1.001.01 I glorify Agni, the high priest of the sacrifice, the divine, the 
ministrant, who presents the oblation (to thegods), and is the possessor of 
great wealth. [Agni = purohita, the priest who superintends family rites; or, he 
isone of the sacred fires in which oblations are first (pura) offered (hita); 
deva: a god, the bright, shining, radiant; fr.div, to shine; or, one who abides 
in the sky or heaven (dyusha_na); or, liberal, donor (in the sense of giving); 
r.tvij= a ministering priest, he is also the hota_ (Aitareya Bra_hman.a 3.14), 
the priest who presents the oblation orwho invokes or summons the deities to the 
ceremony; fr. hu, to sacrifice; or, fr. hve, to call; ratnadha_tama: lit.holder 
of jewels; ratna = wealth in general; figurately, reward of religious rites]. 

 1.001.02 May that Agni who is to be celebrated by both ancient and modern sages 
conduct the gods hither.[pu_rva and nu_tana, former and recent are terms appled 
to r.s.is or sages; former r.s.is are: Bhr.gu, An:giras;they are also termed 
praja_patis (Vis.n.u Pura_n.a)] 

 1.001.03 Through Agni the worshipper obtains that affluence which increases day 
by day, which is the source offame and multiplier of mankind. 

 1.001.04 Agni, the unobstructed sacrifice of which you are on every side the 
protector, assuredly reaches thegods. [Adhvaram yajn~m, free from injury or 
interruption; 'on every side': fires at a sacrifice are lighted at fourcardinal 
points: a_havani_ya, ma_ja_li_ya, ga_rhapatya and agni_dhri_ya]. 

 1.001.05 May Agni, the presenter of oblations, the attainer of knowledge, he 
who is true, renowned, and divine,come hither with the gods. [kavi-kratu: one by 
whom either knowledge or religious acts (kratu) are acquired orperformed 
(kra_nta); a synonym of Agni]. 

 1.001.06 Whatever good you may, Agni, bestow upon the giver (of the oblation), 
that verily, An:giras shall revertto you. [An:giras = an:ga_ra, a live coal 
(Nirukta 3.17); 'the coals became the An:girasas', ye an:ga_ra_ha_sanste 
an:giraso abhavan (Aitareya Bra_hman.a 3.34); the legend: (Maha_bha_rata, 
Vanaparvan, Vol. II)Ma_rkand.eya tells Yudhis.t.hira, when the latter asks, "How 
is it that while Agni, went too the forest and ceasedhis functions; yet, 
An:giras became Agni to convey the oblations to gods? How is it that Agni, who 
is one,becomes many?" Agni, says Ma_rkan.d.eya, engaged in penance and 
relinquished his duties; Muni An:giras tookupon himself the office of Agni. When 
he prevailed upon Agni to resume his office, the latter became his son; 
hisdescendants, the An:girasas, therefore are also the descendants of Agni, or 
so many Agnis, or fires. The fires areenumerated at length, explained as 
personification of light, of luminous bodies, of divisions of time, of 
celestialphenomena, and fires adapted to peculiar occasions (full-moon, changes 
in phases of moon or to particular rites,as'vamedha, ra_jasu_ya, pa_ka yajn~as 
(sacrifices with food), obsequial and funeral fires, expiatory fires). Afurther 
legend is told: First Agni is called Saha, who hid himself in the ocean to avoid 
the approach of Niyata, theson of Bharata, the fire of the funeral pile. The 
text says, 'through fear'; Sa_yan.a adds: either through fear ofbeing rendered 
impure by his contact, or being ashamed of his relationship, Niyata being his 
own grandson.When gods came looking for Agni, the latter designated as his 
substitute, Atharvan, also called An:giras]. 

 1.001.07We approach you, Agni, with reverential homage in our thoughts, daily, 
both morning and evening. 

 1.001.08 You, the radiant, the protector of sacrifice, the constant illuminator 
of truth, increasing in your own dwelling. 

 1.001.09 Agni, be to us easy of access, as is a father to his son; be ever 
present with us for our good. 


 1.002.01 Va_yu, pleasant to behold, approach; these libations are prepared for 
you drink of them; hear our invocation. 

 1.002.02 Va_yu, your praisers praise you with holy praises having poured out 
Soma juice, and knowing the (fit) season. [Withukthas = with s'astras (hymns of 
praise recited, not chanted or sung]. 

 1.002.03 Va_yu, your approving speech comes to the giver (of the libation), and 
to many (others who invite you) to drink of theSoma juice. [Your approving 
speech: va_yu is supposed to say: 'I will drink the libation']. 

 1.002.04 Indra and Va_yu, these libations are poured out (for you); come hither 
with food (for us); verily the drops (of the Somajuice) await you both.  

 1.002.05 Indra and Va_yu, abiding in the sacrificial rite, you are aware of 
these libations; come both (then) quickly hither. 

 1.002.06 Va_yu and Indra, come to the rite of the sacrificer, for thus, men, 
will completion be speedily (attained) by the ceremony. 

 1.002.07 I invoke Mitra, of pure vigour, and Varun.a, the devourer of foes; the 
joint accomplishers of the act bestowing water (on theearth). [Mitra = the Sun; 
Varun.a = the regent of the waters; both are among the twelve A_dityas; Mitra 
presides over day, Varun.apresides over night; dhiyam ghr.ta_ci_m sa_dhanta_: 
dhi, an act; ghr.ta_ci_m, water-shedding]. 

 1.002.08 Mitra and Varun.a, augmenters of water, dispensers of water, you 
connect this perfect rite with its true (reward).[R.ta_vr.dhau: r.ta = tue or 
truth; it also signifies water and sacrifice].  

 1.002.09 Sapient Mitra and Varun.a, prosper our sacrifice and increase our 
strength; you are born for the benefit of many, you arethe refuge of multitudes. 


 1.003.01 As'vins, cherishers of pious acts, long-armed, accept with 
outstretched hands the sacrificial viands. 

 1.003.02 As'vins, abounding in mighty acts, guides (of devotion), endowed with 
fortitude, listen with unaverted minds to our praises.[Long-armed: purubhuja, 
also explained as: great eaters]. 

 1.003.03 As'vins, destroyers of foes, exempt from untruth, leaders in the van 
of heroes, come to the mixed libations sprinkled on thelopped sacred grass. 
[darsa = destroyers of foes or diseases; 'as'vinau vai deva_na_m bhis.ajau--iti 
sruteh', the two as'vins areverily the physicians of the gods, according to the 
Veda. rudra-vartani: rudra, fr. rud, weeping; yad arodi_t tad rudrasya 
rudratvam:in as much as he wept, thence came the property or function of rudra 
(Taittiri_ya Sam.hita_; hence, Rudra = heroes, theywho make their 
enemies weep; vartani = a road or way; in this hymn, it is the front of the way, 
the van; hence rudra, heroes are inthe van of warriors. vr.ktabarhis.ah: kus'a 
grass has the roots cut off and is spread on the vedi_ (altar) and upon it is 
added thelibation of Soma, or oblation of clarified butter, poured; it is also a 
seat for the deity or deities invoked to the sacrifice]. 

 1.003.04 Indra, of wonderful splendour, come hither; these libations, ever 
pure, expressed by the fingers (of the priests) aredesirous of you. 

 1.003.05 Indra, apprehended by the understanding and appreciated by the wise, 
approach and accept the prayers of the priest ashe offers the libation. 

 1.003.06 Fleet Indra with the tawny coursers, come hither to the prayer (of the 
priest), and in this libation accept our (proffered)food. 

 1.003.07 Universal Gods, protectors and supporters of men, bestowers (of 
rewards) come to the libation of the worshipper.[vis'vedevas = divinities in 
general; sometimes, they are a class connected with the elements]. 

 1.003.08 May the swift-moving universal Gods, the shedders of rain, come to the 
libation, as the solar rays come diligently tot hedays. 

 1.003.09 May the universal Gods, who are exempt from decay, omniscient, devoid 
of malice, and bearers of (riches), accept thesacrifice. [ehima_ya_sah: those 
who have obtained knowledge universally, sarvatah vya_ptaprajn~ah; or, the term 
may refer to alegend: vis'vedevas addressed Agni, Saucika, who had gone into the 
water, saying ehi, come, ma_ ya_sih, do not go away; hencethey got the 
appellation, ehima_ya_sah]. 

 1.003.10 May Sarasvati_, the purifier, the bestower of food, the recompenser of 
worship with wealth, be attracted by our offeredviands to our rite. [Sarasvati_ 
= va_g-devata_, divinity of speech].  

 1.003.11 Sarasvati_, the inspirer of those who delight in truth, the 
instructress of the right-minded, has accepted our sacrifice. 

 1.003.12 Sarasvati_, makes manifest by her acts a mighty river, and (in her own 
form) enlightens all understandings. [sarasvati_ isthe river in this hymn: 
dvividha_ hi sarasvati_ vigrahavaddevata_ nadi_ru_pa_ ca, tatra 
sarasvati_tyetasya nadi_vaddevata_vaccanigama_ bhavanti (Nirukta 2.23)]. 


 1.004.01 Day by day we invoke the doer of good works for our protection, as a 
good cow for the milking (is called by the milker). 

 1.004.02 Drinker of the Soma juice, come to our (daily) rites, and drink of the 
libation; the satisfaction of (you who are) the bestowerof riches, is verily 
(the cause of) the gift of cattle. 

 1.004.03 We recognize you in the midst of the right-minded, who are nearest to 
you; come to us; pass us not by to reveal (yourselfto others). [ma_no ati khyah 
= lit. do not speak beyond us]. 

 1.004.04 Go, worshipper, to the wise and uninjured Indra, who bestows the best 
(of blessings) on your friends, and ask him of the(fitness of the) learned 
(priest who recites his praise). 

 1.004.05 Let our ministers, earnestly performing his worship, exclaim, Depart 
your revilers from hence and every other place(where he is adored). [bruvantu = 
let them say, hence, let them praise Indra]. 

 1.004.06 Destroyer of foes, let our enemies say we are prosperous; let men 
(congratulate us); may we ever abide, in the felicity(derived from the favour) 
of Indra. 

 1.004.07 Offer to Indra, the pervader (of every rite of libation), the juice 
that is present (at the three ceremonies), the grace of thesacrifice, the 
exhilarator of mankind, the perfecter of the act, the favourite of (that Indra) 
who gives happiness (to the offerer).[Epithets of Soma: karman.i pra_nuvantam, 
the perfecter of the acts (patayantam = causing to fall); mandayatsakham, friend 
of thedelighter]. 

 1.004.08 Having drunk, S'atakratu, of this (Soma juice), you became the slayer 
of the Vr.tras; you defend the warrior in battle.[S'atakratu = Indra, connected 
with a hundred (many) acts, religious rites, bahu-karma-yukta, either as the 
performer of rites, or theobject of the rites; or, alternatively, 'endowed with 
great wisdom'; kratu = karma, act or prajn~a, knowledge; vr.tra_n.a_m = 
enemiesof whom the asura, Vr.tra was the chief]. 

 1.004.09 We offer to you, S'atakratu, the mighty in battle, (sacrificial) food 
for the acquisition, Indra, of riches. 

 1.004.10 Sing unto that Indra who is the protector of wealth, the mighty, the 
accomplisher of good deeds, the friend of the offerer ofthe libation. 


 1.005.01 Hasten hither, friends, offering praises; sit down, and sing 
repeatedly the praises of Indra. [stoma-va_hasah = lit. bearingpraises; 
'presenting in this rite Trivr.t, Pan~cadas'a, and others', 
trivr.tpan~cadas'a_distoma_nasmin karman.i bahantipra_payanti_ti; i.e. 
collection of laudatory hymns in the R.gveda (Vis.n.u Pura_n.a)]. 

 1.005.02 When the libation is poured forth, respectively praise Indra, the 
discomfiter of many enemies, the lord of many blessings. 

 1.005.03 May he be to us for the attainment of our objects; may he be to us for 
the acquisition of riches; may he be to us for theacquisition of knowledge; may 
he come to us with food. 

 1.005.04 Sing to that Indra, whose enemies in combat await not his coursers 
harnessed in his car. 

 1.005.05 These pure Soma juices, mixed with curds, are poured out for the 
satisfaction of the drinker of the libations. 

 1.005.06 Your, Indra, performer of good works, has suddenly become of augmented 
vigour for the sake of drinking the libation, and(maintaining) seniority (among 
the gods). [jayis.t.hyam = fr. yes.t.ha, eldest, oldest, best or chiefest]. 

  1.005.07 Indra, who are the object of praises, may these pervading Soma juices 
enter into you; may they be propitious for your (attainment of) superior 
intelligence. 1.005.08 The chants (of the Soma) have magnified you, S'atakratu, 
the hymns (of the R.k) have magnified you; may our praisesmagnify you. [stoma_h, 
praises of the singers of the Sa_ma (Sa_maga_na_m sytotra_n.i); uktha_, hymns of 
the reciters of bahvr.c(bahvr.ca_na_m s'astra_n.i)]. 

 1.005.09 May Indra, the unobstructed protector, enjoy these manifold 
(sacrificial) viands, in which all manly properties abide. 

 1.005.10 Indra, who are the object of praises, let no men do injury to our 
persons; you are mighty, keep off violence. 


    1.006.01 The circumstationed (inhabitants of the three worlds) associate 
with (Indra), the mighty (Sun), the indestructive (fire), themoving (wind), and 
the lights that shine in the sky. [paritasthus.ah, those who are standing 
around; or, lokatrayavarttinah pra_n.inah,the living beings of the three worlds; 
vradhna = mighty (A_ditya); arus.a = non-injuring (fire); caran = moving (wind). 
Taittiri_yaBra_hman.a endorses the equivalence: A_ditya, Agni, Va_yu (asau va_, 
a_dityo vradhnah; agnir va_ arus.ah; va_yurvai caran)(; identification 
of Indra with the three epithets implies his supremacy: paramais'varyayukta]. 

 1.006.02 They (the charioteers) harness to his car his two desirable coursers, 
placed on either hand, bay coloured, high-spirited,chief-bearing. [Horses of 
Indra are called hari (Nirukta 1.15.1), perhaps, of yellow colour; s'on.a_ = 
crimson colour; vipaks.asa_ =harnessed on different sides (of the chariot or 
pole (?)]. 

 1.006.03 Mortals, you owe your (daily) birth (to such an Indra), who with the 
rays of the morning gives sense to the senseless, and tothe formless form. 
[Indra is identified with the sun; marya_h = mortals (pl.); aja_yatha_h - 2nd 
pers. sg. 1st preterite; an instance ofVedic license; marya_h = marya (sg.)] 

 1.006.04 Thereafter verily those who bear names invoked in holy rites (the 
Maruts) having seen the rain (about to be engendered),instigated him to resume 
his embryo condition (in the clouds). [Maruts are aded. Winds drive Indra 
(firmament) to aggregae clouds,rain collects in their womb]. 

 1.006.05 Associated with the conveying Maruts, the traversers of places 
difficult of access, your Indra, have discovered the cowshidden in the cave. 
[Legend: asuras (pan.is) stole cows of gods (or an:girasas) and hid them in a 
cave. Indra discovered them withthe help of Sarama_]. 

 1.006.06 The reciters of praises praise the mighty (troop of Maruts), who are 
celebrated, and conscious of the power of bestowingwealth, in like manner as 
they (glorify) the counsellor (Indra). 

 1.006.07 May you be seen, Maruts, accompanied by the undaunted Indra; (both) 
rejoicing, and of equal splendour. [Legend: battlebetween Indra and Vr.tra: 
Indra is aided by the gods who were driven away by Vr.tra's dogs; Indra, to 
obtain superiority, summonedthe Maruts to help him]. 

 1.006.08 This right is performed in adoration of the powerful Indra, along with 
the irreproachable, heavenward- tending, andamiable bands (of the Maruts). 

 1.006.09 Therefore, circumambient (troop of Maruts), come hither, whether from 
the region of the sky or from the solar sphere; forin this rite (the priest) 
fully recites your praises. 

 1.006.10 We invoke, Indra, whether he come from this earthly region, or from 
the heaven above, or from the vast firmament; that hemay give (us) wealth. 
[Either the pr.thivi_-loka or the dyu-loka (heaven); antariks.a-loka = sphere of 
the firmament (space betweenthe earth and heaven, perhaps = vyoman or a_ka_s'a, 
sky or atmosphere)(Manu, I.13)]. 


    1.007.01 The chanters (of the Soma) extol Indra with songs, the reciters of 
the R.k with prayers, the priests of the Yajus., with texts.[ga_thina = singers; 
gi_yama_nasa_ma-yukta_ udga_ta_rah, the udgata_s with sa_mas to be chanted; 
br.hat = br.hata_, songs,with the br.hat-sa_ma; arkinah arkebhih = those of the 
R.gveda, with hymns; arka = mantra, prayer; va_n.i_h = va_n.i_bhih, withtexts or 
words (a reference, perhaps either to the singers or the reciters of the 
prayers, perhaps to the texts of the yajus]. 

 1.007.02 Indra, the blender of all things, comes verily with his steeds that 
are harnessed at his word; Indra, the richly-decorated, thewielder of the 
thunderbolt. [Richly-decorated: hiran.yaya = lit. golden, or made of gold]. 

 1.007.03 Indra, to render all things visible, elevated the sun in the sky, and 
charged the cloud with (abundant) waters. [Vr.traenvelopes the world in 
darkness; to remove darkness, Indra elevated the sun (a_-rohayat = 
stha_pitava_n, placed) in the dyu-loka(heaven)].   1.007.04 Invincible Indra, 
protect us in battles abounding in spoil, with insuperable defences.    1.007.05 
We invoke Indra for great affluence, Indra for limited wealth; (our) ally, and 
wielder of the thunder-bolt against (our)enemies.   1.007.06 Shedder of rain, 
granter of all desires, set open this cloud. You are never uncompliant with our 

 1.007.07 Whatever excellent praises are given to other dignities, they are 
(also the due) of Indra the thunderer; I do not know hisfitting praise. 
[tun~jastun~jaterda_nakarman.ah (Nirukta. 6.17-18)].   1.007.08 The shedder of 
rain, the mighty lord, the always compliant, invests men with his strength, as a 
bull (defends) a herd ofkine.   1.007.09 Indra, who alone rules over men, over 
riches, and over the five (classes) of the dwellers on earth. [pan~ca 
ks.iti_na_m =over the five men or classes of men; i.e. those who are fit for 
habitations (niva_sa_rha_na_m)].   1.007.10 We invoke for you, Indra, who is 
everywhere among men; may he be exclusively our own. 


   1.008.01 Indra, bring for our protection riches, most abundant, enjoyable, 
the source of victory, the humbler of our foes. [ 

 1.008.02 By which we may repel our enemies, whether (encountering them) hand to 
hand, or on horse-back; ever protected by you.(mus.t.ihatyaya_ = 
mus.t.ipraha_ren.a) = lit. by striking with the fist; on horseback = with a 
horse (a reference to infantry andcavalry)]. 

 1.008.03 Defended by you, Indra, we possess a ponderous weapon, wherewith we 
may entirely conquer our opponents. 

 1.008.04 With you for our ally, Indra, and (aided by) missile-hurling heroes, 
we are able to overcome (our foes) arrayed in hosts. 

 1.008.05 Mighty is Indra, and supreme; may magnitude ever (belong) to the 
bearer of the thunderbolt; may his strong (armies) beever vast as the heavens. 

 1.008.06 Whatever men have recourse to Indra in battle, or for the acquisition 
of offspring, and the wise who are desirous ofunderstanding (obtain their 

    1.008.07 The belly of Indra, which quaffs the Soma juice abundantly, swells 
like the ocean, (and is ever) moist, like the ample fluidsof the palate. 
[urvi_na_po na ka_kudah: ka_kuda = ka_kud, the pinnacle of a mountain; the 
rendering: 'like the abundant waters (ortorrents) from the mountain-tops']. 

 1.008.08 Verily the words of Indra to his worshipper are true, manifold, cow- 
conferring, and to be held in honour; (they are) like abranch (loaded with) ripe 

 1.008.09 Verily, Indra, your glories are at all times the protectors of every 
such worshipper as I am. 

 1.008.10 Verily his chanted and recited praises are to be desired and repeated 
to Indra, that he may drink the Soma juice. [stoma= chanted praises: 
sa_masa_dhyam stotram, praise to be accomplished by the Sa_maveda; uktha = 
recited praises:r.k-sa_dhyam s'astram, the unsung praise to be accomplished by 
the r.ca_. s'astram = a hymn not sung: s'astramapragi_ta-mantrastotram. The 
repetition of the s'astram is done by hota_ (hotuh-karma); suti and stoma are 
sanitam stotram, sungor chanted hymn. Thus, s'astra = hymn recited (audibly, or 
inaudibly); stoma = hymn sung]. 


 1.009.01 Come, Indra, and be regaled with all viands libations, and thence, 
mighty in strength, be victorious (over yourfoes). 

 1.009.02 The libation being prepared, present the exhilaratina and efficacious 
(draught) to the rejoicing Indra, theaccomplisher of all things. 

 1.009.03 Indra with the handsome chin, be pleased with these animating praises; 
do your, who are to be reverenced by allmankind, (come) to these rites (with the 
gods). [su-s'ipra = s'ipra, lower law or the nose; thus, handsome-
nosed;vis'vacars.an.e = lit. oh! you who are all men: sarva-manus.ya-yukta, who 
are joined with all men; further qualified: sarvairyajama_naih pu_jyah, to be 
worshipped by all institutors of sacrifices]. 

 1.009.04 I have addressed to you, Indra, the showerer (of blessings), the 
protector (of your worshipers), praises which havereached you, and of which you 
have approved. 

 1.009.05 Place before us, Indra, precious and multiform riches, for enough and 
more than enough are assuredly yours. 

 1.009.06 Opulent Indra, encourage us in this rite for the acquirement of 
wealth, for we are diligent and renowned. 

 1.009.07 Grant us, Indra, wealth beyond measure or calculation, inexhaustible, 
the source of cattle, of food, of all life. 

 1.009.08 Indra, grant us great renown and wealth acquired in a thousand ways, 
and those (articles) of food (which arebrought from the field) in carts. [The 
text has, 'those car-having viands: ta_ rathini_r-is.ah; this is explained as 
those articlesof food which are conveyed in cars, carts or wagons, from the site 
of their production, such as rice, barley and other typesof grain]. 

 1.009.09 We invoke for the preservation of our property, Indra, the lord of 
wealth, the object of sacred verses, the repairer(to the place of sacrifice), 
praising him with our praises. [ganta_ram = he goes; i.e. ya_gades'e 
gamana_s'i_lam, he isaccustomed to go the chamber which is apporpriated to 

 1.009.10 With libations repeatedly effused, the sacrificer glorifies the vast 
prowess of Indra, the mighty, the dweller in (aneternal mansion). [nyokas: fr. 
ni = niyata, fixed, permanent; okas = dwelling]. 


 1.010.01 The chanters (of the Soma) hymn you, S'atakratu; the reciters of the 
R.k praise you, who are worthy ofpraise; the Bra-hman.as raise you aloft, like a 
bamboo pole. [ga_yatrin.ah = lit. those who use ga_yatri_ metre:udga_ta_, 
chanter of Sa_ma hymns; arkin.ah = reciters of the r.ca_: hota_; bra_man.ah = 
brahma_ of a sacrifice,a priest so denominated and other bra_hman.as (or, 
utterers of prayer. tva_ va"m.s'am iva udyemire, they haveraised you like a 
bamboo (vam.s'o vanas'ayo bhavati vanana_cchru_yata iti va_ (Nirukta. 5.5); they 
haveelevated Indra, as tumblers raise a bamboo pole, on the summit of which they 
balance themselves; vam.s'a =family (i.e. as ambitious persons raise their 
family to consequence)]. 

 1.010.02 Indra, the showever (of blessings), knows the object (of his 
worshipper), who has performed many actsof worship (with the Soma gathered) on 
the ridges of the mountain, and (therefore) comes with the troop (ofMaruts). 
[yat sa_noh sa_num a_ruhat, mounting from ridge to ridge: this is said of the 
yajama_na, who goes tothe mountain to gather soma for bruising, or fuel for the 
fire, or other articles required for the ceremony]. 

 1.010.03 Indra, drinker of the Soma, having put to your long-maned, vigorous, 
and well-conditioned steeds, comenigh to hear our praises. [kaks.yapra_ = lit. 
filling out their girths, i.e. well-conditioned]. 

 1.010.04 Come, Vasu, (to this our rite); reply to our hymns, answer (to our 
praises), respond to (our prayers); bepropitious, Indra, to our sacrifice, and 
(bestow upon us abundant) food. [vasu = Indra, the original donor or causeof 
habitations; fr. vas, to dwell, niva_saka_ran.a-bhu_ta]. 

 1.010.05 The hymn, the cause of increase, is to be repeated to Indra, the 
repeller of many foes, that S'akra mayspeak (with kindness) to our sons and to 
our friends. [s'akra = Indra, the powerful; fr. s'ak = to be able]. 

    1.010.06 We have recourse to Indra for his friendship, for wealth, for 
perfect might; for he, the powerful Indra,conferring wealth, is able (to protect 

 1.010.07 Indra, by you is food (rendered) everywhere abundant, easy of 
attainment, and assuredly perfect;wielder of the thunderbolt, set open the cow-
pastures, and provide (ample) wealth. [Lit. Indra, as the sender ofrain, should 
fertilize the fields, and by providing abundant pasturage, enable the cattle to 
yield store of milk]. 

 1.010.08 Heaven and earth are unable to sustain you when destroying your 
enemies; you may command thewaters of heaven; send us lberally kine. 

 1.010.09 Oh! your whose ears hear all things, listen quickly to my invocation; 
hold in your heart my praises; keepnear to you this my hymn, as it were (the 
words of) a friend. 

 1.010.10 We know you, liberal rainer (of blessings), the hearer of our call in 
battles; we invoke the thousand-foldprofitable protection of you, the showerer 
(of bounties). 

 1.010.11 Come quickly, Indra, sone of Kus'ika, delighted drink the libation; 
prolong the life that meritscommendation; make me, who am a R.s.i abundantly 
endowed (with possessions). [Vis'va_mitra, the sage, is theson of Kus'ika; 
legend: Kus'ika, the son of Is.irathi, was desirous of a son equal to Indra; he 
did penance andIndra was born as the son of Ga_thi (Ga_dhi) (Anukraman.ika_ 
3.1): kus'ikastvais.i_rathirindratulyamputramicchan brahmacarya caca_ra; 
tasyendra eva ga_thi_ putro jajn~e]. 

 1.010.12 May these our praises be on all occasions around you, deserver of 
praise; may they augment thepower of you, who are long-lived, and being 
agreeable to you, may they yield delight (to us). 


 1.011.01 All our praises magnify Indra, expansive as the ocean, the most 
valiant of warriors who fight in chariots, the lord of food,the protector of the 
virtuous. [samudra vyacasam = samudra vad vya_tavantam, spreading or pervading 
like the ocean; Indra, asthe firmament is universally diffused]. 

 1.011.02 Supported by your friendship, Indra, cherisher of strength, we have no 
fear, but glorify you, the conqueror, theunconquered. 

 1.011.03 The ancient liberalities of Indra, his protections, will not be 
wanting to him who presents to the reciters of the hymns,wealth of food and 

 1.011.04 Indra was born the destroyer of cities, ever young, ever wise, of 
unbounded strength, the sustainer of all pious acts, thewielder of the 
thunderbolt, the many-praised. [Text: pura_m bhinduh, breaker of cities; added: 
asura_n.a_m (asuras)]. 

 1.011.05 Your, wielder of the thunderbolt, did open the cave of Vala, who had 
there concealed the cattle; and the gods whom hehad oppressed, no longer feared 
when they had obtained you (for their ally). [Vala was an asura; he stole the 
cows of the gods andhid them in a cave; Indra recovered the cattle after 
surrounding the cave with his army. Pan.is, also cow-stealers, werre the 
soldiersof Vala (Anukraman.ika_)]. 

 1.011.06 (Attracted) by your bounties, I again come, Hero, to you, celebrating 
(your liberality) while offering this libation; theperformers of the rite 
approach you, who are worthy of praise, for they have known your (munificence). 

 1.011.07 Your slewest, Indra, by stratagems, the wily S'us.n.a; the wise have 
known of this your (greatness); bestow upon them(abundant) food. [S'us.n.a is an 
asura slain by Indra. S'us.n.a = dryer up; bhuta_na_m s'os.an.a-hetum, the cause 
of the drying orwithering of beings: heat or draught; Indra, as the rain puts an 
end to this; indrah s'us.n.um jagha_na (Nirukta. 3.11)]. 

 1.011.08 The reciters of sacred hymns praise with all their might, Indra, the 
ruler of the world, whose bounties are (computed) bythousands or even more. 


 1.012.01 We select Agni, the messenger of the gods, their invoker, the 
possessor of all riches, the perfecter of this rite. [Us.anas,son of Kavi, is 
the messenger of the asuras: agnir deva_na_m du_ta a_si_d; us.ana_h ka_vya 
asura_n.a_m (Taittiri_ya Sam.hita_2.5.8.5)]. 

 1.012.02 (The offerers of oblations) invoke with their invocations, Agni, Agni, 
the lord of men, the bearer of offerings, the beloved ofmany. [vis'pati, fr. 
vis' (praja_h) = progeny, people]. 

 1.012.03 Agni, generated (by attrition), bring hither the gods to the clipped 
sacred grass; you are their invoker for us, and are to beadored. [jajn~a_nah = 
being born, i.e. produced by the friction of two pieces of wood]. 

 1.012.04 As you discharge the duty of messenger, arouse them desirous of the 
oblation; sit down with them on the sacred grass. 

 1.012.05 Resplendent Agni, invoked by oblations of clarified butter, consume 
our adversaries, who are defended by evil spirits.[raks.asvinah = having or 
being attended by ra_ks.asas (raks.oyukta_n)]. 

 1.012.06 Agni, the ever young and wise, the guardian of the dwelling (of the 
sacrificer), the bearer of offerings, whose mouth is (thevehicle) of oblations, 
is kindled by Agni. [gr.hapati: pati = pa_laka, cherisher, protector; hence, 
Agni is portrayed here as theprotector of the house of the yajama_na; kindled by 
fire: oblation is poured into a_havani_ya fire, which can be taken from 
thehousehold fire or produced by churning with sticks]. 

 1.012.07 Praise in the sacrifice, Agni, be the protector of that offerr of 
oblations who worships you, the messenger of the gods. 

 1.012.08 Resplendent Agni, be the protector of that offerr of oblations who 
worships you, the messenger of the gods. 

 1.012.09 Be propitious, Pa_vaka, to him, who, presenting oblations for the 
gratification of the celestials, approaches Agni. 

 1.012.10 Agni, the bright, the purifier, bring hither the gods to our 
sacrifice, to our oblations. 

 1.012.11 Praised with our newest hymn, bestow upon us riches and food, the 
source of progeny. 

 1.012.12 Agni, shining with pure radiance, and charged with all the invocations 
of the gods, be pleased by this our praise. pracetas, 9.tisro devyah: 
sarasvati_, il.a_, bha_rati_, 10.tvas.t.a_, 11.vanaspati, 12. sva_ha_kr.ti; 
chanda: ga_yatri_ 1.013.01 Agni, who are Susamiddha, invoker, purifier, bring 
hither the gods to the offerers of our oblation, and do your sacrifice.[The 
A_pris are twelve including a name of fire, naras'ansa. Su = well; sam = 
completely; iddha = kindled; hence, Susamiddha =the thoroughly kindled]. 

 1.013.02 Wise (Agni) who are Tanu_napa_t (= devourer of clarified butter), 
present this day our well-favoured sacrifice to the godsfor their food. 
[Tanu_napa_t, deourer of clarified butter (tanu_napa); alternatively, tanu = own 
substance, or fuel, i.e. consumer of itsown substance; napa_t = tanaya, son or 
offspring; alternatively, napa_t = who does not preserve, who destroys]. 

 1.013.03 I invoke the beloved Nara_s'ams'a, the sweet-tongued, the offere of 
oblations, to this sacrifice. [Nara_s'am.s'a, him whommen praise: nara 

 1.013.04 Agni, (who are) I_l.ita (= worshipped), bring hither the gods in an 
easy-moving chariot, for you are the invoker instituted bymen. [I_l.ita, stutah, 
the worshipped; fr. i_l.a, to adore, to praise]. 

 1.013.05 Strew, learned priests, the sacred grass, well bound together (in 
bundles), and sprinkled with clarified butter, thesemblance of ambrosia. [Barhis 
is an appellative of Agni; amr.ta-sama_nasya ghr.tasya or maran.a-rahitasya 
barhirna_makasya,agneh:amr.ta (clarified butter sprinkled on grass) has the 
appearance of ambrosia; or agni is immortal]. 

 1.013.06 Let the bright doors, the augmenters of sacrifice, (hitherto) 
unentered, be set open, for certainly today is the sacrifice tobe made. [Doors: 
agnivis'es.amu_rtayah, personifications of agni]. 

 1.013.07 I invoke the lovely night and dawn to sit upon the sacred grass, at 
this our sacrifice. [naktam = night; us.as = dawn; theydenote two forms of fire, 
presiding over theose seasons: tat-ka_la_bhima_nivahnimu_rtidvaye]. 

 1.013.08 I call the two eloquent divine and sage invokers (of the gods), that 
they may celebrate this our sacrifice. [Two agnis:daivyau hota_rau pracetasau, 
two divine invokers (pracetasas), who are sages (kavi)]. 

 1.013.09 May the three undecaying goddesses, givers of delight, Il.a_, 
Sarasvati_, and Mahi_ (= Bha_rati_), sit down upon thesacred grass. [Mahi = 
Bha_rati; Il.a_, Sarasvati_, Bha_rati_ are personifications of agni: 
agnimu_rtayah; they are also threepersonified flames of fire. As goddesses, 
Il.a_ = earth (bride of Vis.n.u); Sarasvati_ = goddess of eloquence (wife of 
Brahma_);Bharati_ = speech (wife of Bharata, an A_ditya)]. 

 1.0113.10 I invoke the chief and multiform Tvas.t.r. (= Vis'vakarma_); may he 
be solely ours. [Tvas.t.a_ = Vis'vakarma_, artificer ofthe gods, the fabricator 
of the original sacrificial vase or ladle. tvas.t.a_ vai pas'u_na_m mithuna_na_m 
ru_kakr.t---iti s'ruteh(Taittiri_ya.Sam.hita_ Tvas.t.a_ forms in 
animals in pairs; he is also an A_ditya; here he is an Agni: Tvas.tr.-

 1.013.11 Present, divine Vanaspati (= lord of the woods), our oblation to the 
gods, and may true knowledge be (the reward) of thegiver. 

 1.013.12 Perform the sacrifice conveyed through Sva_ha_ (= an exclamation used 
in pouring the oblation on the fire) to Indra, in thehouse of the worshipper; 
therefore I call the gods hither. [sva_ha_ = an exclamation used in pouring the 
oblation on the fire, alsoidentified with Agni. Sva_ha_ is called the daughter 
of Br.haspati, son of An:giras (Maha_bha_rata); she is also the daughter 
ofDaks.a and wife of Agni]. 


 1.014.01 Come, Agni, to our adoration, and to our praises, with all these gods, 
to drink the Soma juice; and (do you) offer sacrifice. 

 1.014.02 The kan.va_s (=medha_vinah or sages; r.tvija or officiating priests) 
invoke you, sapient Agni, and extol your deeds; come,Agni, Agni, with the gods. 
[kan.va_: descendants or disciples of r.s.i kan.va; here, interpreted as sages 
(medha_vinah) orofficiating priests (r.tvija_)]. 

 1.014.03 Sacrifice (Agni), to Indra, Va_yu, Br.haspati, Mitra, Agni, Pu_s.an 
and Bhaga, the A_dityas, and the troop of Maruts. [Thehymn has only proper names 
in the objective case; added: 'sacrifice, Agni, to': Mitra, Pu_s.an and Bhaga 
are A_dityas, forms of theSun. br.haspati: br.has = br.hat, great, divine, a 
deity (Pa_n.ini, VI, I, 157); pati = master or protector, as a spiritual 
preceptor of thegods]. 

 1.014.04 For all of you are poured out these juices, satisfying, exhilarating, 
sweet, falling in drops, or gathered in ladles. 

