10.001.01 The great fire from beginning of dawn has sprung aloft, and coming 
forth from the darkness has comewith radiance. Agni, the bright-bodied, as soon 
as born, fills all dwellings with shining light. [Radiance = that ofthe sun: ; 
issuing forth: of the fire as brought from the ga_rhapatya to the a_havani_ya; 
dwellings: vis'va_sadma_ni ta_nes.a ja_ta a-pu_rayati (S'atapatha Bra_hman.a]. 

10.001.02 When born, you, O Agni, are the embryo of heaven and earth, beautiful, 
borne about in the plants;variegated, infantine, you disperse the noctural 
glooms; you issue roaring loudly from the maternal (sources).[Borne about in the 
plants: vibhr.ta os.adhi_s.u = abiding in the two pieces of touchwood which are 
vegetableforms, od.adhivika_res.u; or, the cakes and other offerings: 
purod.a_s'a_di laks.an.es.u da_tavya_su (Yajus.10.43); notcurnal glooms: 
tama_m.syaktu_n = darkness and enemies black like night; from the maternal 
sources:ma_tr.bhya os.adhi_bhyah = from plants; or, from plants and trees, 
os.adhi vanaspatibhyah s'aka_s'a_t]. 

10.001.03 May he, who as soon as manifested is vast and wise, and thus 
(universally) pervading, defend (me),his third (manifestation); and when (the 
worshippers) ask with their mouths for his own water, animated by onepurpose, 
they praise him in this world. [His third manifestation: tr.ti_yam asya = 
manifestation of Agni as the thirdof ekata, dvita and trita]. 

10.001.04 Therefore, the genetrices (of all things, the herbs), the cherishers 
(of all) with food, wait on you whoare the augmenter of food, with (sacrificial) 
viands; you visit them again, when they have assumed other forms,you among human 
beings the invoker (of the gods). [Assumed other forms: as the4 fire which 
consumes the drytimber]. 

10.001.05 (We worship) Agni for prosperity, you, who are the invoker of the 
gods, the many-colouredconveyance of the saacrifice, the brilliant banner of 
every offering, the surpasser of every other deity in might, theguest of men. 

10.001.06 Arrayed in splendid garments, that Agni (abides) on the navel of the 
earth; do you, royal (Agni), whoare radiant, born on the foot-mark of Il.a_, 
offer worship here as Purohita to the gods. [Il.a_: the uttara-vedi, ornorth-
altar; Aitareya Bra_hman.a 1.28)]. 

10.001.07 You have, ever sustained, Agni, both heaven and earth, as a son 
(supports) his parents; come,youngest (of the gods), to the presence of those 
desiring (you); son of strength, bring here the gods.

10.002.01 Agni, youngest (of the deities), propitiate the desiring gods; lord of 
seasons, cognizant of seasons,here offer worship; worship with those who are the 
priests of the celestials; among the ministrant priests you arethe best offerer. 
[The priests: daivya_ r.tvijah: Agni the hota_, As'vins the adhvaryus, Tvas.t.a_ 
the agni_dh andMitra the upavakta_ (A_s'vala_yana Gr.hyasu_tra 1.23.8-9); or, 
Candramas the brahma_, A_ditya the adhvaryuand Parjanya the udga_ta_; these are 
the priests of the gods in heaven: Taittiri_ya A_ran.yaka 3.3]. 

10.002.02 Whether, Agni, you prefer the office of hota_ or pota_ among men, you 
are wise, the giver of wealth,the observer of truth, let us offer the oblations 
with the (sacred) sva_ha_, and may the most excellent and divineAgni present 
them to the gods. 

10.002.03 May we pursue the path that leads to the gods to convey that (worship) 
which we may be able (tooffer). May that wise Agni minister, for he verily is 
the ministrant priest, and let him prescribe the ceremonies andthe seasons. 

10.002.04 O gods, when we who are most ignorant neglect the offices addressed to 
you who are wise, may thewise Agni complete the whole by (appointing) those 
seasons by which he regulates the worship of the gods.[May the wise Agni: may 
Agni complete the whole, knowing at what seasons he should appoint the gods (to 
beworshipped); lit. = with what seasons he shoudl fix the gods]. 

10.002.05 Since men of feeble energies, with mind yet immature, are unacquainted 
with (the ritual of) thesacrifice, may Agni, the invoker (of the gods), the 
skilled in rites, well-knowing (what is to be done), the bestofferer, offer 
worship according to the fit season to the gods. [Are unacquainted with the 
sacrifice: do not think of(remember) the sacrifice]. 

10.002.06 The progenitor has engendered you the chief of all sacrifices, 
variegated, illuminating (all); do youoffer (to the gods) the desirable all-
sustaining praise-accompanied viands growing upon man-occupied earth.[The 
progenitor: either Praja_pati or the sacrificer, the yajama_na; (viands) 
prepared by men, placed on theearth, i.e., the altar]. 

10.002.07 Do you, Agni, whom the earth and heaven, whom the waters, whom 
Tvas.t.a_, the glorious creator,engendered, who are cognizant of the path, the 
road of the Pitr.s, shine brilliantly, being kindled. [pitr.ya_n.ampitaro yena 
ma_rgena gacchanti].

10.003.01 Royal Agni, (you are) the lord (of all). He who is the conveyer of the 
oblation, the radiant, theformidable, the recipient of the Soma, is manifested 
for the benefaction (of the worshipper); all-knowing, heshines forth with great 
lustre; he proceeds, scattering the glimmering darkness. [Glimmering darkness: 
anallusion to the burnt sacrifices at sunset and in the morning; asiknim eti 
rus'ati_m apa_jan = s'vetavarn.a_mdi_ptim apagamayan = he goes to the night 
driving away the white shining light]. 

10.003.02 When he has overcome the dark departing (night) by his radiance, then, 
begetting the damsel, thedaughter of the great father, he shines in his course 
with the treasures of heaven, establishing above the light ofthe sun. [Daughter 
of the great father: the Dawn, the daughter of the Sun; treasures of heaven: 
vasubhih =developing or kindling splendours]. 

10.003.03 He has come auspicious, waited on by the auspicious (light); he 
afterwards approaches his sister(dawn) like a gallant; Agni, spreading 
everywhere, with omniscient rays overpowers the dark (night) the brilliantbeams. 
[A gallant: ja_rah = s'atrun.a_m jarayita_]. 

10.003.04 The blazing flames of that mighty Agni do not (deter) his adorers; the 
fierce flames of the friendlyauspicious adorable (Agni), the showerer of 
(benefits), the vast, the strong-mouthed, are visible in the sacrifice. 

10.003.05 The flames of whom, radiant, vast, bright-shining, go roaring like the 
winds; who covers the sky withmost excellent, most lustrous, most sportive and 
most mighty rays. 

10.003.06 Of him, bright-blazing and hastening (towards the gods), the fierce-
burning flames roar with the horses(of Maruts); who shines mighty in his course, 
most divine, with ancient, brilliant, and loud-sounding (flames). 

10.003.07 Do you, great Agni, bring the gods to our (sacrifice); do you, the 
messenger of the young heaven andearth, sit down (at our sacrifice). Agni, who 
are easily found, who are rapid in movement, do you come with yourdocile and 
rapid steeds (to our rite). [The young heaven and earth: a_ ca satsi 
divaspr.thivyoh aratir yuvatyoh:yuvatyoh = mutually mixed, parasparam 
mis'ritayoh, or young females, tarun.yoh].

10.004.01 To you, Agni, I present the oblation; you repeat praise; that you, who 
are deserving of laudation maybe present at our invocations; ancient sovereign 
Agni, you are like a well of water in a desert, to the mandesirous of offering 

10.004.02 Men have recourse to you, Agni, youngest (of the gods), as cattle 
hasten to the warm stall. You arethe messenger of the gods and of mortals; 
mighty, you proceed by the firmament between (heaven and earth). sustains you. 
You come, eager from above the firmament, by a downward path, and when released 
(after theoblation is offered), you desire to go back like cattle (to their 

10.004.04 We, who are perplexed, know not, O unperplexed, intelligent one, your 
greatness; but you, Agni, verilyknow it. Wearing a form he reposes; he moves 
about devouring (the offering) with his tongue (of flame); beinglord of men, he 
licks up the mixed oblation. [Wearing a form: as the a_havani_ya fire; licks up 
the mixed oblation:rerehyate yuvatim vis'patih san: yuvai = the youthful earth, 
as compared with its withered plants, tarun.i_mji_rn.aus.adhika_m pr.thivi_m 

10.004.05 Where is the new (Agni) born? He is present in the old (plant) and in 
the wood, grey-haired,smoke-bannered; though not needing ablution, he hastens to 
the water like a (thirsty) bull, he whom men withone consent propitiate. 

10.004.06 As two daring robbers lurking in a forest seize (upon a traveller) 
with ten cords, (so the two handsseize upon the touchwood, with the ten 
fingers). This new praise, Agni, is addressed to you; attach thyself (to 
mysacrifice) with your radiant members; as (they harness horses) to a car. 
[Daring: tanutyaja = body-abandoning,martum kr.tanis'ayau, ready to die, 
dhr.s.tau, daring, bold; so the two hands: as two daring robbers going in awood 
lay hold of with ten ropes, tanutyajeva taskara_ vanargu_ ras'ana_bhir das'abhir 
abhyadhi_yata_m:Ya_ska 3.14: agnimanthanau ba_hu_ taskara_bhya_m upamimi_te, two 
arms churning the fire are compared totwo thieves]. 

10.004.07 May this oblation, Ja_tavedas, this reverence, this praise, ever 
magnify you. Protect, Agni, our sons,our grandsons, and diligently defend our 

10.005.01 Agni, the sole capacious ocean of riches who is of many births beholds 
our hearts; he waits on thecloud in the neighbourhood of the hidden (firmament); 
go, Agni, to the appointed place in the midst of the waters.[He 
waits...firmament: he waits on the night in the neighbourhood of the times of 
morning and evening covered(respectively) by light and darkness; in the midst of 
the waters: utsasya = udakadha_rakasya lokasya, ormeghasya, the firmament 
containing water, or a cloud]. 

10.005.02 Great (worshippers), showerers (of oblations) enveloping with their 
hymns the common dark (fire),have associated (him) with his horses (to come to 
the sacrifice). Sages preserve (by oblations) the place of thewater and support 
the divine rains in the vault (of heaven). [Have associated him: have 
(themselves) becomepossessed of horses; the strong stallions dwelling in one 
common place have joined the mares; the place of thewater: i.e., the fire. guha_ 
na_ma_ni dadhire para_n.i = they keep in their secret hearts (i.e., worship) 
Agni'sprincipal names, Agni, Ja_tavedas, Vais'va_nara...] 

10.005.03 The two observers of truth, the two possessors of wisdom, (heaven and 
earth) sustain (this Agni);measuring the time, they have brought forth and 
reared a son; and (men), pondering in their minds on that navelof the universe, 
movable and immovable, the thread of the sage (Agni, are blessed with 
happiness). [The threadof the sage: kaves'cit tantum = agneh tanita_ram 
vais'va_nara_khyam am.s'am, the thread or connector of Agni--the portion called 

10.005.04 The ancient celebrators of the rite desiring (boons) wait on (Agni), 
rightly born, for the sake of food;the all-comprising heaven and earth cherish 
him, who abodes above the heavens, with the sacrificial butter andfood 
(produced) from the water. [Desiring boons: is.ah = an epithet of the 
r.tvigyajama_na_h, meaning:abhilas.ita_ni_ccantah, desiring boons; it may mean 
'feed', linked with sacante: va_ja_ya = for the sake ofstrength]. 

10.005.05 The wise Agni glorified (by his worshippers) has from the sacrifice 
raised aloft, for the readymanifestation of (all things), the seven radiant 
sister (flames); which when formerly engendered he restrained inthe firmament, 
until desirous of (adorers) he bestowed form upon the region of the earth. [From 
the sacrifice:madhvah = yajn~a_t; or, samudrodaka_t; which when...earth: this 
line may refer to Agni, as the sun, drawing uphis seven rays from the ocean, and 
then as lightning in the firmament giving rain to the earth]. 

10.005.06 The ise have established seven rules of conduct; he is a sinner who 
deviates from any one of them.Agni is the obstructor of (that) man, he abides in 
the dwelling of his neighbour, in the region of the scattering ofthe rays, and 
in the recipient (waters). [Manu 7.50-51: the passage implies the presence of 
Agni in the threeworlds, as fire on earth, the sun in the sky, and lightning in 
the firmament. THe support of life is in the dwelling ofthe most high; it stands 
on the firm ground at the place where the paths divide]. 

10.005.07 Non-existent, and existent (is Agni) in the supreme heaven, in the 
birth-place of Daks.a, and in thepresence of Aditi; Agni is elder born to us 
(who enjoy the fruit) of the sacrifice; in the olden time he was the bulland the 
cow. [Non-existent and existent: asacca sacca, both unevolved and evolved, 
identifying Agni with the firstcause and first effect, with a reference to such 
texts as asad eva idam agra a_sit (Cha_ndogya Upanis.ad3.19.1), the non-existent 
(or unevolved) was verily before this (Creation); in the birth-place of Daks.a: 
daks.asyajanman, in the birth of Daks.a, i.e., Praja_pati, the creator; Daks.a 
may be the sun: he divided himself into three,one-third was the wind: S'atapatha 
Bra_hman.a; Aditi = the earth; he was the bull and the cow: he isboth 
male and female; Agni is identified with all things].

10.006.01 This is that Agni by whose protections the worshipper (diligent) in 
sacrifice prospers in his dwelling;who is radiant, travels everywhere invested 
with the excellent splendours of his rays. 

10.006.02 Agni, the observer of truth, the eternal who shines resplendent with 
celestial splendours, who comesuntiring like a swift horse, (bringing) friendly 
gifts to his friends. 

10.006.03 Who rules over every oblation to the gods, who all pervading rules at 
the opening of the dawn, and inwhom (the sacrificer), whose sacrifice is 
undisturbed by his foes, throws his choice oblations. [Oblations: mana 
=manani_ya_ni; skabhna_ti = praks.ipati]. 

10.006.04 Magnified by our oblations, propitiated by our praises, swift-moving, 
he proceeds to the presence ofthe gods; the adorable invoker of the deities, 
most entitled to worship, associated (with the gods). Agni presentsto them (the 
oblation) with the sacrificial ladle. [Sacrificial ladle: sammis'lah = 
svagun.air devair va_samprayuktah]. 

10.006.05 Bring before us with praises, and with adorations, the brilliant Agni, 
the bestower of enjoyments, as ifhe were Indra, him, whom wise worshippers 
praise with hymns as Ja_tavedas, the sacrificer of the victoriousGods. [Bestower 
of enjoyments: usra_m = bhoga_na_m utsra_vin.am; usri = dawn]. 

10.006.06 O Agni, in whom all treasures are brought together as fleet horses are 
brought together in battle;bestow upon us protections even more effective than 
those of Indra. 

10.006.07 Since you, Agni, born in your glory and having sat down (on the 
altar), are immediately entitled to theoblation; therefore, the holy (priests) 
come to that your ensign and the mos worthy (worshippers) prosperprotected (by 

10.007.01 Divine Agni, bestow upon us from earth and heaven prosperity and 
abundant food, that we may beable to offer sacrifices. May we be associated, 
beautiful (Agni), with your indications (of favour); protect us, divineAgni, on 
account of our many hymns. [Abundant food: vis'va_yuh = sarva_nnam, agreeing 
with svasti (maleoffspring etc.); vis'va_yuh = you, who are the sustainer of 
life; protect us...hymns: tava dasma praketairurus.ya_n.a urubhirdeva s'am.saih 
= dars'ani_ya deva bahubhih s'am.sani_yais tava sambandhibhih 
pa_lanopa_yaprajn~a_nair asma_n raks.a, protect us, beauteous god, by the many 
praiseworthy knowledges of the means ofprotection belonging to you]. 

10.007.02 These hymns, addressed, Agni, to you, praise you for wealth, together 
with cattle and horses; when amortal obtains the means of enjoyment from the, 
(then), opulent and well-born Agni, you, who are the granter ofbenefits, (are 
celebrated) by our praises. 

10.007.03 I regard Agni as a father, as a kinsman, as a brother, as a constant 
friend. I reverence the face of themighty Agni, radiant in heaven, adorable as 
the sun. [Mighty Agni: a reference to the a_havani_ya fire]. 

10.007.04 Agni, our earnest praises have been composed for you. May he whom you, 
the perpetual invoker ofthe gods, protect in the sacrificial chamber, be rich in 
sacrifices, the master of red steeds, the possessor ofabundant food; may the 
desirable (oblation) be granted him on shining days. [Earnest: enjoying, 
possessing; maysatyava_n va_ sya_m, may I, through your favour having obtained 
unity with you, be (like you) the possessor ofsacrifices or truth; in the 
sacrificial chamber: dama = asmadyajn~agr.he marya_daya_vasthitah; on shining 
days:dyubhih: form root div or dya, day; dyubhih ahobhih = day by day]. 

10.007.05 Men have generated with their arms Agni, who is decorated with rays of 
light, selected as a friend, theancient priest, the accomplisher of the 
sacrifice, and they have appointed him among  people, the invoker of thegods. 

10.007.06 Offer sacrifice thyself, divine (Agni), to the gods in heaven; what 
can one who is ignorant and ofimmature understanding effect for you? As in due 
seasons, divine (Agni), you have sacrificed to the gods, so doyou, well-
engendered (Agni), sacrifice to your won person. [What can...for you: kim te 
kr.n.avat =tvaya_nadhis.t.hitah kin~cidapi na jana_ti, undirected (or unpresided 
over) by you he knows nothing]. 

10.007.07 Be our protector, Agni, (in obvious peril); be our preserver (in 
unseen danger), be the provider andgiver of sustenance; bestow upon us, nightly 
Agni, the donation of oblations, and ever attentive, protect ourpersons. 
[Protector, preserver: avita_ and gopa_].

10.008.01 Agni traverses heaven and earth with a vast banner; he roars (like) a 
bull; he spreads aloft over theremote and proximate (regions) of the sky; 
mighty, he increases in the lap of the water. [Agni traverses: as thelightning 
in the firmament]. 

10.008.02 THe embryo (of heaven and earth), the showerer (of benefits), the 
glorious, rejoices; the excellentchild (of morn and eve), the celebrator of holy 
rites calls aloud; assiduous in exertions at the worship of the gods,he moves 
chief in his own abodes. 

10.008.03 They have placed in the sacrifice the radiance of the powerful Agni, 
who seizes hold of the forehead ofhis parents, gratifying his cherished, 
radiant, and expanding limbs, in their course, in their chamber of 
sacrifice.[His parents: the parents are either heaven or earth, or the two 
pieces of touchwood; gratifying...of sacrifice:as'vabudhna_h = vya_ptamu_la_H, 
with outspread bases, i.e., broad at the bottom and tapering to the top, 
theusual shape of a fire; in his fight the dawns, drawn by horses, rejoice their 
bodies in the source of truth (i.e., thesun)]. 

10.008.04 Opulent Agni, you precede dawn after dawn. You are the illuminator of 
the twin (day and night);engendering Mitra from your own person, you retain 
seven places for sacrifice. [Mitra: the sun; seven places: theseven altars for 
the fire: dhisn.ya_ etc.] 

10.008.05 You are the eye, the protector of the great sacrifice; when you 
proceed to the rite, you are Varun.a;you are the grandson of the waters, 
Ja_tavedas; you are the messenger (of him) whose oblation you enjoy. 

10.008.06 You are the leader of the sacrifice and sacrificial water to the place 
in which you are associated withthe auspicious steeds of the wind; you sustain 
the all-enjoying (sun) as chief in heaven; you, Agni, make yourtongue the bearer 
of the oblation. [The place: i.e., the firmament; you sustain in heaven: you 
raise your glorioushead in heaven; you make...oblation: yada_; when, Agni, you 
have so done, you are the leader...; you are theleader of the sacrifice and of 
water (rain) in the firmament and in heaven (Yajus. 13.15)]. 

10.008.07 Trita by (his own), desiring a share (of the sacrifice), for the sake 
of taking part in the exploit of thesupreme protector (of the world), chose 
(Indra as his friend); attended (by the priests) in the proximity of theparental 
heaven and earth, and reciting appropriate praise, he takes up his weapons.  
[Legend: Indra said tocondition of having a share in the sacrifices offered to 
Indra. Indra gave him water to wash his hands with and ashare in the sacrifice, 
whereby Trita's strength increased; seven-rayed: i.e., seven-tongued, seven-
rayed, like thesun, or seven-handed]. 

10.008.08 He, the son of the waters, incited by Indra, skilled in his paternal 
weapons, fought against (the enemy),and slew the seven-rayed, three-headed 
(asura); then Trita set free the cows of the son of Tvas.t.a_. 

10.008.09 Indra, the protector of the virtuous, crushed the arrogant (foe), 
attaining vast strenth; shouting, he cutoff the three heads of the multiform son 
of Tvas.t.a_ (the lord) of cattle. [Shouting: s'abdam kurvan; gona_macakra_n.ah, 
appropriating the cattle].

10.009.01 Since, waters, you are the sources of happiness, grant to us to enjoy 
abundance, and great anddelightful perception. [Great and delightful perception: 
mahe ran.a_ya caks.ase = samyajn~a_nam, perfectknowledge of brahman; the r.ca 
solicits happiness both in this world and in the next; the rapturous sight of 
thesupreme god; to behold great joy]. 

10.009.02 Give us to partake in this world of your most auspicious Soma, like 
affectionate mothers. 

10.009.03 Let us quickly have recourse to you, for that your (faculty) of 
removing (sin) by which you gladden us;waters, bestow upon us progeny. [Let us 
go to you at once for him to whose house you are hastening; waters,reinvogorate 
us; faculty of removing sin: ks.aya = niva_sa, abode; aram = parya_ptim, 
sufficiency; perhaps arecommendation to be regular in practising ablution]. 

10.009.04 May the divine water be propitious to our worship, (may they be good) 
for our drinking; may they flowround us, and be our health and safety. [This and 
previous three r.cas are repeated at the daily ablutions of thebra_hman.as]. 

10.009.05 Waters, sovereigns of precious (treasures), granters of habitations to 
men, I solicit of you medicine (formy infirmities). [Precious: va_rya_n.a_m = 
va_riprabhava_na_m vri_hiyava_dina_m, the products of the water,rice, barley 
etc.; bhes.ajam = happiness driving away sin]. 

10.009.06 Soma has declared to me; all medicaments, as well as Agni, the 
benefactor of the universe, are in thewaters. [This and the following r.cas of 
the su_kta are repetitions from RV.1. 23, 20-23; in man.d.ala 1, Somaspeaks to 
Kan.va; in this present man.d.ala, Soma speaks to A_mbari_s.a Sindhudvi_pa, a 

10.009.07 Waters, bring to perfection, all disease-dispelling medicaments for 
the good of my body, that I maybehold the Sun. 

10.009.08 Waters, take away whatever sin has been (found) in me, whether I have 
(knowingly) done wrong, orhave pronounced imprecations (against holy men), or 
have spoken untruth. 

10.009.09 I have this day entered into the waters; we have mingled with their 
essence. Agni, abiding in thewaters approach, and fill me (thus bathed) with 
vigour. ["I invoke for protection the divine (waters) of excellentwisdom, 
discharging their functions (tadapasah), flowing by day and flowing by night": 
supplementary khila 1.2.3:

10.010.01 (Yami speaks). I invite my friend to friendship, having come over the 
vast and desert ocean; mayVedhas, after reflecting, place in the earth the 
offsprig (of you) the father, edowed with excellent qualities. 
[Placein...qualities: may Praja_pati bestow offspring for the sake of you 
becoming the father of a son to be born to us;adhi ks.ami (upon the earth) = in 
my womb]. 

10.010.02 (Yama speaks). Your friend desires not this friendship, for although 
of one origin, she is of differentform; the hero sons of the great asura (are) 
the upholders of heaven, enjoying vast renown. [Yourfriend...different from: 
your friend longs not for a frienship in which (etad yat) a kinswoman is treated 
as one ofdifferent family; the hero sons of the great asura: mahas putra_so 
asurasya: asurasya = pra_n.avatahprajn~a_vato va_; enjoying vast renown: urviya_ 
pari khyan = they can see from afar]. 

10.010.03 (Yami speaks). The immortals take pleasure in (a union) like this 
which is forbidden to every mortal; letyour mind then concur with mine, and as 
the progenitor (of all) was the husband (of his daughter), do you enjoymy 
person. [Which is forbidden: tyajasam = that which is to be left or avoided, 
illicit, such as the intercourse ofbrahma_ with his daughter; ekasya = 
Praja_pati, as chief of the whole world; tyajasam = that which is abandonedor 
given to another, viz., women, daughters etc. The word may also mean 
descendants, lit. those who are left,scions, offshoots, and so, the reading may 
be: this is what the gods themselves desire offspring from one aloneof mankind]. 

10.010.04 (Yama speak). We have not done what was done formerly; for how can we 
who speak truth, utter nowthat which is untrue? Gandharva (the sun) was in the 
watery (firmament), and the water was his bride. She is ourcommon hence our near 

10.010.05 (Yami speaks). The divine omniform generator Tvas.t.a_, the 
progenitor, made us two husband andwife, even in the womb: none frustrate his 
undertaking; earth and heaven are conscious of this our (union). 

10.010.06 (Yama speaks). Who knows anything of this (his) first day (of 
existence)? Who has beheld it? Whohas here revealed it? The dwelling of Mitra 
and of Varun.a is vast. What say you, who punishes men with hell?[Dwelling of 
Mitra and Varun.a: the revolution of day and night; what say...hell: what say 
you, wanton one, falselyabout men? Who punishes: ahanah is a male; therefore, 
Yami_ is made the speaker of the last part of the verse].

10.010.07 (Yami speaks). The desire of Yama has approached me Yami_, to lie with 
him in the same bed; I willabandon my person as a wife to her husband; let us 
exert ourselves in union like the two wheels of a wagon. 

10.010.8 (Yama speaks). The spies of the gods, which wander upon earth, never 
stop, never close their eyes.Associate quickly, destructress, with some other 
than with me, and exert yourselves in union, like the two wheelsof a wagon. 
[Destructress: i.e., causing unhappiness by your shameful conversation]. 

10.010.9 (Yami speaks). To him (Yam) let every worshipper sacrifice both day and 
night, on him let the eye ofthe Sun repeatedly rise; (for him may) the kindred 
pair (day and night unite) with heaven and earth. Yama willadhere to the non-
affinity of Yama. [Yama will adhere: or, may Yami_ bear patiently Yama's 
unbrotherly (refusal)].

10.010.10 (Yama speaks). The subsequent ages will come, when sisters will choose 
one who is not a brother (asa husband); therefore, auspicious one, choose 
another husband than me, and make your arm a pillow for yourmate. 

10.010.11 (Yami speaks). Is he a brother whose sister has no lord? Is she a 
sister (whose brother) misfortuneapproaches? Overcome by desire, I strongly urge 
this one request; unite your person with mine. [Misfortune:decay; Nirr.ti is a 
personification. The meaning is, a true brother will not let his sister lack a 
husband, and a truesister will not let her brother lack a wife]. 

10.010.12 (Yama speaks). I will not unite my person with yours; they call him 
who approaches a sister, a sinner.Enjoy pleasure with some other than me; your 
brother, auspicious one, has no such desire. 

10.010.13 (Yami speaks). Alas, Yama, you are feeble; we understand not your mind 
or your heart. Some otherfemale embraces you as a girth a horse, or as a creeper 
a tree. [Alas! bato bata_si = you are feeble, feeble; thepada text is: bata asi; 
bata = pitiable, anukampyas'ca_si, or, alas!] 

10.010.14 (Yama speaks). Do you, Yami_, embrace another; and let another embrace 
you as a creeper a tree;seek his affection, let him seek you; and make a happy 

10.011.01 The great, the unconquerable (Agni), the showerer, milks openly with a 
(great) milking the streams (ofprosperity) from heaven for the unwearying 
sacrificer; like Varun.a, he knows everything by his understanding;may he who is 
skilled in sacrifice observe the sacrificial seasona.  

10.011.02 The Gandharvi_ and the water-consecrated feminine oblation praise 
Agni; may he be favourable tothe thought of me, raising my voice in his praise; 
may Agni place us in the midst of the sacrifice; the chief (of theworshipers), 
our elder brother, repeats his various laudations. [Agni: aditih = 
akhan.d.ani_yognih, the indivisibleAgni]. 

10.011.03 The very auspicious, resounding, famous Dawn, ascends bringing the sun 
to man; when for thesacrifice after the worship they give birth to that Agni, 
the desirer, the invoker of the desiring (gods). 

10.011.04 The hawk sent (by Agni) to the sacrifice has brought the dripping 
copious all-seeing (Soma) libation.When the Arya people choose the victorious 
Agni as the ministrant priest, then the sacred rite is celebrated.[Dripping: 
drapsam = not too much and not too little]. 

10.011.05 You, Agni, are ever pleasing (to your worshippers), as pasture 
satisfies (the herds); bewell-worshipped with man's sacrifices; if commending 
the praise of the wise, and partaking of the (sacrificial)food, you come with 
many (divinities of the rite). 

10.011.06 Wake up the parents, as the Sun his splendour; (the worshipper) 
desires to offer worship to (thedeities) who are pleased by it; with all his 
heart he wishes (to do so); he desires to repeat (your praise); thebearer (of 
the oblation) is anxious to effect the good work; the sacrifice longs for 
augmentation, the prudent(sacrificer) trembles in his thoughts. [The parents: 
heaven and earth, the parents of all living creatures; as thesun his splendour: 
ja_rah = the sun,bhagam bhajani_yam jyotis.; the prudent trembles in his 
thoughts: asurah =pra_n.ava_n, breathing; or, prajn~a_va_n, intelligent; vepate 
= trembles, fearing lest the ceremony be defective]. 

10.011.07 Agni, son of strength, the mortal who obtains your favour is widely 
celebrated; possessing abundantfood, and being conveyed by horses, illustrious 
and vigorous he graces the days of his existence. [bhu_s.ati =bhavati]. 

10.011.08 When, adorable Agni, this united praise is resplendent among the 
adorable gods, and when you,bearer of the oblatio, apportion the precious 
(treasures), then allot to us a valuable share. bring to us the heaven and 
earth, the daughters of the divine (Praja_pati), let none of the gods be absent, 
and doyou yourself be present. [The daughters of the divine: devaputre = devasya 
praja_pater duhita_rau; or, they whohave the gods for progeny].

10.012.01 Heaven and earth, declarers of truth, principal (of things), be 
present at the invocation, associatedwith the rite, when the divine (Agni), 
exciting mortals to sacrifice, sits down in their presence as the invoker (ofthe 
gods) putting forth his flame. [Associated with the rite: r.tena prathame = 
first by right]. 

10.012.02 Do you, bright (Agni), surrounding the gods, carry our oblation with 
due rites; you, who are the chief(of the deities), the wise, the smoke-bannered, 
fuel-kindled, straight-flaming, adorable, the invoker, the constantsacrificer 
with prayer. 

10.012.03 When the self-aggregated ambrosia of the divine Agni is generated 
fromhis radiance, then theproducts from it sustain both heaven and earth, all 
the worshippers glorify this your oblation, the celestial nutriouswater which 
your white lustre milks forth. [The products from it: amr.ta = the rain (which 
is consequent upon theburnt offerings) and the products from it are plants ant 

10.012.04 I worship you, waters that pour forth ghi_, and you, heaven and earth, 
for your increase; hear me, youworlds; when worshippers at the daily or nightly 
rite proceed to their pious purpose, then may the parents (of all)sanctify us 
with ambrosia. 

10.012.05 But will the royal Agni accept our oblation? Have we duly performed 
our vows to him? Who decides?As a friend affectionately invited, so let our 
praise now proceed to the gods; together with the sacrificial food thatis left 

10.012.06 Hard to understand is the nature of the immortal, for although of one 
origin, she is of a different form;cherish him diligently, great Agni, who 
understands Yama's nature easy to be understood.  

10.012.07 In him the gods find pleasure at the sacrifice; they seat themselves 
on the altar of the sacrificer. Theyplaced light in the sun; beams in the moon; 
and these untiring shed their light around. 

10.012.08 When he, the all-illumining, is there, the gods assemble; but when he 
is concealed, we know not (hisabode); so at this sacrifice, let Mitra and Aditi 
and Savita_ proclaim us to Varun.a as free from sin. [Varun.a:varun.a_ya 
sarves.a_m pa_pa_na_m niva_rayitregnaye; in mythology, Varun.a is one of the 
older gods; he ismore terrible, more righteous, and less human thatn the younger 
deities]. bring unto us the heaven and earth, the daughter of the divine 
(Praja_pati), let none of the gods be absent, anddo you yourself be present.

10.013.01 I load you two with sacred offerings, repeating an ancient prayer; may 
the sound (of your approach)reach (the gods) like the path of the worshipper, 
may all the sons of the immortal (Praja_pati) who inhabit thecelestial regions 
hear (the sound). [One interpretation (Yajus. 10.5) apply the r.ca to the 
sacrificer and his wife,for you two I institute the ancient rite with 
sacrificial offerings; the path of the worshipper: pathya =parin.a_masukha_vaha_ 
a_hutih, the oblation which brings happiness as its result]. 

10.013.02 When you two came, like twins, busily engaged, then devout worshipper 
brought you forward;knowing your place there abide and be fair storehouses for 
our Soma. [Busily engaged: i.e., engaged in theperformance of your own duties of 
moving and bearing the oblation]. 

10.013.03 I make the five stages of the sacrifice ascend; I take four steps by 
pious observances; with the sacredsyllable, I perfect this (adoration); I purify 
(the Soma) on the navel of the sacrifice. [I make...ascend: the fivestages are 
the five members of the sacrifice: i.e., grain, Soma, the kind, the purod.a_s'a 
cake and butter. Thefour steps are: the metres most commonly used, tris.t.ubh 
etc.; the other three are perhaps, jagati_, ga_yatri_and anus.t.ubh; pious 
observances: rupah = that which causes the sacrificers to ascend to heaven, 
i.e., thesacrifice, I make ascend = I put on the sakat.a]. 

10.013.04 Whom has he selected as the slayer of the gods? Whom has he not 
selected as non-slayer of theabove mentioned are necessarily present while the 
business of the bringing of the oblation is in progress, yamadoes not send any 
of hie men as the destroyer. Another translation: What death did he choose for 
the gods, whatimmortality did he not choose for men? i.e., Yama ordained that 
gods should not die, and that men should receiveimmortality; Yama preserves our 
loved bodies: pra_rirecit = takes away (from death), mr.tyoh saka-
s'a_tpariharati; 'ric' is here used in the sense of taking away; the meaning is: 
he does not take our life away as aconsequence of a fault arising from a defect 
in our worship]. 

10.013.05 The seven (metres) offer laudation to the glorious, the adorable 
parent, (the Soma), his sons (thepriests) utter his true (praise); you both are 
lords of both (men and gods), you both exert yourselves and are thenourishers of 
both (men and gods).

10.014.01 Worship with oblations from Yama, king (of the Pitr.s), son of 
Vivasvat, the aggregation of mankind,who conducts those who are virtuous over 
the earth, and opens to many the path (of heaven). [Of mankind:jana_na_m 
pa_pina_m = of sinners; who conducts...over the earth: who has caused men of 
surpassing merit,who have performed pious acts, which are the means of gaining 
earthly happiness, to reach one by one afterdeath the various spots of the earth 
fitted for their respective happiness]. 

10.014.02 Yama, the chief (of all), knows our well-being; this pasture no one 
can take from us; by the road bywhich our forefathers have gone, all who are 
born (proceed) along the paths they have made for themselves.[Yama...from us: 
Yama first discovered the path for us; this pasture cannot be taken away from 
us; the paths theyhave made for themselves: i.e., according to their good and 
evil conduct]. 

10.014.03 Ma_talin prospers with the Kavyas; Yama with the An:girasas; 
Br.haspati with the R.kvans; they whomthe gods augment, and they who augment the 
gods, these rejoice in Sva_ha_, those in the Svadha_. [Ma_talin:Ma_tali_ is the 
name of the charioteer of Indra; so Ma_talin (having Ma_tali_) is a name of 

10.014.04 Yama, who are associated with the An:girasa Pitr.s, sit down at this 
sacrifice; may the prayers recitedby the priests bring you here; be exhilarated, 
Sovereign, (Yam), by this oblation. [At this sacrifice: prastara = acouch or bed 
(something strewed)]. 

10.014.05 Come here, Yama, with the venerable multiform An:girasas, and be 
exhilarated; I summon Vivasvat,who is your father, to this sacrifice; be seated 
on the sacred grass (delight the sacrificer). 

10.014.06 The An:girasas, the Atharvas, the Bhr.gus, who are entitled to the 
Soma, are our recent progenitors;may we ever have a place in the favour of these 
venerable (pitrs.); may we be ever held in their auspiciousregard. [Our recent 
progenitors: navagva_ = having recently arrived, or inspiring affliction, as 
something new;also applied to the three classes; or, navani_ya, those condition 
is to be praised]. 

10.014.07 Depart, depart, by the former paths by which our forefathers have 
departed; there shall you behold thetwo monarchs Yama and the divine Varun.a 
rejoicing in the Svadha_. [Shall you behold: pas'ya = behold!]. 

10.014.08 Be united with the Pitr.s, with Yama, and with the fulfilment of your 
wishes in the highest heaven;discarding iniquity, return to your abode, and 
unite yourself to a luminous body. [This and previous r.ca areaddressed to the 
spirit of a dying person]. 

10.014.09 Depart from hence, begone, go far off, (evil spirits); the Pitr.s have 
assigned this place to him, yamahas given him a place of cremation consecrated 
by days, streams and nights. To him-- (the departedworshipper]. 

10.014.10 Pass by a secure path beyond the two spotted four-eyed dogs, the 
progeny of Sarama_, and join thewise Pitr.s who rejoice joyfully with Yama. 
[sa_rameyau... sarama_ na_ma ka_cit devas'uni_ tasya_h putrau]. 

10.014.11 Entrust him, O king, to your two dogs, which are your protectors, 
Yama, the four-eyed guardians of theroad, renowned by men, and grant him 
prosperity and health. [Renowned by men: i.e., renowned in the Vedas,law-books 
and Pura_n.as]. 

10.014.12 The messengers of Yama, broad-nosed, and of exceeding strength, and 
satiating themselves with thelife (of mortals), hunt mankind; may they allow us 
this day a prosperous existence here, that we may look uponthe sun. [May they 
allow...the sun: or, may they now restore to us that fair life to look upon the 
sun (still speakingof the departed worshipper)]. 

10.014.13 Pour out the Soma for Yama; to Yama offer the oblation, the decorated 
sacrifice of which Agni is themessenger proceeds to Yama. 

10.014.14 Offer the oblation of clarified butter to Yama, and stand near (to the 
altar); it is he who among the godsgives us a long life to live. 

10.014.15 Offer to the royal Yama this most sweet oblation; (let) this our 
adoration (be addressed) to the ancientsages, the first followers of (virtuous) 

10.014.16 (Yama) acquires the three trikadruka saacrifices; the six earths, the 
one great (moving world); thetris.t.ubh, ga_yatri_, all the sacred metres 
converge in Yama. [Acquires the three trikadruka sacrifices:trikadrukebhih 
patati = trikadrukam pra_pnoti, he obtains the trikadrukas, the three sacrifices 
called jyotis., gauand a_yu; the six earths (or substances) are: heaven, earth, 
water, plants, the sun, and truth].

10.015.01 Let the lower, the upper, the intermediate Pitr.s, rise up, accepting 
the Soma libation; may thoseprogenitors who, unlike wolves, acknowledging our 
offerings, have come to preserve our lives, protect us uponour invocations. 
[Pitr.s: three chief classes of the Pitr.s or manes are enumerated.  RV 10.14.6 
enumerated an:girasas, atharvasand bhr.gus; in Manu, the three classes are: 
agnis'va_ttas, barhis.ads and saumya_s; Manu's enumerationoccurs in this su_kta; 
lower, upper and intermediate pitr.s: the degrees of merit arise first from the 
steadydischarge of duties enjoined by the Vedas; secondly, by performance of 
those enjoined by the law books; andfinally, when there has been some deficiency 
in some of the purificatory rites (sam.ska_ras); udiratam = let themobtain the 
best oblation; or, urdhvalokam gacchantu, let them go to the upper region 
(Yajus. 19.49); unlikewolves: avr.ka_h = not wolves, i.e., not mischievous; 
r.tajn~ah = knowing truth; or, grateful for what has beendone in their honour; 
asum ya i_yuh = who have gone to life, or breath, asmatpra_n.am raks.itum 
pra_ptah; or,identical with air, having assumed the form of the air]. 

10.015.02 Let this our adoration be today addressed to those Pitr.s our 
predecessors, to those our successors,who have departed (to the world of the 
manes); to those who are seated in the terrestrial sphere, to those whoare 
present among opulent people. [Our successors: pu_rva_sah = elder brother, 
father, grandfather, and thelike, born before the birth of the worshipper; 
upara_sah means younger brothers, sons, etc. ; or, those who havegone to svarga; 
upara_sah, those who have ceased or rested, who have gone to the world of 
brahma_ (Yajus.19.68); in the terrestrial sphere: pa_rthive rajasi = 
pr.thivi_sambandhini rajo gun.aka_ryesmin karman.i, at thisritw which is 
connected with the earth is the effect of (or has for its effect) the quality of 
rajas (passion, or theactive principle); rajas = jyotis., light-- terrestrial 
light or fire-- the phrase no doubt refers to the fire altar (Yajus.19.68)]. 

10.015.03 I have brought to my presence the Pitr.s who are well cognizant (of my 
worship), the infallibility, andfood of the effused (Soma) with the sacrificial 
cake. [The infallibility...sacrifice: napa_tam, vikraman.am = paths ofthe gods, 
whence there is no falling and where there is going and coming-- both as the 
consequence of sacrifice(Yajus. 29.56)]. 

10.015.04 Pitr.s, Barhis.ads, protect (us who are) in your presence; we have 
made these oblations for you,accept them; come with your most felicitous 
protection, and bestow upon us health and happiness; and pardonfrom sin. [With 
your most felicitous protection: avasa_ s'antamena = satisfied by most excellent 

10.015.05 May the Pitr.s who are entitled to the Soma come, when invoked by us, 
to the agreeable treasuresconnected with the sacred grass; let them here listen 
(to our praises), let them speak (their approbation in reply);let them protect 
us. [Entitled to the Soma: somya_sah = anugraha para_h, kind or 
favourable,somasampa_dinah, obtaining the Soma]. 

10.015.06 Having sat down on the right side withbended knee, do you all accept 
this sacrifice. Harm us notPitr.s, for any offence which through human 
(infirmity) we may have committed towards you. 

10.015.07 Seated in the proximity of the radiant (flames of the altar), bestow 
riches on the mortal donor (of theoblation); give wealth, Pitr.s, to his sons; 
do you who are present grant us vigour.  [In the proximity of the 
radiant:arun.i_na_m upasthe, purple-coloured: applied to the wool of which the 
blanked called kut.apu is made of whichPitr.s are fond, kutt.apapriyah pitara 
(Yajus. 19.63); give wealth to his sons: tasya yajama_nasya; bestow thiswealth 
on your sons]. 

10.015.08 May Yama, being propitiated, desirous (of the offering), partake at 
pleasure of the oblations along withthose our ancient progenitors of the 
Saumyas, the possessors of great wealth, who also desire it, and whoconveyed the 
Soma (to the gods and to the Pitr.s) in order. [Our ancient progenitors: pu_rve 
pitarah, who, asprogenitors when living, offered the Soma, and now, as Pitr.s, 
partake of it; vasis.t.ha_h = vastr.tama_hkr.ta_ccha_dana_ dhanavattama_ va_, 
covering or most wealthy; or, of the race of Vasis.t.ha (Yajus. 19.51)]. 

10.015.09 Come, Agni, to our presence with the Pitr.s, who are possessed of 
knowledge, who having attained aseat among the gods, thirst (for the Soma), 
skilled in sacrifices, reciters of praises with hymns, truth-speaking,seers, 
frequenters of sacrifices. 

10.015.10 Come, Agni, with thousands of Pitr.s, of both past and future (time), 
frequenters of sacrifices, eulogistsof the gods; those who are true, who feed on 
oblations, and drink oblations, possessing equality with Indra andthe gods. 

10.015.11 Agnis.va_tta Pitr.s, come to this solemnity; sit down, directors in 
the right way, in your appropriateplaces; eat the oblations spread on the grass, 
and grant us riches and male posterity. 

10.015.12 Agni Ja_tavedas, who are glorified (by us), having made our oblations 
fragrant, you have borne themoff, and have presented them to the Pitr.s; may 
they partake of them with the Svadha_; and do you also, divineAgni, feed upon 
the offered oblations. [Yajus. 19.66: ja_tavedas = kavyava_hana; with the 
svadha_:svadha_ka_ren.a, i.e., with the exclamation, svadha_! or, it may mean, 
along with the svadha_ or pitr.-oblationitself]. 

10.015.13 You know, Ja_tavedas, those Pitr.s, how many they may be, who are not 
in this world, those whom weknow, and those whom we do not fully know; enjoy 
this pious sacrifice offered together with svadha_s. 

10.015.14 May those who are agnidagdhas, and those who are not, be satisfied 
with svadha_ in the midst ofheaven; and do you supreme lord, associated with 
them, construct at your pleasure that body that is endowedwith breath. 
[Agnidagdhas: those whose bodies have been burnt by the obsequial fire; supreme 
lord: svara_t. =Agni; or Yama (Yajus. 19.60); asuni_tim tanvam = the body that 
leads to life-- a divine body; or long-lived].

10.016.01 Agni, consume him not entirely; afflict him not; scatter not (here and 
there) his skin nor his body; whenJa_tavedas, you have rendered him mature, then 
send him to the Pitr.s. [The first six r.cas are to be recited at (orupon) the 
death of an initiated person-- di_ks.itamaran.e; not his skin nor his body: may 
be an allusion to thespiritual, or sus.ma s'ari_ra; do not reduce him to ashes, 
bhami_bhu_tam ma_ kuru].. 

10.016.02 When you have rendered him mature, then give him up, Ja_tavedas, to 
the Pitr.s; when he proceedsto that world of spirits, then he becomes subject to 
the will of the gods. [When he proceeds to that world ofspirits: when he obtains 
the quickening of life, pra_n.a preran.am, wrought by Agni]. 

10.016.03 Let the eye repair to the sun; the breath to the wind; go you to the 
heaven or to the earth, according toyour merit; or go to the waters it it suits 
you (to be) there, or abide with your members in the plants.  

10.016.04 The unborn portion; burn that, Agni, with your heat; let your flame, 
your splendour, consume it; withthose glorious members which you have given him, 
Ja_tavedas, bear him to the world (of the virtuous). [Theunborn portion: ajo 
bha_gah = the goat is your portion; antarapurus.a, which has no body, no organs 
of sense;heat, flame and splendour: tapas, s'ocis and arcis: the positive, 
comparative and superlative radiance of Agni]. 

10.016.05 Dismiss again to the Pitr.s, Agni, him who offered on you, comes with 
the svadha_s; putting on(celestial) life, let the remains (of bodily life) 
depart; let him, Ja_tavedas, be associated with a body. 

10.016.06 Should the black crow, the ant, the snake, the wild beast, harm (a 
limb) of you, may Agni theall-devourer, and the Soma that has pervaded the 
bra_hman.as, make it whole. [The wild beast: jackal orhyaena]. 

10.016.07 Enclose the mail of Agni with the (hide of the) cow; cover it with the 
fat and marrow; then will not(Agni), bold, exulting in his fierce heat, proud, 
embrace you roundabout to consume you (to ashes). 

10.016.08 Agni, shake not this ladle, for it is dear to the gods and to the 
(Pitr.s) who are worthy of the Soma; thiswhich is the drinking ladle of the 
ogds, in this immortal gods delight. 

10.016.09 I send the flesh-devouring Agni to a distance; let him bearing away 
sin repair to (the realm of) kingYama; but let this other Ja_tavedas who is 
known (by all) convey the oblation to the gods. [King Yama:yamara_jyam; this 
r.ca closes the Pitr.meda, or sacrifice to the Pitr.s]. 

10.016.10 The flesh-devouring deity Agni, who has entered your dwelling, I turn 
him out, for the worship of thePitr.s, upon beholding this other (Agni) 
Ja_tavedas; let him celebrate the sacrifice (to the Pitr.s) in the mostexcellent 

10.016.11 Let Agni the bearer of the Kavya worship the Pitr.s, who are magnified 
by truth, let him declare whichare the offerings to the gods, which to the 

10.016.12 Longing we set you down; longing we kindle you; do you longing bring 
the longing Pitr.s to eat of the(sacrificial) viands. [kavya: an offering to 
sages, i.e. pitr.s]. 

10.016.13 Cool again, Agni, the spot which you have burned, there let the water-
lily grow, and the ripe Durvawith its many stalks. 

10.016.14 (Oh earth), cool and filled with cool (herbs), gladsome and filled 
with gladsome (trees), be throngedwith female frogs and give joy to this Agni. 
[Be thronged with...Agni: let the earth be visited by the rainy season,when fuel 
becomes plentiful].

10.017.01 Tvas.t.a_ celebrates the marriage of his daughter; therefore, the 
whole world is assembled; but themother of Yama, the newly-married wife of the 
mighty Vivasvat, disappeared. [Deity Saran.yu_: The legend:Saran.yu_, the 
daughter of Tvas.t.a_, was given in marriage to Vivasvat, and had by him Yama 
and Yami_.Intimidated by his ardour, she substituted another female, her shadow, 
Cha_ya_, for herself, and going toUttarakuru, changed herself to a mare. 
Vivasvat begot Manu by Cha_ya_, when, finding his error, he set off tolook for 
his wife. Discovering her disguise, he transformed himself to a horse, and had 
by his wife the twoAs'vins]. 

10.017.02 The gods concealing the immortal (Sarn.yu_) for th esake of mortals 
and having formed her, gave herto Vivasvat. She bore the two As'vins when this 
had happened and then Saran.yu_ gave birth to two twins. [Forthe sake of 
mortals: maryebhyah = manus.yebhyas tadutpattyartham, for men, i.e. that men 
might be born. Manuwas the offspring of Vivasvat and the woman resembling 
Saran.yu_ and all men are descended from Manu; thetwo twins: Yama and Yami_, but 
dva_ mithuna_, may mean two pairs of twins, Yama and Yami_,  the first pairand 
the As'vins the second]. 

10.017.03 May the discriminating Pu_s.an, whose cattle are never lost, the 
protector of all beings, transfer youhence (to a better world); may he give you 
to these Pitr.s; may Agni (give) you to the beneficent gods. [This andthe 
following three r.cas are to be recited at the funeral rites of a man who has 
been duly initiated, di_ks.ita]. 

10.017.04 May the all-pervading Va_yu protect you, may Pu_s.an (preserve) you, 
(going) first on the excellentpath (to heaven); may the divine Savita_ place 
you, where the virtuous abide, whither they have gone. [a_yu =Va_yu]. 

10.017.05 Pu_s.an knows all these regions severally; met him conduct us by (the 
path) that is most free fromperil; let him precede us, who is the giver of 
prosperity, endowed with radiance, accompanied by all pious men,ever vigilant, 
and knowing our (deserts). 

10.017.06 Pu_s.an has been born on the best path of paths, on the best path of 
heaven on the best path ofearth, he goes forward and backward over both 
(worlds), the assemblies longed for by all, discriminating (themerits of the 
dead). [Pu_s.an has been born: i.e., manifested in order to conduct men after 
death to theirdestination, according to their merits; he goes forward: i.e., 
favourably to the virtuous to show the fruit of goodowrks, backward, i.e., he 
walks adversely to the wicked; discriminating the merits: i.e., he walks 
adversely to thewicked]. 

10.017.07 The devout invoke Sarasvati_; they worship Sarasvati_ at the strewn 
sacrifice; the virtuous call uponSarasvati_; may Sarasvati_ bestow blessings 
upon the donor (of the oblation). 

10.017.08 Divine Sarasvati_, who rides in the same chariot with the Pitr.s, and 
delighted (along with them) by the(sacrificial) viands, seated on the sacred 
grass gratified (by our offering, and grant us wholesome food. worshippers at 
this sacrifice a portion of food fit for thousands, and increase of riches. 

10.017.10 May the maternal waters, purify us; may the shedders of water purify 
us with the effusion; for thedivine (waters) bear away all sin; I come away from 
them purified (to heaven).  [Shedders of water...with effusion:ghr.tena no 
ghr.tapvah punantu: waters which purify others by water; ghr.ta = effused water; 
ghr.tapvah =divinities presiding over effused water; or, ghr.ta = oiled butter 
(Yajus. 4.2); udemi = I go to heaven (S'atapathaBra_hman.a]. 

10.017.11 The Soma has risen to the earthly and heavenly (worlds), both this 
visible world, and that which(existed) before (it); I offer that Soma flowing 
through the common region (of heaven and earth) after the sacrifice(offered by 
the) seven (officiating priests). [drapsam = a name of the Sun (S'atapatha 
Bra_hman.a:;hotra_h = ditah, which are seven: zenith, nadir, centre 
and four cardinal points]. 

10.017.12 Soma, which escapes (from the hide), your filaments which let fall 
from the hands (of the priestescape) from the vicinity of the planks (of the 
press), or (from the hand) of the Adhvaryu, or from the filter; I offer itall 
with my mind (to Agni) with the word vas.at. 

10.017.13 Your juice and your filaments, (Soma), which escape, and which fall 
from the ladle on this side or onthat; may this divine Br.haspati sprinkle it 
for our enrichment. 

10.017.14 (Waters)! the plants flourish by means of water my prayer is effectual 
through water; the essence ofwater is vigorous through water; purify me with it. 
[payasvat = having water; or, sa_ravat, having pith or vigour;being vigorous b\y 
means of water in the shape of rain].

10.018.01 Depart, Mr.tyu, by a different path; by that which is your own, and 
distinct from the path of the gods; Ispeak to you who have eyes, who have ears; 
do no harm to our offspring, nor to our male progeny. [Offspring:praja_m = 
female offspring; or, santatim, descendants, family successors]. 

10.018.02 If, avoiding the path of death, you go (on the path of he gods), 
assuming a longer and better life, (myfriends), then may you, (O sacrificers), 
diligent in sacrifice, enriched with progeny and affluence, be cleansed andpure. 
[Be cleansed and pure: s'uddhah = pure from the decay caused by the sins 
accumulated in a former life;pu_tah = pure from the decay caused by the sins of 
the present life]. 

10.018.03 May those who are living remain separate from the dead; may our 
invocation of the gods today besuccessful; let us go forward to dancing and 
laughter, assuming a longer and better life. [Go forward: or, with ourfaces to 
the east]. 

10.018.04 I erect this circle (of stones) for (the protection of) the living, 
that none other of them may approach thislimit; may they live a hundred years, 
occupied by many holy works, and keep death hidden by this mound. [I erectthis 
circle of stones: after the burning of the body, the Adhvaryu is to raise a bank 
or lump or earth betwen thevillage where the deceased lived and the cemetery, as 
a rampart against death (Mahi_dhara, Yajus. 35.15);paridhi = a stone rampart 

10.018.05 As days pass along in succession; as season are duly followed by 
seasons; as the successor doesnot abandon his predecessor, so, Dha_ta_, support 
the lives of these (my kinsmen). [As the successor: i.e., as ason does not leave 
his father by dying first]. 

10.018.06 (You kinsmen of the dead man), choosing old age, attain length of 
life, striving one after the other, howmany soever you may be; may Tvas.t.a_, 
the creator. [Striving one after the other: the eldest first; of good racesof 
men, being at one (with you), grant you (busy) at this (sacrifice), a long 

10.018.07 Let these women who are not widows, who have good husbands, enter 
(anointed) with unguent andbutter. Let women without tears, without sorrow, and 
decorated with jewels, first proceed to the house. 

10.018.08 Rise, woman, (and go) to the world of living beings; come, this man 
near whom you sleep is lifeless;you have enjoyed this state of being the wife of 
your husband, the suitor who took you by the band. [This verseis to be spoken by 
the husband's brother, etc., to the wife of the dead man, and he is to make her 
leave herhusband's body: (A_s'vala_yana Gr.hya Su_tra, 4.2); go to beings = go 
to the home of the living, i.e., your sons,grandsons etc.] 

10.018.09 Taking his bow from the hand of the dead man, for the sake of our 
vigour, energy and strength, (I say)you are there; may we (who are) here, 
blessed with male offspring, overcome all the enemies who assail us.  

10.018.10 Go to this your mother-earth, the wide-spread, delightful earth; this 
virgin (earth is) as soft as wool, tothe liberal (worshipper) may she protect 
you from the proximity of Nirr.ti. [The r.cas from 10 to 13 are to berepeated at 
the death of a di_ks.ita (initiated person), and cites A_s'vala_yana Gr.hya 
Su_tra 6.10, 4.5; on therepetition of verse 10, the bones which have been 
collected are to be placed in the grave]. 

10.018.11 Earth, rise up above him; oppress him not; be attentive to him (and) 
comfortable; cover him up, earth,as a mother covers her child with the skirt of 
her garment. [Earth, rise up above him: i.e., so as to give himbreathing room; 
while reciting this verse, dust is to be scattered over the grave; comfortable: 
su_pavan~cana_ =deceiving well; treat him kindly for the sake of the sacrifice; 
fondle him, lull him to rest; supratis.t.ha_ bhava = be

10.018.12 May the earth heaped over him lie light; may thousands of particles 
(of dust) envelop him; may thesemansions distil ghi_ (for him); may they every 
day be an asylum to him in this world. 

