats the sacrificial food; he, gathering strength in the midst ofthe waters, 
shines for the sake of conferring wealth upon his worshipper. 

2.035.08 All other beings are, as it were, branches of him, who, truthful, 
eternal, and vast, shines amid the waterswith pure and divine (radiance); and 
the shrubs, with their products, are born (of him). 

2.035.09 The grandson of the waters has ascended the firmament above (the 
region) of the tortuously-moving(clouds), arrayed in lightning; the broad and 
golden-coloured (rivers) spread around, bearing (to all quarters) hisexceeding 

2.035.10 The grandson of the waters is of olden form, of golden aspect, of 
golden hue, and (shines) seated upona seat of gold; the givers of gold (at 
solemn rites) present to him (sacrificial) food. 

2.035.11 Beautiful is his form (of aggregated lustre, beautiful) is the name of 
the grandson of the waters; (both)flourish, though  hidden (by the clouds); the 
youthful w2aters collectively kindle the golden-coloured divinity in 
thefirmament, for water is his food. [Both flourish though hidden by the clouds: 
api_cyam vardhate megha_ntarhitamsad vardhate = increases though concealed by 
the clouds]. 

2.035.12 To him our friend, the first of many (deities), we offer worship with 
sacrifices, oblations, and prostration;I decorate the high place (of his 
presence); I nourish him with fuel; I sustain him with (sacrificial) viands; I 
glorifyhim with hymns. [The first of many: bahu_na_m avama_ya, the best of many, 
i.e. of the gods, as in the AitareyaBra_hman.a: agnir vai deva_na_m avamah, i.e. 
deva_na_m, madhye prathamah, the first amongst the gods]. 

2.035.13 Vigorous, he has generated himself as an embryo in those (waters); he 
is their infant; he sucks them;they bedew him (with moisture); the grandson of 
the waters of untarnished splendour has descended to this(earth) in the form of 
a different (fire). [Has descended to this earth: anyasya iva iha tanya_ 
vives.a, has enteredhere, verily, with the body of another; the substantive, 
fire, is understood; i.e. fire originally ethereal, has comeupon earth as 
culinary and sacrificial fire]. 

2.035.14 The abundant waters, bearing sustenance to their grandson, flow round 
him with spontaneousmovements; when abiding in his supreme sphere, and shining 
daily with imperishable (rays). 

2.035.15 I have come, Agni, to you, (the giver) of good dwellings, for the sake 
of offspring; I have come with apropitiatory hymn for the sake of the opulent 
(offerers of oblations); may all the good which the gods defend (beours); that, 
blessed with excellent descendants, we may worthily glorify you at this 

2.036.01 (The libation) that is being presented, Indra, to you, comprises the 
(products of the) cow, and he(consecrated) water; and the leaders (of the rite) 
have expressed it with stones, and strained it through woollen(filters); do you, 
Indra, who are the first (of the gods), and rule (over the world), drink the 
Soma offered by theHota_, and sanctified by the exclamations sva_ha_ and vas.at. 
[Through woollen filters: the text has avibhih, withsheep; explained as aver 
ba_lamayair das'a_pavitraih, with purifying filters made of the hair of the 
sheep; drinkthe soma offered by the Hota_: piba hotra_da_ somam: in this and the 
following hymn, hotra_ (and the analogouspotra_, agni_dhra) are explained, the 
ya_ga, or sacrifice of the Hota_, and the rest, those portions of theceremony 
which are assigned to the different officiating priests, or the oblations which 
each is in turn to present]. 

2.036.02 Maruts, together worshipped with sacrifices, standing in the car drawn 
by spotted mares, radiant withlances, and delighted by ornaments, sons of 
Bharata, leaders in the firmament, seated on the sacred grass, drinkthe Soma 
presented by the Pota_. [Sons of Bharata: bharatasya  su_navah, the first is 
said to be a name ofRudra, as the cherisher or sovereign, bharta_, of the 

2.036.03 Do you, who are devoutly invoked, come to us together, and, seated on 
the sacrificial grass, enjoy yourrest; and then, Tvas.t.a_, who head a brilliant 
cohort (come) with the gods and their wives, and rejoice beingpleased with the 
(sacrificial) food. [Yajus. 26.24; addressed to devapatnyah, the wives of the 
gods, and then toTvas.t.a_ along with them]. 