 1.014.05 The wise priests desirous of the protection (of the gods) having 
spread the sacred grass, presenting oblations, andoffering ornaments, praise 

 1.014.06 Let the coursers who convey you, glossy-backed, and harnessed at will, 
bring the gods to drink the Soma juice. [ghr.tapr.s.t.ha_h, their backs shining 
with or from clarified butter or ghee (which is the feed for the horses)]. 

 1.014.07 Agni, make those objects of veneration, augmenters of pious acts, 
(participant of the offering), together with their wives;give them, bright-
tongued, to drink of the Soma juice. 

 1.014.08 Let those objects of veneration and of praise, drink with your tongue, 
of the Soma juice, at the moment of libation. 

 1.014.09 Let the wise invoker (of the gods) bring hither from the shining 
(sphere) of the sun, all the divinities awaking with the dawn. 

 1.014.10 With all the gods, with Indra, Va_yu and the glories (rays) of Mitra 
(= various forms of Mitra), drink, Agni the sweet Somajuice. [mitrasya 
dha_mabhih, with the rays or various forms of Mitra]. 

 1.014.11 Your, Agni appointed by man as the invoker (of the gods) are present 
at sacrifices; do you present this our oblation. 

 1.014.12 Yoke, divine Agni, your fleet and powerful mares, Rohits (ta_bhih 
vad.ava_bhih = mares; rohit= red) to your chariott andby them hither bring the 
gods. [Rohita, is the name of the horse of Agni]. 



  1.015.01 Indra, drink with R.tu (proper duty, also personified divinity of a 
season) the Soma juice; let the satisfying drops enteredinto you, and there 

 1.015.02 Maruts, drink with R.tu from the sacrificial vase; consecrate the 
rite, for you are bountiful. 

 1.015.03 Nes.t.a_ (= Tvas.t.a_), with your spouse, commend our sacrifice to the 
gods; drink with R.tu, for you are possessed ofriches. [Tvas.t.a_ assumes the 
functions of Nes.t.r. as the priest at a sacrifice]. 

 1.015.04 Agni, bring the gods hither, arrange them in three places 
(A_havani_ya, Daks.in.a and Ga_rhapatya--three fires)decorate them; drink with 

 1.015.05 Drink the Soma juice, Indra from the precious vase of the Bra_hman.a ( 
= Bra_hmanical wealth) after R.tu, for whom yourfriendship is uninterrupted.  
bra_hman.a_d-ra_dhasah = lit. from bra_hmanical wealth; explained as a costly or 
wealthy vessel:dhanabhu_ta_t pa_tra_t; bra_hman.a_d = bra_hman.a_ccham.si, one 
of the sixteen priests employed in sacrifices, who perhapsholds some ladle or 
vase in which the offering is presented: tasya sambandhyucchis.t.as camasah, the 
relation is the ladle that hasthe leavings]. 

 1.015.06 Mitra and Varun.a, propitious to pious acts, be present with R.tu at 
our sacrifice, efficacious and undisturbed (by foes). 

 1.015.07 (The priests) desirous of wealth, holding stones in their hands, 
praise the divine (Agni) Dravin.odas (= Agni, donor ofwealth), both in the 
primary (e.g. Agnis.t.oma) and subsidiary (e.g. Ukthya) sacrifices. [gra_va-
hasta_sah, having stones in theirhands, with which to bruise Soma. Gra_va-va_n 
is one of the 16 priests. Dravin.odas is an appellative of Agni; donor (das) 
ofwealth, or of strength, dravin.a; adhvara is said to be the primary or 
essential ceremony, prakr.ti-ru_pa, e.g. agnis.t.oma; yajn~arelated to mofied 
ceremonies, vikr.ti-rupes.u, e.g. ukthya, elsewhere refered to as offering with 
Soma: somasam.sthaya_gam]. 

 1.015.08 May Dravin.odas give us riches that may be heard of; we ask them for 
the gods. 

 1.015.09 Dravin.odas desires to drink with the R.tu from the cup of Nes.t.a_ (= 
tvas.t.a_ or one of 16 officiating priests); hasten,(priest, to the hall of 
offering); present the oblation, and depart. 

 1.015.10 Since Dravin.odas, we adore you for the fourth time (i.e. in four 
r.ks) along with the R.tu; therefore be a benefactor unto us. 

 1.015.11 As'vins, performers of pious acts, bright with sacrificial fires, 
acceptors, with the R.tus, of the sacrifice drink the sweetdraught. 

 1.015.12 Giver of rewards (Agni = santya, fr. san, to give), being identified 
with the household fire, and partaker with R.tu of thesacrifice, worship the 
gods on behalf of their adorer. 


 1.016.01 Indra, let your coursers hither bring you, bestower of desires, to 
drink the Soma juice; may (the priests), radiant as theSun, (make you manifest). 

 1.016.02 Let his coursers convey Indra in an easy moving chariot hither, where 
these grains (of parched barley), steeped inclarified butter, are strewn (upon 
the altar). 

 1.016.03 We invoke Indra at the morning rite, we invoke him at the succeeding 
sacrifice, we invoke Indra to drink the Soma juice. 

 1.016.04 Come, Indra, to our libation with our long-maned steeds; the libation 
being poured out, we invoke you. 

 1.016.05 Do you accept this our praise, and come to this our sacrifice, for  
which the libation is prepared; drink like a thirsty stag(gaura). 

 1.016.06 These dripping Soma juices are effused upon the sacred grass; drink 
them, Indra, (to recruit your) vigour. 

 1.016.07 May this our excellent hymn, touching your heart, be grateful to you, 
and thence drink the effused libation. 

 1.016.08 Indra, the destroyer of enemies, repairs assuredly to every ceremony 
where the libation is poured out, to drink the Somajuice for (his) exhilaration. 

 1.016.09 Do you, S'atakratu, accomplish our desire with (the gift of) cattle 
and horse; profoundly meditating, we praise you. 



 1.017.01 I seek the protection of the sovereign rulers (= possessed of 
extensive dominion or shining very brilliantly), Indra andVarun.a; may they both 
favour us accordingly. 

 1.017.02 For you are ever ready, guardians of mankind, to grant protection on 
the appeal of a minister such as I am. 

 1.017.03 Satisfy us with wealth, Indra and Varun.a, according to our desires; 
we desire you ever near us. 

 1.017.04 The mingled (libations; yuva_ku = mixture of curds and ghee; 
s'aci_na_m, mixture of butter milk, water and meal) of ourpious rites, the 
mingled yuva_ku sumati_na_m = (laudations) of our right-minded (= sumati_na_m, 
priests, are prepared); may webe (included) among the givers of food. 

 1.017.05 Indra is a giver among the givers of thousands;Varun.a is to be 
praised among those who are deserving of laudation. 

 1.017.06 Through their protection, we enjoy (riches) and heap them up, and 
still there is abundance. 

 1.017.07 I invoke you both, Indra and Varun.a, quickly bestow happiness upon 
us, for our minds are devoted to you both. 

 1.017.08 Indra and Varun.a, quickly bestow happiness upon us, for our minds are 
devoted to you both. 

 1.017.09 May the earnest priase which I offer to Indra and Varun.a reach you 
both--that conjoint praise which you (accepting),dignify. 



 1.018.01 Brahman.aspati (=Agni, connected with prayer) make the offerer of the 
libation illustrious among the gods, likeKaks.i_vat, the son of Us'ij (and 
Di_rghatamas). [Legend: Kaks.i_vat, was the son of Di_rghatamas, by Us.ij, a 
female servant ofthe queen of Kalin:ga Ra_ja, whom her husband had desired to 
submit to the embraces of sage to beget a son. The queensubstituted her maid 
Us.ij. Sage was aware of the deception, sanctified Us.ij, begot by her a son, 
named Kaks.i_vat, who was a 

 1.018.02 May he who is opulent, the healer of disease, the acquirer of riches, 
the augmenter of nourishment, the prompt (bestowerof rewards) be favourable to 

 1.018.03 Protect us, Brahman.aspati, so that no calumnious censure of a 
melevolent man may reach us. 

 1.018.04 The liberal man, whom Indra, Brahman.aspati, and Soma protect, never 

 1.018.05 Do you, Brahman.aspati, and do you, Soma, Indra and Daks.in.a_ (= 
present personified as a female divinity), protectthat man from sin. 

 1.018.06 I solicit understanding from Sadasaspati (= Agni, protector of the 
assembly), the wonderful, the friend of Indra, thedesirable, the bountiful. 

 1.018.07 Without whose aid the sacrifice even of the wise is not perfected; he 
pervades the association of our thoughts (or, theobject of our pious acts; dhi_ 
= buddhi, understanding or karma). 

 1.018.08 He rewrds the presenter of the oblation; he brings the sacrifice to 
its conclusion; (through him) our invocation reaches thegods. 

 1.018.09 I have beheld Na_ra_s'am.sa (i.e. Agni or the personified yajn~a or 
sacrifice at which men praise the gods), the mostresolute, the most renowned, 
and radiant as the heavens. ['I beheld (with the eye of the Vedas) that divinity 
Sadasaspati, who is tobe praised by men, who is also called Nara_s'am.sa' 
(Aitareya Bra_hman.a 6.27)]. 



 1.019.01 Earnestly are you invoked to this perfect rite, to drink the Soma 
juice; come, Agni, with the Maruts. 

 1.019.02 Nor god nor man has power over a rite (dedicated) to you, who are 
mighty; come, Agni, with the Maruts. 

 1.019.03 Who all are divine (deva_sah = dyotama_na_h, shining) and devoid of 
malignity and who know (how to cause thedescent) of great waters; come, Agni, 
with the (sapta-gan.a_ or all seven troops of) Maruts. [udi_ryatha_ marutah 
samudratoyu_yam vr.s.tim vars. ayatha_ puri_s.in.ah: Maruts, you have risen from 
the ocrean; taking the lead, you have sent down rain (RV5.55.5); rajas = water, 
light or the world (Nirukta. 4.19)]. 

 1.019.04 Who are fierce, and send down rain (arka, fr. arc to worship; a_po va_ 
arkah (S'atapatha Bra_hman.a; hence,arka connotes water or rain), and 
are unsurpassed in strength; come, Agni with the Maruts. [so arcannacarat 
tasya_rcatah a_poaja_yanta: Hiran.yagarbha proceeded, worshipping, (after 
creating the solid earth), and from him worshipping the waters wereproduced 
(S'atapatha Bra_hman.a]. 

 1.019.05 Who are brilliant, of terrific forms, who are possessors of great 
wealth, and are devourers of the malevolent; come, Agniwith the Maruts. 

 1.019.06 Who are divinities abiding in the radiant heaven above the sun; come, 
Agni with the Maruts. [divi-dyuloke = in the heaven;na_kasya adhi = su_ryasya 
upari, above the sun; na_ka = sun, sky or heaven]. 

 1.019.07 Who scatter the clouds, and agitate the sea (with waves): come, Agni 
with the Maruts. 

 1.019.08 Who spread (through the firmament) along with the rays (of the sun) 
and with their strength agitate the ocean: come, Agni,with the Maruts. [Note, 
the idea of influence of winds upon the sea.] 

 1.019.09 I pour out the sweet Soma juice for your drinking, (as) of old; come, 
Agni with the Maruts. 



 1.020.01 This hymn, the bestower of riches, has been addressed by the sages, 
with their own mouths, to the (class of) divinitieshaving birth (lit. to the 
divine or brilliant birth; e.g. R.bhus--R.bhu, Vibhu and Va_ja were pious men, 
who through penance becamedivinities). [deva_ya janmane: lit. to the divine or 
brilliant birth; janmane: ja_yama_na_ya, being born, or having birth; 
deva_ya:deva-san:gha_ya, a class of divinities, R.bhus who achieved deification: 
manus.ya_h santastapasa_ devatvam pra_pta_h. R.bhuswere three sons of Sudhanvan, 
a descendant of An:giras. Through their good work (svapas = su-apas), they 
became divine,exercised superhuman powers and became entitled to receive praise 
and adoration. They dwell in the solar sphere, identified withthe rays of the 

 1.020.02 They who created mentally for Indra the horses that are harnessed 
(carved) at his words, have partaken of the sacrificeperformed with holy acts. 
(s'ami_bhih = ceremonies; i.e. they have pervaded, appropriated or accepted the 
sacrifice peformed withtongs, ladles, and utensils; an intimation of the 
mechanical skills of R.bhu). [grahacamasa_dinis'pa_danaru_paih 
karmabhir,yajn~am, asmadi_yam a_s'ata (vya_ptavantah): they have pervaded (or 
accepted) our sacrifice, performed with those acts whichare executed by means of 
tongs, ladles, and other (utensils used in oblations). R.bhus invented these 
implements, and attest totheir mechanical skills]. 

 1.020.03 They constructed for the Na_satya_s, a universally-moving and easy 
car, and a cow yielding milk. (taks.an = ataks.an, lit.they (R.bhus) chipped or 
fabricated, mechanically, the appendages of Indra and As'vin). [They carved 
(tataks.uh) Indar's horse; theydid it mentally (ma_nasa)]. 

 1.020.04 The R.bhus, uttering unfailing prayers, endowed with rectitude, and 
succeeding (in all pious acts; vis.t.i_ = vya_ptiyuktah,i.e. encountering no 
opposition in all acts), made their (aged) parents young. [satya-mantra_h = 
repeating true prayers, i.e. prayerscertain to achieve the objects prayed for; 
akrata: fr. kr., to make generally]. 

 1.020.05 R.bhus, the exhilarating juices are offered to you, along with Indra, 
attended by the Maruts and along with the brilliangA_dityas. [Libations offered 
at the third daily, or evening sacrifice, are presented to Indra, along with the 
A_dityas, together withR.bhu, Vibhu and Va_ja, with Br.haspati and the 
Vis'vedeva_s (A_s'vala_yana S'rauta Su_tra, 5.3)]. 

 1.020.06 The R.bhus have divided unto four the new ladle, the work of the 
divine Tvas.t.a_ (i.e. devasambandhihtaks.ana.vya_pa_rah = divinity whose duty 
in relations to gods is carpentry; cf. tvas.t.a_ tvas.t.uh s'is.ya_h R.bhavah = 
R.bhus arethe disciples of Tvas.t.a_; four ladles are an apparent reference to 
an innovation in the objects of libation for sharing). [Tvas.t.a_ isthe artisan 
of the gods; he is a divinity whose duty is carpentry, with relation to the 

 1.020.07 May they, moved by our praises, give to the offere of the libation 
many precious things, and perfect the thrice sevensacrifices [i.e. seven 
sacrifices in each of three classes: agnya_dheyam (clarified butter), 
pa_kayajn~a (dressed viands),agnis.t.oma (soma)]. [Trira_ sa_pta_ni: trih may be 
applied to precious things to sa_pta_ni, seven sacrifices]. 

 1.020.08 Offerers (of sacrifices), they held (a moral existence); by their 
pious acts they obtained a share of sacrifices with the gods.[a_dha_rayanta = 
they held or enjoyed (pra_n.a_n, i.e. vital airs, life)] [marta_sah santo 
amr.tatvam anas'uh: beyong mortals, theyobtained immprtality (RV. 1.110.4); 
saudhanvana_ yajn~iyam bha_gam a_nas'a: by the son of Sudhanvan was a 
sacrificial portionacquired (RV. 1.60.1); r.bhavo vai deves.u tapasa_ 
somapi_tham abhyajayan: r.bhus won by devotion the drinking of Soma amongthe 
gods (Aitareya Bra_hman.a 3.30)]. 



 1.021.01 Invoke hither Indra and Agni, to whom we desire to present our praise; 
let them, who are both copious drinkers of theSoma juice, (accept the libation). 

 1.021.02 Praise, men, Indra and Agni, in sacrifices, decorate them (with 
ornaments) and hymn them with hymns. 

 1.021.03 We invoke Indra and Agni, for the benefit of our friend (the 
institutor of the rite), drinkers of the Soma juice, to drink thelibation. 

 1.020.04 We invoke the two who are fierce (to their foes) to attend the rite, 
where the libation is prepared; Indra and Agni, comehither. 

 1.021.05 May those two, Indra and Agni who are mighty, and guardians of the 
assembly, render the Ra_ks.as innocuous, and maythe devourers (of men) be 
destitute of progeny. 

 1.021.06 By this unfailing sacrifice, by you rendered vigilant, Indra and Agni, 
in the station which affords knowledge (of theconsequence of acts), and bestow 
upon us happiness. 


 1.022.01 Awaken, the As'vins, associated for the morning sacrifice; let them 
both come hither to drink of this Soma juice. 

 1.022.02 We invoke the two As'vins, who are both divine, the best of 
charioteers, riding in an excellent car and attaining heaven. 

 1.022.03 As'vins, stir up (mimiks.atam = mix intimately, rapidly like a whip) 
the sacrifice with your whip that is wet the foam (of yourhorses), and lashing 
loudly. [ka_s'a = whip, may also mean speech; madhumati_ and sunr.ta_vati_ = wet 
and loud, signifying sweetand veracious--come with such speech, As'vins and 
taste the libation]. 

 1.022.04 The abode of the offerer of the libation is not far from you, As'vins, 
going thither in your car. 

 1.022.05 Invoke Savita_ (Sun), the golden- handed, to protect me; he will 
appoint the station of the worshippers. [suvarn.ahasta =golden-handed, i.e. he 
who gives gold to the worshipper. Legend: At a sacrifice performed by the gods, 
Su_rya undertook theoffice of r.tvij, but positioned himself in the station of 
Brahma_. The Adhvaryu priests saw him in that position and gave him theoblation 
termed pra_s'itra. As soon as this was received, Su_rya cut off the hand that 
had improperly accepted it. The priests whohad given the oblation bestowed upon 
Su_rya a hand of gold]. 

 1.022.06 Glorify Savita_, who is no friend to water, or our protection; we 
desire to celebrate his worship.(apa_m napa_t = son ofthe waters). [apa_m-napat 
may also mean the Sun, who is the parent of the waters: a_ditya_t ja_yate 
vr.s.t.ih: rain is born from thesun (Manu 3.76); napa_t = lit. who does not 
cherish (na pa_layati), but dried them up by his heat, santa_pena s'os.akah]. 

 1.022.07 We invoke Savita_, the enlightener of men, the dispenser of various 
home-insuring wealth. 

 1.022.08 Sit down, friends; Savita_ verily is to be praised by us, for he is 
the giver of riches. 

 1.022.09 Agni, bring hither the loving wives of the gods, and Tvas.t.a_, to 
drink the Soma juice. 

 1.022.10 Youthful Agni, bring hither for our protection the wives (of the 
gods), Hotra_ (wife of Agni or personified invocation),Bha_rati_ (an A_ditya), 
Varutri_ (= varan.i_ya_, chosen), and Dhis.an.a_ (= va_c or va_g-devi_, goddess 
of speech). [varutri_:varan.i_ya_, who is to be chosen or preferred). 

 1.022.11 May the goddesses, whose wings are unclipt the protectresses of 
mankind, favour us with perfection, and with entirefelicity. [acchinna-paks'a_h: 
the wives of the gods being in the form of birds, no one had cut their wings]. 

 1.022.12 Invoke hither, Indra_n.i_, Varun.a_ni_, and Agna_yi_, for our welfare, 
and to drink the Soma juice. 

 1.022.13 May the great heven and the earth be pleased to blend this sacrifice 
(with their own dews) and fill us with nutriment.[bhari_mabhih = bharan.aih 

 1.022.14 The wise taste, through their pious acts, the ghee-resembling waters 
of these two, (abiding) in the permanent region ofthe Gandharvas. (Antariks.a, 
the sphere of gandharvas, yaks.as and apsarasas, the firmament between heaven 
and earth).[a_ka_s'e varma_nayoh dya_va_pr.thivyoh]. 

 1.022.15 Earth be your wide-spreading, free from thorns, and our abiding place; 
give us great happiness. [syona_ = expanded,pleasant, agreeable]. [The hymn is 
repeated at the ceremony termed maha_na_mni, at the time of touching the earth]. 

 1.022.16 May the gods preserve us (from that portion) of the earth whence 
Vis.n.u (aided) by the seven metres, stepped. [Vis.n.u =parames'vara, supreme 
ruler, one who pervades the world: vis.n.ur-vis.aterva vyas'noter-va_; vicakrame 
= stepped;vividhapa_dakraman.am kr.tava_n,  he made the goiing of various steps;  
gods, headed by Vis.n.u subdued the invincible earth,using the seven metres of 
the Veda as their instruments; an allusion to the Trivikrama avata_ra where 
Vis.n.u traverses the threeworlds in three steps; preserve us from the earth = 
the hindrance of the sin of those inhabiting the earth, bhu_lokevartama_na_na_m 

 1.022.17 Vis.n.u traversed this (world); three times he planted his foot and 
the whole (world) was collected in the dust of his(footstep).[tredha_ nidhadhe 
padam: the three paces of Vis.n.u imply the presence of Vis.n.u in the three 
regions of earth, air andheaven, in the forms of Agni, Va_yu and Su_rya, fire, 
wind and the sun. According to S'a_kapu_n.i, the step was on earth, in 
thefirmament, in heaven; according  to Aurn.ava_bha on Sama_rohan.a or the 
eastern mountain, on Vis.n.upada the meridian sky andGayas'iras the western 
mountain, thus identifiying Vis.n.u with the Sun, and his three paces with the 
rise, culmination, and setting ofthat luminary]. 

 1.022.18 Vis.n.u, the preserver, the uninjurable, stepped three steps, 
upholding thereby righteous acts. [gopa_, sarvasya jagatoraks.akah: the 
preserver of all the worlds; the principal attribute of Vis.n.u]. 

 1.022.19 Behold the deeds of Vis.n.u, through which (the worshipper) has 
accomplished (pious) vows; he is the worthy friend ofIndra. 

 1.022.20 The wise ever contemplate that supreme station of Vis.n.u, as the eye 
ranges over the sky. [ paramam padam = supremedegree or station, svarga]. 

 1.022.21 The wise, ever vigilant and diligent in praise, amply glorify that 
which is the supreme station of Vis.n.u. 



 1.023.01 These sharp and blessing-bearing Soma juices are poured out; come, 
Va_yu, and drink of them as presented. 

 1.023.02 We invoke both the divinities abiding in heaven, Indra and Va_yu, to 
drink of this Soma juice. 

 1.023.03 The wise invoke, for their preservation, Indra and Va_yu, who are 
swift as thought, have a thousand eyes, and areprotectors of pious acts. 
[sahasra_ks.au = Indra, as personified heaven, signifying its expansiveness or 
studded withconstellations; manojava_ = swift as thought, attribute of Va_yu]. 

 1.023.04 We invoke Mitra and Varun.a, becoming present at the sacrifice, and of 
pure strength, to drink the Soma juice. 

 1.023.05 I invoke Mitra and Varun.a, who with true speech, are the encouragers 
of pious acts, and are lords of true light.[Mitra andVarun.a are among the 
eights sons of Aditi, A_dityas]. [r.tasya jyotis.as-pati: s'rutyantare ca_s.t.au 
putra_so aditeh ityupakramyamitras'ca varun.as'ca itya_dikam a_mna_tam 
(Taittiri_ya A_ran.yaka 1.13.2-3) 

 1.023.06 May Varun.a be our especial protector; may Mitra defend us with all 
defences; may they make us most opulent. 

 1.023.07 We invoke Indra, attended by the Maruts to drink the Soma juice; may 
he, with his associates, be satisfied. 

 1.023.08 Divine Maruts, of whom Indra is the chief and Pu_s.an is the donor, or 
benefactor; in what way, is not specified. [Marutsare pus.ara_tayah, of whom 
Pu_s.an is the donor]. 

 1.023.09 Liberal donors, along with the mighty and associated Indra, destroy 
Vr.tra; let not the evil one prevail against us. 

 1.023.10 We invoke all the divine Maruts, who are fierce, and have the (many-   
coloured) earth for their mother, to drink the Somajuice. [Pr.s.n.i_ = many-
coloured earth, na_na_varn.ayukta_ bhu_h; pr.s.n.i = sky, or heaven in general]. 

 1.023.11 Whenever, leaders (of men), you accept an auspicious (offering), then 
the shout of the Maruts spreads with exultation, like(that) of conquerors. 

 1.023.12 May the Maruts, born from the brilliant lightning, everywhere preserve 
us, and make us happy. [haskara_d-vidyutah =variously shining, i.e. antariks.a 
or firmament]. 

 1.023.13 Resplendent and (swift) moving Pu_s.an, bring from heaven the Soma 
juice, in combination with the variegated sacredgrass, as (a man brings back) an 
animal that was lost. 

 1.023.14 The resplendent Pu_s.an has found the royal (Soma juice), although 
concealed, hidden in a secret place, strewedamongst the sacred grass. [guha_-
hitam = placed in a cave or in a place difficult of access; guha_sadr.s'e 
durgame dyuloke]. 

 1.023.15 Verily he has brought to me successively the six (seasons), connected 
with the drops (of the Soma juice) as (ahusbandsman) repeatedly ploughs (the 
earth) for barley. [s'at. = vasanta_din r.tun, the spring and the rest of 

 1.023.16 Mothers to us, who are desirous of sacrificing, the kindred (waters) 
flow by the paths (of sacrifice) qualifying the milk (ofkine) with 
sweetness.[ambayah = mothers or a_po va_ ambayah, mothers who are waters]. 

 1.023.17 May those waters which are contiguous to the Sun, and those with which 
the Sun is associated, be propitious to our rite.[cf. a_pah surye sama_hita_h, 
waters are collected in the Sun: Taittiri_ya A_ran.yaka 2.8.21). 

 1.023.18 Invoke the divine waters in which our cattle drink; offer oblations to 
the following (streams). 

 1.023.19 Ambrosia is in the waters; in the waters are medicinal herbs; 
therefore, divine (priest), be prompt in their praise. [Deva =r.tvij and other 
bra_hman.as; ete vai deva_h pratyaks.am yad bra_hman.a_h = these dieties, who 
are perceptibly (present) are thebra_hman.as (Taittiri_ya Sam.hita_ 

 1.023.20 Soma has declared to me, 'all medicaments, as well as Agni, the 
benefactor of the universe, are in the waters'; thewaters, contain all healing 
herbs. [Entrance of Agni into the water is noted in many places: so a_pah 
pra_vis'at (Taittiri_yaBra_hman.a; legend: Agni hides himself through 
fear, an allusion to subservience of waters to Agni]. 

 1.023.21 Waters, bring to perfection all disease-dispelling medicaments for 
(the good of ) my body, that I may long behold the sun. 

 1.023.22 Waters, take away whatever sin has been (found) in me whether I have 
(knowingly) done wrong, or have pronouncedimprecations (against holy men) or 
(have spoken) untruth. 

 1.023.23 I have this day entered into the waters; we have mingled with their 
essence; Agni, abiding in the waters, approach, and fillme, thus (bathed), with 
vigour. [rasena samagasmahi: we have become associated with the essence of 
water, jalasaren.asan:gata_h smah). 

 1.023.24 Agni, confer upon me vigour, progeny and life, so that the gods may 
know the (sacrifice) of this my (employer), and Indrawith the R.s.is, may know 



 1.024.01 Of whom, or of which divinity of the immortals, shall we invoke the 
auspicious name? who will give us to the great Aditithat I may again behold my 
father and my mother. [Aditi =earth].  [Adit = earth. Ra_ma_yan.a, b.i, ch.61 
presents S'unahs'epas, son of the R.s.is R.cika and is sold for a hundred cows 
by his fatherto Ambar.s.a, king of Ayodhya_, as a victim for a human sacrifice. 
He sees Vis'va_mitra, near the lake Pus.kara and learns aprayer when repeated at 
the stake induces Indra to come and set him free. Aitareya Bra_hman.a has the 
legend: the ra_ja_ isHaris'candra, who has no sons and worships Varun.a to 
obtain a son and promises to sacrifice to him his first-born. He gets a 
son,named Rohita; when Varun.a claims this son, the king delays the sacrifice 
using various pretexts, until Rohita attains adolescence.When Rohita is told of 
the ra_ja_'s commitment to Varun.a, Rohina refuses to submit himself and moves 
into the forests. In theforest, Rohita meets a r.s.i, A_ji_gartta who is in 
great distress. Rohita persuades the r.s.i to part with his second 
son,S'unahs'epas, to be substituted for Rohita as an offering to Varun.a. The 
deal is struck and S'unahs'epas is about to be sacrificed.On the advice of 
Vis'va_mitra, an officiating priest, S'unahs'epas appeals to the gods and is 
ultimately liberated. This hymn isuttered by S'unahs'epas when bound to the 
Yu_pa, or stake, as the purus.ah-pas'uh, the man-animal (or victim), as the 
Bha_gavataterms him: "Of whom" (kasya) may also be rendered; of Brahma_ or 
Praja_pati (also called ka): as ko ha vai na_ma praja_patih(Aitareya Bra_hman.a 
3.21; 7.26)]. 

 1.024.02 Let us invoke the auspicious name of Agni, the first divinity of the 
immortals, that he may give us to the great Aditi, andthat I may behold agin my 
father and my mother. [Aitareya Bra_hman.a: Praja_pati said to S'unahs'epas: 
'Have recourse to Agni,who is the nearest of the gods'; upon this, he resorted 
to Agni. Tam praja_pati-ruva_ca_gnirvai deva_na_m nedis.t.hastamevopadha_veti: 
so Agnim upasasa_ra]. 

 1.024.03 Ever-protecting Savita_, we solicit (our) portion of you, who are the 
lord of affluence. [In this and the following two hymns,an appeal is made to 
Savita_ (by the advice of Agni), not for liberation, but for riches]. 

 1.024.04 That wealth which has been retained in your hands, and is entitled to 
commendation, as exempt from envy or reproach. 

 1.024.05 We are assiduous in attaining the summit of affluence, through the 
protection of you, who are the possessor of wealth. 

 1.024.06 These birds, that are flying (through the air), have not obtained, 
Varun.a, your bodily strength or your prowess, or (are ableto endure your) 
wrath; neither do these waters that flow increasingly, nor (do the gales) of 
wind, surpass your speed. [Savita_ refersS'unahs'epas to Varun.a]. 

 1.024.07 The regal Varun.a, of pure vigour (abiding) in the baseless 
(firmament), sustains on high a heap of light, the rays (ofwhich) are pointed 
downwards, while their base is above; may they become concentrated in us as the 
sources of existence.[abudhne = in the baseless; mu_la-rahite = antariks.e, in 
the sky; vanasya stu_pam = attribute: tejasah, radiance; san:gham = aheap; 
Varun.a is an A_ditya]. 

 1.024.08 The regal Varun.a verily made with the path of the sun, (by which) to 
travel on his daily course; a path to traverse inpathless (space); may he be the 
repeller of every afflicter of the heart. [cf. sun's course north and south of 
the equator]. 

 1.024.09 Yours, O king, are a hundred and a thousand medicaments; may your 
favour, comprehensive and profound, be (with us);keep afar from us Nirr.ti, with 
unfriendly looks, and liberate us from whatever sin we may have committed. 
[Nirr.ti = deity of sin,pa_pa-devata_]. 

 1.024.10 These constellations placed on high, which are visible by night, and 
go elsewhere by day, are the undisturbed holy acts ofVarun.a (and by his 
command) the moon moves resplendent by night. [R.ks.a_h, constellations may be 
seven R.s.is, Ursa Major orconstellations, in general. Constellations and the 
mo9on shine because of Varun.a's piety (varun.asya vrata_ni) since they shine 
byhis command. A reference to asterisms: varun.asya karma_n.i naks.atra-

 1.024.11 Praising you with (devout) prayer, I implore you for that (life) which 
the institutor of the sacrifice solicits with oblations;Varun.a, undisdainful, 
bestow a thought upon us; much-lauded, take not away our existence. [The term, 
tada_yus is supplied in thecontext of ma_na a_yuh pramos.ih = do not take away 
our life]. 

 1.024.12 This (your praise) they repeat to me by night and by day; this 
knowledge speaks to my heart; may he whom the fetteredS'unahs'epas has invoked, 
may the regal Varun.a set us free. 

 1.024.13 S'unahs'epas, seized and bound to the three-footed tree, has invoked 
the son of Aditi; may the regal Varun.a, wise andirresistible, liberate him; may 
he let loose his bonds. [tris.u drupades.u: druh (a tree) is a reference to the 
tripod-like sacrificial post]. 

 1.024.14 Varun.a, we deprecate your wrath with prostrations, with sacrifices, 
with oblations; averter of misfortune, wise andillustrious, be present amongst 
us, and mitigate the evils we have committed. [ asura = anis.t.a-ks.epan.a-
s'ila, accustomed to castoff what is undesired; fr. seme, to throw]. 

 1.024.15 Varun.a, loosen for me the upper, the middle, the lower band; so, son 
of Aditi, shall we, through faultlessness in theworship, become freed from 
sin.[Reference to the ligature fastening the head, the feet, and the waist; 
resulting in loosening from thebonds of sin: ana_gasah sya_ma, may we be 



 1.025.01 Inasmuch as all people commit errors, so do we, divine Varun.a, daily 
disfigure your worship by imperfections. 

 1.025.02 Make us not the objects of death, through your fatal indignation, 
through the wrath of you so displeasured. 

 1.025.03 We soothe your mind, Varun.a, by our praises, for our good, as a 
charioteer his weary steed. 

 1.025.04 My tranquil (meditations) revert to the desire of life, as birds hover 
around their nests. = vasya is.t.aye = vasumatah,precious (i.e. ji_vasya, 

 1.025.05 When for our happiness, shall we bring hither Varun.a, eminent in 
strength, the guide (of men), the regarder of many?[uru-caks.asam = bahuna_n 
dras.t.a_ram, the beholder of many]. 

 1.025.06 Partake, (Mitra and Varun.a), of the common (oblation), being 
propitious to the giver and celebrator of this pious rite. 

 1.025.07 He, who knows the path of the birds flying through the air; he, 
abiding in the ocean, knows (also) the course of ships. 

 1.025.08 He, who accepting the rites (dedicated to him) knows the twelve months 
and their productions and that which issupplementarily engendered. [An allusion 
to the thirteenth, the supplementary or intercalary month of the Hindu unisolar 
year and tothe transition to the lunar year from the solar year; 'that 
thirteenth or additional month which is produced of itself, in connection 
withthe year', yah trayodas'o adhikama_sa upaja_yate sam.vatsarasami_pe svayam 

 1.025.09 He, who knows the path of the vast, the graceful, and the excellent 
wind, and who knows those who reside above. 

 1.025.10 He, Varun.a, the acceptor of holy rites, the doer of good deeds, has 
sat down amongs the (divine) progeny, to exercisesupreme dominion (over them). 
[a_nis.asa_da pastya_su: divine progeny, daivis'u praja_su]. 

 1.025.11 Through him, the sage beholds all the marvels that hav ebeen or will 
be wrought. 

 1.025.12 May that very wise son of Aditi, keep us all our days in the right 
path, and prolong our lives. 

 1.025.13 Varun.a clothes his well-nourished (person), wearing golden armour, 
whence the (reflected)  rays are spread around.[bibhad dra_pim hiran.yayam = 
suvarn.amayam kavacam, armour or mail made of gold; an apparent allusion to 
Varun.a as animage]. 

 1.025.14 A divine (being), whom enemies dare not to offend; nor the oppressors 
of mankind, nor the iniquitous, (venture todisplease). 

 1.025.15 Who has distributed unlimited food to mankind, and especially to us. 

 1.025.16 My thoughts ever turn back to him who is beheld of many, as the kine 
return to the pastures. 

 1.025.17 Let us together proclaim that my offering has been prepared, and that 
you, as if the offerer, accept the valued (oblation). 

 1.025.18 I have seen him whose appearance is grateful to all; I have beheld his 
chariot upon earth; he has accepted these mypraises.[An allusion to Varun.a as 
an image]. 

 1.025.19 Hear, Varun.a, this my invocation; make us this day happy; I have 
appealed to you, hoping for protection. 

 1.025.20 You, who are possessed of wisdom, shine over heaven and earth, and all 
the world; do you hear and reply (to myprayers), with (promise of ) prosperity. 

 1.025.21 Loose us from the upper bonds, untie the centre and the lower, that we 
may live. [ji_vase= to live, that we may live]. 


 1.026.01 Lord of sustenance, assume your vestments (of light) and offer this 
our sacrifice. [vastra_n.i_ = a_chha_daka_niteja_m.si, i.e. investing radiance]. 

 1.026.02 (Propitiated) by brilliant strains, do your, ever-youthful Agni, 
selected by us, become our ministrant priest, (invested) withradiance. 