10.018.13 I heap up the earth around you, placing (upon you) this clod of earth; 
may I not be injured; may thePitr.s sustain this your monument; may Yama make 
you a dwelling here. [ I heap up the earth around you: O urn,I keep off the 
earth above you with your lid, he asthikumbha tavopari tvadi_yena kapa_lena 
pr.thivi_mpratibadhna_mi: this is addressed to the urn, containing the bones and 
ashes. The urn is buried after the corpsehas been burnt. This verse is to be 
recited when the bones are covered with the lid: A_s'vala_yana Gr.hyaSu_tra 

10.018.14 At the decline of the day they have placed me (in the grave) like the 
feathers of an arrow; I haverestrained my declining voice as (they check) a 
horse with a bridle.

10.019.01 Come back; go not elsewhere; abounding in wealth, sprinkle us; Agni 
and Soma, you who clothe (yourworshippers) again, bestow upon us riches. 

10.018.12 Bring them back again, render them obedient; may Indra restor ethem; 
may Agni bring them near. [MayIndra restore them: make them obedient to you]. 

10.018.13 May they come back to me and be fostered under this (their) protector; 
do you Agni, keep them here;may whatever wealth (there is) remain here. 

10.018.14 I invoke the knowledge of the place, of their going, of their coming, 
of their departure, of theirwandering, of their returning; (I invoke) him who is 
their keeper.  

10.018.15 May the keeper return (with them); he who reaches them when lost; who 
reaches them when straying;who reaches them when wandering; and returning. [Who 
reaches them when lost: who attempts (anubhavati)going in different directions 
for the sake of following the lost cows]. 

10.018.16 Indra, come back and bring back (the cattle); give us our cows again, 
may we rejoice in our cowsbeing alive. [May we rejoice: bhunaja_mahai: that we 
may feed the gods and Pitr.s, by the offering of milk etc.] 

10.018.17 I nourish you gods, who are everywhere present, with curds, with 
butter, with milk; may all thosedeities who are entitled to worship reward us 
with riches. 

10.018.18 Come back (you cows), bring them back; return (you cows), bring them 
back; and (you cows) comingback, return, there are four quarters of the earth, 
bring them back from them.

10.020.01 (Agni), manifest towards us a favourable mind. [This one line is meant 
as a propitiation]. 

10.020.02 I glorify Agni, the youngest of the feeders (on oblations), friendly 
in counsel, difficult to resist, at whoserite the oblations seek heaven, as 
(calves) the udder of the mother cow. [Friendly in counsel: i.e., the friend of 
allbecause he instructs every man what to do and what not to do]. 

10.020.03 He whom (the worshippers) magnify with their mouth, the sustainer of 
pious works; whose banner isthe light, he shines, bestowing upon them all their 
desires. [With their mouth: with worship, vizz., praise andoblations; Bestowing 
upon them all their desires: or, sending a row of flames against the enemy]. 

10.020.04 The refuge of the people, the mover, who, when he moves, penetrates to 
the ends of the sky; thesage illumining the firmament. [The refuge of the 
people: aryo vis'a_m = who is to be gone to or had recourse toby worshipping 
men; illumining the firmament: when agni moves radiant, then he, the sage, 
reaches the ends ofheaven and the firmament; abhram = that which is 
characterized by clouds]. 

10.020.05 Accepting the oblations (offered) at the sacrifice of the worshipper, 
he blazes up, with a mighty flame;fixing his abode, he advances. [Fixing his 
abode: an allusion to a part of the fire worship: when the fire is takenfrom one 
altar or firepit, to another, from the saumiki_ vedi, or altar of libation, to 
the uttara vedi, the north orprincipal altar]. 

10.020.06 Agni is capable (of protecting all men), he is himself the oblation, 
and the sacrifice; rapidly indeed doeshis spirit move, the gods come to Agni, 
who bears the praises. [His spirit: ga_tuh = the superintending soul ofAgni, 
which hastens to call the gods]. 

10.020.07 Agni, who goes to (summon the gods), the bearer of the oblation, whom 
men call the sow of the stone;him I desire to worship (for the sake) of supreme 
felicity. [The sow of the stone: cf. RV 2.1.1]. 

10.020.08 May all the men who belong to us be (gratified) in all that is 
desirable, augmenting Agni with oblations.[All the men who belong to us: i.e., 
the sons and grandsons of the worshippers]. 

10.020.09 His chariot is black, white, red, tawny, dark red, crimson, and 
glorious; the progenitor of all has givenhim a chariot of gold. [His chariot is 
black: or, white, brilliant, vast, straight going, red and glorious; that 
thechariot should be of different colours is because of the exceeding power of 

10.020.10 Grandson of strength, Agni, who are gratified by the ambrosial 
(Viands), Vimada, (desirous of) wisdom,has recited your praises; do you, 
approaching with a kind intention, bestow upon us food, strength, and 
aprosperous abode. [A prosperous abode: or, progeny].

10.021.01 We invoke you now, Agni, invoker (of the gods), with our voluntary 
(praises) for the sacrifice, at whichthe sacred grass is spread; you, who 
underlying (all things), who (diffuses) purifying radiance, (we invoke) foryour 
exhilaration; you are mighty. 

10.021.02 Self-radiant, opulent in horses, they glorify you; the oblation poured 
out over (you) proceeds in astraight course, Agni, to you for your exhilaration; 
you are mighy. [The oblation poured out over you: upasecani_= ladle or spoon; 
tavopari ks.aran.as'i_la]. 

10.021.03 The establishers (of the rite) worship you with their ladles (filled 
with the oblation), like (earth)sprinkling (showers); you sustain exceedingly 
black forms and white and all beauties for your exhilaration; youare mighty. 
[Like earth-sprinkling showers: i.e., showers worship Agni as their pitr.; or, 
your rays dwell with youlike oblations spinkled with the ladles; for your 
exhilaration: vah = vis'vedeva_h]. 

10.021.04 Powerful and immortal Agni, bring to us, for our sustenance, the 
precious wealth which you think best;(bring it) for your exhilaration at the 
sacrifices; you are mighty. 

10.021.05 Agni, generated by Atharvan, is cognizant of all praises; he is the 
messenger of Vivasvat, the belovedfriend of Yama, for your exhilaration; you are 

10.021.06 The men establish you, Agni, at sacrifices, the ministrant priest, 
graceful, whose face shines withbutter, radiant, most intelligent with your 
eyes, for your exhilaration; (hence) you are mighty. 

10.021.07 Agni, you, the mighty one, are known far and wide by your radiant 
lustre; bellowing, you rush like abull, you impregnate the sister (plants) in 
your exhilaration; you are mighty. [vivaks.ase = maha_n bhavasi; vi vomade = in 
your; or, for your exhilaration, i.e., for the sake of the various kinds of 
exhilaration produced by drinkingthe Soma; vah = Agni; or, vis'vedeva_h; or, 
connected with vivaks.ase as cause and effect, as made san~jatesati yasma_d evam 
kr.tava_n asi tasma_t tvam maha_n bhavasi, the inebriation produced, i.e., since 
you havethus acted, you are great; The words vi vo made, seems like a quote or 
Soma-drinking refrain; perhaps also aplay upon the name Viimada].

10.022.01 In what place today is Indra renowned? In what nation is he famed like 
Mitra? (Indra), who isworshipper; or in secret = or, in the forest]. 

10.022.02 Here is Indra renowned; today he is praised by us, the wielder of the 
thunderbolt, the deserving ofpraise; he who, like Mitra, bestows upon men 
unequalled abundance. 

10.022.03 (May Indra protect us) who is the lord of great strenght, of 
unequalled (power), the distributor of greatwealth, the cherisher of the 
dreadful thunderbolt as a father (cherishes) a dear son. 

10.022.04 Thunderer, you who are divine, yoking your horses which are swifter 
than the divine wind, and glidingalong the resplendent road, you, opening out 
the way (to battle), are glorified. 

10.022.05 You have come to these two horses (which have the speed) of the wind, 
straight-going, for them todraw you of themselves, whom no deity, no mortal is 
able to restrain; whose fleetness no one comprehends. 

10.022.06 Us'anas inquires of youu two as you pass, "(Why) have you come to (our 
dwelling) from a distance;from heaven and earth to a mortal?" [You two: Indra 
and Agni; or, every worshipper inquires of you two Us'anas(and Indra)]. 

10.022.07 Accept, Indra, the oblation upraised by us; we solicit of you that 
protection by which you did slay thenon-human Sus.n.a. 

10.022.08 The Dasyu practising no religious rites, not knowing as thoroughly, 
following other observances,obeying no human laws, baffle, destroyer of enemies, 
the weapon of that slave. [Thoroughly: abhi = face to face,i.e., personally; 
amantuh = avamantuh = despising; following other observances: anyavratah, others 
than thoseof the s'ruti and smr.ti; a possible indication of the practice of 
soma vratas; ama_nus.ah =manus.yasam.vyavaha_ra_d ba_hyah, out of the laws or 
customs of men, asuraprakr.tiru_pah, being of thenature of evil spirits]. 

10.022.09 Hero, Indra, withh the hero (Maruts defend) us; that protected by you 
(we may be able) to overcome(our enemies); your blessings are diffused among 
many (praisers), as men (repair to their lord). 

10.022.10 Hero, Indra, wielder of the thunderbolt, you have animated those 
chiefs (the Maruts) to the slaughterof Vr.tra in battle, when (you hear) the 
mystical (praises) of the sages, the worshippers praising the might of 
theconstellations. [naks.atras'avasa_m = armies of raisers approaching the 

10.022.11 Hero, Indra, (your worshippers glorify) those prompt exploits 
performed by you in battle, (by you whoare) ever bountiful, when with your 
associate (Maruts) you destroyed the whole race o S'us.n.a. 

10.022.12 Hero, Indra, let not our manifold sacrifices be unavailing, but may we 
all, thunderer, (through) your(favour) continue in the fruiton of these (our 

10.022.13 May these our (praises) reaching you, Indra, be successful, doing no 
detriment (to you), so that,thunderer, we may obtain the benefits derivable from 
them, as (a cowherd enjoys those) from the kine. 

10.022.14 When the earth which has neither hands nor feet flourished throught 
the acts of (devotion paid to) theadorable (deities), then you did smite down 
S'us.n.a, circumambulating it on the right, for the sake of Vis'va_yu.[For the 
sake of vis'va_yu: going everywhere unimpeded; name of a king Aurvas'eya, 
descendant of U_rvas'i_]. 

10.022.15 Drink, hero Indra, drink the Soma; being excellent, harm (us) not, 
possessor of opulence; preservethose who praise you, and are affluent (in 
offerings), and render us rich with great riches. [Being excellent: i.e., itis 
not just that we should be punished for any defect in our worship of you who are 

10.023.01 We worship Indra, being in his right hand the thunderbolt, the driver 
of the bay horses which havemany functions; shaking his beard, he mounts on 
high, destroying (his enemies) by his armies he gives wealth (tohis 

10.023.02 With his two bay horses which bestow riches at the sacrifice, Indra, 
wealthy with wealth, is the slayerof Vr.tra; the brilliant, powerful, mighty 
Indra is the lord of strength; (through him) I cut off the head of the 
Da_sa.[Brilliant, powerful, mighty: r.bhu, va_ja, r.bhuks.an: names of three 
r.bhus, treates as epithets: di_pta, balavat,mahat; is the lord of strength: 
attacks the forces of the enemy; I cut off the head: na_ma cit, namyate nena, 
thatwith which one bows; or, I destroy his very name]. 

10.023.03 When he grasps his golden thunderbolt, then the opulent Indra ascends 
with his praisers, the chariotwhich his two bay horses draw, (Indra) the lord of 
long-celebrated and widely-renowned food. 

10.023.04 As the rain (bedews all), so, Indra, accompanied by his troops (of the 
Maruts), sprinkles their beards,with the green (Soma); he repairs to the 
pleasant chamber (of sacrifice); (the Soma) beign effused, the sweetSoma 
agitates (his frame), as the breeze (shakes) the forest. 

10.023.05 We praise his manhood, who, having by his voice alone made the many-
tongued speechless has slainmany thousand enemies, who supports the strength (of 
the world) as a father the strength (of his son). 

10.023.06 We Vimadas, have generated this your unprecedented, and most varied 
praise, Indra, to obtain yourbounty; as we know what the opulence of that lord 
is, (therefore) we call it (before us), as a cowherd (calls) hiscattle. 
attachment, divine (Indra), to be like that of a sister (to a brother) so may 
the friendship between us and youprosper.

10.024.01 Drink, Indra, this most sweet Soma, expressed by the planks (of the 
Soma-press), then bestow uponus riches in your exhilaration; thousandfold 
(riches), lord of infinite wealth; you are mighty. [The burden of ther.ca is vi 
vo made, as in su_kta 5]. 

10.024.02 We solicit you with sacrifices, with prayers, with oblations; lord of 
all pious acts, grant us in yourexhilaration, excellent and desirable 
(affluence); you are mighty. 

10.024.03 Indra, who are the lord of desirable (riches), the encourager of the 
worshipper, the protector of theeulogists, defend us, in your exhilaration, from 
adversaries, (guard us) from sin, you are mighty. 

10.024.04 Powerful and sagacious (As'vins) mutually associated, you have churned 
forth (the fire); when you,Na_satya_s, glorified by Vimada, have churned it 
forth. [You have churned forth the fire: i.e., you have producedfire for 
sacrifice by attrition; As'vins are the Adhvaryus and the As'vins produce the 
fire: as'vina_vadhvaryu_(Aitareya Bra_hman.a 1.18; Nirukta 3.14). 

10.024.05 All the gods praised you as you were mutually associated, and caused 
(the sparks) to fly up; the godshave said to the two Na_satya_s, "let the fire 
again bear (us oblations)"]. 

10.024.06 May my going forth be pleasant, may my coming back be pleasant, you 
two divine As'vins, render us,through your divine power, possessed of pleasure.

10.025.01 Sanctify (Soma) our mind, our heart, our intellect; and may (your 
worshippers) delight in yourfriendship, like cattle in fresh pasture, in your 
exhilaration (produced) by the (sacrificial) food; for you are mighty.[Daks.am = 
antara_tman, the soul or heart]. 

10.025.02 They who seek to touch your heart, Soma, worship you in all places; 
and these desires for wealth risefrom my heart at your exhilaration; for you are 

10.025.03 Verily, Soma, I practise all your observances with fullness; and as a 
father to his son, so do you inyour exhilaration make us happy; protect us from 
being killed (by our enemies); for you are mighty. 

10.025.04 Our praises converge (Soma) towards you, as herds towards a well; 
establish our pious acts, Soma,for us to live (long), as (the priest sets up) 
the cups for your exhilaration; for you are mighty. 

10.025.05 The intelligent (priests), whose desires are fixed (on the fruit of 
good works), with sacred rites showforth (the praises) of you, Soma, who are 
wise and powerful; do you, in your exhilaration, (grant us) pastures,abounding 
with cattle, and with horses; for you are mighty. 

10.025.06 You protect our cattle, Soma, and the variously occupied world, 
contemplating all existing beings; youprepare (the world) for them to live in 
for your exhilaration; for you are mighty. [For the exhilaration: vah = all 
thegods; Taittiri_ya Sam.hita_ both gods and men are dependent on gifts 
of Soma]. 

10.025.07 Be on all sides our preserver, Soma, you, who are unassailable; drive 
away, monarch, our adversariesin your exhilaration, and let no calumniator rule 
over us; for you are mighty. 

10.025.08 Soma, author of good works, liberal granter of fields, be vigilant in 
supplying us with food; and in your

10.025.09 Utter destroyer of enemies, Soma, who are the auspicious friend of 
Indra, (protect us), when hostilewarriors everywhere call us to the combat that 
bestows offsprin; by your exhilration (preserve us); for you aremighty. 

10.025.10 Such is the Soma which, swiftly moving, exhilarating, acceptable to 
Indra, has given increase (to ourunderstanding); it has increased the 
intelligence of the great and pious Kaks.i_vat in your exhilaration; for youare 

10.025.11 This Soma bestows, upon the pious donor of the libation, food with 
cattle; it gives wealth to the seven(priests) in the manifold exhilaration; it 
has restored (their faculties) to the blind, and the lame. [To the blind 
andearlier references)].

10.026.01 Since our appointed and acceptable prayers proceed to him, may the 
mighty Pu_s.an, of pleasingaspect, whose care is ever harnessed, protect us. [Of 
pleasing aspect: Dasra = dars'ani_yah; or, twoaccomplishers of the rite, the 
yakana_na and his wife; may Pu_s.an protect them]. 

10.026.02 (May e) whose greatness (manifested as) the matured rain, this pious 
man celebrates with piousrites-- may he be cognizant of such excellent praises. 

10.026.03 He, Pu_s.an, is cognizant of such excellent praises; like Soma he is 
the showerer (of benefits); thegraceful deity rains down upon us, he rains upon 
our cow-pastures. 

10.026.04 We glorify you, divine Pu_s.an, the accomplisher of our desires, who 
make the pious to quake.[Quake: a_dhavam = making them shake with reverence and 
respect]. the devout, scattering (his foes). 

10.026.06 Lord both of the pure desirable (she-goat), and of the pure (he-goat); 
weave3r of the cloth (of thewool) of the sheep; he has cleansed the vestments. 
[He has cleaned: va_sova_yovi_na_m, making woollencloths such as the woollen 
filter etc.; cleansed: Pu_s.an is purifying all around by light and heat]. 

10.026.07 The ruler, the lord of viands, the soverign, the friend of the 
contentment (of all); he who isunassailable, gently shakes his beard (when 
drinking the Soma of the sacrificer), desiring (his favour). [Desiring:haryatah: 
an epithet of Pu_s.an, the desirable]. 

10.026.08 THe goats, Pu_s.an, bear the burden of your car, who are the friend of 
every suppliant, born long ago,never-failing (in your duty). 

10.026.09 May the mighty Pu_s.an protect our chariot by his might; may he be to 
us the augmenter of food; mayhe hear this our invocation.

10.027.01 (Indra speaks). Such is my pleasant disposition, worshipper, that I 
help the institutor of the rite, whooffers libation; but I am the punisher of 
him who offers not libations, who disregards the truth, the perpetrator ofsin, 
the malignant. [I help...libations: I bestow upon him whatever he desires; 
a_tma_ vai putrana_ma_si(A_s'vala_yana Gr.hya Su_tra 1.15.11) iti 
vacana_dindraru_pen.a_vasthito vasuvra a_tma_nam stauti; themalignant: a_bhum = 
vya_pnuvantam; or, s'atrum maha_ntam]. 

10.027.02 If I encounter in combat the undevout, resplendent in their bodies, 
then will I cook a vigorous bull forthem, and will sprinkle (upon the fire) the 
exhilarating Soma the fifteen-fold (Soma). [Soma is called fifteen-foldbecause 
it grows during the light half of the month stalk by stalk on the fifteen days, 
beginning with pratipat (thefirst day), and similarly die off during the dark 
half of the moth; or, because the Soma offered at noonday isaccompanied by the 
Trivr.t and pan~cadas'a Stomas]. 

10.027.03 I know not that man who says that he is the slayer in battle of those 
who do not reverence the gods;but when (I behold) the fierce war commenced, then 
(my enemies) proclaim my prowess. 

10.027.04 When I enter upon unprecedented combats, then all those who are 
affluent in oblations approach meso engaged; I destroy the mighty and 
overpowering foe for the protection of the world, and, seizing him by thefeet, 
throw him down from the mountain. [Approach me so engaged: i.e, stand round 
praising me in order to inciteme to prowess]. 

10.027.05 None resist me (engaged) in combat, not even the mountains when I am 
resolved; at my shout the dullof hearing is alarmed, and so too even the bright-
rayed (sun) trembles day by day. [The dull of hearing:kr.dhukarn.a: may be the 
name of an asura; or, may denote one hard of hearing, deaf]. 

10.027.06 Beholding here the drinkers of the libations who serve not Indra, who 
cut (the worshippers) to pieceswith their hands, assailing them to do them harm; 
my shafts quickly fall upon them, as well as on those who revile(your) powerful 
friend.  all existence; the ancient Indra verily destroys (his foe), the other 
does not destroy (Indra). The united two(heaven and earth) surpass not him who 
extends beyond the confines of the universe. [United two: pavaste =going; i.e., 
going in order to surpass everyone in greatness]. 

10.027.08 The assembled cattle feed upon the barley; I their master have beheld 
them grazing, tended by theherdsman; when called, they collect around their 
lord; when they approach, how much milk does he desire (totake)? 

10.027.09 When we, the grass-eaters of men, (are) together, I (am) among the 
barley-eaters in the wide field;here he who is yoked would like one to unloose 
him, and the assailant would yoke him who is unyoked. 

10.027.10 (Indra speaks). You know that what is said by me at this time is the 
truth, that I may create both bipedsand quadrupeds. I distribute without 
conflict (among my worshippers) the wealth (that I have taken from him), 
who(neglecting me), the showerer of desires), wishes to contend with women. 

10.027.11 What (other god but me) whose eyeless daughter is ever present knows 
her and honours (her) theblind one; which of the two (deities) lets loose that 
bolt against (a foe)-- he who assails, (or) he who protects him.[What other god 
but me: This is referred to Indra, whose eyeless daughter is Prakr.ti, crude 
matter or nature,born of Indra as the creator, and at the maha_pralaya (final 
dissolution of the world) merging into him only;eyeless daughter: he whose 
daughter was once eyeless, who, knowing this, will despise her for being blind?] 

10.027.12 How many a woman has been gratified by the flattering praise of man's 
desire, when the bride isfortunate and beautiful, she of herself chooses her 
husband among men.  

10.027.13 He seizes (it) with his feet, he swallows it when it approaches him, 
he places the head (of heaven) asa guard around his head; seated (above) he 
sends (his rays) upwards to the proximate heaven; he send themdownwards, on the 
outspread earth. [He seizes it: i.e., the rain. Indra is here identified with 
A_ditya, the Sun,whose functions of evaporating moisture and restoring it as 

10.027.14 The great (sun), shadeless, undecaying, ever-moving, abides; the 
builder (of the world), who isliberated, the germ (of the three worlds), eats 
(the oblations), fondling the offspring of another (mother), heconstructs (the 
quarters of the world); with what design has the cow offered her udder? 
[Undecaying: apala_s'ah= without a leaf, explained as vina_s'arahitah, without 
decay; another mother: Aditi, the mother of the gods;A_ditya, the sun, is her 
offspring; the cow: i.e., the sky, who offers the sun as her udder, whence the 
rain may bemilked]. 

10.027.15 Seven sages sprang from the lower portion (of Indra as Praja_pati); 
eight were born from the upperportion; nine occupants of stations came from 
behind, and ten, generated in the front, partaking of food,eight va_lakhilyas; 
nine bhr.gus; ten an:girasas; or, seven Maruts on Indra's right, eight on his 
left, nine behindhim, and ten in front]. 

10.027.16 (The other an:girasas) despatched one of the ten, Kapila, as equal (to 
the task) for the completion ofthe sacrifice; the gratified mother cherishes the 
embryo well-deposited in the waters, and not desirous of anabiding place. 
[Gratified mother water: Prakr.ti cherishes the germ of creation deposited by 
Praja_pati in thesubtle elements; reference to Kapila, may imply a reference to 
sa_m.khya philosophy]. 

10.027.17 The sages cooked a fat ram; they followed (praja_pati) in succession 
like dice thrown in gambling; two(of them), having the means of purification and 
becoming purified, proceed in the midst of the waters to (Prakr.ti)the 
augmenter, to (Kapila) the implement of destruction. [A fat ram: i.e., the 
an:girasas sacrificed an animal toIndra as Praja_pati; in gambling: di_va, 
devane raman.astha_ne; dvau = two of the an:girasas; dhanum = themeans of 
killing ignorance and the like, or the doer of kindness, i.e., kapila; br.hati_m 
= the increase by commandof Praja_pati, i.e., Prakr.ti]. 

10.027.18 They (the An:girasas) go in all directions calling (upon Praja_pati), 
half of them cook (their oblations),the other half cook not; this divine Savita_ 
has told me this-- (Agni), whose food is wood and ghi_, serves(Praja_pati by 
means of oblations). [Savitr. = the stimulator of all, i.e., A_ditya or 

10.027.19 I beheld the crowd coming from afar, moving of themselves without 
wheels; the lord of all, (Indra),regulates the seasons (worship of men), younger 
in vigour, destroying at once the herds of evil beings. [Herds:s'is'na_ = 
destructive herds or fa_ks.asas]. 

10.027.20 Turn not back, but repeatedly praise these two yoked (steeds) of me 
the destroyer, which advance (tothe foe and to the sacrifice); the waters fulfil 
Indra's purpose and (so does) the all-cleansing sun, being (swift as)a cloud. 
[Which advance to... sacrifice: ga_vau; yuktau = well worshipped; the 
waters...cloud: I have beheld Indraas Praja_pati, driving the crowd from afar 
and approaching with his army, self-moving, without chariots]. 

10.027.21 This is the thunderbolt which repeatedly falls (on those who are) 
below the orb of the vast sun; theworshippers easily cause this water (in the 
sun's orb) above which is differnet form that (in the clouds) to passthrough 
(the firmament).  

10.027.22 The bowstring fixed to each bow clangs loudly; then the man-destroying 
(shafts like) birds fall upon(the foes); and the whole of this world is alarmed, 
presentinglibations to Indra, and donations to the R.s.is. [Lit. :The cow lows 
attaached tree by tree (to different trees), the man-eating birds fly out from 
it (?from the tree)]. 

10.027.23 At the creation of the gods, the (clouds) stood first; from their 
division, the waters (of the rain) cameforth; the three divinities (Parjanya, 
Va_yu and A_ditya). Sowing in succession, warm the earth; two of them(Va_yu and 
A_ditya) convey all-delighting water (to the sun's sphere). [megha_ eva 
ma_dhyamiva_ devagan.a_h:Nirukta 2.22]. 

10.027.24 That your (divine) nature identified with the (sun) is the cause of 
life; and know such (solar form) of his(to be worthy of adoration) at the 
sacrifice; conceal nothing; that motion of him the all-cleansing (sun) 
makesmanifest the universe; it absorbs the moisture; it is never discontinued.

10.028.01 (The wife of Vasukra speaks). Every other (divine) lord has come, but 
my father-in-law has notcome;may he eat the parched grain; and drink the Soma; 
when he is well-satisfied, may he return home.[Legend: Indra came in disguise to 
a sacrifice celebrated by Vasukra, whose wife, not recognizing him, prayed 
forhis presence; to satisfy her that he had actually come, the following 
dialogue occurs]. 

10.028.02 (Indra speaks). (Indra) the showerer (of blessings), having not rays, 
abides roaring in the resoundingexpanse of the firmament; in all conflicts I 
defend him, (Vasukra), who, having effused the libation, fills my flanks. 

10.028.03 (Vasukra speaks). Your worshippers express with the stone fast flowing 
exhilarating Soma for you, youdrink them; they roast bulls for you, you eat 
them, when you are invoked, Maghavan, to the sacrificial food. [Theyroast bulls: 
you eat the cattle offered as oblations belonging to the worshippers who cook 
them for you; aduru =ore, native metal (Kannada)(DEDR 191)]. 

10.028.04 Overcomer of foes, (Indra) be cognizant of this my (power, whereby) 
rivers bear their waterbackwards, and the eater of cut (grass) confronts the 
lion, the jackal drives the wild boar from his lair. [Foes: Oworshipper, 
Vasukra: Indra being the speaker; alternative: Vasukra speaks claiming 
superhuman power as theson of Indra; eater of cut grass: i.e., the deer; or, is 
it the fox, jackal, from i_lup, i_rup, to carry off (rob)? jackaldrives: I have 
the power to alter the ordinary course of nature.] 

10.028.05 How, Indra, should I yet immature (in understanding), be capable of 
comprehending this (your power,so as to render fitting) praise to those who are 
wise and powerful? Therefore, do you who are all-knowinginstruct us in fit 
season; the portion of your (praise) O Maghavan, which (we offer) is a burden 
easy to be borns.[Instruct us: Since we cannot perform even a portion of your 
power without an effort on account of our slownessof mind, do you again tel us 
your power and the way to praise you]. 

10.028.06 (Indra speaks). Since (your laudations) thus increase my strength, 
(let the praise of me) who ammighty, (rise) even higher than the heavens. I 
destroy at once many thousand (of foes), for the generator (of all)has 
engendered me without an enemy. [Increase my strength: tavasam = augment me so 
as to make me strong;generator: as'atrum = the generator has engendered me, 
without any enemies whom I could not overcome]. 

10.028.07 Since, Indra, the gods have known me to be powerful, fierce in every 
act, the showerer (of oblations);exulting I have slain Vr.tra with your 
thunderbolt, and by my might have opened the clouds for the donor (ofoblations). 
[Gods: or, the priests and yajama_nas]. 

10.028.08 The gods came, they bare their axes, clearing the woods, they came 
with men in front of the waters;depositing (the tree) of good wood in the belly 
(of the river); where the underwood (is), they burnt it up. [Thegods proceed and 
carry the thunderbolts to cleave the clouds; then, accompanied by the Maruts 
etc., cleavingthe clouds, they advance towards the (rain), waters; then, placing 
the well-flowing (rain water) in the rivers, theyburn the clouds where the water 
is concealed (to make the water flow)]. 

10.028.09 (Vasukra speaks). The hare graps the assailing beast of prey; with a 
clod of clay I cleave the distant(mountain); I can compel the great to submit to 
the small; swelling (with courage) the calf attacks the bull.[ks.uram= a long 
hard, sharp claw, like a razor, belonging to lion, tiger, etc., i.e., a strong 
fierce wild beast. If ks.uramimplies, a razor as in RV 8.4.16, the use of metal 
for tool-making is apparent]. 

10.028.10 The hawk has fastened her claw in heaven; a lion confined (in a cage) 
places one foot over the other.As a captive buffalo (is) thirsty, (so) Indra 
thirsted for the Soma, Ga-yatri_ brought it to him easily (from 
heaven).[Allusion to the bringinf of the Soma from heaven]. 

10.028.11 Ga_yatri_ drew it away without difficulty, for the good of those 
(gods) who, (satisfied) with the viandsof Indra, retaliate the injuries (of the 
enemies of the gods); they devour all the sprinkling (Soma libations) left 
(byIndra), spontaneously destroying the armies and bodies (of the enemy). 

10.028.12 They have been sanctified by holy rites, who have fostered their 
bodies with prayers, at the Soma(sacrifice); speaking like a man, grant us food, 
you possess in heaven name and fame as a hero.

10.029.01 As (the bird) who deposits its young (in its nest) in the tree (is) 
eagerly looking around, so you bearers(As'vins) your pure praise (ever) keeps 
you awake; (that praise) of which Indra has for many days been theinvoker, 
(Indra) the friend of man, the manliest of men, (to whom the Soma) is offered at 
night. [Sa_yan.a adds:"Thus, he (?some older commentator) explains, treating 
this verse as one composed in praise of the As'vins, thisis wrong, for the hymn 
being in praise of Indra, this first verse too is in praise of Indra." Nirukta 

10.029.02 May we be prosperous at the coming of the present or of any future 
dawn, (through the adoration) ofyou, the chief leader of men; through your 
favour Tris'oka obtained a hundred followers; the chariot which wascommon to him 
and you was acquired by Kutsa. 

10.029.03 What sort of exhilaration, Indra, is agreeable to you? You who are 
powerful hasten to the doors (of thesacrificial chamber) to our praises; when 
will the Soma be present? (When will) intelligence (come) to me? When,having 
propitiated you, may I acquire wealth and food? 

10.029.04 When, Indra, (having partaken of) our oblation, and by what sacred 
rite, will you render menresembling you? When will you bring them to us? You, 
who are widely renowned, are to us like a true friend,(attentive) for our 
support, when the minds of all were (anxious) for food. 

10.029.05 As the sun (brings) the ascetic, do you bring to the end (of 
existence) (your worshippers), who satisfyyour desire (fo the Soma), as husbands 
(the desire of their wives); and who (being) leaders of rites, multiformIndra, 
offer to you ancient praises with (sacrificial) viands. 

10.029.06 By your overwhelming energy, Indra, the vast heaven and earth, the 
measurers (of all), have beenquickly constructed; may the Soma-libations mixed 
with ghi_ be acceptable (to you) who are most excellent; (maythe oblations be) 
sweet for your drinking. 

10.029.07 (The worshippers) have poured out the vessel full of the sweet (Soma) 
(into the fire) for that Indra, forhe is true (to his promises) of wealth; 
Indra, the friend of man, (distinguished) by his actions, and his prowess, 
ismagnified throughout the expanse of the firmament. [Note that the Soma is 
poured into the fire!] 

10.029.08 The powerful Indra reaches the hosts (of the enemy), the mightiest 
(hosts) exert themselves to obtainhis friendship; ascend, Indra, that chariot 
which you direct with favourable intent (to our sacrifice), as a chariot(which 
you mount) against the armies (of the foe).

10.030.01 (Honoured) by adoration, let the advancing Soma approach the celestial 
waters like the celerity of themind; offer abundant (sacrificial) food, and 
perfect praise for the sake of Mitra and Varun.a, and for (Indra) therapid 

10.030.02 Priests, since you are charged with the libation, desiring (to present 
it), proceed to the waters desiring(to receive it), to those (waters) which the 
red hawk beholds descending (from the clouds); do you,dextrous-handed (priests), 
cast today that flood (of Soma) into (the consecrated water). [Red hawk: 
suparn.a =supatanah somah, the Soma descending gracefully (ava) from the 
firmament, and suhasta = ornamented with

10.030.03 Go, priests, to the water, to the reservoir; worship the grandson of 
the waters with oblations; may hetoday give you the consecrated water, and do 
you pour forth  to him the sweet-flavoured Soma. [The grandson ofthe waters: 
apa_m napa_tam = deity appointed to produce the rain]. 

10.030.04 (He) who shines, without fuel, in the midst of the waters, he whom the 
pious worship at sacrifices,grandson of the waters, give us those sweet waters 
by which (mixed with the Soma), Indra is elevated toheroism. [Soma personified, 
as the grandson of the waters is related to Soma which is to be mixed with the 
waterof the Vasati_vari_]. 

10.030.05 Those waters with which Soma sports and delights as a man (sports) 
with elegant young damsels; doyou, priest, approach to obtain them; when you 
sprinkle them (in libation), purify (them with the filter) along withthe plants. 

10.030.06 Verily as young damsels welcome a youth when desiring (them), he comes 
to them desiring (him), sothe priests and their praise and the divine waters 
agree in mind and contemplate (their mutual assistance). [Theyouth and nymphs 
are the Soma and the Vasati_vari_ waters; nothing more is meant than their 

10.030.07 Present, waters, the sweet-flavoured god-exhilarating mixture to that 
Indra who has made an issue foryou when enveloped (by the clouds); who has 
liberated you from a great calamity. 

10.030.08 Send forth, rivers, the sweet-flavoured beverage to him who is your 
germ, a well of the sweet (Soma),the Soma which is mixed with butter adorable at 
sacrifices; hear, opulent waters my invocation. 

10.030.09 Send, rivers, (to our sacrifice), that exhilarating wave the Soma of 
Indra, which sends us both (kinds offruit), exciting exhilaration, desirous (of 
mixing with the Soma). Generated in the firmament, spreading through thethree 
(worlds), flowing (amidst the vessels of sacrifices), a well (of satisfaction to 
the gods). [Both kinds of fruit:the fruit, whether reward or punishment, of the 
present life (dr.s.t.a), and of a former life (adrs.t.a)]. flowing to mix (with 
the Soma), the mothers of the world and its protectresses, augmenting and 
combining (withthe Soma). 

10.030.11 Direct our sacrifice to the worship of the gods; direct our adoration 
to the acquisition of wealth; openthe udder on the occasion of (this) rite; be 
to us, waters, the givers of felicity. [The udder: u_dhas is the skin inwhich 
the Soma is contained (adhis.avanacarma); yoga = the cart on which Soma is 
placed; opoen the skinwhich is on (or below) the sacrificial cart (Nirukta 6.22: 
u_dhasodhasta_davasthiteneti manyama_no niruktaka_robravi_ti-- ya_jn~e s'akat.a 
iti va_)]. 

10.030.12 Opulent waters, you rule over riches; you support good fortune, pious 
rites, and immortality; you arethe protectresses of wealth and of offspring; may 
Sarasvati_ bestow all this opulence on him who praises you. 

10.030.13 I behold you, waters, coming to (the sacrifice), conveying the butter, 
the water, the sweet (Soma);conversing mentally with the priests, and bringing 
the well-effused Soma for Indra. 

10.030.14 These opulent and life-sustaining (waters) have come (to my 
sacrifice); friendly priests, make them sitdown; place them on the sacred grass, 
you offerers of the Soma, conversing with the grandson of the waters. 

10.030.15 The waters desiring (it) have come to this sacred grass, and wishing 
to satisfy the gods, have satdown at our sacrifice; express priests, the Soma 
for Indrra; for you the worship of the gods is easy.

10.031.01 May he, who is to be praised by us, his worshippers, and to be adored, 
(Indra), come with all his swift(Maruts), for our protection, may we be 
excellent friends with them; may we be freed from all sins. 

10.031.02 Let a mortal be ever desirous of affluence, (having acquired it), let 
him worship with oblations on thepath of the sacrifice; and let him with his own 
intellect meditate upon (the gods); let him grasp with his mind thebest and most 
mighty (of the universal deities). 

10.031.03 The sacrifice has been prepared; the invigorating portions (of thhe 
oblation) approach the beautiful(god) of excellent birth, as (the waters) at a 
holy spot (approach the gods); may we obtain the happiness ofheaven; may we have 
a real knowledge of the immortals. [Waters at a holy spot: as at a ti_rtha 
(sacred ford) theportions of water sprinkled in the act of tarpan.a (libation) 
go to the assembly of the gods; may we have a realknowledge: navedasah = na na 
vetta_ro vetta_ra eva, i.e., svaru_pato jn~a_ta_ra eva, knowing personally; 
thederivation is: not-knowers (cf. also Pa_n.ini 6.3.75); na paretam vetti, he 
does not know falsely]. 

10.031.04 May the eternal (Praja_pati), the lord of wealth, of generous mind, be 
willing to bestow (benefits onhim) to whom the divine Savita_ has given birth; 
may Bhaga (induced) by (our) praises, and the divine Aryamanunfold (future 
rewards); or may some (other) gracious (divinity) be inclined to favour this 
(institutor of the rite). 

10.031.05 May this (our praise) be accessible like the earth at dawn, when the 
glorious (gods) assemble in theirmight; may the Va_jas, the dispensers of 
happiness, come to us, soliciting the laudation of this (their) adorer. 

10.031.06 May this glorification, of this (assemly of the gods), ancient and 
frequent, approaching (the deities), bewidely diffused, (may the universal 
gods), collected together, bearing (future rewards, come) to the commonplace (of 
sacrifice) of this one who is mighty, which nourishes (them). [Of this one who 
is mighty: i.e., of me whohas strength in the nature of progeny]. 

10.031.07 What is the forest, which is the tree, out of which (the gods) have 
fabricated heaven and earth,ever-stationary and undecaying, giving protection to 
the deities; through numerous days and dawns (men)praises (the gods for this). 

10.031.08 Not such (is their power); there is another greater than they; the 
creator, he sustains heaven andearth; possessed of might, he makes a pure skin, 
before his horses bear it to the sun. [Not such is their power:naita_vat, not so 
much; the race of gods is not possessed of so much power, namely, that of 
creating heavenand earth; the creator: uks.a = lit., the bull, the sprinkler of 
seed, i.e., the creator of people, hiran.yagarbha;extremely subtle, in the form 
of wind, consisting of the lin:ga (i.e., the subtle body that accompanies the 
soul in itsmigration, not being destroyed at death, when the outer gross body is 
destroyed) entering the waters supportsheaven and earth; before his horses bear 
it to the sun: i.e., before creation; the creator took upon himself abodily 
form, before creating other forms]. 

10.031.09 The sun does not pass beyond the broad earth, the wind does not drive 
the rain from off the earth; (Iglorify Praja_pati) in whom Mitra and Varun.a 
being manifested, disperse their radiance, as Agni (spreads hisflames) in a 

10.031.10 When a barren cow being suddenly impregnated bears (a calf), she the 
repeller of evils, free frompain, self-protected, produces (offspring); when 
(Agni), the ancient son, is generated by his two parents, earthejects the S'ami_ 
which the priests are seeking. [S'ami_: s'ami_garbha_dagnim manthanti: 
Taittiri_yaBra_hman.a 1.1.9; the cow which was barren is the S'ami_ tree, which 
brings forth the as'vattha, and from thewood of these two trees are made the 
aran.i, the two pieces of wood which are rubbed together to produce thesacred 
fire-- the upper and harder piece is the s'ami_ (acacia suma) and the lower and 
softer piece is theas'vattha (ficus religiosa); the ancient son: or, the saviour 
from hell, from put and tra]. 

10.031.11 (The expounders of the Vedas) spoke to Kan.va, the son of Nr.s.ad, and 
he the dark-tinted, havingfood, acquired wealth; (Agni) sprinkled (the milk of 
the brilliant udder for the dark (complexioned sage); no otherdivinity so 
favours the sacrifice for him].

10.032.01 Indra sends his quick-going horses to the service of the (worshipper) 
expectant (of his arrival); may hecome to the excellent (adorations) of the 
(worshipper), propitiating him by suitable means; Indra is gratified byboth our 
(oblations and praises), when he recognizes (the taste) of the food presented by 
the offerer of theSoma. 

10.032.02 Indra, who is praised by many, you pervade the luminaries of heaven 
and earth with your lustre; maythe horses that repeatedly bring you to our 
sacrifices, pleased by our praise, bring affluence to us who are poor. 

10.032.03 May (Indra) desire for me this (act of sacrifice). The most beautiful 
of beautiful things, (as) when a sonproclaims his birth from his parents. The 
wife brings her husband (to her side) with gentle words; the goodfortune of the 
husband is perfected only as marriage. [When a son proclaims his birth: at the 
time of theSubrahman.ya recitation, the sacrificer proclaims his birth, saying, 
"the son of so and so and worships"; thewife...marriage:  the Soma to be divided 
for the sake of the heroic Indra bearing (Soma?) to the gods issanctified-- may 
Indra desire it]. 

10.032.04 Shine, Indra, upon this elegant chamber of sacrifice when our praises 
desire (your approach) as kine(desire) their stalls; since the praise of (me) 
the worshipper precedes (the adoration) of the company, and thisperson 
accompanied by the seven officiating priests is the offerer of praise. 

10.032.05 The devout (priest) excels (going) towards your place of worship; the 
quick-moving (Indra), the chief(of the priests), proceeds with the Rudras, (the 
Maruts); sprinkle the exhilarating (Soma with water) for theprotecting 
(deities), the immortals among whom praise is (able) to procure wealth. 

10.032.06 The guardian of the sacred rites of the gods, Indra, said to me, 
(Agni), who had been deposited in thewaters; the sagacious Indra, following you, 
Agni, has discovered you, therefore, admonished by him may I, Agni,proceed to 
heaven. [Deposited in the waters: a play on the word nidhi_yama_nam, being 
deposited; also, a titleof the fire placed on the altar, at the kurus'ravan.a 
ceremony]. proceeds (to his destination); such verily is the good of 
instruction, and (thereby) one finds tehe path of thethings that are to be 
reached by a straight path. [One finds the path: i.e., the thirsty man finds the 
right road tothe waters which have to be reached by a straight path, or taking 
an~jasi_na_m as an adjective agreeing withstutim, not crooked, a path which may 
be easily travelled over]. 

10.032.08 Today (Agni) breathed; he purposed (to conduct) these days surrounded 
(by lustre), and drank thesap of his mother (earth); the praise of his 
(worshippers) reaches the over-youthful (Agni), and he has becomegentle, 
generous, and well-disposed. 

10.032.09 (Indra), the possessor of the pitchers, the bearer of the praise of 
the Kurus, let us celebrate theseauspicious adorations of you, the giver of 
riches; may he, (Indra), be the donor (of affluence) to you who areopulent, (in 
pious offering), and (so may) this Soma which I cherish in my heart. [The 
possessor of the pitchers:kalas'a = complete in all the arts (kala_? lunar 
digits); kurus'ravan.a = hearer of the praise of priests; the nextsu_kta refers 
to this term as the name of a prince].

10.033.01 The (divinities, the) appointers of men, have appointed me to 
Kurus'ravan.a; I have borne Pu_s.an onthe way; the universal gods are my 
protectors; the cry is: "duhs'a_su comes" [cf. Taittiri_ya Sam.hita_]. 

10.033.02 My ribs pain me on both sides, like rival wives; disease, nakedness, 
hunger, afflict me; my mindflutters like a bird. 

10.033.03 Afflictions consume me, your worshipper S'atakratu, as mice (eat) 
threads, for once, Indra, possessorof opulence, grant us felicity; be to us as a 
father. [As mice eat threads: threads that have been washed]. 

10.033.05 Whose three horses bear me pleasantly in the chariot; I praise him at 
the ceremony in which hepresents thousands. 

10.033.06 Upamas'ravas, the words of whose father were sweet, like a pleasant 
field given to a beggar. [Thisand the following r.cas are explained as the 
consolatory verses addressed by Kavas.a to Upamas'ravas on thedeath of his 
father king Mitra-tithi]. 

10.033.07 Come to me, my son, grandson of Mitra_tithi; I am the eulogist of your 

10.033.08 If I were lord oover immortals and mortals, then should my munificent 
(benefactor) live. 

10.033.09 No one lives  hundred years passing the limit fixed by the gods; so he 
is separated from his friends.[Hundred years: No one, even if he has a hundred 
lives, can live beyond the limit fixed].

10.034.01 The large rattling dice exhilarate me as torrents borne on a precipice 
flowing in a desert; the excitingdice animate me as the taste of the Soma of 
Maujavat (delights the gods). [Flowing in a desert: irin.evarvr.ta_nah: a 
reference to the dice; rolling on the dice-board; exciting dice: vibhi_taka, the 
seed of themyrobalan, used as a die; Maujavat: a mountain, where is said the 
best Soma is found]. 

10.034.02 This (my wife) has not been angry (with me), nor was she overcome with 
sham; kind was she to meand to my friends; yet for the sake of one or other die, 
I have deserted this affectionate spouse. 

10.034.03 My mother-in-law reviles me, my wife opposes me; the beggar meets no 
compassionate (benefactor); Ido not realize the enjoyment of the gamester any 
more than that of a valuable horse grown old. 

10.034.04 Others touch the wife of him whose wealth the potent dice covet; his 
mother, father, brothers say, "weknow him not, take him away bound (where you 
will)". [Touch the wife: parimr.s'anti: they drag her by her clothesor her 

10.034.05 When I relect, (then I say), "I will play no more with them". I pay 
attention to my friends who desert(me); and the tawny dice rattle as they are 
thrown; I hasten to their accustomed place as a harlot (to anassignation). 

10.034.06 The gamester goes to the gambling table, radiant in person, and asking 
himself, "Shall I win?" Thedice increase his passion for play as he practises 
the arts of (gambling) with his adversary. [Shall I win: askingwhat rich man is 
here; I shall beat him]. 

10.034.07 Dice verily are armed with hooks, with goads, pricking, paining and 
torturing (the gamester); to thewinning (player) they are the givers of sons, 
they are tipped with honey; slaying him in return by taking away thegambler's 
(all). [They are the givers of sons: by acquiring wealth through their means a 
family may be reared; bytaking the gambler's all: barhan.a = parivr.ddhen.a 

10.034.08 The aggregate fifty-three of them are played as the divine truth, 
observant Savita_, (travels); the dicebow not before the wrath of any, however 
violent; a king himself pays them homage. [The aggregate...travels: asthe sun 
roams (viharati) in the world, so the heap of dice moves or plays on the dice 
table (a_spha_re). Maybe,fifty-three dice were used, aks.ika_h pra_yen.a 
ta_vadbhir aks.air di_vyati, gamblers usually play with so manydice; maybe, the 
dice were thrown from east to west to render the comparison with the sun 

10.034.09 Now they abide below; now they palpitate on high handless, they 
overpower him who has hands; castupon the dice-board like coals from the sky, 
even though cold they burn the heart. 

10.034.10 The deserted wife of the gamester is afflicted; the mother (grieves) 
for the son wandering wherever helikes; involved in debt, ever in fear, anxious 
for wealth, (the gambler) goes forth by night to the dwellings of others(to 

10.034.11 The gamester, having observed the happy wife and well-ordered home of 
others, suffers regret; yet inthe forenoon he puts to the tawny steeds, and at 
night the sinner lies down by the fire. 

10.034.12 Dice, I offer salutation to him who has been the general of your great 
army, the chief lord of your host;I do not provide him with wealth; I raise my 
ten (fingers) to the east; that (which) I speak (is) the truth. [I do notprovide 
him wealth: na dana_ run.adhmi = I do not withhold my wealth; na sampa_daya_mi]. 

10.034.13 Giving serious attention (to my advie), play not with dice; pursue 
agriculture; delight in wealth (soacquired); there, gambler, are cows; there is 
a wife; so has this (visible) sovereign Savita_ declared to me.[Their: there, 
i.e., in agriculture]. 

10.034.14 Be friends with us (dice); bestow upon us happiness; approach us not 
in terrible wrath; let your angerlight upon our enemies; let our enemy fall 
under the bondage of the tawny (dice). [Let your anger light upon ourenemies: 
let your hostile wrath against us settle down, i.e., grow calm, cease].

10.035.01 The fires that are connected with Indra are awake, bringing light at 
the opening of the dawn; let thegreat heaven and earth be cognizant of that 
office; to-day we solicit the protection of the gods. [At the opening ofthe 
dawn: when he dawn repels the darkness]. 

10.035.02 We solicit the protection of heaven and earth; (we solicit) the 
maternal rivers, the mountains with theirlakes, the sun and the dawn, for 
freedom from sin; may the Soma that is now effused secure to us today 
goodfortune. [The mountains with their lakes = lit., the mountains of (the lake) 

10.035.03 May the vast maternal heaven and earth this day preserve us for our 
happiness, free from sin; may theopening dawn drive away our sin; we solicit the 
kindled fire for our welfare. [May the opening dawn drive awayour sin: ucchanti 
= driving away the darkness-- ucchanti_ tama_m.si biva_sayanti_]. 

10.035.04 May this first dawn, the possessor of wealth, open; bringing to us who 
are liberal (a season) fit for thegods, abounding with riches; we consider the 
anger of the malevolent (to be) remote; we solicit the kindled firefor our 
welfare. [We consider...remote: we put it far off]. 

10.035.05 Dawns, who are associated with the rays of the sun, bringing light at 
the opening (of the day), shineupon us today, propitious, for our subsistence; 
we solicit the kindled fire for our welfare. 

10.035.06 May the salutary dawns hasten to us; may the fires blaze up with great 
lustre, and may the As'vinsharness their quick-going chariot; we solicit the 
kindled fire for our welfare. 

10.035.07 Savita_, this day bestow upon us excellent and eligible portion, for 
you verily are the dispenser ofwealth; I recite the praise (of the gods) which 
is the progenitress of riches; we solicit the kindled fire for ourwelfare. 

10.035.08 May that glorification of the gods which men repeat in connection with 
the rite preserve me; the sunrises visiting all the lustre of the dawn; we 
solicit the kindled fire for our welfare. 

10.035.09 On strewing the sacred grass, and bringing the stones into contact 
(with the Soma), whereby ourwishes are accomplished, we solicit today the 
benevolent (A_dityas); abiding in the happiness of those A_dityas,you 
discharged, worshipper, your duties, we solicit the kindled fire for our 
welfare. [Whereby our wishes areaccomplished: manmanas sa_dhe = lit., on the 
accomplishment of our wishes; or, an epithet of yoga, the bringinginto contact, 
which is the accomplisher (sa_dhake) of our wishes; you discharge your duties: 
bhuran.yasi =kartavya_ni karma_n.i bibhars.i, you practise the acts that are to 
be performed]. 

10.035.10 On this our sacred grass, spacious and bright where the gods delight 
together, do you (Agni) seat theseven ministrant priests, Indra, Mitra, Varun.a, 
Bhaga, I praise the gods for their bounty; we solicit the kindled firefor our 
welfare. [I praise the gods for their bounty: deva_n i_l.e, sa_taye]. 

10.035.11 A_dityas, come to our ceremony, being well-pleased protect the 
sacrifice for our growth; we solicit forour welfare Br.haspati, Pu_s.an, the 
As'vins, Bhaga, and the kindled fire. 

10.035.12 Divine As'vins, bestow upon us an excellent, spacious, man-protecting 
dwelling, for our cattle, oursons and our grandsons to exist; we solicit the 
kindled fire for our welfare. 

10.035.13 This day, may all the Maruts, all the (deities), be for our 
protection; and may all the fires be kindled.May all the gods come for our 
preservation, and may all wealth and food be ours. [Protection: u_ti_, avasa_ 
=raks.an.am; alternative: u_ti_ = tarpan.am, satisfaction; avasa_ = tus.t.i, 

10.035.14 Gods, who are prompt (to grant our desires), may he, whom you guard in 
battle, whom you defend(from his enemies), whom having extricated from sin, you 
gratify (in all his wishes), who (secure) in yourprotection; knows not of fear, 
may we (who are all this) be assiduous in offering sacrifice to the gods.

10.036.01 I invoke the vast and beautiful day and night, heaven and earth, Mitra 
and Varun.a with Aryaman,Indra, the Maruts, the mountains, the waters, the 
A_dityas, heaven and earth, the waters (of the firmament), thewhole (host of the 

10.036.02 May the intelligent and truthful heaven and earth defend us from sin, 
and from malignant; let not themalevolent Nirr.ti have power over us; we solicit 
today this protection of the gods. [Nirr.ti: mr.tyudevata_, thedivinity of 

10.036.03 May Aditi, the mother of the opulent Mitra and Varun.a, preserve us 
from all sin, may we hasten tocelestial light, which is free from oppressors; we 
solicit today this protection of the gods. 

10.036.04 May the sounding stone drive away ra_ks.asas, evil dreams, Nirr.ti, 
and every spirit of ill; may weobtain the happiness of the A_dityas and the 
Maruts; we solicit today this protection of the gods. 

10.036.05 May Indra sit down upon the sacred grass; may Il.a_ be propitious; may 
Br.haspati the singer hymnedwith Sa_mans honour us; we offer an intelligent 
prayer for life; we solcit today this protection of the gods. [Il.a_:the 
firmamental voice, i.e. thunder]. 

10.036.06 As'vins, make our sacriice ascend to heaven free from injury, happy 
for the attainment of our desires;make the fire to which she is offered blaze up 
towards (the gods); we solicit today this protection of our gods. 

10.036.07 I invoke for their friendship, the deservedly invoked, purifying, 
beautiful troops of the Maruts, the giversof felicity, the dispensers of riches; 
we meditate upon them for the attainemtn of abundant food; we solicit todaythis 
protection of the gods. 

10.036.08 We offer the Soma, the protector of the waters, affluent in life, the 
delighter of the gods, who iswell-praised, the glory of sacrifice, the 
brilliant-rayed, the vigour which we desire; we solicit today this protectionof 
the gods. 

10.036.09 Living with living offspring, and free from fault, let us make 
offerings (to the gods), sharing with thosewho share with us; may those who hate 
the bra_hman.as, carry off our iniquity in different directions; we solicittoday 
this protection of the gods. 

10.036.10 Gods, who are entitled to the worship of men, hear (our prayers), and 
grant us that which we request;(bestow upon us) the intelligence requisite for 
victory, and fame with wealth, and male progeny; we solicit todaythis protection 
of the gods. 

10.036.11 We impolore today the especial protection of the mighty, the great, 
the irresistible, gods, that we mayobtain riches, and male progeny; we solicit 
today this protection of the gods. 

10.036.12 May we free from sin be in the (enjoyment of the) happiness of the 
mighty kindled Agni; and in (thekeeping of) Mitra and Varun.a for our welfare; 
may we be among the excellent progeny of Savita_; we solicittoday this 
protection of the gods. 

10.036.13 Universal gods, who (take part) in the functions of Savita_, the 
parent of truth, of Mitra and Varun.a,confer upon us auspicious and honourable 
wealth, comprising male progeny, and cattle, and (pious) acts. 

10.036.14 May Savita_ on the west, Savita_ on the east, Savita_ on the north, 
Savita_ on the south, may Savita_send us all desired wealth, may Savita_ bestow 
upon us long life.

10.037.01 (Having offered) adoration to Su_rya, the beholder of Mitra and 
Varun.a, the mighty, the divine, thefar-seer, the god-born, the manifester (of 
all things), the son of heaven; celebrate the rite enjoined by him, andsing his 
praise. [Alternative: a salutation to the Sun, as Mitra and Varun.a; caks.ase = 
the seer; or, Mitra andVarun.a may typify the world]. 

10.037.02 May that world of truth everywhere protect me, through which it is 
that the heaven and earth, and daysand nights, extend; all the rest of creation 
which trembles has rest (there); the waters daily (flow), the sun risesevery 

10.037.03 No ancient ra_ks.asa abides, Su_rya, near you when you desire to yoke 
to your chariot your rapidsteeds; one ancient radiance follows (you) while you 
rise with another. [One ancient radiance: i.e., the light of themoon (pra_ci_nam 
= turned towards the east)]. 

10.037.04 With that light, Su_rya, with which you disperse the darkness, and 
with that radiance with which youquicken every moving thing, remove from us all 
famine, neglect of oblations, sickness and evil dreams.  

10.037.05 When invoked, you who are gentle protect the rite of every 
(worshipper); you rise after the svadha_offerings; when today we call upon you, 
may the gods be propitious to our sacred acts. 

10.037.06 May heaven and earth, may the waters, may Indra, and the Maruts, hear 
this our invocation and thisour praise; may we not be in sorrow at the sight of 
the Sun; diving long, may we attain a prosperous old age. 