2.036.04 Sage Agni, bring hither the gods, and sacrifice to them; invoker of the 
gods, propitious to us, sit down inthe three altars; accept the libation of Soma 
that is offered to you, from the Agnidhra and be satisfied with yourportion. [In 
the three altars: those of ga_rhapatya, a_havani_ya and daks.in.a_ fires]. 

2.036.05 This (libation), Indra, is the augmenter of your bodily (vigour), 
favourable of old to the resistless strengthof (your) arms; it is effused, 
Maghavan, for you; it is brought to you from the Bra_hman.a; do you drink and 

2.036.06 Mitra and Varun.a, both be gratified with the sacrifice; hear my 
invocation as the seated Hota_ repeatsin succession the ancient praises; the 
(sacrificial) food encompassed (by the priests), attends the royal pair 
drink,both of you, the sweet Soma libation, offered by the Pras'a_sta_.

2.037.01 Be gratified, Dravin.odas, by the sacrificial food presented as the 
offering of the Hota_; he desires,priests, a fall libation; present it to him, 
and influenced (by it, he will be your) benefactor; drink, Dravin.odas,along 
with the R.tus, the Soma, the offering of the Hota_. [Drink, Dravin.odas, along 
with the R.tus: somamdravin.odah piba r.tubhih: this is the refrain of the next 
two hymns also and of the last hymn; R.tus = the seasons,deities presiding over 
the months, in series: is.a, urjja, sahas, tapasya]. 

2.037.02 He, whom I formerly invoked and whom I now invoke, is verily worthy of 
invocation, for he is renownedas a benefactor; the Soma libation has been 
brought by the priests; drink, Dravin.oda_s, along with the R.tus, theSoma, the 
offering of the Pota_. 

2.037.03 May these your bearers, by whom you are borne along, be satisfied; lord 
of the forest, be firm, doing noinjury, steadfast of resolve; come and being 
gracious, drink, Dravin.odas, along with the R.tus, the Soma, theoffering of the 

2.037.04 Whether he has drunk the Soma from the offering of the Hota_; whether 
he has been exhilarated by theoffering of the Pota_; whether he has been pleased 
with the (sacrificial) food presented as the act of theNes.t.a_; still let 
Dravin.oda_s quaff the unstrained ambrosial cup, the fourth offered by the 
priest. [Offered by thepriest: pa_tram dravino.da_h pibatu dravin.oda_sah = let 
dravin.oda_sa drink the cup of Dravin.oda_sa; but inthe second place the word is 
explained r.tvij, a priest]. 

2.037.05 Yoke today, As'vins, your rolling car conveying (you), the leaders (of 
the rite); and setting yu downbefore us; mix the oblations with the sweet juice; 
come you are affluent with (abundant) food, and drink theSoma. 

2.037.06 Be pleased, Agni, with the fuel; be pleased with the oblation; be 
pleased with the sacred prayer that isgood for man; be pleased with holy praise, 
asylum of all; Agni, willing (to accept oblations), render all the greatgods 
desirous (of the same), and with them all, and with the R.tu drink the oblation.

2.038.01 In truth, the divine Savita_, the bearer (of the world), has 
perpetually been present for the generation (ofmankind), for such is his office; 
verily he grants wealth to the pious (worshippers); may he, therefore, 
bestowupon the offerer of the oblation (sufficient) for his well-being. [For 
such is his office: savita_ = fr. root su, to bringforth, prasava_ya loka_na_m; 
for such is his work--- tadapa_, tat prasava karma_; to the pious 
worshippers:devebhyah, to the gods; here interpreted as, stotrbhyah, to the 

2.038.02 The divine, vast-handed (Savita_), having risen, stretches forth his 
arms for the delight of all; thepurifying waters (flow) for (the fulfilment of) 
his rites, and this circumambient air sports (in the firmament). 