 1.026.03 You , Agni, are verily as a loving father to a son, as a kinsman to a 
kinsman, as a friend to a friend. 

 1.026.04 Let Varun.a, Mitra and A_ryaman, sit down upon our sacred grass, as 
they did at the sacrifice of Manu. [A_ryaman is anA_ditya presiding over 
twilight; manus.ah = Manu, the Praja_pati]. 

 1.026.05 Preceding sacrificer, be pleased with this our sacrifice and with our 
friendship, and listen to these your praises. [pu_rvyahota_ = hota_ born before 

 1.026.06 Whatever we offer in repeated and plentiful oblation to any other 
deity, is assuredly offered to you. 

 1.026.07 May the lord of men, the sacrificing priest, the gracious, the chosen, 
be kind to us; may we, possessed of holy fires, be  loved of you. 

 1.026.08 As the brilliant (priests), possessed of holy fires, have taken charge 
of our oblations, so we, with holy fires, pray to you. 

 1.026.09 Immortal Agni, may the praises of mankind be henceforth mutually (the 
sources of happiness) to both, (to ourselves and toyou). 

 1.026.10 Agni, son of strength, (accept) this sacrifice, and this our praise, 
with all your fires, and grant us (abundant) food. [sahasoyaho = balasya putra, 
son of strength]. 



 1.027.01 (I proceed) to address you, the soverign lord of sacrifice, with 
praises, (for you scatter our fores) like a horse (whobrushes off flies with) 
his tail. 

 1.027.02 May he, the son of strength, who moves everywhere fleetly, be 
propitious to us, and shower down (blessings). 

 1.027.03 Do you, Agni, who go everywhere, ever protect us, whether near or 
afar, from men seeking to do us injury. 

 1.027.04 Agni, announce to the gods this our offering, and these our newest 
hymns. [navya_m.sam ga_yatram = most newga_yatri_ verses]. 

 1.027.05 Procure for us the food that is in heaven and mid-air, and grant us 
the wealth that is on earth. [the text uses theexpressions: in the supreme, in 
the middle and of the end]. 

 1.027.06 You, Citrabha_nu, are the   distributor of riches, as the waves of a 
river are parted by interjacent (islets); you ever pour(rewards) upon the giver 
(of oblations). [Agni, he who has wonderful or varieties of lustre]. 

 1.027.07 The mortal whom you, Agni, protect in battle, whom you incite to 
combat, will always command (food). 

 1.027.08 No one will ever be the vanquisher of this your worshipper, subduer of 
enemies, for notorious in his prowess. 

 1.027.09 May he who is worshipped by all men, convey us with horses through the 
battle; may he, (propitiated) by the priests, bethe bestower (of bounties). 

 1.027.10 Jara_bodha, enter into the oblation for the completion of the 
sacrifice that benefits all mankind; the worshipper offersagreeable laudation to 
the terrible (Agni). [jara_bodha = he who is awakened (bodha) by praise (jara_); 
rudra is equated with thefierce or cruel Agni: krura_ya Agnaye]. 

 1.027.11 May the vast, illimitable, smoke- bannered, resplendent Agni be 
pleased with our rite, and grant us food. 

 1.027.12 May Agni, the lord of men, the invoker and messenger of the gods, the 
brilliant-rayed, hear us with our hymns, as a prince(listens to the bards). [the 
text has reva_n iva = as a rich man]. 

 1.027.13 Veneration to the great gods, veneration to the lesser, veneration to 
the young, veneration to the old we worship (all) thegods as well as we are 
able; may I not omit the praise of the elder divinities. [S'unahs'epas, is said 
to worship the Vis'vedeva_ onthe advice of Agni]. 



 1.028.01 Indra, as the broad-based stone is raised to express the Soma juice, 
recognize and partake of the effusion of the mortar.[stone = stone pestle used 
to bruise soma; adhis.avan.ya = two shallow plates or pa_tra to receive soma]. 

 1.028.02 Indra, (in the rite) in which the two patters for containing the 
juice, as (broad as a woman's) hips, are employed, recognizeand partake of the 
effusion of the mortar. 

 1.028.03 Indra, (in the rite) in which the housewife repeats egress from and 
ingress into (the sacrificial chamber), recognize andpartake of the effusion of 
the mortar. [apayacava and upacayava = going  in and out of the hall (s'a_la_)]. 

 1.028.04 When they bind the churning-staff (with a cord), like reins to 
restrain (a horse), Indra, recognize and partake of the effusionof the mortar. 

 1.028.05 If indeed, O Mortar, you are present in every house, give forth (in 
this rite) a lusty sound, like the drum of a victorious host.[It is the 
divinities presiding over the mortar and pestle, not the implement themselves, 
are addressed]. 

 1.028.06 Lorf of the forest, as the wind gently blows before you, so do thou, O 
Mortar, prepare the Soma juice for the beverage ofIndra. [vanaspati = a large 
tree; metonymy for the mortar]. 

 1.028.07 Implements of sacrifice, bestowers of food, loud-sounding, sport like 
the horses of Indra champing the grain. 

 1.028.08 Do you two forest lords, of pleasing form, prepare with agreeable 
libations our sweet (Soma) juices for Indra. [metonymyfor the mortar and 

 1.028.09 Bring the remains of the Soma juice upon the platters, sprinkle it 
upon the blades of kus'a grass and place the reminderupon the cow-hide. [The 
hymn is to Haris'candra, a ministering priest or a divinity so named. The 
remains contained in pa_tra orplatters are to be placed upon a cart (s'akat.asya 
upari) and having brought it away, cast it upon the pavitra (two or three blades 
ofkus'a grass serving as a kind of filter). Or, through a strainer made of 
goat's hair (tvaci)]. 


 1.029.01 Veracious drinker of the Soma juice, although we be unworthy, do your, 
Indra, of boundless wealth enrich us withthousands of excellent cows and horses. 

 1.029.02 Your benevolence, handsome and mighty lord of food, endures for ever; 
therefore, Indra, of boundless wealth, enrich uswith thousands of excellent cows 
and horses. [s'iprin = lit. having either a nose or a lower jaw or chin, i.e. 
having a handsome,prominent nose or chin]. 

 1.029.03 Cast asleep (the two female messengers of Yama); looking at each 
other, let them sleep, never waking; Indra, ofboundless wealth, enrich us with 
thousands of excellent cows and horses. [lit. 'Put to sleep the two reciprocally 
looking; let themsleep, not being awakened'. two epithets are to yamadutyau, two 
female messengers of Yama; mithudr.s'a_ = mithunataya_yugala  ru_pen.a 
pas'yatah, looking after the manner of twins, at each other]. 

 1.029.04 May those who are our enemies, slumber, and those, O hero, who are our 
friends, be awake; Indra, of boundless wealth,enrich us with thousands of 
excellent cows and horses. 

 1.029.05 Indra, destroy this ass, (our adversary), praising you with such 
discordant speech; and do your, Indra, of boundless wealth,enrich us with 
thousands of excellent cows and horses. [nuvantam-pa_paya_muya_, praising with 
this speech that is of the nature ofabuse (nindaru_paya_ va_ca_); hence, he is 
called an ass braying harsh sounds: yatha_ gardabhah s'rotum as'akyam 
parus.ams'abdam karoti]. 

 1.029.06 Let us (adverse) breeze, with crooked course, alight afar off on the 
forest; Indra, of boundless wealth, enrich us withthousands of excellent cows 
and horses. 

 1.029.07 Destroy every one that reviles us; slay every one that does us injury; 
Indra, of boundless wealth, enrich us with thousandsof excellent cows and 


 1.030.01 Let us, who are desirous of food, satisfy this your Indra, who is 
mighty, and of a hundred sacrifices, with drops (of Somajuice), as a well (is 
filled)(with water). 

 1.030.02 May he who is (the recipient) of a hundred pure, and of a thousand 
distilled, (libations), come (to the rite), as water to low(places). 

 1.030.03 All which (libations), being accumulated for the gratification of the 
powerful Indra, is contained in his belly, as water in theocean. 

 1.030.04 This libation is (prepared) for you; you approach it as a pigeon his 
pregnant (mate), for on that account do you accept ourprayer. 

 1.030.05 Hero, Indra, lord of affluence, accepter of praise, may genuine 
prosperity be (the reward of him) who offers you laudation. 

 1.030.06 Rise up, S'atakratu, for our defence in this conflict; we will talk 
together in other matters. 

 1.030.07 On every occasion, in every engagement, we invoke as friends the most 
powerful Indra for our defence. 

 1.030.08 If he hear our invocation, let him indeed come to us with numerous 
bounties, and with (abundant) food. 

 1.030.09 I invoke the man (Indra), who visits many worshippers from his ancient 
dwelling-place--you, Indra, whom my father formerlyinvoked. 

 1.030.10 We implore you as our friend, who are preferred and invoked by all, 
(to be favourable) to your worshippers, protector ofdwellings. 

 1.030.11 Drinker of Soma juice, wielder of the thunderbolt, O friend, (bestow 
upon) us, your friends, and drinkers of the Soma juice,(abundance of cows) with 
projecting jaws. (s'ipirn.i_na_m, gen. pl. of the feminine s'iprin.i_, having a 
nose of a jaw; hence gava_mand samu_ha (of cows and a herd) are added]. 

 1.030.12 So be it, drinker of the Soma juice, wielder of the thunderbolt, our 
friend, that you will do, through your favour, whatever wedesire. 

 1.030.13 So, Indra, rejoicing along with us, we may have (abundant food) and 
cows may be ours, robust and rich in milk, with whichwe may be happy. 

 1.030.14 O Dhr.s.nu, let some such divinity as you are, self-presented, 
promptly bestow, when solicited, (bounties) upon yourpraisers, as (they whirl) 
the axle of the wheels (of a car). [dhr.s.n.u = resolute, firm, high-spirited 
(Indra); aks.am na cakrayoh = of thetwo wheels of a car; praks.ipanti (= turn 
over) is assumed]. 

 1.030.15 Such wealth, S'atakratu, as your praisers desire, you bestow upon 
them, as the axle (revolves) with the movements (of thewagon). [aks.am na 
s'aci_bhih, it is like the axle by the acts (movements of the wagon)]. 

 1.030.16 Indra has ever won riches (from his foes), with his champing, 
neighing, and snorting (steeds); he, the abounding in acts,the bountiful, has 
given us as a gift a golden chariot. 

 1.030.17 As'vins, come hither, with viands borne or many steeds. Dasra_s, (let 
our dwelling) be filled with cattle and with gold. 

 1.030.18 Dasra_s, your chariot, harnessed for both alike, is imperishable; it 
travels, As'vins, through the air. 

 1.030.19 You have one wheel on the top of the solid (mountain), while the other 
revolves in the sky. 

 1.030.20 Us.as, who are pleased by praise, what mortal enjoy you, immortal? 
Whom, mighty one, do your affect? [us.as = dawn,dyudevata_ya_h duhitr., daughter 
of the personified heaven]. 

 1.030.21 Diffusive, many-tinted, brilliant (Us.as), we know not (your limits), 
whether they be nigh or remote. 

 1.030.22 Daughter of heaven, approach with these viands, and perpetuate our 


 1.031.01 You, Agni, was th first An:giras R.s.i, a divinity, you were the 
auspicious friend of the deities. In your ritethe wise, the all-discerning, the 
bright-weaponed Maruts were engendered. [He was the first, as the progenitor 
ofall the An:girasas which are the coals or cinders of the sacrificial fire]. 

 1.031.02 You, Agni, the first and chief An:giras, grace the worship of the 
gods; sapient, maniforld, for the benefitof all the world, intelligent, the off-
spring of two mothers, and reposing in various ways for the use of man. [vibhu= 
of many kinds, alluding to many fires of the sacrifice; dvima_ta = either of two 
mothers, i.e. the two sticks or themaker of two, i.e., heaven and earth]. 

 1.031.03 Agni, pre-eminent over the wind, become manifest to the worshipper, in 
approbation of his worship.Heaven and earth tremble (at your power); you have 
sustained the burden in the rite for which the priest wasappointed; your, Vasu, 
has worshipped the venerable (gods). [prathamo ma_taris'vane, first in, or on 
the wind;alluding to the text, agnirva_yura_dityah: fire, air, sun in which Agni 
precedes Va_yu]. 

 1.031.04 Your, Agni, has announced heaven to Manu; you have more than requited 
Puru_ravas doing homage toyou. When you are set free by the attrition of your 
parents, they bear you first to the east, then to the west (of thealtar). 
[Allusion to the agency of Puru_ravas, the son  of Budha or Soma to generate 
fire by attrition and to emplyin three sacrificial fires: sukr.te sukr.ttarah, 
doing more good to him who did good; the fires is first used to kindlethe 
a_havani_ya fire and then the ga_rhapatya]. 

 1.031.05 Your, Agni, are the showerer (of desires), the augmenter of the 
prosperity (of your worshipper); you areto be called upon as the ladle is lifted 
up; upon him who fully understands the invocation and makes the oblation,you, 
the provider of sustenance, first bestow light, and then upon all men. [Who 
fully understands the invocation:he who knows the a_huti, with the vas.at kr.ti 
or uttering the word vas.at at the moment of pouring the butter onthe fire]. 

 1.031.06 Agni, excellently wise, you direct the man who follows improper paths, 
to acts that are fitted to reclaimhim; you who, in the strife of heroes, 
(grateful to them) as widely- scattered wealth, destryed in the combat themighty 
by the feeble. 

 1.031.07 You sustain, Agni, that mortal (who worships you), in the best 
immortality by daily food; you bestow onthe sage, who is desirous (of creatures) 
of both kinds of birth, happiness and sustenance. [both kinds of birth:dvipada_m 
catus.pada_m la_bha_ya, to acquire bipeds and quadrupeds]. 

 1.031.08 Agni, who are praised by us for the sake of wealth, render illustrious 
the performer of the rite; may weimprove the act by a new offspring (given by 
you). Preserve us, heaven and earth, along with the gods. 

 1.031.09 Irreproachable Agni, a vigilant god amongst the gods, (abiding) in the 
proximity of (your) parents, andbestowing upon us embodied  (progeny), aweke us. 
Be well disposed to the offerer of the oblation; for you,auspicious Agni, grant 
all riches. 

 1.031.10 You, Agni, are well disposed to us, you are our protector, you are the 
giver of life to us; we are yourkinsmen. Uninjurable Agni, hundreds and 
thousands of treasures belong to you, who are the defender of piousacts and 
attended by good men. 

 1.031.11 The gods formerly made you, Agni, the living general of the mortal 
Nahus.a; they made Il.a_, theinstructress of Manu, when the son of my father was 
born. [Nahus.a was the son of A_yus, son of Puru_ravas,who was elevated to 
heaven as an Indra. Il.a_ institues the first rules of performing sacrifices, 
hence she isS'a_sani_ = dharmopades'akartri_, the giver of instruction in duty]. 

 1.031.12 Agni, who are worthy to be praised, preserve us who are opulent with 
your bounties, and also thepersons (of our sons); you are the defender of cattle 
for the son of my son, who is ever assiduous in yourworship. 

 1.031.13 Your, four-eyed Agni, blaze as the protector of the worshipper, who 
are at hand for the (security of the)uninterrupted (rite); you cherish in your 
mind the prayer of your adorer, who offers the oblation to you, theharmless, the 
benevolent. [four-eyed Agni: illuminating the four cardinal points]. 

 1.031.14 You, Agni, desire (that the worshipper may acquire) that excellent 
wealth which is reqquisite for themany-commended priest; you are called the 
well-intentioned protector. You, who are all-wise, instructed thedisciple, and 
(define) the points of the horizon. 

 1.031.15 Agni, you dend the man who gives presents (to the priests) on every 
side, like well-stitched armour. Theman who keeps choice viands in his dwelling, 
and with them entertains (his guests), performs the sacrifice of life,and is the 
likeness of heaven. [varma syu_tam = sewn armour, formed with needles without 
leaving a fissure;ji_vam-ya_jam yajate, sacrifices a life-sacrifice: 
ji_vayajanasahitam yajn~am, a sacrifice with sacrifice of life;ji_vanis'pa_dyam, 
that by which life is to be supported; ji_vaya_jam = ji_vah, living, priests, 
who ijyantedaks.ina_bhih, are worshipped by gifts]. 

 1.031.16 Agni, forgive us this our negligence, this path in which we have gone 
astray; you are to be sought asthe protector and encourager of those who offer 
suitable libations; you are the fulfiller (of the end of rites), youmake 
yourself visible to mortals. [Rs.iskr.t, becoming present through desire for the 
offered oblation: hence,visible to]. 

 1.031.17 Pure Agni, who goes about (to receive oblations), go in your presence 
to the halll of sacrifice, as didManu, and An:giras, and Yaya_ti, and others of 
old; bring hither the divine personages, seat them on the sacredgrass, and offer 
them grateful (sacrifice). 

 1.031.18. Agni, do your thrive through this our prayer, which we make according 
to our ability, according to ourknowledge; do you, therefore, lead us to 
opulence, and endow us with right understanding securing (abundant)food. 


 1.032.01 I declare the former valorous deeds of Indra, which the thunderer has 
achieved; he clove the cloud; hecast the waters down (to earth); he broke (a 
way) for the torrents of the mountain. [Vr.tra, also called Ahi, isalluded to as 
condensed accumulation of vapour figuratively shut up or obstructed by a cloud; 
Indra, with histhunderbolt or atmospheric prowess divides up the augmented mass 
yielding a vent for the rain to descend onthe earth and moisten the fields]. 

 1.032.02 He clove the cloud, seeking refuge on the mountain; Tvas.t.a) 
sharpened his far-whirling bolt; theflowing waters quickly hastened to the 
ocean, like cows (hastening) to their calves. 

 1.032.03 Impetuous as a bull, he quaffed the Soma juice, he drank of the 
libation at the triple sacrifice. Maghvantook his shaft, the thunderbolt, and 
with it struck the first born of the clouds. [Triple sacrifice: at the 
trikadrukas,three sacrifices termed jyotis., gauh and a_yu]. 

 1.032.04 Inasmuch, Indra, as you have divided the first-born of the clouds, you 
have destroyed the delusions ofthe deluders, and then engendering the sun, the 
dawn, the firmament, you have not left an enemy (to opposeyou). [first-born of 
the clouds: the first-formed cloud]. 

 1.032.05 With his vast destroying thunderbolt, Indra struck the darkling 
mutilated Vr.tra; as the trunks of trees arefelled by the axe, so lies Ahi 
prostrate on the earth. [Ahi and Vr.tra are synonyms of megha, a cloud]. 

 1.032.06 The arrogant Vr.tra, as if unequaled, defied Indra, the mighty hero, 
the destroyer of many, the scattererof foes; he has not escaped the contact of 
the fate (Indra's) enemies. The foe of Indra has crushed the (banks ofthe) 
rivers. [ruja_na_h pipis.e, he has ground the  rivers or broken down the banks 
of the rivers, signifying the fallof Vr.tra]. 

 1.032.07 Having neither hand nor foot, he defied Indra, who struck him with the 
thunderbolt upon hismountain-like shoulder, like one emasculated who pretends to 
virility; then Vr.tra, mutilated of many members,slept. 

 1.032.08 The waters, that delight the minds (of men), flow over him, recumbent 
on this earth, as a river (burststhrough) its broken (banks). Ahi has been 
prostrated beneath the feet of the waters, which Vr.tra, by his might,had 

 1.032.09 The mother of Vr.tra was bending over her son, when Indra struck her 
nether part with his shaft; so themother was above and the son underneath, and 
Da_nu slept (with her son), like  a cow with its calf. [da_nuderived fr. do, to 
cut or destroy or fr. Da_nu wife of Ka_s'yapa and mother of the Da_navas or 

 1.032.10 The waters carry off the nameless body of Vr.tra, tossed into the 
midst of the never- stopping,never-resting currents. The foe of Indra has slept 
a long darkness. 

 1.032.11 The waters, the wives of the destroyer, guarded by Ahi, stood 
obstructed, like the cows by Pan.is; butby laying Vr.tra, Indra set open the 
cave that had confined them. 

 1.032.12 When the single resplendent Vr.tra returned the blow (which had been 
inflicted), Indra, by yourthunderbolt, you became (furious), like a horse's 
tail. You have rescued the kine; you have won, Hero, the Somajuice; you have let 
loose the seven rivers to flow. [Like a horse's tail, as a horse lashes his tail 
to get rid of theflies; seven rivers: gan:ga_, yamuna_, sarasvati_, s'atudri_, 
parus.n.i_ (ira_vati_), asikni, marudvr.dha_, vitasta_,a_rji_ki_ya (vipa_sa_) 
and sus.oma_ (sindhu)]. 

 1.032.13 Neither the lightning nor the thunder (discharged by Vr.tra), nor the 
rain which he showered, nor thethunderbolt, harmed Indra, when he and Ahi 
contended and Maghvat triumphed also over other (attacks). 

 1.032.14 When fear entered, Indra, into your heart when about to slay Ahi, what 
other destroyer of him did youlook for, that, alarmed, you did traverse ninety 
and nine streams like a (swift) hawk? [When fear entered Indra:his fear was the 
uncertainty whether he should destroy Vr.tra or not]. 

 1.032.15 Then Indra, the wilder of the thunderbolt, became the sovereign of all 
that is moveable or immoveable,of hornless and horned cattle; and as he abides 
the monarch of men, he comprehended all things (within him), asthe circumference 
comprehends the spokes of a wheel. 


 1.033.01 Come, let us get to Indra, (to recover our stolen cattle), for he, 
devoid of malice, exhilarates our minds;thereupon he will bestow upon us perfect 
knowledge of this wealth, (which consists) of kine. 

 1.033.02 I fly, like a hawk to its cherished nest, to that Indra who is to be 
invoked by his worshipper in battle,glorifying with excellent hymns, him who is 
invincible and the giver of wealth. 

 1.033.03 The commander fo the whole host has bound his quiver (on his back); 
the lord drives the cattle (to thedwelling) of whom he pleases. Mighty Indra, 
bestowing upon us abundant wealth, take not advantage of us like adealer. [A_rya 
= sva_min, master, owner, lord; hence, Indra; Like a dealer: lit. do not be to 
us a pan.i, a trafficker;Indra is asked not to make a hard bargain on price, not 
to demand too much from his worshippers]. 

 1.033.04 Verily, Indra, you have slain the wealthy barbarian with your bold; 
your, singly assailing (him), althoughwith auxiliaries (the Maruts) at hand. 
Perceiving the impending manifold destructiveness of your bow, they, theSanakas, 
the neglecters of sacrifice, perished. [barbarian: Vr.tra, the Dasyu (lit. a 
robber), in contrast to A_rya;vr.trasya antah sarve devah sarvas'ca vidyah 
sarva_n.i havim.s.i ca_san: he comprehends within him all gods, allknowledge, 
all o9blations; Sanakas: followers of Vr.tra who are ayajva_nah, non-

 1.033.05 The neglecters of sacrifice, contending with the sacrificers, Indra, 
fled with averted faces. Indra, fierce,unyielding, lord of steeds, (they 
appeared) when you did blow the disregarders of religion from off the heaven,and 
earth and sky. 

 1.033.06 (The adherants of Vr.tra) encountered the army of the irreproachable 
(Indra); men of holy livesencouraged him. Scattered before him, conscious (of 
their inferiority), like the emasculated contending with men,they fled by 
precipitous paths. [ks.itayah navagva_h = men whose practices were commendable; 
the men may bethe an:girasas offering libations to Indra for nine months]. 

 1.033.07 You have destroyed them, Indra, whether weeping or laughing, on the 
farthest verge of the sky; youhave consumed the robber, (having dragged him) 
from heaven, and have received the praises of the worshipper,praising you and 
offering libations. 

 1.033.08 Decorated with gold and jewels, they were spreading over the circuit 
of the earth; but mighty as theywere, they triumphed not over Indra; he 
dispersed them with the (rising) sun. 

 1.033.09 Indra, as you enjoy both heaven and earth, investing the universe with 
your magnitude, you have blownaway the robber with the prayers which are 
repeated on behalf of those who do not comprehend them.[amanyama_na_n abhi 
manyama_nair brahmabhih adhamah = with prayers to be understood over those 
notunderstanding, i.e. those yajama_nas who merely repeat the mantras without 
understanding their meaning, arenevertheless to be protected by, or are to reap 
the benefit of those mantras; and with mantras, Indra will beempowered to 
scatter the followers of Vr.tra, clouds and darkness. S'ri_n:gin.a_m s'us.n.am = 
lit. the first havinghorns, i.e. furnished with weapons like the horns of bulls 
and buffaloes; s'us.n.am = lit. drying up, i.e. whenapplied to Vr.tra or the 
cloud, as withholding moisture]. 

 1.033.10 When the waters descended not upon the ends of the earth, and 
overspread not that giver of affluencewith its productions, then Indra, the 
showerer, grasped his bolt, and with its brightness milked out the waters 
fromthe darkness. 

 1.033.11 The waters flowed to provide the food of Indra, but (Vr.tra) increased 
in the midst of the navigable(rivers); then Indra, with his fatal and powerful 
shaft, slew Vr.tra, whose thought were ever turned towards him. 

 1.033.12 Indra set free (the waters) obstructed by (Vr.tra), when sleeping in 
the caves of the earth, and slew thehorned dryer up (of the world). You, 
Maghavan, with equal swiftness and strength, did kill with your thunderboltthe 
enemy defying you to battle. 

 1.033.13 The weapon of Indra fell upon his adversaries; with his sharp and 
excellent (shaft) he destroyed theircities; he then reached Vr.tra with his 
thunderbolt, and (by) slaying him, exhilarated his mind. 

 1.033.14 You, Indra, have protected Kutsa, grateful for his praises; you have 
defended the excellent Das'adyuengaged in battle; the dust of your courser's 
hoofs ascended to heaven; the son of S'vita, (through your favour),rose up, to 
be again unborn by men. [Kutsa is a r.s.i, a founder of a gotra, a religious 
family; Das'adyuh is also ar.s.i and a warrior; S'vaitreya or S'vitrya is the 
son of mother S'vitra. Next hymn described S'vitra as havinghidden himself in a 
pool of water to avoid the enemies]. 

 1.033.15 You have protected, Maghavan, the excellent son of S'vita_, when 
combating for his lands, andencouraged (by you) when immersed in water; do you 
inflict sharp pains on those of hostile minds, who havelong stood (in enmity) 
against us. 


 1.034.01 Wise As'vins, be present with us thrice today; vast is your vehicle, 
as well as your munificence; yourunion is like that of the shining (day) and 
dewy (night); (suffer yourselves) to be detained by the learned 
(priests).[Allusion to three diurnal sacrifices, at dawn, mid-day and sunset;  
all divinities are tripthaga_h, with the faculty togo through the heavens, the 
firmament and the earth].  

 1.034.02 Three are the solid (wheels) of your abundance-bearing chariot, as all 
(the gods) have known (it to be),when attendant on Vena, the beloved of Soma; 
three are the columns placed (above it) for support, and in itthrice do you 
journey by night, and thrice by day. [As'vins went to the marriage of Vena with 
Soma and loadedtheir ratha (chariot) with goodies; skambhasah skabhita_sa 
a_rabhe = posts standing up from the body of thecar, which the riders held, to 
avoid being thrown off by the rapid or uneven motion of the car].  

 1.034.03 Thrice in one entire day do you repair the faults (of your 
worshippers); thrice today sprinkle the oblationwith sweetness; and thrice, 
evening and morning, As'vins, grant us strength-bestowing food.  

 1.034.04 Thrice, As'vins, visit our dwelling, and the man who is well-disposed 
towards us; thrice repair to himwho deserves your protection, and instruct us in 
three-fold knowledge; thrice grant us gratifying (rewards); thriceshower upon us 
food, as (Indra pours down) rain.  

 1.034.05 As'vins, thrice bestow upon us riches; thrice approach the divine 
rite; thrice preserve our intellects;thrice grant us prosperity, thrice food. 
The daughter of the sun has ascended your three-wheeled car.  

 1.034.06 Thrice grant us, As'vins, the medicaments of heaven, and those of 
earth, and those of the firmament;give to my son the prosperity of S'amyu; 
cherishers of wholesome (herbs), preserve the well-being of the threehumours (of 
the body). [S'amyu is the son of Br.haspati and nourished by the As'vins; the 
text has tr.-dha_tu,three elements, may also denote three humours: wind, bile 
and phlegm].  

 1.034.07 As'vins, who are to be thrice worshipped, day by day, repose on the 
triple (couch of) sacred grass uponthe earth, (that form the altar); car-borne 
Na_satyas, repair from afar to the threefold (place of sacrifice), as thevital 
air to (living) bodies. [Na_satya = na-asatya, they who have not untruth; the 
text has, 'to the three', areference to altars, severally appropriated to 
oblations of ghee, to animal sacrifices, and to libations of Soma:ais.t.ika 
pa_s'uka saumikaru_pa_ vedi_h].  

 1.034.08 Come, As'vins, thrice with the seven mother-sttreams; the three rivers 
are ready; the triple oblation isprepared; rising above the three worlds, you 
defend the sun in the sky, who is established for both night and day.[Three 
rivers: three sorts of jars or pitchers used to contain and pour out Soma].  

 1.034.09 Where, Na_satyas, ae the three wheels of your triangular car? where 
the three fastenings and props (ofthe awning?) When will be the harnessing of 
the powerful ass, that you may come to the sacrifice? [trivr.torathasya = 
tribhiras'ribhir-upetasya rathasya; the front of the car is the apex and the 
back of the car is the baseforming three angles; ra_sabha = gardabha, ass; 
ra_sabha_vas'vinoh, two asses are the steeds of As'vins].  

 1.034.10 Come, Na_satyas, to the sacrifice; the oblation is offered; drink the 
juice with mouths that relish thesweet savour. Before dawn, even, Savita_ send 
(to bring you) to the rite, your wonderful car shining with clarifiedbutter.  

 1.034.11 Come, Na_satyas, with the thrice eleven divinities; come, As'vins, to 
drink the oblation prolong our lives,efface our faults, restrain our enemies, 
and be ever with us. [three fold repetition of 11 divinities: ye deva_sodivy- 
eka_das'a stha, you eleven deities who are in heaven or 33 divnities: 8 vasus, 
11 rudras, 12 a_dityas,praja_pati and vas'at.ka_ra].  

 1.034.12 Borne in your car that traverses the three worlds, bring to us 
As'vins, present affluence, attended by(male) progeny; I call upon you both, 
listening to me, for protection; be to us for vigour in battle. 


 1.035.01 Invoke Agni first, for protection: I invoke for protection, Mitra and 
Varun.a; invoke Night, who brings restto the world; invoke the divine Savita_ 
for my preservation.  

 1.035.02 Revolving through the darkened firmament, arousing mortal and 
immortal, the divine Savita_ travels inhis golden chariot, beholding the 
(several) worlds.  

 1.035.03 The divine Savita_ travels by an upward and by a downward path; 
deserving adoration, he journeyswith two white horses; he comes hither from a 
distance, removing all sins.  

 1.035.04 The many-rayed adorable Savita_, having power (to disperse) darkness 
from the world, has mountedhis nigh-standing chariot, decorated with many kinds 
of golden ornaments, and furnished with golden yokes.  

 1.035.05 His white-footed coursers, harnessed to his car with a golden yoke, 
have manifested light to manking.Men and all the regions are ever in the 
presence of divine Savita_.  

 1.035.06 Three are the spheres; two are in the proximity of Savita_, one leads 
men to the dwelling of Yama. Theimmortal (luminaries) depend upon Savita_ as a 
car upon the pin of the axle; let him who knows (the greatness ofSavita_) 
declare it. [amr.ta = immortals; moon and constellations are added].  

 1.035.07 Suparn.a, (the solar ray), deep-quivering, life-bestowing, well-
directed, has illuminated the threeregions. Where now is Su_rya Who knows to 
what sphere his rays have extended? [supran.a = well-winged, asynonym of ras'mi, 
a ray; asura, fr. asu, vital breath; ra, who gives, hence life-giving].  

 1.035.08 He has lighted up the eight points of the horizon, the three regions 
of living beings, the seven rivers;may the golden-eyes Savita_ come hither, 
bestowing upon the offerer of the oblation desirable riches.  

 1.035.09 The gold-handed, all-beholding, Savita_ travels between the two 
regions of heaven and earth, dispelsdiseases, approaches the sun, and 
overspreads the sky with gloom, alternating radiance. [su_ryam 
abhiveti:yadyevatayor ekadevata_tvam tatha_pi mu_rttibhedena gantr.gantavya-
bha_vah: thought Savita_ and Su_ryaare the same as regards their divinity, yet 
they are two different forms, and therefore, one may go to the other].  

 1.035.10 May the golden-handed, life-bestowing, well-guiding, exhilarating, and 
affluent Savita_, be present (atthe sacrifice); for the deity, if worshipped in 
the evening, it at hand, driving away ra_ks.as and ya_tudha_nas.  

 1.035.11 Your paths, Savita_, are prepared of old, and free from dust, and well 
placed in the firmament; (coming)by those paths easy to be traversed, preserve 
us today. Deity, speak to us. 


 1.036.01 We implore with sacred hymns the mighty Agni, whom other (r.s.is) also 
praise, for the benefit of youwho are many people, worshipping the gods of you 
who are many people, worshipping the gods. 

 1.036.02 Men have recourse to Agni, the augmenter of vigour; offering 
oblations, we worship you; do you liberalgiver of food, be well disposed to us 
here this day, and be our protector.  

 1.036.03 We select you, Agni, the messenger and invoker of the gods, who are 
endowed with all knowledge. Theflames of you, who are mighty and eternal, spread 
around the rays, touch of the heavens.  

 1.036.04 The deities Varun.a, Mitra and Aryaman kindle you, (their) ancient 
messenger. The man who hasoffered you (oblations), obtains through you, Agni, 
universal wealth. [aryan mimite: aryaman, he who measures orestimates properly 
the aryas].  

 1.036.05 You, Agni, are the giver of delight, the invoker and messenger of the 
gods, the domestic guardian ofmankind; the good and durable actions which the 
gods perform are all aggregated in you. [du_to vis'a_m asi:devadu_ta; vis'a_m is 
connected with gr.hapati, lord of the dwelling].  

 1.036.06 Youthful and auspicious Agni, whatever oblation may be presented to 
you, do you, well disposedtowards us; either now or at any other time, convey it 
to the powerful gods.  

 1.036.07 In this manner the devout adore you, who are such (as described), 
bright with your own radiance. Men,with (seven) ministrant priests, kindle Agni 
(with oblations), victorious over their enemies. [sapta hotra_h pra_cirvas'at.-
kurvnti, seven principal priests or assistants at the Soma Ya_gas are: 1. the 
institutor, yajama_na; 2.hota_, who repeats the hymns of the R.k; 3. udgata_, 
who chants the Soma; 4. pota_, who prepares thematerials for the oblation; 
nes'ta_, who pours it on the fire; 6. brahma_, who supervises the whole process; 
and7. ra_ks.asa, who guards the door. Adhvaryu, who recites the formulae of the 
yajus. may replace the yajama_na]. 

 1.036.08 The destroying (deities along with you) have slain Vr.tra; they have 
made earth and heaven and thefirmament the spacious dwelling-place (of living 
creatures); may Agni, possessed of wealth, when invoked, be abenefactor to 
Kan.va, like a horse that neighs in a conflict for cattle. 
[govis.ayeccha_yuktes.u , assumed:san:gra_mes.u, in battles to win cattle].  

 1.036.09 Take your seat, Agni, on the sacred grass, for you are mighty; shine 
forth, for you are devoted to thegods; adorable and excellent Agni, emit the 
moving and graceful smoke.  

 1.036.10 Bearer of oblations, (you are he) whom the gods detained for the sake 
of Manu; whom, giver of wealth,Kan.va, the host of pious guests, has detained; 
whom Indra detained, and whom (now) some other worshipperhas detained. 
[medhya_tithi, attended by venerable (medhya) guest (atithi) is an epithet of 
Kan.va whose son isMedha_tithi, the r.s.i of the twelfth and followins su_ktas].  

 1.036.11 The rays of that Agni, whom Kan.va made more brilliant than the sun, 
pre-eminently shine; him do theseour hymns, him do we, extol.  

 1.036.12 Agni, giver of food, complete our treasures, for the friendship of the 
gods is obtainable through you. Youare lord over famous viands; make us hapy, 
for you are great.  

 1.036.13 Stand up erect for our protection, like the divine Savita_; erect, you 
are the giver of food, for which weinvoke you with unguents, and priests 
(offering oblations). [Erect Agni is the yu_pa or post].  