10.037.07 May we, constantly happy in mind, sound of sight, blessed with 
posterity, exempt from sickness,devoid of sin, daily (worship you); may we, 
enjoying long life behold you, Su_rya, who are the cherisher of yourfriends 
rising day by day. 

10.037.08 May we, enoying (long) life, day by day behold you, Su_rya, who glance 
over all things, invested withgreat lustre, radiant, giving joy to every eye, 
and rising above the vast and mighty (ocean). [Enjoying long life:i.e., living 
prosperously may we attain old age]. 

10.037.09 Golden-haired Su_rya, by whose guidance all beings move (by day), and 
repose by night, do youcome to us with freedom from sin, and more felicitous 
(life) every day. [By whose guidance...by night: by whosebanner all things go 
forth (to work), and by whose rays (aktubhih) they go to rest; more felicitous 
life: vasyasa_,ahna_ = with an extremely felicitous day]. 

10.037.10 Be propitious to us with light; be propitious to us with sunshine; be 
propitious to us with warmth; bepropitious to us with frost; and grant us, 
Su_rya, various wealth, whereby we may prosper on the road and in thehouse. 

10.037.11 Bestow, gods, felicity upon both (classes) of our living beings, 
bipeds and quadrupeds, so that,whether they be eating or drinking, they may be 
strong and healthy; so grant to us happiness, pleasure andfreedom from sin. 

10.037.12 Whatever sin, great and exciting the wrath of the gods, we have 
committed against you, O gods, bythe tongue, or the working of the mind, do you, 
Vasu, transfer that sin to him, who assailing terrifies us.

10.038.01 You shout, Indra, in this glorious and arduous conflict, and assist us 
to the acquisition (of spoil), in thisbattle where cows are won and men 
overpowered, wherein the weapons descend on every side upon the fierceand 
courageous combatants. 

10.038.02 Do you, Indra, heap up in our dwelling famous riches, comprising food 
and herds of cattle; may we,S'akra, be vigorous (through the favour) of you, the 
victorious; grant us, Vasu, that which we desire. [Comprisingfood and herds of 
cattle: where cattle are abundant like water]. 

10.038.03 Indra, the praised of many, may he who proposes to assail us, whether 
he be a da_sa, an a_rya, or anenemy of the gods; through your aid may all (such) 
foes be easily overcome by us; through you may we destroythem in battle. [A 
da_sa = adeva]. 

10.038.04 Let us bring before us today for ur protection that Indra, the pure, 
the renowned, the leader of rites,who in the main-destroying, all-devouring 
conflict, is the winner of wealth; who is to be invoked by few and many. 

10.038.05 Indra, showerer of benefits, I have heard of you, the self-mutilator, 
the giver of unexpected strength,encouragin the prosperous; set yourself free 
from Kutsa, and come here; how should such a one as you remainso bound? [Set 
yourself free: Legend: Kutsa and Lus'a summoned Indra at the same time to their 
respectivesacrifices; Indra first went to Kutsa, wo detained Indra, fastening 
him by the scrutum with a hundred leatherpieces. Lus'a addresses this r.ca to 
Indra, exhorting him to free himself. cf. S'a_t.ya_yana Bra_hman.a andChandoga 

10.039.01 We from very ancient times invoke, As'vins, by a name as venerable as 
that of a father, this yourglorious chariot, which travels all around, which 
turns, well, and which is to be invoked morning and evening bythe worshipper. 

10.039.02 Stimulate, As'vins, our words of truth, perfect (our) sacred rites, 
and inspire (our) numerous facultires;this (is what) we wish; grant us a 
glorious portion (cf. wealth); put us like prosperous Soma among the affluent. 

10.039.03 You, Na_satya_s, are the good fortune of a damsel growing old in (her 
father's) mansion; thepreservers of the famishing, the protectors of the object, 
of the blind, of the feeble, they call you the physicians ofthe sacrifice. [A 
damsel: ghos.a_]. 

10.039.04 You made the aged Cyavana, when like a worn out chariot, again young 
and able to go; you bore theson of Tugra above the waters; all these your 
(exploits) are to be celebrated at our sacrifices. [Son of Tugra: i.e.,Bhujyu]. 

10.039.05 I proclaim, As'vins, your ancient exploits among the people, for you 
were the physicians, the bestowersof felicity; we count you two worthy to be 
praised for (our) preservation; so that this worshipper Na-satya_s, maybelieve 
(in you). [This worshipper: arih = enemy;; or, goer, lord, worshipper]. 

10.039.06 I here, (ghos.a_), invoke you. Here my (invocation), As'vins, give me 
(wealth) as parents give to a son;before (it come) beyond the reach of (a 
course) that has no relatives, ungrateful, without kinsfolk, without 
belief,(pursues me); save me from that curse before (it reaches me). [Epithets: 
ana_pih etc. apply to ghos.a_, who,being a leper, could not marry]. 

10.039.07 You brought, S'undhyu, the daughter of Purumitra to (her husband) 
Vimada; you came atVadharimati's invocation, and gave excellent offsprin to her 
who was full of wisdom. [S'undhyu: the As'vins heardher invocation in battle 
when her hand was cut off and gave her a golden hand].  

10.039.08 You made young again the life of the sage Kali, when approaching old 
age, you rescued Vandanafrom the well; you quickly enabled Vis'apala_ to walk.  
[Kali: cf. RV 1.112.15; Vandana: cf. RV 1.112.5; Vandanahad thrown himself into 
the well through grief for the death of his wife; Vis'pala: cf. RV 1.116.15]. 

10.039.09 As'vins, shedders of rain, you extricated Rebha when he was placed in 
a cave and was dying; youmade the heated fire-pit cool for Atri; you gave 
(liberty) to Saptavadhri. [Rebha: RV 1.116.24; he was saved froma guha_, a 
secret place or a cavity; was dying = dead; Atri; cf. RV 1.116.8; Saptavadhri: 
cf. RV 5.78.5 and 6]. 

10.039.10 You gave, As'vins, to Pedu a strong white horse with nine-and-ninety 
(other) steeds, (a horse), active(in combat), putting to flight the friends (of 
the foe), worthy to be invoked, a source of deligght, like wealth to men.[With 
nine and ninety other steeds: strong with nine-and-ninety strengths]. 

10.039.11 Lofty soverigns, worthy of invocation, going on roads which are 
praised in hymns, As'vins, the manwhom with his wife you place in front of 
(your) car, encounters not from any quarter wickedness, difficulty, ordanger. 

10.039.12 Come, As'vins, with the chariot that is swifter than thought, which 
the Ribhus made for you; inconnection with which the daughter of heaven, (the 
dawn), is born and both the auspicious day and night fromVivasvat. 

10.039.13 Do you two, As'vins, climb the path to the mountain with your 
triumphant chariot; you have renovatedfor S'ayu (barren) cow; you liberated by 
your acts the quail that had been seized from the jaws of the wolf.[Jayus.a_: 
cf. RV. 6.62.7; S'ayu: cf. RV 1.118.8; you liberated...wolf: cf. RV 1.116.17]. 
this praise like a son, the eternal performer of rites, we have decked (with 
ornaments, your laudation) amongmen, as if had been a wife.

10.040.01 What (worshipper), O leaderes of rites, and where (abiding) glorifies 
for his good, by his praise at therite, your radiant moving chariot, going (to 
the sacrifice) at dawn, all-pervading, and bearing (wealth) day afterday to one 
man after another? 

10.040.02 Where are you, As'vins, by night? Where are you by day? Where do you 
sojourn? Where do youdwell? Who brings you into his presence in the same place 
(of sacrifice) as on her couch a widow (brings) herhusband's brother, as a woman 
(brings) her husband (to her). 

10.040.03 Leaders (of rites), you are glorified at dawn like two ancient 
(monarchs) by the voice (of the caller)entitled to worship, you go day by day to 
the dwelling (of the worshipper); of whose (faults) are you thedestroyer? To 
whose oblations do you go like princes? [Like two ancient...caller: jaran.au = 
two kings, old orgreat by sovereignty; ka_paya_ = the song of the bard or 
herald, who awakens (a great man) at dawn]. 

10.040.04 Like perons hunting two wild elephants, we praise you, As'vins, with 
oblations night and day; at all dueseasons, leaders (of rites), (the worshipper) 
offers you the oblation; do you, who are rulers of the shining (rain),bring food 
to mankind. [Hunting two wild elephants: hunting two elephants like tigers]. 

10.040.05 Attending upon you, As'vins, leaders (of rites), I, Ghos.a_, the 
daughter of king (Kaks.i_vat), speak toyou and request you; be (present at) my 
(sacrifice) by day, and be (present) by night, be able, (to grant favour) tothe 
son of my brother, who has horses and a chariot. 

10.040.06 Sage As'vins, stand by your chariot; make it approach (the sacrifice) 
of the worshipper, as Kutsa(made his chariot approach) men, the fly carries your 
honey, As'vins, in its mouth as a woman carries purified(honey). [As 
Kutsa...men: Kutsa and Indra ride in the same chariot; cf. RV 4.16.11; as a 
woman: cf. RV 1.119.2]. 

10.040.07 You came, As'vins, to the rescue of Bhujyu, you came to the rescue of 
Vas'a, you came to S'in~ja_rato (hear) his desirable (praise); the offerer of 
oblations besieges your friendship; and I desire happiness throughyour 
protection. [S'in~ja_ra: cf. RV 8.5.25; S'in~ja_ra was an Atri; As'vins came to 
rescue him from a fire-pit]. 

10.040.08 Verily, As'vins, you protect the feeble man; you protected S'ayu; you 
protect him who worshipsaccording to rule, and the widow, (Vadhrimati); you set 
open, O As'vins, for the donors of oblations theseven-mouthed thundering cloud. 
[The feeble man: or, Kr.s'a, a proper name; seven-mouthed: sapta_syam = 
lit.,seven-mouthed; i.e., having  shifting doors or openings, 
sarpan.as'i_ladva_ram; Ghos.a_, having become eligibleas a wife, here expresses 
her desire for a husband]. 

10.040.09 The bride, As'vins, has been born, let the husband approach; may the 
plants spring up (for him) afterthe rain; for him may the streams flow as if 
from a declivity; may he invulnerable have the power of a husbandover her. 

10.040.10 The husbands who weep for the life (of their wives), make them sit 
down at the sacrifice, hold in a longembrace, (and) send the Pitr.s this 
desirable offspring, upon these husbands the wives (bestow) happiness inorder to 
be embraced. [Weep for the life of their wives: ji_vam rudanti = lit., they weep 
for the living; i.e., weep forthe lie (of their wives); by their very weeping 
they desire to (pray for) their wives' lives]. 

10.040.11 We do not know this (happiness) of his; do you, (As'vins), clearly 
explain how it is that the young(husband) dwells in the bride's house; let us, 
As'vins, go the dwelling of (my) dear youthful, vigorous, and manlyhusband; this 
is our desire. 

10.040.12 As'vins, rich in food, lords of water, twin (associates), may your 
good will devolve (upon us), may thedesires (of our hearts) be attained; you 
have been my protectors; may we, (being) beloved, attain the habitationof a 

10.040.13 Exulting, do you bestow riches, comprehending male progeny, in the 
house of my husband, on me,who desire to praise you; lords of waters, make the 
sacred ford good to drink; remove the tree that stands in theroad and the 
malevolent (enemy). 

10.040.14 As'vins of goodly aspect, lords of water, in what place, among what 
people, do you today delight? Whonow detains you? To the house of what sage or 
of what sacrificer, have you gone?

10.041.01 At break of dawn, (As'vins), we invoke with pious prayers your common 
chariot, praised of many,adorable three-wheeled, frequenting religious rites, 
traversing all space, suitable at sacrifices. 

10.041.02 Ascend, Na_satya_s, your nectar-bearing chariot, which is harnessed at 
dawn, and set in motion atdawn, with which, leaders (of rites), you go to the 
people who are engaged in worship, to the priest-administeredsacrifice, As'vins, 
of (your) adorer. 

10.041.03 Come, As'vins, to Suhastya, whether as the ministrant priest bearing 
the Soma in his hand, or as thecompetent lowly-minded feeder of the sacred fire; 
although you go  to the sacrifices of (some other) sage, (yet)come, As'vins, 
from them to the Soma (which I offer). [Competent lowly-minded feeder: damunasa 
= intending togive, da_namanasam].

10.042.01 Direct your laudation to him, (Indra), like an archer aiming a larger 
arrow (to its mark), like a decorator(applying his ornaments); surpass by your 
praises, sages, the praises of your adversaries; delight Indraworshipper, by the 
(offering of the) Soma. [A larger arrow: la_yam = adhering, from li, i.e., 
heart-poiercing arrow]. 

10.042.02 Control, worshipper, your friend (Indra), like a cow for your milking; 
awake, Indra, the author of decay;bring down for the distribution of wealth the 
hero who is pressed down with wealth like a vessel full (of water). 

10.042.03 Why, Maghavat, do (the wise) call you the nourisher (of worshippers)? 
Quicken me, (Indra), withwealth, (for) I hear that you are the quickener (of the 
worshipper); may my understanding, S'akra, be productiveof works; grant us, 
Indra, a destiny that brings wealth. 

10.042.04 The people earnestly call upon you in battles, Indra, (they call upon 
you) when standing together inthe conflict; at this (call) Indra makes him his 
friend who offers oblations; the hero desires not friendship with himwho 
presents no libation. 

10.042.05 The bearer of the oblation who offers to Indra the sharp Soma, like 
much moveable wealth (given tothe poor)-- for him in the fore part of the day 
Indra scatters his eager and well-armed (enemies), and defeats hisfoe. [Eager: 
or, having beautiful sons]. 

10.042.06 May the enemy of that Indra on whom we have laid our praise, the lord 
of affluence, who has grantedus our desires, be in the fear of him even when far 
off; may the food belonging to the country of the foe bowdown before him (to 

10.042.07 Invoked of many, (Indra) drive far away the enemy with that fierce 
thunderbolt of yours; grant to us,Indra, wealth of barley and cattle; render to 
the worshipper his sacrifice productive of pleasant food. 

10.042.08 The Indra into whom the sharp abundant Soma effused by (the priests), 
the showerers (of the Soma),have entered; he, Maghavat, deserts not the donor of 
the sacrifice, but bestows ample wealth upon him whopresents libations. 

10.042.09 Having driven away the assailant, he triumphs; at the time (of battle) 
he selects his antagonist as doesa gambler. The man who, desirous of gratifying 
the gods, withholds not his riches, him the powerful Indraassociates with 

10.042.10 Indra, invoked of many, may we escape all ignorance caused by poverty 
by means of our cattle; (maywe escape) all hunger by means of our barley; (may 
we acquire) the chief riches through the princes (of wealth);may we conquer by 
our valour. [May we acquire the chief riches: or, may we, the chief, acquire 

10.042.11 May Br.haspati defend us from a malignant (foe) coming from behind, 
from above, or from below; mayIndra defend us from foes in front and in the 
middle; may he, our friend, bestow wealth upon (us) his friends.

10.043.01 My praises, all-acquiring, concentrated and eager, glorify Indra; they 
embrace Maghavat as wives(embrace) a husband; as (women embrace) a man free from 
defect for the sake of protection. 

10.043.02 Indra, of godly aspect, the invoked of many, my mind intent on you 
wanders not from your presence, Ifix my desire on you; take your seat like a 
prince upon this sacred grass, and may your drinking be of this Soma. 

10.043.03 May Indra be the remover of thirst and hunger, for he, Maghavat, is 
lord over precious riches; theseseven rivers of the powerful showerer, (Indra), 
flowing down a declivity, augment food. [Remover of thirst andhunger: amati = 
ignorance; or, thirst taking away the understanidng; precious riches: vasvah = 
riches whichcover us with clothes]. 

10.043.04 As birds perch upon the leafy tree, so the exhilarating Soma fillling 
the ladles (go) to (Indra), thesummit of them shines through their speed, may 
Indra spontaneously bestow excellent light upon man. 

10.043.05 As a gambler at play selects his adversary, so does Maghavat when he 
overcomes the rain-bestowingsun; no one, Maghavat, ancient or modern, is able to 
imitate this your vigour. [When he overcomes...the sun:Indra's victory over the 
sun is said to be his taking away the moisture or rain from the latter]. 

10.043.06 Maghavat, the showerer (of benefits), encompasses all people; he 
contemplates the praises ofmankind; the man in whose sacrifice S'akra delights, 
overcomes (foes) wishing to fight by means of his pungentSoma-libations. 

10.043.07 When the Soma flows towards Indra, as waters to the sea, as rivers to 
a lake, then the piousworshippers augment his greatness in the (sacrificial) 
abode, as the rain by its heavenly gift, (augments) thebarley. [The rain: the 
sender of rain, vr.s.t.ih = vars.ita_]. 

10.043.08 As in the world an angry bull rushes (upon another), so does Indra, 
who directs (towards us) thewaters, the brides of the lord (of earth); when (the 
Soma) is effused, Maghavat bestows light upon the man, whogives promptly, who 
offers oblations. 

10.043.09 Let the axe (of Indra) be put forth together with light; may the 
easily milked cow of truth be(manifested) as of old; may the pure and radiant 
Indra shine with splendour; may the lord of the virtuous shinebrightly like the 
sun. [The axe, the cow: the axe is the thunderbolt, and the cow is the thunder]. 

10.043.10 Indra, invoked of many, may we escape all ignorance caused by poverty 
by means of our cattle; (maywe escape) all hunger by means of our barley; (may 
we acquire) the chief riches through the princes (of wealth);may we conquer by 
our valour. [May we acquire the chief riches: or, may we, the chief, acquire 

10.043.11 May Br.haspati defend us from a malignant (foe) coming from behind, 
from above, or from below; mayIndra defend us from foes in front and in the 
middle; may he, our friend, bestow wealth upon (us) his friends. [Ther.cas 10 
and 11 are repetitions of r.cas 10 and 11 of the previous su_kta].

10.044.01 May Indra, the lord of wealth, come here with his chariot for his 
exhilaration; he who is rapid, strong,who, overcoming all the forces (of the 
enemy) by his great insuperable might, (passes) through them. 

10.044.02 King of men, your chariot is well stationed; your horses are well 
trained; the thunderbolt is grasped inyour hands; come quickly towards us, lord 
of all, by a good path, we will augment your energies when you drinkthe Soma. 

10.044.03 May the fierce, vigorous, exulting horses of Indra bring him here to 
us, the king of men, armed with thethunderbolt, fierce, the reducer of foes, the 
showerer (of benefits), whose strength is real. 

10.044.04 Verily, Indra, you pour into your capacious (stomach) the protecting 
(Soma), serving the woodentrough, intelligent, holding strength; bestow (upon 
us) vigour; take us into yourself, for you are the lord for theexaltation of the 

10.044.05 Let the wealth (to be given by you) come quickly to me, for verily I 
have glorified you; come to theblessed sacrifice of the offerer of the Soma; for 
you are the lord; sit down upon this sacred grass; these yourcups (of Soma) are 
not to be insulted by the act (of evil spirits). 

10.044.06 They go separately (to the worlds of the gods); first those who offer 
oblations to the gods haveattained reputation difficult to surpass; those who 
have not been able to ascend the ship of sacrifice, have gonedown (in the 
world), wretches (plunged) in debt. [So, Ya_ska, 5.25]. with those) who before 
(death) are near unto liberality, among whom precious gifts (to the gods) are 
numerous.[The ignorant: i.e., neglecting to sacrifice, the rest of the line 
means that though they have the power, they do notsacrifice; are near unto 
liberality: up0are = yajva_nah, the sacrifice]. 

10.044.08 (Indra) has arrested the wandering tremulous clouds; the heaven cries 
out (in alarm); he agitates thefirmament; he fixes the combined heaven and 
earth; having drunk of the effused Soma, he repeats praises in hisexhilaration. 

10.044.09 I bear this your well-made goad, (excited) by which, Maghavat, you 
urge on the slayers of powerfulfoes. Let your abode be at this my sacrifice. 
Accept, Maghavat, who are to be adored, (my praise) at the sacrificeat which 
(the Soma) is effused. [Goad: an:kus'a, metaphorically for praise, which urges 
or goads one to exertion;slayers of powerful foes: i.e., the elephants, 
aira_vata, etc., s'apha_rujah = striking with the hoof; s'amba itivra_na_ma 
s'amayaterva_ s'a_tayatevrva_: Nirukta 5.24]. 

10.044.10 Indra, invoked of many, may we escape all ignorance caused by poverty 
by means of our cattle; (maywe escape) all hunger by means of our barley; (may 
we acquire) the chief riches through the princes (of wealth);may we conquer by 
our valour. [May we acquire the chief riches: or, may we, the chief, acquire 

10.044.11 May Br.haspati defend us from a malignant (foe) coming from behind, 
from above, or from below; mayIndra defend us from foes in front and in the 
middle; may he, our friend, bestow wealth upon (us) his friends. [Thelast two 
r.cas are a refrain from the previous two su_ktas, verbatim repetitions].

10.045.01 Agni was first born above the sky; as Ja-tavedas he was born the 
second time among us; the friend ofman, he was born the third time in the 
watters; the sage kindlin him eternally praises him. [Agni was first born:i.e., 
Agni represents successively the sun, fire, lightning. (Yajus. 12.18-29: Agni 
was first generated as Pra_n.a,or vital air, from the breath of heaven, and that 
man generated him; secondly, that Praja_pati (nr.man.ah) createdhim eternal in 
all the waters, and that the yajama_na lighting him also gives birth to him)]. 

10.045.02 We recognize your threefold station, Agni, and your three (forms); we 
recognize the many stationsoccupied by you; we know what your supreme secret 
appellation (is); we know the source, whence you haveproceeded. [In heaven, 
earth and mid-air-- and as Agni, Va_yu and Su_rya-- as the household and other 

10.045.03 He who is well disposed towards men illumines the Agni in the ocean 
(as submarine fire), in the midstof the waters; the beholder of men (illumines) 
you in the centre of the sky; the mighty (maruts) magnify youabiding in the 
third region (the firmament), on the lap of the waters. [Nr.man.ah = Praja_pati; 
or, Varun.a;nr.caks.ah = the sun; or, Praja_pati; mahis.ah = vital airs]. 

10.045.04 Agni cries aloud like the thundering heaven; he licks the earth 
burning the plants; as soon asgenerated, he contemplates this (conflagration); 
when kindled he blazes with his (own) radiance between heavenand earth. 

10.045.05 Liberal, exciter of splendours, depositary of riches, granter of 
desires, preserver of the Soma, theinhabiter (of the world), the son of 
strength, (placed) in the waters, the king (Agni) blazes, kindled at 
thecommencement of dawn. 

10.045.06 The manifester of all, the germ of the world, Agni, as soon as born 
fills heaven and earth (with light);he fractures as he advances the solid cloud, 
for which the classes of men praise him. [Five classes: pan~cajana_h = five men; 
or, the four chief priests and the yajama_na]. 

10.045.07 Desiring (oblations), purifying, moving quickly, sagacious, immortal, 
Agni has been stationed amongmortals; he sends forth the smoke, and goes wearing 
a radiant (form), and percading the heaven with brilliantlustre. [Moving 
quickly: arati = going; or, the destroyer of beings; or, parya_ptamati, of 
sufficient understanding;or, dus.t.es.u pri_tirahita_, devoid of affection for 
the wicked; smoke wearing a radiant form: arus.am = dha_mam,smoke not hurtint 
the eyes, or not shining; bharibhart = supporting; jagat = the world]. 

10.045.08 Conspicuous, glorious, Agni shines with great splendour, moving 
everywhere, and blazingunsurpassingly with glory; Agni became immortal through 
the food (of sacrifice) when the prolific heavenengendered him. [Glorious: 
dr.s'a_no rukmah = rocama_nah, an epithet of Agni; or devata_, a gold ornament 
ofthe neck, which at a particular time the yajama_na is to take off with this 
mantra; moving everywhere: a_yuh =going everywhere; or, life: desiring an 
irreproachable life to give perpetually to people]. 

10.045.09 Auspiciously radiant and divine Agni, youngest (of the gods), grant 
ample wealth to the eminent(worshipper), who presents to you today cakes dressed 
with butter, and confer happiness upon one devoted tothe gods. [gomantam = 
radiant; from go, a ray of light; vrajama_rga (a road), the way to the solar 
orb, the path ofthe gods]. 

10.045.10 Prosper the worshipper, Agni, when beautiful sacrificial viands (are 
being offered), when sacredpraises are being recited (by him). May he be dear to 
Su_rya, dear to Agni; may he by a son born, or sons to beborn, overcome (his 

10.045.11 To you, Agni, the worshippers offer daily all desirable treasures; 
(abiding) with you, desirous of wealth,the sages have set open the pasturage 
frequented by cattle. 

10.045.12 Agni, who are very dear to men, Vais'va_nara, the guardian of the 
Soma, has been glorified by the

10.046.01 A mighty ministrant priest, one cognizant of heaven, though abiding 
with men, having been born, isseated on the lap of the waters; may he, the 
upholder (of sacrifice), who has been stationed (on the altar), be toyou when 
offering worship, the giver of food and riches, the protector of your person. 
[agnestrayo jya_ya_m.sah:Taittiri_ya Sam.hita_ 2.6.6]. men follow) an animal 
that is lost; the wise Bhr.gus desiring his presence, and anxious (to find him), 
discoveredhim by their prayers lurking in the cave. [The wise Bhr.gus: cf. RV 

10.046.03 Trita, the son of Vibhuvas, searching (for him), found mighty Agni on 
the head of the cow; he theaugmenter of happiness manifested in the dwellings 
(of the pious), the youthful (connecting ) bond of theresplendent (Sun). 

10.046.04 (The priests) desirous (to propitiate him), detaining him among men, 
have by their adoration made himlord over all people, him the exhilarator, the 
presenteer of burnt offerings, the migrator, the object of sacrifice, theleader 
of rites, the purifier, the bearer of oblations. [Lord over all people: or, the 
goer, i.e. being always in thehouse of the worshipper; vis'a_m = for the sake of 
the worshippers; the migrator = lit., in front; pra_n~cam =going towards, i.e., 
towards the a_havani_ya from the ga_rhapatya]. 

10.046.05 Be competent, (priest, to glorify) the victorious mighty Agni, the 
sustainer of the wise, (even) fools(adore) him, the exempt  from folly, the 
demolisher of cities; conducting the embryo of touchwood, (Agni). Like agolden-
haired, swift-moving (horse), loving praise and wealth, they bring him to the 

10.046.06 Occupying three (satations), consolidation (the dwelling of the 
worshipper), surrounded (by flames),he sits down upon the altar in the chambers 
(of sacrifice); from there, having accepted (the oblations) of thepeople, with 
intent to give (them to the gods), in various ways, he (Agni) goes to the gods 
holding (his foes) incheck. [Goes to the gods: ayantrai i_yate nr.n = lit., by 
non-restraints he goes to men; s'atru_n.a_m niyamanaihsaha = with restraints on 
his foes, deva_n gacchati]. 

10.046.07 The undecaying fires of the worshipper, the rescuers from the 
humiliated (spirits of ill), havingadorable smoke, purifying, becoming white, 
swift, bearing (the oblation), sitting in the wood, (are) like thefast-flowing 
Soma. [dama_m aritra_h = protector of the houses]. 

10.046.08 Agni, who bears off (the oblation) with his tongue (of flames), who 
bears off the hymns of praise with(favourable) mind (for the preservation) of 
the earth; him men appointed as the shining, purifying, exulting hota_,the most 
entitled to worship. 

10.046.09 Agni, whom heaven and earth engendered, (whom) the waters and 
Tvas.t.a_, and the Br.ghus by theirpowers (begot),; the adorable one, whom 
Ma_taris'van first, and the gods fabricated as the object of worship ofManu. 

10.046.10 You, whom the gods appointed as the bearer of oblations, whom men, 
desiring manifold blessings,regard as the object of worship; do you, Agni, 
bestow food upon him who praises you at the sacrifice; for thedevout worshipper 
verily obtains great renown.

10.047.01 Indra, lord of abundant wealth, we, desiring wealth, seize hold of 
your right hand; we know you, hero,lord of abundant cattle, give us various 
fertilizing riches.  [Vaikun.t.ha: the legend: Vikun.t.ha was a female 
asura,who, desiring to have a son like Indra, performed penance (the kr.cchra 
and ca_dra_yan.a etc.) for the purpose.Indra, wishing that there should not be 
another like himself, took upon him the state of the embryo of Vikun.t.ha,and 
was born as her son; give us...riches: this refrain occurs in each r.ca: citram 
is variously explained as :desirable, honourable; vr.s.an.am as fertilizing or a 

10.047.02 (We know you to be) well armed, a sure protector, a safe guide, 
(renowned throughout) the fouroceans, the depositary of riches, deserving of 
repeated worship, adorable, the preventer of many (ills); grant usvarious 
fertilizing riches. [We know you to be: ukta-gun.avis'is.t.am rayim dehi = give 
us wealth, having thesequalities, i.e. well-armed etc.]. 

10.047.03 Grant us, Indra, various fertilizing riches, the fit object of prayer, 
honoured by the gods, large, vast,

10.047.04 Grant us, Indra, various fertilizing riches, dispensing food, 
comprising intelligent male offspring, theprotector, filling men with wealth, 
the granter of increase, the very powerful, the slayer of the Dasyus, 
thedestroyer of cities, the observer of truth. [Comprising intelligent male 
offspring: or, as an epithet of Indra, the heroof the sages]. 

10.047.05 Grant us, Indra, various fettilizing wealth, consisting of horses, of 
chariots, of valiant followers, ofthousands, of hundreds (of cattle), surrounded 
by beautiful attendants, endowed with sages and heroes, theenjoyer of all 

10.047.06 The praise (addressed to the gods) comes to the presence of Saptagu, 
the observer of the truth, theintelligent, the lord of much (praise), who, being 
of the family of An:girasa, has approached (the gods) withoblations; do you, 
(Indra) grant me various fertilizing riches. 

10.047.07 My praises, (my) messengers soliciting ((audience), come to Indra, 
praying (his) favourable (thoughts),heart-touching, spoken from the soul; 
(therefore, Indra) grant me various fertilizing riches.  

10.047.08 Bestow, Indra, that which I solicit of you; a large mansion, not held 
in common with other men; andmay heaven and earth approve of it; grant us, 
(Indra), various fertilizing riches.

10.048.01 I am the principal lord of wealth; I conquer the treasure of many 
(adversaries); living beings call uponme as (sons call upon) a father; I bestow 
food on the donor of oblations. 

10.048.02 I, Indra, amd the strtiker off of the head of the son of Atharvan, I 
generated the waters from above thecloud for the sake of Trita. I carried off 
their wealth from the Dasyus; taming the clouds for Dadhyan~c, the son 
ofMa_taris'van. [Son of Atharvan: named Dadhyan~c: S'atapatha Bra_hman.a 
14.5.16; RV 1.116.12; Trita = TriaA_ptya, who had fallen into a well; RV 
10.33.2; Dadhyan~c, son of Ma_taris'van: different from anotherDadhyan~c the son 
of Atharvan; ma_taris'vanah putrah: S'atapatha Bra_hman.a]. 

10.048.03 For me Tvas.t.a_ fabricated the metal thunderbolt; in me the gods have 
concentrated pious acts; mylustre is insurmountable, like that of the Sun; men 
acknowledge me as lord in consequence of what I have done,and of what I shall 
do. [My lustre is the Sun: my army is hard to overcome, like the sun's lustre; 
ani_ka = lit.,face]. 

10.048.04 (I conquered) by my shaft this (wealth) comprehending kine, horses, 
herds, water, and gold; I givemany thousands to the donor (of the oblation) when 
libations and praises have afforded me delight. 

10.048.05 I, Indra, am not surpassed in affluence; I never yield to death; 
pouring forth the Soma libation, ask ofme wealth; O men, forfeit not my 

10.048.06 I destroy those powerful (enemies) two by two who defy the (wielder of 
the) thunderbolt, Indra, tobattle, I slew them challenging (me to fight) with 
(great) slaughter, the unbending (slaying) the bending, theuttering stern 
(menaces). [Indra: indram, the destroyer of foes]. 

10.048.07 Single, I overcome my single (adversary); (over-powering them) I 
overcome two foes; what can threeenemies who know not Indra revile me? 

10.048.08 I prepared Atithigva for (the protection of) the Gun:gus, I upheld 
him, the destroyer of enemies, assustenance among the people; when I gained 
renown in the great Vr.tra-battle, in which Parn.aya and Karan~ja= hospitable; 
gun:gus = name of a people; parn.aya and karan~ja = names of asuras]. 

10.048.09 My praiser, the refuge (of all), was food to enjoy; (him, men) use in 
two ways, to search for their cattle,and to be their freiend, when I bestow upon 
him a weapon in his battles, and make him worthy of celebrity andpraise. [When I 
bestow: when I appropriate]. 

10.048.10 The Soma is seen in one of the two (combatants); the cowherd (Indra) 
manifests the other with histhunderbolt; the latter warring against the sharp-
horned bull, remains in great (darkness) bound by the victor.[nema = part, half; 
or, one of two (combatants); the combatants are the yas.t.a_ who offers 
libations and theyas.t.a_, one who does not; the latter assails the bull, 

10.048.11 The divine (Indra) abandons not the abode of the deities, the 
A_dityas, the Vasus, and the Rudriyas;may they fashion me for auspicious vigour, 
undefeated, unharmed, unconquered.

10.049.01 I give excellent treasure to him who praises me, I render sacred 
prayer (a source ) of greatness tomyself, I am the instigator of the worshipper; 
I am the discomfiter in every battle of him who does not worship. 

10.049.02 Those born in heaven, in earth, and in the firmament, support me, 
whose name is Indra among thedeities (by their offerings). I (harness to my car) 
two bay steeds vigorous, many-functioned, rapid; I wield for mystrength the 
fearful thunderbolt. 

10.049.03 I smote Atka with many weapons for the defence of the sage; with those 
protections I preserved Kutsa;I am the slayer of S'us.n.a; I grasped the 
thunderbolt I who have not given the water (na_ma) of the A_ryas to theDasyu.  

10.049.04 Like a father (for a son), I brought under subjection to Kutsa, at his 
desire, the Vetasu_s and Tugraand Smadibha I have been in place of a sovereign 
to the worshipper when I bring (to him) as to a son acceptable(gifts) for 
assailing (his enemies). 

10.049.05 I have brought Mr.gaya under subjection to S'rutarvan; when he came to 
me, (he was) earnestlyengaged in supplication. I humiliated Ves'a for A_yu; I 
subjugated Padgr.bhi for Savya. [Mr.gaya = an asura;

10.049.06 I, the slayer of Vr.tra, am he who crushed Navava_stva and 
Br.hadratha, (who crushed) Da_sa like aVr.tra, when I drove to the distant shore 
of the shining world, (both) my augmenting and outstretched (foes) oneafter the 
other. [Da_sa like a Vr.tra: vr.treva da_sam = like the destroyer, the Vr.tra; 
or, vr.tra iva = like twovr.tras]. 

10.049.07 Conveyed by the swift white horses of Su_rya, I hasten forth by my 
power; when the effused libation ofa man invokes me to the brilliant form of the 
sacrifice, I drive off with my weapons the destroyer who is to beslain. 

10.049.08 I am the slayer of seven (asuras); I am the especial bond of bonds; I 
have made Turvas'a and  Yadufamous through prowess; I have strengthened another 
(worshipper) with strength; I have demolished ninety andnine powerful (foes). [I 
am the slayer of seven asuras: aham saptaha_, I am the slayer of seven asuras, 
asNamuci and others, or the destroyer of seven cities: RV. 1.174.2: sapta 
yatpurah s'arma s'a_radi_h]. 

10.049.09 The showerer (of rain), I supported the seven rivers flowing and 
meandering over the earth; doer ofgood deeds, I spread out the waters; I found 
by war a path for man to go in. 

10.049.10 I have kept up in them that which no deity, not even Tvas.t.a_, has 
maintained, bright, desirable,(contained) in the udders of the cows; in the 
rivers (I uphold) the water up to the (source of the) water, thedelightful Soma 
and the milk and curds. [In them that: them, means the cows and that, means the 
milk; upto thesource of the water: a_ madhoh]. his energy stimulates both gods 
and men; lord of horses, doer of great deeds, renowned (Indra), the 
eager(priests) glorify all these (your actions).

10.050.01 Worship him who is exhilarated by the sacrificiial food, the mighty 
Indra; the leader of all men, thecreator of all, whose venerable strength and 
abundant food and wealth, heaven and earth adore.  

10.050.02 That Indra, kind to man, the lord of all, who is praised by his 
friend, is to be repeatedly honoured bymen like me; you, hero, protector of the 
good, are glorified in the all-sustaining food-producing cloud-imprisonedwaters. 
[Who is praised by his friend: or, sakhya naryah, kind to man as a friend, 
praised by all]. 

10.050.03 What men, Indra, are they who (are eminent in offering food to you, 
who are desirous of obtaining fromthe happiness and opulence, who send you 
(oblations) for the sake of strength (to fight) the asura, who (sentoblations) 
for the sake of obtaining spontaneously-flowing waters and cultivable lands, and 
manly vigour? 

10.050.04 Indra, you have become mighty through our praise; you have have become 
adorable at all sacrifices,in every combat you are the caster down of the 
leaders (of hosts); beholder of all, you are the best, mostexcellent. 

10.050.054 Indra, who are the best of all, quickly protect those who diligent in 
worship; men know that yourprotection is great; be undecaying, rapidly increase; 
you make all these sacrifices swift. 

10.050.06 You make swift all those sacrifices which, son of strength, you 
yourself support; may your protectionbe granted for the repulse (of enemies, 
may) wealth (be granted) for our support; the sacrifice, the hymn, thesacred 
text, the voice (is) raised (to you). [The voice is raised to you: udyatam 
vacas: two things are included inthis phrase: mantra, which is the means of 
enunciating the sacrifice; and the brahma = parivr.d.ham s'astram, theprayer 
that is not recited aloud]. 

10.050.07 Sage Indra, the reciters of pious hymns to you who assembled together 
when (the Soma) is effused,(worship you) for the donation of riches and 
treasures; may they be competent (to acquire) you felicity by thepathway of the 
mind; when you are exhilarated with the effused Soma food. [Riches and 
treasures: vasu_na_m =abundant wealth; vasunas = wealth for one house; the 
plural implies earthly wealth, the singular implies wealthsuited for an abode, 
i.e. the wealth called svarga (heaven)].

10.051.01  (The gods speak). Great and very dense is the covering enveloped by 
which, Agni, you have enteredinto the waters. Agni Ja_tavedas, one deity has 
beheld all your manifold forms. [Taittiri_ya Sam.hita_ 2.6.6: Agnihad three 
elder brothers, who were killed by the Vas.at.ka_ra (utterance of vas.at.!) in 
the form of a thunderbolt,and by Havirva_hana (conveyance of oblations to the 
gods), the oblation bearer of the gods. Agni S'aucika,afraid of sharing the fate 
of his elder brothers, fled and his himself in the deep water. The fishes 
betrayed hisretreat to the gods who were searching for him, and upon this 
discovery the dialogue recorded in this and  thefollowing two su_ktas is 
supposed to have occurred]. 

10.051.02 (Agni speaks). Who has beheld me? Which is it of the deities who has 
fully seen my manifold forms?Where Mitra and Varun.a, do Agni's luminous 
vehicles of the gods abide? 

10.051.03 (The gods). We sought for you, Agni Ja_tavedas, who had entered in 
many ways into the waters, intothe plants; Yama recognized you, who have 
adorable rays, blazing from your ten hiding-places. [These are thethree worlds-- 
heaven, mid-air, earth; three divinities, Agni, Va_yu, A_ditya; the waters, the 
shrubs, the trees, andthe bodies of living beings]. 

10.051.04 (Agni). Divine Varun.a, I have come hither, being afraid of hota_, 
lest the gods should again associateme with him; my forms have therefore entered 
(into the waters) in various places. I, Agni, do not consent (toundertake) that 
office. [Hotra_: i.e., havirva_hana, who seems here to be a person]. 

10.051.05 (The gods). Come, Agni, the devout  Manu (is) desirous of offering 
sacrifice; adorning yourself, youabide in darkness; make straight the paths 
traversed by the gods, and with a benevolent mind convey ouroblations. 

10.051.06 (Agni). The elder brothers of Agni performed that duty, as the driver 
of a chariot covers the road.(They were slain), and therefore, Varun.a, I fled 
afar through fear. I trembled as a wild ox (tembles) at thebowstring of the 
archer. [Elder brothers of Agni: were named Bhu_pati, Bhuvanapati and 

10.051.07 (The gods). We grant you life, Agni, which (is) exempt from decay, so 
that thus endowed, Ja_tavedas,you will not die; so, becoming conciliated, well-
born, Agni, bear their portion of the oblation to the gods. 

10.051.08 (Agni). Only grant to me, deities, the concentrated portion of the 
oblation the Praya_jas and Anuya_jasexclusively; (give me) the butter (the 
essence) of the waters, and man (the essence) of the plants; and let the lifeof 
Agni be long. [The Praya_jas and the Anuya_jas: Praya_jas are the portion of the 
oblation which are to beoffered before the pradha_na (?principal ceremony), 
anuya_jas after it. urjasvantam havis.o bha_gam, the strongportion of the 
havis., is that called svis.t.akr.t, the concentrated portion of all the 
ingredients, the caru puroda_s'aetc., after the sprinkling afresh 

10.051.09 (The gods). Yours, Agni, be the Praya_jas and Anuya_jas exclusively; 
yours be the concentrated portions of the oblations; let this sacrifice; Agni, 
be all yours, and let the four quarters of space bow down beforeyou. 

10.052.01 Instruct me, Vis'vedeva_s, since I am appointed Hota_, how sitting 
here I ought to praise you; declareto me your portion; how you have acquired it, 
and by what path I may convey the oblation to you.  

10.052.02 Best entitled to the sacrifice, I have sat down as the Hota_; all the 
divine Maruts urge me( to bear theoblation); the office of the Adhvaryu is to be 
discharged daily, As'vins, by you; let the moon be the brahman, andlet it be 
also your oblation. [The moon: samidh = fuel; or, the moon, identical with Soma, 
which is the oblation;three chief priests are present: agni is the hota_, 
as'vins the adhvaryu, and soma the brahma_]. 

10.052.03 Who is this, who is the Hota_? (Afraid) of Yama, what offering does he 
bear that the gods accept?Agni is born day by day, and month by month, and so 
the gods have made for themselves a bearer of oblations.[Afraid of Yama: yamasya 
bhi_tah san = afraid of Yama, i.e., of death; or, yajama_nasya, kam = kam kutam, 
whatoffering of the worshipper; or, (the servant) of Yama, Agni as the burner of 
the dead; day by day: the agnihotra ismade daily to the gods, pitr.-yajn~a is 
made monthly to the pitr.s]. 

10.052.04 The gods have made me the bearer of oblations returning after 
departure, and passing many difficultplaces; (saying) this Agni is wise; he will 
accomplish the sacrifice for us, whether it be that of the five ways, thethree 
kinds, or the seven threads. [Five ways: a reference to the pa_n:kta yajn~a; of 
three kinds: the three dailySoma libations; seven threads: seven metres of the 
mantras; or, having seven performers]. 

10.052.05 Gods, I solicit of you immortality and excellent male offspring, that 
I may offer you adoration. I causeIndra to take the thunderbolt in his hands, 
wherewith he may overcome all these hostile hosts. 

10.052.06 Three thousand three hundred and thirty-and-nine deities worshipped 
Agni, they sprinkled (me) withbutter, they strewed the sacred grass, and then 
made the invoker of the gods sit down.

10.053.01 (The gods). He whom we sought with (anxious) minds has arrived; he who 
understands the sacrificeand is acquainted with its different parts; may he who 
is most skilled in worship, sacrifice for us at the worship ofthe gods, being 
seated (at the altar), taking place among (the priests), and preceding us. 
[He...has arrived: i.e.,the fire is kindled, and then the gods are worshipped]. 

10.053.02 The hota_, most skilled in worship, has been sanctified by his seat 
(at the altar); he contemplates thesacred offerings reverently placed (before 
him); let us speedily worship with ghi_ the gods to whom worship isdue; let us 
praise those who are entitled to praise. 

10.053.03 He has today made our banquet to the gods efficacious; we have 
obtained the mysterious tongue ofsacrifice; he has come, fragrant, clothed with 
life; he makes our oblation to the gods today auspicious. [Themysterious tongue: 
Agni is the tongue of the gods, by means of him they drink the oblations]. 

10.053.04 (Agni speaks). I communicate today the best advice by which we gods 
may overcome the asuras; doyou who are the eaters of sacrificial food, who are 
entitled to worship, and you five orders of men, be pleased bymy (discharge of) 
the office of hota_. 

10.053.05 May the fiver orders of men, may those who were born for the sake of 
ghi_, may those who areentitled to worship be pleased by my (discharge of) the 
office of hota_; may earth preserve us from all earthly sin;may the firmament 
preserve us from heavenly (sin). 

10.053.06 (The gods) spreading out the sacrifice, follow the illuminator of the 
world (the sun); protect theluminous paths (of the gods) constructed by sacred 
acts; may Agni render the pious works of the worshipper freefrom defect; become 
Manu, generate the people of heaven. [Become Manu: be deserving of praise; manu 
=mantavya stutya]. 

10.053.07 (The gods to one another). Drinkers of the Soma, bind (the horses) 
that are to be fastened to the pole;prepare the reins; caparison (the steeds); 
accompany everywhere (in your cars) the chariot which has eightseats with which 
the gods bring us acceptable (wealth). 

10.053.08 The as'manvati_ flows along; be alert; rise up, cross over, may 
friends; here let us leave those whoare unhappy, so that we may cross over to 
auspicious sacrificial viands. [A_s'vala_yana Gr.hya Su_tra 1.8: if amarriage 
procession comes to an unfordable river, the first half of this ttanza is to be 
repeated, when the bride isput into the boat; the second half when she has 
crossed; Yajus. 35.10: the r.ca is part of the ceremony of diggingthe ground for 
the situation of the funeral pile. a_s'eva_h = the unhappy; or, the evil beings, 

10.053.09 Tvas.t.a_ knows the arts of fabricating (drinking vessels), the most 
skilful of artificers bearing thesacred drinking cups out of which the gods 
drink-- verily he sharpens his axe of good metal, wherewith thewhite-
complexioned brahman.aspati cuts them. 

10.053.10 Verily being sages, (R.bhus) sharpen the instruments with which you 
fabricate the cups for the nectar.Do you, who are wise, prepare the mysterious 
paths whereby tte gods have attained to immortality. 

10.053.11 (The Maruts) placed a female in the enveloping hide (of a dead cow), 
and a calf in the mouth (of adead cow), with mind and tongue, aiming  (at 
deification); daily the generous (fraternity of the R.bhus) offerssuitable 
praises (to the gods), granting victory over our foes.

10.054.01 (I celebrate), Maghavat, the great glory (you have acquired) by your 
might; when heaven and earthalarmed called upon you, you did defend the gods, 
and destroy (their) adversary; (I celebrate your glory), Indra,in that you gave 
strength to one person (the worshipper). 

10.054.02 When you proceed, Indra, increasing in form, and proclaiming your 
prowess among mankind, false isthat your (wandering), false the combats which  
you have narrated; you (find) now no enemy (to attack), did youformerly find 
one? person you have generated at once both mother and father (or earth and 

10.054.04 Four are the asura-slaying uninjurable forms of you the mighty one: 
you know them all wherewith,Maghavat, you have achieved your exploits. [Four 
forms: cf. su_kta 55, r.ca 1; na_ma = s'ari_ra, body, form]. 

10.054.05 You have in your keeping all treasures, which are yours exclusively, 
whether they be manifest orhidden; thwart not, therefore, Maghavat, my desire 
(for wealth); for you are cognizant (of my desire), you are thedonor. 

10.054.06 To that Indra, who has deposited the light in luminous bodies, who has 
flavoured sweet things withsweetness, this acceptable invigorating praise has 
been recited by Br.haduktha, the author of the prayer.

10.055.01 Your form held secret (by men) with averted faces, is far from here; 
when (heaven and earth) alarmed,called upon you for the sustenance (of the 
world), then you did fix in their proximity the heaven and earth,illumining, 
Maghavat, the sons, of (your) brother. [Your brother: The brother of Indra is 
Parjanya (the rain); hissons are aggregations of water (udakasam.stya_ya)]. 

10.055.02 That mighty mysterious form, desired of many, wherewith you have 
engendered the past, and(engender) the future, the ancient manifested light, the 
beloved of Indra, into which the five (orders of beings)delighted enter. [That 
mighty mysterious form:  this is the first of the four na_ma_ni, alluded to in 
r.ca 4 of theprevious su_kta; it is said to be a_ka_s'a (ether), the first and 
most universal of the created elements, andidentical with Parames'vara (the 
creator); a_ka_s'a_dva_yuh: Taittiri_ya A_ran.yaka 8.1]. 

10.055.03 He has filled heaven and earth (with his ethereal form) as well as the 
mid-heaven; he contemplates invarious aspects the five orders of beings, the 
classes of seven in their seasons, with the thirty-four (deities),(endowed) with 
light of like nature, and with various functions. [Five orders of beings: lit., 
the five gods; the fiveorders, viz., gods, men, pitr.s, as'vins and ra_ks.asas. 
The classes of seven are the seven troops of the Maruts,the seven rays of the 
sun, the seven senses, the seven worlds, and other things that are classed by 
sevens. Thethirty-four deities are the eight Vasus, eleven Rudras, twelve 
A_dityas, Praja_pati, Vas.at.ka_ra and Vira_t.;endowed with...functions: (Indra) 
contemplates with his four-and-thirty-fold light of one colour, but 

10.055.04 Since you, Us.as, did shine forth the first of luminaries, whereby you 
did beget the nourishment ofnourishment (the Sun); unequalled is the mighty 
greatness of you who are mighty, since your relationship isdownwards (towards 
us), though you are stationed on high. [Us.as: Indra is here intended in the 
form of thedawn, and then of the sun as typified by the dawn]. 

10.055.05 The grey-haired has swallowed the warlike (man) the scatterer of many 
foes, in battle being young;behold the power of the deity (endowed) with might; 
he dies today, he is alive tomorrow. [Indra is here identifiedwith Time, his 
fourth form]. 

10.055.06 Vigorous with (innate) vigour, (comes) a purple-coloured bird, mighty, 
heroic, ancient, having no nest;that which he knows is truth, and is not vain; 
(he is) the conqueror and distributor of desirable wealth.[Purple-coloured bird: 
Indra in the form of suparn.a, or garud.a; having no nest: i.e., nestless from 

10.055.07 Indra bestows fertilizing energies (accompanied by these Maruts in 
whose company the thunderersends down showers in order to destroy sin; the 
deities who were born for giving rain (to assist) in the actperformed be great 

10.055.08 Accomplishing his duty with their assistance, the all-powerful Indra, 
the destroyer of the wicked, theall-wise, the quick subduer of foes, descending 
from heaven, and quaffing the Soma, invogirated and a hero, hedemolishes the 
Dasyus with his thunderbolt.

10.056.01 This (light) is one (portion) of you, and this other is one (portion); 
with your third light enter into (outerradiance); on the entrance of the body 
into (the sun), the supreme birthplace of the gods, become lovely andbeloved. 
[This light is one: lit., this (is) one of you, the other (is) one; with the 
third light enter; jyotis. is Agni, firehis deceased son Va_jin, and the purport 
is to enjoin the reunion of the vital with the external elements, vitalwarmth 
with fire, vital breath with air, the soul animating the body with that 
animating the sun. The sun is the soulof the animate and inanimate world; sun is 
the supreme birthplace of the gods; entrance of the body: i.e., into thatsun; 
perhaps the vedantic notion of bodily existence after death by means of the 
su_ks.mas'ari_ra (the subtlebody)]. 

10.056.02 May this body (the earth) conveying your body, Va_jin, give precious 
wealth to us and happiness toyou; an ddo you, without stumbling, enter among the 
great gods for their support; and the light that is in heaven(the sun) and your 
own (light). 

10.056.03 You are, Va_jin, (strong) through food; you (are) well-beloved; urged 
thereto follow (the object of your)praise; urged thereto proceed to heaven; 
urged thereto pursue the duties that are the most important and sure ofreward; 
urged thereto follow the gods; urged thereto follow (the light), descending 
(from heaven). 

10.056.04 Our progenitors (the An:girasas) were lords over the might of those 
(divinities), they having becomegods imposed their will upon the gods; they 
attained also (the radiances) which shone forth, and they againentered the 
bodies of those (gods). [The purport of this and following r.cas is to enjoin 
Va_jin to follow theexample of the An:girasas]. 

10.056.05 By their powers they traversed the whole world, measuring the ancient 
divisions (till then)unmeasured; they restricted all existent beings to their 
proper forms; they distributed in many directions (light)among the people. 
[Measuring the ancient divisions: or, having sub-divided the planets, lunar 
asterisms etc.;distributed...light: pra_sa_rayanta, dispersing light or water]. 

10.056.06 The sons (of A_ditya, the An:girasas), established by the third act of 
duty, the mighty, all-wise (sun) inhis two-fold (condition of rising and 
setting); our progenitors (having begotten) their own progeny, deposited inthe 
best (of them) the paternal strength, (making) an extended line (of progeny). 
[The third act of duty: there arehis duty to the gods; and the propagation of 
children, which is his duty to the Pitr.s. bras.t.va_caryen.ars.ibhyoyajn~ena 
devebhyah pitr.bhyah: Taittiri_ya Sam.hita_; praja_ vai tantuh: 
Aitareya Bra_hman.a 3.38]. 

10.056.07 As men pass over the water to the several quarters of the earth in a 
ship; (as they pass over) alldifficulties by the blessings (of fortune), 
Br.haduktha by his might has committed his own offspring to those onthis side, 
and to those on the other side.

10.057.01 Let us not depart, Indra, from the path; let us not (depart) from the 
sacrifice of the offerer of thelibation; let not our adversaries remain (in our 
place). [A legend explains the origin of the su_kta: there were fourbrothers, 
purohitas of the ra_ja_ Asama_ti: Bandhu, Subandhu, S'rutabandhu and 
Viprabandhu. The king havingdismissed them, appointed to others, Ma_gavins 
(magicians), at which the brothers being offended, institutedmagic ceremonies 
for the ra_ja_'s destruction; hearing of this, the Ma_gavins put Subandhu to 
death; on whichthe other three composed this su_kta for their own safety. The 
offerer of the libation: i.e., king Asama_ti; or,taking sominah as nom. pl., may 
we the offerers of the Soma not depart from the sacrifice]. 

10.057.02 May we obtain (the favour of) him to whom burnt offerings are 
presented, (Agni), who is the thread, theperfecter of sacrifice, drawn out (by 
the priests) to the gods. 

10.057.03 We call upon the spirit (of Subandhu) with the Soma appropriated to 
the progenitors, with the praisesepithet of the Soma. Yajus. 3.53 reads stomena: 
praise is of to kinds, that of gods and men, the latter isna_ra_s'amsah, whence 
the epithet nara_s'am.sa means, suited to man; that is, to deified men or 

10.057.04 May (your) spirit (Subandhu) come back again to perform pious acts; to 
exercise strength; to live; andlong to see the sun. 

10.057.05 May our progenitors, may the host of the gods, restore (your) spirit; 
may we obtain (for you) theaggregate of the functions of life. [Yajus. 3.55: 
progenitors, by our command let the divine people restore ourspirit, so that we 
may enjoy living descendants]. 

10.057.06 Soma, fixing our minds, on your worship and its details, may we, 
blessed with progeny, obtain (theaggreagate of the functions of life)[Yajus. 
3.56: Soma is especially the deity at sacrifices to the pitr.s].

10.059.01 May the life of Subandhu be augmented so as to be more lasting and 
newer, as men conveyed in acar (are carried on) by a skilful (driver); he who 
falls from life, increases (his) desire to live; may Nirr.ti depart faroff. 

10.059.02 (When) the hymn (is being sung) let us offer (sacrificial) food, like 
a treasure (to Nirr.ti) for the sake ofriches, and many kinds of sacrificial 
viands; may she, being praised, partake of all these our (offerings); mayNir.rti 
depart far off. 

10.059.03 May we, by our manly exertions, overcome our enemies, as the Sun the 
earth, as thunderbolts theclouds; she, being praised, knows all these our 
(exploits); may Nirr.ti depart far off. 

10.059.04 Give us not up, Soma, to death; may we (long) behold the rising sun; 
may our old age brought on by(passing) days be happy; may Nirr.ti depart far 

10.059.05 Asuni_ti, give us back the (departed) spirit; extend our life that we 
may live (long); establish us that wemay (long) behold the sun; do you cherish 
the body with the ghi_ (that we have offered).  [Asuni_ti: lit.,conductress of 
breath or souls, i.e., who prolongs life]. 

10.059.06 Restore to us, Asuni_ti, sight and breath, and enjoyment in this 
world; long may we behold the risingsun; make us happy, gracious (goddess), with 

10.059.07 May earth restore the (departed) soul to us; may the divine heaven, 
may the firmament (restore it);may Soma restore body to us; may Pu_s.an restore 
to us speech, which is prosperity. [The firmament: pathyam =that which is in the 
firmament, i.e., speech, which is derived from ether (a_ka_s'a); speech: svasti 
= va_k,speech; may she give us articulation, pathyam va_cam = good speech]. 

10.059.08 May the great heaven and earth, the parents of sacrifice, (grant) 
happiness to Subandhu; heaven andearth, remove all iniquity; let heaven (take 
away) iniquity; may no ill ever approach you. 

10.059.09 Remedies come down from heaven by two and threes; one wanders singly 
in heaven; heaven andearth remove all iniquity; let heaven (take away) iniquity; 
may no ill ever approach you. [By twos and threes: bytwos = by the two as'vins; 
by threes = three goddesses, il.a_, sarasvati_ and bha_rati_]. 