2.038.03 The moving (Sun) is liberated by his rapid rays; verily he has stopped 
the traveller from his journey; herestraisn the desire of warriors for combat, 
for night follows (the cessation of) the function of Savita_. [Thetraveller form 
his journey: or, literally, the goer, from going]. 

2.038.04 She, (Night), enwraps the extended (world) like (a woman) weaving (a 
garment); the prudent man laysaside the work he is able (to execute) in the 
midst (of his labour); but all spring up (from repose) when the divine,unwearied 
Sun, who has divided the seasons, again appears. 

2.038.05 The engendered domestic radiance of Agni spreads through various 
dwellings, and presides over all(sorts of sacrificial) food; the mother, (Dawn), 
has assigned to her son, (Agni), the best portion (at sacrifices),which is the 
manifestation of him imparted by Savita_. [The agnihotra rite is to be performed 
at dawn, which maybe therefore considered as enjoined or instigated by the 
rising sun]. 

2.038.06 The warrior, eager for victory, who has gone forth (to battle), turns 
back; (for) home is the desire of moving beiings; abandoning his half-wrought 
toil, the labourer returns (home) when the function of the divineSavita_ (is 

2.038.07 The animals search in dry places for the water element which has been 
collected in the firmament byyou; the woods are assigned (by you) to the birds; 
no one obstructs these functions of the divine Savita_. 

2.038.08 The ever-going Varun.a grants a cool, accessible and agreeable place 
(of rest), to all moving(creatures) on the closing of the eyes (of Savita_), and 
every bird and every beast repairs to its lair when Savita_has dispersed (all) 
beings in various directions. [On the closing of the eyes of Savita_: Varun.a 
especiallypresiding over the night]. 

2.038.09 I invite to this place, with reverential salutations, for my good, that 
divine Savita_, whose functionsneither Indra, nor Varun.a, nor Mitra nor Aryaman 
nor Rudra nor the enemies (of the gods), impede. 

2.038.10 May he, who is adored by men, the protector of the wives (of the gods), 
preserve us; when worshippinghis, who is auspicious, the object of meditation, 
and the all wise; may we be the beloved of the divine Savita_,that we may 
(thence be successful) in the accumulation of wealth and the acquisition of 
cattle. [The protector ofthe wives of the gods: gna_spati, devatni_na_m pati_n; 
or, gnah = the metres of the Vedas (RV. 5.46.8)]. 

2.038.22 May that desirable wealth which is granted to us, Savita_, by you, 
proceed from the sky, from thewaters from the earth; and may the happiness 
(which belongs) to the race of those who eulogise you, devolveupon me, repeating 
diligently your praises.

2.039.01 Descend, As'vins, like falling stones, for the purpose (of destroying 
our foes); hasten to the presence ofthe wealth-possessing (worshippers), like 
vultures to a tree; like two Bra_hman.as repeating hymns, (be present)at the 
sacrifice, and come like (royal) messengers in the land, welcomed by many 
people. [Like twoBra_hman.as: brahma_n.a iva = bra_hman.au; this seems to imply 
a priestly order]. 

2.039.02 Moving at dawn like two heroes in a cr; like a pair of goats; like two 
women lovely inform, or likehusband and wife; come together, knowing (how 
sacred) ites (are to be celebrated) amongst men, (to bestow)happiness (on the 

2.039.03 COme to us, the first (before other gods), like a pair of horns, or 
like two hoofs, travelling with rapid(steps); like a pair of cakrava_kas, 
awaiting day; overthrower of foes, like warriors in cars, able (to perform 
allthings), come to our presence. 

2.039.04 Bear us across (the sea of life), like two vessels, or (over difficult 
places), like the poles of a car, theaxles, the spokes, the fellies (of two 
wheels). Be like two dogs, warding off injury to our persons, and, like twocoats 
of mail, defend us from decay. 

2.039.05 Irresistible as two winds, rapid as two rivers; and quick of sight, 
come like two eyes before us; like twohands; like two feet; subservient to the 
well-being of our bodies, conduct us to (the acquisition) of excellent(wealth). 