 1.036.14 Erect, preserve us by knowledge from sin; consume every malignant 
spirit; raise us aloft, that we maypass (through the world); and that we may 
live, convey our sealth (of oblations) to the gods.  

 1.036.15 Youthful and most resplendent Agni, protect us against evil spirits, 
and from the malevolent (man), whogives no gifts; protect us from noxious 
(animals), and from those who seek to kill us.  

 1.036.16 Agni, with the burning rays, destroy entirely our foes, who make no 
gifts, as (potter's ware) with a club;let not one who is inimical to us, nor the 
man who attacks us with sharp weapons, prevail against us. [ghana =club; 
assumed: bha_n.d.a_di].  

 1.036.17 Agni is solicited for power-conferring (affluence); he has granted 
prosperity to Kan.va, he has protectedour friends, as well as the (sage who was) 
the host of the holy and (every other) worshipper (who has hadrecourse to him) 
for riches.  

 1.036.18 We invoke from afar, along with Agni, Turvas'a, Yadu and Ugradeva; let 
Agni, the arrester of the robber,bring hither Navava_stu, Br.hadratha and 
Turvi_ti. [All were ra_jars.is, royal sages; Turvasu and Yadu were sonsof 
Yaya_ti of the lunar race].  

 1.036.19 Manu detained you, Agni, (to give) light to the various races of 
mankind. Born for the sake of sacrifice,and satiated with oblations, you, whom 
men reverence, have blazed for Kan.va.  

 1.036.20 The flames of Agni are luminous, powerful, fearful, and not to be 
trusted. Ever assuredly and entirelyconsume the mighty spirits of evil and all 
our other adversaries.  


 1.037.01 Celebrate, Kan.vas, the aggregate strength of the Maruts, sportive, 
with horses, but shining in their car.[kan.vas = sages or priests; anarva_n.am = 
bhra_tr.vya-rahitam, lit. without a brother's son; arvan = a horse;since Maruts' 
chariot is drawn by deer, they can do without horses; bhra_tr.vya = enemy].  

 1.037.02 Who, borne by spotted deer, were born self-radiant, with weapons, war-
cries and decorations.[va_s'i_bhih = with sounds or speeches; i.e. with cries 
terrifying the enemy's army; vas'i = va_c, speech, voice].  

 1.037.03 I hear the craking of the whips in their hands, wonderfully inspiring 
(courage) in the fight.  

 1.037.04 Address the god-given prayer to those who are your strength, the 
destroyers of foes, the powerful,possessed of brilliant reputation. [devattam-
brahma, the praise or prayer which recommends the oblation,obtained from the 
favour of instruction of the gods].  

 1.037.05 Praise the sportive and unresisted might of the Maruts, who were born 
amongst kine, and whosestrength has been nourished by (the enjoyment of) the 
milk. [gos.u-ma_rutam, Maruts among the cows; pr.s'niyaivai payaso marut, Maruts 
were born of milk for Pr.s'ni. jambhe rasasya vavr.dhe, their vigour, derived 
from or ofthe milk, was increased (either) in enjoyment or in the belly: 
goks.i_raru_pasya sambandhi tat tejo jambhe mukheudare va_ vr.ddham abhu_t].  

 1.037.06 Which is the chief leader among you, agitators of heaven and earth, 
who shake all around like the top(of a tree)?  

 1.037.07 The house-holder, in dread of your fierce and violent approach, has 
planted a firm (buttress); for themany-ridged mountain is shattered (before 
you). [ma_nus.o dadhre, the man has planted; ma_nus.o is explained: 
gr.hasva_mi_, the master of the house; dadhreis further explained: 
gr.hada_d.hya_rtham dr.d.ham stambham, a strong post to give stability to the 

 1.037.08 At whose impetuous approach, earth trembles like an enfeebled monarch 
through dread (of hisenemies).  

 1.037.09 Stable is their birth place, (the sky), yet the birds (are able) to 
issue from (the sphere of) their parent; foryour strength is everywhere (divided 
between two--regions, or heaven and earth.  

 1.037.10 They are the generations of speech; they spread out the waters in 
their courses; they urge the lowing(cattle) to enter (the water) up to their 
knees (to drink).  

 1.037.11 They drive before them in their course, the long, vast, uninjurable, 
rain-retaining cloud.  

 1.037.12 Maruts, as you have vigour, invogorate mankind; give animation to the 

 1.037.13 Wherever the Maruts pass, they fill the way with clamour; every one 
hears their (noise).  

 1.037.14 Come quickly, with your swift (vehicles); the offerings of the kan.vas 
are prepared; be pleased withthem.  

 1.037.15 The offering is prepared for your gratification; we are your 
(worshipper), that we may live all our life. 



 1.038.01 Maruts, who are fond of praise, and for whom the sacred grass is 
trimmed, when will you take us byboth hands as a father does his son?  

 1.038.02 Where indeed are you (at present)? When will your arrival take place? 
Pass from the heaven, not fromthe earth. Where do they worship you cry (to you) 
like cattle?  

 1.038.03 Where, Maruts, are your new treasures? Where your valuable (riches)? 
Where all your auspicious(gifts)? [sumna_, suvita_, saubhaga: offspring and 
cattle, jewels and gold, horses, elephants and the like].  

 1.038.04 That you, sons of Pr.s'ni, may become mortals, and your panegyrist 
become immortal. [pr.s'ni = dhenu,a cow].  

 1.038.05 Never may your worshipper be indifferent to you, as a deer (is never 
indifferent) to pasture, so that hemay not tread the path of Yama.  

 1.037.06 Let not the most powerful and indestructible Nirr.ti destroy us; let 
him perish with our (evil) desires.  

 1.038.07 In truth the brilliant and vigorous Maruts, cherishes by Rudra, send 
down rain without wind upon thedesert. [rudriya_sah: rudrasya ime, those who 
belong to Rudra; rudren.a pa_litah, protected by Rudra].  

 1.038.08 The lightning roars like a parent cow that bellows for its calf, and 
hence the rain is set free by theMaruts.  

 1.038.09 They spread darkness over the day by a water-bearing cloud, and thence 
inundate the earth.  

 1.038.10 At the roaring of the Maruts, every dwelling of earth (shakes), and 
men also tremble.  

 1.038.11 Maruts, with strong hands, come along the beautifully-embanked rivers, 
with obstructed progress.  

 1.038.12 May the felloes of your wheels be firm; may your cars and their steeds 
be steady, and your fingerswell-skilled (to hold the reins).  

 1.038.13 Declare in our presence, (priests), with voice attuned to praise 
Brahman.aspati (lord of the sacriricialfood), Agni and the beautiful Mitra.  

 1.038.14 Utter the verse that is in your mouths, spread it out like a cloud 
spreading rain; chant the measuredhymn.  

 1.038.15 Glorify the host of Maruts, brilliant, deserving of praise, entitled 
to adoration; may they be exalted bythis our worship. 


 1.039.01 When Maruts, who make (all things) tremble, you direct your awful 
(vigour) downwards from afar, aslight (descends from heaven), by whose worship 
by whose praise (are you attracted)? to what (place ofsacrifice), to whom, 
indeed, do you repair?  

 1.039.02 Strong be your weapons for driving away (your) foes, firm in resisting 
them; yours be the strength thatmerits praise, not (the strength) of a 
treacherous mortal.  

 1.039.03 Directing Maruts, when you demolish what is stable, when you scatter 
what is ponderous, then youmake your way through the forest (trees) of earth and 
the defiles of the mountains.  

 1.039.04 Destroyers of foes, no adversary of yours is known above the heavens, 
nor (is any) upon earth; mayyour collective strength be quickly exerted, sons of 
Rudra, to humble (your enemies). [rudra_sah: rudra-putrah,sons of Rudra, perhaps 
a reference to the protection by Rudra].  

 1.039.05 They make the mountains tremble, they drive apart the forest-trees. 
Go, divine Maruts, whither you will,with all your progeny, like those 

 1.039.06 You have harnessed the spotted deer to your chariot; the red deer 
yoked between them, (aids to) dragthe car; the firmament listens for your 
coming, and men are alarmed. [pr.s.ati_ = spotted deer (steeds of Maruts);the 
text says: pras.t.irvahati rohita; pras.t.ih = a kind of yoke, in the middle of 
three steeds harnessed to a car;rohita = a red deer which bears (vahati) or 
drags the car (ratham nayati).  

 1.039.07 Rudras, we have recourse to your assistance for the sake of our 
progeny; come quickly to the timidKan.va, as you formerly came, for our 

 1.039.08 Should any adversary, instigated by you, or by man, assail us, 
withhold from him food and strength andyour assistance.  

 1.039.09 Pracetasas, who are to be unreservedly worshipped, uphold (the 
sacrificer) Kan.va; come to us,Maruts, with undivided protective assistance, as 
the lightning (bring) the rain. [pracetas: an epithet: pra (thosepossessed of 
superior) cetas (intellect).  

 1.039.10 Bounteous givers, you enjoy unimpaired vigour; shakers (of the earth), 
you possess undiminishedstrength; Maruts, let loose your anger, like an arrow, 
upon the wrathful enemy of the r.s.is. 


 1.040.01 Rise us, Brhman.aspati; devoted to the gods, we solicit you, bounteous 
Maruts, be nigh at hand; Indra,be a partaker fo the libation. [Earlier 
Brahman.aspati was a form of Agni; now he is associated with the Maruts].  

 1.040.02 Man celebrates you, son of strength, for the wealth abandoned (by the 
foe). Maruts, may be whopraises you obtain wealth, yielding excellent steeds and 
eminent vigour. [sahasasputra: balasya bahupa_laka,the abundant protector of 

 1.040.03 May Brahman.aspati approach us;  may the goddess, speaker of truth, 
approach us; may the gods(drive away) every adversary, and present, conduct us 
to the sacrifice which is beneficial to man, and (abounds)with respectably-
presented offerings. [devi sunr.ta_ = goddess of speech or va_k devata_; she 
ispriyasatyaru_pa, lover of truth, a form of Sarasvati_].  

 1.040.04 He who presents to the ministrant (priest) wealth fit to be accepted, 
enjoys inexhaustible abundance; forhim we worship, Il.a_, attended by brave 
warriors, inflicting much injury, receiving none. [manoh putri_ = daughterof 
Manu, the institutrix of sacrifices; Il.a_ is sobhanair-vi_rair-bhat.air-yukta = 
accompanied by excellent heroes,hence suvi_ra_].  

 1.040.05 Verily Brahman.aspati proclaims the sacred prayer, in which the 
divinities, Indra, Varun.a, Mitra andAryaman, have made their abode. [This and 
the next verse are to be recited at Agnis.t.oma as prayers to Indraand the 
Maruts. Hota_ recites the prayer (mantra) aloud (pravadati), by the mouth 
(ukthya); in the mantra, Indraand the other deva_s rest. The next verse explains 
how the mantra brings them to the presence of theworshipper: indra_di-
sarvadevata_pratipa_dakam mantram].  

 1.040.06 Let us recite, gods, that felicitous and faultless prayer at 
sacrifices; if you, leaders, desire (to hear) thisprayer, then will all that is 
to be spoken reach unto you.  

 1.040.07 Who, (except Brahman.aspati), may approach the man who is devoted to 
the gods, by whom theclipped sacred grass is spread; the giver of the oblation 
has proceeded with the priests (to the hall of sacrifice),for he has a dwelling 
(abounding) internally with precious things.  

 1.040.08 Let Brahman.aspati concentrate his strength associated with the regal 
(divinities), he slays (the foe); inthe time of danger he maintains his station; 
armed with the thunderbolt, there is no encourager nor discourager ofhim in a 
great battle or a small. [The thunderbolt identifies Indra]. 


 1.041.01 The man whom the wise Varun.a, Mitra and Aryaman protect quickly 
subdues (his foes). [The su_kta isaddressed to the three a_dityas: varun.a, 
mitra and aryama_, sons of Aditi, wife of Kas'yapa].  

 1.041.02 Hw whom they heap (with riches), as if (collected) by his own arms; 
the man whom they defend fromthe malignant; every such man, safe from injury, 

 1.041.03 The kings (Varun.a etc.) first destroy their strongholds, and then the 
foes of those (who worship him),and put aside their evil deeds.  

 1.041.04 A_dityas, to you repairing to the sacrifice, the path is easy and free 
from thorns; no unworthy oblation ishere prepared for you.  

 1.041.05 A_dityas, guides, may the sacrifice which you come to by a straight 
path, be to you for your gratification. 

 1.041.06 That mortal (whom you favour), exempt from harm, obtains all valuable 
wealth, and offspring likehimself.  

 1.041.07 How, my friends, shall we recite priase (worthy) of the great glory of 
Mitra, Varun.a and Aryaman?  

 1.041.08 I do not denounce to you him who assails or reviles the man devoted to 
the gods. I rather propitiate youwith offered wealth.  

 1.041.09 For he (the worshipper) loves not, but fears to speak evil (of any 
one), as a gamester fears (hisadversary) holding the four (dice), until they are 
thrown. [caturas'cid dadama_na_d vibhi_ya_d-a_-nidha_toh, hemay fear from one 
holding four until the fail; explained as: caturo aks.a_n dha_rayatah kitavat = 
from a gamblerholding four dice. The dice are four cowrie shells, kapardakah]. 


 1.042.01 Pu_s.anm convey us over the road, remove the wicked (obsructer of the 
way). Son of the cloud, deity,go before us. [ pu_s.an is one of the 12 a_dityas. 
He presides over the earth: pr.thivya_bhima_ni_ devah; hecherishes the world: 
fr. pus', to nourish. He presides over journeying or the roads].  

 1.042.02 If a wicked (adversary), Pu_s.an, a robber, or one who delights in 
evil, points out to us (the way weought not to go), do you drive him from the 

 1.042.03 Drive him far away, apart fom the road, the hinderer of our journey, a 
thief, a deceiver.  

 1.042.04 Trample with your feet upon the mischievous (body) of that evil-minded 
pilferer of both (what is presentand what is absent), whoever he be.  

 1.042.05 Sagacious and handsome Pu_s.an, we solicit of you that protection 
wherewith you have encouragedthe patriarchs.  

 1.042.06 Therefore do you, who are possessed of all prosperity and well-
equipped with golden weapons, bestowupon us riches that may be liberally 

 1.042.07 Lead us past our opponents; conduct us by an easy path; know, Pu_s.an, 
how to protect us on this(journey). [The refrain in this and the next two hymns: 
pu_s.an iha kratum vidah: Pu_s.an, know here, the act orbusiness (act of 
sacrifice); on this occasion or journey, know how to fulfill your function of 
giving us protection].  

 1.042.08 Lead us where there is abundant fodder; let there be no extreme heat 
by the way; Pu_s.an, know toprotect us on this (journey).  

 1.042.09 Be favourable to us, fill us (with abundance), give us (all goood 
things), sharpen us (with vigour), fill ourbellies, Pu_s.an, know how to protect 
us on this (journey).  

 1.042.10 We do not censure Pu_s.an, but praise him with hymns; we solicit the 
good-looking (Pu_s.an) forriches. 


 1.043.01 When may we repeat a most grateful hymn to the wise, the most 
bountiful and mighty Rudra, who is(cherished) in our hearts? [Rudra means, he 
who makes to weep, who causes all the weep at the end of time; hethus gets 
identified with the principle of destruction, or S'iva; in this Su_kta he 
presides over medicinal plants andis a beneficent deity].  

 1.043.02 By which earth may (be induced to) grant the gifts of Rudra to our 
cattle, our people, our cows, and ourprogeny. [Aditi = earth who acts (karat) so 
that Rudri_ya may be obtained. Rudri_ya = rudra sambandhibhes.ajam, medicines 
presided over by Rudra; ya te rudra s'iva tanuh, s'iva vis'va ha, bhes.aji 
s'iva, rudrasyabhes.ajiti: whatever are your auspicious forms, O Rudra, they are 
all auspicious; auspicious are medicaments,the medicaments of Rudra].  

 1.043.03 By which Mitra and Varun.a, and Rudra and all the gods, being 
gratified, may show us (favour).  

 1.043.04 We ask the felicity of S'am.yu, from Rudra, the encourager of hymns, 
the protector of sacrifices,possessed of medicaments that confer delight. 
[S'am.yu is the son of Br.haspati. ja = one born; las.a =happiness; 
jala_s.abhes.ajam = he who has medicament conferring delight; cf. abhila_s.a].  

 1.043.05 Who is so brilliant as S'am.yu, who gratifies like gold, the best of 
the gods, the provider of habitations?  

 1.043.06 Who bestows easily-obtained happiness on our steeds, our rams, our 
ewes, our men, our women, andour cows?  

 1.043.07 Soma, grant us prosperity more than (sufficient for) a hundred men, 
and much strength-engenderingfood.  

 1.043.08 Let not the adversaries of Soma, let not our enemies, harm us; cherish 
us, Indra, with (abundant) food.  

 1.043.09 Soma, who are immortal, and abide in an excellent dwelling, have 
regard for your subjects, when attheir head in the hall of sacrifice you observe 
them (engaed in) decorating you. 


 1.044.01 Agni, who are immortal, and cognisant of all begotten things, bring 
from the dawn to the donor (of theoblation) wealth of many sorts, with an 
excellent habitation; bring hither today the gods awaking with the morning. 

 1.044.02 For you, Agni, are the accepted messenger of the gods, the bearer of 
oblations, the vehicle ofsacrifices; associated with Us.as and the As'vins, 
bestow upon us abundant and invigorating food. [rathiradhvara_n.a_m: ratha 
stha_ni_ya, in the place of a chariot].  

 1.044.03 We select today Agni, the messenger, the giver of dwellings, the 
beloved of many, thesmoke-bannered, the light-shedding, the protector of the 
worship of the worshipper at the break of day.  

 1.044.04 I praise Agni at the break of day, the best and youngest (of the 
gods), the guest (of man), theuniversally-invoked, who is friendly to the man 
that offers (oblations), who knows all that are born, that he may go(to bring) 
the other divinities.  

 1.044.05 Agni, immortal sustainer of the universe, bearer of oblations, 
deserving of adoration, I will praise you,who are exempt from death, the 
preserver of the sacrificer.  

 1.044.06 Juvenile Agni, whose flames delight, who ar euniversally invoked, and 
are praised (by us) on behalf ofthe worshipper, understand (our wishes), and 
granting Praskan.va to live a lengthened life, do honour to thedivine man. 
[namasya_ daivyam janam, i.e. the r.s.i of the hymn, Praskan.va].  

 1.044.07 All people kindle you, Agni, the sacrificer, the omniscient; do you, 
Agni, who are invoked by many,quickly bring hither the sapient deities.  

 1.044.08 Object of holy rites, (bring hither) on the dawn following the night, 
Savita_, Us.as and As'vins, Bhagaand Agni; the Kan.vas pouring out libations, 
kindle the water of the burnt offering. [svadhvara, fr. su (good) andadhvara 
(sacrifice), hence equated with the a_havani_ya fire].  

 1.044.09 You, Agni, are the protector of the sacrifices of the people, and the 
messenger (of the gods); bringhither today the gods awaking at dawn, and 
contemplating the sun, to drink the Soma juice.  

 1.044.10 Resplendent Agni, visible to all, you have blazed after many preceding 
dawns, you are the protector (ofpeople) in villages, you are the associate of 
man placed on the east (of the altar). [Man placed on the east:purohita = the 
domestic priest].  

 1.044.11 We place you, Agni, as Manu placed you, who are the implement of 
sacrifice, the invoker, theministering priest, very wise, the destroyer (of 
foes), immortal, the messenger (of the gods).  

 1.044.12 When, cherisher of friends, you are present as the Purohita at a 
sacrifice, and discharge the mission ofthe gods, then your flames roar like the 
resounding billows of the ocean.  

 1.044.13 Agni, with sharp ears, hear me; let Mitra and Aryaman, and Aryaman, 
and (other) early-stirring deities,with all the accompanying oblation-bearing 
gods, sit down at the sacrifice upon the sacred grass.  

 1.044.14 Let the munificent Maruts, who have tongues of fire, and are 
encouragers of sacrifice, hear our praise;let the rite-fulfilling Varun.a, with 
the As'vins, and with Us.as, drink the Soma juice. 


 1.045.01 Agni, do you, in this our rite, worship the Vasus, the Rudras, the 
A_dityas, or any other (living) beingsprung from Manu, sacrificing well and 
sprinkling water. [janam: manu-ja_tam, a man born of Manu Jana;signifying a 
divine being in connection with the enumerated deities, another man, devata_ 
ru_pa of a divinenature or form].  

 1.045.02 Verily the discriminating gods are givers of rewards to the offerer 
(of oblations); lord of red coursers,propitiated by our praises, bring hither 
the three and thirty divinities. [Aitareya Bra_hman.a, 2,18 refes to twoclasses 
of 33 divinities each; the first one are Somapa_s (drinkers of Soma); and the 
second are personificationsof sacrifices: 11 praya_jas, 11 anuya_jas, 11 
upaya_jas (propitiated with oblations of clarified butter, not libationsof 

 1.045.03 Agni, accomplisher of solemn acts, cognisant of all who are born, hear 
the invocation of praskan.va, asyou have heard those of Priyamedha of Atri, of 
Viru_pa, of An:giras. [All are r.s.is. Atri and An:giras are amongthe 
Praja_patis. Priyamedhas = Priyavrata, son of Svayambhuva Mnau; Viru_pa, an 
early descendant ofVaivasvata Manu, the father of Il.a_, the Manu of the Veda; 
Vis.n.u Pura_n.a, pp. 53 and 359].  

 1.045.04 The performers of great ceremonies, the offerers of acceptable 
sacrifices, have invoked for (theirprotection), Agni, shining amidst the 
solemnities, with pure resplendence.  

 1.045.05 Invoked by oblations, giver of rewards, listen to these praises with 
which the sons of Kan.va invoke youfor protection.  

 1.045.06 Agni, granter of abundant sustenance, who are beloved of many, the 
sons of men invoke you,radiant-haired, to bear the oblation (to the gods).  

 1.045.07 The wise have placed you, Agni, in (their) sacrifices as the invoker, 
the ministrant priest, the donor ofvast wealth, the quick-hearing the far-

 1.045.08 The wise (priests), with effused libations of Soma juice, have 
summoned you, vast and brilliant Agni, topartake of the (sacrificial food) as 
they hold the oblation on the part of the individual who presents it.  

 1.045.09 Strength-generated, giver of rewards, provider of dwellings, place 
here today upon the sacred grass themorning-moving deities, or (other) deified 
being, to drink the Soma juice. [strength-generated: an apparentreference to 
production of fire by friction].  

 1.045.10 Worship with conjoint invocations, Agni, the present deified being; 
bounteous divinities, this is the Somajuice; drink it, for it was yesterday 
expressed. [tiro-ahnyam: an epithet of the prepared Soma; tiras: oblique 
orindirect, ahnyam: diurnal; a reference to Soma of the preceding day offered on 
the succeeding day. In this andthe previous hymn, the allusion is to some divine 
or deified person, daivyam janam]. 


 1.046.01 The beloved Us.as, until now unseen, scatters darkness from the sky; 
As'vins, I greatly praise you.  

 1.046.02 Who are divine, of pleasing appearance, children of the sea, willing 
dispensers of wealth, and grantersof dwellings (in recompense of) pious acts. 
[sindhu-ma_tarau; the sun and the moon, born of the sea,samudra-jau].  

 1.046.03 Since your chariot proceeds, (drawn) by your steeds, above the 
glorious heavens, your praises areproclaimed (by us).  

 1.046.04 (As'vins); guides; the sun, (the evaporator) of the waters, the 
nourisher, the protector and beholder ofthe (solemn) rite, nourishes (the gods) 
with our oblation.  

 1.046.05 Na_satyas, accepting our praises, partake of the exhilarating Soma, 
the animator of your minds.  

 1.046.06 As'vins, grant us that invigorating food which may satisfy us, having 
dispelled the gloom (of want). [Thetext has: tamastirah, 'dispenser of 
darkness'; darkness signifying poverty: daridrya rupandhaka_rah].  

 1.046.07 Come as a ship, to bear us over an ocean of praises; harness, As'vins, 
your car.  

 1.046.08 Your vessel, vaster than the sky, stops on the seashore; your chariot 
(waits on the land); the drops (ofSoma) are expressed for yor worship.  

 1.046.09 Kan.vas (ask this of the As'vins); (How) do the rays (of the sun 
proceed) from the sky? (How) does thedawn (rise) in the region of the waters? 
Where do you desire to manifest your own persons? [Lit. the text is:'Rays from 
the sky, Kan.vas, cause of dwelling in the place of the rivers; where do you 
wish to place own form?'The added assumption is that Kan.vas are asked to 
inquire of the As'vins the questions posed in the translation].  

 1.046.10 There was light to irradiate the dawn; the sun (rose) like god; the 
fire shone with darkened flames.  

 1.046.11 A fit path was made for the sun to go beyond the boundary (of night); 
the radiance of the luminarybecame visible.  

 1.046.12 The worshipper acknowledges whatever boon he receives from the 
As'vins, satiate with the enjoymentof Soma.  

 1.046.13 Causers of felicity, co-dwellers with your worshipper, as with Manu 
come hither to drink of Soma, and(accept) our praise.  

 1.046.14 May Us.as follow the lustre of your approach, circumambient As'vins, 
and may you be pleased with theoblations offered by night.  

 1.046.15 As'vins, may you both drink (the oblation), and bestow upon us 
happiness, through your irreproachableprotection. 


 1.047.01 As'vins, encouragers of sacrifice, this most sweet Soma is prepared 
for you; drink it of yesterday'sexpressing, and grant riches to the donor.  

 1.047.02 Come, As'vins, with your three-columned triangular car; the Kan.vas 
repeat your praise at the sacrifice;graciously hear their invocation. 
[trivandhuren.a trivr.ta rathena_, with a car with three posts and triangular is 
anearlier explanation; in the context of this hymn, the rendering is: having 
three undulating fastenings of timber, andpassing unobstructedly through the 
three worlds].  

 1.047.03 As'vins, encouragers of sacrifice, drink this most sweet Soma; 
approach today the giver of the offering,you who are of pleasing aspects and 
bearers of wealth.  

 1.047.04 Omniscient As'vins, stationed on the thrice-heaped sacred grass, 
sprinkle the sacrifice with the sweetjuice; the illustrious Kan.vas, with 
effused libations, invoke you.  

 1.047.05 With such desired aids as you protected Kan.va with, do you, cherish 
of pious acts, preserve us;encouragers of sacrifice, drink the Soma.  

 1.047.06 Good-looking As'vins, as you brought in your car, bearers of wealth, 
abundance to Suda_s, so bring tous in the riches that many covet, whether from 
the firmament or the sky beyond. [Suda_s is a ra_ja, son ofPi_javana. Two Suda_s 
are attested; one Suda_sa is of the solar line (Vis.n.u Pura_n.a, 380); another 
is of thelunar line, son of Divoda_sa (Vis.n.u Pura_n.a, 454)].  

 1.047.07 Na_satyas, whether you abide far off or close at hand, come to us in 
your well-constructed car, with therays of the sun.  

 1.047.08 Let your coursers, the grace of the sacrifice, bring you to be present 
at our rite; guides (of men)bestowing food upon the pious and liberal donor (of 
the offering), sit down on the sacred grass.  

 1.047.09 Come, Na_satyas, with your sun-clad chariot, in which you have ever 
conveyed wealth to the donor (ofthe offering), to drink of the sweet Soma. [Sun-
clad: lit. sun-skinned, su_ryatvaca_, i.e. surrounded by the sun orlike the sun 
in brightness].  

 1.047.10 We invoke with chanted and recited hymns, the very affluent As'vins, 
to be present for our protection.Have you not ever drunk the Soma in the 
favoured dwelling of the Kan.vas? 


 1.048.01 Us.as, daughter of heaven, dawn upon us with riches; diffuser of 
light, dawn upon us with abundantfood; bountiful goddess, dawn upon with wealth 
(of cattle).  

 1.048.02 Abounding with horses, abounding with kine, bestowers of every sort of 
wealth, (the divinities ofmorning) are possessed of much that is necessary for 
the habitations (of men); Us.as, speak to me kind words;send us the affluence of 
the wealthy. [The epithets of Us.as are in fem. pl., without a substantive: 
as'vavatih,gomatih, vis'vasuvidah; hence, assumed: us.o-devatah, the many 
divinities of dawn].  

 1.048.03The divine Us.as has dwelt (in heaven of old); may she dawn today, the 
excitress of chariots which areharnessed at her coming, as those who are 
desirous of wealth (send ships) to sea. [samudre na s'ravasyavah =like those 
desirous of wealth for sea; added: 'send ships'. uva_sa, us.ah is explained: 
pura_ niva_sam akarot,she has made a dwelling formerly; an allusion to her 
producing the dawn, prabha_tam kr.tavati_].  

 1.048.04 Us.as, at your comings wise men turn their minds to benefactions; of 
these men, the most wise Kan.vaproclaims the fame.  

 1.048.05 Us.as, nourishing (all), comes daily like a matron, the directress (of 
household duties), conducting alltransient (creatures) to decay; (at her coming) 
each biped stirs and she wakes up the birds.  

 1.048.06 She animates the diligent, and sends clients (to their patrons); and 
shedder of dews, knows not delay;bestower of food, at your rising the soaring 
birds no longer suspend (their flight). [arthinah visr.jati = she letsloose the 
solicitors; the explanation: te (ya_cakah) us.ahka_le samuttha_ya 
svaki_yada_tr.gr.he gacchanti, they,having risen at early morning, go to the 
houses of those who are their respective benefactors].  

 1.048.07 This auspicious Us.as has harnessed (her vehicles) from afar, above 
the rising of the sun; and shecomes gloriously upon man, with a hundred 
chariots. [many chariots of the dawn = many rays of light].  

 1.048.08 All living beings adore her, that she may be visible; bringer of good, 
she lights up the world; the affluentdaughter of heaven drives away the 
malevolent and disperses the absorbers (of moisture). [sridhah: s'os.ayitr.n 
=the driers up; an allusion to the clouds which take up the dew of night?]  

 1.048.09 Shine around, Us.as, with cheering lustre, bringing us every day much 
happiness, and scatteringdarkness.  

 1.048.10 Inasmuch, bringer of good, as you dawn, the breath and life of all 
(creatures) rest in you; diffuser oflight, come to us with your spacious car; 
possessor of wondrous wealth, hear our invocation.  

 1.048.11 Us.as, accept the (sacrificial) food which of many kinds exists among 
the human race, and therebybring to the ceremony the pious, who offering 
oblations, praise you.  

 1.048.12 Us.as, bring from the firmament all the gods, to drink the Soma, and 
to you yourself bestow upon usexcellent and invigorating food, along with cattle 
and horses.  

 1.048.13 May that Us.as whose bright auspicious rays are visible all around, 
grant us desirable, agreeable, andeasily-attainable riches.  

 1.048.14 Adorable Us.as, whom the ancient sages invoked for protection and for 
food, do you, (radiant) with purelight, (pleased) by our offerings, accept our 

 1.048.15 Us.as, since you have today set upon the two gates of heaven with 
light, grant us a spacious andsecure habitation; bestow upon us, goddess, cattle 
and food.  

 1.048.16 Adorable Us.as, associate us with much and multiform wealth, and with 
abundant cattle, with allfoe-confounding fame, and giver of sustenance, with 


 1.049.01 Us.as, come by auspicious ways from above the bright (region of the) 
firmament; let the purple (kine)bring you to the dwelling of the offerr of Soma. 
[arun.yo ga_va us.asa_m = purple cows, the vehicles of themorning].  

 1.049.02 Us.as, in the ample and beautiful chariot in which you ride, come 
today, daughter of heaven, to thepious offerer of the oblation.  

 1.049.03 White-complexioned Us.as, upon your coming, bipeds and quadrupeds (are 
in motion), and the wingedbirds flock around from the boundaries of the sky.  

 1.049.04 You, Us.as, dispersing the darkness, illumine the shining universe 
with your rays; such as you are,Kan.vas, desirous of wealth, praise you with 
their hymns. 


 1.050.01 His coursers bear on high the divine all-knowing Sun, that he may be 
seen by all (the worlds).  

 1.050.02 (At the approach) of the all-illuminating Sun, the constellations 
depart with the night, like thieves.[naks.atra_n.i = lunar asterims or stars, in 
general, which are abodes of the gods or the visible forms of piouspersons after 
death: devagr.ha vai naks.atra_n.i, the constellations are verily the abodes of 
the gods; yo va_ ihayajate amum. lokam. naks.ate = he who performs worship here 
obtains the next world; sukr.tam. va_ eta_nijyotim.s.i yan naks.atra_n.i = those 
constellations are the luminaries of those who practise religious acts, 
i.e.those who by attending to religious duties in this world attain svarga, are 
beheld in the form of constellations: ihaloke karma_nus.t.ha_ya yi svargam 
pra_pnuvanti te naks.atraru_pen.a dr.s.yante].  

 1.050.03 His illuminating rays behold men in succession, like blazing fires.  

 1.050.04 You, Su_rya, outstrip all in speed; you are visible to all; you are 
the source of light; you shinethroughout the entire firmament. [Smr.ti states 
that the sun moves 2,202 yojanas in a half a winkle of the eye;jyotis.kr.t = 
giving light to all things, even to the moon and the planets, by night; for, 
they are of a waterysubstance from which the rays of the sun are reflected (like 
a mirror in a door-way reflecting sun's rays, to lightup a chamber); 
metaphysical explanation: sun is the supreme spirit, who enables all beings to 
pass over theocean of existence, who is beheld by all desiring final 
emancipation, who authors true light, and who illuminateseverything through the 
light of the mind].  

 1.050.05 You rise in the presence of the Maruts, you rise in the presence of 
mankind, and so as to be seen in thepresence of the whole (region) of heaven. 
[prayam deva_na_m vis'ah = before the men or people of the gods, i.e.the Maruts 
(who are elsewhere designated: maruto vai deva_na_m vis'ah)].  

 1.050.06 With that light with which you, the purifier and defender from evil, 
look upon this creature-bearing world. 

 1.050.07 You traverse the vast ethereal space, measuring days and nights, and 
contemplating all that have birth. 

 1.050.08 Divine and light-diffusing Su_rya, your seven coursers bear you, 
bright-haired, in your car. [saptaharitah = seven rays; seven horses = seven 
days of the week; or, is there an allusion to seven scatteredprismatic rays?]  

 1.050.09 The Sun has yoked the seven mares that safely draw his chariot, and 
comes with them self-harnessed.[sapta s'undhyuvah; as'va-str.yah = mares; they 
are also naptyah, since the car does not fall because of them,ya_bhir na patati 

 1.050.10 Beholding the up-springing light above the darkness, we approach the 
divine Sun among the gods, theexcellent light. [An allusion to the spiritual 
sun: darkness connotes sin; approach to the sun is a reunion with thesupreme 
spirit; aganma jyotiruttamam, we go to the best light, i.e. we become one with 
the spiritual light,sa_yujyam gaccha_mah; tam yatha_ yathopa_sate tad eva 
bhavati, he (the worshipper) becomes identical withthat which he worships].  

 1.050.11 Radiant with benevolent light, rising today and mountina into the 
highest heaven, do you O Sun,remove sickness of my heart, and the yellowness (of 
my body). [hrd.-roga = heart-burn or indigestion;harima_n.am = greenness (caused 
by bilious afflictions). Pras'kan.va was reportedly cured of leprosy or 
acutaneous malady, with this praise of Su_rya; S'aunaka treats this as a mantra 
dedicated to the Sun to removesin, heal disease, be an antidote to poison and as 
a means of obtaining present happiness and final liberation].  

 1.050.12 Let us transfer the yellowness (of my body) to the parrots, to the 
starlings, or to the harita_la (tree).[haridrava = harita_la druma; this may be 
a reference to haridrava, a yellow vegetable power, yllow orpiment].  

 1.050.13 This A_ditya has risen with all (his) might, destroying my adversary, 
for I am unable to resist my enemy(sickness). 