10.059.10 Send, Indra, the active ox, who may bring the cart (laden with) the 
us'i_nara_n.i grass; heaven andearth, remove all iniquity; let heaven (take 
away) iniquity; may no ill ever approach you.

10.060.01 We have come to the person of splendid appearance, the honoured of the 
mighty,  bringing himreverential homage. [To the person: janam = ra_ja_ Asama_ti 
or his country, janapadam]. 

10.060.02 To Asama_ti, the destroyer (of foes), radiant , a quick-moving 
chariot, (for the bringing of benefits),(the descendant) of Bhajeratha, the 
protector of the good. [Descendant of Bhajeratha: vam.s'e ja_tam = born inthe 
race; or, name of a hostile prince, niyayinam, conqueror of]. 

10.060.03 Who, whether armed or unarmed with a sword, overcomes adversaries in 
fight, as (a lion destroys)buffaloes. 

10.060.04 In the good government of whose (realm) the opunlent and victorious 
Iks.va_ku prospers (so that) thefive orders of men (are as happy) as if they 
were in heaven. 

10.060.05 Maintain, Indra, vigour in the Rathapros.t.ha Asama_tis, as (you 
maintain) the sun in heaven for thesight (of all). 

10.060.06 Yoke the two red horses to your chariot, for the nephews of Agastya, 
and overcome, ra_ja_, all theniggard withholders of oblations. 

10.060.07 This (Agni) your mother, this your father, this the giver of life to 
you, has arrived; come back,Subandhu, to this your (body) that is capable of 
motion. Come forth. [Givr of life: The brothers of Subandhuaddress their 
supplications to Agni, to restore him to life and that he has come accordingly, 
being, as it were, hisparent and begetter; or, as Subandhu, your father, mother 
and son, have come to mourn your decease]. not for death, but for security. for 
death, but for security. 

10.060.10 (Agni  speaks). I bring the spirit of ASubandhu from Yama, the son of 
Vivasvat, for life, not for death,but for security. 

10.060.11 The wind blows downwards, the sun burns downwards, the cow yields her 
milk downwards, so be(hand) has all medicaments; this has a blessed touch. 
[Touching the restored Subandhu with their hands].

10.061.01 The fierce-voiced (Na_bha_nedis.t.ha repeated) through his 
intelligence this praise of Rudra, in themidst of the ceremony at the assembly 
(of the An:girasas), which (praise) his parents, making (the partition) andhis 
brothers engaged in giving (the shares accomplished); he perfected the seven 
priests (therewith) on the dayon which the rite was to be matured. [A legend 
from Aitareya Bra_hman.a 5.14: The brothers ofNa_bha_nedis.t.ha partioned among 
themselves to his exclusion the whole of the paternal wealth, while he 
wasengaged in his religious studies. Upon completing the studies, 
Na_bha_nedis.t.ha applied to his father for hisportion, but there was nothing 
left, and his brothers refused to give any of their shares. As a compensation, 
Manurecommended to him to apply to the An:girasas, who were engaged in a 
sacrifice for obtaining Svarga, buthaving come to the sixth day, were so 
perplexed by the number of the mantras, that they could go no furtherwithout 
assistance, Na_bha_nedis.t.ha went to them, and repeated for them this and the 
following su_kta.Through the efficacy of these two su_ktas, they went to heaven, 
leaving to him the remainder of the sacrifice, athousand head of cattle. As 
Na_bha_nedis.t.ha was waking off with them, he was stopped by Rudra, seated on 
ablack corpse, who claimed whatever was left at a sacrifice as his right. 
Referring to Manu, the patriarch admittedthe law, and Na_bha_nedis.t.ha 
relinquished the cattle to Rudra who, in reward of his ready acknowledgement 
ofthe truth, presented the cows to him]. 

10.061.02 He (Rudra) bestowing on his worshippers the gift (of wealth) and the 
defeat (of their foes),castingdown (the ra_ks.asas) with his weapons, has 
constructed the altar; rapid in movement, most fierce in speech,and shedding the 
procreative fluid like water around. [Rapid in movement: itau_ti = itogamanavat, 
going fromhere; a name of the As'vins, he begat the As'vins]. 

10.061.03 (I call you to these) oblations, to which hastening, (As'vins), swift 
as thought at the invitation of theworshipper, you rejoice my (worshipper) who, 
affluent in the wealth of sacrifice, mixes (the oblation) with hisfingers in 
your presence, (holding) in his hand the sacrifice intended (for you). [Yajus. 
7.170: the verse is said tobe addressed to the two priests, the adhvaryu and 
pratiprastha_ta_, engaged in mixing curds with ground barleyin the Manthigraha]. 

10.061.04 When the dark night rettires before the purple oxen (of the chariot of 
the dawn), I invoke you,As'vinschildren of heaven; be desirous of my sacrifice; 
come to my food and to my viands like (two horses) eatingtogether, oblivious of 
offence. [Children of heaven: divo napa_ta = not making heaven to fall]. 

10.061.05 (Rudra), the benefactor of man, whose eager, virile energy was 
developed, drew it back whendisseminated (for the generation of offfspring); 
again the irresistible (Rudra) concentrates (the energy) which wascommunicated 
to his maiden daughter. [This and the following two r.cas seem to refer to the 
begetting of Rudraby Praja_pati; there is a mix-up with the legend of Brahma's 
incestuous passion for his daughter. According to theAitareya Bra_hman.a 3.33, 
she was the heaven or the dawn]. 

10.061.06 When the deed was done in mid-heaven in the proximity of the father 
working his will, and thedaughter coming together, they let the seed fall 
slightly; it was poured upon the high place of sacrifice. 

10.061.07 When the father united with the daughter, then associating with the 
earth, he sprinkled it with theeffusion; then the thoughtful gods begot Brahma; 
they fabricated the lord of the hearth (of sacrifice); the defenderof sacred 
rites. [Lord of the hearth of sacrifice: or va_stos.pati. He is always 
considered to be Rudra, as in theAitareya Bra_hman.a 3.33. The gods, incensed by 
Brahma's wickedness, seek for someone to put him to death;but, each feeling his 
own inability, they create Rudra for the purpose. Rudra wounds Praja_pati, who 
hadassumed the form of a deer, and flying to heaven becomes the asterism 
mr.gas'i_rs.a, the doe into which thedaughter had been changed becomes the 
asterism rohin.i_. Rudra follows and becomes mr.gavya_dha]. 

10.061.08 He, like the showerer (Indra), cast foam around in the combat, and 
came away from us with a niggardmind; he advances not a step, relinquishing the 
donations; though skilled in rapine, he seizes not these my(cows). [The verse is 
said to be repeated by Na_bha_nedis.t.ha when he sees Va_stos.pati (or Rudra) 
coming tostop him; cast foam around: an allusion to the destruction of Namuci by 
Indra in the shape of the foam of the sea;relinquishing the donations: i.e., the 
cows given to Rudra by the An:girasas as daks.in.a_ or honorarium]. 

10.061.09 The fire, harming the people, does not approach quickly (by day); the 
naked (ra_ks.asas approach)not Agni by night; the giver of fuel, and the giver 
of food, he, the upholder (of the rite), is born, overcomingenemies by his 
might. [The fire: i.e., the fire-resembling ra_ks.asas and the like]. 

10.061.10 The An:girasas, who were engaged in the nine months;' ceremonial, 
reciting the praise suited to therite, quickly attained the friendship of the 
maiden; those who seated in the two seats (heaven and earth) came totheir 
protector, as they had no donation, milked forth the inexhaustible (waters).  
[The maiden: Pr.s;'ni;kamani_yayah stuteh = kanyah; the An:girasas attained the 
completion of their ceremony (by means) of thedesirable praise (taught them by 
Na_bha_nedis.t.ha)? Had no donation: daks.in.a_sah; the An:girasas beingboth 
yajama_nas and priests, there could be no daks.in.a_]. 

10.061.11 Quickly (obtaining) the friendship of the maiden, they poured forth 
water like new wealth, when theyoffered to you (Indra) the pure riches, the milk 
of the cow, that yields ambrosia. [Pure riches: rekn.as = wealth leftby a dead 
person, wealth consisting of water]. 

10.061.12 "When (the worshippers) find (the stalls deserted) by the cattle" 
(then the performer of the rite)exclaims, "(Indra), pleasing to his adorer, the 
affluent lord of affluence, the compassionate, the sinless, quicklyrecovers all 
the wealth (that has been carried off)." [Exclaims: The words, iti bravi_ti seem 
to apply to the wholer.ca: ka_ravah is the subject of bravi_ti; or, an epithet 
applying to Indra]. 

10.061.13 Then the attendant (rays of light) quickly gathered round him, and 
(the asuras) dwelling in manyregions sought to destroy the son of Nr.s.ad, but 
the irresistible (Indra) found the well-knit mail of S'us.n.a, whoseoffspring 
was numerous, which was hidden in the cave. [Dwelling in many regions: puru = 
puru_n.i kr.trima_n.i,many artificial things]. 

10.061.14 Whether Bharga is the name of that radiance, on the triple seat of 
which those who are gods areseated, as if in heaven, or whether it be Agni, or 
Ja_tavedas; invoker (of the gods), who are the ministrant priestof the 
sacrifice, hear our guileless invocation. 

10.061.15 And, Indra, let those two brilliant sons of Rudra, the Na_satya_s, (be 
present) at my praise andsacrifice; being propitious to (me seated) on the 
strewn grass, as (at the sacrifice of) Manu, cheerful, liberal ofwealth to the 
people, deserving of adoration. [The people: i.e., to our priests]. 

10.061.16 This royal (Soma), this glorified creator, is praised (by all), and, 
like a sage, constituting his owncause-way, he traverses the firmament; he made 
Kaks.i_vat tremble, he (made) Agni (shake) as horses (agitate)the light-
whirling, revolving-wheel (of a chariot).  

10.061.17 The kinsman of the two (worlds, Agni), the conveyer (of all), the 
sacrificer, (made) theambrosia-yielding cow, which had not given birth, to yield 
milk (for S'ayu), when he praises Mitra, Varun.a andAryaman, with most excellent 
and choice hymns. 

10.061.18 The kinsman of the earth, the  utterer of praise (belonging) to you 
(who abides) in heaven,Na_bha_nedis.t.ha, the supporter of the rite, desiring 
(the recompense), repeats (this praise); the (heaven) ourmost excellent bound 
(is the site) of the (sun), and I was after many (degrees) descended from 
him.[Na_bha_nedis.t.ha's affinity to the sun is apparent; his father manu is the 
son of Vivasvat or A_ditya; after manydegrees: katithas'cid a_sa = I was the 
completion (pu_ran.a) of many]. 

10.061.19 This (aerial voice) is my bond of affinity; here, (in the solar orb) 
is my abiding-place; these are myresplendent (rays); I am this all; I am the 
twice-born; the first-born of truth; the cow, as soon as born, milked 
forthidentical with A_ditya; sa_ ya_ va_g asau sa a_dityah, that which is va_k 
is that A_dityah: S'atapathaBra_hman.a]. the forests, terminates (in 
the fire of sacrifice), who upward rising, like a line, adorable, quickly 
subdues (hisfoes). him, unchangeable, the augmenter of happiness, his mother has 
brought forth. [Like a line: s'ren.ir na;sis'uh = s'am.sani_yah]. 

10.061.21 The words of the desirable (praise), of a certain tranquil person 
(Na_bha_nedis.t.ha), attain theprototype (Indra). Do you, who are the giver of 
wealth (Agni), hear us; offer sacrifice, you are magnified by thesincere 
eulogies of As'vaghna. [As'vaghna: patronymic from A_s'vaghna, the slayer of 
sacrificer of a horse; aname of Manu, the father of Na_bha_nedis.t.ha]. 

10.061.22 Do you, Indra, king of men, who are the bearer of the thunderbolt, 
regard us now to (give us) greatriches, and protect us who are affluent in 
(oblations), who utter (your) praise; may we, lord of bay steeds, (be)free from 
blame on your approach. 

10.061.23 Since, royal (Mitra and Varun.a), the impetuous (Yama) now approaches 
in expectation of (the gift of)cattle, and desiring praise for the sacrificing 
(band of the An:girasas); the sage (Na_bha_nedis.t.ha) has beenheld most dear by 
them; may he accomplish (what has to be effected), and make them successful. 
[May heaccomplish: lit., may he take away]. 

10.061.24 And for the contentment of this victorious (Varun.a), praising (him) 
without an effort, we solicit this (ofhim), (that) his progeny, a swift horse, 
(may be ours), and you, (Varun.a), are wise, and (are occupied) inprocuring us 
food.  [We solicit this: tat, rebhantah = praising that (his gift of cows etc.)] 

10.061.25 If the priest offers homage to you two (Mitra and Varun.a) for the 
sake of your friendship and ourinvigoration, on (the formation of) which 
(friendship) the praises (of the An:girasas go) everywhere in a commondirection; 
may he give (pleasure) to the utterer of praise like an ancient road. [Or, like 
the eastern quarter of theworld]. 

10.061.26 Being praised with reverence and hymns thus, "the god-accompanied 
(Varun.a) of good lineage,together with the waters"; may he be magnified; 
(attracted) by hymns and prayers (may he) now (approach); thepath of the milk of 
the cow is open (for his worship). 

10.061.27 Adorable divinities, be consentient for our great preservation, both 
you who, going in variousdirections, are the bringers of food, and you who, 
being no longer perplexed, are the discoverers (of the cattle).[Adorable 
divinities: An:girasas; being no longer perplexed: i.e., by the sixth day's 
ceremonials whichNa_bha_nedis.t.ha had enabled them to complete].

10.062.01 You, who associated with sacrifice and pious donations, have acquired 
the friendship of Indra andimmortality; upon you, An:girasas, may good fortune 
attend; welcome, sages, the son of Manu. [manuh putrebhyoda_yam vyabhajat: 
Taittiri_ya sam.hita_; upon you, An:girasas; cf. the legend in the r.ca 
1 of previoussu_kta. Na_bha_nedis.t.ha is represented as undertaking  to 
complete their sacrifice]. 

10.062.02 May length of life be yours, An:girasas, our progenitors, who drove 
forth the wealth of cattle, and bymeans of your sacrifice when the year was 
ended, demolished (the asura) Bala; welcome, sages, the son ofManu. 

10.062.03 May the possession of posterity be yours, An:girasas, who elevated by 
the (power) of sacrifice theSun in heaven, and made the maternal earth renowned; 
welcome, sages, the son of Manu. 

10.062.04 R.s.is, sons of the gods, this (Na_bha_nedis.t.ha) addresses to you in 
the house of (sacrifice) hisbenediction, hear it; may divine splendour, 
An:girasas, be yours; welcome, sages, the son of Manu. [Sons of theGods: i.e., 
of Agni]. 

10.062.05 These R.s.is, however different in form, were verily of profound 
piety; they are the An:girasas whohave been born as the sons of Agni. 
[yen:ga_ra_ a_sam.sten:girasobhavan: Aitareya Bra_hman.a 
3.34;an:ga_res.van:gira_h: Nirukta 3.17]. 

10.062.06 Among those who have sprung from Agni in many forms, (and spring) from 
heaven, the chiefAn:girasa, the celebrator of the nine-month rite, the 
celebrator of the ten-month rite, accompanied by the godsbestows (upon me 
wealth). [Spring from Agni: cf. the Bra_hman.a text cited in the previous r.ca; 
Chief An:girasa:an:girastamah = agni]. 

10.062.07 The acceptors of oblations, with Indra for their associate, have 
emptied pastures crowded with cows,and horses, giving me a thousand full-grown 
(cattle), they have gained renown among the gods. [Acceptors ofoblations: 
va_ghatah = priests; bearers or offerers of sacrifices, i.e. An:girasas or the 
Vis'vedeva_s; full-grown:as.t.akarn.yah = eight-eared, or, broad-eared (from 
as.t.a, i.e. visti_rn.a); using part of the whole, the phrase isexplained: cows 
having all their members ample]. 

10.062.08 May this Manu (Sa_varn.i) quickly be born, may he increase like (well-
watered) seed, who sends meat once a thousand and a hundred horses for a 

10.062.09 No one succeeds in reaching him; (elevated) like the summit of heaven, 
the liberality of Sa_varn.i hasbroadened out like a river. [No one succeeds: 
i.e., no one can equal Sa_varn.i in munificence. It is possible thatthe term 
sa_varn.i is a veiled reference to suvarn.a, gold]. 

10.062.10 Yadu and Indra speaking auspiciously, and possessed of numerous 
cattle, gave them like (appointed )servants, for the enjoyment (of Manu 

10.062.11 May the donor of a thousand (cows), the head of the district, the 
Manu, never suffer wrong, may hisliberality go spreading (in glory) with the 
sun; may the gods prolong the life of Sa_varn.i (from whom) unwearied(in his 
service) we enjoy abundant food.

10.063.01 May the gods who, (coming) from afar proclaim their affinity (with 
men), and beloved by men, (support)the generations of (Manu, the son of) 
Vivasvat; may they who are seated on the sacred grass of Yaya_ti, the sonof 
Nahus.a, speak favourably unto us. 

10.063.02 All your appellations, gods, are to be revered and praised, and 
worshipped, and whether you aresprung from heaven, or from the firmament, or 
from earth, hear at this (solemnity) my invocation. [Appellations:na_ma_ni = 
s'ari_ra_n.i, bodies or forms]. 

10.063.03 To (these dieties) to whom the maternal (earth) yields the sweet-
flavoured milk, and thecloud-invested,  undepressed heaven (yields) ambrosia, to 
those A_dityas whose strength is sacred praise, whoare bringers of rain, the 
doers of good actions, offer for your welfare laudation. [Whose strength is 
praise:ukthabala_n = very strong]. 

10.063.04 The gods, the never-slumbering beholders of mankind, and entitled (to 
their adoration), have obtainedgreat immortality; conveyed in chariots of light, 
possessed of unsurpassable wisdom, devoid of sin, they inhabitthe exalted 
station of heaven for the well-being (of the world). 

10.063.05 The gods, who, kings over all, and most exalted, have come to the 
sacrifice, who, unassailable, abidein heaven; them, the mighty A_dityas, (the 
sage) worships with reverence, and with praises, and also Aditi for hiswell-

10.063.06 Who offers you the praise which you like, you wise universal deities, 
however many you may be?Deities from whom many are born, who can prepare for you 
such worship as may bear the safe beyond iniquityfor our well-being? [Which you 
like: stota_ram, what worshipper whom you accept...] 

10.063.07 A_dityas, to whom, Manu, having kindled the fire, offered the first 
sacrifice with (reverent) mind,(aided) by the seven ministrant priests, do you 
bestow upon us prosperity, free from peril; provide for us pleasantpaths easy to 
travel for our well-being. 

10.063.08 May the wise and omniscient deities, who rule over the whole world 
both stationary and moveable,deliver us today from committed and uncommitted 
sin, for our well-being. [i.e., from actual bodily sin and frommental sin]. 

10.063.09 We call in battles upon the well-invoked Indra, the liberator from 
sin, and upon the virtuous folk ofheaven, Agni, Mitra, Varun.a, Bhaga, Heaven 
and Earth, the Maruts, for the acquisition (of food), for well-being. 

10.063.10 May we for our well-being ascend the well-oared, defectless, 
unyielding, divine vessel, thesafe-sheltering expansive heaven, exempt from 
evil, replete with happiness, exalted and right-directing. [Allepithets, e.g. 
pr.thivi_m are read with dya_m; na_vam = na_vam iva; heaven is praised in the 
form of a ship; or,the cause of heaven]. 

10.063.11 Adorable, universal gods, advocate our cause for our protection; 
preserve us from malignant adversity,may we with since invocation invoke you, 
gods, who listen (to our praise) for our protection, for our well-being. 

10.063.12 (Remove far) from us disease, remove all neglect of oblations, remove 
illiberality, the malevolence ofthose who wish to do us harm; remove far from 
us, gods, those who hate us; grant us ample happiness for ourwell-being. 

10.063.13 Unharmed prospers every mortal, after performing his duties, he 
flourishes with posterity, whom youA_dityas guide with good counsels safe over 
all misfortunes to well-being. 

10.063.14 (The chariot) which, deities, you protect for the supply of food; that 
which, Maruts, (you protect) inbattle for the sake of the deposited spoil; may 
we mount, Indra, the early-moving desirable irresistible chariot forour well-

10.063.15 Maruts, secure to us well-being on roads, in deserts, well-being in 
waters, midst the might of assailinghosts; well-being in the son-bearing wombs 
(of our wives); well-being for (the acquisition of) riches. [On roas: 
indistricts fit for travelling, i.e., well-watered, as opposed to dhanvasu]. 

10.063.16 May (pr.thivi_), who secures well-being to the excellent path, who, 
abounding with wealth, goes to thedesirable (place of sacrifice), preserve our 
home, may she protect us on the path we have to travel; cherished bythe gods, 
may she be to us a pleasant abode. 

10.063.17 Universal deities and Aditi, thus has the prudent son of Plati 
magnified you; the celestial people, theimmortal (company of the gods) through 
whom (when praised) men become the lords (of wealth) have beengloried by Gaya.

10.064.01 In what manner, and of which of the gods, who hear (our praises) at 
the sacrifice, may we enunciatethe venerable name? Who will show us compassion? 
Which of them will grant us happiness? Which of themcomes for our protection? 
[Compassion: mr.l.atirupadaya_karma_: Nirukta 10.15]. 

10.064.02 The desires cherished in my heart strive to offer worship; (our) 
wishes long for (the gods) andexpressed (by us)  go forth to (the gods); no 
other bestower of happiness exists except them; upon the gods aremy desire 

10.064.03 Adore with praises Na_ra_s'am.sa and Pu_s.an, and the unapproachable 
Agni kindled by the devoutAs'vins. [Trita: tritam = stretched, i.e., diffused 
through his own might over the three worlds, i.e., Indra; va_ta =va_yu]. 

10.064.04 How is the sage(Agni) adored by multitudes, and by what praises? 
Br.haspati is magnified with sacredhymns; Aja, walking alone, is magnified with 
solemn invocations and prayers; may Ahirbudhnya hear us at theseason of 
invocation. [Ahirbudhnya: ahih budhnyah, the deep dragon]. 

10.064.05 At the birth of Daks.a, at his sacred rite, you, Aditi, worshipped the 
royal Mitra and Varun.a at thesacred rite. Aryaman, whose course is not hurried, 
the giver of delight to many, having seven ministering (rays),(proceeds) in his 
multiform births. [Daks.a = the sun; Aryaman = the sun; Aditi = earth (Nirukta 
11.23); havingsix seasons, and the intercalary month; his multiform births: 
i.e., his daily risings and settings]. 

10.064.06 May those universal horses (of the deities), who listen to 
invocations, who are vigorous, swiftroadsters, hear our summons; they who 
spontaneously are the givers of thousands, as if at sacrifice; they whohave won 
great wealth in battles. [As if at sacrifice: medhasa_ta_v iva tvamana_ = 
medhasa_ta_ sanis.yavah =desiring to give in the hall of sacrifice (Yajus. 
9.17); ahavarvai mitro ra_trirvarun.ah: Aitareya Bra_hman.a 4.10]. 

10.064.07 Importune, (worshippers), with praises, Va_yu, harnessing his chariot, 
and Purandhi and Pu_s.an fortheir friendship, for these considerate and 
consentient deities, attend the sacrifice upon the birth of Savita_. 

10.064.08 We invoke for protection the thrice seven flowing rivers, (their) 
great waters, the trees, the mountains,Agni, Kr.s'a_nu, the archers, and Tis.ya, 
to the assembly; (we invoke) Rudra, worthy of the praise of the Rudras,for the 
good of the praisers. [Kr.s'a_nu: the gandharva so named; the archers are the 
gandharvas accompanyinghim; they are the guardians, of the Soma; Tis.ya: 
naks.atra, a heavenly-archer like Kr.s'a_nu? some of the otherthe praisers: 
among the Rudras]. 

10.064.09 May the very great rivers, Sarasvati_, Sarayu, Sindhu, come with their 
waves for (our) protection; maythe divine maternal animating waters grant us 
their water mixed with butter and honey. 

10.064.10 May the bright shining mother (of the gods) hear us; may father 
Tvas.t.a_, with the gods, and theirwives, (hear our) words; may  R.bhuks.an, 
Va_ja, Rathaspati, Bhaga, may the joyous adorable (company of theMaruts) protect 
us their praisers. 

10.064.11 Pleasant of aspect (is troop of Maruts), like a house well stored with 
provisions; fortunate is the favourof the Maruts, the sons of Rudra; may we 
(thereby) be famed among men for cattle, and so, gods, ever approach(you) with 
sacrificial food. 

10.064.12 Maruts, Indra, gods, Varun.a and Mitra, reward the worship, which you 
have given as (men fatten) the(newly-delivered) cow with milk, you have 
repeatedly put my praises on your car. 

10.064.13 Maruts, repeatedly acknowledge us, so that (you may make us the 
objects) of this relationship; andmay Aditi grant us affinity (with men) on the 
navel of the earth, where we first assemble (to offer oblations). 

10.064.14 They, two, the maternal heaven and earth, mighty, divine, adorable, 
attain to the gods upon their birth;they both cherish the two (races, human and 
divine) (gods), they shed abundant moisture. 

10.064.15 That voice of invocation, the protectress of the mighty, never 
ceasing, the panegyrist (of the gods),the pious, by their praises, make the god 
desirous (of the sacrifice).  

10.064.16 The pious sage, Gaya, eloquent in laudation, conversant with sacred 
rites, wishing for wealth, eagerfor wealth, propitiates the celestial people 
with prayers and praises. 

10.064.17 Universal deities and Aditi, thus has the prudent son of Plati 
magnified you; the celestial people, theimmortal (company of the gods) through 
whom (when praised) men become the bonds (of wealth), have beenglorified by 

10.065.01 Agni, Inda, Varun.a, Mitra, Aryaman, Va_yu, Pu_s.an, Sarasvati_, the 
A_dityas, Vis.n.u, the Maruts,the mighty heaven, Soma, Rudra, Aditi, 
Brahman.aspati with one consent. 

10.065.02 Indra, and Agni, the lords of the virtuous, standing in the same 
place, mutually invigorating each otherwith might in the Vr.tra-slaying battles, 
and the ghi_-glorified Soma putting forth his greatness have filled the 
vastfirmament with their strength. [Ghi_-glorified: ghr.tas'ri_ = having 
recourse to the Vasati_vari water]. 

10.065.03 Skilled in pious rites, I recite the praises of these (deities), 
mighty through (their own) might,unassailable, exalted by sacrifice; may those 
(gods) who possessed of various wealth, (rain down) the beautifulwater-cloud, 
acting in friendly wise, grant us (wealth) for our honour (among men). 

10.065.04 They have sustained by their strength the leader of all (the sun), the 
luminaries of the firmament,heaven and earth, the outstretched (firmament), 
honouring (their worshippers) like those who give food (to thepoor), the 
generous gods bestowing wealth on man are glorified (at this sacrifice). [Those 
who give food to thepoor: bringing riches into contact with the poor; derived 
from pr.c, to touch]. 

10.065.05 Worship the liberal Mitra and Varun.a, the two royal deities who are 
never negligent in their thoughts,whose vast body is resplendent through their 
functions, upon whom the two solicitous worlds (heaven and earth)remain 
(dependent). [Their functions: of illuminating the world; two solicitous worlds: 
na_dhasi = solicitous; or,abounding in gods and men]. 

10.065.06 May that cow, the leader of the rite, which yielding her milk proceeds 
uncalled to the consecratedplace (of sacrifice), may she, propitiated by me, 
yield her milk to (me), the offerer of oblations to liberal Varun.aand the 
(other) gods. [Milk: of strength, gauh = thunder, ma_dhyamika_ va_k; cf. RV 
8.100.11; offer of oblations:vivasvati = madhyam deva_n paricarate; da_s'us.e = 
an epithet of Varun.a]. 

10.065.07 Pervading heaven (with their radiance), having Agni as their tongue, 
the augmenters of sacrifice,(these deities) sit contemplating the place of 
sacrifice; sustaining heaven they have produced the waters by theirpower; having 
generated sacrifice, they have decorated their persons (with it). [i.e., they 
partake of the oblation]. 

10.065.08 The encompassing parents (heaven and earth), born of old, having a 
common dwelling, sit down uponthe place of sacrifice; engaged in a common 
observance they sprinkle upon the adorable Varun.a water mixedwith butter. 

10.065.09 The two showerers (of desires), Parjanya and Va_ta, the two senders of 
water, Indra and Va_yu,Varun.a,m Mitra, Aryaman; we invoke the divine A_dityas, 
Aditi, and the gods, who dwell on the earth, or inheaven, or in the waters. 

10.065.10 Desirous of wealth, we solicit that Soma, the fried of Indra, who for 
your welfare, R.bhus, brings(hither) Tvas.t.a_,Va_yu, the two divine sacrificers 
(the As'vins), Dawn, Br.haspati, and the wise slayer of Vr.tra. 

10.065.11 Generating food, cows, horses, plants, trees, the earth, mountains and 
waters, elevating the sun inheaven, munificent, promoting sacred observances 
upon the earth, (they abide everywhere). [Generating food:brahman = vr.dh to 
sustain, foster]. 

10.065.12 You, As'vins, extricated Bhujyu from calamity, you gave to Vadhrimati_ 
her son S'ya_va; you gaveKamadyu (as a wife) to Vimada; you restored (the lost) 
Vis.n.a_pu to Vis'vaka. [From calamity: from the sea, cf.RV 1.118.6; 
Vidhrimati_: son is called hiran.yahasta; cf. RV 1.117.24; kamadhyu = light of 
love, ka_masya di_pti;vis.n.a_pu: cf. RV 1.116.23; vis.n.va_pya?]. 

10.065.13 May the armed and thundering (voice of mid-heaven), the upholder of 
heaven, Aja Ekapa_d, theocean, the waters of the firmament, the universal gods 
and Sarasvati_, accompanied by sacred rites, andabundant wisdom, hear my words. 

10.065.14 May the universal gods, accompanied by sacred rites and abundant 
wisdom, adorable (at thesacrifice) of men, immortal, the knowers of truth, 
waiting on the oblation to be given, arriving together (at thesacrifice), 
omniscient, graciously accept all our praises and abundant food with well-sung 

10.065.15 (Descendant of) Vasis.t.ha, I have glorified the immortal gods who 
preside over all worlds; may theythis day bestow upon us widely-famed food; do 
you always cherish us with blessings.

10.066.01 I invoke for the success of the sacrifice the gods, who bestow 
abundant food, the diffusers of light, theextremely wise who flourish mightily, 
abounding in all riches, having Indra as their chief, immortal, augmented 

10.066.02 We offer praise to the company of the Maruts, the attendants upon 
Maghavan, who, encouraged byIndra, and instructed by Varun.a, have acquired a 
portion of the light of the sun; the wise worshippers beget thesacrifice. 

10.066.03 May Indra with the Vasus guard our dwelling; may Aditi with the 
A_dityas grant us felicity; may thedivine Rudra with the Rudras make us 
happy;may Tvas.t.a_ with the wives of the gods be favourable to us forour 

10.066.04 Aditi, heaven and earth, the mighty Truth (Agni), Indra, Vis.n.u, the 
Maruts, the great sun-- (these) weinvoke for our protection, as well as the 
divine A_dityas, the Vasus, the Rudras, and Savita_, the accomplisher ofgood 

10.066.05 May Sarasvati_, (endowed) with intelligences, Varun.a the observer of 
oblations, Pu_s.an, Vis.n.u, themighty Va_yu, the As'vins, (may these) the 
bestowers of food upon worshippers, immortal, the possessors of allwealth, grant 
us a habitation triply-guarded from evil. [Triply-guarded: am.hasas, an epithet 
of the deities, thedestroyers of enemies in the form of sin; s'arma trivaru_tham 
= a house with three courts, or the hall of sacrifice,containing the three Soma 
vessels, dron.a, a_havani_ya and pu_tabhr.t]. 

10.066.06 May our sacrifice be the showerer (of benefits); may the gods who are 
worthy of sacrifice be theshowerers (of benefits); may the priest, may the 
presenters of the oblation, be the showerers (of benefits); mayheaven and earth 
receiving adoration be the showerers (of benefits); may Parjanya be the showerer 
(of rain);may those who praise (the gods) with showers be showerers. 

10.066.07 I glorify for the obtaining of food the two showerers (of benefits), 
Agni and Soma, the many-laudedshowerers (of benefits), may these two whom the 
priests have worshipped with divine worship bestow upon us atriply-guarded 

10.066.08 The (gods) observing obligations endowed with vigour, developers of 
sacrifice, possessed ofabundant brightness, the defenders of sacrifices, having 
Agni for their priest, enjoying truth, unassailable, setfree the waters at the 
combat with the Vr.tra. [Vigour: ks.atriyah = of the ks.atriya clan; or, 

10.066.09 The gods engendered the heaven and earth with their respective 
functions, the waters, the plants, thesacred trees; they filled the whole 
firmament (with lustre) for its protection; they graced the desirable 
(sacrifice) intheir own persons. 

10.066.10 May the upholders of the sky, the radiant with truth, the well-armed 
deities, Va_ta and Parjanya, (theutterers) of the mighty thunder, the waters, 
the plants, amplify our praises; may the liberal Bhaga and Va_jinscome to my 
invocation. [The radiant with truth: R.bhus; suhastah = dexterous, having their 
hands furnished withgood weapons, thunderbolts and the like; va_jins = Agni; 
Va_yu = the sun: Taittiri_ya Bra_hman.a]. 

10.066.11 May the flowing Sindhu, the atmosphere, the firmament, Aja Ekapa_d, 
the rain-bearing thunder-cloud,and Ahirbudhnya hear my words; may the wise 
universal gods (listen to) my (praises). 

10.066.12 May we men be (diligent in providing) for your food, (O gods); conduct 
our ancient sacrifice to asuccessful end, A_dityas, Rudras, and generous Vasus, 
graciously accept these hymns which are being recited. 

10.066.13 I follow the two chief priests the divine offerers of burnt 
sacrifices, (I follow) successfully the path ofsacrifice; we solicit (wealth of) 
the contiguous lord of the field, and the immortal and not unheeding 
universaldeities. [The two chief priests: i.e., Agni and A_ditya]. well-being; 
having come to us, gods, at our desire, bestow wealth upon us like affectionate 

10.066.15 (Descendant of) Vasis.t.ha, I have glorified the immortal gods who 
preside over all the worlds; maythey this day bestow upon us widely-famed food; 
do you always cherish us with blessings.

10.067.01 This great seven-headed ceremony, born of truth our father (An:girasa) 
discovered; Aya_sya, thefrined of all races, engendered the fourth (generation), 
reciting a hymn to Indra. [Legend: R.s.i An:girasa had ason named Br.haspati, 
who became the purohita of Indra, for the instruction of the gods. His cows were 
stolen bythe Pan.is, and taken to Vala's city, and hidden in three places. Indra 
urged Br.haspati to go with the Maruts andlook for them.  Br.haspati begot the 
sun to light up the cave where the cows were hidden (events referred to inthis 
su_kta). Br.haspati took away the cows after kiling the demon Vala and the 
Pan.is who chased him;seven-headed ceremony: i.e., accompanied by seven bands of 
the Maruts, or having seven metres; dhiyam =reflecting on good works, i.e., 
Br.haspati: Aitareya Bra_hman.a 3.34; engendered the fourth generation: i.e., 

10.067.02 Reciting sincere praise, reflecting correctly, the An:girasas, the 
pious sons of the brilliant and powerful(Agni), upholding the intelligent base, 
the supporter of the sacrifice, praise from the beginning. [Supporter: 
padamrefers to Br.haspati, as supporting (dha_ma), the sacrifice]. 

10.067.03 With his friends (the Maruts) clamouring like geese, throwing open the 
(asuras') cattle-folds made ofstone, Br.haspati calling aloud (desires to carry 
off) the cows; knowing all things he praises (the gods) andchants (their 
laudation). [Chants: udga_yat, acts the part of the Udga_ta_]. 

10.067.04 Br.haspati purposing to bring light into the darkness drove out the 
cows standing in the cave in theplace of darkness below by  two (ways), and 
those above by one (way); he opened the three (doors of the

10.067.05 Resting near it, demolishing the western city, Br.haspati wrested at 
once from Vala the three, thedawn, the sun, the cow; thundering like the heaven, 
he proclaimed the adorable (Sun). [Vala: lit., the ocean, i.e.Vala in the form 
of a cloud; dawn, sun, cow: Br.haspati begetting the son, which comes into being 
after the timeof dawn, brought the cattle out from the folds enveloped in 

10.067.06 Indra with his voice as with an (armed) hand clove Vala the defender 
of hte kine; desirous of themixture (of milk and Soma) he with (the Maruts)k, 
who were shining with perspiration, destroyed Pan.i andliberated the cows. 
[Shining with perspiration: dripping ornaments, or having streaming 

10.067.07 Together with his true brilliant wealth-winning friendly (Maruts) he 
destroyed the detainer of the cows;Brahman.aspati, with the showerers (of 
benefits), the conveyers of desirable (water), the frequenters of 
sacrifice,acquired wealth. [Brahman.aspati: lord of praise, i.e., of the three 
Vedas, the R.k, Yajus. and Sa_man;frequenters of sacrifice: or, those who go in 
lustre; or, dripping water]. 

10.067.08 They with truthful mind searching for the cows resolved by their 
exploits to make him the lord of cattle;Br.haspati with his self-yoked (allied) 
mutually defending each other from reproach, set free the kind. 
[Mutuallydefending: mitho avadyapebhih = those to whom the kine, to be 
protecte4d from the asura in the guise of sin,mutually resort]. 

10.067.09 Magnifying the victorious Br.haspati, the showerer (of benefits), 
roaring in mid-heaven like a lion, letus praise him in the conflicts where 
heroes win, with auspicious praises. 

10.067.10 When he acquires food of various kinds, when he ascends the sky or the 
northern stations, (the godsare) extolling Br.haspati, the showerer (of 
benefits), with their mouth, being in various (quarters), bearing light. 

10.067.11 Make good our prayer for the bestowal of food; you protect through 
your movements even (me) yourprayer). 

10.067.12 Indra by his might has cleft the brow of the vast watery cloud, he has 
slain Ahi; he has made the sevenrivers flow; do you, heaven and earth, along 
with the gods, protect us. [Indra; ie., Br.haspati].

10.068.01 Like birds swimming in water when keeping watch, like the sound of the 
roaring thunder-cloud, likesounding torrents falling from the clouds, the 
worshippers glorify Br.haspati. [Like birds: as the emitters of water,the 
husbandmen, call out when keeping the birds off the ripe grain]. 

10.068.02 The son of An:girasa pervading him with his brightness has, like 
Bhaga, brought Aryaman to the cows;as Mitra (unites his radiance) with the 
people, so has he united husband and wife; Br.haspati, send (yourwide-spread 
rays to your worshippers) as (a warrior sends his) horses to battle. 

10.068.03 Br.haspati brings unto (the gods), after extricating them from the 
mountains, the cows that are theyielders of pure (milk), ever in motion, the 
objects of search and of desire, well-coloured and of unexceptionableform, (as 
men bring) barley from the granaries. [The cows: ga_h = the rain water; 
parvatebhyah = the clouds;from the granaries: sthivibhyah = kusi_debhyah, 
usurers; nir u_pe = sows (as of seed)]. 

10.068.04 Saturating (the earth) with water, scattering the receptacle of rain, 
the adorable Br.haspati, raising upthe cattle from the rock as (he raises) a 
meteor from the sky, rent the skin of the earth (with the hoofs of thecattle) as 
(Parjanya rends it) with rain. 

10.068.05 Br.haspati drove away the darkness from the firmament with light as 
the wind (blows) the S'i_pa_lafrom the water; guessing (them to be there), he 
swept the Vala's cows together to himself as the wind (sweeps)the clouds. 
[S'i_pa_la = an aquatic plant, s'aiva_la, the vallisneria]. 

10.068.06 When Br.haspati demolished with rays burning like fire the weapon of 
the malignant Vala, he devouredhim (encompassed by his followers) as the tongue 
(consumes) that which is encompassed by the teeth; he mademanifest the hiding-
place of the kine. 

10.068.07 When Br.haspati had discovered that name of the lowing kine in their 
place in the cave, by his ownstrength he extricated the cattle from the rock as 
(breaking) the eggs of a bird (one extricates) the embryo. 

10.068.08 Br.haspati looked round upon the cows shut up in the cave like fish in 
a dried up pool; he seized Valawith a shout, cutting him off like a bowl from a 
tree. [Cows: madhu, honey; hence, Soma, or milk; here put for theyielders of 

10.068.09 Br.haspati found the dawn, the sun, Agni; he dispersed the gloom with 
light; he seized (the cattle fromthe rock)) of Vala surrounded by the kine as 
(one extracts) marrow from a bone. 

10.068.10 As the trees (bemoan) their leaves carried off by the winter, so Vala 
bemoaned his kine (carried off) byBr.haspati; he did that which cannot be 
imitated, which cannot be repeated, whereby sun and moon mutually rise(day and 
night). [Trees: vana_ni = vanani_ya_ni, the desirable wealth of cows; as leaves 
are carried off bywinter, so the desirable cows were carried off by Vala had 
pity on Br.haspati coming in search of the cows; i.e.,gave him the cows. He made 
this, i.e. the mutual rising of the sun and moon, which cannot be made 
afterwards,which cannot be made again]. 

10.068.11 The protecting (deities) have decorated the heaven with constellations 
as (men decorate) a brownhorse with golden trappings; they established darkness 
in the night and light in the day; Br.haspati fractured therock and recovered 
the cows. [Protecting deities: pitr.s, or progenitors, the An:girasas, who 
appear to have beenamong the ancient astronomers, the inventors of the lunar 
asterisms (naks.atras)]. 

10.068.12 We have offered this homage to Br.haspati, who lives in mid-heaven, 
who recites in order many(sacred stanzas); may he bestow upon us food, with 
cows, with horses, with son, with dependants.

10.069.01 May Agni's regards be benevolent to Vadhryas'va; may his guidance be 
auspicious, his approaches(to the sacrifice) favourable; when the Sumitra people 
first kindled Agni, then fed with butter and brilliantly blazinghe is glorified. 

10.069.02 May ghi_ be the augmenter of the Agni of Vadhryas'va; may ghi_ be his 
food; may ghi_ be hisnutriment; sacrified to with ghi_ he expands exceedingly; 
he shines like the sun, when the clarified butter ispoured out for him. 

10.069.03 May that your army of flame, Agni, which Manu, which Sumitra has 
kindled, be the newest; do youshine wealthily; do you graciously accept our 
praises; do you destroy the  might (of our foes), do you grant usabundance. 

10.069.04 Do you, Agni, whom Vadhryas'va propitiating you formerly kindled, 
accept this; be the proector of oursacrifices, be the protector of our bodies; 
preserve this wealth which has been given to us by you. 

10.069.05 Kinsman of Vadhryas'va, be the possessor of food and our protector; 
let no one assail you, (for youare) the overcomer of men; like a resolute 
warrior (you are) the overthrower (of enemies); I, Sumitra, celebratethe names 
of the kinsmen of Vadhyas'va. 

10.069.06 You have gained mountain-treasures beneficial to men, (you have 
defeated the hostilities) of strongmen, Da_sas and Vr.tras, like a resolute 
warrior, do you, Agni, the overthrower (of enemies), overcome thosewho are 
desirous of battle. 

10.069.07 This Agni to whom a long series (of sacrifices has been addressed), 
who is bright with many rays,covering thousands (in the form of ghi_), the 
leader of hundreds (of burnt offerings), the mighty one, brilliantamong the 
brilliant, (is) being glorified by the priests; shine (Agni) upon the devout 
Sumitras. [To whom a longseries...: lit., long-threaded, large-oxed, thousand-
heifered, hundred-guider]. 

10.069.08 In you, Ja_tavedas, is the cow easy to be milked, yielding ambrosia as 
it were inexhaustibly in battle,you are kindled, Agni, by the devout Sumitras 
who are entitled to the sacrificial donation. [Yieldingambrosia...battle: 
asas'cateva samana_ = united with the sun which has no association, i.e., is not 
joined toanything because it has no settled home]. 

10.069.09 The immortal gods have proclaimed your greatness. Ja_tavedas, 
Vadhryas'va (Agni); when humanbeings, came to inquire (who would slay the 
asuras), then you with (the gods), the leaders of all, fostered by youdid 
overcome (those who impeded the ceremony). 

10.069.10 Vadhryas'va, honouring you, Agni, placed you upon the altar as a 
father (places) his son (upon hislap); pleased with his fuel, youngest (of the 
gods), you did slay the ancient obstructers of the rite. 

10.069.11 Agni by means of the  priests of Vadhryas'va pouring out libations 
always conquers his foes; you(Agni) shining with varied splendour, have consumed 
the battle; (your praiser) self-fostered has destroyed hispowerful (assailant). 

10.069.12 From a long period has this Agni the slayer of foes been kindled (by 
the oblation) of Vadhryas'va; (heis) to be  addressed with reverence; do you, 
(Agni, kindled in the) family of Vadhryas'va, overcome our enemies,both those 
who have no kinsmen and those who have many kinsmen.

10.070.01 Graciously accept, Agni, this my fuel (placed) on the place of 
libation (the altar); delight in thebutter-laden (spoon); most wise, rise up 
upon the lofty place of the earth for the propitiousness of the daysthrough the 
worship of the gods. 

10.070.02 May Nara_s'am.sa, the preceder of the gods, come here with his horses 
of various forms; deserving ofadoration, chief of the gods, may he effuse 
(oblations) to the gods by the path of the sacrifice with praise. 

10.070.03 Men offering oblations adore the eternal Agni to (induce him to 
perform) the duty of messenger (to thegods); do you with your stalwart draught 
horses and your well-turning chariots bear (our offering) to the gods,and sit 
down here as the ministrant priest. 

10.070.04 May our (sacred grass) acceptable to the gods, twining crookedly be 
stretched out, may it be long,lengthy, and fragrant; with mind free from wrath, 
divine Barhis, offer worship to the gods desiring (the sacrifice),of whom Indra 
is the chief. 

10.070.05 Be in contact, doors, with the lofty height of heaven, or expand 
according to the measure of the earth;desiring the gods, desiring a chariot, 
sustain without might the shining chariot (that is mounted) by the mightygods.  

10.070.06 Radiant daughters of heaven, Dawn and Night, sit down on the place of 
sacrifice; O you, who aredesirous and possessed of affluence, may the gods 
desirous (of oblations) sit down on your spacious lap. 

10.070.07 (When) the grinding-stone is uplifted, the mighty Agni kindled, the 
acceptable vessels (ready) on thelap of earth; (then), most learned priests, who 
take the foremost place, bestow wealth upon us at this sacrifice. 

10.070.08 Sit down, you three goddesses, upon this broad barhis, we have spread 
it out for you; Il.a_, radiant(Sarasvati_) and bright-footed (bha_rati_) accept 
our sacrifice and well-presented oblations as if they wereManu's. 

10.070.09 Divine Tvas.t.a_, since you have attained to beauty (through  our 
oblations), and have become theassociate of the An:girasas, do you, the bestower 
of wealth, possessed of precious treasure, and knowing (towhom each portion 
belongs), offer the food of the gods (to them). 

10.070.10 Vanaspati, who are intelligent, having fastened it with a rope, convey 
the food of the gods; may thedivine (Vanaspati) taste it, may he take the 
oblations (to the gods); may heaven and earth protect my invocation.[Vanaspati: 
the sacrificial post or stake (yu_pa)]. 

10.070.11 Bring, Agni, to our sacrifice Varun.a and Indra from heaven, and the 
Maruts from the firmament, maythe adorable universal gods sit down on the sacred 
grass, and may the immortal deities rejoice in (the oblationpresented with) the 

10.071.01 That, Br.haspati, is the best (part) of speech which those giving a 
name (to objects) first utter; thatwhich was the best of those (words) and free 
from defect, (Sarasvati_) reveals it though secretly imparted, bymeans of 
affection. [Deity Jn~a_na: The knowledge of Brahman is identical with the study 
of the Veda, essentialto divine knowledge; Those...first utter: this refers to 
children's first utterances; Br.haspati says this to himselfwith a smile, having 
noticed that children know the meaning of the Veda: Aitareya Bra_hman.a 1.14; 
Best ofthose words: tat = that knowledge of the Veda]. 

10.071.02  When the wise create Speech through wisdom winnowing (it) as (men 
winnow) barley with a sieve,then friends know friendship; good fortune is placed 
upon their word. [Friendship: sakha_yah: sa, khya,sama_nakhya_na_ = stus.e, who 
possess knowledge of the s'a_stras]. it they dispersed it in many places; the 
seven noisy (birds) meet together. [Birds: the seven metres, ga_yatri_etc.; 
dispersed: the diiffusion of learning; those who have studied the Veda have 
taught it ot others]. 

10.071.04 One (man) indeed seeing Speech has not seen her; another (man) hearing 
her has not heard her; butto another she delivers her person as a loving wife 
well-attired presents herself to her husband. [But to another:i.e., he 
understands thoroughly the meaning of the Veda]. 

10.071.05 They call one man firmly established in the friendship (of Speech), 
they do not exclude him from (thesociety of) the powerful (in knowledge); 
another wanders with an illusion that is barren, bearing Speech that iswithout 
fruit, without flowers. 

10.071.06 He who has abandoned the friend who knows the duty of a friend, in his 
speech there is not a particle(of sense); what he hears, he hears amiss; for he 
knows not the path of righteousness. [Duty of a friend:sacividam = the teacher 
who is the friend of the Veda because he shows his gratitude to the Veda by 
preventingthe destruction of tradition; he hears amiss: what he hears outside 
(contrary to) the Veda he hears false]. 

10.071.07 Friends possessing eyes, possessing ears, were (yet) unequal in mental 
apprehension; some seemedlike pools reaching to the mouth, others reaching to 
the loins, others like pools in which one can bathe. [Friends:persons having 
equal knowledge]. 

10.071.08 Although Bra_hman.as who are friends concur in the mental 
apprehensions which are conceived bythe heart (of the wise), yet in this 
(assembly) they abandon one man (to ignorance of the sciences) that are to 
beknown, others again who are reckoned as Bra_hman.as (wander at will in the 
meanings of the Veda).[Bra_hman.a: who possess the investigated Brahman, 
consisting of knowledge, divine lore (s'ruti), thought andwisdom, i.e., the 

10.071.09 Those who do not walk (with the Bra_hman.as) in this lower world not 
(with the gods) in the upperworld-- they are neither Bra_hman.as nor offerers of 
libations; they, devoid of wisdom, attaining Speech, havingsin producing 
(Speech), becoming ploughmen pursue agriculture. [Those who not walk: arva_k, 
paras: behind --in front]. 

10.071.10 All frinends rejoice when the friendly (libation), the support of the 
assembly (of the priests), has arrived(at the sacrifice); for (Soma), the 
remover of iniquity, the giver of sustenance, being placed (in the vessels), 
issufficient for their invigoration. 

10.071.11 One (the Hota_) is diligent in the repitition of the verses (of the 
R.k); another (the Udga_ta_) chantsthe Ga_yatra (the Sa_man) in the S'akvari_ 
metre; another the Brahma declares the knowledge of what is to bedone; another 
(the Adhvaryu) measures the materials of the sacrifice.

10.072.01 Let us proclaim with a clear voice the generations of the gods (the 
divine company), who, when theirpraises are recited, look (favourably on the 
worshipper) in this latter age. 

10.072.02 Brahman.aspati filled these (generations of the gods) with breath as a 
blacksmith (his bellows); in thefirst age of the gods the existent was born of 
the non-existent. [Brahman.aspati: the lord of food; the same asAditi; of the 
non-existent: asatah = that which at the primary creation of the gods was 
without name or form; thereis an allusion to the popular text: asad va_ idam 
agra a_si_t tato vai sad aja_yata (Cha_ndogya Upanis.ad 6.2);tadvedam 
tarhyavya_kr.tama_si_t: S'atapatha Bra_hman.a]. 

10.072.03 In the firsst age of the gods the existent was born of the non-
existent; after that the quarters (of thehorizon) were born, and after them the 
upward-growing (trees). 

10.072.04 The earth was born from the upward-growing (tree), the quarters were 
born from the earth; Daks.awas born from Aditi, and afterwards Aditi from 
Daks.a. [Sa_yn.a remarks: It may be objected that there is acontradiction here, 
since a self-produced effect cannot be the cause of itself. The venerable Ya_ska 
removingthis objection has questioned and refuted the inconsistency. He says 
(Nirukta 11.23), 'It may be objected, howcan it be that Daks.a was born from 
Aditi and afterwards Aditi from Daks.a? The answer is, either they were 
borntogether or by a divine law they reciprocally gave birth to each other and 
shared each other's nature' "]. 

10.072.05 Aditi, who was your daughter, Daks.a, was born; after her the gods 
were born adorable, freed from thebonds of death. [i.e. gave birth to (those 

10.072.06 When, goeds, your abode in this pool well-arranged, then a pungent 
dust went forth from you as if youwere dancing. [Your abode in this pool: i.e., 
when the world was, yet water (a_po va_ idam sarvam: Taittiri_yaA_ran.yaka: 
10.22), as it was before creation, and the gods were, properly speaking, 
uncreated; dust: or,particle, this refers to the sun mounting into the sky]. 

10.072.07 When, gods, you filled the worlds (with your radiance) as clouds (fill 
the earth with rain), then youbrought forth the wun hidden in the ocean. 

10.072.08 Eight sons (there were) of A_ditya who were born from her body; she 
approached the gods withseven, she sent forth Ma_rta_n.d.a on high (Taittiri_ya 
A_ran.yaka 1.13.3) [Eight sons: Mitra, Varun.a, Dha_ta_,Aryaman, Am.s'a, Bhaga, 
Vivasvat and A_ditya (the sun). Pura_n.a_s made the A_dityas twelve in 
number;Sa_yan.a cites Taittiri_ya Sam.hita_]. 

10.072.09 With seven sons Aditi went to a former generation, but she bore 
Ma_rta_n.d.a for the birth and death(of human beings). [Life, death etc. of 
sentient beings is dependent on the rising and setting of the sun; there 
isTaittiri_ya Sam.hita_; cf. Muir, Sanskrit Texts, part 4, p. 10].

10.073.01 You have been born, (Indra), for strength, for slaying (enemies); 
powerful, adorable, most mighty,extremely proud; the Maruts animated Indra in 
the (Vr.tra-fight) when (his) sustaining mother sustained the hero.[Mother: 
Dhanis.t.ha_, another name of Aditi; Yajus. 33.64]. 

10.073.02 The material troop of (Indra) the injurer encamped around Indra, 
(accompanied)  by the swift-moving(maruts); they animated him with abundant 
praise; like (cattle) penned up within a great stall, the embryonic(waters) 
issued from the (Vr.tra) who had arrived in the form of darkness. 

10.073.03 Vast, (Indra), are your  feet; when you advance, the Va_jas, and 
whatsoever (deities are) thereanimated you; you, Indra, hold a thousand jackals 
in yourmouth, may you bring back the As'vins. 

10.073.04 Hastening in battle you approach the sacrifice; you bring the two 
Na_satya_s to friendship (with us);you, Indra, possess a heap of treasures, 
thousands (in numbers); the As'vins, hero, gave us riches. 

10.073.05 Indra rejoicing at the sacrifice accompanied by hisswift-moving riends 
(the Maruts, gave) wealth to thepeople; he has come with them against the Dasyu 
to destroy his illusions; he has scattered the dark rain-cloudsand the gloom. 
[Dark rain-clouds: tamra_h = causing to languish, i.e., by giving no rain; is 
this a play on the wordta_mra, copper?] 

10.073.06 You have expelled the two of the same name, you have destroyed the 
Vr.tra as (he destroyed) the cartof the dawn; you advance with the mighty 
friends (the Maruts), who were eager (to slay  the Vr.tra); youdemolished his 
precious limbs. 

10.073.07 You have slain the slave Namuci endeavouring (to disturb) the 
sacrifice, making his illusionspowerless against the R.s.i; you have made easy 
for Manu the paths to the gods, so as (to make) the waysstraight. [Endeavouring 
to disturb the sacrifice: or, desiring your wealth; mkhasyu = desiring to 

10.073.08 You have filled these waters, you, Indra, who are the lord (of all) 
bear (the thunderbolt) in your hands;the gods glorify you (who are endowed) with 
strength; you have made the clouds with their roots upwards. [Youhave made... 
roots upwqards: i.e., you have turned them upside down-- adhomukha_n, with their 
faces turneddownwards; vaninah = clouds, or rays]. 

10.073.09 When his thunderbolt rode everywhere in the firmament, it also 
subjugated the water to him; the waterwhich is let loose upon the earth puts 
milk into cows and herbs. 

10.073.10 Although (some) say he came from the horse (the sun), I know that he 
is the offspring of strength; hecame from wrath, he stands in the homes (of his 
enemies); Indra knows whence he was born. 

10.073.11 The swift-moving well-flying (rays of the sun), living sacrifices, 
discerning (the future), deservingknowledge, invested Indra, dissipate the 
darkness, fill out the light; release us like men bound with a net.

10.074.01 Indra desiring to bestow (wealth) is attracted by the inhabitants of 
heaven and earth (for theacquisition) of riches, either by pious acts or by 
sacrifices; (he is attracted) either by those swift-moving (persons)who acquire 
wealth in battle or by those who being successful (inflict) successful injury. 
[vanum = him.sam;sus'run.am = suprasiddham, very famour or very successful]. 

10.074.02 The animating invocation of these (An:girasas) pervaded heaven; (the 
gods) with minds desirous offood kissed the earth; and there beholding (the lost 
cattle), the gods for their own benefit made (illumination) likethe sun by their 
glorious radiance. [Kissed: arrived; the subject of nim.sata may be the 
An:girasas, who were sentby Indra to point out where the cattle of the 
worshippers were]. 