2.039.06 Like two lips uttering sweet words, like two breasts yielding 
nourishment for our existence; be to us liketwo noses, preserving our persons, 
and like two ears for the hearing of agreeable (sounds). 

2.039.07 Like two hands, As'vins, be ever investing us with vigour; like heaven 
and earth, bestow upon us rain;give sharpness to the praises that are addressed 
to you, as they whet an axe upon a grindstone. [ks.n.otren.a ivasvadhitim = asim 
tejanas'a_n.avat ti_ks.n.i_ kurutam, sharpen like a sword or knife upon a 

2.039.08 The Gr.tsamadas have composed this prayer, these praises, As'vins, for 
your exaltation; be propitiatedby them, leaders of ceremonies, and come hither; 
that, blessed with excellent descendants, we may worthilyglorify you at this 

2.040.01 Soma and Pu_s.an., you two are the generators of riches, the generators 
of heaven, the generators ofearth; as soon as born you are the guardians of the 
whole world; the gods have made you the source ofimmortality. [Soma: by this we 
are to understand both the moon and the Soma, as further intimated in the 
fourthhymn; the source of immortality: akr.n.van amr.tasya na_bhim: ketum, the 
cause or source, amaran.asya, of notdying]. 

2.040.02 (The gods) propitiate these two divinities at the moment of the ir 
birth, for they drive away thedisagreeable glooms; with these two, Soma and 
Pu_s.an., Indra generates the mature (milk) in the immatureheifers. [The mature 
milk: i.e. the rain inthe clouds]. 

2.040.03 Soma and Pu_s.an., showerers (of benefits)m direct towards us the 
seven-wheeled car, the measure ofthe spheres, undistinguishable from the 
universe, everywhere existing, (guided) by five reins, and to beharnessed by the 
mind. [The seven-wheeled car: sapra-cakra, the year, of seven seasons, reckoning 
theintercalary month as an additional r.tu or season; five reins: again, a 
reference to the solar year, reduced by theamalgamation of the cold and dewy 
seasons into one, to five seasons: dva_das'a vai ma_sa_h 
pan~cartavohemantas'is'irayoh sama_sena, the twelve months are verily five 
seasons by the combination of the cold anddewy seasons]. 

2.040.04 One of them, (Pu_s.an.), has made his dwelling above in the heaven; the 
other (Soma), upon earth,and in the firmament; may they both grant us much-
desired and much-commended abundant wealth of cattle, thesource to us (of 
enjoyment). [Upon earth and in the firmament: Soma abides on earth; on the 
firmament, he is themoon]. 

2.040.05 One of you, (Soma) has generated all beings; the other proceeds looking 
upon the universe: Soma andPu_s.an., protect my (pious) rite; through you, may 
we overcome all the hosts of our enemies. [Has generated allbeings: somo janita_ 
mati_na_m (Ninth man.d.ala), soma, the generator of the wise or pious; the 
allusion isperhaps to the effects of the libations offered in sacrifice as 
productive of rain, and thence of nourishment, uponwhich existence depends]. 

2.040.06 May Pu_s.an., who is the benefactor of all, be propitious to (this 
pious) rite; may Soma, the lord ofwealth, grant us affluence; may Aditi, who is 
without an adversary, protect us, so that, blessed with excellentdescendants, we 
may worthily glorify (you) at this sacrifice.

2.041.01 Va_yu, whose are a thousand chariots, and the Niyut steeds, come to 
drink the Soma. [Yajus. 27.32]. 

2.041.02 Va_yu,of the Niyut steds, approach; this bright (juice) has been 
accepted by you, for you go to thedwelling of the offerer of the libation. 
[Yajus. 27.29; s'ukra = di_pyama_na_,bright, resplendent, an appellative ofthe 
Soma; graha = a vessel, a ladle; i.e. a ladle or cup of the Soma]. 

2.041.03 Leaders (of rites), Indra and Va_yu, lords of the Niyut steeds, come 
and drink today the mixture of milkand of the pure Soma. 

2.041.04 This libation is offered to you, Mitra and Varun.a, cherishers of 
truth; hear, verily, this my presentinvocation.  