 1.051.01 Anime with praises that ram, (Indra), who is adored by many, who is 
gratified by hymns, and is an oceanof wealth; whose good deeds spread abroad for 
the benefit of mankind, like the rays of light; worship thepowerful and wise 
Indra, for the enjoyment of prosperity. [tyam. mes.am: Indra assumed the form of 
a ram andcame to a sacrifice performed by Medha_tithi and drank Soma, so a 
legend; mes.a = victor over foes. Anotherlegend is that An:giras worshipped to 
get a son who would resemble Indra; Indra himself became his son whosename was 

 1.051.02 The protecting and fostering R.bhus hastened to the presence of Indra, 
of graceful motion, andirradiating the firmament, imbued with vigour, the 
humiliator of his enemies, the performer of a hundred piousacts; and by them, 
encouraging words were uttered. [R.bhus = Maruts who encouraged Indra; 'all gods 
who wereyour friends have fled; may there be friendship between the Maruts and 
you'. Indra is one of 12 A_dityas, asS'akra, hence 'irradiating the firmament'; 
words were uttered: prahara bhagava vi_ryasva, strike; bhagavan, bevaliant].  

 1.051.03 You have opened the cloud for the An:girasas you have shown the way to 
Atri, who vexes hisadversaries by a hundred doors (by a number of yantras, means 
or contrivances); you have granted wealth, withfood, to Vimada; you are wielding 
your thunderbolt in defence of a worshipper engaged in battle. [gotra = herd 
ofcattle or a cloud; gotrabhid = mountain-breaker with his thunderbolt (Indra) 
or may allude to the recovery of cowsstolen by Pan.i;; Vimada = a mahars.i].  

 1.051.04 You have opened the receptacle of the waters; you have detained in the 
mountain the treasure of themalignant; when you had slain Vr.tra, the destryer, 
you made the sun visible in the sky. [parvate danumad vasu =in the mountain, a 
dwelling of Indra; danumad = descended from Danu, a Da_nava, an asura or an 
epithet ofvasu, wealth, fit for liberality (fr. danu, giving) or one doing 
injury, an enemy; Vr.tra (Ahi) is hantri, the slayer; soyat sarva_n etat 
samabhavat tasma_d ahiriti, inasmuch as he was the same as all that (benefits of 
sacrifice,fame, knowledge, prosperity), he wa called Ahi].  

 1.051.05 You, Indra, by the devices, have humbled the deceivers who presented 
oblations to their own mouths;propitious to men, you have destroyed the cities 
of Pipru, and have well defended R.jis'van in robber-destroying(contest). [Pipru 
is an asura; R.jis'van is a worshipper whom they oppressed; dasyu-hatyes'u, in 
battles killing thedasyus].  

 1.051.06 You have defended Kutsa in fatal fights with S'us'na; you have 
destroyed S'ambara in defence ofAtithigva; you have trodden with your foot upon 
the great Arbuda; frm remote times were you born for thedestruction of 
oppressors. [S'us'na, S'ambara and Arbuda are asuras. Kutsa is a r.s.i; 
Atithigva = hospitable,Divoda_sa].  

 1.051.07 In you, Indra, is all vigour fully concentrated; you will delight to 
drink the Soma; it is known by us that thethunderbolt is deposited in your 
hands; cut off all prowess from the foe.  

 1.051.08 Discriminate between the A_ryas and they who are Dasyus; restraining 
those who perform no religiousrites, compel them to submit to the performer of 
sacrifices; be you, who are powerful, the encourager of thesacrificer; I am 
desirous of celebrating all your deeds in ceremonies that give you satisfaction. 
[A_ryas are thosewho practise religious rites; Dasyus do not observe religious 
ceremonies and inimical to those who do].  

 1.051.09 Indra abides, humbling the neglecters of holy acts in favour of those 
who observe them; and punishingthose who turn away from his worship in favour of 
those who are present (with their praise); Vamra, whilepraising him, whether old 
or adolescent, and spreading through heaven, carried off the accumulated 
(materials ofthe sacrifice). [vamro vijagha_na samdihah = vamra destryed the 
collections. Vamra, a r.s.i, when Indra wasabsent, carried away the accumulated 
heap of offerings, the marrow or essence of the earth, yadvalmika-vap_sambha_ro 
bhavati u_rjjam eva pr.thivya_h].  

 1.051.10 If Us.ana_s should sharpen your vigour by his own, then would your 
might terrify by its intensity bothheaven and earth. Friend of man, let the will 
harnessed steeds, with the velocity of the wind, convey you, replete(with 
vigour), to (partake of the sacrificial) food.  

 1.051.11 When Indra is delighted with acceptable hymns, he ascends (his car), 
drawn by more and moreobliquely-curving coursers; fierce, he extracts the waters 
from the passing (cloud) in a torrent, and hasoverwhelmed the extensive cities 
of S'us.n.a.  

 1.051.12 You mount your chariot willingly, Indra, for the sake of drinking the 
libations; such as you delight inhaving been prepared (at the sacrifice of) 
S'a_rya_ta; be pleased with them, as you are gratified by the effusedSoma (at 
the sacrifices) of others, so do you obtain imperishable fame in heaven. 
[S'arya_ta was a ra_jar.s.i,descent from Bhr.gu. Aitareya Bra_hman.a: he was a 
prince of the Mnau lineage. S'a_rya_ta is a descendant ofS'arya_ti, the fourth 
son of Manu Vaivasvata. R.s.i Cyavana married his daughter at a solemn sacrifice 
attendedby Indra and As'vins. Cyavana took the share of the oblations intended 
for the As'vins. This act made Indraangry; to appease Indra another sacrifice 
was prepared. The legend is cited from Kaus'itaki (the legend is alsonoted in 
the Bha_gavata and Padma Pura_n.as).  

 1.051.13 You have given, Indra, the youthful Vr.caya to the aged Kaks.i_vat, 
praising you and offering oblations;you, S'atakratu, were Mena_, the daughter of 
Vr.s.an.as'va; all these your deeds are to be recited at yourworship. [Vr.caya 
was given to Kaks.i_vat at a ra_jasu_ya ceremony. Indra became Mena_, the 
daughter ofVr.s.an.as'va and later, also fell in love with her. Mena_ is a 
daughter of Pitr.s by Svadha_ and the wife ofHimavat, king of mountains].  

 1.051.14 Indra has been had recourse to, that he may assist the pious in their 
distress. Praise by the Pajras, is(as stable) as the post of a doorway. Indra, 
the giver of riches, who is possessed of (who desires to possess,expecting as 
gifts from the institutor of the ceremony) horses, cattle, chariots and wealth 
is present. [Pajras =An:girasas].  

 1.051.15 This adoration is offered to the shedder of rain, the self-
resplendent, the possessor of true vigour, themighty; may we be aided, Indra, in 
his conflict, by many heroes, and abide in a prosperoud (habitation, bestowed)by 


 1.052.01 Worship well that ram who makes heaven known, whom a hundred 
worshippers at once are assiduousin praising. I implore Indra with many prayers 
to ascend the car, which hastens like a fleet courser to thesacrificer for my 

 1.052.02 When Indra, who delights in the sacrificial food, had slain the 
stream-obstructing Vr.tra, and waspouring down the waters, he stood firm amid 
the torrents like a mountain, and endowed with a thousand meansof protecting 
(his votaries) increased in vigour.  

 1.052.03 He who is victorious over his enemies, who is spread through the dewy 
(firmament), the root ofhappiness, who is exhilarated by the Soma him I invoke, 
the most bountiful Indra, along with learned priests, witha mind disposed to 
pious adoration, for he is the bestower of abundant food.  

 1.052.04 Tha Indra whom in heaven the libations sprinkled on the sacred grass 
replenish, as the kindred rivershastening to it fill the ocean; that Indra whom 
the Maruts, the driers up of moisture, who are unobstructed, and ofundistorted 
forms, attended as auxiliaries at the death of Vr.tra.  

 1.052.05 His allies, exhilarated (by libations), preceded him, warring against 
the withholder of the rain, as riversrush down declivities. Indra, animated by 
the sacrificial food, broke through the defences of Vala as did Tritathrough the 
coverings (of the well). [paridhi_r iva tritah: tritah, triple or 
threefold;hence, 'as through triplecoverings or defences'. A legend is: Ekata, 
Dvita and Trita were three men produced in water by Agni, for thepurpose of 
removing or rubbing off the relics of an oblation of clarified butter (like 
three blades of sacred grassused to rub off. Another legend: Agni threw the 
cinders of burnt-offerings into water, whence arose Ekata, Dvitaand Trita 
(called A_ptyas or sons of water). Trita went to draw water from a well and fell 
into it; Asuras heapedcoverings over the mouth of the well to prevent his 
escape, but he broke through them. Indra's breaking throughthe defences of Vala, 
the asura is compared to this exploit of Trita].  

 1.052.06 When, Indra, you had smitten with my thunderbolt the check of the 
wide-extended Vr.tra, who, havingobstructed the waters reposed in the region 
above the firmament, your fame spread afar, your prowess wasrenowned.  

 1.052.07 The hymns, Indra, that glorify you, attain unto you, as rivulets (flow 
into) a lake. Tvas.t.a_ hasaugmented your appropriate vigour; he has sharpened 
your bolt with overpowering might.  

 1.052.08 Indra, performer of holy acts, desirous of going to man, you with your 
steeds have slain Vr.tra (have setfree) the waters, have taken in your hands 
your thunderbolt of metal, and have made the sun visible in the sky.  

 1.052.09 Through fear (of Vr.tra, they, the worshippers), recited the suitable 
hymn of the Br.hat (Sa_ma),self-illuminating, strength-bestowing, and ascending 
to heaven; on which his allies, (the Maruts), combating formen, (guardians) of 
heaven, and vivifiers of mankind animated Indra (to destroy him). [Sa_ma is 
added to br.hat.The alusion is to Sa_ma, a verse of the R.k].  

 1.052.10 The strong heaven was rent asunder with fear at the clamour of that 
Ahi, when you, Indra, was inspiredby (drinking) the effused (Soma), and your 
thunderbolt in its vigour struck off the head of Vr.tra, the obstructor ofheaven 
and earth.  

 1.052.11 Although, Indra, the earth were of tenfold (its extent), and men 
multiplied every day, yet, Maghavan,your prowess would be equally renowned; the 
exploits achieved by your might would be spread abroad with theheavens.  

 1.052.12 Firm-minded Indra, abiding (secure) in your strength beyond the limit 
of the wide-expanded firmament,you have framed the earth for our preservation; 
you have been the type of vigour; you have encompassed thefirmament and the sky 
as far as to the heavens.  

 1.052.13 You are the type of the extended earth you are the lord of the vast 
god-frequent (svarga) verily withyour bulk you fillest all the firmament of a 
truth, there is none other such as you. [pratima_nam bhuvah, thecounter-measure 
of the earth, i.e. of similar magnitude and like inconceivable power; 
r.s.vavi_rasya br.hatahpatih, lord or protector of the great (region), in which 
are the gods (vi_ra) who are pleasant (r.s.va)].  

 1.052.14 you, Indra, of whom heaven and earth have not attained the amplitude; 
of whom the waters of heavenhave not reached the limit; of whom, when warring 
with excited animation against the withholder of the rains, (hisadversaries have 
not equalled the prowess); you alone have made everything else, (than yourself), 
dependent(upon you).  

 1.052.15 The Maruts worshipped you in this (encounter); all the gods in this 
engagement imitated you inexultation, when you had struck the face of Vr.tra 
with your angular and fatal (bolt). [bhr.s.timata_ vadhena, withthe weapon that 
has angles; Aitareya Bra_hman.a: vajra, the thunderbolt of Indra has eight 
angles or blades,as.t.as.r.r vai vajrah]. 


 1.053.01 We ever offer fitting praise to the mighty Indra, in the dwelling of 
the worshpper, by which he (the deity)has quickly acquired riches, as (a thief) 
hastily hastily carried (off the property) of the sleeping. Praise illexpressed 
is not valued among the munificent.  

 1.053.02 You, Indra, are the giver of horses, of cattle, or barley, the master 
and protector of wealth, the foremostin liberality, (the being) of many days; 
you disappoint not desires (addressed to you); you are a friend to ourfriend; 
such an Indra we praise.  

 1.053.03 Wise and resplendent Indra, the achiever of great deeds, the riches 
that are spread around are knownto be yours; having collected them, victor (over 
your enemies), bring them to us; disappoint not the expectation ofthe worshipper 
who trusts in you.  

 1.053.04 Propitiated by these offerings, be these libations, dispel poverty 
with cattle and horses; may wesubduing our adversary, and relived from enemies 
by Indra, (pleased) by our libations, enjoy together abundantfood.  

 1.053.05 Indra, may we become possessed of riches, and of food; and with 
energies agreeable to many, andshining around, may we prosper through your 
divine favour, the source of prowess, of cattle and of horses.  

 1.053.06 Those who were your allies, (the Maruts), brought you joy; protector 
of the pious, those libations andoblations (that were offered you on slaying 
Vr.tra), yielded you delight, when you, unimpeded by foes, did destroythe ten 
thousand obstacles oposed to him who praised you and offered you oblations. 
[das'a sahas'ra_n.ivr.tra_n.i = covers, concealments, obstructions, avaraka_ni].  

 1.053.07 Humiliator (of adversaries), you go from battle to battle, and destroy 
by your might city after city; withyou foe-prostrating associate, (the 
thunderbolt), you Indra, did slay afar off the deceiver named Namuci. [Namuciis 
an asura; he is also a Da_nava, descendant of Danu].  

 1.053.08 You have slain Karan~ja and Parn.aya with your bright gleaming spear, 
in the cause of Atithigva;unaided, you did demolish the hundred cities of 
Van:grida, when besieged by R.jis.van. [Van:gr.da is an asura;R.jis.van is a 

 1.053.09 You, renowned Indra, overthrown by your not-to-be- overtaken chariot-
wheel, the twenty kings of men,who had come against Sus'ravas unaided, and their 
sixty thousand and ninety-nine followers. [Perhaps, areference to A_yus, son of 

 1.053.10 You, Indra, have preserved Sus'ravas by your succour, Turvaya_n.a by 
your assistance; you havemade Kutsa, Atithigva, and A_tu subject to the mighty 
though youthful Sus'ravas.  

 1.053.11 Protected by the gods, we remain, Indra, at the close of the 
sacrifice, your most fortunate friends; wepraise you, as enjoying through you 
excellent offspring, and a long and prosperous life. 


 1.054.01 Urge us not, Maghavan, to this iniquity, to these iniquitous 
conflicts, for the limit of your strength is notto be surpassed; you have made 
the waters of the rivers roar; how (is it possible) that the earth should be 
filledwith terror?  

 1.054.02 Offer adoration to the wise and powerful S'akra; glorifying the 
listening Indra, praise him who purifiesboth heaven and earth by his 
irresistible might, who is the sender of showers, and by his bounty gratifies 

 1.054.03 Offer exhilarating praises to the great and illustrious Indra, of 
whom, undaunted, the steady mind isconcentrated in its own firmness; for he, who 
is of great renown, the giver of rain, the repeller of enemies, who isobeyed his 
steeds, the showerer (of bounties), is hastening hither.  

 1.054.04 You have shaken the summit of the spacious heaven; you have slain 
S'ambara by your resolute self;you have hurled with exulting and determined mind 
the sharp and bright-rayed thunderbolt against assembledAsuras.  

 1.054.05 Since you, loud-shouting, have poured the rain upon the brow of the 
breathing (wind), and (on thehead) of the maturing and absorbing (sun), who 
shall prevent you from doing today (as you will), endowed withan unaltered and 
resolute mind?  

 1.054.06 You have protected Narya, Turvas'a, Yadu and Turvi_ti, of the face of 
Vayya; you have protected theirchariots and horses in the unavoidable 
engagement; you have demolished ninety-nine cities (of S'ambara).[Turvas'a may 
be Turvasu, son of Yaya_ti, since another son of Yaya_ti, Yadu is also named. 
Turvi_ti is a r.s.i;etasam = as'va].  

 1.054.07 That eminent person, the cherisher of the pious, (he institutor of the 
ceremony), promotes his ownprosperity, who, while offering oblations to Indra, 
pronounces his praise; or who, along with the offerings hepresents, recites 
hymns (in honour of him); for him the bounteous Indra causes the clouds to rain 
from heaven.  

 1.054.08 Unequalled is his might; unequalled is his wisdom; may these drinkers 
of the Soma become equal tohim the pious act, for they, Indra, who present to 
you oblations, augment your vast strength and your manlyvigour.  

 1.054.09 These copious Soma juices, expressed with stones and contained in 
ladles, are prepared for you; theyare the beverage of Indra; quaff them; satiate 
your appetite with them; and then fix your mind on the wealth that isto be given 
(to us).  

 1.054.10 The darkness obstructed the current of the waters; the cloud was 
within the belly of Vr.tra; but Indraprecipitated all the waters which the 
obstructor had concealed, in succession, down to the hollows (of the earth).  

 1.054.11 Bestow upon us, Indra, increasing reputation; (bestow upon us) great, 
augmenting, and foe subduingstrength; preserve us in affluence; cherish those 
who are wise; and supply us with wealth from which proceedexcellent progeny and 


 1.055.01 The amplitude of Indra was vaster than the (space of) heaven; earth 
was not comparable to him in bulk;formidable and most mighty, he has been ever 
the afflicter (of the enemies of) those men (who worship him); hehas his 
thunderbolt for sharpness, as a bull (his horns).  

 1.055.02 The firmament-abiding Indra graps the wide-spread waters with his 
comprehenisve faculties, as theocean (receives the rivers); he rushes 
(impetuous) as a bull, to drik of the Soma; he, the warrior, even covetspraise 
for his prowess. [gr.bhn.a_ti vari_mabhih, he graps with his powers of 
comprehending or collecting(sam.varan.aih) or may be, his vastness (urutvaih)].  

 1.055.03 You Indra, have not (struck) the cloud for (your own) enjoyment; you 
rulest over those who arepossessed of great wealth; that divinity is known by us 
to surpass all others in strength; the haughty (Indra) takesprecedence of all 
gods, on account of his exploits.  

 1.055.04 He verily is glorified by adoring (sages) in the forest; he proclaims 
his beautiful vigour amongst men ; heis the granter of their wishes (to those 
who solicit him); he is the encourager of those who desire to worship(him), when 
the wealthy offerer of oblations, enjoying his protection, recites his praise.  

 1.055.05 Indra the warrior, engages in many great conflicts for (the good of) 
man, with overwhelming prowess;when he hurls his fatal shaft, every one 
immediately has faith in the resplendent Indra.  

 1.055.06 Ambitious of renown, destroying the well-built dwellings of the 
asuras, expanding like the earth, andsetting the (heavenly) luminaries free from 
concealment, he, the performer of good deeds, enables the waters toflow for the 
benefit of his worshippers.  

 1.055.07 Drinker of Soma, may your mind incline to grant our desires; hearer of 
praises, let your coursers bepresent (at our sacrifice); your charioteers are 
skillful in restraining (your steeds); nor, Indra, can crafty (enemies)bearing 
arms prevail against you.  

 1.055.08 You hold in your hands unexhausted wealth; you, renowned (Indra), have 
irresistible strength in yourbody; your limbs are invested with (glorious) 
exploits, as well as (are surrounded by those who come for water);in your 
member, Indra, are many exploits. [The simile is with wells]. 


 1.056.01 Veracious (Indra) has risen up (as ardently) as a horse (approaches) a 
mare, to partake of the copiouslibations (contained) in the (sacrificial) 
ladles; having stayed his well-horsed, golden, and splendid chariot,heplies 
himself, capable of heroid (actions with Soma).  

 1.056.02 His adorers, bearing oblations, are thronging round (him), as 
(merchants) covetous of gain crowd theocean (in vessels) on a voyage ascend 
quickly, with a hymn to the powerful Indra, the protector of the 
solemnsacrifice, as wome (climb) a mountain. [Women climb a hill to gather 

 1.056.03 He is quick in action, and mighty; his faultless and desructive 
prowess shines in manly (conflict) like thepeak of a mountain (afar), with 
which, clothed in metal (armour), he, the supressor of the malignant, 
whenexhilarated (by Soma), cast the wily S'us.n.a into prison and into bonds. 
[a_yasah = of iron, i.e. whose body isdefended by armour of metal; an intimation 
of Indra as an idol].  

 1.056.04 Divine strength waits, like the sun upon the dawn, upon that Indra who 
is made more powerful forprotection by you, (his worshipper), who with resolute 
vigour resists the gloom, and inflicts severe castigation uonhis enemies, making 
them cry aloud (with pain).  

 1.056.05. When you, destroying Indra, did distribute the (previously) hidden 
life-sustaining, undecaying watersthrough the different quarters of the heaven, 
then, animated (by Soma), you did engage in battle, and withexulting (prowess) 
slew Vr.tra, and did send down an ocean of waters.  

 1.056.06 You, mighty Indra, send down from the heaven by your power, upon the 
realms of earth, the (world)sustaining rain; exhilarated (by Soma), you have 
expelled the waters (from the clouds), and have crushed Vr.traby a solid rock. 
[s'amaya_ pa_s.ya_ = sama, whole, entire; hence, pa_s.ya may mean a stone (or a 


 1.057.01 I offer especial praise to the most bountiful, the excellent, th 
eopulent, the verily powerful and statelyIndra, whose irresistible impetuosity 
is like (the rush) of waters down a precipice, and by whom widely-diffusedwealth 
is laid open (to his worshippers) to sustain (their) strength.  

 1.057.02 All the world, Indra, was intent upon your worship; the oblations of 
the sacrificer (flowed) like water(falling) to a depth); for the fatal golden 
thunderbolt of Indra, when hurling it (against the foe), did not sleep uponthe 
mountain. [did not sleep upon the mountain = against the side of Vr.tra].  

 1.057.03 Beautiful Us.as, now present the oblation in this rite to the 
formidable, praise-deserving Indra, whoseall-sustaining, celebrated, and 
characteristic radiance has impelled him hither and thither, (in quest) of 
(sacrificial)food, as (a charioteer drives) his horses (in various directions).  

 1.057.04 Much-lauded and most opulent Indra, we are thy, who, relying (on your 
favour), approach you; accepterof praise, no other than you receie our 
commendations; be pleased (with our address), as the earth (cherishes)her 

 1.057.05 Great is your prowess, Indra; we are yours; satisfy Maghavan, the 
desires of this your worshipper, thevast heaven has acknowledged your might; 
this earth has been bowed down through your vigour.  

 1.057.06 You, thunderer, have shattered with your bolt the broad and massive 
cloud into fragments, and havesent down the waters that were confined in it, to 
flow (at will); verily you alone possess all power. 


 1.058.01 The strength-generated, immortal Agni quickly issues forth, when he is 
the invoker of the gods, and themessenger (of the worshipper) (then proceeding) 
by suitable paths, he has made the firmament, and worships(the deities) in the 
sacrifice with oblations.   [Agni is identified with light; firmament existed in 
darkness and agnimade it visible; hence agni is said to have created (vimame, 
nirmame) the firmamement].  

 1.058.02 Undecaying Agni, combining his food (with his flame), and devouring it 
quickly, ascends the dry wood;the blaze of theconsuming (element) spreads like a 
(fleet) courser, and roars like a roaring (cloud) in the height ofheaven. [adma 
= food or what may be eaten, explained as tr.n.agulma_diam, straw and twigs; 
atasa = ka_s.t.ha,wood or timber].  

 1.058.03 The immortal, and resplendent Agni, the bearer of oblations, honoured 
by the Rudras and the Vasusthe invoker of the gods, who presides over oblations 
and is the distributor of riches, praised by his worshippers,and admired like a 
chariot amongst mankind, accepts the oblations that are successively presented. 
[purohitah =puraskr.tah, honoured or lit. placed in front or preceding].  

 1.058.04 Excited by the wind, and roaring loudly, Agni penetrates easily with 
his flames and diffusive (intensity)among the timber; when, undecaying and 
fiercely-blazing Agni, you rush rapidly like a bull amongst the foresttrees, 
your path is blackened.  

 1.058.05 The flame-weaponed and breeze-excited Agni, assailing the unexhaled 
moisture (of the trees), with allhis strength, in a volume of fire, rushes 
triumphant (against all things) in the forest, like a bull, and all, 
whetherstationary or moveable, are afraid of him as he flies along.  

 1.058.06 The Bhr.gus amongst men, for the sake of a divine birth, cherished you 
like a precious treasure Agni,who sacrifices for men, who are the invoker (of 
the gods), the (welcome) guest at sacrifices, and who are to bevalued like an 
affectionate friend. [divya_ya janmane = for the sake of being born as gods].  

 1.058.07 I worship with oblations that Agni whom the seven invoking priests 
invite as the invoker of the gods;who is most worthy of worship at sacrifices, 
and who is the donor of all riches; I solicit of him wealth.  

 1.058.08 Son of strength, favourably-shining Agni, grant to your worshipper on 
this occasion uninterruptedfelicity; offspring of food, preserve him who praises 
you from sin with guards of metal.  

 1.058.09 Variously-shining Agni, be a shelter to him who praises you; be 
prosperity, Maghavan, to the wealthy(offerers of oblations); protect, Agni, your 
worshipper from sin; may Agni, who is rich with righteous acts, come (tous) 
quickly in the morning. [Maghavan =  Indra; also, an epithet of Agni; lit. 
possessor of riches]. 


 1.059.01 Whatever other fires there may be, they are but ramifications, Agni, 
of you; but they all rejoice, beingimmortal in you; you, Vais'va_nara, are the 
navel of men, and suppor tthem like a deep-planted column.[Vais'va_nara: fr. 
vis'va, all; nara, a man; a fire common to all mankind or the fire or natural 
heat of the stomach;like a deep-planted column: like a pillar or post fixed 
firmly in the ground which supports the main beam or roof ofa house].  

 1.059.02 Agni, the head of heaven, the navel of earth, became the ruler over 
both earth and heaven; all the godsengendered you, Vais'va_nara, in the form of 
light, for the venerable sage. [This is the first verse of a tr.ca to berecited 
on the day of the equinox. Agni is the head of heaven, as the principal element; 
Agni is the navel of earth,as its main source of support. A_rya_ya may refer to 
Manu as the institutor of the first sacrifice or to theyajama_na, the institutor 
of the present rite].  

 1.059.03 Treasures were deposited in the Agni, Vais'va_nara, like the permanent 
rays (of light) in the sun; youare the sovereign of all the treasures that exist 
in the mountains, in the herbs, in the waters, or amongst men.  

 1.059.04. Heaven and earth expanded as it were for their son. The experienced 
sacrificer recites, like a bard,many ancient and copious praises addressed to 
the graceful-moving, truly-vigorous, and all-guidingVais'va_nara. [For their 
son: ubha pitara_ mahayan aja_yata agnir dya_va_ pr.thivi_, both parents, heaven 
andearth, expanding, Agni was born; Like a bard: the text refers to manus.ya, 
like a man; asumed: bandi_, apanegyrist, or bard, who recites the praises of a 
prime or great man, for largess].  

 1.059.05 Vais'va_nara, who knows all that are born, your magnitude has exceeded 
that of the spacious heaven;you are the monarch of manu-descended men; you have 
regained for the gods in battle, the wealth (carries off bythe asuras).  

 1.059.06 I extol the greatness of that showerer of rain whom men celebrate as 
the slayer of Vr.tra; the Agni,Vais'va_nara, slew the stealer (of the waters) 
and sent them down (upon earth), and clove the (obstructing)cloud. [Vais'va_nara 
= Indra; Vais'va_nara in the hymn is interpreated as the Agni of the firmament, 
the vidyuta,or lightning; thus Agni is of the middle region, from which when 
fallen to earth, the terrestrial fire is born, fromwhich rain is generated as 
the burnt-offering ascends to the sun. Thus rain descends from the sun. 
Vais'va_narais, therefore, Agni. Vais'va_nara, in mythology is a Da_nava].  

 1.059.07 Vais'va_nara by his magnitude is all men, and is to be worshipped as 
the diffuser of manifold light inofferings of nutritious viands; Agni, the 
speaker of truth, praises with many commendations Purun.i_tha, the sonof 
S'a_tavani. [vis'vakr.s.t.i = lit. all men; added--of whom all men are of same 
nature, svabhutah; bharadva_jes.u:in sacrifies which present food in the shape 
of nutritious (pus't.ikara) oblations of clarified butter (havis); or, it 
maymean, who is to be worshipped by the r.s.is termed bha_radva_jas (or of the 
gotra); purun.i_tha, the son ofS'a_tavani: S'a_tavani is the offerer of a 
hundred (numerous) sacrifices; his son is S'a_tavenya]. 


 1.060.01 Ma_taris'van brought, as a friend, to Bhr.gu, the celebrated Vahni, 
the illuminato of sacrifices, thecareful protector (of his votaries), the swift-
moving messenger (of the gods), the offspring of two parents, (to beto him) as 
it were a precious treasure. [ra_tim bhr.gun.a_m, son of the Bhr.gus; or, the 
wind brought Agni to thesage Bhr.gu, as a friend (ra_ti); cf. ara_ti = enemy, 
one who is not a friend. Offspring of two parents: eigher ofheaven and earth, or 
of the two pieces of wood].  

 1.060.02 Both (gods and men) are the worshippers of this ruler; those who are 
to be desired (of the gods), andthose who are mortal, beaing oblations; for this 
venerable invoker (of the gods), the lord of men, and distributor(of desired 
benefits), was placed by the officiating priests (upon the altar), before the 
sun was in the sky. [Thepriests conduct the yajama_na to the place where the 
fire has been prepared, before the break of day, by theadhvaryu. The text has: 
ubaya_sah, the both; this is explained as either gods and men or the ministering 
priestsand their employer, the yajama_na. us'ijo ye ca martah = ka_mayama_na_h 
deva_h, those who are to be wishedfor, the gods; us.ijah = medha_vinah, wise or 
the priests].  

 1.060.03 May our newest celebration come before that Agni, who is sweet-
tongued, and is to be engendered inthe heart; whom men, the descendants of Manu, 
sacrificing and presenting oblations to him, beget in the timeand battle. 
[navyasi_ suki_rtih = newest celebration, as if the hymn were of very recent 
composition; agni isengendered of air; but, that air is the vital air or breath; 
agni, therefore, is produced in the heart, or in the interiorsof the human body; 
in the time of battle = in order to make burnt offerings to secure success].  

 1.060.04 Agni, the desirable, the purifying, the giver of dwellings, the 
excellent, the invoker (of the gods) hasbeen placed (upon the altar) among men; 
may he be inimical (to our foes), the protector of (our) dwellings andthe 
guardian of the treasures in (this) mansion.  

 1.060.05 We, born of the race of Gotama, praise you, Agni, with acceptable 
(hymns), as the lord of riches;rubbing you, the bearer of oblations, (as a rider 
rubs down), a horse; may he who has acquired wealth by sacredrites, come hither 
quickly in the morning. [The text has only rubbing or rather, sweeping, you as a 
horse;expanded as, brushing the place of the fire for the burnt-offering, the 
altar. This is comparable to a person whomounts a horse first rubs with his 
hands the back of the horse]. 


 1.061.01 I offer adoration to that powerful, rapid, mighty, praise-meriting, 
and unobstructed Indra; adoration thatis acceptable, and oblations that are 
grateful, as food (to a hungry man).  

 1.061.02 I offer (oblations, acceptable as) food (to the hungry), to that 
Indra; I raise (to him) exclamations thatmay be of efficacy in discomfiting (my 
foe); others (also) worship Indra, the ancient lord, in heart, in mind, and 

 1.061.03 I offer with my mouth a loud acclamation, with powerful and pure words 
of praise, to exalt him who is thetype (of all), the giver (of good things), the 
great, the wise.  

 1.061.04 I prepare praises fo rhim, as a carpenter constructs a car, (that the 
driver) may thence (obtain) food;praises well deserved, to him who is entitled 
to commendation, and excellent oblations to the wise Indra. [rathamna tas.t.eva 
tatsina_ya: sina = food; tat = owner of the car, i.e. for his food].  

 1.061.05 To propitiate that Indra for the sake of food, I combinepraise with 
utterance, as (a man harnesses) ahorse (to a car), in order to celebrate the 
heroic, munificent, and food-conferring Indra, the destroyer of the cities(of 
the asuras). [juhva_: the instrument of invocation, the organ of speech; arkam: 
hymnb or praise in metre].  

 1.061.06 For that Indra, verily Tvas.t.a_ sharpened the well-acting, sure-aimed 
thunderbolt for the battle, withwhich fatal (weapon) the foe-subduing and mighty 
sovereign severed the limbs of Vr.tra.  

 1.061.07 Quickly quaffing the libations, and devouring the grateful viands 
(presented) at the three (daily)sacrifices which are dedicated to the creator 
(of the world), he, the pervadere of the universe, stole the ripe(treasures of 
the asuras); the vanquisher (of his foes), the hurler of the thunderbolt, 
encountering pierced thecloud. [vis.n.u = pervader, an epithet applied to Indra, 
sarvasya jagato vya_pakah. Cloud = vara_ha. Vis.n.u isthe personified yajn~a; he 
attracted the accumulated wealth of the asuras; then, he remained concealed 
behindseven difficult passes, or the days of initiatory preparation for the 
rite. Indra crossed the seven defiles or wentthrough the seven days of 
initiation and pierced the sacrifice. Taittiri_ya expands this further: Vara_ha, 
thestealer of what is beautiful, cherishes beyond the seven hills, the wealth of 
the asuras; Indra, having taken up thetufts of grass, and pierced the seven 
hills, slew him: vara_hoyam vamamos.ah sapta_nam girin.a_m parasta_dvittam 
vedyam asura_n.a_m bibharti; sa darbhapin~julam uddhr.tya, sapta girin bhitva_, 
tam ahanniti].  

 1.061.08 To that Indra the women, the wives of the gods, addressed their hymns, 
on the destruction of Ahi; heencompasses the extensive heaven and earth; they 
two do not surpass your vastness. [Wives of the gods arepersonified ga_yatri_ 
and other metres of the Vedas; gna_h, preceding devapatni_h means: females 
whosenature is locomotive: gamanasvabha_vah].  

 1.061.09 His magnitude verily exceeds that of the heaven, and earth and sky; 
Indra, self-irradiating in hisdwelling, equal to every exploit, engaged with no 
unworthy foe, and killed in conflict, calls to battle. [Calling theclouds to 
battle or to collide, to generate rain].  

 1.061.10 Indra, by his vigour, cut to pieces with his thunderbolt Vr.tra, the 
absorber (of moisture), and set free thepreserving waters, like cows (recovered 
from thieves); and, consentient (to the wishes)of the giver of theoblation, 
(grants him) food.  

 1.061.11 Through his power, the rivers sport, since he has opened (a way for 
them) by his thunderbolt;establishing his supremacy and granting a (recompense) 
to the giver (of the oblation), he, the swift-movingprovided a resting place for 
Tu_rvi_ti. [Tu_rvi_ti is a r.s.i who had been immersed in water; Indra brought 
him todry land].  

 1.061.12 Indra, who are the quick moving and strength-endowed lord (of all), 
hurl your thunderbolt against thisVr.tra and sever his joints, as (butchers cut 
up) a cow, that the rains may issue from him, and the waters flow(over the 
earth). [The text says, 'cut in pieces the limbs of Vr.tra, as of a cow' 
(gorna); added: 'as worldly men, thecarvers (vikarata_rah) of flesh, divide here 
and there the limbs of animals].  

 1.061.13 Proclaim, with new hymns, the former exploits of that quick-moving 
Indra, when wielding his weapons inbattle, he encounters and destroys his 

 1.061.14 Through fear of him, the stable mountains (are still), and through 
dread of his appearance, heaven andearth tremble; may, Nodhas, praising 
repeatedly the preserving power of that beloved Indra, be speedily(blessed) with 

 1.061.15 To him has that praise been offered which he, sole (victor over his 
foes), and lord of maniford wealth,prefers (to receive) from those (who praise 
him). Indra has defended the pious sacrificer Etas'a when contendingwith Su_rya, 
the son of Svas'va. [Legend: A king names Svas'va (lord of good horses, su 
as'va) was desirous ofa son; he worshipped Su_rya, who was also born as the son 
of a king. There was a dispute between him andr.s.i Etas'a. Indra sided with the 

 1.061.16 Indra, harnesser of steeds, the descendants of Gotama have offered to 
you prayers of efficacy tosecure your presence; bestow upon them every sort of 
affluence; may he who has acquired wealth by pious acts,come hither quickly in 
the morning. 


 1.062.01 We mediate like An:giras, an acceptable adress to that powerful and 
praise-deserving Indra, who is tobe adored by his worshippers (with prayers) of 
efficacy, to bring him to the ceremony; let us repeat a prayer tothe celebrated 
leader of all.  