10.074.03 This (is) the praise of these immortal (Gods), who bestow wealth at 
the sacrifice; perfecting our praiseand sacrifice, may they bestow upon us 
unequalled riches. 

10.074.04 Your men praised (you) then, Indra, (those) who wished to break into 
the vast (stall) full of cattle; whomilked the extensive once-generating earth, 
mother of many children, the showerer of thousands (of blessings).[Who wished to 
break into: u_rvam gomantam titr.tsa_n = whose desire to effuse the abundant 
(Soma) mixedwith water (Yajus. 33.28); once-generating earth: sakr.ddha dyaur 
aja_yata = giving gold, grain etc., once]. 

10.074.05 Celebrators of holy rites, select for your protection Indra the 
unsubdued, the tamer of hostile hosts;mighty, opulent, much glorified, who, 
loud-shouting, is the bearer of the thunderbolt, which is friendly to man. 

10.074.06 When Indra, the destroyer of cities, had slain the most mighty 
(Vr.tra), then he the Vr.tra-slayer filledthe waters; he was manifest (to all), 
the subduer of enemies, the lord of all, the most opulent; may he do thatwhich 
we desire to have done.

10.075.01 Waters, the worshipper addresses to you excellent praise in the 
dwelling of the institutor of the rite;they flowed by sevens through the three 
(worlds); but the Sindhu surpasses (all) the (other) streams in strength. 

10.075.02 For your course, Sindhu, Varun.a tore open a path, since you hastened 
towards food; you go by alofty road down upon the earth, by which (road) you 
reign in the sight of all worlds. 

10.075.03 The sound goes forth in heaven above the earth; (Sindhu) with shining 
wave animates his endlessspeed; as rains issue thundering from the cloud, so 
Sindhu (thunders) when he advances roaring like a bull. 

10.075.04 Like mothers crying for their sons, (the other rivers) hasten towards 
you, Sindhu, like cows with theirmilk; you lead your two wings like a king going 
to battle when you march in the van of the streams that aredescending (with 
you). [Your two wings: your flowing combatants; or, wings of an army]. 

10.075.05 Accept this my praise, Gan:ga_, Yamuna_, Sarasvati_, S'utudri, 
Parus.n.i, Marudvr.dha with Asikni_,and Vitazsta_; listen, A_rjiki_ya with 
Sus.oma_. [Gan:ga_...: cf. Roth's Lit. and Hist. of the Veda, pp. 136-
140;Parus.n.i is another name for Ira_vati_. Marudvr.dha = increased by the 
Maruts or storm-gods; A_rjiki_ya =Vipa_s'a; Sus.oma_ = Sindhu; Nirukta 2.26; cf. 
Muir's Sanskrit Texts, vol. 2, p. 355; a verse is inserted here insome MSS, not 
noticed by Sa_yan.a: "Those who are drowned at the confluence of the Sita and 
Asita go toheaven; the resolute people who abandon their lives (thus) enjoy 

10.075.06 You, Sindhu, in order to reach the swift-moving Gomati_, have united, 
yourself first with theTr.s.t.a_ma_; (now be united) with the Susartu, the 
Rasa_, the S'veti, the Kubha, and the Mehatnu, inconjunction with which streams 
you do advance. [In conjunction with: saratham = lit. having mounted the 
samechariot with them]. 

10.075.07 Straight-flowing, white-coloured, bright-shining (Sindhu) bear along 
in its might the rapid waters; theinviolable Sindhu, the most efficacious of the 
efficacious, is speckled like a mare, beautiful as a handsomewoman. 

10.075.08 The Sindhu is rich in horses, rich in chariots, rich in clothes, rich 
in gold ornaments, well-made, rich infood, rich in wool, ever fresh, abounding 
Si_lama_ plants, and the auspicious river wears honey-growing(flowers). [Rich in 
wool: of which, blankets are made; si_lama_ plants: which furnish cordage for 

10.075.09 Sindhu has harnessed his easy-going, well-horsed, chariot, with it may 
he bring (us) food; the might ofthis inviolable, great, renowned (chariot) at 
this sacrifice is praised as mighty.

10.076.01 I  propitiate you at the commencement of the food-possessing (dawns); 
you reveal Indra, the Maruts,heaven and earth; both heaven and earth being 
united attend on us in all the chambers of sacrifice; (may they fillus) with 
wealth. [Commencement: udbhida_ = at their opening (or commencement) ahani_ = 
the two halves ofthe day]. 

10.076.02 Pour forth this excellent libation; the stone grasped by the hand is 
like a horse when the grinder(effuses the Soma). The animating (worshipper) 
acquires virile strength overpowering (his foes) when (the stone)bestows horses 
for the sake of great wealth. 

10.076.03 May this (sacrificial) work of this grinding-stone the effusion of the 
Soma, spread as it went formerlyalong the path to Manu; when the son of 
Tvas.t.a_, hidden by the (stolen) cows, and assuming the form of ahorse, (was to 
be slain), the worshippers had recourse at the sacrifices to the inviolable 
(upper grinding-stones). 

10.076.04 Drive away the disturbing ra_ks.asas; keep off Nirr.ti; prohibit all 
malignity; effuse for us riches withmale progeny; bear, stones, the praise that 
delights the gods. 

10.076.05 (The Adhvaryu) praises you who are stronger even than heaven, quicker 
in work that Vibhvan, morediffusive of the Soma than Va_yu, more bountiful of 
food than Agni.  [Vibhvan: one of the r.bhus, sons ofSudhanvan]. 

10.076.06 May the renowned stones bring us the effused Soma, (may they establish 
us) with brilliant praise inthe brilliant (Soma-sacrifice), where the priests 
milk forth the desirable Soma, crying out all around, and racingeach other. 

10.076.07 The swiftly-moving grinding-stones effuse the Soma, desiring praise, 
they milk forth Soma; they milkforth for the spinkling (of Agni); the leaders 
(of rites) purify the oblations with their mouths. [With their mouths: 
bydevouring the refuse; or, metaphorically, by the praise of their mouths]. 

10.076.08 You stones, leaders (of rites), youu are the doers of good works; you 
who express the Soma for Indra,(make) all desirable wealth for the glory of 
heaven; you (give) all treasures to the earthly effuser.

10.077.01 (The Maruts), pleased with our praise like water-drops sent down by 
clouds, shower wealth; they arethe generators (of the world) like sacrifices 
abounding with oblations; I have not praised the mighty band ofMaruts 
(adequately) for their honour or of their glory. 

10.077.02 The destructive (Maruts) made ornaments for their decoration  many 
hostile hosts cannot overcomethe band of Maruts; the moving sons of heaven do 
not issue forth, the swift-going sons of Aditi do not increase (inglory). 
[Destructive: or, human; the Maruts were at first men, but through their good 
works obtained immortality;do not increase in glory: because, they are not 
praised by us]. 

10.077.03 (The Maruts), who through the might of heaven and earth have emerged 
from their own persons asthe sun emerges from the cloud, (are) desirous of 
praise like powerful heroes, and radiant like men whooverpower their enemies. 

10.077.04 In your collision, as in the transit of waters, the earth is not 
shaken, is not shattered; this manifoldsacrifice comes towards you; approach 
united as if laden with food. 

10.077.05 You (move along) like horses harnessed to the chariot-poles with 
reins; at break of day you (areendowed) with radiance like the luminaries (of 
heaven); you are like hawks, like the destroyers of foes, desirousof renown; you 
cover the ground like travellers, you move everywhere. 

10.077.06 When, Maruts, you come from a distance, then, Vasus, distributors of 
abundant, desirable, covetedwealth, do you scatter afar our concealed foes. 

10.077.07 The worshipper who engaged in worship at the sacrifice, accompanied 
with praise, presentsdonations (to the priests) as if to the Maruts, he enjoys 
food with riches, and male progeny; may he be present atthe god's soma-drinking. 
[Praise: urichi yajn~e = when the sacrifice has the praise perfected, i.e., when 
thesacrifice is complete; or, when the sacrifice is begun]. 

10.077.08 May those protecting deities who are entitled to be worshipped at 
sacrifices, who under the name ofA_dityas are the bestowers of felicity, may 
they (the Maruts) accelerating their chariots, and desirous of theample 
(oblation), upon their arrival at the sacrificed protect our praise. [Under the 
name of A_dityas: or, by meansof the water connected with A_ditya (the sun)].

10.078.01 They (the Maruts) are like Bra_hman.as sanctified by pious praises, 
they are institutors of holy riteslike the propitiators of the gods by 
sacrifices; decked with various ornaments, and handsome like kings, devoid ofsin 
like men (who are the lords) of habitations. 

10.078.02 (You) who like Agni (are endowed) with splendour, who have golden 
ornaments upon your breasts,who like the winds (are) self-yoked, swift-moving, 
who like the extremely wise (are) venerable and able guides,and like the Soma 
the giver of delight, (do you com) to the (worshipper) going to the sacrifice. 

10.078.03 (The Maruts), who like the winds cause (the gods) to tremble and move 
swift; blazing like the flames offires, (who are) the achievers of heroic deeds 
like warriors clad in mail; munificent donors like the praises ofancestors. 

10.078.04 Who (are) united to a common centre like the spokes (of the wheels) of 
chariots, brilliant like victoriousheroes, sprinkling water like benevolent men, 
sweet-voiced like men who recite praise. 

10.078.05 Who (are) most excellent and swift like horses, lords of cars and 
munificent like the possessors ofwealth, swiftly moving like rivers with water 
flowing from a height, (accompanied) everywhere with hymns like themultiform 

10.078.06 Having streams for mothers like the grinding-stones which send forth 
moisture; ever destroying(enemies) like destructive thunderbolts; having tender 
mothers like sportive infants; (endowed) with splendourlike a great crowd of men 
in a procession. [Having streams...grinding stones: clouds; sindhuma_tarah = 
mothersof rivers]. 

10.078.07 Who, radiant in sacrifices like the rays of the dawn, shine with their 
ornaments like those expectant ofgood fortune, (who) swift-moving like rivers, 
having bright weapons, have traversed leagues like mares who havejourneyed from 
far, (may they come to our sacrifice). 

10.078.08 Divine Maruts, magnified (by our praise), render us, your praisers, 
prosperous and opulent; come tothis friendly  laudation, for your precious 
bounties have been long (bestowed upon us).

10.079.01 I have beheld the might of the adorable (Agni) immortal in (the hearts 
of) mortal beings; his two jaws,divided asunder, shut together; devouring 
without masticating consume much (fuel). [Devouring: feeding theworshipper; 
asinvati_ = insatiable, asan:kha_dani_yau, not chewing]. 

10.079.02 His head is deposited in a cavern; his eyes are wide apart; with his 
tongue he devours the woodwithout masticating; (the priests) approaching on food 
reverently offer him oblations among the people withuplifted hands. [In a 
cavern: i.e., in the stomachs of men, referring to the fire of digestion; eyes = 
the sun andmoon]. 

10.079.03 Longing for the abundant creepers of the maternal (earth, longing for) 
their more excellent concealed(root), he creeps like a child; he has found the 
tree shining like ripe grain, upon the lap of tthe earth, tasting (theether). 

10.079.04 This (that) I declare unto you, heaven and earth, (is) the truth; as 
soon as born, the embryo devoursthe parents; I who am a mortal know not (the 
condition) of the deity; Agni, (O Vais'va_nara), is discriminating, heis 
exceedingly wise. [Embryo: i.e., fire as soon as lighted burns the two pieces of 
touchwood by which it wasgenerated]. 

10.079.05 He who quickly offers him food, makes oblations to him with dripping 
Soma, and delights him (withfood); (Agni) looks upon him with a thousand eyes; 
you, Agni, are everywhere present. 

10.079.06 What wrathful act, what sin have you committed among the gods? 
Ignorant I ask you, Agni, sporting(here) not sporting (there), golden-hued; 
eating what is to be eaten, you cut (your food) into pieces as the knife(cuts 
up) the cow. 

10.079.07 Born in the woods, he has harnessed his steeds which move everywhere 
held in by straight-guidingreins; friendly and augmented by rays, he has 
distributed (wealth); he grows in strength nourished with logs ofwood.

10.080.01 Agni gives (his worshipper) a food-acquiring steed, Agni gives (him) a 
valiant son, renowned,assiduous in pious works; Agni travels beautifying heaven 
and earth; Agni (makes) as woman the bearer of maleoff-spring (and) intelligent. 

10.080.02 May the fuel of the efficient Agni be auspicious; Agni has penetrated 
the vast heaven and earth; Agnianimates (the worshipper) alone in battles; Agni 
destroys numerous enemies. 

10.080.03 Agni verily has protected Jaratkarn.a; he has consumed Jaru_tha with 
his flames; Agni rescued Atri inthe hot fissure; Agni furnished Nr.medha with 

10.080.04 Agni sending forth flames bestows wealth; Agni (gives a son to) the 
R.s.i who acquires a thousandcows; Agni spreads the oblation through heaven, the 
forms of Agni are manifested in many places. 

10.080.05 The R.s.is variously invoke Agni with hymns; men when hard pressed in 
battle (invoke) Agni; the birdsflying in mid-heaven (invoke) Agni; Agni 
circumambulates thousands of cattle. 

10.080.06 The races who are of human birth praise (Agni, so do the men descended 
from king Nahus.a; Agni,(hears) the voice which is fit for the path  of 
sacrifice; Agni's path lies everywhere in ghi_. 

10.080.07 The R.bhus have fabricated praise for Agni; we have recited pious 
praise to the mighty Agni; Agni,youngest (of the gods), protect your worshipper; 
Agni, bestow (on him) abundant wealth.

[Vis'vakarman: not the artificer of the gods, but the maker of all, the creator, 
Parames'vara; the epithet is used of Indra, RV 8.9.2]

pious benedictions, the first inventor has entered inferior (beinggs). [Offering 
all these worlds: i.e., destroying atthe pral.aya, or dissolution of the world 
(Yajus. 17.17); asi_dat = had stopped, or has sat down in Agni. The'wealth' 
desired by Vis'vakarma_ is heaven, which is to be obtained by hymns and the 
like. a_s'is.a_ = by thewish to become many; or, by the desire to create again 
and again; prathamacchad = assuming the principal form,or first investing, Agni 
with the worlds; Parames'vara is intended: a_tma_ va_ idam eka eva_gra a_si_t: 
AitareyaBra_hman.a 2.4.1; Nirukta, 10.26: Vis'vakarman was at a sarvamedha, or 
universal sacrifice; he offered up all theworlds, and last of all offered up 
himself in sacrifice. The first line of the r.ca is a reference to the 
destuction of allthings; the second line of the r.ca refers to their re-

10.081.02 What was the station? What was the material? How was (it done)? So 
that the beholder of all,Vis'vakarman (was) generating and disclosed heaven by 
his might. [In the first r.ca, it is said that after thepral.aya, the creator 
made all things anew. In this r.ca, it is now asked: where was the scene of 
action, what werethe materials, and how was thw work performed? In this world, a 
potter must have his shop, his clay, his wheel;so what does Is'vara have for 
site, matter and implements? The answer is negative. Is'vara does not 
needanything of this kjind. tatsr.s.t.va_ tadeva_nupra_vis'at: Taittiri_ya 
A_ran.yaka 8.6]. 

10.081.03 Having eyes everywhere, and having a face everywhere, having arms 
everywhere, and having feeteverywhere, he traverses (heaven) with his arms, 
(earth) with his swift-moving (feet), and exists a god withoutcompanion 
generating heaven and earth. [Traverses: sam dhamati = he blows together, or 
inflates; a metaphorto denote the work of creation]. 

10.081.04 Which was the forest, which the tree, from which they fabricated 
heaven and earth? Inquire, sages, inyour minds what (place) he was stationed in 
when holding the worlds. [They: i.e., the makers of the world,directed by 

10.081.05 Grant to your friends, Vis'vakarman, at the oblation, your best, your 
worst and your intermediate forms,and to these do you yourself, possessor of the 
oblation, becoming augmented in person (by oblations), offerworship. [Your 
best...forms: The best forms are the bodies of the gods, etc.; the intermediate 
forms are thebodies of men, etc.; the inferior forms are the bodies of worms, 
etc. Vis'vakarman, the creator is mixed up withVis'vakarman, as Tvas.t.a_ or 
Agni. It means that man is incompetent to worship the creator, that is, in his 
forms,and it must be done by himself]. 

10.081.06 VIs'vakarman, magnified by the oblation, do you of yourself worship 
earth and heaven; let other men(who offer no oblations) be everywhere 
confounded; may he, rich in oblations, be the granter of heaven at thisour 
(sacrifice). [Magnified by oblation: or, by me, Vis'vakarman, becoming an 
oblation. In the previous r.ca.,havis.a_ = at the oblation = when I am made an 
oblation; cf. Nirukta 10.27; Yajus. 17.22; su_rih = prajn~a_ta,knowing; or, may 
Indra be our adviser]. 

10.081.07 Let us this day invoke for our protection the lord of speech, the 
creator of all, who is swift as thought;may he, the bestower of all happiness, 
the doer of good works, be propitiated by all our oblations, (so as) togrant us 
his protection. [Lord of speech: all the epithets apply to Indra; Yajus. 8.45; 

10.082.01 The maker of the senses, resolute in  mind, engendered the water, (and 
then) these two (heaven andearth) floating (on the waters); when those ancient 
boundaries were fixed, then the heaven and earth wereexpanded.  [The maker of 
the senses: lit., the father of the eye; manasa_ dhi_rah = reflecting that there 
was noone equal to himself; a_po va_ idam agre; a_pa eva sasarja_dau: 
Taittiri_ya Sam.hita_; Manu 1.8]. 

10.082.02 Vis'vakarman, of comprehensive mind and manifold greatness, is all-
pervading, the creator, thearranger and the supreme supervisor; him in whom the 
desires of their (senses) are satisfied with food, they callsecond line of the 
r.ca: him in whom they delight their forms (or places) with water, him, those 
who are skille dinVis'vakarman; Nirukta notes that at the universal sacrifice 
Vis'vakarman Bhauvana offered up all beings and thenhimself]. 

10.082.03 He who is our preserver, our parent, the creator (of all), who knows 
our abodes (and knows) allbeings, who is the name-giver of the gods-- he is one; 
other beings come to him to inquire. [i.e., to ask, 'who isthe supreme lord?' 
or, they ask, what their offices are, and he appoints them their several 

10.082.04 Those ancient R.s.is who adorned (with light) these beings in the 
animate and inanimate world, offerto him wealth (of sacrifice) as praisers with 
abundant (laudation). 

10.082.05 What was that embryo which was beyond the heaven, beyond this earth, 
beyond the gods, beyondthe asuras, which the waters first retained, in which all 
the gods contemplated each other? 

10.082.06 The waters verily first retained the embryo in which all the gods were 
aggregated, single deposited onthe navel of the unborn (creator), in which all 
beings abide. [The embryo is Vis'vakarman. arpitam an.d.am =mundane egg; or, 

10.082.07 You know not him who has generated these (beings); (his life) is 
another, different from yours;wrapped in fog, and foolish speech (do they) 
wander (who are) gluttonous and engaged in devotion. [Sa_yan.a:"The assertion 
that we know Vis'vakarman in the same way as men say, 'I am devadatta, I am 
yajn~adatta', isfalse, for the essence (tattva) of Vis'vakarman Parames'vara is 
not endowed with conscious individual existence,but he is a different entity 
from you who are sentient beings, who have individual consciousness, and so 
forth".Wrapped in foolish speech: jalpya_: i.e., saying I am god, I am man etc.; 
ukthas'a_sah = singing hymns with aview to gaining felicity in a future state: 
you are merely anxious for enjoyment in this world and in the next,therefore you 
know nothing of Vis'vakarman; or, you who are engaged in enjoyment of this world 
or the next,being subject to false knowledge or ignorance, have no knowledge of 
the Truth].

10.083.01 He who worships you, Manyu, the thunderbolt, the destroyer (of 
enemies), enjoys all might andstrength, combined; may we oversome the Da_sa and 
the A_rya with you for our ally, invigorating, strong andvigorous. [Deity Manyu: 
Manyu is the personification of, or the deity presiding over, anger; the su_kta 
is to berepeated at sacrifices for the destruction of enemies. Vigorous: sahasa_ 
= through your vigorous vigour]. 

10.083.02 Manyu is Indra; Manyu verily was a god; Manyu is the sacrificing 
priest (Agni), the omniscient Varun.a;the people who are of human descent, 
praise Manyu; protect us, Manyu, well pleased along with Tapas. 

10.083.03 Come to us Manyuu, who are the strongest of the strong; with Tapas as 
your ally overthrow ourenemies; do you who are the slayer of enemies, the slayer 
of adversaries, the slayer of foes, bring to us allriches. 

10.083.04 Do you, Manyu, who are possessed of over-powering strength, self-
existent, irate, the overcomer ofenemies, the beholder of all, enduring, 
vigorous, grant us strength in battles. 

10.083.05 Sage Manyu, taking no part in the worship of you, the powerful one, I 
have retreated (from before myfoes); worshipping not, I was angry with you; 
(yet) being (incorporated with) my body, approach me to give mestrength. [Taking 
no part in the worship: lit., being without a share in your acts (kr.tva_), 
i.e., not sacrificing to youat the sacrifice, and therefore being deprived of 
your favour]. Manyu, bearer of the thunderbolt, come up to me, let us slay the 
Dasyus, think upon you kinsman. 

10.083.07 Approach, be upon my right, let us slay a multitude of foes; I offer 
to you the best Soma, the sustainer;let us both drink it first in privacy.

10.084.01 May the leaders (of rites) wearing the form of Agni, (ascending) the 
same car with you, Manyu, whoare accompanied by the Maruts, proceed to combat, 
advancing, exulting, indignant, armed with sharp arrow,whetting their weapons. 

10.084.02 Manyu, blazing like Agni, overthrow (our foes), come as our general, 
enduring (manyu) when invoked(by us) in battle; having slain the enemies divide 
(among us) the treasure; granting (us) strength, scatter (our)foes. 

10.084.03 Overthrow, Manyu, our assailant; advance against our foes, wounding, 
killing, annihilating them; (who)can resist your fierce might? O you who are 
without companion, subjecting them you lead them subject. 

10.084.04 You are praised, Manyu, as (the conqueror) alone of many; animate us 
to contend with all men; withyyou, O you of unshorn radiance, for our ally, we 
raise  aloud shout for victory. 

10.084.05  Manyu, the giver of victory like Indra, irreproachable, be you our 
protector at this (sacrifice); enduringone, we sing to you acceptable praise; we 
know this to be the source whence you have become (mighty). 

10.084.06 (Manyu), your destructive thunderbolt, the over-powerer (of foes), 
twin-born with victory, you possessexceeding strength; be favourable to us, 
Manyu, in deeds, you who are invoked by many in the shock of battle. 

10.084.07 May Varun.a and Manyu bestow upon us wealth of both kinds, undivided 
and completely our own, andmay our enemies, bearing fear within their hearts, be 
overcome and utterly destroyed.

10.085.01 Earth is upheld by truth; heaven is upheld by the sun; the A_dityas 
are supported by sacrifice, Soma issupreme in heaven. [Truth: i.e., Brahman, the 
eternal soul]. 

10.085.02 By Soma the A_dityas are strong; by Soma the earth is great; Soma is 
stationed in the vicinity of theseNaks.atras. [By Soma earth is great: I.e., by 
the Soma libations offered at sacrifices, or by the portion of the moonof which 
the gods are said to partake. The earth is nourished by the libations as the 
cause of rain, or by themoon as the lord of plants. The Naks.atras may mean the 
vessels that hold the libations, or lunar asterisms]. 

10.085.03 He who has drunk thinks that the herb which men crush is the Soma; 
(but) that which theBra_hman.as know to be Soma,, of that no one partakes. 
{i.e., no one partakes of it unless he has sacrificed; ifthe Soma be taken as 
the moon, 'no one' will mean 'no one but the gods']. 

10.085.04 Concealed by means of coverings, protected by the Ba_rhats, O Soma, 
you abide listening to thegrinding-stones; no terrestrial being partakes of you. 
[Ba_rhats: the guardians of the Soma, Sva_na, Bhra_ja,A_n:gha_rya etc.: 
Taittiri_ya Sam.hita_]. 

10.085.05 When, O god, they quaff you, then do you renew yourself again; Va_yu 
is the guardian of Soma, themaker of years and months. 

10.085.06 Raibhi was her companion; Na_ra_s'am.si_ her slave; Su_rya's lovely 
dress was adorned by Ga_tha.[Raibhi, Na_ra_s'am.si_ and Ga_tha_ are 
personifications of son and praise. Raibhi from rebh, to sound:Aitareya 
Bra_hman.a 6.32]. 

10.085.07 Citti (mind) was the pillow, the eye was the collyrium; heaven and 
earth were the box when Su_ryawent to her husband. 

10.085.08 Hymns were the cross-bars (of the car); the Kuri_ra metre was the 
thong of the whip; the As'vins wereSu_rya's groomsmen; Agni was the leader of 
the procession. [Thong of the whip: or tuft of hair; cf. go opas'a: RV6.53.9; 
As'vins were Su_rya's groomsmen: Praja_pati Savita_ had offered his daughter 
Su_rya to Soma: AitareyaBra_hman.a 4.7]. 

10.085.09 Soma was desirous of a bride; the two As'vins were the two groomsmen 
when Savita_ gave Su_rya,who was ripe for a husband, (to Soma endowed) with 

10.085.10 Mind was her chariot, and heaven was the covering, the two shining 
(orbs) were the oxen whenSu_rya went to (her husband's) dwelling. [i.e., when 
Su_rya went to Soma]. 

10.085.11 Those two oxen yoked by the R.k and the Sa_man march equally; the two 
wheels were your ears; themoving path (was) in heaven. 

10.085.12 The two swift-moving wheels were your pure (cars). Va_yu was the 
fastened axle, Su_rya mountedthe chariot of the Mind, going to her lord. 

10.085.13 Su_rya's bridal procession which Savita_ despatched has advanced; the 
oxen are whipped along inthe Magha (constellations); she is borne (to her 
husband's house) in the Arjuni_ (constellations). 

10.085.14 When, As'vins, you came in your three-wheeled car soliciting the 
marriage of Su_rya, then all thegods, assented and Pu_s.an (your) son chose (you 
as) his parents. 

10.085.15 When, lords of water, you came to the giver-away (to get) Su_rya, 
where was the one wheel of yourcar, where did you stand to make the gift? 

10.085.16 Su_rya, the Bra_hman.as know your chariot wheels in their season; the 
single wheel that isconcealed, the sages know it also. [The single wheel: the 
two wheels are explained as tthe sun and moon, thethird wheel is the year]. 

10.085.17 I offer this adoration to Su_rya, to the gods, to Mitra and Varun.a, 
(and to all those) who areconsiderate to created beings. 

10.085.18 These two (the sun and moon) wandering in thought one after the other, 
youthful, sportive, approachthe sacrifice; one (of them) looks over all worlds, 
the other regulating the seasons is born repeatedly. 

10.085.19 New every day (the moon) is born; the manifester of days he goes on 
front of the Dawns; hedistributes their portion to the gods as he goes; the moon 
protracts a long existence. [The first half othe verse isaddressed to the sun; 
but, the moon is the manifester of days in regulating the time of tithis (lunar 

10.085.20 Ascend, Su_rya, the chariot made of good kim.s'uka wood and of 
s'almali, multiform, decorated withgold, well-covered, well-wheeled, prepare the 
happy world of the immortals, your marriage procession to yourhusband. [The r.ca 
is recited when the bride goes to the house of the husband. amr.tasya lokam = 
the world ofimmortality; or, the abode of the Soma, the object of aroha, 

10.085.21 Rise up from hence, for this (damsel) has a husband; I worship 
Vis'va_vasu with reverence and withhymns; seek for another maiden still dwelling 
in her father's house, decorated with ornaments; that is yourportion, know this 
(to your portion, take it) from your birth. [Vis'va_vasu: a gandharva]. 

10.085.22 Rise up from here, Vis'va_vasu, we worship you with reverence; seek 
another maiden, one with largehips; leave the bride with her husband. 

10.085.23 Smooth and straight be the paths by which our friends repair to the 
bride's father; may Aryaman, mayBhaga conduct us, and may the union of the wife 
and husband be easily accomplished, O gods. 

10.085.24 I set you free from the noose of Varun.a, wherewith the adorable 
Savita_ had bound you; in the placeof sacrifice in the world of good deeds I 
unite you, unharmed, with your husband. [Savita_ employs Varun.a tomake bonds. 
The r.ca is recited when the bridegroom undoes the bride's girdle]. 

10.085.25 I set you free from there, not from here; I place you here firmly 
bound; grant, Indra, showerer, that this(damsel) may have excellent children, 
and be very fortunate. [I set you free not from here: i.e., from the 
father'sfamily not from the bridegroom's]. 

10.085.26 May Pu_s.an lead you hence, taking you by the hand; may the As'vins 
convey you away in their car,go to the dwelling (of your husband) as you are the 
mistress of the house; you, submissive (to your husband),give orders to his 

10.085.27 In this your (husband's family) may affection increase with offspring, 
be watchful over the domestic firein this house; unite your person with this 
your husband; and both growing old together govern your household. 

10.085.28 Blue and red is (her form); devoted (to her) is left behind; her 
kinsmen prosper, the husband is boundin bonds. [Kr.tya_: goddess practising 
magic or magic personified]. 

10.085.29 Put away the garment soiled by the body; give wealth to the 
Bra_hman.as; this Kr.tya_ having becomeendowed with feet, enters the husband's 
heart as his wife. 

10.085.30 The (bridegroom's) body is lacking in beauty; shining with this wicked 
(Kr.tya_), when he wishes toclothe his own limbs with his wife's garments. 

10.085.31 May the adorable gods drive back again to the place whence they came 
the diseases which followfrom (other) people the wife's golden bridal 
procession. [From other people: from the person who opposes us; or,from the 
person called Yama]. 

10.085.32 Let not the robbers who approach the husband and wife reach them; may 
they by easy roads pass thedifficulty; may enemies keep aloof. 

10.085.33 Fortunate is this bride, approach, behold her; having given her your 
congratulations, depart to yourseveral homes. 

10.085.34 This (garment) is inflaming, it is pungent; it is like stale Soma; it 
is like poison; it is not fit to eat; theBra_hman.a, who knows Su_rya, verily 
desires the bridal (garment). 

10.085.35 Behold the forms of Su_rya, the a_s'asana (bordercloth) the vis'asana 
(headcloth), the adhivikartana(divided skirt); of these the Bra_hman.a relieves 
her. [a_s'asana = tu_s.a_dha_na, the receptacle of the fringe, ofa different 
colour; vis'asana = that which is to be placed on the head; that which is to be 
placed at the end of thefringe (or border); adhivikartanam = the garment which 
is cut into three pieces. These terms may not relate todress, but to the cutting 
up of an animal]. 

10.085.36 I take your hand for good fortune, that you may attain old age with me 
as your husband; the godsBhaga, Aryaman, Savita_, Purandhi have given you to me, 
that I may be the master of a household. 

10.085.37 Pu_s.an, inspire her who is most auspicious, in whom men may now seed, 
who most affectionate maybe devoted to us, and in whom animated by desire we may 
beget progeny. 

10.085.38 (The Gandharvas) gave Su_rya to you, Agni, with her bridal ornaments; 
do you, Agni, give (us)husbands our wife back again with male offspring. 

10.085.39 Agni gave the wife back again with life and splendour; may he who is 
her husband enjoying long lifelive a hundred years. 

10.085.40 Soma first obtained the bride; the Gandharva obtained her next. Agni 
was your third husband; yourfourth (husband) is born of man. [Gandharva: the 

10.085.41 Soma gave her to the Gandharva; the Gandharva gave her to Agni; Agni 
has given her to me andwealth and sons. 

10.085.42 Abide here together; may you never be separated; live together all 
your lives, sporting with sons andgrandsons, happy in your own home. 

10.085.43 May Praja_pati grant us progeny, may Aryaman unite us together until 
old age; free from all evil omensenter your husband's abode, be the bringer of 
prosperity to our bipeds and quadrupeds. [The following r.cas areto be repeated 
when the bridegroom, on returning home with his bride, offers sacrifice with 

10.085.44 (Look upon your husband) with no angry eye, be not hostile to your 
lord, be tender to animals, beamiable, be very glorious; be the mother of males, 
be devoted to the gods, be the bestower of happiness, be thebringer of 
prosperity to our bipeds and quadrupeds. [Be very glorious: be beautiful in your 
person; lit., = veryglorious]. 

10.085.45 Indra, showerer, make her the mother of sons, pleasing (to her 
husband); give her ten sons, make herhusband the eleventh. 

10.085.46 Be a queen to your father-in-law, be a queen to your mother-in-law, be 
a queen to your husband'ssister, be a queen to your husband's brother. 

10.085.47 May the universal gods unite both our hearts; may the waters unite 
them; may Ma_taris'van, Dha_ta_and the bountiful (Sarasvati_) unite both our 
hearts. [May the god of love, may the divine instructress, unite 
us(samuddes.t.ri_ = sam u des.t.ri_). At the end of this r.ca, the following 
khila occurs: 1. May you not be a widowfor a hundred years, but for more than 
that may you be an obedient wife, faithful to your vows, and radiant, 
andillustrious; 2. May she bear many sons, and nowhere meet with misfortune; may 
your husband, drinking Soma,ever be devoted to duty; 3. Be the mother of eight 
sons, be beloved by and faithful to your husband everdelighting the hearts of 
your husband, father and brother; 4. As Indra_n.i_ is to Indra, as S'ri to 
Vis.n.u, as Gauri_to S'an:kara, so be you to your husband; 5. As Anasu_ya_ is to 
Atri, as Arundhati_ to Vasis.t.ha, as Sati_ toKaus'ika, so be you too to your 
husband; 6. Be confident, be cherished; Br.haspati has given you to me; 
beingmade the mother of progeny by me your husband, live with (me) a hundred 

the cherished (sacrifices), at which the noble Vr.s.a_kapi becoming my friend 
rejoiced; (still) I, Indra, am above all(the world).  [Ma_dhavabhat.t.as ascribe 
the r.ca to Indra_n.i_ the wife of Indra, deprecating the preference givento 

10.086.02 Indra_n.i_ speaks: You, Indra, much annoyed, hasten towards 
Vr.s.a_kapi; and yet you find no otherplace to drink the Soma; Indra is above 
all (the world). 

10.086.03 What (favour) has this tawny deer Vr.s.a_kapi done to you that you 
should like a liberal (benefactor)bestow upon him wealth and nourish me; Indra 
is above all (the world). 

10.086.04 This Vr.s.a_kapi whom you, Indra, cherish as your dear (son)-- may the 
dog which chases the boar(seize) him by the ear (and) devour him; Indra is above 
all (the world). 

10.086.05 The ape has spoiled the beloved ghi_-adorned (oblations) made to me 
(by worshippers); let mequickly cut off his head, let me not be the giver of 
happiness to one who works evil; Indra is  above all (the world).[The ape: kapi 
= ape; also, a shorter form of Vr.s.a_kapi]. 

10.086.06 There is no woman more amiable than I am, not one who bears fairer 
sons than I; nor one moretractable not one more ardent; Indra is above all (the 

10.086.07 [Vr.s.a_kapi speaks]: O mother, who are easy of access, it will 
quickly be as (you have said); may my(father) and you, mother, be united; may it 
delight my (father) and your head like a bird; Indra is above all (theworld). 

10.086.08 [Indra speaks]: You who have beautiful arms, who have beautiful 
fingers, long-haired, broad-hipped,why are you angry with our Vr.s.a_kapi, O you 
wife of a hero; Indra is above all (the world). 

10.086.09 [Indra_n.i_ speaks]: This savage beast (Vr.s.a_kapi) despises me as 
one who has no male (protector),and yet I am the mother of male offspring, the 
wife of Indra, the friend of the Maruts; Indra is above all (the world).

10.086.10 The mother who is the institutress of the ceremony, the mother of male 
offspring, the wife of Indra,goes first to the united sacrifice to battle, (and) 
is honoured (by the praisers); Indra is above all (the world). 

10.086.11 (Indra speaks]: I have heard that Indra_n.i_ is the most fortunate 
among these women, for her lordIndra, who is above all (the world), does ot die 
of old age like other (men). 

10.086.12 I am not happy, Indra_n.i, without my friend Vr.s.a_kapi; whose 
acceptable oblation here, purified withwater, proceeds to the gods; Indra is 
above all (the world). 

10.086.13 [Vr.s.a_kapi speaks]: O mother of Vr.s.a_kapi, wealthy, possessing 
excellent sons, possessingexcellent daughters-in-law, let Indra eat your bulls, 
(give him) the beloved and most delightful ghi_, Indra is aboveall (the world). 
[Mother of Vr.s.a_kapi: Vr.s.a_kapayin = wife of Indra; Vr.s.a_kapi may be a 
name of Indra, as theshowerer of benefits]. 

10.086.14 [Indra speaks]: The worshippers dress for me fifteen (and) twenty 
bulls; I eat them and (become) fat,they fill both sides of my belly; Indra is 
above all (the world). 

10.086.15 [Indra_n.i_ speaks]: Like a sharp-horned bull roaring among the herds, 
so may your libation pleaseworld). 

10.086.16 The man who is impotent begets not progeny, but he who is endowed with 
vigour; Indra is above all(the world). 

10.086.17 [Indra speaks]: He who is endowed with vigour begets not progeny, but 
he who is impotent; Indra isabove all (the world). 

10.086.18 [Indra_n.i_ speaks]: Let this Vr.s.a_kapi, Indra, take a dead wild 
ass, (let him take) a knife (to cut it up),a fire-place (to cook it), a new 
saucepan, and a cart full of fuel; Indra is above all (the world). [A dead wild 
ass:parasvantam = parasvam, i.e. one who is of his own nature, i.e. an ape, 
kapi; a fire place: su_na_; cf. Manu3.68]. 

10.086.19 [Indra speaks]: Here I come to the (sacrifice) looking upon (the 
worshippers), distinguishing the Da_saand the A_rya; I drink (the Soma) of the 
(worshipper), who effuses (the Soma) with mature (mind); I look upon 
theintelligent (sacrificer); Indra is above all (the world). [cf. Muir, Sanskrit 
Texts, vol. 2, p. 374]. 

10.086.20 Go home, Vs.s.a_kapi, to the halls of sacrifice (from the lurking-
place of the enemy), which is desertand forest (how many leagues are there from 
there?) and from the nearest (lurking-place); Indra is above all (theworld). 

10.086.21 Come back, Vr.s.a_kapi, that we may do what is agreeable to you; you, 
who are the destroyer ofsleep, come home again by the road; Indra is above all 
(the world). [Destroyer of sleep: i.e., the sun; cf. Nirukta12.28]. 

10.086.22 Rise up and come home, Vr.s.a_kapi and Indra; where is that 
destructive beast, to what (region) has(that beast), the exhilarator of men, 
gone? Indra is  above all (the world). [To what region: Nirukta, 13.3]. 

10.086.23 The daughter of Manu, Pars'u by name, bore twenty children at once; 
may good fortune, O arrow ofIndra, befall her whose belly was so prolific; Indra 
is above all (the world). [Indra is the deity invoked: Nirukta13.3].

10.087.01 I offer clarified butter to the powerful Agni, the slayer of 
ra_ks.asas, I approach the most spaciousdwelling, the friend (of worshippers); 
Agni sharpening (his flames) is kindled by pious men; may he guard us 
frommalignant spirits by day and by night. 

10.087.02 Ja_tavedas, who have teeth of iron, consume the Ya_tudha_nas' flame 
when kindled, destroy thedestructive (spirits) with your tongue, cut up the 
eaters of flesh, and put them in your mouth. [Ya_tudha_nas: i.e.,ra_ks.asas]. 

10.087.03 Agni, the destroyer (of the ra_ks.asas), who have two (rows of teeth), 
sharpening them both, applythem to (the ra_ks.asas, and preserve) both the upper 
and the lower (world); and march, radiant (Agni, againstthe ra_ks.asas) in the 
firmament, seize the ya_tudha_nas with your jaws. 

10.087.04 Agni, do you, bending your arrows by means on your sacrifices and 
praise, and sharpening thejavelins with your splendours, pierce with them the 
ya_tudha_nas to the heart, break their arms when raisedagainst you. 

10.087.05 Agni Ja_tavedas, cut through the skin of the ya_tudha_nas, let your 
destructive thunderbolt destroyhim with its fire; sever his joints, may the 
flesh-desiring flesh-eater devour his mutilated body. 

10.087.06 Wherever you now behold him, Agni Ja_tavedas, whether standing or 
moving, or passing along thepaths in the firmament, do you, O shooter sharpening 
(your arrows), transfix him with your shaft. 

10.087.07 And defend me, Ja_tavedas, with your darts when I am seized, (defend 
me) from the Ya_tudha_naswho has seized me; anticipating him, do you, Agni, 
blazing fiercely, slay him; may the swift-flying vultures, theflesh-eaters, 
devour him. [Swift-flying vultures: ks.vin:ka_h = noisy; or, a kind of bird]. 

10.087.08 Agni, youngest of the gods, announce (to me present) at this (your 
sacrifice), which is yourYa_tudha_na who does this; destroy him with your 
kindled flame; beholder of men, consume him with yourbrilliance. 

10.087.09 Protect this sacrifice, Agni, with your sharp glance; lead it sage 
(Agni) forward to (the acquisition of)riches; let not the Ya_tudha_nas harm you, 
beholder of men, the destroyer of ra_ks.asas blazing fiercely. 

10.087.10 Regard, beholder of men, the ra_ks.asas among the people; cut off his 
three heads; cut off his flankswith your might; cut off the triple foot of the 

10.087.11 Agni Ja_tavedas, let the Ya_tudha_na, who defeats your truth with 
falsehood, come thrice into the

10.087.12 Cast, Agni, upon the two roaring (ra_ks.asas) that eye wherewith you 
behold the Ya_tudha_na strikingwith his hoof; like Atharvan with celestial 
radiance burn down the ignorant (ra_ks.asas), who assails truth withfalsehood. 
[With his hoof: with nails like hoofs]. 

10.087.13 Today, Agni, when the married pair curse each other, then the praisers 
produce bitter words (in angeragainst each other), do you pierce the 
Ya_tudha_nas through the heart with your arrow, which is generated fromyour 
wrathful mind. 

10.087.14 Destroy the Ya_tudha_nas with your scorching fire; destroy the 
ra_ks.asas, Agni, with your heat;destroy with your radiance those who believe in 
vaid gods, fiercely blazing, destroy the insatiable. 

10.087.15 Let all the gods today destroy the murderous (Ya_tudha_na); let our 
sharp imprecations encounterhim; may the arrows hit the speaker of falsehood in 
a vital part; may the Ya_tudha_na go into the bondage of theall-pervading Agni. 

10.087.16 The Ya_tudha_na, who fills himself with the flesh of man, and he who 
fills himself with the flesh ofhorses or of other animals, and he who steals the 
milk of the cow-- cut off their heads with your flame. [Who fillshimself: who 
smears himself]. 

10.087.17 The milk of the cow is annually produced, let not the Ya_tudha_na 
consume it, O beholder of men;whichever of them would like to satiate himself 
with the ambrosia, do you, Agni, pierce that contending(ra_ks.asa) with your 
flame in a vital part. 

10.087.18 Let the Ya_tudha_na drink poison from the cattle; let the (ra_ks.asas) 
hard to overcome be cut topieces for the sake of Aditi; may the divine Savita_ 
give them over (to destruction), may they be deprived of thefood of herbs. 
[i.e., may they take the food of herbs]. 

10.087.19 You, Agni, have from old time opposed the Ya_tudha_na; the ra_ks.asas 
have never overcome you inbattles; burn murderous flesh-eating (ra_ks.asas) one 
by one; let them not escape your divine weapon 

10.087.20 Do you, Agni, protect us on the south, on the north, on the west, and 
on the east; may these, yourundecaying, scorching, blazing (flames), consume the 
perpetrator of wickedness. 

10.087.21 Royal Agni, who are a sage, protect us by your wisdom on the west, on 
the east, on the south, on thenorth; do you, O friend, who are undecaying, 
(preserve me), your friend, to old age; do you who are immortal,(protect) us who 
are mortal. 

10.087.22 We meditate, strength-born Agni, on you, the accomplisher (of rites), 
the sage, of fearful form, thedestroyer of the treacherous day by day. 

10.087.23 Consume, Agni, the treacherous ra_ks.asas with your all-pervading 
sharp flame, with yourflame-pointed darts. 

10.087.24 Consume, Agni, these pairs of Ya_tudha_nas and Kimi_dins; I whet you, 
O sage, the invincible one,with my praises; wake up. [Kimi_dins: a kind of 
ra_ks.asas; Nirukta 6.11: those who wander about saying kimida_ni_m, what now? 
or kim idam, what is this?] 

10.087.25 Destroy, Agni, with your flame, the impetuous might of the 
Ya_tudha_na; break the strength of thera_ks.asa.

10.088.01 The Soma oblation, undecaying and agreeable to the gods, which is 
offered to Agni, who is cognizantof heaven, who touches the sky-- for its 
nourishment, existence and support, the gods supply (Agni) the giver ofhappiness 
with food. [Gods supply: Nirukta 8.25]. 

10.088.02 The whole world swallowed up, hidden in darkness, was made manifest 
when Agni was born; thegods, heaven and earth, the waters and the plants 
rejoiced in his friendship. 

10.088.03 Sent by adorable gods I praise the undecaying and mighty Agni, who by 
his radiance has spread forththe earth and this heaven, the two worlds and the 

10.088.04 Who propitiated by the gods was the first offerer of oblations, whom 
his worshippers anoint withclarified butter-- he, Agni Ja_tavedas, quickly made 
that which can fly, that which can walk, that which isstationary, that which is 
moveable. [Nirukta 5.3]. 

10.088.05 Inasmuch as you abide, Agni Ja_tavedas, on the brow of the universe, 
together with the sun, we havecome to you with praises, with hymns, with 
prayers; you are adorable, the satisfier of heaven and earth. 

10.088.06 Agni is the head of all beings by night; then the sun rising early is 
born; (the wise know) this to be thewisdom of the adorable gods, that the swift-
moving sun being intelligent moves through the firmament.[Firmament: Nirukta 
7.27; apas = karma, function; ma_ya_: illusion]. 

10.088.07 He who shines visible to all through his greatness radiant, having his 
station in the sky, resplendentinhim, Agni, the unversal gods, the guardians of 
men's bodies, have presented an oblation with the voice of

10.088.08 The gods first generated the words of the hymn, then Agni, then the 
oblation; he is the (object of the)sacrifice of these deities, the protector of 
the body; him the heaven knows, him the earth and the waters, know. 

10.088.09 Agni whom the gods generated, in whom all beings have offered 
oblations-- he, the straight-going, haswarmed by his \radiance, by his might, 
the earth and his heaven. 

10.088.10 The gods have by praise engendered Agni in the sky, who fills heaven 
and earth by his functions, theyappointed the joy-bestowing Agni to his three-
fold condition, he brings the manifold plants to maturity. [Three-foldcondition: 
i.e., either to his place at the three daily sacrifices, or his position in 
heaven the firmament, and earth,as the sun, lightning, and fire. Nirukta 7.28 
cites a Bra_hman.a, that Agni, in his third capacity in heaven, is thesun]. 

10.088.11 When the adorable gods, placed him and Su_rya, the son of Aditi, in 
heaven; when the swift-movingpair (Agni and Vais'va_nara) appeared, then all 
beings beheld them. [Swift-moving pair: the dawn and the sun:Nirukta 7.29]. 

10.088.12 The gods made Agni Vais'va_nara, the indicator of days, for the sake 
of the whole world, whostretched out the radiant dawns, and as he moves along 
scatters the darkness with his light. 

10.088.13 The wise and adorable gods engendered the imperishable Agni 
Vais'va_nara; he overcame (with hislight) the ancient swift-moving Naks.atra, 
the overseer of the adorable (deity), mighty and great. 
[Overseer:yaks.asya_dhyaks.am: adhyaks.am = perceptible; the lord; or, the moon, 
the lord of the yaks.as (isn't the lord ofthe yaks.as, Kubera?] 

10.088.14 We glorify daily with praises the brilliant and sage Agni 
Vais'va_nara, the god who overcomes by hismight both heaven and earth, (burning) 
both below and above. 

10.088.15 I have heard that there are two paths for Pitr.s, gods and mortals; 
all this universe which is betweenthe paternal (heaven) and the maternal (earth) 
proceeds on its way by these two (paths). [Yajus. 19.27; the twopaths, the 
pitr.ya_na and the devaya_na are describedin Bhagavadgi_ta_ 7.24 o 26]. 

10.088.16 The associated two (heaven and earth) support (Agni) moving, born from 
the head, sanctified bypraise; diligent, rapid, radiant, he appears in the 
presence of all beings. [Born from the head: or born fromA_ditya, the head, or 
chief, of all things]. 

10.088.17 When the lower and upper (fire) disputed "which of us twain leaders of 
sacrifice knows the work best?"then the friends (the priests) were competent (to 
offer) sacrifice, they came to the sacrifice; who declares this?[Lower and upper 
fire: the lower fire is Agni, or the terrestrial fire; the upper fire is Va_yu, 
or the intermediate fire].

10.088.18 How many fires are there, how many suns, how many dawns, how many 
waters? I address you, OPitr.s, not in rivalry, I ask you, sages, in order to 
know (the truth). 

10.088.19 As long, Ma_taris'van, as the swiftly-moving (nights) cover the face 
of the dawn, (so long) theBrahman, the inferior sitting down (to perform the 
work) of the Hota_, approaching the sacrifice supports (theceremony).

10.089.01 Praise Indra, the chief leadere (of rites), whose glory  surpasses the 
lustre (of others), and the ends ofthe earth; the sustainer of man, who 
exceeding the ocean in magnitude, fills (heaven and earth) with radiance. 

10.089.02 The heroic Indra causes numerous rays of light revolve as a charioteer 
(effects the rotation of) thewheels of the chariot; he destroys by his radiance 
the black darkness like a restless active horse. 

10.089.03 Sing along with me a new song, unceasing, surpassing heaven and earth, 
to him who like the pr.s.t.ha(praises), born at sacrifices, overcomes his 
enemies, Indra who desires no friend. 

10.089.04 I will utter praises to Indra in unceasing flow, (I will send) waters 
from the depth of the firmament (tohim) who has fixed heaven and earth on both 
sides by his acts as the wheels of a chariot (are fixed) by the axle. 

10.089.05 Appeasing wrath, striking quickly, intimidating foes, doer of great 
deeds, armed with weapons,possessing the stale residue, Soma nourishes all the 
Atasa woods, they oppose no impediments against Indra.[Soma: or, Indra]. 

10.089.06 Of whom neither heaven and earth, nor the water, nor the firmament, 
nor the mountains (are theobstructions) for him doth the Soma exude, when his 
wrath reaching his enemies destroys the strong and breaksthe firm. 

10.089.07 (Indra) slew Vr.tra as an axe (cuts down) a tree; he demolished the 
cities (of the foes), he dug out therivers; he shattered the cloud like a new 
pitcher; with his allies (the Maruts) he recovered the cattle. 

10.089.08 You, Indra, who are wise, punish the guilt (of worshippers); you cut 
off their sins as a sword (cuts off)the limbs (of victims); (you cut off) the 
people who (ignorantly) injure the supporting (function) of Mitra, andVarun.a, 
(which is) as it were their close friend. 

10.089.09 Against those who sinfully offend against Mitra, Aryaman, your 
companons (the Maruts) and Varun.a,against these your enemies sharpen, Indra, 
showerer (of benefits), your rapid showering radiant thunderbolt. 

10.089.10 Indra rules over heaven, Indra rules over earth, over the waters, and 
over the clouds; Indra rules overthe great and over the wise; Indra is to be 
invoked for the acquisition and preservation (of wealth). 

10.089.11 Indra is vaster than the nights, vaster than the days, vaster than the 
firmament or the receptacle of theocean, vaster than the wind, or space or the 
ends of the earth; Indra exceeds the rivers and mankind. 

10.089.12 May your unbroken weapon, Indra, proceed (against your foes), like the 
banner of the shining dawn,like a stone cast down from heaven, pierce those 
whose friendship is deceitful with your consumingloud-sounding (weapon). 

10.089.13 The months attend upon Indra as soon as born, the forests attend upon 
him, the plants, themountains, the affectionate heaven and earth, and the waters 
(attend upon) him. 

10.089.14 Where was your (shaft) Indra, (which ought) to be hurled (against your 
enemies) when you did cleavethe ra_ks.asas hastening to war, and when the 
Mitrakru lay on the ground there in confusion like cattle at theplace of 
immolation? [Mitrakrus: perhaps a demon; those who treat their friends with 

10.089.15 May those adversaries, Indra, who press upon us, fiercely opposing us, 
and assembled in numbers,be overwhelmed with thick darkness, and may the bright 
(days) and nights overpower them. hymn you, and disregarding all other 
worshippers, come to us with your protection. 

10.089.17 May we, the descendants of Vis'va_mitra, sincerely praising you, 
Indra,by day for your protection,obtain your protecting (favours), may we obtain 
your recent (favours). 

10.089.18 We invoke in this conflict for our protection the pure, the opulent 
Indra, the most heroic in the fight,

10.090.01 Purus.a, who has a thousand heads, a thousand eyes, a thousand feet, 
investing the earth in alldirections, exceeds (it by a space) measuring ten 
fingers. [purus.a = embodied spirit; or, vira_j, the aggregate ofall living 
beings, spirit embodied in the egg of Brahma_, i.e., the universal spirit 
animating all creation. Thousand= an infinite number; the human soul, extending 
from the navel, takes upits abode in the heart or the humanbreast; the supreme 
soul, having animated the universe, is present in man, either in a minute form 
or of definitedimensions]. 

10.090.02 Purus.a is verily all this (visible world), all that is, and all that 
is to be; he is also the lord of immortality;for he mounts beyond (his own 
condition) for the food (of living beings). [He mounts: lit., since he rises 
beyond byfood; or, he is that which grows by nourishment; or, that which expands 
by nourshment; annena = pra_n.ina_mbhoghena_nnena nimittabhu_tena; "inasmuch as 
he assumes the condition of the world in order that sentientbeings may enjoy the 
fruit of their acts (pra_n.ina_m karmaphalabhoga_ya), that is not his true 
nature": thesupreme spirit, which in its own state is inert and undiscernible, 
becomes the visible world, that living beings mayreap the fruit of their acts 
since they acquire moks.a or final liberation, the supreme spirit is the lord of 
immortality;anna = matter (Mun.d.aka Upanis.ad 1.8]. 

10.090.03 Such is his greatness; and Purus.a is greater even than this; all 
beings are one-fourth of him; his otherthree-fourths, (being) immortal, (abide) 
in heaven. [Such is his greatness: i.e., the greatness of Purus.a is as vastas 
the world of past, present, and future beings]. 

10.090.04 Three-fourths of Purus.a ascended; the other fourth that remained in 
this world proceeds repeatedly,and, diversified in various forms, went to all 
animate and inanimate creation. [Proceeds repeatedly: either inindividuals by 
death and birth, or in the world by its temporary dissolution and renovation; 
sa_s'ana_nas'ane =those who eat and those who do not; i.e., the two classes of 
created things, those capable of enjoyment etc., asgods, men, animals, or 
incapable thereof, as mountains and rivers -- conscious and unconscious 

10.090.05 From him was born Vira_t. and from Vira_t. Purus.a; he, as soon as 
born, became manifested, andafterwards (created) the earth (and) then corporeal 
forms. [From him: tasma_t = from that one-fourth; or, from thespirit who by his 
delusion created the body of Vira_t., i.e., the egg of Brahma and entered into 
it in the form oflife]. 

10.090.06 When the gods performed the sacrifice with Purus.a as the offering, 
then Spring was its ghi_, Summerthe fuel, and Autumn the oblation. [Apparently a 
reference to an imaginary sacrifice (ma_nasam)]. 

10.090.07 They immolated as the victim upon the sacred grass Purus.a, born 
before (creation); with him thedeities who were Sa_dhyas and those who were 
R.s.is sacrificed. [Sa_dhya = competent to create, i.e.,Praja_pati and the 

10.090.08 From that victim, in whom the universal oblation was offered, the 
mixture of curds and butter wasproduced, (then) he made those animals over whom 
Va_yu presides, those that are wild, and those that aretame. [Va_yu: va_yuvyan: 
Taittiri_ya Bra_hman.a; or, who are governed by instinct]. 

10.090.09 From that victim, in whom the universal oblation was offered, the 
r.ccas and sa_mans were produced;from him the metres were born; from him the 
yajus. was born.  [tasma_d yajn~a_t = from that simple portionsurnamed the 
universal sacrifice, sarvahu_tah, meaning Purus.a as the world; yajn~a = 
yajn~asa_dhana, thematerial of sacrifice, i.e., the victim. Purus.a is the 
spiritual cause and effect of material creation; it is from him,not from the 
ideal or real sacrifice, that all things originate]. 

10.090.10 When they immolated Purus.a, into how many portions did they divide 
him? What was his mouthcalled, what his arms, what his thighs, what were his 
feet called? 

10.090.11 His mouth became the Bra_hman.a, his arms became the Ra_janya, his 
thighs became the Vais'ya;the S'u_dra was born from his feet. [The Bra_hman.a 
was his mouth; the Ra_janya was made his arms; thatwhich was the Vais'ya was his 
thighs; the S'U_dra sprang from his feet: Muir, Sanskrit Texts, vol. 1, p.9]. 

10.090.12 The moon was born from his mind; the sun was born from his eye; Indra 
and Agni were born from hismouth, Va_yu from his breath. [Or, air and breath 
proceeded from his ear and fire rose from his mouth: Yajus.]. 