2.041.05 Sovereigns, exercising no oppression, sit down in this substantial and 
elegant hall, (built) with athousand columns. 

2.041.06 May these two universal monarchs, fed with clarified butter, sons of 
Aditi, lords of liberality, show favourto their sincere (worshipper). 

2.041.07 As'vins, in whom there is no untruth; Rudras, go by the (direct) road 
to (the sacrifice at which thelibation) is to be drunk by the leaders (of sacred 
rite), for which (the offerer may receive the reward of) cows andhorses. [Yajus. 
repeats this and the following two hymns: 20.80-83]. 

2.041.08 Showerers of wealth, (bring to us) such (riches) that the malevolent 
man, or foe, whether he be far offor nigh, may not take (it) away. [Whether he 
be far of for nigh: na yat para na_ntara: para = du_rastha, being at adistance; 
antara = sami_pavarti_, on ebeing near; another interpretation: para = 
asambaddha, unconnected andantara = sambaddha, connected or related; Indra is 
the object: 'Indra whom may such a man not overcome -- yamindram na 

2.041.09 Resolute As'vins, bring to us riches of various sorts, and wealth 
begetting wealth. [Of various sorts:pis'an:ga sandr.s'am = na_na_ru_pam, of many 
sorts; pis'an:ga = tawny or yellow; that which is of yellow colour,or gold]. 

2.041.10 May Indra, dissipate all great and overpowering danger, for he is 
resolute, and the beholder of all. 

2.041.11 If Indra provide for our happiness, evil will not come behidn us, good 
will be before us. 

2.041.12 Let Indra, the beholder of all, the conqueror of foes, send us security 
from all quarters. 

2.041.13 Universal gods, come hither; hear this my invocation; sit down upon 
this sacred grass. [Yajus. 7.34]. 

2.041.14 This sharp, savoury, exhilarating (beverage), is (prepared) for you by 
the S'unahotras; drink of it at yourpleasure. 

2.041.15 Maruts, of whom Indra is the chief; divinities, of whom Pu_s.an. is 
benefactor; do you all hear myinvocation. 

2.041.16 Sarasvati_, best of mothers, best of rivers, best of goddesses, we are, 
as it were, of no repute; grantus, mother, distinction. [ambitame, nadi_tame, 
devitame: the superlatives of ambika_, a mother, nadi_ , a riverand devi_, a 

2.041.17 In you, Sarasvati_, who are divine, all existences are collected; 
rejoice, goddess, among theS'unahotras, grant us, goddess, progeny. 

2.041.18 Sarasvati_, abounding in food, abounding in water, be propitiated by 
these oblations, which theGr.tsamadas offer as acceptable to you, and precious 
of the gods. 

2.041.19 May the two, (Heaven and Earth), who confer good fortune upon the 
sacrifice, proceed (to the altar); forverily, we implore you both (to com), as 
well as Agni the bearer of oblations. [May the two: The objectsaddressed are the 
two s'akat.as, carts or barrows, which are employed to bring the fuel, or the 
Soma and areplaced in front of the hall of sacrifice, north and south of an 
altar erected outside, and which are considered hereas types of Heaven and 
Earth, who, properly speaking, are the deities of the Tr.ca;  the s'akat.as are 
requested,according to Sa_yan.a, to proceed to the west part of the northern 
vedi_, or altar-- uttaravedeh pas'cimabha_gampra_gacchata_m; according to 
Ka_tya_yana, these are also termed havirdha_nas, oblation-containers, and partof 
the ceremony consists in dragging them into different positions at different 
periods, accompanied byappropriate texts, which are given in the Yajurveda 5.14-

2.041.20 Heaven and Earth, bear to the gods today our heaven aspiring sacrifice, 
the means of obtaining svarga.

2.041.21 May the adorable gods, devoice of malice, sit down today nigh to you 
both to drink the Soma.

2.042.01 Crying repeatedly, and foretelling what will come to pass, (the 
kapin~jala) gives (due) direction to itsvoice, as a helmsman (guides) a boat; be 
ominous, bird, of good fortune, and may no calamity whatever befallyou from any 
quarter. 50

1Rig Veda - Samhita - 2.


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