 1.062.02 Do you, priests, offer to the vast and most powerful, Indra, earnest 
veneration, a chant fit to be sungaloud; for through him our forefathers, the 
An:girasas, worshipping him, and knowing the footmark, recovered(the stolen) 
cattle. [a_n:gus.yam sa_ma = a sa_ma fit to be recited aloud (aghos'yayogyam) 
such as therathantaras. Here sa_ma is explained as: r.ks.u yad ga_nam gasya 
sa_metya_khya, singing or changint ther.ca_s].  

 1.062.03 When the search was set on foot by Indra and the An:girasas, Surama_ 
secured food for her young;then Br.haspati slew the devourer and rescued the 
kine, and the gods, with the cattle, proclaimed their joy aloud. [Sarama_ agreed 
with Indra to go in search of the stolen cattle on condition that the milk of 
the cows should begiven to her young ones. Br.haspati = Indra, the master of the 
great ones (br.hatam), the gods].  

 1.062.04 Powerful Indra, who are to be gratified with a laudatory and well-
accented hymn by the seven priests,whether engaged for nine months, or for ten; 
and, desirous of (safe) protection, you have terrified by your voicethe 
divisible fructifying cloud. [vipras (priests) are an:girasas: (1) those who 
conduct sacrifices for nine months;and (2) those who conduct the sacrifices for 
ten months. The seven priests are Medha_tithi and other r.s.is ofAn:giras 
lineage. valam = cloud; adrim = that which is to be divided by the thunderbolt; 
phaligam = that whichyields fruit; alternative: adri = mountain; phaliga = a 
cloud; vala = an asura].  

 1.062.05 Destroyer of foes, praised by the An:girasas, you have scattered the 
darkness with the dawn, and withthe rays of the sun; you have made straight the 
elevations of the earth; you have strengthened the foundations ofthe ethereal 

 1.062.06 The deeds of that graceful Indra are most admirable; his exploits are 
most glorious, in that he hasreplenished the four rivers of sweet water, spread 
over the surface of the earth.  

 1.062.07 He who is not to be attained by violence, but (is easily propitiated) 
by those who praise him with sacredhymns, parted twofold the eternal and united 
(sphered of heaven and earth); the graceful Indra cherished theheaven and earth, 
like the sun in the august and most excellent sky. [aya_sya: yas'a, effort; 
hence, aya_sya, thatwhich is not attainable by effort (or, not to be overcome in 

 1.062.08 (Night and dawn), of various complexion, repeatedly born, but ever 
youthful, have traversed in theirrevolutions alternately, from a remote period, 
earth and heaven; night with her dark, dawn with her luminouslimbs.  

 1.062.09 The son of strength assiduous in good works, diligent in pious acts, 
retains his ancient friendship (forhis votary). You, (Indra), provide within the 
yet immature cows, whether black or red, the mature and glossy milk.  

 1.062.10 From a remote time the contiguous, unshifting, and unwearied fingers 
practise with (all) their energiesmany thousand acts of devotion (towards 
Indra); and like the wives (of the gods), the protecting sisters worshiphim who 
is without shame. [pani_h svasa_rah = the protecting or propitiatory and moving 
epithets of avanih,fingers; janayo na = like wives (i.e., of the gods, 

 1.062.11 Beautiful Indra, who are to be praised with holy hymns, the pious who 
are desirous of holy rites, thosewho are anxious for riches, and those who are 
wise, repair to you with veneration; powerful Indra, their mindsadhere to you, 
as affectionate wives to a loving husband.+  

 1.062.12 Beautiful Indra, the riches that have long since been held in your 
hands have suffered neither loss nordiminution. You, Indra, are illustrious, 
addicted to good works, and resolute; enrich us, you who are diligent inaction, 
by your acts.  

 1.062.13 Mighty Indra, Nodhas, the son of Gotama, has composed for us this new 
hymn, (addressed) to you,who have been forever, who harness your coursers (to 
your car) and are the sure guide (of all). May he who hasacquired wealth by 
propitious acts, come hither quickly in the morning. 


 1.063.01 Indra, you are the mighty one, who, becoming manifest in (the hour of) 
alarm, did sustain by yourenergies heaven and earth; then, through fear of you, 
all creatures, and the mountains, and all other vast andsolid things, trembled, 
like the (tremulous) rays of the sun. [by your energies: balaih = by strength; 
s'us.maih =the driers up (of enemies)].  

 1.063.02 When, Indra, you harness your variously moving horses, your praiser 
places your thunderbolt in yourhands, wherewith, accom;oisher of undesired acts, 
you assail your enemies, and glorified by many, destroy theirnumerous cities. 
[aviharyatakratu = aprepsita karman, he does actions undesired by his foes].  

 1.063.03 You, Indra, the best of all beings, the assailer and humiliator (of 
your foes), the chief ot the R.bhus, thefriend of man, the subduer of enemies, 
did aid the young and illustrious Kutsa, and slew S'us.na, in the deadlyand 
close-fought fight. [R.bhuks.a = R.bhu_na_m adhipati; tes.u kr.taniva_sah, he 
who abides in the R.bhus;R.bhu = a wise man, a sage (medha_vin)].  

 1.063.04 You verily did animate him to (acquire) such (renown) as that which, 
sender of rain and wielder of thethunderbolt, you (dis-acquire) when you slew 
Vr.tra, and when, munificent hero, who easily conquer (your foes)you did put to 
fight the Dasyus in battle. [dasyus are enemies of Kutsa: 

 1.063.05 Do you, Indra, who are unwilling to harm any resolute (mortal), set 
open all the quarters (of the horizon)to the horses of us who praise you, (when 
we are exposed) to the aversion (of our enemies); and, wielder of 
thethunderbolt, demolish our foes, as with a club.  

 1.063.06 Men invoke you, such as you are, in the thick-throned and wealth-
bestowing conflict. May this yoursuccour, powerful Indra, ever be granted in 
war, worthy to be enjoyed (by warriors) in battle.  

 1.063.07 Indra, wielder of the thunderbolt, warring on behalf of Purukutsa, you 
did overturn the seven cities; youdid cut off for Suda_sa wealth of An:has, as 
if (it had been a tuft) of sacred grass, and did give it to him, O king,ever 
satiating you (with oblations). [Purukuts ais a r.s.i. Suda_sa is a king. An:as 
is an asura].  

 1.063.08 Increase, divine Indra, for us throughout the earth, abundant food, 
(that it may be as plentiful) as water,by which, hero, you bestow upon us 
(existence), as you cause water to flow on every side.  

 1.063.09 Praises have been offered to you, Indra, by the sons of Gotama; (they 
have been) uttered withreverence (to you), borne (hither) by your steeds; grant 
us various sorts of food. May he who has acquiredwealthy by pious acts, come 
hither quickly in the morning. 


 1.064.01 Offer, Nodhas, earnest praise to the company of the Maruts, the 
senders of rain and ripeners of fruit,deserving of adoration. Composed, and with 
folded hands, I utter the praises conceived in my mind, which areefficacious in 
sacred rites, (and flow rreadily) as the waters.  

 1.064.02 They were born handsome and vigorous from the sky, the sons of Rudra, 
the conquerors of their foes,pure from sin, and purifying (all), radiant as 
suns, powerful as evil spirits, diffusers of rain-drops, and of fearfulforms. 
[rudrasya marya_h = lit. the mortals or men of rudra; since the Maruts are 
immortal the term should implysons; maruts are called rudrasya sunuh = sons of 
Rudra. satva_no na: satva_nah = parames'varasyabhu_tagan.ah, the troops of 
demons attendant on Parames'vara or S'iva].  

 1.064.03 Youthful Rudras, and undecaying destructive of those who do not 
worship (the gods), of unobstructedprogress, and immoveable as mountains they 
are desirous of granting (the wishes of the worshipper), and bytheir strength 
agitate all substances, whether of heaven or of earth.  

 1.064.04 They decorate their persons with various ornaments; they have placed, 
for elegance, brilliant (garlands)on their breasts; lances are borne upon their 
shoulders, and with them and their own strength have they beenboth, leaders, 
from the sky.  

 1.064.05 Enriching their worshipper, agitating the clouds, devourers of foes, 
they create the winds are lightningsby their power; the cirumambient and 
agitating Maruts milk heavenly udders, and sprinkle the earth with water.  

 1.064.06 The munificent Maruts scatter the nutritious waters, as priests at 
sacrifices the clarified butter; asgrooms lead forth a horse, they bring forth 
the rain from the fleeting-cloud, and milk it, thundering, andunexhausted.  

 1.064.07 Vast, possessed of knowledge, bright-shining, like mountains in 
stability and quick in motion, you, likeelephants, break down the forests when 
you put vigour into your ruddy (mares).  

 1.064.08 The most wise Maruts roar like lions; the all-knowing are graceful as 
the spotted deer, destroyign (theirfoes), delighting (their worshippers); of 
deadly strength in their anger, they come with their antelopes and theirarms, 
(to defend the sacrificer) against interruption. [pr.s.atibhih = with spotted 
deer, va_hanas or steeds of theMaruts].  

 1.064.09 Maruts, who are distinguished in troops, who are benevolent to men, 
who are heroes, and whosestrength is deadly in your anger, you make heaven and 
earth resound (at your coming); your (glory) sits in theseat-furnished chariots, 
conspicuous as (a beautiful) form, or as the lovely lightning.  

 1.064.10 The Maruts, who are all-knowing, co-dwellers with wealth, combined 
with strength, loud-sounding,repellers of foes, of infinite prowess, whose 
weapon (of offence) is Indra, and who are leaders (of men), hold intheir hands 
the shaft.  

 1.064.11 Augmenters of rain, they drive with golden wheels the clouds asunder, 
as elephants (in a herd breakdown the trees in their way); they are honoured 
with sacrifices, visitants of the hall of offering, spontaneousassailers (of 
their foes), subverters of what are stable, immoveable themselves, and wearers 
of shining weapons.[As elephants: a_pathyo na, lit. like that which is produced 
or occurs on the road; alt. meaning: like a chariotwhich drives over and crushes 
sticks and straws on the way].  

 1.064.12 We invoke with praise the foe-destroying, all-purifying, water-
shedding, all-surveying band of Maruts,the offspring of Rudra; (priests) to 
obtain prosperity, have recourse to the dust-raising and powerful band ofMaruts, 
receiving libations from sacred vessels, and showering down (benefits). 
[Receiving libations from sacredvessels: r.jis.in.am abhis.unv.vanti, they (the 
priests) pour the soma into the vessel. r.jis.am = a frying-pan; incontext, is 
means any sacrificial vessel].  

 1.064.13 The man whom, Maruts, you defend with your protection, quickly 
surpasses all men in strength; with hishorses he acquires food, and with his 
men, riches; he performs the required worship, and he prospers.  

 1.064.14 Maruts, grant to your wealthy (worshippers a son), eminent for good 
works, invincible in battle,illustrious, the annihilator (of his adversaries), 
the seizer of wealth, the deserver of praise, and all-discerning; maywe cherish 
such a son and such a grandson for a hundred winters.   

 1.064.15 Grant us, Maruts, durable riches, attended by posterity, and 
mortifying to our enemies; (riches)recknoned by hundreds and thousands, and ever 
increasing; may they who have acquired wealth by pious acts,come hither quickly 
in the morning. 


 1.065.01-02 The firm and placid divinites followed you, Agni, by your 
footmarks, when hiding in the hollow (of thewater), like a thief (who has 
stolen) an animal; you, claiming oblations, and bearing them to the gods; all 
thedeities who are entitled to worship, sit down near to you. [In dvipada_ 
vira_t chanda, each hymn is divided intohalf; every two padas are considered to 
form a complete hymn.  guha catantam = a cave, applied to the depth ofthe waters 
or to the hollow of the as'vattha tree; agni had hidden in both these caves for 
a season].  

 1.065.03-04 The gods followed the traces of the fugitive; the search spread 
everywhere, and earth became likeheaven; the waters swelled (to conceal him), 
who was much enlarged by praise, and was manifested as it werein the womb in the 
waters, the source of sacrificial food. [so nileyata, so a_pah pravis.at, tam 
devah prais.amaicchan; tam matsya_h prabravit: he, concealing himself, entered 
into the waters; the gods wished for amessenger to him; a fish discovered him. A 
fish revealed to the gods where Agni had hidden (Taittiriya)].  

 1.065.05-06 Agni is grateful as nourishment, vast as the earth, productive (of 
vegetable food), as a mountain,delightful as water; he is like a horse urged to 
a charge in battle and like flowing waters; who can arrest him?[pus.t.irna 
ran.va_ = like grateful nourishment; ks.itirna pr.thvi_ = like the vast earth; 
the epithets applied toobjects also apply to Agni].  

 1.065.07-08 He is the kind kinsman of the waters, like a brother to his sister; 
he consumes the forest as a ra_ja_(destroys) his enemies; when excited by the 
wind, he traverses the woods, and shears the hairs of the earth.[The fruit, 
flowers, grasses, shrubs and the like are called roma pr.thivya_h = hairs of the 

 1.065.09-10 He breathes amidst the waters like a sitting swan; awakened at the 
dawn, he restores by hisoperations consciousness to men; he is a creator, like 
Soma; born from the waters (where he lurked) like ananimal with coiled-up limbs, 
he became enlarged and his light (spread) afar. [Creator like Soma: soma 
navedhah; just as soma creates or causes 'plants' to grow, so Agni creates or 
extracts from them their nutritivefaculty. eta_vad va_ idam annam anna_das'ca 
soma eva annam agnir anna_dah: inasmuch as there is food andfeeder, so soma is 
the food, and the feeder is agni (Va_jasneyi Yajus.)]. 

 1.066.01-02 Agni who is like wondrous wealth, like the all-surveying Sun, like 
vital breath, like a well-conductedson, like a rider-bearing steed, like a milk-
yielding cow, who is pure and radiant, consumes the forests. 

 1.066.03-04 Like a secure mansion, he proects property; he (nourishes people) 
like barley; he is the conquerorof (hostile)) men; he is like a r.s.i, the 
praiser (of the gods), eminent amongst (devout) persons; as a spiritedhorse 
(goes to battle), he repairs delighted to the hall of sacrifice; may be bestow 
upon us food.  

 1.066.05-06 Agni of unattainable brightness, is like a vigilant sacrificer; he 
is an ornament to all (in the sacrificialchamber), like a woman in a dwelling; 
when he shines with wonderful lustre, he is like the white (sun) or like agolden 
chariot amongst men, resplendent in battle.  

 1.066.07-08 He terrifies (his adversaries) like an army sent (against an 
enemy), or like the bright-pointed shaft ofan archer. Agni, as Yama, is all that 
is born; as Yama, all that will be born; he is the lover of maidens, thehusband 
of wives. [yamo ha ja_to, yamo janitvam: yama is interpreted as: yacchati 
dada_ti ka_ma_n stotr.bhyah,he who gives the desired object to the worshippers; 
so, Yama becomes a synonym of Agni: yam agnir ucyate; or,Agni becomes one of the 
twins (yama), by the simultaneous  birth of Indra and Agni (according to 
Ya_ska); ja_ta= all existing beings; janitva = those that will exist; the terms 
imply dependence of all existence, past, present, orfuture, upon worship with 
fire; lover of maids: the essential part of the nuptial ceremony is completed 
when themaiden offers to fire; husband of wives: An allusion to a legend; Soma 
obtained a maiden and gave her togandharva, Vis'va_vasu; he transferred her to 
Agni, who gave her to a mortal husband and bestowed upon herwealth and 
offspring; the reference is to the wife as a chief participant in the oblations 
to fire].  

 1.066.09-10 Let us approach that blazing Agni with animal and vegetable 
offerings, as cows hasten to their stalls.He has tossed about his flames (in 
every direction), like running streams of water; the rays comingle (with 
theradiance) visible in the sky. [caratha and vasthaya are explained as animal 
and vegetable offerings; furtherelaboration: tat prabha_vaih br.daya_dibhih 
sa_dhya_hutih, pas'uprabha_va-hr.daya_disa_dhana_ya_hutya,these are invocations 
prompted by minds purified by offerings of moveable things, that is, animals; or 
ofimmoveable things, as rice, and the like]. 


 1.067.01-02 Born in the woods, the friend of man, Agni protects his worshipper, 
as a ra_ja_ favours an able man; kind as a defender, prosperous as a performer 
of (good) works, may he, the invoker of the gods, the bearer ofoblations, be 
propitious. [havyava_h = bearer of oblations to the gods; three Agnis: havyava_h 
(havyava_hana),that which conveys offerings to the gods; kavyava_h, that which 
conveys them to the pitr.s or manes;saharaks.as, that which receives those 
offered to the ra_ks.asas].  

 1.067.03-04 Holding in his hand all (sacrificial) wealth, and hiding in the 
hollows (of the waters), he filled the godswith alarm; the leaders, (the gods), 
the upholders of acts, then recognize Agni when they have recited theprayers 
conceived in the heart.  

 1.067.05-06 Like the unborn (sun) he sustains the earth and the firmament, and 
props up the heaven with trueprayers; Agni, in whom is all sustenance, cherish 
the places that are grateful to animals; repair (to the spots)where there is no 
pasturage. [Propped up the heaven: the gods alarmed at the obliquity of the 
region of the sunand fearing that it might fall, propped it up with the metres 
of the Veda (Taittiri_ya). This act is attributed to Agniin this hymn. Guha 
guham gah= guha means any arid or rugged tract unfit for pasture; 
san~ca_rayogyamstha_nam, a place unfit for grazing; hence, a region which may be 
scorched by Agni].  

 1.067.07-08 He who knows Agni hidden in the hollows; he who approaches him as 
the maintainer of truth; thosewho, performing worship, repeat his praises, to 
them assuredly he promises affluence.  

 1.067.09-10 The wise, (first) honouring Agni, as they do a dwelling, worship 
him who implants their (peculiar)virtues in herbs, as progeny in their parents, 
and who, the source of knowledge and of all sustenance, (abides) inthe domicile 
of the waters. 

 1.068.01-02 The bearer (of the oblations), Agni, mixing them (with other 
ingredients), ascends to heaven, andclothes all things, moveable and immoveable, 
and the nights themselves, (with light), radiant amongst the gods,and in himself 
alone comprehending the virtues of all these (substances). [Comprehending the 
virtues of allthese: alternative, 'he alone surpasses the glories (mahitva) of 
all these gods'].  

 1.068.03-04 When, divine Agni, you are born living from the dry wood, (by 
attrition), then all (your worshippers)perform the sacred ceremony, and obtain 
verily true divinity by praising you, who are immortal, with hymns thatreach 

 1.068.05-06 Praises are addressed to him who has repaired (to the solemnity); 
oblations (are offered) to him whohas gone (to the sacrifice); in him is all 
sustenance, (and to him) have all (devout persons) performed (thecustomary) 
rites. Do you, Agni, knowing (the thoughts of the worshipper), grant riches to 
him who presents to youoblations, or who wishes (to be able to present them).  

 1.068.07-08 You have abided with the descendants of Manu as the invoker (of the 
gods); you are indeed the lordof their possessions; they have desired (of you) 
procreative vigour in their bodies, and, associated with their ownexcellent 
offspring, they contemplate (all things) undisturbed. [Descendants of Manu: 

 1.068.09-10 Hastening to obey the commands of Agni, like sons (obedient of the 
orders) of a father, theycelebrate his worship; abounding in food, Agni sets 
open before them treasures that are the doorf of sacrifice;and he who delights 
in the sacrificial chamber has studded the sky with constellations. 


 1.069.01-02 White-shining (Agni), like the (sun), the extinguisher of the dawn, 
is the illuminator (of all) and fillsunited (heaven and earth with light), like 
the lustre of the radiant (sun). You, as soon as manifested, havepervaded all 
the world with devout acts, being (both) the father and son of the gods. 
[deva_na_m pita_ putrahsan: the protector, either of the gods or of the priests 
(r.tvijam) and their messenger, that is, at their command,like a son. 
Metaphorically, Agni, as the bearer of oblations, is said to give paternal 
support to the gods; he is theirson as the presenter of sacrificial offerings to 

 1.069.03-04 The wise, the humble, and discrimating Agni, is the giver of 
flavour to food, as the udder of cows(gives sweetness to the milk); invited (to 
the ceremony), he sits in the sacrificial chamber, diffusing happiness likea 
benevolent man, amongst mankind.  

 1.069.05-06 He diffuses happiness in a dwelling like a son(newly) born; he 
overcomes (opposing) men like ananimated charger; whatever (divine) beings I may 
along with other men invoke (to the ceremony), you, Agni,assume all (their) 
celestial nature. [tad devatarupo bhavati: he becomes of the form or nature of 
that deity; tvanagne varun.o ja_yate tvam mitro bhavasi: you are born as 
Varun.a, you become Mitra].  

 1.069.07-08 Never may (malignant spirits) interrupt those rites in which you 
have given the (hope of) reward tothe persons (who celebrate them) for should 
(such spirits) disturb your worship, then, assisted by followers likeyourself, 
you put the intruders to flight. [sama_nair nr.bhih = with equal leaders or men, 
i.e. with the Maruts].  

 1.069.09-10 May Agni, who is possessed of manifold light, like the extinguisher 
of the dawn, the granter ofdwellings, and of cognizable form, consider (the 
desires of) this, (his worshipper); (his rays), spontaneouslybearing the 
oblation, open the doors (of the sacrificial chamber), and all spread through 
the visible heaven. [us.ona ja_rah: extinguisher of the  dawn, is explained by 
jarayitri_, the causer of decay. The dawn is obliterated bythe superior radiance 
of the sun]. 


 1.070.01-02 We solicit abundant (food) Agni, who is to be approached by 
meditation, and shines with pure light,pervades all holy rites, knowing well the 
acts that are to be addressed to the deities, and (those) which regulate)the 
birth of the human race.  

 1.070.03-04 (They offer oblations) on the mountain, or in the mansion, to that 
Agni, who is within the waterswithin woods, and  within all moveable and 
immoveable things, immortal and performing pious acts, like abenevolent (prince) 
among his people.  

 1.070.05-06 Agni, the lord of night, grants riches to the worshipper who adores 
him with sacred hymns. Agni, whoare omniscient, and  know the origin of gods and 
men, protect all these (beings dwelling) upon earth.[ks'apa_va_n: capable of 
destroying (the ra_ks.asas); or, having or possessing the night; a_gneyi vai 
ra_trih,night is characterized by Agni (Taittiri_ya Bra_hman.a; 
agnirjyotih jyotiragnih sva_ha_ (agnya_dheyaceremony: Taittiri_ya A_ran.yaka 

 1.070.07-08 Agni, whom many variously-tinted (mornings) and nights increase, 
whom, invested with truth, allmoveable and immoveable things augment, has been 
propitiated, and is kindly seated at the holy rite, as theinvoker (of the gods), 
and rendering all (pious) acts (productive) of reward.  

 1.070.09-10 Agni, confer excellence upon our valued cattle, and may all men 
bring us acceptable tribute; offeringin many laces sacrifices to you, men 
receive riches from you, as (sons) from an aged father.  

 1.070.11 (May Agni), who is like one who succeeds (in his undertakings), and 
acquires (what he wishes for), whois like a warrior casting a dart, and 
resembles a fearful adversary, who is brilliant in combats, (be to us a friend). 


 1.071.01 The contiguous fingers, loving the affectionate Agni, as wives love 
their own husbands, please him(with offered oblations), and honour him, who is 
entitled to honour, (with gesticulations), as the rays of light (areassiduous in 
the service) of the dawn, which is (at first) dark, (then) glimmering, and 
(finally) radiant.  

 1.071.02 Our forefathers, the An:girasas, by their praises (of Agni), terrified 
the strong and daring devourer,(Pan.i), by the sound; they made for us a path to 
the vast heaven, and obtained accessible day, the ensign ofday, (A_ditya) and 
the cows (that had been stolen). [ketu = indicator or cause of day being known; 
A_ditya, thesun].  

 1.071.03 They secured hi, (Agni, in the sacrificial chamber), they made his 
worship the source of wealth; whenceopulent votaries preserve his fires and 
practise his rites. Free from all (other) desire, assiduous in his adoration,and 
sustaining gods and men by their offerings, they come into his presence. [a_ryan 
= dhanasya sva_minah].  

 1.071.04 When the diffusive vital air excites Agni, he becomes bright and 
manifest in every mansion, and theinstitutor of the rite, imitating Bhr.gu, 
prevails on him to perform the function of messenger, as a prince who hasbecome 
a friend sends an ambassador to his more powerful (conqueror). [ma_taris'van = 
va_yu; here, it means,principal vital air, mukhyapra_n.a; the legend about the 
dialogue amongst the five divided (vibhr.ta) airs: 'To themsaid the Aris.t.a 
breaths: Be not astonished, for, I, having made myself five-fold, and having 
arrested the arrow,sustain (life)'; jenya = fr. jana, to be born; or, fr. ji, to 
conquer; legend: 'the gods and asuras were once engagedin combat; the former, 
being alarmed, entered into fire, therefore they call agni all the gods, who 
having made himtheir shield, overcame the asuras' (Taittiri_ya Samhita_
7); 'the gods having awoke agni and placed himbefore them at the morning 
sacrifice, repulsed, with him in their van, the asuras and ra_ks.asas at the 
morningrite' (Aitareya Bra_hman.a 6.4)].  

 1.071.05 When (the worshipper) offers an oblation to his great and illustrious 
protector, the grasping (ra_ks.as),recognizing you, Agni, retires; but Agni, the 
archer, sends after him a blazing arrow from his dreadful bow, andthe god 
bestows light upon his own daughter (the dawn). [cf. Taittiri_ya Bra_hman.a].  

 1.071.06 When (the worshipper) kindles you in his own dwelling, and presents an 
oblation to you, daily desiringit, do you, Agni, augmented in two ways, (as 
middling and as best), increase his means of sustenance; may hewhom you sen 
dwith his car to battle, return with wealth.  

 1.071.07 All (sacrificial) viands concentrate in Agni, as the seven great 
rivers flwo into the ocean; our food is notpartaken of by our kinsmen, therefore 
do you, who know (all things), make our desires known to the gods.  

 1.071.08 May that (digestive) faculty (of Agni) with regards food, be imparted 
to the devout and illustriousprotector of priests, as the source of virile 
vigour; and may Agni be born as (his) robust, irreproachable, youthfuland 
intelligent son, and instigate him (to acts of worship). [retas = water; hence, 
'may fire and water, or heat andmoister, be spread through the earth for the 
generation of corn' is an alternative rendering].  

 1.071.09 The sun, who traverses alone the path of heaven with the speed of 
thought, is at once lord of alltreasures; the two kings, Mitra and Varun.a, with 
bounteous hands, are the guardians of the precious ambrosia ofour cattle.  

 1.071.10 Dissolve not, Agni, our ancestral friendship, for you are cognizant of 
the past as well as of the present;in like manner as light (speeds over) the 
sky, so decay impairs (my body); think of me before that source ofdestruction 
(prevails). [amr.tatvam prayacchati ya_vat, asking Agni, therefore, to grant 


 1.072.01 Agni, holding in his hands many good things for men, appropriates the 
prayers addressed to the eternalcreator. Agni is the lord of riches, quickly 
bestowing (on those who praise him) all golden (gifts).[svatmabhimukham karoti, 
he makes them present or applicable to himself; s'as'vata = vedhas or 
brahma_,creator, the eternal; an apparent indication of the identification of 
the first cause, identified with, yet distinct fromAgni and other elemental 

 1.072.02 All the immortals, and the unbewildered (Maruts), wishing for him who 
was (dear) to us as a son, andwas everywhere around, discovered him not; 
oppressed with fatigue, wandering on foot, and cognizant of hisacts, they 
stopped at the last beautiful (hiding) place of Agni.  

 1.072.03 Inasmuch, Agni, as the pure (Maruts) worshipped you, (equally) pure, 
with clarified butter for threeyears, therefore they acquired names worthy (to 
be treated) at sacrifice, and, being regenerated obtainedcelestial bodies. 
[s'ucayah = the pure; for the Maruts, seven platters are placed at the 
Agnicayana and invoked:idr.s', anya_dr.s', ta_dr.s', pratidr.s', mitah, sammitah 
(Taittiri_ya Sam.hita_; as a consequence of thisparticipation with 
Agni, they exchanged their perishable bodies for immortal bodies and obtained 
heaven; theMaruts, are, therefore, deified mortals, like the R.bhus].  

 1.072.04 Those who are to be worshipped, (the gods), inquiring between the 
expansive heaven and earth (forAgni), recited (hymns) dedicated to Rudra; the 
troop of mortal (Maruts), with (Indra), the shrer of half the oblation,knowing 
where Agni was hiding found him in his excellent retreat. [Dedicated to Rudra: 
Rudra is equated withAgni; the hymns to Agni are called Rudri_ya, for Rudra is 
Agni: rudra-agnih; a legend is cited: during a battlebetween the gods and 
asuras, Agni carried off the wealth which the former had concealed; detecting 
theft, thegods pursued the thief, and forcibly recovered their treasure; Agni 
wept (arodi_t) at the loss; thereafter he wascalled Rudra (Taittiri_ya Sam.hita_; the text has martah, the mortal; the term, marudgan.a is 
added;nemadhita_ = half-sharer, fr. nema, a half; Indra is entitled to all 
sacrifices; all the other gods get half the share:sarve deva_h eko ardhah, Indra 
eka evaparo ardhah (Taittiri_ya].  

 1.072.05 The gods, discovering you, sat down, and with their wives paid 
reverntial adoration to you upon theirknees. Secure on beholding their friend, 
of being protected, your friends, the gods, abandoned the rest of theirbodies in 
sacrifice. [adhijn~u, upon their knees: applied to Agni kneeling before them; 
deva_h yajn~am atanvata,the gods verily constituted the sacrifice (Aitareya 
Bra_hman.a 2.11)].  

 1.072.06 (Devout men), competent to offer sacrifices, have known the thrice 
seven mystic rites comprised in you,and with them, worshipped you; do you, 
therefore, with like affection, protect their cattle, and all that (belongs 
tothem), moveable or stationary. [gr.hya_n.i pada_ (ni): secret or mysterious 
steps by which heaven is said to beobtained. Ceremonies of vedas (all involving 
Agni) are in three classes, each class has seven yajn~as:pa_ka-yajn~as, those in 
which food of some kind is offered (aupa_sana, homa, vais'vadeva); havir-
yajn~as,those in which clarified butter is offered (agnya_dheya, dars'a 
pu_rn.ama_sa); and soma-yajn~as, the principalpart of which is the libation of 
soma (agnis.t.oma, atyagnis.t.oma)].  

 1.072.07 Agni, who are cognizant of all things to be known, ever provide for 
the subsistence of men,grief-alleviating (food); so shall you be the diligent 
bearer of oblations, and messenger of the gods, knowing thepaths between (earth 
and heaven), by which they travel.  

 1.072.08 The seven pure rivers that flow from heaven (are directed, Agni, by 
you; by you, the priests), skilled insacrifices, knew the doors of the (cave 
where) the treasure, (their cattle), were concealed for you Sarama_discovered 
the abundant milk of the kine with which man, the progeny of Manu, still is 
nourished. [Agni is addedas the instrument or agent. The sun, nourished by 
burnt-offerings, is enabled to send down the rain whichsupplies the rivers. 
An:girasas recovered their cattle when carried off by Vala through the knowledge 
obtained byholy sacrifices. Indra sent Sarama_ on the search mission, when 
propitiated by oblations with fire. In all theseincidents, Agni was the prime 

 1.072.09 You have been fed, (Agni, with oblations) ever since the A_dityas, 
devising a road to immortality;instituted all (the sacred rites) that secured 
them from failing and mother earth, Aditi, strove with her magnitude touphold 
(the world), along with her mighty sons. [ye vis'va_ svapatya_ni = s'obhana_ni 
apatana-hetu-bhu_ta_ni,those which were the prosperous causes of not falling; 
i.e. certain sacred acts which secured to the A_dityastheir station in heaven; 
or, that immortality, th eway to which they had made or devised (Taittiri_ya "theA_dityas, desirous of heaven (su-varga, svarga) said: 'Let us go 
down to the earth';   they behld there that(s'attrim.s.adra_tra) rite of thirty-
six nights; they secured it, and sacrificed with it". karma_n.i = acts or 
ceremonies;atasthuh = they made or instituted; atashuh svapatya_ni = caturdas'a-
ra_tra s'attrim.sadra_tradiya_namayanadini karma_n.i kr.tavantah, they made the 
rites or acts which were the avanas and others of the A_dityas,(and which were 
for) thirty-six or fourteen nights].  

 1.072.10 (The offerers of oblations) have placed in this (Agni) the graceful 
honours (of the ceremony), and thetwo portions of clarified butter that are the 
two eyes (of the sacrifice); then the immortals come from heaven, andyour bright 
flames, Agni, spread in all directions like rushing rivers, and the gods 
perceive it (and rejoice). [Twoeyes: the allusion is to two portions of the 
clarified butter (Taittiri_ya Sam.hita_]. 


 1.073.01 Agni, like patrimonial wealth, is the giver of food; he is a director, 
like the instructions of one learned inscripture; he rests in the sacrificial 
chamber like a welcome guest, and like an officiating priest, he 
bringsprosperity on the house of the worshipper.  

 1.073.02 He who is like the divine Sun, who know the truth (of things), 
preserves by his actions (his votaries) inall encounters; like nature, he is 
unchangeable and, like soul, is the source of happiness; he is ever to 
becherished. [amati = ru_pa, svaru_pa, peculiar form of nature; Like soul which 
is the seat and source of allhappiness, so Agni, the chief agent of sacrifice is 
the main cause of felicity both here and hereafter:Brihada_ran.yaka Upanis.ad 

 1.073.03 He who, like the divine (Sun), is the supporter of the universe, 
abides on earth like a prince,(surrounded by) faithful friends; in his presence, 
men sit down like sons in the dwelling of a parent, and (in purityhe resembles) 
an irreproachable and beloved wife.  

 1.073.04 Such as you are, Agni, men preserve you constantly kindled in their 
dwellings, in secure places, andoffer upon you abundant (sacrificial) food; do 
you, in whom is all existence, be the bearer of riches (for ouradvantage).  

 1.073.05 May your opulent worshippers, Agni, obtain (abundant) food; may the 
learned (who praise you) andoffer you (oblations), acquire long life; may we 
gain in battles booty from our foes, presenting their portion to thegods for 
(the acquisition of) renown.  

 1.073.06 The cows, loving (Agni, who has come to thehall of sacrifice), sharing 
his splendour, have brought withfull udders (their milk) to be drunk. The 
rivers, soliciting his good will, have flowed from a distance in the vicinityof 
the mountain.  

 1.073.07 (The gods), who are entitled to worship, soliciting your good will, 
have entrusted to you, resplendentAgni, the (sacrificial) food, and, (for the 
due observance of sacred rites), they have made the night and morningof 
different colours, or black and purple.  

 1.073.08 May we, mortals, whom you have directed (to the performance of 
sacrifices) for the sake of riches,become opulent; filling heaven and earth, and 
the firmament (with your radiance), you protect the whole worldlike a 
(sheltering) shade.  

 1.073.09 Defended, Agni, by you, may we destroy the horses (of your enemies) by 
(our) horses, their men by(our) men, their sons by (our) sons, and may our sons, 
learned and inheritors of ancestral wealth, live for ahundred winters.  

 1.073.10 May these our praises, sapient Agni, be grateful to you, both in mind 
and heart; may we be competentto detain your well-supporting wealth, offering 
upon you their share of the (sacrificial food of the gods). 


 1.074.01 Hastening to the sacrifice, let us repeat a prayer to Agni, who fears 
us from afar.  

 1.074.02 Who, existing of old, has preserved wealth for the sacrificer, when 
malevolent men are assembledtogether.  

 1.074.03 Let men praise Agni as soon as generated, the slayer of Vr.tra, and 
the winner of booty in many abattle. [Vr.tra = an enemy, in general; Agni is 
identified with Indra].  

 1.074.04 (The sacrificer), in whose house you are the messenger of the gods, 
whose offering you convey fortheir food, and whose sacrifice you render 

 1.074.05 Him, An:giras, son of strength, men call forunate in his sacrifice, 
his deity, his oblations.  

 1.074.06 Bring hither, radiant Agni, the gods, to (receive) our praise and our 
oblations for their food.  

 1.074.07 Whenever you go, Agni, on a mission of the gods, the neighing of the 
horses of your (swift) movingchariot, however audible is not heard.  

 1.074.08 He who was formerly subject to a superior, having been protected, 
Agni, by you, now stands in yourpresence as an offerer (of oblations) without 
bashfulness, and supplied with food.  