10.090.14 From his navel came the firmament, from his head the heaven was 
produced, the earth from his feet,the quarters of space from his ear, so they 
constituted the world. 

10.090.15 Seven were the enclosures of the sacrifice, thrice seven logs of fuel 
were prepared, when the gods,celebrating the rite, bound Purus.a as the victim. 
[Seven enclosures: sapta paridhayah = seven metres, ga-yatri_etc., and also as 
meaning the shallow trenches, three of which were dug round the A_havani_ya 
fireplace, threeround the northern altar, and the seven ideally dug round the 
sun to keep off evil spirits. paridhayah = moats; or,the seven oceans; thrice 
seven pieces of fuel = twelve months of the year, the five seasons, the three 
worlds andthe sun; or the three classes of seven metres eaach: Taittiri_ya 

10.090.16 By sacrifice the gods worshipped (him who is also) the sacrifice; 
those were the first duties. Thosegreat ones became partakers of the heaven 
where the ancient deities the Sa_dhyas abide.

 10.091.01 Damu_nas, being glorified by his diligent (worshippers), desiring 
food upon the footmark of Il.a_, iskindled in the chamber (of sacrifice), the 
offerer of every oblation, the object of veneration, the lord, theresplendent, 
to him who desires his friendship. [Damu_nas: an epithet of Agni; generous or 

10.091.02 Of manifest glory, he resorts as a guest to every house (of his 
worshippers) to every forest; friendly toman, like one going to all men, he 
disregards them not; kind to all, he dwells among all men, (he presides ove4r

10.091.03 You, Agni, are vigorous with vigour, you are active with acts (of 
piety), you are wise with wisdom,knowing all things. You are the dispenser of 
wealth, you abide alone, you are lord of the treasures of heaven andearth. 

10.091.04 Sagacious Agni, you sit at your station suited to the sacrifice and 
anointed with butter at the foot-markof Il.a_. your quick-moving rays are 
manifested like those of the dawns, beautiful as those of the sun. 

10.091.05 Your glories, Agni, like the lightnings of the rain-cloud are 
manifested many-tinted, like themanifestations of the dawn, when quitting the 
plants and the forests, you gather on all sides food for your mouth. 

10.091.06 The plants bear him as the embryo (conceived) in due season;  the 
maternal waters bring forth Agni;yes, the trees and the pregnant creepers bring 
him forth daily like themselves. [sama_nam = equal to (or like)themselves, since 
he enters them as an embryo]. 

10.091.07 When, agitated by the wind and quickly moving through the beloved 
(trees), you spread aboutdevouring the food, the imperishable energies of you, 
Agni, the devourer, rush forth like charioteers. 

10.091.08 (The priest) selects you, (Agni), the giver of intelligence, the 
accomplisher of the sacrifice, the invokerof the gods, the chief overcomer of 
foes, the councillor, alike verily at the lesser and at the greater oblation 
andnone other than you. 

10.091.09 The performers of sacred rites, devoted to Agni, to you, select you as 
the ministrant priest at sacrificesin this world, when the devout worshippers 
bearing oblations and strewing the clipped sacred grass offer youfood. 

10.091.10 Yours, Agni, is the function of the Hota_, yours the duly-performed 
function of the Pota_, yours thefunction of the Nes.t.a_, you are the Agni of 
the sacrificer, yours is the office of the Pras'a_sta_, you act asAdhvaryu, and 
you are the Brahma_ and the lord of the mansion in our abode. [You are the Agni: 
you are thefire-kindler, or agni_dhra]. 

10.091.11 The mortal, Agni, who presents to you, the immortal, fuel at the 
offering of the oblation-- you are hisHota_, you go on his errant (to the gods), 
you direct (the ceremonial), you offer the sacrifice, you act as theofficiating 
priest. [You direct: i.e., Agni is the Bra_hman, the Yajama_na and the 

10.091.12 May these laudatory words, these eulogistic verses, these voices 
(proceeding) from us, reach him thegiver of wealth, Ja_tavedas; these wealth-
desiring (words) in which when they are perfected, the perfecterdelights. 

10.091.13 I will address this new laudatory hymn to the ancient Agni, who is 
gratified (by praise). May he hear us.May I be in the centre of his heart, to 
touch it, like a loving well-attired wife (in the heart) of her husband. 

10.091.14 I offer graceful praise with all my heart to Agni, the drinker of 
water, whose back is sprinkled withSoma, the ordainer (of the rite), to whom 
vigorous horses and bulls and barren cows and sheep are consignedas burnt 
offerings. [I offer: Yajus. 20.78 has janaya, offer, perhaps addressed to the 

10.091.15 The oblation has been poured, Agni, into your mouth, like butter into 
the ladle, like Soma into thespoon. Bestow upon us riches conferring food, 
(comprehending) male progeny, excellent renowned andabundant.

10.092.01 You (gods, adore) the charioteer of the sacrifice, the lord of men, 
the invoker of the gods, the guest ofnight, the resplendent (Agni). Blazing amid 
the dry (bushes) preying upon the green, the showerer of desires, thebanner (of 
light), the adorable, he reposes in heaven. 

10.092.02 Both (men and gods) have made Agni the speedy protector, the upholder 
of duty, the accomplisher ofthe sacrifice; they have recourse to him (who is) 
vast as the sun, the precursor of the dawn, the son of thebrilliant (Va_yu). 
[Speedy protector: an~jas pa_m = an~jasa_ raks.akam = speedily protecting; or, 
perhaps, thedrinker of the Soma (or butter)]. 

10.092.03 We desire that our notion of that adorable (Agni) may be true, and 
that our oblations may be to him forfood. When his formidable (flames) attain 
immortality, then may our priests scatter (oblations for the benefit) ofthe 
divine being. 

10.092.04 The vast heavven, the spacious firmament, the glorious unbounded 
earth, (do) homage (to the Agni)of the sacrifice; and Indra, Mitra, Varun.a, 
Bhaga, and Savita_, whose strength is purified, unite to recognize 
(hisexcellence). the circumambient (Indra) sweeping over a wide space, roaring 
in the belly (of the firmament), sprinkles the wholeworld. [With them: yebhih = 
a reference to the Maruts, the sons of Rudra, who is referred to in the first 
line of theverse]. 

10.092.06 The Maruts, the sons of Rudra, mixing with men, the hawks of the sky, 
the inhabitants of the cloud,(are) performing (their functions); with those 
horse-owing deities, Varun.a, Mitra, Aryaman, and Indra, the lord ofhorses 
contemplates (the rite). [Horse-owning: or, possessing Soma]. 

10.092.07 Those who praise him find protection in Indra; (those who praise him 
find) universal vision in the sun;(those who praise him find) manly vigour in 
the vigorous (Indra); those worshippers who diligently offer adorationto Indra 
(acquire) the thunderbolt as their ally in the dwellings of men.  

10.092.08 The sun urging his steeds (in obedience to) his (commands) delights 
(in his presence); every (god) isin fear of the powerful Indra; from the belly 
of the formidable sighing showerer (of benefits) the all-enduringirresistible 
(deity) thunders day by day. [Every god is in fear: cf. Taittiri_ya Upanis.ad 

10.092.09 Address praise today with reverence to Rudra the powerful destroyer of 
the heroes, (who isaccompanied) by the mounted (Maruts), the granters of wishes, 
together with whom he, propitious, possessingkinsmen, besprinkles (the 
worshippers) from heaven. 

10.092.10 Inasmuch as Br.haspati, the showerer (of benefits) and the kindred of 
Soma (the Visvedeva_s),bestow food (for the support) of people, Atharvan was the 
first to invigorate (the gods) with sacrifices; withstrength  the gods and 
Bhr.gus discovered (the cattle).  [With strength: i.e., with the strength 
acquired from thesacrifice which they had eaten; having gone to the sacrifice 
made by Atharvan, they discovered the cattle; cf. RV1.83.5]. 

10.092.11 They the heaven and earth, abounding with waters, the Nara_s'am.sa 
rite with its four fires, Yama,Aditi, the divine Tvas.t.a_, (Agni) the giver of 
wealth, the R.bhus, Rodasi_, the Maruts, and Vis.n.u areworshipped (by us).  

10.092.12 And may the wise Ahi of the firmament hear the copious (pulse) of us 
eager (worshippers) at theoffering of oblations. May the revolving sun and moon 
dwelling in heaven, the earth and sky, comprehend bytheir intelligence (the 
purport) of this (our praise). 

10.092.13 May Pu_s.an protect all our moveable (property); may Va_yu, the friend 
of the Vis'vedeva_s, thegrandson of the waters, preserve us for the celebration 
of the sacrifice. Worship the wind, the soul of all, (toobtain) excellent 
(food); As'vins, who are worthy to be invoked, hear us on your way. 

10.092.14 We glorify with praises Agni, the self-famous, who dwells among these 
fearless beings; we praise theirresistible Aditi, together with all the wives 
(of the gods); we praise the young (lord) of night (the moon), wepraise the 
friend of man (the sun), we praise (Indra) the lord (of all). 

10.092.15 An:girasa, the prior in birth, praises (the gods, here); the uplifted 
stones behold (the Soma of) thesacrifice, through which (stones) the sage Indra 
has been exalted, (and his) thunderbolt brings forth excellentwater, (producing) 
food on watery way.

10.093.01 Heaven and earth, be great and spacious; mighty Rodasi_, be ever with 
us like wives; with these (yourprotections), protect us from (the foe who is) 
stronger (than we), with these protect us in the might (of ourenemies). 

10.093.02 That man pleases the gods at every sacrifice who, being most versed in 
protracted texts, worshipsthem with gratifying (oblations). 

10.093.03 Lords of all worlds, (give us) the abundant wealth of the gods; for 
(you) all are endowed with greatglory (you) all are to be worshipped at the 

10.093.04 They are the lords of the ambrosia, adorable, Aryaman, Mitra, the 
circumambient Varun.a, Rudra, whois hymned by the priests, the Maruts, Pu_s.an, 

10.093.05 And (you two As'vins) showering wealth, (you) sun and moon, (lords) of 
the waters, equally rich,(come) by night to our abode, when Ahirbudhnya sits 
down in their company in the firmamental (clouds). [WhenAhirbudhnya: yad = who, 
referring to Ahirbudhnya]. 

10.093.06 And may the divine As'vins, the lords of pure (water), and Mitra and 
Varun.a protect us with theirbodies; he (whom they protect) acquires ample 
riches, (and passes) through misfortunes as (a traveller through)a desert. 

10.093.07 And may the Rudras, the As'vins, make us happy, (may) the universal 
gods, the lord of chariots,Bhaga, R.bhu, Va_ja, Ribhuks.an.a, the circumambient 
(Va_yu) and the omniscient (deities make us happy). 

10.093.08 The mighty (Indra) is resplendent (through the sacrifice), the joy of 
the worshipper is resplendent;vigorous are the two horses of you rapidly 
approaching, whose hymn is unassailable (by the ra_ks.asas); (this)sacrifice is 
apart, not human. [i.e., it is from heaven]. 

10.093.09 Make us, divine Savita_, free from shame; you are praised (by the 
priests) of the opulent; may Indra,accompanied by the bearers (of water), unite 
the strength of us men here, like the chariot-wheel and reins.[Bearers of water: 
the Maruts]. 

10.093.10 Heaven and earth, grant to these our sons great renown, extending over 
all mankind; grantsustenance for the acquisition of strength, sustenance 
together with wealth for the overthrow (of enemies). 

10.093.11 Mighty Indra, do you, who are well affected towards us, ever protect 
this worshipper wherever he maybe, so that he may attain his desire; instruct 
me, Vasu, by your wisdom. 

10.093.12 May (the priests) strengthen this my hymn, the destroyer of the 
enemies (of the gods), of brilliant pathlike, the rays in the sun, as the 
carpenter (sends forth) the upright car. 

10.093.13 Those whose (praise) arrives, accompanied by wealth, of them it is 
(as) a golden (ornament), likemanly powers in battle reaching the conclusion as 
it were, without an effort. 

10.093.14 This I proclaim in the presence of Dus'i_ma, Pr.thava_na, Vena, the 
mighty Ra_ma, and (other)opulent (princes); those who (come), having yoked five 
hundred (chariots), their affection for us is renowned onthe road. 

10.093.15 Strongest of them Ta_nva promptly demanded seven and seventy (cows), 
Pa_rthya demandedall three names may refer to the same person].

10.094.01 Let these (stones) speak; let us reply to the speaking stones, and do 
you (priests) utter (praise); when,you solid, quick-moving stones, you utter the 
noise of praise together to Indra, (then you become) full of theSoma. 

10.094.02  They roar like a hundred, like a thousand (men); they cry aloud with 
green-tinted faces; obtaining thesacrifice, the pious stones through their piety 
partake of the sacrificial food, even before (Agni), the invoker (ofthe gods). 

10.094.03 They speak, they received into their mouth the sweet (Soma), they roar 
(like the eaters of flesh) overthe roasted meat; chewing the branch of the 
purplle tree, the voracious bulls have bellowed. 

10.094.04 They cry aloud calling upon Indra with the intoxicating effused 
(Soma), they took the sweet Soma intotheir mouth, seized by the sister (fingers) 
the bold stones danced, filling the earth with shouts. 

10.094.05 The well-gliding stones made a noise in the firmament; they danced 
(like) the black deer in the stall;they exude down from the upper stone the 
expressed (Soma); white as the sun they yield abundant moisture. 

10.094.06 Bearing the burden of the sacrifice, yoked with (the Soma), they 
extend themselves like spiritedhorses; when panting and extracting (the Soma), 
they cried aloud, their snoring is heard like that of horses. 

10.094.07  Worship (priests), those imperishable (stones) which have ten 
workers, ten girths, ten yokes, tenagents, ten encompassers, which are possessed 
of ten burdens, which bear (the sacrifice). [The ten workersetc., are the ten 
fingers; Nirukta 3.9]. 

10.094.08 These stones, having ten reins, swiftly moving, their delightful 
whirling goes round; they first tasted theambrosia of the fragment of food of 
the expressed Soma. 

10.094.09 These devourers of Soma kiss Indra's horses, milking forth the juice 
they repose upon the cow, Indrahaving quaffed the sweet Soma milked forth by 
them increases, waxes broad, grows vigour. 

10.094.10 The Soma is your showerer (at the sacrifice);  you are unharmed, (like 
those) abounding in food, youare constantly feeding; like the wealthy 
(possessed) of splendour, you, O stones, are beautiful (at the sacrifice ofhim) 
whose sacrifice you delighted in. 

10.094.11 Splitting, but unsplit, you, O stones, are untiring, unrelaxing, 
immortal, free from disease, undecaying,rising and falling, powerful, 
unthirsting, not generating thirst. 

10.094.12 Your progenitors (the mountains), stable from age to age, desirous of 
repose, seek not to mix with(religious) assemblies; exempt from decay, enjoying 
the Soma, flowing green (with Soma), they made heavenand earth resound with 
their clamour. 

10.094.13 The stones proclaim it with their clamour at the issue of the Soma, 
like the quick-protecting (chariots)on the road; like cultivators sowing the 
seed, they, devouring the Soma, mix it, and do not hurt it. 

10.094.14 (The Soma) being effused at the sacrifice, they made a noise like 
(children) at play, striking theirmother. Proclaim the praise of (the stone), 
which has effused (the Soma), let the honoured stones revolve.

10.095.01 (Puru_rava_) speaks). How indignant wife, with mind (relenting), stay 
awhile, let us now interchangediscourse. These, our secret thoughts, while 
unspoken, did not yield us happiness even at the last day. [Alegend: mitra and 
Varun.a, excited by the charms of U_rvas'i_, gave birth to Agastya, pronouncing 
at the sametime an imprecation upon the nymph and condemning her to descend to 
earth and cohabit with a mortal. Il.a_, aking, had gone out hunting with the 
sons of Manu. He reached a mountain where Uma_, the daughter of themountain, 
with her attendant nymphs, was worshipping S'iva. In punishment for his 
intrusion, he was changedinto a woman. He prayed to S'iva and was restored to 
manhood; he was referred to Devi_ who allowed him to bealternately male and 
female, six months at a time. in the latter condition Budha, the son of Soma, 
becameenamoured of her, and had a son by her, who was called Puru_rava_ who 
became the king of Pratis.t.ha_na.Puru_rava_ became enamoured of U_rvas'i_, who 
became his mistress on condition that if he should be everaked in her sight, 
except in bed, she should return to heaven; he was also to take charge of two 
pet ramsbelonging to her. They lived together four years, when one night, 
hearing the bleating of the rams as they werebeing carried off by the gods, 
Puru_rava_ sprang from the bed in pursuit, when a flash of lightning exhibited 
himto U_rvas'i naked. She consequently left him and returned to heaven. 
Puru_rava_ went in quest of her, andwandered aqbout like one distracted, until 
he finally discovered her sporting with fellow-nymphs. He implored herto return, 
but she refused, calling him by various opporbrious names, as horse, brute, and 
the like (vajra). Thisoccasions the dialogue of the su_kta, which contains an 
allusion to the past cohabitation of the king and thenymph and the unwillingness 
of the king to let his mistress depart. The legend is also related in the drama, 
theVikramorvas'I and in the A_di parva of the Maha_bha_rata]. 

10.095.02 (U_rvas'i_. What can we accomplish through such discourse? I have 
passed away from you like thefirst of the dawns. Return Puru_rava_, to your 
dwelling; I am as hard to catch as the wind. 

10.095.03 (Puru_rava_). The arrow is not to be cast from the quiver for glory. I 
am no longer the impetuousdespoiler of the cattle (of the enemy), nor of their 
hundred-fold (riches). My prowess having lost its strength, (mymight) no longer 
flashes forth; (my warriors) the terrifiers (of the foe) hear not my shout in 

10.095.04 (U_rvas'i). If, Us.as, this U_rvas'i_, offering food and wealth to her 
father-in-law, loves (her husband),she has gone from the neighbouring house to 
her husband's home, where she loved (her lord), being delightednight and day by 
his embraces. [Neighbouring house: antigr.ha = the space in front of the house; 
or, the house ofdining (bhojanagr.ham) of the father-in-law, who (?which, yat = 
yah) in the vicinity of the house of dining of herhusband]. 

10.095.05 Thrice a day, Puru_rava_, have you embraced me, you have loved me 
without a rival; I have followed(you) to your dwelling, you, hero, have been the 
sovereign of my person. [Thrice a day: an allusion perhaps, tothe three diurnal 
phases of the sun, his rising, culminating and setting, in which case Puru_rava_ 
typifies the sun,and U_rvas'i_ either the wky or the day]. 

10.095.06 (Puru_rava_). Suju_ran.i, S'ren.i, Sumna-a_pi, Hradecaks.us, 
Granthini_, and the swift-moving(U_rvas'i who arrived) they, decorated and 
purple-tinted, did not go first, they lowed like kine for protection. 

10.095.07 (U_rvas'i_). As soon as he was born the wives (of the gods) surrounded 
him, the spontaneouslyflowing rivers nourished him, for the gods reared you, 
Puru_rava_, for a mighty conflict, for the slaughter of theDasyus. (Nirukta, 

10.095.08 (Puru_rava_). When, becoming their companion, (Puru_rava_) the mortal 
associated with theseimmortal (nymphs) who had abandoned their bodies, they fled 
from me like a timid doe, like horses harnessed toa chariot. 

10.095.09 When a mortal mixing with these immortal nymphs has conversed with 
them with words and actions,they (becoming) ducks do not show their bodies, like 
playful horses champing (the bit). [Ducks: they clean theirbodies like ducks; na 
= and (naka_rah samucchaya_rthah); not; like]. 

10.095.10 (U_rvas'i_) who shone like flashing lightning, bringing me the 
desirable dews (of heaven, hasappeared); a son able in act and friendly to man 
has been born; U_rvas'i_ has prolonged my lengthenedexistence. 

10.095.11 (U_rvas'i_). you have been born thus to protect the earth; you have 
deposited this vigour in me;knowing (the future) I have instructed you (what to 
do) every day; you have not listened to me; why do you nowaddress me, neglectful 
(of my instruction)? 

10.095.12 (Puru_rava_). When shall a son (born of you) claim me as a father, and 
crying, shed a tear onrecognizing (me)? What son shall sever husband and wife 
who are of one mind, now that the fire shines uponyour husband's parents? [Fire 
shines: Agni is the fire in your heart, the embryo in the form of light, perhaps 
areference to the future son of U_rvas'i_ by puru_rava_]. 

10.095.13 (U_rvas'i_). Let me reply. (Your son) will shed tears, crying out and 
calling aloud when the expectedauspicious time arrives; I will send you that 
(child) which is yours in me, depart to your house, you cannot,simpleton, detain 
me. [Auspicious time: adhye = adhyate vastu_ni, the expected thing; adhye 
s'ivayai: let meforbid him as he sheds tears (i.e., I will forbid him to shed 
tears); calling out he shall not weep for the fortunatesolicitude (of his 
father). Puru_rava_ seems to urge as an argument for U_rvas'i_'s return that the 
son expectedto be born (or, already born?) will long for his father, and, if 
separated from him, will weep, to which U_rvas'i_repies that the son will not 
weep because she will send him to Puru_rava_; which is yours in me: i.e., which 
youhave placed in my womb]. 

10.095.14 (Puru_rava_). (Your husband) who sports with you may now depart, never 
to return, (depart) toproceed to a distant region. Either let him sleep upon the 
lap of Nirr.ti, or let the swift-moving wolves devour him.[Let him sleep: i.e., 
let him die; Nirr.ti being either the earth or the goddess of ill]. 

10.095.15 (U_rvas'i). Die not, Puru_rava_, fall not, let not the hideous wolves 
devour you. Female friendships donot exist, their hearts are the hearts of 

10.095.16 When changed in form I wandered among mortals. I dwelt (with them) 
four delightful years. I ate oncea day a small quantity of butter; satisfied 
with that I now depart. [Delightful years: praramayitri_h = pu_rayitri_h,i.e., 
satisfying; or, ra_tri_h: I spent my nights there during four years]. 

10.095.17 (Puru_rava_). I , Vasis.t.ha, bring under subjection U_rvas'i_ who 
fills the firmament (with lustre) andmeasures out the rain. May (Puru_rava_), 
the bestower of the auspicious rite, abide near you; come back-- myheart is 
burning. [Vasis.t.ha: an epithet, pre-eminently the giver of dwellings]. 

10.095.18 (U_rvas'i_). These gods said to you, Ail.a, since you are indeed 
subject to death, let your progenypropitiate your gods with oblations, you shall 
rejoice (with me) in heaven.

10.096.01 I glorified your bay horses, Indra, at the great sacrifice. I solicit 
the agreeable exhilaration of you, thedestroyer. May my praises attain to you, 
whose form is yellow, who, with your horses, shower (water) likebeautiful 

10.096.02 You, who have praised the horse, the seat of Indra, urging the horses 
so that (Indra may reach) thedivine assembly, do you worship the horse-
possessing might of Indra, whom men delight with the golden-tintedSoma as kine 
(with their milk). 

10.096.03 That is his thunderbolt, yellow, made of iron, the destroyer (of 
foes), desirable, the destroyer (of foes),it is in his hands; he is) possessed 
of riches, handsome jawed, possessed of a shaft and anger which deestroys(his 
foes)-- many golden-tinted forms are mixed in Indra. [Destroyer of foes: the 
main purport of the r.ca is to playon the words: hari, harita, the derivatives 
of hr., to take and harya, to desire. The vajra is harita, or it is 
hari,bothexplained as haritavarn.a, golden-tinted; or, it is hari = s'atru_n.a_m 

10.096.04 He has been placed (by his worshippers) in the sky, like the banner 
(of light, the sun). His desirablebolt reaches (the foe) as the bay horses (of 
the sun reach their aim) through speed. The iron (thunderbolt), withyellow jaws, 
which smote Ahi, (he, Indra), lord of horses, shone with a thousand lustres. 
[Bay horses of the sun:haritah = haryatah, haritavarn.a_h; or, adhvaharta_rah, 
devouring the way]. 

10.096.05 Indra, with yellow locks, when praised by ancient worshippers, you did 
desire the oblation; you whoare manifested of a golden hue desire your universal 
praise, your peculiar and delightful (sacrificial) food. [Withyellow locks: 
having horses whose hair is green; harita = bay, golden-tinted, yellow]. 

10.096.06 These two delightful bay horses bring the thunderer, the rejoicing and 
laudable Indra, in his car to theexhilaration (of the Soma); for him the beloved 
one many libations of the yellow-tinted Soma are stored up. 

10.096.07 Yellow-tinted (Soma) is stored up sufficient to whet his desires, the 
yellow-tinted Soma urges his twoswift bay horses for the salwart (Indra). His 
(chariot) which rushes with spirited bay horses to the conflict, hasreached his 
desire (the sacrifice) in which the Soma is presented. 

10.096.08 The yellow-bearded, yellow-haired, iron-hearted Indra, the drinker of 
the yellow (Soma), who has beeninvigorated by the Soma which has to be quickly 
quaffed, who is rich in sacrificial food through his swift bayhorses, may he 
drive his two bay horses safe through all difficulties.  [Through all 
difficulties: asma_kamdurita_ni: i.e., our sins]. 

10.096.09 He whose bay horses alight (upon the Soma) like two ladies, whose 
yellow jaws tremble (witheagerness) for the sacrificial food, (is praised) when 
having drunk of the delicious exhilarating Soma in theprepared cup, he rubs down 
his bay horses. 

10.096.10 The dwelling of the gracious (Indra) is in heaven and earth; 
exhilarated by the Soma he rushesimpetuously as a charger to battle. The earnest 
prayer desires (Indra endowed) with might; you bestow amplefood on the devout 
(worshipper). [As a charger: he neighed after the food like a horse; hariva_n = 

10.096.11 You (Indra) who are the object of desire (fill) heaven and earth with 
your greatness, you desire gratefulpraise ever new and new; O powerful one, make 
manifest the desirable dwelling of the water to the

10.096.12 Let your horses yoked to the chariot bring you, Indra, the yellow-
jawed, desiring (the sacrifice), to (thevicinity) of the worshippers; when you, 
desiring the sacrifice, prepared by the ten fingers, drink of the 
collectedsweet-flavoured Soma, (let them bring you) to the battle. 

10.096.13 Lord of horses, you did drink of previous libations, this sacrifice is 
for you alone; exhilarate yourself.Indra with the sweet Soma; showerer of 
copious rain, shower it into your belly. [This sacrifice: i.e., the moon-
daylibation, which is for Indra only, the previous or morning offering he has 
shared with other divinities; cf. RV4.35.7].

10.097.01 I think of the hundred and seven applications of the brown-tinted 
plants, which are ancient, beinggenerated for the gods before the three ages. 
[Ages: dha_ma_ni = places to which herbs may be applied by wayof unction, 
friction, sprinkling etc.; Nirukta, 9.28: either places, names, or births; 
devebhyah = the shiningseasons; triyugam = the three seasons, spring, the rains 
and autumn]. 

10.097.02 Mothers (of mankind) a hundred are your applications, a thousandfold 
is your growth; do you who fulfila hundred functions, make this my (people) free 
from disease. 

10.097.03 Rejoice, plants, bearing abundant flowers and fruit, triumphing 
together (over disease) like (victorious)horses, sprouting forth, bearing (men 
safe) beyond (disease). 

10.097.04 "Plants!" thus I hail you, the divine mothers (of mankind). I will 
give to you, oh physician, a horse, acow, a garment-- yes, even myself. [I will 
give to you: saneyam = dada_mi; or, sam.bhajeyam, may I possess; purus.a = 
yajn~a purus.a, you whopreside over the sacrifice: Yajus. 12.78]. 

10.097.05 Your abode is in the As'vattha, your dwelling is established in the 
Pala_s'a, you are assuredly thedistributer of cattle, inasmuch as you bestow 
them on the physician. [As'vattha and Pala_s'a: the trees bear achief part in 
sacrifices and are, therefore, said to be the abode of plants. The vessels in 
which the offerings arepresented are made of the wood of these two trees (Yajus. 
12.79). As'vattha = ficus religiosa; pala_s'a = buteafrondosa; distributers of 
cattle: gobha_jah = gava_m bha_jayitryah; or, go =  A_ditya, you are partakers 
of thesun, i.e., plants offered to fire or the offering thrown into the fire 
approaches the sun]. 

10.097.06 Where, plants, you are congregated like princes (assembled) in battle, 
there the sage is designated aphysician, the destroyer of evil spirits, the 
extirpator of disease. 

10.097.07 The As'va_vati_, the Soma_vati_, the Urjayanti_, the Udojasa_)-- all 
these plants I praise for thepurpose of overcoming this disease. [As'va_vati_... 
: these are the four principal plants, or, the plants, the giver ofhorses (ofr 
of wealth), the yielder of Soma, the giver of strength (or life), the restorer 
of vigour; the termsurjayanti_, udojasa_ = tonic and stimulant; for the purpose 
of overcoming this disease: lit., for this person for thispreservation]. 

10.097.08 The virtues of the plants which are desirous of bestowing wealth issue 
from them, man, (towards) yourbody like cattle from the pen. 

10.097.09 Verily Is.kr.ti is your mother, therefore are you (also) Nis.kr.tis; 
you are flying streams; if (a man) is illyou cure him. [Is.kr.ti and Nis.kr.tis: 
both are synonyms, the unmaker or remedier of disease]. 

10.097.10 The universal all-pervading plants assail (diseases) as a thief 
(attacks) a cow-shed; they drive outwhatever infirmity of body there may be. 
[Infirmity: rapah = pa_pah, sin; because of the consequence of sin eitherin this 
or in a previous existence]. 

10.097.11 As soon as I take these plants in my hand making (the sick man) 
strong, the soul of the maladyperishes before (their application) as (life is 
driven away from the presence) of the seizer of life. [Seizer of life: or,as 
(lives are destroyed) from the seizing of lives, i.e., from the hunting of birds 

10.097.12 From him, oh plants, in whom you creep from limb to limb, from joint 
to joint, you drive away diseaselike a mighty (prince) stationed in the midst of 
his host. [Mighty prince: or, as Rudra pierces the world with thecentral point 
of his trident (Yajus. 12.86)]. 

10.097.13 Fly forth, sickness, with the jay, with the blue jay, with the 
velocity of the wind, perish along with theiguana.  [Iguana: kikidi_vina_: an 
epithet of ca_s.en.a, making these kiki; perhaps, an allusion to the 
severaldiseases arising from vitiated bile, phlegm and wind (Yajus.)]. 

10.097.14 Let each of you, plants, go to the other, approach the one (to the 
vicinity) of the other; thus being allmutually joined together, attend to this 
my speech. 

10.097.15 Whether bearing fruit or barren, whether flowering or flowerless, may 
they, the progeny of Br.haspati,liberate us from sin. 

10.097.16 May they liberate me from the sin produced by curse, from the sin 
caused by Varun.a, from the fettersO Yama, from all guilt caused by the gods.  

10.097.17 The plants, falling from heaven, said, "The man, whom living we 
pervade, will not perish". 

10.097.18 The which have the Soma for their king, and are numerous and all-
seeking of them you (O Soma) arethe best; be very bountiful to the affectionate 

10.097.19 Plants, which have the Soma for your king, who are scattered over the 
earth, the offspring ofBr.haspati, give vigour to this (infirm body). [Infirm 
body: or, to this drug that I have taken (Yajus. 12.93)]. 

10.097.20 Let not the digger hurt you, not (the sick person) for whom I dig you 
up; may all my bipeds andquadrupeds be free from disease. 

10.097.21  Both the plants that I hear  this (prayer), and those which are 
removed far off, all coming together,give vigour to this (infirm body). 

10.097.22 All the plants, together with Soma their king, declare, "We save him, 
O king, to whom the Bra_hman.aadministers (us)". 

10.097.23 You (Soma) are the best of the plants, to you (all) trees are 
prostrate; may he be prostrate to us, whoattacks us. [May the trees shelter you, 
and may he who is our foe become our own servant].

10.098.01: Go, Br.haspati, on my behalf to the gods, whether you are Mitra, or 
Varun.a, or Pu_s.an, orassociated with the A_dityas, the Vasus, or the Maruts-- 
do you cause Parjanya to send down rain for S'antanu.[Legend from Nirukta 2.10: 
Deva_pi and S'antanu were sons of R.s.t.is.en.a of the Kuru family; the 
youngerS'antanu became king, Deva_pi chose a life of penance. In S'antanu's 
kingdom there was no rain for twelveyears-- the consequence of S'antanu having 
improperly assumed the government while his elder brother, themore legitimate 
ra_ja_, was living. S'antanu desired to resign his authority, but Deva_pi 
declined to accept thethrone, saying, "Let me be your Purohita and conduct your 
religious rites". The story is in Vis.n.u Pura_n.a4.20.7; A_di parva, 
Maha_bha_rata; Bha_gavata Pura_n.a 9.22.14-17]. 

10.098.02 Let a divine messenger quick and intelligent sent, Deva_pi, by you 
come to me. Come, Br.haspati, tome, turning towards me; I have in my mouth a 
brilliant eulogium for you. 

10.098.03 Put, Br.haspati, in my mouth a brilliant eulogium, prompt and free 
from defect, by which we two mayobtain rain from heaven for S'antanu, the sweet 
drop (sent by you) has entered (our voice). 

10.098.04 May the sweet drops of rain fall upon us; grant us, Indra, a thousand 
chariot-loads. Sit down, Deva_pi,to your duties as Hota_; in due season 
sacrifice to the gods, worship them with oblations. functions as Hota_. He has 
brought down from the upper to the lower ocean the rain waters of heaven. 

10.098.06 In this upper ocean the waters stood dammed up by the gods; set free 
by Deva_pi, the son  ofR.s.t.is.en.a, they were sent forth over the plains. 

10.098.07 When  Deva_pi, the Purohita for S'antanu, engaged in his functions of 
Hota_, compassionating (him),slicited Br.haspati, to whom the gods listen, who 
begs for rain, (Br.haspati) being pleased gave him a voice.[Voice: Nirukta 2.12: 
Br.hspati communicated to him the address go Agni which follows]. 

10.098.08 Agni, whom the mortal Deva_pi, the son of R.s.t.isen.a, lighting you, 
has kindled, do you, beingpropitiated with all the gods, send down the rain-
laden cloud. 

10.098.09 You have ancient sages approached, with hymns; you, O invoked of many, 
all worshippers (address)at sacrifice; (give) us thousands of chariot-loads, 
come to our sacrifice, lord of red horses. 

10.098.10 These ninety-and-nine thousands of chariot-lords have been offered, 
Agni, to you; with them, O hero,nourish your many bodies; and thus solicited 
sends us rain from heaven. 

10.098.11 Give, Agni, these ninety thousands to the showerer, Indra, as his 
share; knowing the paths traversedby the gods in due season place the Aula_na 
(S'antanu), in heaven among the gods. 

10.098.12 Demolish, Agni, our enemies, demolish their strongholds, drive away 
disease, drive away thera_ks.asas from this ocean, from vast heaven send own 
upon us here abundance of rain.

10.099.01 What marvellous (wealth), comprehensive and laudable, do you, Indra, 
knowing (what is needed),bestow upon us for our advantage? What gift (has been 
made to us) upon the development of his strength? Hefabricated the Vr.tra-
slaying thunderbolt, and let the waters flow. 

10.099.02 Armed with the bright lightning he goes to the (scene of) adoration; 
endowed with might he has seatedhimself on the spacious place (of sacrifice); he 
(is) triumphant with his companions (the Maruts); the wiles of hisseventh 
brother do not (prevail) at the rite. [His seventh brother: bhra_tuh = one who 
has to share in distribution;seventh: the seventh of the A_dityas, Dha_ta_ etc.; 
perhaps the ra_ks.asa_ heti is meant]. 

10.099.03 Going to the battle, marching with easy gait, desiring the spoil, he 
set himself to the acquisition of all(wealth). Invincible, destroying the 
phallus-worshippers, he won by his prowess whatever wealth (was concealedin the 
city) with the hundred gates. [Phallus-worshippers: s'is'nadeva_n is a 
tatpurus.a compound; hence, themeaning would perhaps be: incontinent or 

10.099.04 The victorious Indra, coming among the clouds, quickly moving, offers 
the abundant waters on the rich(plains) where his associates (the rivers) 
footless, and without conveyances, having pitchers for horses, pour outwater 
like ghi_. 

10.099.05 May he, our unsolicited benefactor, the mighty one, from whom blame is 
far removed, come with theRudras, having quit his dwelling. I think of the two 
(parents) of Vamra, who are free from fever. Having obtained(the enemy's) food, 
he called aloud while stealing it. 

10.099.06 The sovereign Indra attacking him overcame the loud-shouting, six-
eyed, three-headed Da_sa, andTrita, invigorated by his strength, smote the 
water-laden (cloud) with his iron-tipped finger. [Water-laden cloud:lit., the 
boar]. leader of men, manifested favourably for our (aid), laudable, slew the 
bodies (of the enemies) in the slaughter ofthe Dasayus. 

10.099.08 Like the aggregated cloud desiring to pour water on the pasturage, he 
found the way to our dwellingwhen he approached the Soma with his limbs, like a 
hawk with heel of metal he smites the Dasyus. 

10.099.09 Let him overthrow the mighty with powerful (weapons); he destroyed 
S'us.n.a for the sake of the liberalKutsa; he humiliated Kavi, who praised him, 
who was the giver of form to Indra and his men. [Kutsa: 
kutsa_yas'us.n.amas'us.am ni barhi_h : RV 4.16.12; let him overthrow: asya = 
his, s'avasa_nebhih; or, asyatu, let himthrow; Kavi = Us'ana_, the son of Kavi]. 

10.099.10 Bountiful (to his worshippers) with his (Maruts) friendly to men, 
wonderful with brilliancies, havingmagical power like Varun.a, he was known as 
desirable, protecting the seasons, he destroyed, Araru, who wasfour-footed. 
[Araru = an asura]. 

10.099.11 R.jis'va_, the son of Us'ija with Indra's praises shattered the cow 
pen of Pipru with the thunderbolt;when having expressed (the Soma), the 
venerable sage recited his praises, (Indra) proceeding against the cities(of the 
enemy) triumphed with his body. 

10.099.12 In this manner, O mighty (Indra), Vamraka approached Indra on foot, to 
bring an ample oblation. Mayhe, being approached, grant us prosperity, may he 
bring us food, drink, a secure dwelling and all (good things).

10.100.01 Consume, afluent Indra, (the foe that is) like you (in might); praised 
on this occasion, do you who arethe drinker of the libation be favourable to our 
advancement. May Savita_, with the gods, defend our sacrifice;we long for the 
universal Aditi. [Aditi: sarvata_ti = all; or, all-pervading, from tai, to 

10.100.02 Offer to (Indra) the cherisher (of all) the share suited to the 
season; (offer it) to Va_yu, the drinker ofthe pure (Soma), who clamours as he 
travels, who obtains a draught of white milk; we long for the universal Aditi.

10.100.03 May the divine Savita_ generate well-dressed food for our sincere 
yajama_na as he offers the libation,so that we may  be in good favour with the 
gods; we long for the universal Aditi. 

10.100.04 May Indra be favourably disposed towards us every day, may the royal 
Soma accept our praise, sothat they may bestow upon us friendly treasures; we 
long for the universal Aditi. 

10.100.05 By his laudable strength Indra supports my limb; you, Br.haspati, are 
the prolonger of my life. May thesacrifice, the sage Manu, (being) our 
protector, (grant) us happiness. We long for the universal Aditi. 

10.100.06 The divine force of Indra is well constructed; Agni (abides) in our 
dwelling, the praiser of the gods, thereceiver of oblations, the sage, and is 
worthy of sacrifice at the altar, beautiful and most near (to us). We long 
forthe universal Aditi. 

10.100.07 We have not done any great evil in secret from you, nor any open 
(action) causing the anger of thegods, O you givers of wealth; let not, O gods, 
(the possession) of an unreal form be our (lot). We long for theuniversal Aditi. 
[Unreal form: let us not have a human body after this life]. 

10.100.08 May Savita_ drive away (our) disease, may the mountains keep off our 
most heinous (sin), where thestone( the effuser) of the sweet Soma is abundantly 
praised. We long for the universal Aditi. 

10.100.09 May the stone be uplifted, gods, when I make the libation; disperse 
all my secret adversaries; the godSavita_ is our adorable protector. We long for 
the universal Aditi. 

10.100.010 Eat abundant fodder in the pasture, O cows, who are anointed in the 
hall of sacrifice in the cow-stall;may (your) body be the remedy for (our) body. 
We long for the universal Aditi. [i.e., may the body of the cowoffered in 
sacrifice be the expiation for the body of the sacrificer, enabling him to 
attain svarga; or, may the milkbe the corrective of the Soma; or, may the body 
itself be the body's cure]. 

10.100.11 Indra is the fulfiller of pious acts, the glorifier of all, the 
guardian of the offerers of libations, theauspicious forethought, for his 
libation the divine pitcher is filled (with Soma). We long for the universal 

10.100.12 Your splendour, Indra, is wonderful, fulfilling our pious acts, 
desirable; your efforts replenishing thewealth of your worshippers are 
irresistible; (therefore) Duvasyu hastens in front of the victim cow, (leading 
it) witha straight cord.

10.101.01 Awake, friends, being all agreed; many in number, abiding in  one 
dwelling, kindle Agni. I invoke you,Dadhikra, Agni, and the divine Us.as, who 
are associated with Indra, for our protection. [In one dwelling: lit., inone 
nest; in one hall]. 

10.101.02 Construct exhilarating (hymns), spread forth praises, construct the 
ship which is propelled by oars,prepare your weapons, make ready, lead forth, O 
friends, the herald, the adorable (Agni). 

10.101.03 Harness the ploughs, fit on the yokes, now that the womb of earth is 
ready, sow the seed therein, andthrough our praise may there be abundant food; 
may (the grain) fall ripe towards the sickle. [Through our praise:sow the seed 
with praise, with a prayer of the Veda; s'rus.t.i = rice and other different 
kinds of food]. 

10.101.04 The wise (priests) harness the ploughs, they lay the yokes apart, 
firmly devoted through the desire ofhappiness. [Happiness: sumnaya_ =  to give 
pleasure to the gods]. 

10.101.05 Set up the cattle-troughs, bind the straps to it; let us pour out (the 
water of) the well, which is full ofwater, fit to be poured out, and not easily 

10.101.06 I pour out (the water of) the well, whose cattle troughs are prepared, 
well fitted with straps, fit to bepoured out, full of water, inexhaustible. 

10.101.07 Satisfy the horses, accomplish the good work (of ploughing), equip a 
car laden with good fortune, pourout (the water of) the well, having wooden 
cattle-troughs having a stone rim, having a receptable like armour, fitfor the 
drinking of men. 

10.101.08 Construct the cow-stall, for that is the drinking place of your 
leaders (the gods), fabricate armour,manifold and ample; make cities of metal 
and impregnable; let not the ladle leak, make it strong. 

10.101.09 I attract, O gods, for my protection, your adorable, divine mine, 
which is deserving of sacrifice andworship here; may it milk forth for us, like 
a large cow with milk, giving a thousand strreams, (having eaten)fodder and 

10.101.10 Pour out the golden-tinted Soma into the bowl of the wooden cup, 
fabricate it with the stone axes, girdit with ten bands, harness the beast of 
burden to the two poles (of the cart). 

10.101.11 The beast of burden pressed with the two cart-poles, moves as if on 
the womb of sacrifice having twowives. Place the chariot in the wood, without 
digging store up the Soma. 

10.101.12 Indra, you leaders, is the giver of happiness; excite the giver of 
happiness, stimulate him, sport withhim for the acquisition of food, bring down 
here, O priests, Indra, the son of Nis.t.igri_, to drink the Soma.[Nis.t.igri_ = 
a name of Aditi: nis.t.im ditim svasapatni_m girati_ti nis.t.igri_raditih].

10.102.01 May (Indra) by his prowess protect your cart (mudgala) that has no 
companion, defend us, O invokedof many, in this memorable conflict in the 
recovery of our wealth. [Legend: the oxen of mudgala were carried offclub in 
front of him. It conducted him to the robbers, and he got back his cattle]. 

10.102.02 The wind raised her vesture when she won a thousand cart-loads. 
Mudgala_ni_ was the charioteer inthe quest of the cattle, the army of Indra 
recovered (the spoil) taken in battle. 

10.102.03 Restrain, Indra, the thunderbolt of the malignant threatening (foe); 
ward off, Maghavan, the secretweapon (of our foe), be he Da_sa or A_rya. 

10.102.04 Rejoicing, he drank up the pool of water, he cleft the mountain peak, 
he went against the enemy;endowed with vigour, eager for fame, assailing the 
quick-moving (foe), he seized him with his two arms. 

10.102.05 Approaching the bull, they made him roar in the midst of the battle. 
I, Mudgala, have thereby gained inwar hundreds and thousands of cattle well-

10.102.06 The bull has been yoked for the destruction of the enemy; his long-
haired yoke-fellow made him roar;

10.102.07 The sage (Mudgala) has fitted up the frame of the cart, he has 
harnessed the bull, training him to hiswork; Indra protected the lord of the 
inviolable (cows), the buffalo rushed along with speed. 

10.102.08 Wielding the goad (Indra) with the braided hair proceeded happily, 
fastening the strap to the wood (ofwon hundreds and thousands of cattle in war. 

10.102.10 Who has thus beheld the evils near at hand? The (bull) which they 
yoke, they stop; to him they bringneither fodder nor water. Being above (the 
bull) he bears the chariot-pole announcing (victory to his lord). 

10.102.11 As a wife who has been abandoned rejoices to find her husband, as a 
cloud expanding when pouringforth rain with the aid of the earth's disc;  with 
her eager (to recover the cattle) for our charioteer, may we win (theprize), may 
good fortune, together with food, be given to us. 

10.102.12 You, Indra, are the eye of the whole world, when, showerer (of 
benefits), urging on your two vigoroussteeds, harnessed to the car, you engage 
in battle.

10.103.01 The fleet-going Indra, like a formidable bull sharpening (his horns), 
the slayer of foes, the exciter ofmen, loud-shouting, ever-vigilant, the chief 
of heroes overthrew at once a hundred hosts. 

10.103.02 With Indra the loud-shouting, the vigilant, the vigtorious, the 
warlike, the unconquerable, the daring,the hurler of arrows, the showerer, (as 
your ally) conquer you warriors, you leaders, that (hostile host) andovercome 

10.103.03 Indra, with the arrow-bearing (maruts), armed with swords, the 
subduer, the warrior, who encountershim, the drinker of the Soma, the strong-
armed, having a powerful bow, who shoots with well-aimed arrows(conquer with his 

10.103.04 Come with your chariot, Br.haspati, who are the slayer of Ra_ks.asas, 
discomfiting your enemies,

10.103.05 Known by his strength mighty, heroic, overpowering, vigorous, 
enduring, fierce, attended by heroes,attended by mighty men, the offspring of 
strength, the possessor of water, do you, Indra, ascend your triumphantchariot. 
[Water: govit, knowing or accepting the song of praise]. 

10.103.06 Imitate in heroism, you kindred warriors, follow, friends, in prowess 
this Indra, who is the breaker ofmountains, the acquirer of water, armed with 
the thunderbolt, conquering the swift (foe), destroying (the enemy)by his might. 
[Breaker of mountains: or of clouds; or of gotras (a race of asuras); gotrabhit 
= breaking into thecow-stall]. 

10.103.07 May Indra, bursting open the clouds with force; pitiless, heroic, with 
hundredfold anger, invincible, theoverthrower of armies, irresistible, protect 
our armies in battles. 

10.103.08 May Indra be the leader of these (hosts), may Br.haspati, Daks.in.a_, 
Yajn~a, and Soma go before, letthe Maruts march in the van of the destroying and 
victorious armies of the gods. [Daks.in.a_: not a proper name;may the yajn~a-
purus.a (i.e., Vis.n.u) go on the right and Soma go before]. 

10.103.09 (May) the mighty force of the showerer Indra, of the royal Varun.a, of 
the A_dityas and Maruts (beours). The shout of the magnanimous and victorious 
deities, the subverters of the worlds, has arisen. 

10.103.10 Excite, Maghavan, my weapons, (excite) the spirits of my heroes; 
slayer of Vr.tra, let the speed of thehorses be accelerated, let the noises of 
the chariots be increased. 

10.103.11 When the banners are intermingled, may Indra be our (defender), may 
those arrows which are ours bevictorious may our warriors be triumphant; gods, 
protect us in battles. 

10.103.12 Bewildering the mind of our foes, Apva, seize their limbs and depart, 
proceed against them, burn intheir hearts with sorrow, let our enemies be 
covered with thick darkness. [Apva: a goddess, apvepapa_bhima_nini devate; or, 
sickness or fear; or, apiva: from apavi = who deprives of enjoyment (Nirukta)]. 

10.103.13 Advance, warriors, and conquer; may Indra grant you happiness, may 
your arms be strong, so that youmay be invincible.

10.104.01 The Soma has been effused for you, (Indra), the invoked of many, come 
quickly to the sacrifice withyour two bay horses; our praises recited by the 
wise, moving quickly, are addressed to you; drink, Indra, of thelibation. 

10.104.02 Lord of bay steeds, drink at this ceremony of the Soma that has been 
shaken up with the water, fillyour belly with the libation offered by the 
priests, which the grinding-stones desired to express for you, Indra; doyou who 
are carried by hymns enhance your exhilaration with these (hymns). 

10.104.03 Lord of bay steeds, showerer (of benefits), I send you strong good 
drink that you may proceed; Indra,who are glorified for your prowess, be 
exhilarated at this (ceremony) with praises, with all rites. 

10.104.04 Powerful Indra, they stood in the dwelling of the man (who instituted 
the rite), enjoying food togetherwith the offspring, through your protection and 
prowess, desiring you, knowing the ceremonies, glorifying you,and partaking of 
the exhilaration. [Food together with offspring: praja_vat vayah = food having 

10.104.05 Lord of bay horses, by the right guidance of you who are deservedly 
praised, the bestower ofhappiness the illustrious, the men your praisers, O 
Indra, have acquired your most gracious assistance forexcelling (other 
suppliants) through your favours. 

10.104.06 Lord of bay horses, come with your two bays to our adorations to drink 
of the effused Soma; thesacrifice, Indra, reaches to you who are enduring; 
cognizant of the sacrifice, you are the donor of the reward. 

10.104.07 Our praises celebrate the irresistible Indra, the dispenser of 
abundant food, the overcomer of enemies,the delighter in the libation, the 
possessor of opulence, the well-praised; the adorations of the worshipper 

10.104.08 The seven divine meandering rivers with which you, Indra,  the 
destroyer of cities, replenished theocean, flow unimpeded; you did discover the 
nine-and-ninety flowing rivers (and their) path for gods and men. 

10.104.09 You did release the great waters from the malignant (obstructer), you 
were the only god who watchedover them; with those waters which you have 
employed for the destruction of Vr.tra, may you, all vivifying Indra,cherish 
your own person. [All-vivifying: vis'va_yuh = vis'va_bhih, with all those waters 

10.104.10 Indra is the chief of heroes, the doer of great deeds, to whom praise 
is well offered; yes, and the voiceof praise lauds him the invoked of many. He 
slew Vr.tra, he created light; S'akra, the conqueror, has overcome(hostile) 

10.104.11 We invoke for our protection the opulent Indra, distinguished in this 
combat; the leader in thefood-bestowing strife, hearing (our praises), terrible 
in battles the destroyer of foes, the conqueror of wealth. [cf.RV 3.30.22; the 
refrain, connected with Vis'va_mitra recurs].

10.105.01 When, Vasu, (will our) praise (reach) you desiring it? (when) will he, 
(like) a dam, obstruct and letloose the long-protracted for the sake of wind-
driven (rain)? [ Although the worship of Indra may be impeded bydelay, as water 
is checked by an embankment (s'amas'a_ = kulya_), yet it will take effect 
ultimately, and thewater or the rain will spread abroad; cf. Nirukta 5.12]. 

10.105.02 (O Indra), to whom belong the two bay horses, well-trained, active, 
swift, courageous, brilliant as thetwo worlds, do you, who are lord (of bay 
horses), bestowing (wealth upon us), desire (our praises). 

10.105.03 Indra repelled (him), being like a mortal tired and frightened in (the 
combat with) the offspring ofiniquity (Vr.tra), when being associated with the 
forces (of the Maruts), he has been prepared for splendour. 

10.105.04 Indra, the friend of man, for his exhilaration, comes mounted in his 
chariot, granting him favour, thehero Indra, (the driver) of the two neighing 
and prancing (steeds). 

10.105.05 He who has mounted the two long-maned and all pervading  steeds for 
the nourishment (of thesacrificer) asks (for the Soma) with his two jaws, 
possessing mighty jaws. 

10.105.06 Of glorious strength (associated) with the glorious (maruts) he was 
renowned; the hero abiding in thefirmament wrought with his strength as the 
R.bhus with their wonderful works. 

10.105.07 The golden-bearded (Indra), lord of bay horses, who made the 
thunderbolt for the easy destruction ofthe Dasyu, who has irresistible jaws like 
the vast firmament. 

10.105.08 Mitigate, Indra, our iniquities, may we, by our hymns, extermiante 
those who offer no hymns. Thesacrifice, unaccompanied by prayer, distinct (from 
that which is performed with prayer), is not grateful to you. in the hall of 
sacrifice, accompanied by the sacrifice, you, the friend of man, (ascend) the 
vessel of your glory. 

10.105.10 May the spotted cow yield milk for mixing with your (Soma), may the 
ladle for the mixture wherewithyou pour it into your own vessel be free from 

10.105.11 When, you, mighty (Indra, gave) hundredfold (riches), Sumitra praised 
you thus, Durmitra praised youthus, when at the slaughter of the Dasyus you did 
protect Kutsa's son, when at the slaughter of the Dasyus youprotected Kutsa's 

10.106.01 You both demand the oblation (As'vins), you spread out the ceremonials 
as two weavers (strentch)cloths; (the institutor of the rite) praised you 
associated together to attain (his desires); like two fortunate daysyou bestow 

10.106.02 Like two longing oxen (to the pastures), you have recourse to those 
who fill you (with oblations); youapproach like two horses prepared for the 
fray; employed to bring treasure; you are like two (royal) messengersrenowned 
among the people; turn not away (from our oblation) like two buffaloes from the 

10.106.03 Connected toegether like the two wings of a bird, you came to the 
sacrifice like two choice animals;radiant as Agni (at the offering) of the 
devout (worshipper), like two perambulating priests you celebrate worshipin many 
places. [You celebrate worship: the As'vins are the Adhvaryus of the gods]. 

10.106.04 You are kinsmen to us, like parents (to) sons, like two fierce shining 
fires, like two princes hastening togive protection, like two bestowers of food 
are you for the nourishment of men, like two luminaries for theenjoyment (of our 
worshippers), like two quick horses you came to our invocation. 

10.106.05 You are like two pleasantly moving well-fed (hills) like Mitra and 
Varun.a, the two bestowers of felicity,veracious, possessors of infinite wealth, 
happy, like two horses plump with fodder, abiding in the firmament, liketwo rams 
(are you) to be nourished with sacrificial food, to be cherished (with 
oblations). [Like Mitra and Varun.a:lit., like two Mitras]. 

10.106.06 You are like two mad elephants bending their forequarters and smiting 
the foe, like the two sons ofare victorious, (render) my decaying mortal body 
free from decay. [Epithets: s'r.n.ya = from s'ren.i, a goad, thedestroying 
(foes): dvividha_ s.r.n.irbhavati bharta_ ca hanta_ ca tatha_s'vinau ca-pi 
bharta_rau jarbhari_bharta_ra_vity arthas turphari_tu_ hanta_rau: Nirukta 13.5]. 

10.106.07 Fierce (As'vins), like two powerful (heroes), you enable this moving, 
perishable mortal (frame) to crossover to the objects (of its destination) as 
over water; extremely strong, like the R.bhus, your chariot attained 
itsdestination swift as the wind, it pervaded (everywhere), it dispensed riches. 

10.106.08 With your bellies full of the Soma, like two saucepans, preservers of 
wealth, destroyers of enemies,(you are), armed with hatchets, moving like two 
flying (birds) with forms like the moon, attaining success throughthe mind, like 
two laudable beings, (you are) approaching (the sacrifice). [Like two saucepans: 
like two mightyheroes]. fording place), like two ears you recognize (the voice) 
of the reciter of your praises, like two shoulders(supporting the sacrifice), 
come to our desirable rite. 

10.106.10 Like two loud-sounding (clouds), you send forth the sweet (Soma); like 
two bees (you deposit milk) in(the udder of) the cow which has its opening 
turned downwards; like two labourers you are dripping withperspiration, like a 
tired cow eating sweet herbage, you attend. 

10.106.11 May we increase our praise, ( As'vins), may we offer you food, come 
hither in the same chariot to ourworship; and accept the sweet food prepared 
from within the cows. Bhu_ta_m.s;a has fulfilled the desires of thelearned. [The 
As'vini_ su_kta has been translated, though tough to explain, within a short 
compass, din:ma_trampradars'itam and deduction is left to the learned to 
interpret based on etymology, grammar, etc.].

10.107.01 The great (splendour) of Maghavan has becomemanifest (for the rites) 
of these (worshippers); all lifehas been extricated from darkness, the vast 
light bestowed by the progenitors has arrived, a spacious path forthe daks.in.a_ 
has been displayed. (I Maghavan: Mqaghavan = the sun, at whose rising and at 
midday thedaks.in.a_ is to be given, not at sunset; cf. RV. 5.77.2]. 

10.107.02 The donors of the daks.in.a_ have mounted high in heaven, those who 
are givers of horses dwell withthe sun; the givers of gold obtain immortality, 
the givers of raiment, O Soma, prolong their life. [Raiment: thegivers of 
clothing (abide with you) Soma; (they all) prolong their life]. wrong, for they 
do not gratify (the gods with worship), but many men through fear of incurring 
sin liberallyextending the daks.in.a_ gratify the gods. 