 1.074.09 Verily, divine Agni, you are desirous of bestowing upon the offerer 
(of oblations) to the gods, ample(wealth), brilliant, and giving vigour. 


 1.075.01 Accept our most exhaustive prayers, propitiatory of the gods, 
accepting our oblations in your mouth.  

 1.075.02 And then, most wise Agni, chief of the An:giras, may we address (to 
you) an acceptable and gratifyingprayer.  

 1.075.03 Who, Agni, is your kinsman amongst people? Who is worthy to offer you 
sacrifice? Who, indeed, areyou and where do you abide?  

 1.075.04 You, Agni, are the kinsman of people. You are the protector of 
sacrificers. You are extolled by priests,since you are the friend of all.  

 1.075.05 Worship for us, Mitra and Varun.a; worship for us, all the gods; 
(celebrate) a great sacrifice; be presentin your own dwelling. 


 1,076.01 What approximation of the mind, Agni, to you, can be accomplished for 
our good; what can a hundredencomiums (effect); who, by sacrifices has obtained 
your might; with what intent may we offer you (oblations)?  

 1,076.02 Come, Agni, hither; invoker (of the gods), sit down; be our preceder; 
for you are irresistible; may theall-expansive heaven and earth defend you, that 
you may worship the gods to their great satisfaction. [Sit down:in the chamber 
where burnt offerings are presented].  

 1,076.03 Utterly consume all the ra_ks.asas, Agni, and be the protector of our 
sacrifices against interruption.Bring hither the guardian of Soma, (Indra), with 
his steeds, that we may show hospitality to the giver of food.[Somapati: a 
remarkable epithet for Indra (though not mentioned in the text, indicated by 
reference toharibhya_m, Indra's two steeds].  

 1,076.04 I invoke (you), who are the conveyor (of oblations), with your flames, 
with a hymn productive of progeny(to the worshipper); sit down here with the 
gods, and do you, who are deserving of worship, discharge the officeof Hota_, or 
of Pota_ and awaken us, you who are the depository and generator of riches.  

 1,076.05 As at the sacrifice of the holy Manu, you, a sage amongst sages, did 
worship the gods with oblations,so also, Agni, veracious invoker of the gods, do 
you today (present the oblations), with an exhilarating ladle. 


 1.077.01 What (oblations) may we offer to Agni? What praise is addressed to the 
luminous (Agni) that isagreeable to the gods? that Agni who is immortal and 
observant of truth, who is the invoker of the gods, theperformer of sacrifices, 
and who, (present) amongst men, conveys oblations to the deities.  

 1.077.02 Bring hither, with praises, him who is most constant in sacrifice, 
observant of truth, and the invoker (ofthe gods), for Agni, when he repairs to 
the gods on the part of man, knows those (who are to be worshipped),and worships 
them with reverence. [manasa_ = with the mind; this is read as: namasa_ = with 
reverence,assuming a transposition].  

 1.077.03 For he is the performer of rites, he is the destroyer and reviver (of 
all things), and, like a friend he is thedonor of unattained wealth; all men 
reverencing the gods, and approaching the well-looking Agni, repeat hisname 
first in holy rites. [marya and sa_dhu = destroyer and reviver; or, killer or 
extirpator of all and the producer].  

 1.077.04 May Agni, who is the chief director of sacrifices, and the destroyer 
of enemies, accept our praise andworship with oblations, and may those who are 
affluent with great wealth, who are endowed with strength, andby whom the 
sacrificial food has been prepared, be desirous to offer adoration.  

 1.077.05 Thus has Agni, the celebrator of sacrifices, and by whom all things 
are known, been hymned by thepious descendant of Gotama; to them he has given 
the bright Soma to drink, along with the sacrificial food, andgratified by our 
devotion, he obtains nutriment (for himself). 


 1.078.01 Knower and beholder of all that exists (ja_tana_m veditah). Gotama 
celebrates you, Agni, with praise;we praise you repeatedly with commendatory 
(hymns). [Gotamah, is singular though plural is used honorifically;Mantras 
(hymns) is added; the text has only dyumnaih, with bright, or those manifesting 
Agni's worth].  

 1.078.02 To you; that (Agni) whom Gotama, desirous of riches, worships with 
praise, we offer adoration withcommendatory (hymns).  

 1.078.03 We invoke you, such as you are, the giver of abundant food, in like 
manner as did An:giras; we praiseyou repeatedly with commendatory (hymns).  

 1.078.04 We praise you repeatedly with commendatory (hymns), who are the 
destroyer of Vr.tra, and who put theDasyus to flight.  

 1.078.05 The descendants of Ra_hugan.a have recited sweet speeches to Agni; we 
praise him repeatedly withcommendatory (hymns). 


 1.079.01 The golden-haired Agni is the agitator of the clouds when the rain is 
poured forth, and, moving with theswiftness of the wind, shines with a bright 
radiance. The mornings know not (of the showers, like honest(people), who, 
provided with food, are intent upon their own labours. [Satyah, true, sincere; 
praja_h, people orprogeny is added].  

 1.079.02 The falling (rays), accompanied by the moving (Maruts), strike against 
(the cloud); the black shedder ofrain has roared; when this is done, (the 
shower) comes with delightful and smiling (drops), the rain descends, theclouds 

 1.079.03 When this, (the lightning, Agni), nourishes the world with the milk of 
the rain, and conducts it by themost direct ways to (the enjoyment of) water, 
then Mitra, Aryaman, Varun.a and the circumambient (troop ofMaruts) pierce 
through the (investing) membrane into the womb of the cloud. [Direct ways: uses 
(as drinking,washing, bathing)].  

 1.079.04 Agni, sone of strength, lord of food and of cattle, give us abundant 
sustenance, you who know all thatexists.  

 1.079.05 He, the blazing Agni, who is wise, and the granter of dwellings, is to 
be praised by our hymns; oh! youwhose mouth (glows) with many (flames), shine 
(propitiously, so) that food-providing wealth may be ours. [Withmany (flames); 
purvan.i_ka, fr. puru, many and ani_ka, face or mouth; jva_la_-jihva_, flame-
tongued is Agni].  

 1.079.06 Shining Agni, drive off (all disturbers of the rite), either by 
yourself or (your servants) whether by day orby night; sharp-visaged Agni, 
destroy the ra_ks.asas entirely.  

 1.079.07 Agni, who in all rites are to be praised, guard us with your 
protection, (propitiated) by the recitation ofthe metrical hymn.  

 1.079.08 Grant us, Agni, riches that dispel poverty that are desirable (to 
all), and cannot be taken (from us) in allencounters (with our foes).  

 1.079.09 Grant us, Agni, for our livelihood, wealth, with sound understanding, 
conferring happiness, andsustaining (us) through life.  

 1.079.10 Gotama, desirous of wealth, offers to the sharp-flaming Agni pure 
prayers and praises.  

 1.079.11 May he, Agni, who annoys us, whether nigh or afar perish; and do you 
be to us (propitious) for ouradvancement.  

 1.079.12 The thousand-eyed, all-beholding, Agni, drives away the ra_ks.asas, 
and (praised by us) with holyhymns, he, the (invoker of the gods) celebrates 
their praise. [sahasra_ks.a = asam.khya_ta jva_la_h, havingcountless flames]. 


 1.080.01 Mighty wielder of the thunderbolt, when the priest had thus exalted 
you (by praise), and exhilaratingSoma (had been drunk), you did expel, by your 
vigour, Ahi from the earth, manifesting your own soverignty.[Brahma_ = 
bra_hman.a; this su_ka is arcannanu svara_jyam: arcannanu is interpreted as 
prakat.ayan: svsyasva_mitvam prakat.ayan, making manifest his own mastership or 

 1.080.02 That exceedingly exhilarating Soma, which was brought by the hawk 
(from heaven), when poured forth,has exhilarated you, so that in your vigour, 
thunderer, you have struck Vr.tra from the sky, manifesting your ownsovereignty. 
[Brought by the hawk: s'yenabhr.ta, brought from heaven by ga_yatri_, having the 
wings of a hawk].  

 1.080.03 Hasten, assail, subdue; your thunderbolt cannot fail; your vigour, 
Indra, destroys men; slay Vr.tra, winthe waters, manifesting your own 

 1.080.04 Youu have struck Vr.tra from off the earth and from heaven; (now) let 
loose the wind-bound,life-sustaining rain, manifesting your own sovereignty.  

 1.080.05 Indignant Indra, encountering him, has struck with his bolt the jaw of 
the trembling Vr.tra, setting thewaters free to flow, and manifesting his own 

 1.080.06 Indra has struck him on the temple with his hundred-edged thunderbolt, 
and, exulting, wishes to providemeans of sustenance for his friends, manifesting 
his own sovereignty.  

 1.080.07 Cloud-borne, Indra, wielder of the thunderbolt, verily your prowess is 
undisputed, since you, with(superior) craft, have slain that deceptive deer, 
manifesting your own sovereignty. [Deceptive deer: Vr.traassumed the form of a 

 1.080.08 Your thunderbolts were scattered widely over ninety-and-nine rivers; 
great is your prowess, strength isdeposited in your arms, manifesting your own 
sovereignty. [ninety-and nine = 9,000 or an indefinite number].  

 1.080.09 A thousand mortals worshipped him together, twenty have hymned (his 
praise); a hundred (sages)repeatedly glorify him; so, Indra, is the oblation 
lifted up, manifesting your own sovereignty. [Twenty: 16 priestsemployed at a 
sacrifice, yajama_na, his wife and two functionaries, sadasya and s'amitri_, 
directors of theceremonies of the assembly].  

 1.080.10 Indra overcame by his strength the strength of Vr.tra; great is his 
manhood, wherewith, having slainVr.tra, he lest loose the waters, manifesting 
his own sovereignty.  

 1.080.11 This heaven and earth trembled, thunderer, at your wrath, when, 
attended by the Maruts, you slewVr.tra by your prowess, manifesting your own 

 1.080.12 Vr.tra deterred not Indra by his trembling or his clamour; the many-
edged iron thunderbolt fell upon him;(Indra) manifesting his own sovereignty.  

 1.080.13 When you (Indra), did encounter with your bolt Vr.tra and the 
thunderbolt (which he hurled), then Indra,the strength of you determination to 
slay Ahi was displayed in the heavens, manifesting your own sovereignty.  

 1.080.14 At your shout, wielder of the thunderbolt, all things, moveable or 
immoveable, trembled; even Tvas.t.a_shook with fear, Indra, at your wrath, 
manifesting your own sovereignty.  

 1.080.15 We know not of a certainty the all-pervading Indra; who (does know 
him, abiding) afar off in hisstrength? for in him have the gods concentrated 
riches, and worship, and power, manifesting his ownsovereignty. [ko-
vi_rya_parah, lit. who with vigour].  

 1.080.16 In like manner as of old, so in whatever act of worship Atharvan or 
father Manu, or Dadhyan~cengaged, their oblations and their hymns were all 
congregated in that Indra, manifesting his own sovereignty.[Manus.-pita: Manu 
being the progenitor of all mankind; dadhyan~c or dadhi_ci_, a r.s.i, son of 


 1.081.01 Indra, the slayer of Vr.tra, has been augmented in strength and 
satisfaction by (the adoration of) men;we invoke him in great conflicts as well 
as in little conflicts; may he defend us in battles. [Augmented in strengthand 
satisfaction: 'a deity acquiring vigour by praise increases (vardhate)', i.e., 
becomes more powerful andmighty].  

 1.081.02 For you, here, Indra, are a host; you are the giver of much booty; you 
are the exalter of the humble; youbestow (riches) on the worshipper who offers 
you oblations, for abundant is your wealth.  

 1.081.03 When battles arise, wealth devolves on the victor; yoke your horses, 
humblers of the pride (of the foe),that you may destroy one and enrich another; 
place us, Indra, in affluence. [Gotama, the son of Ra_hu_gan.a,was the purohita 
of the kuru and sr.n~jaya princes, and, in an engagement with other kings, 
propitiated Indra bythis hymn, who, in consequence, gave the victory to the 
former. kam (whom) is explained by kan~cit (anyone,someone), i.e., Indra gives 
the victory to whomsoever he is pleased with].  

 1.081.04 Mighty through sacrifice, formidable (to foes), partaking of the 
sacrificial food, Indra has augmented hisstrength; pleasing in appearance, 
having a handsome chin, and possessing (bright) coursers, he grasps themetal 
thunder-bolt in his contiguous hands for (our) prosperity.  

 1.081.05 He has filled the space of earth and the firmament (with his glory); 
he has fixed the constellations in thesky; no one has been ever born, now will 
be born, Indra, like you; you have sustained the universe.  

 1.081.06 May Indra, the protector, who returns to the giver (of oblations) the 
food that is fit for mortals, bestow(such food) on us; distribute your wealth, 
which is abundant, so that I may obtain (a portion) of your riches.  

 1.081.07 The upright performer of (pious) acts is the donor of herds of cattle 
to us, when receiving frequentenjoyment (from our libations); take up, Indra, 
with both hands, many hundred (sorts) of treasure; sharpen (ourintellects), 
bring us wealth.  

 1.081.08 Enjoy along with us, O hero, the suffused libation for (the increase 
of our) strength and wealth; weknow you (to be) the possessor of vast riches, 
and address to our desires; be, therefore, our protector.  

 1.081.09 These, your creatures, Indra, cherish (the oblation) that may be 
partaken of by all; you, lord of all, knowwhat are the riches of those men who 
make no offerings; bring their wealth to us. 


 1.082.01 Approach, Maghavan, and listen to our praises; be not different (from 
what you have hitherto been)since you have inspired us with true speech, you are 
solicited with it; therefore, quickly yoke your horses.[ma_atatha_ iva, (be) 
not, as it were, non-such; i.e. be not the contrary of what propitious divinity 
which you havealways been to us; 'since you make us possessed of true speech 
(sunr.ta_vatah), therefore you are asked (atarthayasa it) arthayase eva', i.t. 
to accept our praises].  

 1.082.02 (Your worshippers) have eaten the food which you had given, and have 
rejoiced, and have trembledthrough their precious (bodies); self-illuminated 
sages have glorified you with commendable thoughts; therefore,Indra, quickly 
yoke your horses.  

 1.082.03 We praise you, Maghavan, who look benignly (upon all); thus praised by 
us, repair (in your car), filledwith treasure, to those who desire your 
presence; Indra, quickly yoke your horses.  

 1.082.04 May he ascend that chariot which rains (blessings), and grants cattle, 
and which provides the vesselfilled with the mixture of Soma and grain; quickly, 
Indra, yoke your horses. [pa_tram ha_riyojanam, a plate filledwith ha_riyojanam, 
which is a mixture of fried barley or other grain and soma].  

 1.082.05 Performer of many (holy) acts, let your steeds be harnessed on the 
right and on the left, and whenexhilarated by the (sacrificial) food, repair in 
your chariot to your beloved wife; quickly, Indra, yoke your horses.  

 1.082.06 I harness your long-maned steeds wiht (sacred prayers); depart; take 
the reins in your hands; theeffused and exciting juices have exhilarated you 
wilder of the thunderbolt; thus filled with nutriment, rejoice withyour spouse. 


 1.083.01 The man who is well protected, Indra, by your cares, (and dwells) in a 
mansion where there are horses,is the first who goes to (that where there are) 
cows; enrich him with abundant riches, as the unconscious riversflow in all 
directions to the ocean. [vicetasah a_pah, unconscious rivers is explained: 'the 
sources of excellentknowledge: vis'is.tajn~a)nahetubhu_tah].  

 1.083.02 In like manner, as the bright waters flow to the sacrificial ladle, so 
they (the gods) look down (upon it);as the diffusive light (descends to earth), 
the gods convey it, desirous of being presented to them by progressive(movements 
to the altar), and are impatient to enjoy it, filled with the oblation, as 
bridegrooms (long for theirbrides). [avah pas'yanti, they look down: devah, the 
gods is added: gods who look down upon the sacrificialladle, hotriyam, well 
pleased to behold it filled with the intended libation. The text has 'as 
diffused light'; thephrase 'descends on earth' is added. The next phrase is: the 
gods lead that which is pleased by the libation, andwishes for them, either by 
progressive movements, or in an eastern direction (pracair), as bridegrooms 
delight.What is so led, and whither? The ladle, camasa, the alter, vedi_ as well 
as the bride or maiden, kanyaka_, arefilled up by the comment].  

 1.083.03 You have associated, Indra, words of sacred praise with both (the 
grain and butter of oblation), placedtogether in ladles and jointly presented to 
you, so that (the sacrificer), undisturbed, remains (engaged) in yourworship, 
and is prosperous; for to the sacrificer pouring out oblations (to you), 
auspicious power is granted.  

 1.083.04 The An:girasas first prepared (for Indra) the sacrificial food, and 
then, with kindled fire, (worshippedhim) with a most holy rite; they, the 
institutors (of the ceremony); acquired all the wealth of Pan.i, 
comprisinghorses, and cows, and (other) animals.  

 1.083.05 Atharvan first by sacrifices discovered the path (of the stolen 
cattle); then the bright sun, the cherisherof pious acts, was born. Atharvan 
regained the cattle; Ka_vya (Us.ana_s) was associated with him. Let usworship 
the immortal (Indra), who was born to restrain (the asuras). [ajani, was born: 
'the sun appeared, in orderto light the way to the cave where the cows were 
hidden'; Ka_vya is identified with Us.ana_s; Us.ana_s isidentified with Bhr.gu; 
ka_vyah kaveh putra us.ana_ bhr.guh, meaning that only Us.ana_s was of the 
family ofBhr.gu (cf. Vis.n.u Pura_n.a, 82); To restrain (the asuras): the text 
has yamasya ja_tam; the term yamasya isexplained: asura_n.a_m niyamana_rtham].  

 1.083.06 Whether the holy grass be cut (for the rite) that brings down 
blessings, whether the priest repeats (thesacred) verse in the brilliant 
(sacrifice), whether the stone (that expresses the Soma) sound like the priest 
whorepeats the hymn, on all these occasions Indra rejoices. [That brings down 
blessings: s'vapatya_ya is resolvedinto: su and apatya; explained as 
s'obhanapatana hetubhu_ta_ya, for the sake of the descent, or coming down,of 
what is good]. 


 1.084.01 The Soma has been expressed, Indra, for you; potent humber (of your 
foes), approach; may vigour fillyou (by Soma), as the sun fills the firmament 
with his rays.  

 1.084.02 May his horses bear Indra, who is of irresistible prowess, to the 
praises and sacrifices of sages and ofmen.  

 1.084.03 Slayer of Vr.tra, ascend your chariot, for your horses have been yoked 
by prayer; may the stone (thatbruises the Soma) attract, by its sound, your mind 
towards us.  

 1.084.04 Drink, Indra, this excellent, immortal exhilarating libation, the 
dropf of which pellucid (beverage) flowtowards you in the chamber of sacrifice.  

 1.084.05 Offer worship quickly to Indra; recite hymns (in his praise); let the 
effused drops exhilarate him; payadoration to his superior strength.  

 1.084.06 When, Indra, you harness your horses, there is no one a better 
charioteer than you; no one is equal toyou in strength; no one, although well-
horsed, has overtaken you.  

 1.084.07 He who alone bestows wealth upon the man who offers him oblations, is 
the undisputed sovereign,Indra--ho! [This hymn and the two following hymns end 
with the term, an:ga, quick; it is, perhaps, an interjectionof calling: ho!]  

 1.084.08 When all he trample with his foot upon the man who offers no 
oblations, as if upon a coiled-up snake;when will Indra listen to our praises? 
ho! [Coiled-up snake: ks.umpa is explained as: ahicchatraka, a thorny plantwhich 
is taken to conjure up a snake coiled up, or one sleeping in a ring and hence, 
killed easily:man.d.alakaren.a s'aya_nam kas'cidana_yasena hanti].  

 1.084.09 Indra, grant formidable strength to him who worships him, having 
libations prepared--ho!  

 1.084.10 The white cows drink of the sweet Soma thus poured forth, and 
associated with the bountiful Indra, forthe sake of beauty, rejoice; abiding (in 
their stalls), they are expectant of his sovereignty. [This hymn and 
thefollowing two hymns end with the refrain: vasvi_ranu svara_jyam, lit. 
dwelling after, according to, his owndominion. 'These cows who, by giving milk, 
are the means of providing habitaiton (niva_saka_rin.yah), remainlooking to the 
kingdom of him, or Indra'].  

 1.084.11 Desirous of his contact, those bridled cows dilute the Soma with their 
milk; the kine that are loved ofIndra direct his destructive thunderbolt against 
his foes, abiding (in their stalls) expectant of his sovereignty.  

 1.084.12 These intelligent kine reverence his prowess with the adoration (of 
their milk); they celebrate his manlyexploits as an example to later 
(adversaries); abiding (in their stalls), expectant of his sovereignty.  

 1.084.13 Indra, with the bones of Dadhi_ci, slew ninety times nine Vr.tras. 
[Dadhyan~c = Dadhi_ca and Dadhi_ci,a sage. His bones formed the thunderbolt of 
Indra. dadhyan~c, son of Atharvan, like the asuras, was intimidatedand 
tranquilized by his appearance; but, when he went to svarga, the asuras 
overspread the whole earth. Indra,inquiring what had become of him and if 
something of him was left  behind, was told that the horse's head withwhich he 
had at one time taught the madhuvidya_ to the as'vins, was somewhere in 
existence, but no one knewwhere. After a searth, it was found in the lake 
S'aryan.a_vat, near Kuruks.etra. With the bones of the skull, Indraslew the 
asuras (i.e. foiled the nine times ninety or eight hundred and ten, strategems 
or devices of the asuras orVr.tras]. The number is accounted for by the legend 
that in the beginning, the a_suri_ ma_ya_ (demoniac illusion)was practised in 
the three worlds, for three periods (past, present, and future), thus becoming 
nine-fold; eachwas exerted with three s'aktis or energies, thus becoming twenty 
seven; each was again modified by the threegun.as, thus becoming eighty-one; the 
scene of their display extended to each of the ten regions of space, 
thusbecoming the nine times ninety of the text, or 810].  

 1.084.14 Wishing for the horse's head hidden in the mountains, he found is 

 1.084.15 The (solar rays) found on this occasion the light of Tvas.t.a_ verily 
concealed in the mansion of themoving moon. [The text has only 'they found'; 
A_ditya-ras'mayah, rays of the sun is added. Tvas.t.a_ = the Sun,an A_ditya; 
also, identified with Indra, to whom the hymn is addressed. 'The rays of the sun 
are reflected back inthe bright watery orb of the moon'; 'the solar radiance, 
concealed by the night, enters into the moon, and thusdispels darkness by night, 
as well as by day'. One ray of the sun (that named s'us.umna_ lights up the 
moon;therefore, moon's light is derived from the sun (Nirukta 2,6)(cf. Vis.n.u 
Pura_n.a 36)].  

 1.084.16 Who yokes todya to the pole of the car (of Indra) his vigorous and 
radiant steeds, whose fury isunbearable, in whose mouths are arrows, who trample 
on the hearts (of enemies), who give happiness (tofriends). (The sacrificer) who 
praises their (performance of their) duties obtains (long) life.  

 1.084.17 Who goes forth, (through dread of foes, when Indra is at hand); who is 
harmed (by his enemies); who isterrified; who is aware that Indra is present, 
who that he is night? What need is there that any one shouldimportune Indra for 
his son, his elephant, his property, his person, or his people? [kah = 

 1.084.18 Who praises the (sacrificial) fire, (lighted for Indra), or worships 
him with the oblation of clarified butter,presented in the ladle, according to 
the constant seasons? To whom do the gods quickly bring (the wealth) thathas 
been called for? What sacrificer, engaged in offering oblations and favoured by 
the gods, thoroughly knowsIndra? [r.tubhir dhruvebhih, according to the constant 
seasons; alternative reading: 'presented by the divinitiescalled R.tus, who 
preside over sacrifices' (e.g., r.tavo vai praya_ja_h, the r.tus are the chief 
sacrifices, i.e.praya_ja_devata_h, the deities presiding over the sacrifices).  

 1.084.19 Powerful, Indra, be present and be favourable to the mortal (who 
adores you); there is no other giver offelicity, Maghavan, than you; hence, 
Indra, I recite your praise.  

 1.084.20 Granter of dwellings, let not your treasury, let not your benefits, 
ever be detrimental to us. Friend ofmankind, bring to us, who are acquainted 
with prayers, all sorts of riches. [Benefits: u_tayah, benefits,assistances; 
also, dhu_tayah, shakers, agitators, i.e. the Maruts or winds]. 


 1.085.01 The Maruts who are going forth decorate themselves like females; they 
are gliders (through the air), thesons of Rudra, and doers of good works by 
which they promote the welfare of earth and heaven; heroes, whogrind (solid 
rocks), they delight in sacrifices.  

 1.085.02 They, inaugurated by the gods, have attained majesty; the sons of 
Rudra have established theirdwelling above the sky; glorify him (Indra) who 
merits to be glorified, they have inspired him with vigour; the sonsof Pr.s'ni 
have acquired dominion. [uts.ita_sah = were sprinkled with holy water by the 
gods: devair-abhis.iktah].  

 1.085.03 When the sonf of earth embellish themselves with ornaments, they shine 
resplendent in their personswith (brilliant) decorations; they keep aloof every 
adversary; the waters follow their path. [goma_tarah, having fortheir mother the 
cow (sons of earth)].  

 1.085.04 They who are worthily worshipped shine with various weapons; incapable 
of being overthrown, they arethe over-throwers (of mountains); Maruts, swift as 
thought, entrusted with the duty of sending rain, yoke thespotted deer to your 

 1.085.05 When, Maruts, urging on the cloud, for the sake of (providing) food, 
you have yoked the deer to yourchariots, the drops fall from the radiant (sun), 
and moisten the earth, like a hide, with water. [arus.a = radiant(applied to the 
sun or to the Agni of lightning, a harbinger of rain].  

 1.085.06 Let your quick-paced, smooth-gliding coursers bear you (hither); and 
moving swiftly, come with yourhands (filled with good things); sit, Maruts, upon 
the broad seat of sacred grass, and regale yourselves with thesweet sacrificial 

 1.085.07 Confiding in their own strength, they have increased in (power); they 
have attained heaven by theirgreatness, and have made (for themselves) a 
spacious abode; may they, for whom Vis.n.u defends (the sacrifice)that bestows 
all desires and confers delight, come (quickly), like birds, and sit down upon 
the pleasant andsacred grass.  

 1.085.08 Like heroes, like combatants, like men anxious for food, the swift-
moving (Maruts) have engaged inbattles; all beings fear the Maruts, who are the 
leaders (of the rain), and awful of aspect, like princes.  

 1.085.09 Indra, wields the well-made, golden, many-bladed thunderbolt, which 
the skillful Tvas.t.a_ has framedfor him, that he may achieve great exploits in 
war. He has slain Vr.tra and sent forth an ocean of water. [Tvas.t.a_is agin the 
artisan of the gods].  

 1.085.10 By their power, they bore the well aloft, and clove asunder the 
mountain that obstructed their path; themunificent Maruts, blowing upon their 
pipe, have conferred, when exhilarated by the Soma, desirable (gifts uponthe 
sacrificer). [dhamanto va_n.am = blowing upon their pipe; va_n.am = a lute, a 
vi_n.a_ with a hundred strings;dhamanta = blowing, applied to a pipe as a wind 
isntrument; avatah  avat.ah; avatah ku_pah (Nirukta 3.23.7)].  

 1.085.11 They brought the crooked well to the place (where the Muni was), and 
sprinkled the water upon thethirsty Gotama; the variously-radiant (Maruts) come 
to his succour, gratifyinng the desire of the sage withlife-sustaining (waters). 
[Legend: R.s.i Gotama, being thirsty, prayed to the Maruts for relief; Maruts 
brought awell from a distance to his hermitage].  

 1.085.12 Whatever blessings (are diffused) through the three worlds, and are in 
your gift, do you bestow uponthe donor (of the oblation), who addressed you with 
praise; bestow them, also, Maruts, upon us, and grant us,bestowers of all good, 
riches, whence springs prosperity. 


 1.086.01 The man in whose mansion, resplendent Maruts, descending from the sky, 
you drink (the libation), isprovided with most able protectors.  

 1.086.02 Maruts, bearers of oblations, hear the invocation of the praises of 
the worshipper with or (without)sacrifices. [yajn~air-va_ = lit. with sacrifices 
(will also mean, without sacrifices)].  

 1.086.03 And may he for whom ministrant priests have sharp-ended the sapient 
(troop of the Maruts), walkamong pastures crowded with cattle. [ataks.ata = have 
sharpened, i.e. have animated by their offerings].  

 1.086.04 The libation is poured out for the hero at the sacrifice, on the 
appointed days, and the hymn isrepeated, and their (is excited).  

 1.086.05 May the Maruts, victorious over all men, hear (the praises) of this 
(their worshipper), and may(abundant) food be obtained by him who praises them.  

 1.086.06 Enjoying the protection of you who behold all things, we have offered 
you, Maruts, (oblations) for manyyears.  

 1.086.07 Maruts, who are to be especially worshipped, may the man whose 
offering you accept be everprosperous.  

 1.086.08 Possessors of true vigour, be cognizant of the wishes of him who 
praises you, and toils in your service,desirous of (your favour).  

 1.086.09 Possessors of true vigour, you have displayed your might, with the 
lustre (of which) you have destroyedthe ra_ks.asas.  

 1.086.10 Dissipate the concealing darkness; drive away every devouring (foe); 
show us the light we long for. 


 1.087.01 Annihilators (of adversaries) endowed with great strength, loud-
shouting, unbending inseparablepartakers of the evening oblation, constantly 
worshipped, and leaders (of the clouds), (the Maruts), by theirpersonal 
decorations,a re conspicuous (in the sky) like certain rays of the sun. 
[Inseparable = alway sassociatedin troops (hene, marutgan.a); r.ji_s.in.ah = 
partakers of the evening oblation; r.ji_s.a = lit. a frying-pan; here, asynonym 
of Soma. Maruts are named r.ji_s.inah because they are entitled, at the third 
daily ceremonial, orevening worship, to a share of the efusion of the r.ji_s.a: 
r.ji_s.asya abhis.avat; the term is explained as:'pra_rjayita_rah rasa_na_m, the 
acquirers or receivers of the juices; fr. r.j, to acquire. Personal 
decorations:str.bhih = covering, or clothing; fr. str., to cover, an epithet of 
an~jibhih, ornaments; svas.ari_rasya_ccha_dakaira_bharan.aih, with ornaments 
covering their own persons].  

 1.087.02 When, Maruts, flying like birds along a certain path (of the sky), you 
collect the moving passing (clouds)in the nearest portions (of the firmament), 
then, coming into collision with your cars, they pour forth (the 
waters);therefore, do you shower upon your worshipper the honey-coloured rain. 
[madhuvarn.am = having the colour ofhoney, i.e. being equally pure (svaccha)].  

 1.087.03 When they assemble (the clouds) for the good work, earth trembles at 
their impetuous movements, likea wife (whose husband is away); sportive, 
capricious, armed with bright weapons, and agitating (the solid rocks)they 
manifest their inherent might.  

 1.087.04 The troop of Maruts is self-moving deer-borne, ever young, lords of 
this (earth), and invested withvigour; you, who are sincere liberators from 
debt, irreproachable, and shedders of rain, are the protectors of thisour rite. 
[Liberators form debt: by makign their worshippers wealthy].  

 1.087.05 We declare by our birth from our ancient sire, that the tongue (of 
praise) accompanies the manifesting(invocation of the Maruts) at the libations 
of the Soma; for, inasmuch as they stood by encouraging Indra in theconflict, 
they have acquired names that are to be recited at sacrifices.  

 1.087.06 Combing with the solar rays, they have willingly poured down (rain) 
for the welfare (of mankind), and,hymned by the priests, have been pleased 
partakers of the (sacrificial food); addressed with praises, movingswiftly, and 
exempt from fear they have become possessed of a station agreeable and suitable 
to the Maruts. 


 1.088.01 Come, Maruts, with your brilliant light-moving, well-weaponed, steed-
harnessed chariots; doers of gooddeeds, descend like birds, (and bring us) 
abundant food. [Maruts: explanations: They sound (ruvanti, fr. ru),having 
attained mid-heaven (mitam); they sound without measure (amitam); they shine 
(fr. ruc) in the cloudsmade (mitam) by themselves; they hasten (dravanti) in the 
sky. 'All females whose station is the middle heaven,the all-pervading masculine 
Va_yu, and all the troops (of demigods), are Maruts'. Also cited: the legend of 
thebirth of the forty-nine Maruts, in seven troops, as the sons of Kas'yapa 
(Vis.n.u Pura_n.a, 152)].  

 1.088.02 To what glorifier (of the gods) do they repair with their ruddy, 
tawny, car-bearing horses for hisadvantage? bright as burnished (gold), and 
armed with the thunderbolt, they furrow the earth with theirchariot-wheels.  

 1.088.03 Maruts, the threatening (weapons) are upon your persons, (able to win) 
dominion; (to you) they praiselofty sacrifices, like (tall) trees; well-born 
Maruts, for you do wealthy worshippers enrich the stone (that grinds theSoma)].  

 1.088.04 Fortunate days have befallen you, (sons of Gotama), when thirsty, and 
have given lustre to the rite forwhich water was essential; the sons of Gotama, 
(offering) oblations with sacred hymns, have raised aloft the well(provided) for 
their dwelling.  

 1.088.05 This hymn is known to be the same as that which Gotama recited Maruts, 
in your (praise) when hebeheld you seated in your chariots with golden wheels, 
armed with weapons, hurrying hither and thither, anddestroying your mightiest 

 1.088.06 This is that praise, Maruts, which, suited (to your merits) glorifies 
every one of you. The speech of thepriest has now glorified you, without 
difficulty, with sacred verses, since (you have placed) food in our hands. 


 1.089.01 May auspicious works, unmolested, unimpeded, and subversive (of foes), 
come to us from everyquarter; may the gods, turning not away from us, but 
granting us protection day by day, be ever with us for ouradvancement.  

 1.089.02 May the benevolent favour of the gods (be ours); may the bounty of the 
gods, ever approving of theupright, light upon us; may we obtain the friendship 
of the gods, and may the gods extend our days to longevity.  

 1.089.03 We invoke them with an ancient text, Bhaga, Mitra, Aditi, Daks.a, 
Asridh, Aryaman, Varun.a, Soma, theAs'vins; and may the gracious Sarasvati_ 
grant us happiness. [pu_rvoya_ nivida_: nivid = va_k, speech, or a text.Bhaga 
and Mitra are A_dityas (Mitra is the lord of the day: maitram va_ ahar 
(Taittiri_ya Bra_hman.a); Daks.a isa Praja_pati, able to make the world (he is 
also the creator, Hiran.yagarbha, diffused among breathing or livingcreatures as 
breath or life; pra_n.o vai daks.ah, daks.a is verily breath (Taittiri_ya 
Sam.hita_:; Asrid = fr.sridh, to dry up; hence, undrying, unchanging 
(i.e. the class of Maruts); Aryaman = the sun (asau va_ a_dityaaryama, he, the 
sun, is Aryaman (Taittiri_ya Sam.hita_; Varun.a = fr. vr., to surround, 
encompassing thewicked with his bond; he is also the lord of the night: va_run.i 
ra_tri_ (Taittiri_ya Bra_hman.a; Soma istwo-fold, the product of the 
earth and the moon, as a divinity in heaven. The As'vins are so termed either 
fromhaving horses (as'vavantau), or from pervading all things, the one with 
moisture, the other with light; they areheaven and earth, they are day and 
night, the sun and the moon; aitiha_sika, traditionists; they were two 
virtuousprinces (Nirukta, 12,1)].  

 1.089.04 May the wind waft to us the grateful medicament; may mother earth, may 
father heaven, (convey) it (tous); may the stones that express Soma, and are 
productive of pleasure (bring) it (to us); As'vins, who are to bemeditated upon, 
hear (our submission). [bhes.ajam: as'vins, the physicians of the gods bestow 
the medicament].  

 1.089.05 We invoke that lord of living beings, that protector of things 
immoveable, Indra, who is to be propitiatedby pious rites, for our protection; 
as Pu_s.an has ever been our defender for the increase of our riches, so mayhe 
(continue) the unmolested guardian of our welfare.  