10.107.04 They see (the offering of) the oblation to Va_yu, of the hundred 
streams, to the all-conscious sun, tothe men-beholding (deities); they who  
please (the gods) and offer (oblations at the festival, let flow thedaks.in.a_, 
the mother of seven. [Mother of seven: i.e., which has the seven sam.stha_s as 
in children, theagnis.t.oma etc., or that which has seven mothers as regulators 
(nirma_tarah), the Hota_ and other priests]. 

10.107.05 Summoned (by the priests) first advances the daks.in.a_-bearing 
(sacrificer); the head of the villagebearing the daks.in.a_ goes in the front. I 
regard him as a king among men who first introduced the daks.in.a_. sacrifice: 
the last three epithets denote the Adhvaryu, the Udga_ta_, and the Hota_; three 
forms of light: i.e.,Agni, Va_yu and A_ditya]. 

10.107.07 Daks.in.a_ gives horses, daks.in.a_ gives cows, daks.in.a_ gives gold 
and also silver, Daks.in.a_

10.107.08 The givers of enjoyment do not die, they do not go to destruction, 
they suffer no injury, the givers ofenjoyment suffer no pain. Daks.in.a_ gives 
them all this world and the entire heaven. 

10.107.09 The givers of enjoyment first won the cow the source (of food), the 
givers of enjoyment have won abride who was beautifully attired, the givers of 
enjoyment have won deep potations of wine, the givers ofenjoyment have conquered 
those who without being challenged advance to meet them. 

10.107.10 For the giver of enjoyment they deck out a fleet horse, to the giver 
of enjoyment is presented a maidenbeautifully adorned, to the giver of enjoyment 
belongs this dwelling, adorned like a lake full of lotus flowers,delightful as a 
dwelling of the gods. 

10.107.11 Horses capable of bearing heavy burdens bear the giver of enjoyment, a 
well-constructed chariot rollsalong (for the giver) of the daks.in.a_; O gods, 
protect the giver of enjoyment in combats; may the giver ofenjoyment be the 
victor over his foes in battles.

10.108.01 (The Pan.is). With what intention has Sarama_ come to this place? 
Verily the way is long and difficultto be traversed by the persevering. What is 
the motive of your coming to us? What sort of wandering was yours?How have you 
crossed the waters of the Rasa_? [Legend: The cows of Br.haspati had been stolen 
by the Pan.is,the followers of the Asura Vala. At Br.haspati's instance, Indra 
sent Sarama_ in search of the cattle. She havingcrossed a large river arrived at 
Vala's stronghold and discovered the cattle. The Pan.is trying to make 
friendswith her, the dialogue contained in this su_kta then ensued. rasa_: the 
river of the firmament]. 

10.107.02 (Sarama_). I come, the appointed messenger of Indra, desiring, Pan.is, 
your great hidden treasures;through fear of being crossed the (water) helped us, 
thus I passed over the waters of the Rasa_. 

10.107.03 (The Pan.is). What is Indra like, O Sarama_? What is the appearance of 
him as whose messenger youhave come to this place from afar? (They then say to 
one another:) Let her approach; let us make friends withher, and let her be the 
lord of our cattle. 

10.107.04 (Sarama_). I do not believe that he can be subdued; he as whose 
messenger I have come to thisplace from afar subdues (his enemies). The deep 
rivers do not conceal him; you, Pan.is, slain by Indra, will sleep(in death). 

10.107.05 (The Pan.is). These are the cows which you, auspicious Sarama_, coming 
to the extremities of thesky, demand. Who will give them up to you without a 
combat? And our weapons are sharp. 

10.107.06 (Sarama_). Your words, Pan.is, are not in the place of armies; your 
sinful bodies will not be equal toarrows. Let your path be difficult to follow, 
let Br.haspati show no favour to either (your words or your persons).[Armies: 
asenya_ = sena_rha_n.i na bhavanti, your words are not equal to armies, i.e., 
your words are not to befeared; anis.avyah = is'varha_n.i na santu 
para_kramara_hityena, let them not be equal to arrows through yourabsence of 

10.107.07 (The Pan.is). This treasure, Sarama_, secured in the mountain is 
composed of cows, horses andriches; the Pan.is protect it who are good watchers; 
you have come to this lonely spot in vain. [Lonely =resounding with the lowing 
of the oxen]. 

10.107.08 (Sarama_). Excited by the Soma, the R.s.is, the An:girasas of the nine 
months' rite, headed by Ayasya,will come here; they will partition this herd of 
cattle, then the Pan.is will retract their words. [Headed by Ayasya:or, 
unwearying; will retract their words: lit., vomit, i.e., reject]. 

10.107.09 (The Pan.is). You have indeed come here, Sarama_, constrained by 
divine power; we will make youour sister, do not return, we will share the 
cattle with you auspicious one. 

10.107.10 (Sarama_). I recognize not fraternity nor sisterhood; Indra and the 
terrible An:girasas know (mykindred); my (masters) desiring the cattle 
overshadowed (yoru habitation) when I came; depart hence, Pan.is to adistant 

10.107.11 Go hence, Pan.is, to a far-off distant (spot), let the cattle come 
forth in due order bursting through (thedoor) the concealed cattle which 
Br.haspati, the Soma, the grinding stones and the wise R.s.is have found.

10.109.01 These spoke first about Brahma_'s sin, the boundless (sun), the water-
god (Varun.a), the wind-god(Va_yu), the fierce, wide-consuming fire, the source 
of happiness, (Soma), the divine waters, the first-born sonsof the truthful 
(Brahma_). [Legend: Juhu_ is va_c, speech, the wife of Brahma_. Va_caspati, the 
lord of speech,who is Br.haspati, is also said to be the husband of Juhu_ or 
Va_c. On some occasion, Br.haspati's sin resultedin her losing her husband's 
affections, and he deserted her. Afterwards the gods consulted together as to 
themeans of expiation of Br.haspati's sin, and restorred her to her husband]. 

10.109.02 First, the royal Soma, without being ashamed, restored Brahma_'s wife 
(to Br.haspati), Varun.a wasthe inviter, and Mitra, Agni as the ministrant 
priest taking her by the hand, led her (to her husband). [Varun.a wasthe 
inviter: he was the rejoicer of the Soma: somam anumodayita_; or, he showed 
pity, saying, always take her towife]. 

10.109.03 And (the gods) said (to Br.haspati), "This pledge of hers is to be 
taken by the hand, this is the wife ofBrahma_; she has not made herself known to 
the messenger sent (to seek her), so is the kingdom of a ks.atriyaprotected". 

10.109.04 The ancient deities spoke about her, the seven R.s.is who were engaged 
in penance. The terrible wifeof Brahma has been brought back (to her husband); 
(penance) elevates into the highest heaven. 

10.109.05 He leads the life of a Brahmaca_rin, even adoring all the gods; he 
becomes a portion of the gods;therefore, Br.haspati obtained his wife (formerly) 
brought him by Soma, as the gods receive an offering.[Brahmaca_rin: i.e., being 
without a wife]. 

10.109.06 The gods gave her back again, men also gave her back, and kings 
confirming (the gift) gaveBrahma_'s wife back again. 

10.109.07 The gods having given back Brahma_'s wife, and made her free from sin, 
having partaken of the foodof the earth, sat down to (the sacrifice of) the 
widely hymned Br.haspati.

10.110.01 Kindled today, Ja_tavedas, in the dwelling of the worshipper, you who 
are divine, sacrifice to the gods.Bear (the oblation), you who respect your 
friends, who are intelligent; you are the wise, far-seeing messenger (ofthe 

10.110.02 Pure-tongued Tanu_napa_t, flavour the paths of the sacrifice which 
lead (to success), moisteningthem with the sweet (Soma); elevating our praises 
and our rite by understanding, convey our sacrifice to thegods. [Tanu_napa_t: 
Agni; tanu = a cow that has calved and yields milk, whence comes butter, and 
from butterfire-- Agni is thus the grandson of the cow; or, grandson of the 
waters, because from rain come the trees andtrees supplying fuel propagate 

10.110.03 Agni, who are the invoker (of the gods), and are to be solicited and 
praised, come, being propitiated,along with the Vasus; you, O mighty (Agni), are 
the invoker of the gods; do you, who are most entitled to worship,solicited by 
us, offer them adoration. 

10.110.04 In the beginning of the day the sacred grass, pointing eastwards, is 
strewn with the prescribed (text)as a covering for the earth (of the altar); 
they spread it out far and wide as a pleasant (seat) for the gods andAditi. 

10.110.05 Expanding wide, let the doors give access as gracefully decorated 
wives give access to theirhusbands, divine doors, spacious and admitting all, be 
easy of entry for the gods. 

10.110.06 May the adorable Day and Night, the givers of sound repose, having 
approached, sit down in theplace (of sacrifice), two divine females, majestic 
and richly ornamented, bearing beauty of a bright form. 

10.110.07 Divine ministers, prior (to those of earth), repeaters of pious 
praise, instituting the sacrifice at whichmen are to worship, (sit down) 
stimulating (the priests) at the sacrifices, makers (of praises), indicating 
theeastern fire with the prescribed (text). [Eastern fire: A_havani_ya. The two 
divine ministers, of Hota_ are Agni andA_ditya]. 

10.110.08 May Bha_rati_ come quickly to our sacrifice, and Il.a_ thinking (of 
what she has to do), like a humanbeing; may Sarasvati_ also-- the three gracious 
goddesses, sit down upon this pleasant sacred grass. 

10.110.09 To the divine Tvas.t.a_, who decked the parental heaven and earth and 
all the worlds with livingforms, to him, O priest, who are venerable and wise, 
being solicited byu us, offer oblation here today. 

10.010.10 Offer of your own will in due season the food (and other) oblations of 
the gods besmearing it. LetVanaspati, S'amita_, the divine Agni, sweeten the 
oblation with honey and butter. [Vanaspati_ = the deifiedyu_pa, or sacrificial 
post; or, the r.ca may be addressed to the priest; S'amita_: immolator of the 
victim. The post,the immolator and the fire are here deified as the chief 
instruments or agents of the sacrifice]. 

10.010.11 As soon as he was  born, Agni constructed a sacrifice, he was the 
preceder of the gods; may the godspartake of the oblation presented with the 
sva_ha_ through the voice of him the hota_ of the sacrifice at theeastern 

10.111.01 Offer, worshippers, to Indra praise agreeable to the thoughts of men; 
let us incite Indra hither withsincere adoration, for he, the hero, capable (of 
granting our wishes, is desirous of laudation. [Capable of grantingour wishes: 
vida_nah = ja_na_nah samarthah]. 

10.111.02 Sustainer of the abode of the water, (the firmament), he shone 
brightly; the bull, the offspring of a cowwhich has only borne once, met the 
cows, with a loud roar he sprung up, he pervaded the vast worlds. 

10.111.03 On hearing our praise Indra knows our wishes; victorious, he opens a 
path for the sun; making himselfMena_, he came (to the sacrifice), he was 
unassailable, the lord of cattle, (the lord) of heaven, eternal,unsurpassed. 

10.111.04 Praised by the An:girasas, Indra has by his might injured the 
functions of the mighty cloud; he has sentdown abundant rains, he who (at other 
times) has supported the supporting (cloud) in heaven. 

10.111.05 Indra, the counterpart of heaven and earth, is cognizant of all 
sacrifices, he is the slayer of S'us.n.a; hespread out the spacious heaven with 
the sun (to light it up); best of proppers, he propped up (the heaven) with 
aprop. [Propped up the heaven with a prop: Satyata_ta_ = that which is stretched 
out by the true ones, the gods;or, ta_ti as a suffix, that which is true, i.e., 

10.111.06 The slayer of Vr.tra, you have laid him low with the thunderbolt; 
resolute Indra, you have nowovercome by your powerful (bolt), the devices of the 
impious (asura), confiding in his own strength; you,Maghavan, were strong-armed. 

10.111.07 When the  dawns are associated with the sun, his rays acquire 
wonderful beauty; but when theconstellation of heaven is not seen, no one really 
knows (his rays) as he moves. 

10.111.08 The first of those waters, which issued forth at Indra's sending, went 
very far. Where, waters, is yourbeginning, where your root, where is your 
centre, where indeed is your termination? 

10.111.09 You have set at liberty the streams which had been swallowed by Ahi; 
they rushed forth with rapidity;the waters which longed to be liberated were set 
free and now the pure (streams) never stop. 

10.111.10 They hasten associated together to the ocean, like loving wives (to a 
husband); (Indra), the witherer offoes, the demolisher of cities, is their 
impeller of old; may our oblations, the treasures of earth, and our 
copiouspraises, proceed, Indra, to your dwelling.

10.112.01 Drink, Indra, at will of the effused libation, for it is poured out at 
the morning sacrifice, and is first drunkby you; exult, hero, in slaying your 
foes, we will glorify your heroic exploits with hymns. 

10.112.02 Come, Indra, to the Soma-drinking with your chariot, which is swifter 
than thought; let your bays, thevigorous steeds with which you go along 
rejoicing quickly, hasten hither. 

10.112.03 Decorate your person with most beautiful forms with the golden 
radiance of the sun; invoked by usyour friends, Indra, sit down and be 
exhilarated, accompanied by the Maruts. 

10.112.04 You whose greatness (manifested) in your exhilarations the vast heaven 
and earth, do not separate;come, Indra, with your beloved bay horses harnessed 
to your chariot, come to our dwelling to (partake of) the(sacrificial) food that 
is agreeable to you. 

10.112.05 That Soma, drinking constantly of which, Indra you have destroyed the 
enemies (of the worshipper)with an inimitable weapon-- that Soma prompts your 
powerful, abundant (laudation), it is effused Indra, for yourexhilaration. 

10.112.06 This your cup, Indra, has been long since provided by us, drink the 
Soma from it, S'atakratu; thegoblet is full of the sweet Soma, which all the 
gods desire. 

10.112.07 Indra, showerer of benefits, men in several places, offering 
acceptable food, invoke you; these oursacrifices to you are most full of the 
sweet (Soma); take pleasure in them. 

10.112.08 I will proclaim now, Indra, your ancient first-achieved exploits; 
resolved to sent rain, you did cleave thecloud, you made the cow easily 
discoverable for the Bra_hman.a [i.e., for Br.haspati]. 

10.112.09 Lord of the companies (of the Maruts), sit down among the companies 
(of the worshippers), they callyou the most sage of sages; without you nothing 
is done in the distance; have in honour, Maghavan, our greatand various 
adoration. of wealth, (the wishes of) your friends; make war (for us), you 
warrior endowed with real strength, give us a sharein the undivided riches.

10.113.01 May the concurring heaven and earth, together with all the gods, 
preserve that strength of Indra,where by achieving (great deeds), he obtained 
the greatness that is appropriate to him, and having drunk theSoma, he, eminent 
for his prowess, increased (in strength). 

10.113.02 Vis.n.u offering the portion of the Soma, glorified by his own vigour 
that greatness of his. Indra, thelord of wealth, with the associated gods having 
slain Vr.tra, became deserving of honour. 

10.113.03 When you did encounter the indestructible Vr.tra, wielding your 
weapons for combat, you acquirerenown; all the associated Maruts of their own 
accord magnified your great might appropriate to Indra. [Vr.tra:ahina_, lit., 
the dragon; or ahi; or, ahantavyena, not to be slain]. 

10.113.04 As soon as born he discomfited his assailants; the hero contemplated 
his own manly  prowess in war;he divided the cloud, sent forth the flowing 
waters, and with the determination to do a good deed, upheld the vastheaven. 

10.113.05 Indra advanced with vast (armies); he overcame with his might (his 
foed stationed between) heavenand earth; confident, he wielded his metal 
thunderbolt (to do) good to Mitra, Varun.a, and the donor (of theoblation). when 
fierce he cut Vr.tra to pieces by his strength-- (Vr.tra who) obstructed the 
waters, and was encompassed bydarkness. 

10.113.07 (In the midst of) the first exploits to be performed by them which 
(Indra and Vr.tra) achieved strivingwith their utmost might, Vr.tra being slain, 
the thick darkness was destroyed, and Indra in his might came at thefirst 

10.113.08 Then all the gods magnified your exploits with praise, accompanied 
with libations of Soma; (andpeople) quickly devoured Vr.tra, the obstructer of 
water, wounded by Indra's slaughtering (weapon), as Agnidevours food with his 

10.113.09 Celebrate the numerous benevolent (acts of Indra) with clever 
affectionate praises, together with texts;for adoration. 

10.113.10 Do you, Indra, grant me ample riches and excellent horses with which I 
may honour (the gods)proffering praises; with well-acquired (riches) let us 
cross over all iniquity, accept our praise today with the might.to cross over 
with ease].

10.114.01 The two sources of heat (Agni and A_ditya) spreading to the limit (of 
the horizon), have pervaded thethreefold (universe); Ma_taris'van has come to 
give them pleasure; (when) the shining (rays) reached theadorable (sun), having 
the brilliancy of the Sa_man, sustaining (the universe), they attained the water 
of heaven. 

10.114.02 The three Nirr.tis do obeisance for the gist (of oblations), for (the 
gods), the far-famed sustainers (ofthe universe), know (their obeisance); the 
wise have ascertained the primary cause of these (divinities) who(exist) in the 
conspicuous (or) in the hidden observances. [The three Nirr.tis: nir.r.ti= the 
earth; nirr.tih = the threeregions, earth, mid-air, and heaven, or the three 
deities (Agni etc.) presiding over those regions]. 

10.114.03 The quadrangular (altar) youthful, handsomely decorated, bright with 
oblation, clothes herself in piousrites; the two birds, the showerers of 
oblations, have sat down thereon where the gods receive their share. [Twobirds: 
the husband and wife, or the yajama_na and the bra_hman.a]. 

10.114.04 One of the birds has entered the firmament; he contemplates this whole 
world; with mind mature Ibeheld him night at hand; him the mother licks, he 
licks themother. [Mother: i.e., the ma_dhyamika_ va_k, thesound of mid-heaven, 
the thunder, which is the mother or source of rain. The deity referred to as the 
bird whohas taken his station in the firmament is Agni, or else Va_yu]. 

10.114.05 The wise seers through their praise make into many forms the bird 
which is (only) one; and holding the(seven) metres at the sacrifices, they 
measure twelve bowls of Soma. [Bird which is one: this is the other of thetwo 
birds mentioned in verse 3; the bird referred to is the supreme soul, 

10.114.06 Filling thirty-six and four vessels, and holding the metres as far as 
twelve, measuring out the rite bytheir intelligence, the sages complete the 
sacrifice with the r.k and the sa_man. [Thirty-six and four vessels:grahas, or 
small cups of wood, or earthenware, for holding the Soma or other fluids offered 
at the sacrifices.Forty are specified as used at the agnis.t.oma sacrifice; they 
are detailed in the fourth Prapa_t.haka of the BlackYajus.; cf. also Va_jasneyi 
Sam.hita_, 7 and 8. The thirty-six grahas are enumerated as follows: Upa_m.s'u 
andAntarya_ma, the three grahas each devoted to the worship of two gods and 
called Aindrava_yava (belonging toIndra and Va_yu), etc.; the Sukra and Manthin; 
the  A_grayan.a, the Ukthya, and the Vais'vadeva, the threeMarutvati_yas, the 
Ma_hendra; the A_ditya and the Sa_vitra; the Vais'vadeva (again), the 
Pa_tni_vata and theHa_riyojana. The four grahas are enumerated as the two 
Am.s'vada_bhyas, the Dadhigraha, and the S.od.as'i_n.The names indicate either 
appropriation to particula deities or particular rites]. 

10.114.07 There are fourteen other great developments of him, seven sages 
conduct him by prayer; who maydeclare the expanded place of sanctity at this 
(rite), the path by which they drink of the libation. [Fourteen 
otherdevelopments:  the 14 lokas; referring to the parama_tma_ , the supreme 
being, personified as Yajn~a, orsacrifice; expanded place of sanctity: the place 
between the cativala (or hole dug in the ground for sacrifice) andthe heap of 

10.114.08 The fifteen chief forms (are found) in a thousand places; as heaven 
and earth are, so verily in that; thethousand great (functions) are in a 
thousand places; as Brahma_ is variably developed, so is Speech. 
[Thousandfunctions are in a thusand places: i.e., each action or function (as 
sight, hearing, etc.) has its own vis.aya, orobject; as Brahma_... so is Speech: 
i.e., everthing has a name]. 

10.114.09 What grave person knows the application of the metres? Who utters the 
words appropriate to thefunctions (of the) different priests? Whom do they call 
the eighth of the priests, the independent? Who has donehonour to the two bay 
horses of Indra? [Two bay horses: The R.k and the Sa_man are intended]. 

10.114.10 Some (horses) proceed to the limit of the earth; they stand still 
harnessed to the yoke of the chariot;(the gods) apportion among them the 
alleviation of fatigue, when the charioteer is placed (ready to drive them) 
totheir dwelling. [Charioteer: yama = niyanta_ restrainer, i.e., su_rya, the 

10.115.01 Wonderful is the conveyance of (the oblation by) the tender infant, 
who does not come to his parentsto drink, although the udderless (world) gave 
him birth; he immediately bears (the oblation to the gods) fulfillingthe 
important office of their messenger. [His parents: heaven and earth, or the two 
sticks for kindling fire]. 

10.115.02 The most active Agni, the giver of wealth, is nourished with ghi_ (by 
the worshippers), he who withflaming tooth devours the forests; devoutly 
worshipped with the uplifted goblet (he is, nourished) like a lordlywell-fed 
bull amidst (fresh) pasture. [Nourished with ghi_: na_ma dha_yi = is applied to 
him as name]. 

10.115.03 (Glorify) him, (worshippers), the divine, like a bird seated upon a 
tree, demanding sacrificial food,clamorous, wood-consuming, water-shedding, like 
one bearing (the oblation) in his mouth, mighty with radiance,simultaneously 
illuminating the paths, like the great functionary (the sun). 

10.115.04 O imperishable Agni, the invincible winds spread around you (who are) 
rapid in movement, anddesirous of consuming (the forest), like combatants( the 
priests) calling aloud, anxious to bestow (the oblation),glorify you, the 
mighty, stationed in the three (altars). 

10.115.05 Agni, the most earnest of eulogists, the friend of those who praise 
the lord, the destroyer of enemies,whether far off or near, may Agni protect 
those who adore him, may Agni (protect) those who offer oblation, mayAgni give 
to us who are both these protection. 

10.115.06 O Agni, who has fair ancestors, (I have) arrived quickly to (praise) 
you, the most bountiful bestower offood, the overcomer (of foes), the 
Ja_tavedas, (I who offer) the best to you, the most mighty being, the 
protectorin calamity, with your capable (bow). 

10.115.07 In this manner, Agni, the son of strength, is glorified by (us his) 
worshippers, together with piousmortals, for the sake of wealth-- (his 
worshippers) who, like delighted friends, desiring the sacrifice, like 
shining(ones), overcome (hostile) men through his might. 

10.115.08 "Offspring of food! vigorous (Agni)", thus the praise of Upastuta, 
showering forth oblations, glorifiesyou. "Let us praise you; through you let us 
obtain excellent male progeny, enjoying long protracted life". them and the 
pious, worshippers. With uplifted faces, calling out vas.at.! vas.at.! they 
reached you; with upliftedfaces they reached you, calling out namas! namas!

10.116.01 Drink (Indra) the Soma for the invigoration of your organs, drink, 
most mighhty one, for the death ofVr.tra; drink when invoked for wealth, for 
strength; drink of the exhilarating Soma, and being satisfied, Indra,shower down 

10.116.02 Drink, Indra, your excellent portion of this renowned Soma effused and 
poured forth; the giver ofprosperity, be delighted in your mind, (be) turned 
towards us to bestow riches and happiness. 

10.116.03 May the celestial Soma exhilarate you, Indra; may that which is 
effused at terrestrial rites exhilarateyou; may that exhilarate you through the 
influence of which you have bestowed wealth; may that exhilarate youwhereby you 
scatter foes. 

10.116.04 May Indra, who deserves the twofold adoration, (of praise and prayer), 
who goes everywhere, theshowerer of benefits, come to the offered sacrificial 
food with his two bay horses; O slayer of enemies,(exhilarated) at our sacrifice 
(by drinking) of the Soma effused upon the cow-hide and poured (into the 
cups),rush like a bull upon the dispirited (foes). [Rush like a bull: shower 
always upon your mallet the Soma effused]. 

10.116.05 Brandishing your sharp, shining weapons, pierce the solid bodies of 
the evil spirits. I give to you whoare fierce, foe-subduing strength; having 
assailed the enemies, cut them to pieces in the midst of their clamour. 

10.116.06 Stretch out for us, lord Indra, varied food, (stretch out) your 
strength like strong bows against ourenemies; mighty in our presence by your 
vigour and irresistible still augment your form. [Augment your form: or,augment 
the sacrifice]. 

10.116.07 Imperial Maghavan, to you this oblation is offered; accept it, not 
displeased; for you, Maghavan, thelibation is effused, for you (the cake is) 
toasted; eat it, Indra, and drink the libation  poured (upon the altar). 

10.116.08 Eat, Indra, these oblations placed (upon the altar); accept the food, 
the toasted (cakes), and theSoma. Provided with sacrificial viands we delight 
you; let the desires of the institutor of the rite be fulfilled. 

10.116.09 I direct my eulogy of Indra and Agni; with sacred prayers I directed 
(my praise) like a vessel (launched)upon the ocean; like holy priests, the gods 
themselves reverence us, being the donors (to us) of wealth and theextirpators 
(of our foes).

10.117.01 The gods have not assigned hunger as (the cause of) death, for deaths 
approach the man who haseaten; the riches of one who gives do not diminish, he 
who gives not finds no consoler. 

10.117.02 He who, possessed of food, hardens his heart against the feeble man 
craving nourishment, againstthe sufferer coming to him (for help), and pursues 
(his won enjoyment even) before him, that man finds noconsoler. 

10.117.03 He is liberal who gives to the suppliant desiring food, wandering 
about distressed; to him there is anample (recompense), and he contracts 
friendship with his adversaries. 

10.117.04 He is not a friend who gives not food to a friend, to an associate, to 
a companion; let him turn awayfrom him, that is not a (fitting) dwelling; let 
him seek another more liberal lord. 

10.117.05 Let the very rich man satisfy his suitor, let him look forward to a 
more protracted route, for richesrevolve from one man to another, as the wheels 
of a chariot turn round. [A more protracted route: i.e., the road ofvirtue; let 
him look further along the path of life, and he will see riches deserting the 
rich and going to others.Fortune is fickle]. 

10.117.06 The inhospitable man acquires food in vain. I speak the truth-- it 
verily is his death. He cherishes notAryaman nor a friend; he who eats alone is 
nothing but a sinner. 

10.117.07 The ploughshare furrowing (the field) provides food (for the 
ploughman); a man travelling along a roadacquires (wealth for his master) by his 
movements; a Bra_hman.a expounding (the Veda) is better than one notexpounding 
it; (so) let the man who gives become a kinsman to the man who gives not. [Let 
the man who gives:lit., the loving kinsman will prevail over him who loves not]. 

10.117.08 He who has but one foot takes a longer time on a journey than he who 
has two; he who has two feetcomes after him who has three; he who has four feet 
comes up overtaking the two-footed (and three-footed),beholding their traces as 
he passes by. [Foot: a metaphor, for portion or wealth. The man who has four 
times theriches of another should be four times as liberal]. 

10.117.09 The two hands are alike, but they do not perform the same work; two 
cows calving at the same timedo not yield the same milk; two twins have not the 
same strength; two persons of the same family do not displayequal liberality.

10.118.01 Agni, observer of purity, you destroy the devouring (gloom), shining 
among men in your won dwelling. 

10.118.02 You spring up when piously invoked, you delight in the oblations when 
the ladles are brought nearyou.  

10.118.03 Agni, who is to be glorified with the voice (of praise), blazes up 
when invoked, he is sprinkled with theladle before (the other gods). 

10.118.04 Agni is anointed with butter, having a face of honey, invoked, 
radiant, irradiating all. 

10.118.05 Bearer of oblations, glorified by the worshippers, you are kindled for 
the gods; as such do mortalsinvoke you. 

10.118.06 Mortals, worship with ghi_ the immortal Agni, the indestructible, the 
master of the mansion. 

10.118.07 With your indestructible flame, Agni, do you consume the Ra_ks.asas; 
shine, the defender of thesacrifice. 

10.118.08 Do you, Agni, with your brightness, consume the female fiends, shining 
in your outspread dwelllings.uruks.ayah = occupying many mansions, i.e. the 

10.118.09 The masters of many mansions have, by their praises, kindled you, 
Agni, the bearer of oblations, whoare most adorable among human beings.

10.119.01 Thus, indeed, thus my mind (resolved): " I will give cows and horses 
to my worshippers", for I haveoften drunk of the Soma. [Soma: kuvit 
somasya_pa__m iti: the burden of each r.ca; iti = yasma_t; kuvit =bahuva_ram]. 

10.119.02 Like the winds violently shaking (the trees), the draughts (of Soma) 
have lifted me up, for I have oftendrunk of the Soma. 

10.119.03 The draughts (of Soma) have lifted me up like swift horses (drawing) a 
chariot, for I have often drunkof the Soma. 

10.119.04 The Praise (of the pious) has come to me like a lowing cow to her 
beloved calf, for I have often drunkof the Soma. 

10.119.05 I revolve the song of praise in my heart as a carpenter (making) a 
charioteer's seat, for I have oftendrunk of the Soma. 

10.119.06 The five castes have not eluded the gloance of my eye, for I have 
often drunk of the Soma. 

10.119.07 Both heaven and earth (are) not equal to one half of me, for I have 
often drunk of the Soma. 

10.119.08 I excel the sky in greatness, (I excel) this great earth, for I have 
often drunk of the Soma. 

10.119.09 Lo! I will place this earth (where I will), either here or there, for 
I have often drunk of the Soma. 

10.119.10 I will drive the scorching (sun) either here or there, for I have 
often drunk of the Soma. 

10.119.11 One of my wings is in the sky; the other I dragged below, for I have 
often drunk of the Soma. 

10.119.12 I am (the sun), the greatest of the great, raised to the firmament, 
for I have often drunk of the Soma. 

10.119.13 Receiving the offering I go, graced (by the worshippers), bearing the 
oblation to the gods, for I haveoften drunk of the Soma.

10.120.01 That was the chiefest in all worlds, from whence the fierce one, the 
rich in radiance, was born; assoon as born, he destroys the foes, he in whom all 
living beings delight. [That, is Brahman, the first cause: sadyohyes.a ja_tah 
pa_pma_namapa_hata: Aitareya A_ran.yaka 1.3.4 (cf. Yajus. 33.20; 14.24: 
a_dityam, the sun, thefirst light); u_ma_h = pra_n.inah: bhu_ta_ni vai vis'va 
u_ma_sta enmanu madanty udaga_d udaga_diti: AitareyaA_ran.yaka 1.3.4; or, all 
the protecting deities]. 

10.120.02 Waxing in strength, the very powerful, destructive (Indra), implants 
fear in the Da_sa; both theinanimate and the animate (world) is purified by him. 
Nourished in your exhilaration (all creatures) are assembled.

10.120.03 To you all (worshippers) offer adoration, whether those propitiators 
be two or three. Combine thatwhich is sweeter than the sweet with sweetness, 
unite that honey with honey. [The two or three refer to theyajama_na and his 
wife and child. (ardho va_ es.a a_tmano yatpatni_h: Taittiri_ya Bra_hman.a 

10.120.04 Verily the pious praise you, (Indra), the giver of wealth in your 
repeated exhilaration; spread out for usresolute Indra, great and durable 
(affluence); may the malignant ya_tudha_nas never harm you. 

10.120.05 Through you we destroy (our foes) in battles, beholding the numerous 
(hosts) which we have to fight; Iurge your weapons with words (of praise), I 
prepare your viands with a sacred verse. 

10.120.06 I praise (Indra) who is worthy of praise, multiform vast, supreme, 
most accessible of the accessible; heassails with might the seven Da_navas, he 
overpowers many opposing hosts. [Most accessible: or, most worthyof the worthy; 
a_ptya = a_ptavya]. 

10.120.07 You deposit the lesser and the greater wealth in the mansion in which 
you are satisfied with food; youfix the two wandering mothers, you accomplish 
many works. [Two wandering mothers: i.e., heaven and earth:vis.vak tastambha 
pr.thivi_muta dya_m: RV 10.89.4)]. over the great self-ruling herd of cattle, 
and he opened all his doors. 

10.120.09 Thus the great Br.haddiva, son of Atharvan, repeated his diffused 
(praise) to Indra. The unsulliedsiister (streams) abiding in the mother (earth), 
to Indra, and augment him with strength.

10.121.01 Hiran.yagarbha was present at the beginning; when born, he was the 
sole lord of created beings; heupheld this earth and heaven-- let us offer 
worship with an oblation to the divine Ka. [Hiran.yagarbha: cf.Taittiri_ya 
Sam.hita_; the golden embryo, or he who had the golden germ, i.e., he 
who was in the goldenmundane egg as an embryo, Brahma__, the creator; cf. 
Nirukta 10.23; Yajus. 13.4; Let us offer worship...Ka:This is the refrain of 
every r.ca except the last. Kasmai: the dative of the interrogative pronoun, "To 
what deitymay we sacrifice?" May be, it is a proper name. The name originated in 
a dialogue between Indra and Praja_pati.The latter asked the former, ":Having 
given you my might, then whom am I?" Indra replid, "If you ask 'who (ka) amI?' 
that be you (i.e., be you ka)." The oblation to be offered is the marrow of the 
victim dedicated to Praja_pati, orit may the ordinary oblation of cake and ghi_, 
the Purod.a_s'a]. 

10.121.02 (To him) who is the giver of soul, the giver of strength, whose 
commands all (beings), even the godsobey, whose shadow is immortality, whose 
(shadow) is death-- let us offer worship with an oblation to the divineKa. [The 
giver of soul: as all spirit proceeds from him; a_tmada_ = giver of himself, 
i.e., combing with his ownspiritual being that of his worshippers: Yajus. 

10.121.03 (To him) who, by his greatness, has verily become the sole king of the 
breathing and seeing world,who rules over this aggregate of two-footed and four-
footed beings -- let us offer worship with an oblation to thedivine Ka. 

10.121.04 Through whose greatness these snow-clad (mountains exist), whose 
property men call the ocean withthe rivers, whose are these quarters of space, 
who are the two arms -- let us offer worship with an oblation to thedivine Ka. 

10.121.05 By whom the sky was made profound and the earth solid, by whom heaven 
and the solar sphere werefixed, who was the measure of the water in the 
firmament -- let us offer worship with an oblation to the divine Ka. 

10.121.06 Whom heaven and earth established by his protection, and shining 
brightly, regarded with their mind,in whom the risen sun shines forth -- let us 
offer worship with an oblation to the divine Ka. 

10.121.07 When the vast waters overspread the universe containing the germ and 
giving birth to Agni, then wasproduced the one breath of the gods -- let us 
offer worship with an oblation to the divine Ka. [The germ: i.e., thegerm of the 
world, Brahma_. The birth of Hiran.yagarbha, or Brahman, in and from the mundane 
egg, asdescribed in Manu is alluded to; yat, tatah: from that (cause) from 

10.121.08 He who by his might beheld the waters all around containing the 
creative power and giving birth tosacrifice, he who among the gods was the one 
supreme god -- let us offer worship with an oblation to the divineKa. [Daks.a = 

10.121.09 May he do us no harm who is the parent of the earth, or who the 
unerring support (of the world) begatthe heaven, and who generated the vast and 
delightful waters -- let us offer worship with an oblation to the divineKa. [Who 
generated: Yajus. 12.102: br.hati_ = prathamah, who first begat the delightful 
(a_hla_dikah) water;waters = men: manus.ya va_ apas'candrah]. 

10.121.10 No other than you, Praja_pati, has given existence to all these 
beings; may that object of our desiresfor which we sacrifice to you be ours, may 
we be the possessors of riches. [Yajus. 10.20; Nirukta 10.43].

10.122.01 I glorify him who is of wonderful radiance like the sun, the 
desirable, the giver of happiness, the guest(of man), the benevolent. He bestows 
vigour (upon the worshippers); Agni, the remover of sorrow, the sustaineerof 
all, the invoker (of the gods), the lord of the mansion. 

10.122.02 Accept, Agni, being well pleased, my praises, author of great deeds, 
(you are) cognizant of all objectsof knowledge; anointed with butter, stimulate 
the movements of the Bra_hman.a; the gods produce (rewards)after your worship. 

10.122.03 Traversing the seven regions (of the universe), immortal Agni, bestow 
wealth, giving liberally to thepious liberal giver. Gratify with easily 
obtainable riches, together with fair offspring, him who feeds you with 
fuel.[Giving liberally: da_s'at yah: to the pious worshipper who gives]. 

10.122.04 The seven (priests) bearing oblations worship  Agni, the emblem of 
sacrifice, the first of the gods, thefamily priest, the possessor of food, the 
hearer (of our prayers), the anointed with butter, the shedder of 
moisture,propitiating the worshipper who propitiates him, divine, endowed with 
excellent might. 

10.122.05 You are the chief and most excellent messenger; do you, invoked by us 
to partake of the ambrosia,become exhilarated; the Maruts decorated you in the 
dwelling of the donor of the oblation; the Bhr.gus haveglorified you with hymns. 

10.122.06 Milking the easily milked cow (of sacrifice) of her all-sustaining 
food, for the benefit of the piousinstitutor of the rite, O Agni, doer of good  
deeds, anointed with butter, illumining the three regions, presiding(over the 
hall of sacrifice), going round the sacrifice, you accomplish each holy rite. 

10.122.07 Men worshipped you, Agni, at the opening of the present dawn, 
appointing you their messenger to thegods; the gods have magnified you for their 
adoration, sprinkling butter upon you at the sacrifice. 

10.122.08 The pious Vasis.t.ha invoked you, Agni, at the sacrificial meetings, 
praising you, the mighty one;continue the sustenance of riches among the 
institutors of the rite, and do you (gods) ever cherish us withblessings.

10.123.01 This Vena, enfolded in the membrane of light, urges on (the waters) 
the germs of the Sun in thefirmament of the water; the sages cherish him at the 
confluence of the waters, and the sun with endearments likea child. [Deity Vena: 
Vena is the Sun (RV 1.83.5), ka_nta, the beloved; madhyastha_nadevata_, the 
divinity ofthe middle region, Indra or Parjanya; candra, the moon (Yajus. 7.16); 
or, the thunder-cloud; in the firmament ofthe water: at the coming of the rain, 
at the end of the hot weather; the sages cherish him: the sages cherishSoma]. 

10.123.02 The cloud-born Vena send the water from the firmament; the back of the 
azure (sky) is beheld. Heshone on the summit of the water in heaven; the troops 
praised their common abode. 

10.123.03 The many waters occupy a common station, clamouring around like the 
assembled mothers of the calf;wandering above the summit of the water they utter 
the praises of the sweet-flavoured ambrosia. [Dark allusionsrefer to the agency 
of the thunder-clouds in sending rain; the calf, vatsa = vaidyuta_gni, agni as 
the lightning]. 

10.123.04 The pious, knowing his form, praised him, for they followed the city 
of the great deer; approaching hmwith sacrifice, they reached the flowing 
(water), for the sustainer of the waters knows the ambrosial (fluids).[Great 
deer: i.e., Vena, whose cry is the thunder; sustainer of the waters: gandharva]. 

10.123.05 The Apsaras, smiling affectionately like a wife at her lover, 
cherishes him in the highest heaven; shewanders in the abodes of her beloved; 
he, Vena, being loved, sits, down on his golden wing. 

10.123.06 Those desiring you in their hearts contemplated you travelling as a 
strong-winged bird in the sky, thegolden-winged messenger of Varun.a, the bird 
which nourishes (the world) in Yama's dwelling.  

10.123.07 The Gandharva_ stood erect upon the firmament, brandishing towards us 
his wonderful weapons,investing all in his beautiful diffusive (form), they make 
them visible, like the sun he generated the precious(rains). 

10.123.08 When (Vena as) the drop of rain approaches the firmament, 
contemplating (all things) with the eye ofthe hawk in the supporting 
(firmament), then the sun, shining with brilliant radiance, makes the 
precious(showers) in the third sphere. [Hawk: gr.dhrasya = the sun desiring the 

10.124.01 Come, Agni, to this our sacrifice, which has five oblations, three-
fold, spread out by seven (priests); bethe bearer of our oblations, be our 
preceder, you have long been sleeping in profound darkness. [Five oblations:or, 
regulated by five, i.e., by the yajama_na and the four chief priests, the Hota_, 
the Udga_ta_, the Adhvaryu,and the Brahma_]. 

10.124.02 (Agni speaks). From being no divinity I issue a divninty from the cave 
at the solicitation (of the gods),and being manifest I attain immortality; when 
being inauspicious I abandon the sacrifice as it becomesauspicious, through my 
(old) friendship I come to the binding touch-wood. [Being inauspicious: i.e., 
not beingbeautiful, not being radiant; binding touchwood: na_bhim: from n.ah, 
nahana s'i_la_m bandhana s'i_la_m; or, afamily of strangers]. 

10.124.03 Beholding the guest of another family, I have created the manifold 
abodes of sacrifice; I repeatpraises, (wishing) good luck to the paternal foe-
destroying (race of deities), I pass from a place unfit for sacrificeto a place 
where sacrifice can be offered. [Beholding the guest: vaya_ya_h = gantavya_ya_h: 
beholding, i.e.,following the course of, the guest, i.e., the sun, who is 
connected with a different region to be traversed (the sky)than that which is my 
abode, viz., the earth]. 

10.124.04 I spent many years within this (altar), preferring Indra I abandon the 
progenitor; Agni, Soma, Varun.a,fall (from their power); returning, I protect 
that kingdom which awaits me. [Progenitor: i.e., the touchwood]. 

10.124.05 These asuras were deprived of their magical power; if you, Varun.a, 
desire me, (then), O king,separating truth from falsehood, come and enjoy 
sovereignty over my realm. 

10.124.06 (Agni or Varun.a speak). This, O Soma, is heaven; this verily was 
beautiful this (was) the light, thebroad firmament; let us together slay Vr.tra; 
come forth; we worship with an oblation you who are yourselfoblation. [Soma 
means the moon, as well as Soma, the product; this is a play on the word, Soma]. 

10.124.07 The sage (Mitra) by his wisdom fixed his body in the sky; Varun.a with 
but a wslight effort let loose thewaters, conferring happiness, like wives, the 
pure rivers assume his (white) tint. 

10.124.08 They sustain his most excellent energy, he approaches them delighting 
him with (sacrificial) food; likesubject choosing a king, they, smitten with 
fear fled from Vr.tra. 

10.124.09 The sage called the sun the ally of those who are frightened, abiding 
in the friendship of the waters ofheaven; the wise have honoured with their 
praise Indra, who ceaselessly moves after the Anus.t.up. [Anus.t.up:or, the 
ceaselessly moving Indra, who is worthy to be praised with an Anus.t.up; or, 
anus.t.ubham = one who isdeserving of praise (anus.t.obhani_yam)].

10.125.01 I proceed with the Rudras, with the Vasus, with the A_dityas, and with 
the Vis'vedeva_s; I support bothMitra and Varun.a, Agni and Indra, and the two 
As'vins.[Deity Prama_tma_: the word, or first of creatures]. 

10.125.02 I support the foe-destroying Soma, Tvas.t.a_, Pu_s.an and Bhaga; I 
bestow wealth upon the institutorof the rite offering the oblation, deserving of 
careful protection, pouring forth the libation. 

10.125.03 I am the sovereign queen, the collectress of treasures, cognizant (of 
the Supreme Being), the chief ofobjects of worship; as such the gods have put me 
in many places, abiding in manifold conditions, entering intonumerous (forms. 

10.125.04 He who eats food (eats) through me; he who sees, who breathes, who 
hears what is spoken, does sothrough me; those who are ignorant of me perish; 
hear you who have hearing, I tell that which is deserving ofbelief. 

10.125.05 I verily of myself declare this which is approved of by both gods and 
men; whomsoever I will, I render

10.125.06 I bend the bow of Rudra, to slay the destructive enemy of the 
Bra_hman.as, I wage war with (hostile)men. I pervade heaven and earth. 

10.125.07 I bring forth the paternal (heaven) upon the brow of this (Supreme 
Being), my birthplace is in the midstof the waters; from thence I spread through 
all beings, and touch this heaven with my body. 

10.125.08 I breathe forth like the wind giving form to all created worlds; 
beyond the heaven, beyond this earth(am I), so vast am I in greatness.

10.126.01 Neither sin nor sorrow, O gods, affect the man whom Aryaman, Mitra and 
Varun.a, being alike pleasedby him, conduct beyond (the reach of) his enemies. 

10.126.02 We implore that (protection) of yours, Varun.a, Mitra, and Aryaman, 
whereby you preserve a man fromsin, and lead him beyond (the reach of) his 

10.126.03 May this Varun.a and Mitra and Aryaman be our protection, may they 
lead us to the spot to which weshould be led, and make us cross over to the spot 
to which we should cross over beyond (the reach of) ourenemies. 

10.126.04 You, Varun.a, Mitra, Aryaman, protect the universe; may we abide in 
your blessed felicity, O excellentleaders, beyond (the reach of) our enemies. 

10.126.05 May the A_dityas, Varun.a, Mitra, Aryaman, (lead us) beyond (the reach 
of) the malignant; let usinvoke the fierce Rudra with the Maruts, and Indra and 
Agni for our welfare, (that they may place us) beyond (thereach of) our enemies. 

10.126.06 May the leaders Varun.a, Mitra, Aryaman, (lead) us apart (from 
wickedness), may the kings of menlead us beyond all calamities, beyond (the 
reach of) our enemies. 

10.126.07 May Varun.a, Mitra, Aryaman (bestow) upon us felicity for our 
protection; may the A_dityas grant usthat abundant happiness which we solicit, 
(and lead us) beyond (the reach of) our enemies. 

10.126.08 As you, adorable Vasus, set free the cow fastened by her foot, even so 
remove sin away from us, andprolong, Agni, our protracted life.

10.127.01 The divine Night approaching looked upon many places with her eyes, 
she has assumed all beauties.[This su_kta is recited at the sacrifice offered in 
the early morning by one who has had unplesant dreams duringthe night]. 

10.127.02 The immortal goddess has filled the expandeed (formament), the low 
places and the high places, shefights the darkness with lustre. [Low places: Low 
and high, refer to plants; the Night fills things with darkness andthen, lights 
up the darkness with the stars etc.] 

10.127.03 The advancing goddess prepared (the way for) her sister Dawn, and then 
the darkness departs. 

10.127.04 May she be favourable to us today upon whose approach we re-enter (our 
dwellings), as birds(re-enter) their nest upon the tree. 

10.127.05 Men have re-entered (their dwellings), and beasts and birds and the 
swift hawks. 

10.127.06 Keep off, O U_rmya, the she-wolf, keep off the wolf and the robber, 
and be safely passed by us. 

10.127.07 The all-embracing black diffused darkness has approached me, discharge 
it, Us.as, as if it were adebt. 

10.127.08 I have brought (these verses) before you like kine; accept, O Night, 
daughter of the sky, (my oblation)as the eulogy of one about to conquer.

10.128.01 May glory Agni, be mine in battle, may we, kindling you, cherish your 
person, may the (inhabitants ofthe) four quarters bow down before me, may we 
with you for our leader overcome (hostile) armies. 

10.128.02 May all the gods be on my side in battle, the Maruts with Indra, 
Vis.n.u and Agni; may the expandedfirmament be mine, may the wind blow 
(propitiously) to this my desire. 

10.128.03 May the gods bestow wealth upon me, may (their) blessing be upon me, 
may the sacrifice in which thegods are invoked be (beneficial) to me, may my 
invokers of the gods be the first to propitiate them; may we beunharmed in body 
and blessed with male offspring. 

10.128.04 May (my priests) offer for me whatever oblations of mine (there may 
be); may the purpose of my mindbe sincere; may I not fall into any kind of sin; 
universal gods, bless us. 

10.128.05 You six mighty goddesses, bestow upon us ample (wealth); universal 
gods, display prowess here; letus not be bereft of our offspring, or be harmed 
in our bodies, may we not become subject to our enemy, royalSoma. [You six: 
heaven, earth, day, night, water and plants]. 

10.128.06 Agni, who are an invincible protector, do you defend us, baffling the 
wrath of our enemies; let themreturn grumbling to their homes, may the 
intelligence of those watchful (foes) be at once destroyed. [Him I praise:i.e., 
Indra or Savita_]. 

10.128.07 The creator of creators, he who is the protector of the universe, (him 
I praise), the divine defender, thedestroyer of enemies; may the two As'vins, 
Br.haspati, and the gods, protect this sacrifice, and save the sacrificerfrom 

10.128.08 May the omnipresent (Indra), the mighty one, who is invoked by many, 
and lauded by many, bestow ablessing on this our sacrifice; be gracious to our 
offspring, Indra, lord of bay horses; harm us not, desert us not. 

10.128.09 May those who are our foes be driven off; may we through Indra and 
Agni destroy them; may theVasus, the Rudras, and the A_dityas make me the high-
reaching, fierce, intelligent, supreme ruler.

10.129.01 The non-existent was not, the existent was not; then the world was 
not, not the firmament, nor thatwhich is above (the firmament). How could there 
by any investing envelope, and where? Of what (could there be)felicity? How 
(could there be) the deep unfathomable water? [The non-existent: sat, asat: 
visible and invisibleexistence (asat s'as'avis.a_n.avatrirupa_khyam na_si_t: 
Taittiri_ya Sam.hita_; matter and spirit, prakr.tiand purus.a; the 
First Cause or Brahma_ was in the beginning undeveloped in its effects, and 
existed beforeboth; investing envelope: each element as created or developed is 
invested by its rudiment; of what could therebe felicity: i.e., of whom or of 
what living being could enjoyment, or fruition, whether of pain or pleasure, 
bepredicated, there being no life?] 

10.129.02 Death was not nor at that period immortality, there was no indication 
of day, of night; That Oneunbreathed upon breathed of his own strength, other 
than That there was nothing else whatever. [Breathed:svadha_ = ma_ya_, or 
prakr.ti (illusion or nature), the source of the world of phenomena; s'a = 
breathed alongwith ma_ya_]. 

10.129.03 There was darkness covered by darkness in the beginning, all this 
(world) was undistinguishablewater; that empty united (world) which was covered 
by a mere nothing, was produced through the power ofausterity. [Austerity: tapas 
= not penance, but the contemplation of things which were to be created: 
yahsarvajn~ah sarvavit yasya jn~a_namayam tapah: Mund.a.ka Upanis.ad 1.1.9]. 

10.129.04 In the beginning there was desire, which was the first seed of mind; 
sages having meditated in theirhearts have discovered by their wisdom the 
connexion of the existent with te non-existent. [Desire: i.e., in themind of the 
Supreme Being]. 

10.129.05 Their ray was stretched out, whether across, or below, or above; 
(some) were shedders of seed,(others) were mighty; food was inferior; the eater 
was superior. [Their ray was stretched out: a reference to thesuddenness of 
creation, which was developed in the twinkling of an eye, like the flash of the 
sun's ray. It was soquick that it was doubtful whether the things in the central 
space (across) were created first, or those above orthose below; i.e., creation 
took place simultaneously in all three portions of the universe. This was the 
order inwhich things were created, but the development of the world was like a 
flash of lightning, so that the series couldnot be distinguished (tatsr.s.t.va_ 
tadeva_nupra_vis.at: Taittiri_ya A_ran.yaka 8.6). Thus the notion of a 
series,viz., from a_tma_ came the a_ka_s'a, from the a_ka_s'a the wind, from the 
wind fire etc., is reconciled: a_tmanaa_ka_s'ah sambhu_ta 
a_ka_s'a_dva_yurva_yoragnih: Taittiri_ya A_ran.yaka 8.1; whether across, or 
below, orabove: tiras'cinah = across, tiryaksrotas, that in which the stream of 
life is horizontal, i.e., the animal world;among the created objects some were 
living creatures, others were great, as the sky etc., the former being 
theenjoyers (bhokta_rah), the latter the things to be enjoyed (bhojyah), so the 
creation was distinguished as thefood and the feeder]. 

10.129.06 Who really knows? Who in this world may declare it! whence was this 
creation, whence was itengendered? The gods (were) subsequent to the (world's) 
creation; so who knows whence it arose? [Whencewas it engendered: i.e., from 
what material cause, and from what creative cause, did it arise?] 

10.129.07 He from whom this creation arose, he may uphold it, or he may not (no 
one else can); he who is itssuperintendent in the highest heaven, he assuredly 
knows, or if he knows not (no one else does). [sa bhagavahkasmin pratis.t.hita: 
Cha_ndogya Upanis.ad 7.24.1].

10.130.01 The sacrifice which is extended on every side by the threads (of 
created things) spread out by theworship of the gods for a hundred and one 
(years), these our progenitors, who have preceded us, weave it,weaving forwards, 
weaving backwards, they worship (Praja_pati) when (the world) is woven. [Weaving 
forwards:by combining the superior and inferior weaving, i.e., the intellectual 
and unintellectual, the enjoyer and theenjoyable, animate and inanimate 
existence. "Saying, 'weave forwards, weave backwards'; pitarah = theprotectors, 
i.e., the gods]. 

10.130.02 The first man spreads out this (web), the first man rolls it up, he 
spread it above in this heaven; thesehis rays have sat down on the seat (of 
sacrifice), they have made the prayers serve as shuttles for  weaving. 
[sapra_patiryajn~amatanuta: Aitareya Bra_hman.a 5.32]. 

10.130.03 What was the authority (of the sacrifice), what was thelimitation, 
what was the first cause, what wasthe clarified butter, what was the enclosure, 
what was the metre, what was pra-uga text, when the universal godsoffered 
worship to the gods? [When the Sa_dhyas, assembled as agents of creation, 
offered sacrifice toPraja_pati, the question was: how should this Yajn~a be 

10.130.04 Ga_yatri_ became the associate of Agni, Savita_ became combined with 
Us.n.ik, Soma radiant withsacred praises (was united) with Anus.t.up, Br.hati_ 
gave efficacy to the words of Br.haspati. 

10.130.05 Vira_t. was the glory of Mitra and Varun.a; Tris.t.ubh was Indra's 
portion of the midday (oblation) atand 5 answer the question, what was the 
metre? Two of the other questions- those relating to the butter (a_jya)and the 
enclosure (paridhi)-- have been answered, in the Purus.a su_kta, 10.90; cf. 
Taittiri_ya Bra_hman.a3.12.9]. beholding them with the eye of the mind, I 
glorify those who of old celebrated this sacrifice. 

10.131.01 Victorious Indra, drive off all our foes, those who dwell in the east, 
and those who dwell in the west,(drive) off, O hero, those who dwell in the 
north, and those who dwell in the south, that we may rejoice in yourexceeding 

10.131.02 As the growers of barley often cut the barley, separating it uin due 
order, so do you, (O Indra), bestowhere and there nourishment upon those who 
have not neglected the performance of the sacrifice. [Barley: i.e.,grain; cf. 
Yajus. 10.32; anupu_rvam viyu_ya: a metaphor that god should pick out his 
diligent worshippers oneafter the other, and bestow blessing on them in due 

10.131.03 The cart has not arrived in due season, nor does he acquire fame in 
battles, (let us), the sages,desiring cattle, desiring horses, desiring food, 
(solicit) Indra, the showerer, for his friendship. 

10.131.04 You, O As'vins, lords of light, having drunk the grateful (libation), 
jointly preserved Indra in battleagainst the Asura Namuci. [Yajus. 10.33]. 

10.131.05 Both the As'vins defended (you), Indra, like two fathers (defending) a 
son with glorious exploits; when(triumphing) through the deeds of valour, you 
drank the grateful libation, Sarasvati_ approached you, OMaghavat. [Yajus. 

10.131.06 May Indra, the protector, the possessor of treat wealth, the all-
knowing, be favourable (to us) with hisprotections; may he confound our enemies, 
may he make us free from  fear, may we be the parents of excellentmale 

10.131.07 May we be ever in (the enjoyment of) the favour of that adorable 
divinity (retained) in his favourablethoughts, and may the protecting and 
opulent Indra drive away far off us those who hate us.

10.132.01 The Heaven liberal of treasure (prospers) the sacrificer, the Earth 
(prospers) the sacrificer because ofthe ornament, the divine As'vins prospered 
the sacrificer with blessings. 

10.132.02 Mitra and Varun.a, who sustain the earth, we worship you, the givers 
of felicity, for the sake ofattaining our desires; may we, through your favour 
for the performer (of the sacrifice), overcome the ra_ks.asas. 

10.132.03 May we, when we present to you (oblations), quickly alight upon 
desirable wealth, and the generousman who fosters his wealth, may his riches not 
depart from him. 

10.132.04 (Mitra), scatterer of darkness, the Heaven gave birth to you the 
other; you, Varun.a, are sovereignover all. The head of (your) chariot desired 
(this sacrifice); opposing the destroyer, (the rite) is not (vitiated) bythe 
smallest defect. [The Heaven gave birth: anyah = anyam, other than Varun.a; head 
of your chariot: or, thehead of the sacrifice, i.e., Soma]. 

10.132.05 This iniquity (found) in this S'akapu_ta, when Mitra is propitious, 
destroys opposing heroes, when thei.e., Mitra or Varun.a; avah = food; when the 
approaching Mitra (or Varun.a) gives protection to the sacrificial ritesand 
bodies of the worshipper who delights him with oblations]. 

10.132.06 O (Mitra and Varun.a), endowed  with various wisdom, your mother 
Aditi, the earth, (is) for thepurification (of all things) by its libations, as 
the heaven (purifies by its rain); you display before us precious(treasures), 
and wash us with the sun's rays. 

10.132.07 For you, brilliant through your functions, have sat down; now mount, 
(each of you, his) chariot, whichrests on the yoke, which abides in the forests, 
(to overcome) those (people) who clamour against us; Nr.medhawas preserved (by 
you) from sin, the pious worshipper was preserved from sin. [Which abides in the 
forests: or,in the water; Varun.a is said to reside in the ocean].

10.133.01 Adore fervently the might of that Indra which goes before his chariot; 
he who makes room for us in the(the adoration paid by us); may the bowstrings on 
the bows of our enemies be destroyed. 

10.133.02 You have sent the rivers away downwards, you have slain Ahi; you are 
born, Indra, without an enemy,you grant all that is desirable, as such we 
embrace you; may the bowstrings on the bows of our enemies bedestroyed. 

10.133.03 May all our assailants, who make no offerings, quickly perish, may our 
praises (be successful); you,Indra, hurl the weapon at the foe who seeks to slay 
us, may that liberal (hand) of yours be the giver of wealth (tous); may the 
bowstrings on the bows of our enemies be destroyed. 

10.133.04 The man who, like a wolf, prowls around us, O Indra, cast him beneath 
our feet, for you are theresister, the overcomer (of foes); may the bowstrings 
on the bows of our enemies be destroyed. 

10.133.05 He who assails us, Indra, whether he be of the same caste or of 
degraded caste-- scatter of yourselfhis host, (though it be vast) as the wide 
heaven; may the bowstrings on the bows of our enemies be destroyed. 

10.133.06 Devoted to you, Indra, we strive after your friendship; lea\d us by 
the path of sacrifice beyond all evils;may the bowstrings on the bows of our 
enemies be destroyed. 

10.133.07 Give to us, Indra, (the cow) who gives milk to the worshipper 
according to his desire, so that themighty cow, possessed of an unfailing udder, 
the shedder of a thousand streams, may supply us plentifully withmilk.

10.134.01 You, Indra, who will both heaven and earth (with light) like the dawn-
- the divine progenitress hasgiven birth to you, the mighty (gods), the 
sovereign of man; the auspicious progenitress has given you birth. 

10.134.02 Enfeeble the strength of the malicious man, cast under foot him who 
tries to kill us; the divineprogenitress has given you birth, the auspicious 
progenitress has given you birth. 

10.134.03 Destroyer of enemies, Indra, S'akra, shake down upon us by your 
exploits those abundant, all-shiningviands, (accompanied) with all your 
protections; the divine progenitress has given you birth, the 
auspiciousprogrenitress has given you birth. 

10.134.04 When you, Indra, S'atakratu, shake down (upon us) all blessings, (then 
bestow) upon the offerer of thelibation wealth also, together with your 
thousandfold protections; the divine progenitress has given you birth, 
theauspicious progrenitress has given you birth. 

10.134.05 Let your radiant (weapons) fall down everywhere round about like drops 
of perspiration; let the enemydepart from us like the stems of the du_rva grass; 
the divine progenitress has given you birth, the auspiciousprogrenitress has 
given you birth. 

10.134.06 For you, sapient (Indra), wield your might like a long hook; you drag 
(your foes), Maghavan, as a goatwith its fore-foot (drags) a branch; the divine 
progenitress has given you birth, the auspicious progrenitress hasgiven you 

10.134.07 O gods, we never injure (you), we never inflict annoyance (on you), we 
follow the teaching of themantra; we take hold of you at this (sacrifice) with 
wings and arms. [Wings and arms: metaphors for prayers andsacrifices].

10.135.01 In that leafy tree where Yama drinks with the gods, there the 
progenitor, the lord of the house, invitesus to join themen of old. [The legend: 
Naciketas, the son of Va_jas'ravas, was sent by his father to visit Yama.Yama 
received Naciketas hospitably and allowed him to return to the world, on which 
occasion, he recited thishymn. Another account: the person who recited this hymn 
was Kuma_ra and the Yama of the hymn is A_ditya,the sun: Nirukta 12.29. The tree 
is a reference to the final repose where the dead rest, like weary travellers at 
thefoot of a tree]. 

10.135.02 (At first) I beheld him with anguish inviting me to join the men of 
olden times, and walking with that felldesign; but afterwards I longed for him. 
[Longed for him: i.e., by my father's command, I have desired to approachdeath]. 

10.135.03 The new chariot, wheelless, single-poled, but turning everywhere, 
which you, my child, mentallyformed-- you stand thereon though you see it not. 
[My child: or, Kuma_ra, a proper name]. 

10.135.04 The chariot which you, my child, have driven down to me from the sages 
above, the Sa_man hasdriven it back again from hence placed on a ship. made? 
[Who has begotten the youth: after communicating the message sent by you 
father]. outstretched, afterwards a means of returning (from Yama) was provided. 

10.135.07 This is the dwelling of Yama, which is called the fabric of the gods; 
this pipe is sounded for his(gratification), he is propitiated by hymns. [The 
hymn may be to A_ditya and to Yama: Taittiri_ya Bra_hman.a3.11.8; there is a 
dialogue between Naciketas and Yama in Kat.ha Upanis.ad on what becomes of the 
soul afterdeath; the father of Naciketas is named: Audda_laki and A_run.i].

10.136.01 The radiant (Sun supports) Agni, the radiant one (supports) water, the 
radiant one supports theheaven and earth, the radiant one is for the visibility 
of the whole diffused (universe)-- this light is called theradiant one. 

10.136.02 The Munis, the sons of Va_taras'ana, wear the yellow dirty (vestments 
of bark), they follow the courseof the wind, when they have assumed the (power 
of) gods. [i.e., by the might of their penance they becomegods]. 

10.136.03 Exhilarated by the sanctity of the Muni we have mounted upon the 
winds; behold, mortals, (in them)our forms! 

10.136.04 The Muni flies through the firmament, illumining all objects, the 
friend of each deity, appointed forpious works. 

10.136.05 The steed of the wind, the friend of Va_yu, the Muni, who is 
instigated by the deity, repairs to bothoceans, the eastern and the western. 

10.136.06 Wandering in the track of the Apsarasas and the Gandharvas, and the 
wild beasts, the radiant (Sun),cognizant of all that is knowable, (is my) sweet 
and most delightful friend. [Radiant Sun: or, Agni, or Va_yu]. 

10.136.07 Va_yu churned for him, the inflexible (thunder) ground it when the 
radiant (Sun), along with Rudra,drank the water with his cup. [With his cup: the 
cup is the sun's rays, which absorb the moisture of the earth; theagitation of 
the wind sends this moisture down again as rain; kunan nama_ = that which often 
guides but cannotbe guided, i.e., the ma_dhyamika_ va_k; Rudra = the lightning, 

10.137.01 O gods, raise again the man, O gods, who has sunk; O gods, give life 
again to the man, O gods, who

10.137.02 These two winds blow to the regions which are far beyond the ocean; 
may the one bring you vigour,may the other blow away all evil. 

10.137.03 Breathe, wind, medicinal balm; blow away, wind, all evil; for you are 
the universal medicine, you moveas the messenger of the gods. 

10.137.04 (The wind speaks). I have come to you with pleasures and with 
protections; I have brought youfortunate vigour, I drive away your disease. 

10.137.05 May the gods give (us) protection in this world, may the company of 
the Maruts protect us, may allbeings grant protection so that this (person) may 
be free from sin. 

10.137.06 Waters verily are medicinal; waters are the dissipators of disease; 
waters are the medicines foreverything; may they act as medicine to you. 

10.137.07 The tongue (being cleansed) by the ten-branched hands (of Praja_pati 
is) the forerunner of speech;with those (hands) the removers of disease we touch 

10.138.01 The bearers of oblations (the An:girasas), Indra honouring the 
sacrifice, have through your friendshiptorn Vala to pieces, when praise (being 
offered) desiring to give the dawns to Kutsa (you were engaged in)freeing the 
waters, and Ahi's exploits (were foiled). 

10.138.02 You have sent forth the generative (waters), you have cleft the 
mountains, you have fetched forth thecows, you have quaffed the delicious Soma, 
you have caused the trees of the forest to grow; through his exploitsby means of 
the voice produced for the sacrifice the sun has shone bright. 

10.138.03 The sun unyoked his chariot in the midst of the sky, (when) the A_rya 
(Indra) encountered the Da_saassociated with R.jis'van, Indra destroyed the 
stronghold of the guileful asura, Pipru. 

10.138.04 Bold (Indra) has annihilated the (hitherto) unbaffled (hosts of the 
asura), the objects of Ayasya'sadoration has despoiled the impious of their 
treasures; the sun as if with the (aid of the) moon has seized uponthe wealth of 
the cities (of the asuras), glorified (by his worshippers), he has demolished 
the foe with his blazing(thunderbolt). 

10.138.05 (Indra), leading an irresistible army, slaying Vr.tra with the 
pervading piercing (bolt), gives (wealth tohis worshippers), thins the (hosts of 
the asuras) which have to be attacked; (the whole host of the enemy) wasafraid 
of Indra's wide-destroying thunderbolt, the purifying (sun) came forth, Us.as 
left her cart. [Thins the hosts:or, sharpens his weapons (which are to be hurled 
against the asuras]. 

10.138.06 These wondrous exploits are yours alone, in that you unaided have 
injured the chief neglector ofsacrifice; you have placed in the sky the 
regulator of the months through your aid the paternal (heaven) upholdsthe 
circumference of the wheel (of the Sun's car) which has been shattered (by 

10.139.01 Savita_, the solar-rayed, the yellow-haired, sent up the undying light 
from the east; at his commandthe wise Pu_s.an, the preserver, follows, looking 
upon all creatures. [Yajus. 17.58: Agni is the deity, takingSavita_ as an 
epithet, the generator. In this r.ca, Savita_ is the deity presiding over he 
period immediately afterdawn and Su_rya presides over the rest of the day]. 

10.139.02 Beholding mankind he sits in the midst of the sky, filling (with 
light) the heaven and earth and thefirmament; he illumines the all-pervading 
(quarters of space), the bright-pervading (intermediate points), and 
thehindmost, the foremost, and the hindmost mark. [Yajus. 17.59: nr.caks.a_ = 
vima_nah; the work is an allusion toa stone representing A_ditya and its 
position with respect to the altar and the implements]. 

10.139.03 The root of riches, the acquirer of treasure illumines by his 
functions all (visible) forms; Savita_, like agod, whose attribute is truth, 
stands like Indra in the battle for riches. [Like a god: like the god, Savita_: 
Yajus.12.66, the verse is attributed to Agni]. 

10.139.04 Beholding Soma, the Gandharva Vis'va_vasu, the waters have come forth 
by means of the sacrifice;Indra impelling them knew of this (their approach), 
and looked round the rims of the sun. 

10.139.05 May the celestial Gandharva Vis'va_vasu, the measurer of the water, 
declare to us that which is thetruth, and that which we do not know; accepting 
our praises. (Vis'va_vasu), protect our sacrifices. 

10.139.06 (Indra) discovered the cloud in the region of the rivers, he set open 
the portals of (the waters) whosedwelling is in the clouds; Indra, (in the form 
of) the Gandharva (vis'va_vasu), proclaimed the ambrosial (waters),he knew the 
strength of the dragons.

10.140.01 Your, Agni, is the most excellent sacrificial food; your flames, O 
opulent in radiance, blaze fiercely;wise and widely luminous (Agni), you bestow 
upon the donor (of the oblation) the choicest food with strength. 

10.140.02 Agni, who are of purifying radiance, of unsullied lustre, of full 
brightness, you issue forth withsplendour; visiting your parents (like) a son, 
you protect (the worshippers), you unite both heaven and earth.[You unite: or, 
you fill both worlds, i.e., heaven with oblations and earth wirh rain]. 

10.140.03 Son of strength, Ja_tavedas, rejoice in our adorations, (be) satisfied 
by our offerings, (theworshippers) have placed before you viands of many sorts 
of wonderful efficacy, of excellent origin. {Son ofstrength: u_rjo napa_t = 
grandson of waters; or, non-injurer; or, food]. 

10.140.04 Contending with enemies, bestow upon us, immortal Agni, riches; you 
shine with a graceful person,you fulfil (the purpose of) the enjoyable rite. 
[Contending with enemies: shining by the priests..., offeringoblations]. 

10.140.05 (We praise you), the perfecter of the sacrifice, the sage, the lord of 
great wealth, the giver of what isdesirable; you bestow auspicious and abundant 
food, and enjoyable riches. [or, you bestow wealth upon theperfecter of the 
sacrifice (the yajama_na)...] 

10.140.06 Men for the sake of happiness place before them Agni, the speaker of 
truth, the mighty, thecontemplator of all; the posterity of Manu in pairs 
(propitiate) with praises you, whose ears are open (to praises)who are most 
renowned, and the (minister) of the gods.

10.141.01 Agni, speak to us here, be favourably disposed towards us; bestow upon 
us (riches), lord of men, foryou are the giver of wealth to us. 

10.141.02 May Aryaman, may Bhaga, may Br.haspati, may the gods give liberally to 
us; may the truth-speakinggoddess (Sarasvati_) bestow riches upon us. 

10.141.03 We invoke for our protection the royal Soma, (we invoke) Agni with 
praises, (we invoke) the A_dityas,Vis.n.u, Su_rya, Brahma_ and Br.haspati.  

10.141.04 We invoke the adorable Indra and Va_yu and Br.haspati on this 
occasion, that all our race may befavourably inclined to us in the acquisition 
(of wealth). 

10.141.05 Stimulate to liberality Aryaman, Br.haspati, Indra, Va_ta, Vis.n.u, 
Sarasvati_, and the food-bestowingSavita_. 

10.141.06 Augment our prayer and sacrifice, Agni, with your fires; do you at our 
sacrifice stimulate (the gods) togive us wealth.

10.142.01 This person, Agni, was your praiser, for there is nothing else 
attainable, O son of strength; holy is thehappiness derived from you, a triple 
defence; remove far from us, who are susceptible of harm, your scorchingflame. 
[Triple defence: a defence against the three evils of existence]. 

10.142.02 Exalted is the birth of you, Agni, who are desirous of (sacrificial) 
food; you preside like a councillorover all created beings; our praises flowing 
smoothly proceed to you, as herdsmen of their own will (go slowly)before (their 

10.142.03 Blazing Agni, you destroy many a shrub, as you burn; and (the sites) 
of the tilled fields are laid waste,may we never rouse to anger your terrible 

10.142.04 When you move burning above and burning below, you scatter yourself 
like a devastating host; whenthe wind fans your flame, you shave the earth as a 
barber shaves a beard. 

10.142.05 His lines (of flame) are visible, like one array of many chariots, 
when clearing away (the forests) withyour arms (of flame) you march, Agni, over 
the prostrate earth. 

10.142.06 May your withering flames, Agni, arise; may your light (arise), and 
the swift movements of you whenyou are praised; rise up, stoop down, increasing 
in might; may all the Vasus this day attend upon you. 

10.142.07 This is the abode of the waters, the dwelling of the ocean; pursue, 
Agni, a different path from this; goby this (path) according to your pleasure. 

10.142.08 Both at your arrival, Agni, and at your departure, may the flowering 
du_rva grasses spring up; maylakes (be formed) and lotuses (therein); may these 
be the dwellings of the ocean. 

10.143.01 You made this Atri, ever diligent in worship, (swift) to run to the 
goal like a horse, and you renewedKaks.i_vat as (a wheelwright renews) a car. 

10.143.02 This Atri, whom the irresistible (asuras) dragged bound like a swift 
horse, you unloosed like a strongknot, (setting him) the youngest born upon the 

10.143.03 Leaders (of rites), of goodly aspect and radiant, design to accept 
Atri's praises, and so the praise ofyour worshipper (is) to be sung again to you 
leaders (of rites). 

10.143.04 Munificent As'vins, my offering and praise (is) for your recognition, 
because, leaders (of rites), youprotect us at the sacrifice in the spacious 
sacrificial hall. [Is for your recognition: i.e., awaits your recognition]. 

10.143.05 You came with winged (steeds) to Bhujyu (immersed) in the ocean, at 
the world's end, perturbed; and,leaders, of truth, you restored him to your 

10.143.06 Prosperous,, most adorable, all-knowing, come to us and decorate us 
with blessings, as a (cow's)udder is adorned with abundant food.

10.144.01 This immortal Soma, the giver of strength, the giver of long life to 
all, hastens like a swift horse to you(Indra), the creator. 

10.144.02 This (Indra), adorable among us and brilliant, is a thunderbolt for 
the donor (of the oblation against hisfoes); he cherishes the exhilarating 
(worshipper) u_rdhvakr.s'ana, as R.bhu (cherishes) the exhilaratingcelebrator of 
holy rites. 

10.144.03 May the brilliant, (Indra), who is a benefactor among thwese his own 
(people), for the sake ofthe hymn; Suparn.a, the son of the Ta_rk.sya. ahis'uvah 
= name of an asura; the subject of the verb may beSoma and not Indra]. 

10.144.04 The som whom Suparn.a, the son of the falcon, brought from afar, the 
bestower of many  boons, whois the stimulator of Ahi. 

10.144.05 Whom the falcon brought to you (Indra) with his claw, beautiful, 
unassailable, purple-tinted, themeasurer of food-- by it, food and old age was 
prolonged for living, by it affinity was awakened. 

10.144.06 So then by Indu, Indra obtains among the gods great brilliancy; by 
your sacrifice, O doer of gooddeeds, food and old age is prolonged, by our 
sacrifice this (Soma) is poured out by us.

10.145.01 I dig up this most potent medicinal creeper, by which (a wife) 
destroys a rival wife, by which shesecures to herself her husband. [The deity of 
aim: A_pastamba says a wife who wishes to get rid of a rival mustrepeat this 
hymn silently three times on going to bed, and then embrace her husband. The 
creeper referred to inthe hymn is the patha]. 

10.145.02 O (plant) with upturned leaves, auspicious, sent by the gods, 
powerful, remove my rival and make myhusband mine alone. 

10.145.03 Excellent (plant), may I too be excellent, excellent among the 
excellent, and may she who is my rival bevile among the vile. 

10.145.04 I will not even utter her name, no (woman) takes pleasure in that 
person; may we remove the otherrival wife to a distance. 

10.145.05 I am triumphing, you are triumphant; we two being powerful will 
triumph over my rival. 

10.145.06 I make you the triumphant (herb) my pillow, I support you with that 
more triumphant (pillow); let yourmind hasten to me as a cow to her calf, let it 
speed on its way like water.

not fear assail you? 

10.146.02 When the ciccika replies to the crying vr.s.a_rava, Aran.ya_ni is 
exalted, resonant, as with cymbals.[Ciccika vr.s.a_rava: these are small 

10.146.03 It is as if cows are grazing, and it looks like a dwelling, and 
Aranya_ni at eventide, indeed, dismissedthe carts. 

10.146.04 This man calls his cow, another cuts down the timber; tarrying in the 
forest eventide, one thinks thereis a cry. 

10.146.05 But Aran.ya_ni injures no one unless some other assail him; feeding 
upon the sweet fruit, hepenetrates at will. [Some other: as a tiger or robber]. 

10.146.06 I praise the musk-scented, fragrant, fertile, uncultivated Aran.ya_ni, 
the mother of wild animals.

10.147.01 I have faith, Indra, in your first wrath, whereby you did slay Vr.tra, 
and did undertake a work friendly toman; when both heaven and earth were 
inferior to you, the firmament trembled at your might, O wielder of 
thethunderbolt. [Friendly to man: naryam vr.tram: from ni, to lead; viver apas = 
did approach the waters, i.e., thisworld; naryam = friendly to man; or, heroic, 

10.147.02 Irreproachable Indra, with mind intent on glory you have your 
deceptions slain the deceptive Vr.tra.The worshipper chooses you when he seeks 
for his (stolen) cattle, and in all sacrifices accompanied withinvocations. 

10.147.03 Indra, the invoked of many, be gracious to these Suris, who thereby 
prospering attain, O Maghavan, toopulence; (who) adore the powerful one at the 
sacrifice for (the sake of obtaining) a son, a grandson, thefulfilment of their 
desires, and honourable wealth. [Honourable: ahraye = alajja_kare, of which 
there is no need tobe ashamed]. 

10.147.04 He obtains well-procured riches, who studies to promote Indra's rapid 
exhilaration. Exalted by (yourfavour), O Maghavan, (the worshipper), celebrating 
the sacrifice, speedily obtains through the officiating priestsfood and wealth. 

10.147.05 Glorified by great (praise), Maghavan, spread forth your might, bestow 
riches (upon us); beautifulIndra who are wise like Mitra and Varun.a the 
distributer (of riches), you give us food now.

10.148.01 Having poured out the libation, we praise you, Indra; having presented 
the sacrificial food, we (praiseyou), granter of abundant wealth; bring us the 
wealth which one longs for; protected by you may we acquireriches through 
yourself alone. 

10.148.02 Hero Indra, who are mighty, may you as soon as you are born overcome 
with Su_rya the races of theDa_sas, and the fugitive (Vala) lurking in secrecy, 
hidden in the waters; we now present to you the Soma in acopious stream. your 
praisers; may we be of those who gratify (you) with Soma libations; to you, O 
car-borne indra, these(praises are offered) with sacrificial viands. 

10.148.04 To you, Indra, have these prayers been addressed grant, O hero, 
strength to the leaders of men; be ofone mind with those in whom you delight, 
and protect those who praise you, and the worshippers who standround about. 

10.148.05 Hear, hero Indra, the invocation of Pr.thu; you are glorified by the 
praises of the son of Vena, whocelebrated your hall of sacrifice, full of ghi_; 
your praisers rush to you like a torrent through precipitous banks.

10.149.01 Savita_ has fixed the earth with fetters; Savita_ has made the heaven 
firm in a place where there wasno support; Savita_ has milked the cloud of the 
firmament bound to the indestructible (ether) like a tremblinghorse. [savita_ 
yantraih pr.thivi_m aramayadana_rambhan.entariks.e savita_ 
dya_mandr.hadas'vamiva_dhuddhunimantariks.e megham baddhamatu_rn.a iti va-
tvarama_n.a iti va_ savita_ samudita_ram:Nirukta 10.33]. 

10.149.02 Where the cloud thus arrested shed moisture (on the earth) Savita_, O 
grandson of the waters, knewthat (place); from thence proceeded the earth, 
thence arose the firmament, thence the heaven and earth werespread out. 

10.149.03 Afterwards arose this other adorable (deity), together with the host 
of the immortal world, thebrightwinged Garutmat, born before Savita_ obeyed his 
law. [Garutmat: An allusion to Garud.a's having broughtthe Soma from the moon at 
Savita_'s command]. 

10.149.04 As cattle hasten to the village, as the warrior to his horses, as 
affectionate milk-giving cows to the calf,as a husband to his wife, so may 
Savita_, the upholder of the sky, the desired of all, hasten to us. 

10.149.05 As Hiran.yastu_pa, the An:girasa, summoned you to this food, so I, 
praising you for your protection,watch before you as (worshippers) watch before 
the filament of the Soma. [Nirukta 10.33: hiran.yastu_pohiran.yamayah 
stu_posyeti va_].

10.150.01 Bearer of oblations, being kindled you burn for the gods; come to us 
with the A_dityas, the Rudras, the

10.150.02 Being gratified by this sacrifice, this praise, approach; we mortals 
invoke you, blazing (Agni), weinvoke you for felicity. 

10.150.03 I glorify with my praise you, Ja_tavedas, desired by akll; bring 
hither, Agni, to us the gods who aregratified by offerings, (bring) those 
gratified by offerings for our felicity. invoke Agni for the acquisition of 
abundant wealth, (may he make me) happy for the acquisition of wealth. 

10.150.05 May Agni protect in war Atri, Bha_radva_ja, Gavis.t.hira, ourselves, 
Kan.va, and Trasadasyu;Vasis.t.ha as the purohita invokes Agni, the Purohita for 
our felicity.

10.151.01 Agni is kindled by S'raddha_, by S'raddha_ is the oblation offered; 
with our praise we glorifyFaith, of the family of Love; cf. Nirukta 9.31]. 

10.151.02 O S'raddha__, grant the desire of the donor (of the oblation), grant, 
O S'raddha_, the desire of himwho wishes to give, grant this boon which I have 
mentioned to my sacrificers who solicit happiness. 

10.151.03 As the gods had faith in (their fight with) the Asuras, so grant the 
boon which has been asked for toour sacrificers who solicit happiness. 

10.151.04 Gods, worshippers, and those who are protected by Va_yu, solicit 
S'raddha_, (they cherish) S'raddha_with heartfelt desire, through S'raddha_ a 
man acquires wealth. [Yajus. 8.44; Nirukta 7.2]. 

10.151.05 We invoke S'raddha_ at dawn, and again at midday, and also at the 
setting of the sun; inspire us inthis world, S'raddha_, with faith.

10.152.01 S'a_sa thus (praise Indra); you are mighty, the destroyer of foes, the 
wonderful, (he) whose friend isnot killed nor ever overpowered. 

10.152.02 May Indra, the granter of prosperity, the lord of men, the slayer of 
Vr.tra, the warrior, the subduer, theshowerer, the drinker of the Soma, the 
assurer of safety,  come to our presence. 

10.152.03 Destroy, Indra, the ra_ks.asas, the enemies; fracture the jaws of 
Vr.tra; baffle, indra, slayer of Vr.tra,the wrath of (our) menacing foe. 

10.152.04 Destroy, Indra, our enemies; hunt down those who are in array against 
us; consign to lower darknesshim who seeks to harm us. 

10.152.05 Frustrate the purpose of him who hates us, (baffle) the weapon of him 
who seeks to overpower us,grant us entire security from his wrath of (his) 

10.153.01 Desirous of fulfilling their functions (the mothers of Indra) 
approaching, worship him as soon as born,and enjoy (affluence) together with 
male progeny. 

10.153.02 You, Indra, were born from overpowering strength and energy; you, O 
showerer, are indeed ashowerer (of blessings). [Nirukta 7.2]. 

10.153.03 You, Indra, are the slayer of Vr.tra, you have spread out the 
firmament; you have upheld the heavenby your power. 

10.153.04 You, Indra, bear your well-beloved and adorable thunderbolt in your 
arms, sharpening it with yourmight. 

10.153.05 You, Indra, overpower all beings by your might, you have reached all 

10.154.01 Soma is filtered for some (of the Pitrs.), others accept clarified 
butter; go (O dead one) to those towhom the honey flows. [Those who offer Soma 
to their pitr.s are the students of the Sa_maveda, those who offerghi_ are 
students of the yajurveda, and who offer honey are students of the Atharvaveda]. 

10.154.02 To those who through penance are unassailable (by sin), to those who 
through penance have gone toheaven, to those who have performed abundant 
penance, do you (O dead one) go. 

10.154.03 To those who engage in battles, heroes who have given up their lives, 
or who have presentedthousands of offerings, to them (O dead one) go. 

10.154.04 Go, Yama, to those ascetic Pitaras, who are ancient, obsevers of 
truth, speakers of truth, andaugmenters of truth. 

10.154.05 Go, Yama, to those ascetic R.s.is, the sons of penance, who protect 
the sun, being leaders ofthousands, and intelligent.

10.155.01 Miserable, ill-favoured, deformed, ever-railing (goddess), go to your 
mountain; with these exploits ofS'irimbit.ha we scare you away. [Miserable: 
ara_yi = not giving; or name of a goddess; durbhik.sa_didevata_,goddess of 
famine, etc., i.e., distress or misery; or, alaks.mi_, i.e., misfortune; with 
these exploits of s'irimbit.ha:or, with the essences (of waters) of the cloud]. 

10.155.02 May she be scared away from this (world), scared away from the next 
(world), the destructress ofembryos; sharp-horned Br.haspati approach, driving 
away distress. 

10.155.03 The wood which  floats be the sea-shore far off, remote from man, 
seize that, (O goddess), hard todestroy, and therewith go to a distant shore. 
[or, the wooden body of the deity called Purus.ottama (Vis.n.u)]. 

10.155.04 Utterers of discordant sounds, when swiftly moving you departed, all 
the enemies of Indra were slain,disappearing like bubbles. 

10.155.05 These (Vis'vedeva_s) have brought back the (stolen) cattle; they have 
built up the fire; they haveprovided food for the gods. Who will overcome them? 
[Yajus. 35.18: ji_va_h, lives or living beings].

10.156.01 May our rites bring Agni here like a swift charger in battle, may we 
through him acquire all wealth. 

10.156.02 Send us, Agni, for the acquisition of wealth, that army with which we 
may acquire cattle through yourprotection 

10.156.03 Bring us, Agni, substantial and extensive wealth, consisting of cattle 
and horses, sprinkle the sky (withrain), expel Pan.i. 

10.156.04 You, Agni, have elevated the imperishable planet, the Sun, in the 
firmament, giving light to the people. 

10.156.05 You, Agni, are the best beloved and most excellent banner of the 
people; understand (our praise)giving food to the praiser.

10.157.01 May we, along with Indra and the universal gods, possess all these 

10.157.02 May Indra with the A_dityas perfect our sacrifice and our bodies and 
our offspring. 

10.157.03 May Indra with the A_dityas, and attended by the Maruts, be the 
protector of our bodies. 

10.157.04 When the gods returned (home), after slaying the asuras, (then were) 
the deities protecting theirdivinity. 

10.157.05 When (the worshippers) with their pious acts offered praise in honour 
(of the gods), then (men) beheldaround them the swift descending rain.

10.158.01 May Su_rya protect us from (foes dwelling in) heaven, Va_yu from 
(those dwelling in) the firmament,and Agni from those upon earth. 

10.158.02 Savita_, whose radiance merits a hundred acknowledgments, be 
propitiated (by  our praises); protectus from the falling bolts (of our 

10.158.03 May the divine Savita_ grant us sight, may Parvata (grant) us sight; 
may Dha_ta_ (grant) us sight.

10.158.04 Give sight, Su_rya, to our eyes, (bestow) sight for the illumination 
of our bodies, so that we may lookupon and into this (world). 

10.158.05 May we look upon you, Su_rya, the bright beholder (of all), may we 
look into the things which arevisible to mankind.

10.159.01 The sun has risen; my good fortune has dawned; I, knowing this, have 
obtained my husbandtriumphing (over my rivals). [Literally, this is a su_kta of 
exultation ny S'aci_ over her rival wives; S'aci_ alsomeans an act, exploit; as 
a metaphor, the hymn praises Indra's glorious acts]. 

10.159.02 I am the banner, I am the head, I am exalted, soothing (my lord); my 
husband must conform to my will,as I am victorious over my rivals. 

10.159.03 My sons are the destroyers of my enemies, my daughter is an empress; 
and I am victorious, my fameis most precious to my husband. 

10.159.04 That oblation, O gods, has been offered by which Indra offering it has 
become renowned and mostpowerful; I freed myself from my rival wives. 

10.159.05 Free from rivals, the destructress of rivals, victorious, triumphant, 
I cut up the brilliance and wealth ofthe other (wives of Indra) as if it were 
the wealth of (enemies) who do not endure long. 

10.159.06 Triumphant, I conquered these my rivals so that I might rule this hero 
and his people.

10.160.01 Drink, Indra, of this sharp (Soma, which is) combined with sacrificial 
food, unyoke here your bay

10.160.02 For you are the libations that have been poured out, for you are those 
which are to be poured out; youdo our quickly uttered praises invoke; Indra, who 
are cognizant of all things, taking pleasure in this presentsacrifice, drink the 
Soma here. 

10.160.03 He who devoted to the deity with a willing mind offers the Soma to him 
with all his heart, Indra, doesnot destroy his cattloe, but gives him beautiful 
excellent (wealth). 

10.160.04 He is mindful of him who, as a rich man, offers Soma to him; possessed 
of riches (Indra) holds him inhis hand, and unsolicited destroys (his enemies) 
who hate the Bra_hman.a.  

10.160.05 Wishing for horses, for cattle, for food, we invoke you, Indra, that 
you may come; abiding within yournew favour we invoke you, Indra, the giver of 

0.161.01 By means of the oblation I set you free to live safe from undeveloped 
consumption and from royalonsumption; and if the seizer has already seized him, 
then to you, Indra, and Agni, set him free.  [R.s.iaks.mana_s'ana: the destroyer 
of yaks.ma_, consumption or atrophy; the su_kta is recited with an offering to 
fireor the recovery of a person from sickness: A_s'vala_yana Gr.hya Su_tra 3.6]. 
0.161.02 If he be of wasted life, or already dead, or he is on the verge of 
death, I bring him back from the lap ofirr.ti; I have made him strong enough to 
live for a hundred years. 0.161.03 I have rescued him with an oblation having a 
thousand eyes, conferring a hundred years, giving life for century, so that 
Indra may conduct him beyond all harm for a hundred years. 0.161.04 Regaining 
your strength, live for a hundred autumns, a hundred winters, a hundred springs; 
may Indra,gni, Savita_, and Br.haspati, (propitiated) by this century-yielding 
oblation, give this man back (to us) for aundred years. 0.161.05 I have rescued 
you, I have found you; come back again, you who are young again; sound in body, 
Iave obtained for you all your senses, your whole life.

10.162.01 May  Agni, the destroyer of the ra_ks.asas, consenting to our prayer, 
drive hence (the evil spirit) who(in the form of) sickness assails your embryo, 
who, as the disease durn.a_man, assails your womb. [Nirukta 6.12:durn.a_man = a 
worm, disease, haemorrhoids]. 

10.162.02 May Agni, concurring in our prayer, destroy the cannibal who, as 
sickness, assails your embryo, who,as the disease durn.a_man, assails your womb. 

10.162.03 May we exterminate from hence (the evil spirit) who destroys the 
impregnating energy, the germ as itsettles, the moving embryo, who seeks to 
destroy (the babe) when born. 

10.162.04 May we exterminate from hence (the evil spirit)l  who separates your 
things, who lies betweenhusband and wife, who, entering your womb, devours (the 

10.162.05 May we exterminate from hence (the evil spirit), who in the form of 
brother, husband, or paramour,approaches you, and seeks to destroy your 

10.162.06 May we exterminate from hence (the evil spirit), who, having beguiled 
you by sleep or darkness,approaches you, and seeks to destroy your offspring.

10.163.01 I banish from your eyes, from your nose, from your ears, from your 
chin, from your head, from yourbrain, from your tongue. 

10.163.02 I banish disease from your neck, from your sinews, from your bones, 
from your joints, from your upperarms, from your shoulders, and from your fore-

10.163.03 I banish disease from your entrails, from your anus, from your 
abdomen, and from your heart, fromyour kidneys, from your liver, from your 
(other) viscera.  [Kidneys: bones near the heart; or, kidneys, made likethe 
fruit of the mango tree, being in both sides of the body]. 

10.163.04 I banish disease from your thighs, from your knees , from your heels, 
from your toes, from your loins,from your buttocks, from your private parts. 

10.163.05 I banish disease from your urethra, from your bladder, from your hair, 
from your nails, from your wholeperson. 

10.163.06 I banish disease from each limb, from each hair, from each joint where 
it is generated, from your wholeperson.

10.164.01 Lord of the mind, begone, depart, proceed to a distance; look at 
Nirr.ti far off; the mind of a living beingis manifold. [Lord of the mind: i.e., 
sovereign of the mind when in the condition of sleep, the deity presiding 
overbad dreams; the mind..manifold: Nirukta 1.17: the mind is attentive to 
various objects, and is soon diverted fromany regard to evil dreams]. 

10.164.02 Men solicit the boon of good fortune, they acquire abundant good 
fortune, (I desire) the auspicioussight of Vaivasvat; the mind of a living being 
is variously (directed). 

10.164.03 Whatever sin we have committed by speaking to (others), speaking 
against (others), speaking (evil)about (others), whether walking or sleeping, 
may Agni remove all such hateful sins far from us. [By speaking:a_s'asa_ = 
abhila_s.en.a, by desire]. 

10.164.04 O Indra, O Brahman.aspati, whatever sin we run into, (save us 
thereform), and may Pracetas of theAn:girasas protect us from the malignity of 
our enemies. [Pracetas: may be a reference to Varun.a; or,

10.164.05 We have triumphed today, we have won, we have become free from guilt; 
may evil designs formed inwaking or sleep be transferred to him whom we hate, be 
transferred to him who hates us.

10.165.01 O gods, let us worship for that, desiring which the pigeon sent as 
Nirr.ti's messenger, has come to this(ceremony); let us make atonement, may 
prosperity be given to our bipeds and quadrupeds. [The pigeon: anallusion to 

10.165.02 May the bird sent to our dwellings, the pigeon, be auspicious, O gods, 
and void of offence, so that thewise Agni may approve of our oblation, and the 
winged weapon (of mischief) depart from us. 

10.165.03 May the winged weapon (of mischief) do us no harm; he takes his place 
upon the touchwood, the seatof Agni; may prosperity attend our cattle and our 
people, let not the pigeon, gods, do us harm in this (dwelling). 

10.165.04 May that which the owl shrieks be in vain, (and may it be in vain) 
that the pigeon takes his place uponthe fire; may this reverence be paid to 
Yama, (the god of) Death, as whose messenger he is sent. 

10.165.05 (Praised) by our hymn, O gods, drive out the pigeon, who deserves to 
be driven out, exhilarated (byour oblation), bring us food and cattle, 
dissipating all our misfortunes; abandoning our food, may the swift(pigeon) fly 

10.166.01 Make me, Indra, (renowned like) a bull among my equals, victor over my 
rivals, the slayer of my

10.166.02 I am the destroyer of my enemies, like Indra, unharmed and unwounded; 
may all these my foes be castdown under my feet. 

10.166.03 I bind you here, like the two extremities of the bow the bowstring; 
restrain them, lord of speech, thatthey may speak humbly to me. 

10.166.04 I have come triumphant with power, equal to any exploit; I seize upon 
minds, your pious observances,your prowess in war. 

10.166.05 Seizing upon your goods and chattels, may I victorious; I walk upon 
your heads; cry aloud frombeneath my feet, like frogs from (below) the water, 
like frogs from (below) the water.

10.167.01 For you, Indra, is this Soma poured forth, you rule over the effused 
(Soma of) the jar; do you bestowupon us riches with numerous sons, you did win 
heaven, performing arduous penance. [Penance: i.e., by theperformance of a 
hundred as'vamedhas]. 

10.167.02 We summon to  the libations the mighty S'ukra, the conqueror of 
heaven, exhilarated by sacrificialfood; take notice of this our sacrifice here 
and come; we solicit (for wealth) Maghavan, victorious over his foes. 

10.167.03 (Engaged) in the worship of the royal Soma and of Varun.a, (present) 
in the protecting (dwelling) ofBr.haspati and Anumati, (I am assiduous) in your 
praise, Maghavan; Dha_ta_ and Vidha_ta_, I have fed on thepitcher. [Pitcher: 
i.e., I have drunk the Soma left in the jar from that which had been offered]. 

10.167.04 Enjoined by you, I have prepared the food at the (sacrifice) about to 
be performed, and as chiefworshipper I complete this hymn of praise. (Indra 
speaks): The Soma being poured out in your respectivedwellings, O Vis'va_mitra 
and Jamadagni, (offer praise) when I come with (the wealth) which I am going 
todistribute. [Indra speaks: Indra, in the form of conscience, speaks to them].

10.168.01 (I proclaim) the greatness of the impetuous Va_yu, his voice spread 
thundering around; he movesalong sweeping the sky, tinting purple (the quarters 
of the horizon), he advances, raising the dust of the earth. 

10.168.02 Solid masses advance to meet the wind; the mares come to him as to 
battle; associated with themandin the same car the divinity proceeds, the 
sovereign of all this world. [Mares come to him: or, his wives, the trees,shrubs 
etc., follow him as timid women obey a resolute man]. 

10.168.03 Traversing the firmament by its paths, (Va_yu) rests not for a single 
day; the friend of the waters, thefirst-born, the utterer of truth-- where has 
he been generated, whence was he manifested? 

10.168.04 The soul of the gods, the germ of the world, this divinity moves 
according to his pleasure; his voicesare heard, his form is not (seen); let us 
worship that Va_ta with oblations.

nutritious life-sustaining (waters); Rudra, have compassion upon the food which 
has feet. [i.e., the cow]. 

10.169.02 Grant great felicity, Parjanya, to those cows who are of similar 
forms, of different forms, or of singleforms, whose names Agni knows through the 
sacrifice, or those whom the An:girasas created in this world bypenance. 

10.169.03 Bring, Indra, to the cow-house (the cows) who offer their bodies to 
the gods, those of whom Somaknows all the properties, those that nourish us with 
their milk, and those that have calves. 

10.169.04 May Praja_pati bestowing these (Cows) upon me concurring with the 
universal gods and the Pitara,bring the auspicious cattle to our cow-pen, may we 
be in possession of their progeny. [The su_kta is to berepeated at eventide, 
when the cows are being brought home].

10.170.01 Let the radiant (Su_rya) drink much sweet Soma, bestowing unbroken 
life upon the lord of thesacrifice; (Su_rya), who impelled by the wind protects 
his people of his own accord, nourishes them and shinesin various places. 
[Impelled by the wind: it is the circle of the zodiac; or, the solar orb which 
is driven along thewind; Yajus. 33.30]. 

10.170.02 The radiant light is born mighty, well-cherished, the abundant 
bestower of food, eternal, deposited inthe supporting sustainer of the sky, the 
slayer of adversaries, the slayer of the Vr.tras, abundantly slaying theDasyus, 
the slayer of the Asuras, the slayer of rivals. 

10.170.03 This light, the best of lights, the most excellent, is called the 
conqueror of all, the conqueror of wealth,mighty, all-illumining, radiant, 
mighty, Su_rya displays to view his vast power, his unfailing lustre. 

10.170.04 Illumining the whole (world) with your radiance, you have attained 
(Su_rya) the luminous region ofheaven, by which (radiance) animating all pious 
acts and addressed to the universal gods, all living beings arecherished.

10.171.01 You have protected, Indra, this chariot of Il.a_, who offered 
libations; hear the invocation of thepresenter of the Soma. 

10.171.02 You have carried off the head of the trmbling sacrifice from his skin; 
come to the dwelling of thepresenter of the Soma. [Legend: Sacrifice attempted 
to escape from the gods. Sacrifice assumed a human form,that of a warrior. Indra 
took the form of an ant and gnawed at the bowstring and then cut of the head of 
Sacrifice.The head of the Sacrifice is the pravargya or preliminary ceremony of 
pouring fresh milk into boiling ghi_]. 

10.171.03 You have often, Indra, let loose the mortal Venya, against Manasyu, 
the son of Astrabudhna. [Venya:Pr.thu, the son of Vena; s'nathnah = have 

10.171.04 Bring forward that Su_rya, Indra, who is lingering behind, the beloved 
of the gods, (awhile) concealedfrom them.

10.172.01 Come, (Us.as), with the desirable (radiance); let the cows who are of 
full udders accompany yourchariot. 

10.172.02 Come, (Us.as), with kindly thoughts; (it is the season) most honoured 
by the generous, and whichbrings the sacrifice to completion. 

10.172.03 Like bearers of food, liberal in our gifts, we spread the thread (of 
sacrifice before the dawn), andworship (her). 

10.172.04 Us.as drives away the darkness of her sister (night); her generative 
benevolence (harnesses) herchariot. [suja_tata_ = her own prolific faculty].

10.173.01 I have consecrated you, (Rasa); come among us, be steady and 
unvacillating, may all your subjectsdesire you (for their king), may the kingdom 
never fall from you. [A play on the words: rasa and ra_ja_, as thedevata_]. 

10.173.02 Come into this (kingdom), may you never be deposed, unvacillating as a 
mountain; stand firm here likeIndra; establish your kingdom in this world. 

10.173.03 May Indra, gratified by the perpetual oblation, firmly establish this 
(prince); may Soma, mayBrahman.aspati address him (as their votary). 

10.173.04 Firm is the heaven, firm is the earth, firm are these mountains, firm 
is this entire world, so may this kingof men be firm. 

10.173.05 May the royal Varun.a, the divine Br.haspati, may Indra and Agni ever 
give stability to your kingdom. 

10.173.06 With a constant oblation we handle the constant Soma; therefore, may 
Indra render your subjectpeople their prayers. [Perhaps, rasa = soma].

10.174.01 By the abhivarta oblation, whereby Indra has conquered (everything), 
do you, O Brahman.aspati, bringname is suggested by the repetition of the 
derivatives of abhivr.ti]. 

10.174.02 Having overcome our rivals, and those who are our enemies, do you 
attack him who assails us, andhim who behaves insolently towards us. 

10.174.03 May te divine Savita_, may Soma establish you, (ra_ja_), may all 
beings establish you, so that youmay be supreme. 

10.174.04 That oblation whereby Indra became heroic, renowned and eminent, I 
have offered, O gods, (to you),may I become freed from my rivals. 

10.174.05 May I become without a rival, the destroyer of my rivals, obtaining 
the sovereignty, overcoming (myfoes) so that I may reign over these beings and 
over my people.

10.175.01 May the divine Savita_ urge you, stones, by his sustaining (action), 
be yoked to the chariot-poles,express (the Soma). 

10.175.02 Drive away, stones, the malevolent (folk), drive away evil intention, 
make our cattle a remedy (againstdistress). 

10.175.03 The stones consentient with the central pivot are honoured, giving 
energy to the sprinkling (Soma).[Central pivot: upara =  the large stone in the 
centre of the four stones, which bruise the Soma; or, a reference tothe edges of 
the stone]. 

10.175.04 May the divine Savita_ quickly urge you, stones, by his sustaining 
(action) for the sake of theworshipper, who makes the libation.

10.176.01 The Sunus, (the sons) of the R.bhus, advance boldly to battle; 
supporters of all, they have spreadover the earth as (a calf) over the mother 
cow. [Sons of the R.bhus: or, the rays of the sun, which, absorbing allmoisture, 
vis'vadha_yasah, feed on the earth as a calf drinks themilk of the cow]. 

10.176.02 Bring forward the divine Ja_tavedas by means of divine wisdom; may he 
bear our oblations (to thegods) in succession. 

10.176.03 This ministrant priest devoted to the gods is brought (here) for the 
sacrifice; radiant as theswift-moving sun, uniting (the oblation and the gods) 
surrounded (by the priests, Agni) knows of himself (how toworship the gods). 

10.176.04 This Agni saves from peril caused by man as (well as) from peril 
caused by the immortals, a godstronger than strength, created for life-producing 

10.177.01 The wise behold their mind; (seated) in their heart the Sun made 
manifest by the illusion of the asura;the sages look into the solar orb, the 
ordainers (of solar worship) desire the region of his rays. [Illusion of 
theasura: asurasya = the supreme Brahma devoid of all disguise; aktam ma_yaya_ = 
united, to knowledge,all-knowing]. 

10.177.02 The Sun bears the (sacred) word in his mind the Gandharva has spoken 
it, (abiding) within the womb;sages cherish it in the place of sacrifice, 
brilliant, heavenly ruling the mind. [Sacred word: va_k: the three 
Vedas;Taittiri_ya Bra_hman.a 3.12.9: in the morning the deity moves in the sky 
with the hymns of the R.k, he abides atnoon in the Yajurveda, at his setting he 
is extolled with the Sa_maveda; the sun moves accompanied by thethree Vedas; 
gandharva: from gah (voices), and dhr. (to hold) = the breath of life]. 

10.177.03 I beheld the protector (the Sun), never descending, going by his paths 
to the east and to the west;clothing (with light) the (four) quarters of heaven 
and the intermediate spaces, he constantly revolves in the midstof the worlds.

10.178.01 Let us invoke here for our welfare that Ta_rks.ya, who is mighty, the 
commissioned of the gods, thevictorious, the outstripper of chariots, of 
irresistible car, the overthrower of hosts, the swift. [Ta_rk.sya: 
i.e.,suparn.a, the son of Tr.ks.a, commissioned by the gods to bring the Soma 
from heaven; cf. Nirukta 10.28]. 

10.178.02 Repeatedly invoking the liberality (of Ta_rks.ya), as (we do that) of 
Indra, let us mount upon it for ourwelfare as upon a ship; O heaven and earth, 
vast, expanded, manifold, profound, may we not suffer harm nowfrom (Ta_rks.ya's) 
coming to or departing from you. 

10.178.03 He who has by his strength rapidly spread out the waters for the five 
castes like the sun by his light--thousand-yielding, hundred-bestowing is his 
course, like an unfailing arrow, none can stop it. [Arrow: Nirukta10.29: yuvatim 
s'arya_m = paryuvati_m s'aramayam is.um = a diving reed-made arrow].

10.179.01 Rise up, look to the portion of Indra suitable to the season; if it be 
cooked, offer it; if uncooked, gratifyhim (by praise). 

10.179.02 Go, Indra, quickly to the oblation which is cooked, the sun is 
advanced nearly to the middle of hisroad; your friends sit around you with their 
offerings as the protectors of a family (attend upon) the migrating lordof the 
mansion. [Protectors of a family: kulapa_h = the sons; uraja = gantavya gr.ha_h, 
houses to be gone to, asif they were inns or caravanseries]. 

10.179.03 I consider (the oblation) as cooked in the udder (of the cow), I 
consider it cooked in the fire, I considerthis pure and fresh (oblation) well-
cooked; Indra, wielder of the thunderbolt, doer of many deeds, drink wellpleased 
of the curd of the noon-day sacrifice.

10.180.01 Indra, invoked of many, you triumph over your enemies; pre-eminent is 
your strength, may yourgenerosity be shown on this occasion; bring treasures 
with your right hand; you are the lord of thewealth-conveying rivers. 

10.180.02 Terrible are you as a wandering lion who dwells in the mountains; come 
from a far-off, distant (world);having whetted your rapid and sharp bolt, 
destroy our enemies, Indra, put to flight our opponents. [Nirukta 1.20:kucarah = 
having a bad gait; cf. about Vis.n.u RV 1.154.2]. 

10.180.03 You have been born, Indra, endowed with protecting and desirable 
vigour; benefactor of mankind, youdid drive away the man who was unfriendly(to 
us), you prepared a spacious region for the gods.

10.181.01 Vasis.t.ha, whos (son) is Pratha by name, and whose (son) is Sapratha, 
has (with them) borne awayfrom Dha_ta, and from the radiant Savita_, and from 
Vis.n.u, the rathantara portion of the oblation which isoffered with the 
anus.t.up verse. [Rathantara: is the Sa_maveda; or some hymns of this Veda]. 

10.181.02 They discovered (the Br.hat) which has been put away, the most 
excellent substance of the sacrificewhich was hidden; Bharadva_ja took the 
Br.hat from Dha_ta_, the radiant Savita_, Vis.n.u, and Agni. [They: 
i.e.,Dha_ta_, Savita_ etc.; br.hat: br.hat is also a portion of the Sa_maveda]. 

10.181.03 Those brilliant deities discovered by their intelligence the principal 
means of sacrifice which has to beeffused, whichleads to the gods; these 
(priests) have taken the Gharma from Dha_ta_, the radiant Savita_ andVis.n.u.

10.182.01 Let Br.haspati, the overcomer of difficulties, put aside (all sins), 
let him thrust aside the weapon of thecalumniator; may he hurl down the 
inglorious (enemy), may he baffle the malevolent, and bestow upon thesacrificer 
health and prosperity. [Difficulties: duragaha = destroyer of those who go 
wickedly; or, may he lead usacross difficulties]. 

10.182.02 May Nara_s'am.sa protect us at the Praya_ja rite; may he be (the giver 
of) felicity to us as theAnuya_ja (divinity) at oblations; may Br.haspati hurl 
down the inglorious (enemy), may he baffle the malevolent,and bestow upon the 
sacrificer health and prosperity. [At the Praya_ja rite: there are five 
praya_jas, and threeanuya_jas; the second Praya_ja has Nara_s'am.sa (a name of 
Agni) for its deity; the second Anuya_ja has Agnias its deity]. 

10.182.03 May Tapurmu_rdha_ consume the ra_ks.asas, who are the enemies of the 
Bra_hman.as, (and thenproceed) to slay (their) malignant (chief); may Br.haspati 
hurl down the inglorious (enemy), may he baffle themalevolent, and bestow upon 
the sacrificer health and prosperity.

10.183.01 (The wife speaks). I beheld you in my mind conversant (with sacred 
rites), born of penance, renownedfor penance; enjoying in this world progeny and 
riches, do you who are desirous of offspring beget offspring. 

10.183.02 (The Yajama_na speaks). I behold you in my mind radiant (with beauty), 
beseeching (your husband'sapproach) to your body at due season; may you, who are 
youthful, come up to me; bear offspring, you who aredesirous of offspring. 

10.183.03 (The hota_ speaks). I implant the seed in vegetables, the germ in all 
living beings; I engender progenyupon the earth; I beget children on other 
women. [I beget children: the share of the hota_ in the procreation ofliving 
beings is referable to the efficacy of the sacrifices at which he ministers. The 
metaphor: children = richesderived from sacrifice].

10.184.01 May Vis.n.u construct the womb, may Tvas.t.a_ fabricate the members, 
may Praja_pati sprinkle (theseed), may Dha_ta_ cherish your embryo. 

10.184.02 Sustain the embryo, Sini_va_li, sustain the embryo, Sarasvati_, may 
the divine As'vins, garlanded withlotuses, sustain your embryo. 

10.184.03 We invoke your embryo which the A'vins have churned with the golden 
pieces of touchwood, that youmay bring it forth in the tenth month.

10.185.01 May the great, brilliant, unassailable protection of the three 
(deities), Mitra, Aryaman, and Varun.a, be(granted to me). 

10.185.02 Let not their malignant enemy have power over dwellings, or roads, or 

10.185.03 (Nor the enemy of) the mortal upon whom the sons of Aditi bestow the 
eternal light (of life) that he maylive. [Yajus. 3.31-33)].

10.186.01 May Va_ta breath into our hearts a healinv balm, bringing happiness; 
may he prolong our lives. 

10.186.02 You, Va_ta, are both our father and our brother and our friend; cause 
us to live. 

10.186.03 The store of ambrosia, Va_ta, which is placed in your house, give us 
of it that we may live.

10.187.01 Raise the hymn to Agni, the benefactor of mankind; may he bear us 
(safe) beyond (the reach of) thosewho hate us. 

10.187.02 May (Agni), who from a great distance shines fiercely upon the desert 
tract that he has attained, bearus (safe) beyond (the reach of) those who hate 
us. [Desert tract: tiro dhanva = across the desert; tiras =pra_ptam]. 

10.187.03 May (Agni), the showerer of benefits, who, his pure radiance destroys 
the ra_ks.asas, bear us (safe)beyond (the reach of) those who hate us. 

10.187.04 The Agni that glances at all the lokas, should protect us from the 
ill-will of enemies. 

10.187.05 The Agni that appears in the celestial sphere above us in the form of 
illumined light, should protect usfrom all kinds of sorrows and troubles.

10.188.01 Urge the food-giver, Ja_tavedas, (as) a horse, to sit down upon this 
our sacred grass. [Ja_tavedas asa horse: or, as'vam (adj.) = the all-pervading 

10.188.02 I offer earnest and ample praise to this Ja-tavedas, the showerer (of 
benefits), whose sons areintelligent (worshippers). 

10.188.03 May he invest our sacrifice with those bright (flames) of Ja_tavedas, 
that are the bearers of theoblation to the gods.

10.189.01 This moving many-coloured (Sun) has arrived, he has sat down before 
his mother (earth) in the east,and advances to his father heaven. [Deity 
Sa_rpara_jn~i_: i.e., Kadru, the mother of the serpent race; Yajus.3.6-8; gau = 
gamanas'i_la, moving; the deity: first line, Agni; second line, Su_rya or Agni]. 

10.189.02 His radiance penetrates internally, drawing (the air) down (through 
the lungs) after having sent it up,the mighty one beholds the sky. [After having 
sent it up: i.e., setting after having risen; the mighty one: the sun;or, Agni 
in the character of Va_yu; mahis.ah = mighty]. 

10.189.03 The thirty stations of the day and night shine with (the sun's) rays, 
the gvoice (of praise) is addressedto the Sun. [Sun's rays: dha_ma = related to 
duration of time: he shines for thirty stations (or ghat.is, one ghat.i =24 
minutes) in the day; stations = muhu_rtas, or periods of 48 minutes; voice of 
praise: patan:ga = agni; dha_ma= either 30 muhu_rtas (making up 24 hours), or as 
the thirty days of the month during every one of which thediligent yajama_na 

10.190.01 Truth (of thought) and truthfulness (of speech) were born of arduous 
penance, thence was nightgenerated, thence also the watery ocean. [Penance: an 
allusion to the penance of Brahma_ preceding creation;tatah = from that penance, 
or from him (Brahma_); watery ocean: samudra = firmament and ocean (arn.ava)]. 

10.190.02 From the watery ocean was the year afterwards produced, ordaining 
nights and days, the ruler ofevery moment. 

10.190.03 Dha_ta_ in the beginning created the sun and moved the heaven, the 
earth, the firmament, and thehappy (sky).

10.191.01 Agni, showerer (of benefits), you who are the lord, you verily combine 
with all creatures, you arekindled upon the footmark of Il.a_ (the altar); bring 
unto us riches. [You verily combine: lit., you mix, associate allthings; you 
alone among the gods pervade all living beings; or, Yajus. 15.30: you give the 
sacrificer all theobjects (phala_ni) for which he prays]. 

10.191.02 Meet together, talk together, let your minds apprehend alike; in like 
manner as the ancient godsconcurring accepted their portion of the sacrifice. 

10.191.03 Common be the prayer of these (assembled worshippers), common be the 
acquisition, common thepurpose, associated be the desire. I repeat for you a 
common prayer, I offer for you with a common oblation. 

10.191.04 Common, (worshipppers), be your intention; common be (the wishes of) 
your hearts; common be yourthoughts, so that there may be thorough union among 

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