 1.089.06 May Indra, who listens to much praise, guard our welfare; may Pu_s.an, 
who knows all things, guardour welfare; may Ta_rks.ya, with unblemished weapons, 
guard our welfare. [Ta_rks.ya, son of Tr.ks.a isGarud.a. He is Aris.t.anemi, he 
who has unharmed or irresistible (ar.s.t.a) weapons (nemi, circumerference of 
awheel). Aris.t.anemi is a Praja_pati (Va_yu Pura_n.a). Ta_rks.ya = Arun.a, the 
personified dawn].  

 1.089.07 May the Maruts, whose coursers are spotted deer, who are the sons of 
Pr.s'ni, gracefully-movingfrequenters of sacrifices, (seated) on the tongue of 
Agni, regarders (of all), and radiant as the sun, may all thegods come hither 
for our preservation.  

 1.089.08 Let us hear, gods, with our ears, what is good; objects of sacrifice, 
let us see with our eyes what isgood; let us, engaged in your praises, enjoy, 
with firm limb and (sound) bodies, the term of life granted by thegods. 
[devahitam = (sg.) Praja_pati, a patriarch or Brahma_].  

 1.089.09 Since a hundred years were appointed (for the life of man), interpose 
not, gods, in the midst of ourpassing existence, by inflicting infirmity in our 
bodies so that our sons become our sires (i.e. let us not become sofeeble and 
firm as to be, infants and to require the paternal care of our own sons].  

 1.089.10 Aditi is heaven; Aditi is the firmament; Aditi is mother, father and 
son; Aditi is all the gods; Aditi is the fiveclasses of people; Aditi is 
generation and birth. [Aditi = lit. independent or indivisible, may signify the 
earth or themother of the gods. Aditi is hymned as the same with the universe. 
aditer vibhutim a_cas.t.e, the hymn declaresthe might of Aditi (Nirukta 4,23); 
five classes of people: gandharvas (including apsara_sas, serpents), 
pitr.s(ancestors), gods, asuras and ra_ks.asas; janitvam = faculty of being 
born, hence, generation]. 


 1.090.01 May Varun.a and the wise Mitra lead us, by straight paths, (to our 
desires) and Aryaman, rejoicing withthe gods.  

 1.090.02 For they are the distributors of wealth (over the world); and never 
heedless, discharge their functionsevery day.  

 1.090.03 May they, who are immortal, bestow upon us mortals, happiness, 
annihilating our foes.  

 1.090.04 May the adorable Indra, the Maruts, Pu_s.an, and Bhaga, so direct our 
paths, (that they may lead) tothe attainment of good gifts.  

 1.090.05 Pu_s.an, Vis.n.u, Maruts, make our rites restorative of our cattle; 
make us prosperous [vis.n.u =pervading deity].  

 1.090.06 The winds bring sweet (rewards) to the sacrificer; the rivers bring 
sweet (waters); may the herbs yieldsweetness to us. [evayavah, the winds, i.e. 
the troops of Maruts, because of ther going with horses, evaih].  

 1.090.07 May night and moring be sweet; may the region of the earth (loka_ 
raja_m.syucyate-Nirukta 4.19) befull of sweetness; may the protecting heaven be 
sweet to us.  

 1.090.08 May Vanaspati be possessed of sweetness towards us; may the sun be 
imbued with sweetness; maythe cattle be sweet to us.  

 1.090.09 May Mitra be propitious to us; may Varun.a, may Aryaman, be propitious 
to us; may Indra andBr.haspati be propitious to us; may the wide-stepping 
Vis.n.u be propitious to us. 


 1.091.01 You, Soma, are thoroughly apprehended by our understanding; you lead 
us along a straight path; byyour guidance, Indra, our righteous fathers obtained 
wealth among the gods.  

 1.091.02 You, Soma, are the doer of good by holy acts; you are powerful by your 
energies, and know all things;you are the showerer (of benefits) by your 
bounties, and (are great) by your greatness; you, the guide of men,has been well 
nourished by sacrificial offerings.  

 1.091.03 Your acts are (like those) of the royal Varun.a; your glory, Soma, is 
great and profound; you are thepurifier (of all), like the beloved Mitra; you 
are the augmenter of all, like Aryaman. [ra_jn~o varun.asya:ya_ga_rtham a_hr.tah 
kr.to vastren.a_vr.tah soma varun.ah: varun.a means that which is enclosed in a 
cloth, orthe Soma which has been purchased for a sacrifice. soma asma_kam 
bra_hman.a_na_m ra_ja_, soma is theking of the bra_hman.as (Taittiri_ya 
Sam.hita_; somaraja_no bra_hman.ah, the bra_hman.as havesoma for 

 1.091.04 Endowed with all the glories (that are displayed) by you in heaven, on 
earth, in the mountains, in theplants, in the waters, do you, illustrious Soma, 
well-disposed towards us, and devoid of anger, accept ouroblations. [Illustrious 
Soma = royal (ra_jan) soma].  

 1.091.05 You, Soma, are the protector, the soverign of the pious, or even the 
slayer of Vr.tra; you are holysacrifice.. [satpatis tvam ra_ja_ uta: sat may 
also mean bra_hman.a, hence: the protector, or lord (pati), or theking (ra_ja_ 
of the bra_hman.as); you are holy sacrifice: Soma is identified with the 
sacrifice, from the essentialpart it performs in it: tadru_po bhavanti 
sa_dhyatva_d yajn~a_na_m].  

 1.091.06 You, Soma, fond of praise, the lord of plants, are life to us; if you 
will, we shall not die. [somo va_os.adhi_na_m ra_ja_ (Taittiri_ya Sam.hita_].  

 1.091.07 You bestow, Soma, upon him who worships, you, whether old or young, 
wealth, what he may enjoy andlive.  

 1.091.08 Defend us, royal Soma, from every one seeking to harm us; the friend 
of one like you can never perish.  

 1.091.09 Soma, be our protector with those assistances which are sources of 
happiness to the donor (ofoblations).  

 1.091.10 Accepting this our sacrifice, and this our praise, approach, Soma, and 
be to us as the augmenter of ourrite.  

 1.091.11 Acquainted with hymns, we elevate you with praises; do you, who are 
benignant, approach.  

 1.091.12 Be unto us, Soma, the bestower of wealth, the remover of disease, the 
cognizant of riches, theaugmenter of nutriment, an excellent friend.  

 1.091.13 Soma, dwell happy in our hearts, like cattle in fresh pastures, like 
men in their own abodes.  

 1.091.14 The experienced sage commends the mortal who, through affection, 
divine Soma, praises you.  

 1.091.15 Protect us, Soma, from calumny, preserve us from sin; pleased with our 
service, be our friend.[urus.yati_ raks.akarma_ (Nirukta 5.23)].  

 1.091.16 Increase, Soma, may vigour come to you from every side; be diligent in 
the supply of food (to us).  

 1.091.17 Exulting Soma, increase with all twining plants; be to us a friend; 
well supplied with food, we mayprosper. [s'ravah ityanna_ma (Nirukta 10.3)].  

 1.091.18 May the milky juices flow around you; may sacrificial offerings and 
vigour be concentrated in thedestroyer of foes; and, being fully nourished, do 
you provide, Soma, excellent viands in heaven for ourimmortality.  

 1.091.19 Whichever of your glories (men) worship with oblations, may our 
sacrifice be invested with them all;come to our mansions, Soma, who are the 
bestower of wealth, the transporter (over difficulties); attended byvaliant 
heroes, the non-destroyer of progeny.  

 1.091.20 To him who present (offerings), Soma gives a cow, a swift horse, and a 
son who is able in affairs, skilfulin domestic concerns, assiduous in worship, 
eminent in society, and who is an honour to his father.  

 1.091.21 We rejoice, Soma, contemplating you, invincible in battle, triumphant 
amongst hosts, the granter ofheaven, the giver of rain, the preserver of 
strength, born amidst sacrifices, occupying a brilliant dwelling,renowned and 

 1.091.22 You, Soma, have generated all these herbs, the water and the kine; you 
have spread out the spaciousfirmament; you have scattered darkness with light.  

 1.091.23 Divine and potent Soma, bestow upon us, with your brilliant mind, a 
portion of wealth; may no(adversary) annoy you; you are supreme over the valour 
of (any) two (mutual) opponents; defend us (from ourenemies) in battle. 
[Allusions to Soma, the product of the earth and Soma, the moon]. 


 1.092.01 These divinities of the morning have spread light (over the world); 
they make manifest the light in theeastern portion of the firmament, brightening 
all things, like warriors burnishing their weapons; the radiant andprogressing 
mothers (of the earth), they travel daily (on their course). [us.a_sah (pl.): 
allusion to divinities thatpreside over the morning; Ya_ska notes that the pl. 
is used honorifically (Nirukta 12.7); progressed mothers:ma_tr. = maker, author; 
bha_so nirma_tryah: authors of light (Nirukta 12.7)].  

 1.092.02 Their purple rays have readily shot upwards; they have yoked the 
easily-yoked and ruddy kine (to theircar); the deities of the dawn have 
restored, as of yore, the consciousness (of sentient creatures), andbright-rayed 
have attended upon the glorious sun.  

 1.092.03 The female leaders (of the morning) illuminate with their inherent 
radiance the remotest parts (of theheaven), with a simultaneous effort, like 
warriors (with their shining arms in the van of battle), bringing every kindof 
food to the performer of good works, to the bountiful, and to the worshipper who 
presents libations. [arcanti =lit. worship; i.e. illuminate the heavens, 
spreading over or extending; like warriors: the comparison is explained:'as they 
spread with bright arms along the front of the array, so the rays of the dawn 
spread along the sky beforethe coming of the sun'].  

 1.092.04 Us.as cuts off the accumulated (glooms), as a barber (cuts off the 
hair); she bares her bosom as a cowyields her udder (to the milker); and, as 
cattle hasten to their pastures, she speeds to the east, and sheddinglight upon 
all the world, dissipates the darkness. [nr.tu_r iva, like a barber; nr.tu_h = a 
dancing-girl; alternativereading: us.as displays graces, like a dancing-girl 
(pes'am.si vapate, to cut off or possess either darkness orelegance)].  

 1.092.05 Her brilliant light is first seen towards (the east); it spreads and 
disperses the thick darkness; sheanoints her beauty as the priests anoint the 
sacrificial food in sacrifices; the daughter of the sky awaits theglorious sun. 
[duhita_ divah, the daughter of heaven or the sky].  

 1.092.06 We have crossed over the boundary of darkness. Us.as restores the 
consciousness (of living beings);bright-shining, she smiles, like a flatterer to 
obtain favour, and, lovely in all her radiance, she has swallowed, forour 
delight the darkness.  

 1.092.07 The brilliant daughter of the sky, the exciter of pleasant voices, is 
praised by the descendants ofGotama. Us.as, grant us food associated with 
progeny and dependants, and distinguished by horses and cattle.  

 1.092.08 May I obtain, Us.as, that ample wealth with confers fame, posterity, 
troops of slaves, and ischaracterized by horses; which you, who abount in riches 
and are the giver of food, display, (when gratified) byhymns and holy 

 1.092.09 The divine (Us.as), having lighted up the whole world, spreads, 
expanding with her radiance, towardsthe west, arousing all living creatures to 
their labours; she hears the speech of all endowed with thought.  

 1.092.10 The divine and ancient Us.as, born again and again and bright with 
unchanging hues, wastes away thelife of a mortal, like the wife of a hunter 
cutting up and dividing the birds. [s'vaghni_ = lit. wife of a dog-
killer,explained as vya_dhastri_].  

 1.092.11 She has been seen illuminating the boundaries of the sky, and driving 
into disappearance thespontaneously-retiring (night); wearing away the ages of 
the human race, she shines with light like the bride ofthe sun. [svasa_ram = 
svayam sarantim, going to her own accord (night); ja_ra = causer of the decay of 
night,explained as Su_rya].  

 1.092.12 The affluent and adorable Us.as has sent her rays abroad, as (a 
cowherd drives) the cattle (to pasture),and spreads expansive, like flowing 
water; she is beheld associated with the rays of the sun, unimpeding 
sacredceremonies. [aminati_ daivya_ni vrata_ni = not injuring, i.e. favouring, 
divine rites to the gods, which are to beperformed by daylight (after dawn): na 
ra_trau na sa_yam asti deva_ya ajus.t.am = sacrifice is not acceptable tothe 
gods at night, or in the evening (RV. 5.77.2)].  

 1.092.13 Us.as, possessor of food, bring us that various wealth by which we may 
sustain sons and grandsons.  

 1.092.14 Luminous Us.as, possessor of cows and horses, true of speech, dawn 
here today upon this(ceremony), that is to bring us wealth.  

 1.092.15 Possessor of food, Us.as, yoke, indeed, today your purple steeds and 
bring to us all good things.  

 1.092.16 As'vins, destroyers of foes, turn with favourable intentions your 
chariot towards our abode, whichcontains cattle and gold.  

 1.092.17 As'vins, who have sent adorable light from heaven to man, bring us 

 1.092.18 May the steeds awakened at dawn bring hither, to drink the Soma, the 
divine As'vins, who are thegivers o fhappiness, the destroyers of foes, seated 
in a golden chariot. 


      1.093.01 Agni and Soma, showerers (of desires), favourably hear this my 
invocation, graciously acceptmy hymns, and bestow felicity on the donor (of the 

 1.093.02 Agni and Soma, grant to him who addresses this prayer to you both, 
store of cattle with soundstrength and good horses.  

 1.093.03 Agni and Soma, may he who offers you the oblation of clarified butter, 
enjoy sound strength,with progeny, through all his life.  

 1.093.04 Agni and Soma, that prowess of yours, by which you have carried off 
the cows that were thefood of Pan.i, is (well) known to us; you have slain the 
offspring of Br.sya and you have obtained theluminary (the sun), for the benefit 
of the many. [Br.sayasya s'es.a = Br.saya's a_patya, offspring(Nirukta, 3.2); 
Br.saya = Tvas.t.a_, an asura. The offspring of Tvas.t.a_ is Vr.tra. The agency 
of Agniand Soma in his death is explained by identifying them with the two vital 
airs, pra_n.a and ap_na, theseparation of which from Vr.tra was the possible 
cause of his death (Taittiri_ya Sam.hita_ Bythe destruction of Vr.tra, 
the enveloping cloud or gathered darkness, the sun was enabled to appear inthe 

 1.093.05 You two, Agni and Soma, acting together, have sustained these 
constallations in the sky; youhave liberated the rivers that had been defiled 
from the notorious imputation. [Legend: the imputationor brahmanicide refers to 
Indra's killing of Vr.tra; the guilt is transferred to rivers, women and 
trees.Another legend: the rivers were defiled by the dead body of Vr.tra, which 
had fallen into them; thewaters became unfit to bear any part in sacred rites, 
until they were purified by Agni and Soma, i.e. byoblations to fire and 
libations of Soma].  

 1.093.06 Agni and Soma, the wind brought one of you from heaven, a hawk carried 
off the other byforce from the summit of the mountain; growing vast by praise, 
you have made the world wide for (theperformance of) sacrifice. [Legend: Va_yu 
brought Agni from heaven as desired by Bhr.gu, whenperforming a sacrifice. Soma 
was brought from svarga, on the summit of Mount Meru, by Ga_yatri_, inthe shape 
of a hawk. The allusion is to the early use of fire and Soma in ceremonies].  

 1.093.07 Agni and Soma, partake of the proffered oblation; be gracious to us; 
showerers (of desires),be pleased; prosperous and diligent protectors, be 
propitious, and grant to the sacrificer health andexemption from illness.  

 1.093.08 Agni and Soma, protect his sacrifice and defend him from illness, who, 
with a mind devoted tothe gods, worships you with clarified butter and 
oblations; grant to the man engaged (in devotion)extreme felicity.  

 1.093.09 Agni and Soma, endowed with the like wealth, and invoked by a common 
invocation, shareour praises, for you have (ever) been the chief of the gods. 
[devatra_ = deves.u pras'astah; ra_ja_nauva_ etau deva_na_m yad agnis.omau, Agni 
and Soma are they who are the two kings of the gods].  

 1.093.10 Agni and Soma, give ample (recompense) to him who presents to you 
both, this clarifiedbutter.  

 1.093.11 Agni and Soma, bepleased with these our oblations, come to us 

 1.093.12 Agni and Soma, cherish our horses, and may our cows, affordin g(milk 
that yields butter for)oblations, be well nourished; give to us, who are 
affluent, strength (to perform) religious rites, andmake our sacrifice 
productive of wealth. 


 1.094.01 To him who is worthy of praise, and all-knowing, we construct, with 
our minds, this hymn, as (aworkman makes) a car; happy is our understanding when 
engaged in his adoration; let us not suffer injury, Agni,through your 
friendship. [The refrain: sakhye ma_ ris.a_ma_ vayam tava = may we not be 
injured in or by yourfriendship, i.e. do you preserve us.  

 1.094.02 He, for whom you sacrifice, accomplishes (his objects), abides free 
from aggression, and enjoys(wealth, the source of) strength; he prospers, and 
poverty never approaches him; let us not suffer injury, Agni,through your 

 1.094.03 May we be able to kindle you; perfect the rite, for through you the 
gods partake of the offered oblations;bring hither the A_dityas, for we love 
them; let us not suffer injury, Agni, through your friendship. [A_dityas: sonsof 
Aditi, i.e. all the gods].  

 1.094.04 We bring fuel, we offer oblations, reminding you of the successive 
seasons (of worship); do youthoroughly complete the rite, in order to prolong 
our lives; let us not suffer injury, Agni, through your friendship.  

 1.094.05 His genial (flames), the preservers of mankind, spread around, and 
both bipeds and quadrupeds areenlivened by his rays; shining with various 
lustre, and illuminating (the world by night), you are superior to thedawn; let 
us not, Agni, suffer injury through your friendship.  

 1.094.06 You are the sacrificing or the invoking priest, you are the principal 
(presenter of the offering), thedirector (of the ceremonies), their performer, 
or by birth the family priest; thus conversant with all the priestlyfunctions, 
you perform perfectly the rite; let us not, Agni, suffer injury through your 
friendship. [Agni sis the chiefof the sixteen priests engaged at solemn 
sacrifices. He is the adhvaryu, the reciter of the Yajus, here defined asthe 
presenter of the offerings; he is the hota_, invoking priest; he is the 
prastota_ or maitra_varun.a, whose dutyit is to direct the other priests what to 
do and when to perform their functions; he is the pota_, priest andhereditary 
purohita (or brahma_ of a ceremony), being to men what Br.haspati is to the 
gods.(br.haspatirdeva_na_m brahma_ham manus.ya_n.a_m: Taittiri_ya Bra_hman.a].  

 1.094.07 You are of graceful form, and alike on every side, and, although 
remote, shine as if nigh; you see,divine Agni, beyond the darkness of night; let 
us not, Agni suffer injury through your friendship.  

 1.094.08 Gods, let the chariot of the offerer of the libation be foremost; let 
our denunciations overwhelm thewicked; understand and fulfil my words let us not 
suffer injury, Agni, through your friendship. [Deva: all gods arebut portions or 
members of Agni; pu_rva = before; explaiend as mukhya, principal].  

 1.094.09 Overcome with your fatal (weapons) the wicked and the impious, all who 
are enemies, whether distantor near; and then provide an easy (path) for the 
sacrificer who praises you; let us not, Agni, suffer injury throughyour 

 1.094.10 When you have yoked the bright red horses (ete vai deva_s'va_h: 
Taittiri_ya Sam.hita_, swiftas the wind, to your car, your roar is like 
that of a bull, and you enwrap the forest trees with a banner of smoke;let us 
not, Agni, suffer injury through your friendship.  

 1.094.11 At your roaring, even the birds are terrified; when your flames 
consuming the grass, have spread in alldirections, (the wood) is easy of access 
to you and to your chariots; let us not, Agni, suffer injury through 

 1.094.12 May this, (your adorer) enjoy the support of Mitra and of Varun.a; 
wonderful is the fury of the Maruts;(dwellers in the region) below (the 
heavens), encourage us, and may their minds again (be gracious) to us; let usnot 
suffer injury, Agni, through your friendship. [Below the heavens: below 
svargaloka, or in the antariks.a orfirmament].  

 1.094.13 You, brilliant (Agni), are the especial friend of the gods; you, who 
are graceful in the sacrifice are theconfirmer of all riches; may we be present 
in your most spacious chamber of sacrifice; let us not, Agni, sufferinjury 
through your friendship.  

 1.094.14 Pleasant is it to you when you are lighted in your own abode, and 
propitiated by libations, are praised(by the priests); then, much delighted, you 
give rewards and riches to the worshipper; let us not, Agni, sufferinjury 
through your friendship.  

 1.094.15 (Fortunate is the worshipper) to whom, (assiduos) in all pious works, 
you, possessor of riches, invisibleAgni, grant exemption from sin, whom you 
associate with auspicious strength, may he be (enriched) by you withwealth that 
comprehends progeny.  

 1.094.16 Do you, divine Agni, who kno what is good fortune, on this occasion 
prolong our existence, and mayMitra, Varun.a, Aditi, ocean, earth and heaven, 
preserve it to us. [The second pa_da of this hymn terminates thefollowing 
su_ktas from 95 to 101 (with teo exceptions). Sindhu: divinity presiding over, 
or identified with, flowingwater; and it may mean either the sea, or flowing 
steams collectively, or the river Sindhu. Pr.thivi_ and Dyu arethe personified 
earth and heaven. These are requested to honour, i.e. to preserve or perpetuate, 
whateverblessing has been asked for (tan ma_mahantam); fr. maha = to venerate or 
worship; tad = that, refers to a_yus orlife]. 


 1.095.01 Two periods, of different complexions, revolve for their own purposes, 
and each in succession severallynourishes a son; in one, Hari is the receiver of 
oblations, in the other, the brilliant Agni is beheld. [viru_pe, ofvarious 
nature; i.e. of various complexions: black and white, night and day. Day is the 
mother of fire, which isthen, as it were, in an embryo state and is not fully 
manifested or born until it is dark; hence, the sun is in thewomb of night, and 
is born, or shines, in th emorning; Hari, or the sun, being manifested in the 
morning, is then tobe worshipped; Agni, shining at night, is to be worshipped in 
the evening---tasma_ agnaye sa_yamhu_yatesu_rya_ya pra_tar (Taittiri_ya 
Bra_hman.a; aus.asagun.avis'is.t.o agni, s'uddho agnir va_: Agni 
endowedwith the properties of dawn or the simple, discrete Agni].  

 1.095.02 The vigilant and youthful Ten beget, through the wind, this embryo 
Agni, inherent (in all beings),sharp-visaged, universally renowned, shining 
among men; him they conduct (to every dwelling). [Ten: the tenregions of space, 
which generate lightning, as an embryo in the clouds, using the winds: agner hi 
va_yuhka_ran.am, va_yor agnih, wind is the cause of fire, fire of wind. 
Tvas.t.uh = wind or its agency:dipta_nmadhyama_d va_yoh sa_kas.a_t, the 
brilliant central proximity of wind. Ten: the ten fingers whichgenerate Agni 
through the act of attrition as an embryo in the sticks. vibhr.tram = deposited 
in all creatures,i.e.inheret].  

 1.095.03 They contemplate three places of his birth; one in the ocean, one in 
the heaven, one in the firmament;and, dividing the seasons of the year for the 
benefit of earthly creatures, he formed, in regular succession, theeastern 

 1.095.04 Which of you discerns the hidden Agni? a son, he begets his mothers by 
oblations; the germ of many(waters), he issues from the ocrean, mighty and wise, 
the recipient of oblations. [hidden agni: latent heat in thewaters, in the woods 
and in all fixed and moveable things; he begets his mothers: Agni, as lightning 
is the son ofthe waters collected in the clouds; he generates those waters by 
the oblations which he conveys; he issues fromthe ocean: upastha_t (smudra_t) 
nirgacchati, Agni is thought to rise in the morning in the shape of the sun 
fromout of the ocean].  

 1.095.05 Appearing amongst them (the waters), the bright-shining (Agni) 
increases, rising above the flanks of thewaving waters, spreading his own 
renown; both (heaven and earth) are alarmed, as the radiant Agni is born, 
and,approaching the lion, they pay him honour. [above the flanks of the waving 
waters: jihma_na_m apa_m upasthe,above, on the side, or tip, of the crooked 
waters; reference to Agni as the lightning; approaching the lion: sim.haapplied 
to Agni, implying sahanas'i_lam, abhibha_vana s'i_lam, ability to suffer or be 

 1.095.06 Both the auspicious ones (day and night or two pieces of wood rubbed 
together to produce flame) waitupon him like two female attendants, as lowing 
kine (follow their calves) by the paths (that they have gone); hehas been the 
lord of might among the mighty, whom (the priests) on the right (of the altar) 

 1.095.07 Like the sun, he stretches forth his arms, and the formidable Agni, 
decorating both heaven and earth(with brightness), labours (in his duties); he 
draws up from everything the essential (moisture), and clothes (theearth) with 
new vestments (derived) from his maternal (rains).  

 1.095.08 Associated in the firmament with the moving waters, he assumes an 
excellent and lustrous form, andthe wise sustainer (of all things) sweeps over 
the source (of the rains with his radiance), whence a concentrationof light is 
spread abroad by the sportive deity. [budhna = antariks.a or firmament, as the 
source of the rains].  

 1.095.09 The vast and victorious radiance of you, the mighty one, pervades the 
firmament; Agni, who have beenkindled by us, preserve us with all your 
undiminished and protecting glories.  

 1.095.10 He causes the waters to flow in a torrent through the sky, and with 
those pure waves he inundates theearth; he gathers all (articles of) food in the 
stomach, and for that purpose sojourns in the new-sprung parents (ofthe gain). 
[navasu prasus.u = in the new parents, or mothers; i.e. in the os.adhis, the 
annual crops whichripenafter the rains and bear food, being impregnated by the 
terrestrial Agni].  

 1.095.11 Agni, who are the purifier, growing with the fuel we have supplied, 
blaze for the sake of (securing) foodto us, who are possessed of wealth; and may 
Mitra, Varun.a, Aditi--ocean, earth, and heaven, preserve it to us. 


 1.096.01 Engendered by force, Agni verily appropriates, as soon as born, the 
offerings of the sages; the watersand voice make him their friend, and the gods 
retain him as the giver of (sacrificial) wealth. [dravin.oda_, thegiver of 

 1.096.02 (Propitiated) by the primitive laudatory hymn of A_yu, he created the 
progeny of Manus, and pervades,with his all-investing splendour, the heavens and 
the firmament; the gods retain Agni as the giver of (sacrificial)wealth. [a_yu = 
Manu; manuna_ stutah san ma_navaih sarva_h praja_hajanayat, being hymned by 
Manu,hecreated all the offspring sof Manu].  

 1.096.03 Approachinghim,let all men adore Agni, the chief (of the gods), the 
accomplisher of sacrifices, who isgratified by oblations and propitiated by 
praises--the offspring of food, the sustainer of (all men), the giver 
ofcontinual gifts; the gods retain Agni as the giver of (sacrificial) wealth.  
[prathama = lit. the first; here, mukya,chief (of the gods)].  

 1.096.04 May Agni, the dweller in the firmament, the nourisher with abundant 
benefits, the bestower of svarga,the protector of mankind, the progenitor of 
heaven and earth, instruct my sons in the right way; the gods retainAgni as the 
giver of (sacrificial) wealth.  

 1.096.05 The night and the day, mutually effacing each other's comlexion, give 
nourishment combined together,to one infant, who, radiant, shines between earth 
and heaven the gods retain Agni as the giver of (sacrificial)wealth. [to one 
infant: Agni, whom they nourish with the oblations offered].  

 1.096.06 The source of opulence, the bestower of riches, the director of the 
sacrifice, the accomplisher of thedesires (of the man) who has recourse to him; 
him the gods, preserving their immortality, retain as the giver of(sacrificial) 

 1.096.07 The gods retain Agni as the giver of (sacrificial) wealth, who now is, 
and heretofore has been, theabode of riches, the receptacle of all that has 
been, and all that will be, born, and the preserver of all (that) exists,(as 
well as of all) that are coming into existence.  

 1.096.08 May Dravin.oda_ grant us (a portion) of moveable wealth; may 
Dravin.oda_ grant us (a portion) of thatwhich is stationary; may Dravin.oda_ 
give us food attended byprogeny; may Dravin.oda_ bestow upon us longlife.  

 1.096.09 Thus, Agni, who are the purifier gowing with the fuel (we have 
supplied), blaze for the sake of securingfood to us, who are possessed of wealth 
and may Mitra, Varun.a, Aditi--ocean, earth, and heaven, preserve it tous. 


 1.097.01 May our sin, Agni, be repented of; manifest riches to us; may our sin 
be repented of. [agham apa nahs'os'ucad: fr. s'uc, to sorrow, with the vedic 
imperative apa (let) prefixed; two interpretations: 'let our sin passaway from 
us, and light upon our adversaries'; or 'let our sin, afected by grief, 

 1.097.02 We worship you for pleasant fields, for good roads, and for riches; 
may our sin be repented of.  

 1.097.03 (in like manner as, among these your worshippers, Kutsa) is the pre-
eminent panegyrist, so are ourencomiasts (of you) the most distinguished; may 
our sin be repented of.  

 1.097.04 Inasmuch as your worshippers (are blessed with descentants), so may 
we, (by repeating your praise),obtain posterity; may our sin be repented of. 
[praja_yemahi vayam: fr. jan, to be born, may we be bornsuccessively in the 
persons of our posterity].  

 1.097.05 Since the victorious flames of Agni penetrate universally, may our sin 
be repented of.  

 1.097.06 You, whose countenance is turned to all sides, are our defender; may 
our sin be repented of.  

 1.097.07 Do you, whose countenance is turned to all sides, send off our 
adversaries, as if in a ship, (to theopposite shore); may our sin be repented 

 1.097.08 Do you convey us in a ship across the sea, for our welfare; may our 
sin be repented of. 


 1.098.01 May we continue in the favour of Vais'va_nara, for verily he is the 
august sovereign of all beings; assoon as generated from this (wood), he surveys 
the universe; he accompanies the rising sun. [vais'va_nara = herules over all 
(vis'va) men (nara); or, who conducts them (nara) to another region (heaven) 
through oblations; or,possiblyto future life through the funeral fire. He 
accompanies the risingsun: either as the combined heat withsolar radiance, or, 
as solar rays descend to earth, so the rays of terrestrial fire ascend and mix 
with them (Nirukta7.23)].  

 1.098.02 Agni, who is present in the sky, and present upon earth, and who, 
present, has pervaded all herbs; maythe Agni Vais'va_nara, who is present in 
vigour, guard us night and day, against our enemies [pr.s.t.a =sam.spr.s.t.a = 
in contact with, or nihita, placed or present inth esky: Agni is in contact 
with, or present, in thesun; on earth, in sacred and domestic fire, and in 
herbs, or annuals, as the cause of their coming to maturity].  

 1.098.03 Vais'va_nara, may this (your adoration be attended) by real (fruit); 
may precious treasure wait uon us,and may Mitra, Varun.a, Aditi--ocean, earth, 
and heaven, preserve them to us]. [ra_yah, riches; i.e. wealth infamily]. 


 1.099.01 We offer oblations of Soma to Ja_tavedas, may he consume the wealth of 
those who feel enmityagainst us; may he transport us over all difficulties; may 
Agni convey us, as in a boat over a river, across allwickedness. 


 1.100.01 May he who is the showerer of desires, who is co-dweller with (all) 
energies the supreme ruler over thevast heaven and earth, the sender of water, 
and to be invoked in battles; may Indra, associated with the Maruts,be our 

 1.100.02 May he whose course, like that of the sun, is not to be overtaken, who 
in every battle is the slayer of hisfoes, the witherer (of opponents), who, with 
his swift-moving friends (the winds), is the most bountiful (of givers);may 
Indra, associated with the Maruts be our protection.  

 1.100.03 May he, whose rays, powerful and unattainable issue forth like those 
of the sun, milking (the clouds); hewho is victorious over his adversaries, 
triumphant by his manly energies; may Indra, associated with the Maruts,be our 

 1.100.04 He is the swiftest among the swift, most bountiful amongst the 
bountiful, a friend with friends, venerableamong those who claim veneration, and 
pre-eminent among those deserving of praise; may Indra, associatedwith the 
Maruts, be our protection. [an:girobhiran:girastma: the most an:giras of 
an:girasas, which may refer tothe r.s.is so named; explanation: an:g, to go; 
an:girasah = ganta_rah, goers, those who go swiftly].  

 1.100.05 Mighty with the Rudras, as if with his sons, victorious in battle over 
his enemies, and sending down withhis co-dwellers (the waters which are 
productive of) food; Indra, associated with the Maruts, be our protection.  

 1.100.06 May he, the represser of (hostile) wrath, the author of war, the 
protector of the good, the invoked ofmany, share with our people on this day the 
(light of the) sun; may Indra, associated with the Maruts, be ourprotection. 
[The appeal is for daylight in which to attack the enemies of Vars.a_giras, and 
to recover the cattlethat had been stolen, or that the light may be withheld 
from their opponents].  

 1.100.07 Hi, his allies, the Maruts, animate in battle; him, men regard as the 
preserver of their property; he alonepresides over every act of worship; may 
Indra, associated with the Maruts, be our protection.  

 1.100.08 To him, a leader (to victory), his worshippers apply in contests of 
strength for protection and for wealth,as he grants them the light (of conquest) 
in the bewildering darkness (of battle); may Indra, associated with theMaruts, 
be our protection. [jyotis. = light; cit-ta_masi = in the darkness of thought; 
hopefully, Indra will give thelight of knowledge to darkness of understanding].  

 1.100.09 With his left hand he restrains the malignant, with his right he 
receives the (sacrificial) offerings; he isthe giver of riches, (when 
propitiated) by one who celebrates his praise; may Indra, associated with the 
Maruts,be our protection.  

 1.100.10 He, along with his attendants, is a benefactor; he is quickly 
recognized by all men today, through hischariots; by his manly energies he is 
victor over unruly (adversaries); may Indra, associated with the Maruts, beour 

 1.100.11 Invoked by many, he goes to battle with his kinsmen, or with 
(followers) not of his kindred; he securesthe (triumph) of those who trust him, 
and of their sons and grandsons; may Indra, associated with the Maruts, beour 

 1.100.12 He is the wielder of the thunderbolt, the slayer of robbers, fearful 
and fierce, knowing many things,much eulogized and mighty, and like the Soma, 
inspiring the five classes of beings with vigour; may Indra,associated with the 
Maruts, be our protection.  

 1.100.13 His thunderbolt draws cries (from his enemies), he is the sender of 
good waters, brilliant as (theluminary) of heaven, the thunderer, the promoter 
of beneficent acts, upon him do donations and riches attend;may Indra, 
associated with the Maruts, be our protection.  

 1.100.14 May he, of whom the excellent measure (of all things), through 
strength, eternally and everywherecherishes heaven and earth, propitiated by our 
acts, convey us beyond (evil); may Indra, associated with theMaruts, be our 
protection. [s'avasa_-ma_nam, the distributor of all things, through his power, 
i.e. he is theprototype of everything endued with vigour].  

 1.100.15 Nor gods, nor men, nor waters, have reached the limit of the strength 
of that beneficent (divinity) for hesurpasses both earth and heaven by his foe-
consuming (might); may Indra, associated with the Maruts, be ourprotection. [ na 
yasya deva devata_: devata_ = devasya = da_na_di-gun.a-yuktasya, endowed with 
theproperties of giving].  

 1.100.16 The red and black coursers, long-limbed, well-caparisoned, and 
celestial, an dharnessed, well-pleased,to the yoke of the chariot in which the 
showerer of benefits is conveyed, for the enrichment of R.jra_s'va, an 
disrecognized amongst human hosts. [nahus.i_s.u viks.u: nahus.a = man, human o 
rmanly; vis. = man; viks.u =sena_laks.an.a_su praja_su, people designated as an 

 1.100.17 Indra, showerer (of benefits), the Va_rs.a_gira_s, R.jra_s'va and his 
companions, Ambaris.a, Sahadeva,Bhayama_na, and Sura_dha_s, address to you this 
propitiatory praise].  

 1.100.18 Indra, who is invoked by many, attended by the moving (Maruts), having 
attacked the Dasyus and theS'imyus, slew them with his thunderbolt; the 
thunderer then divided the fields with his white-complexioned friends,and 
rescued the sun and set free the water. [s'imyus = enemies and ra_ks.asas; 
sakhibhi s-vitnyebhih: winds orMaruts; allusion to earthly friends or 
worshippers of Indra, who were white (s'vitnya)].  

 1.100.19 May Indra be daily our vindicator, and may we, with undiverted course, 
enjoy (abundant) food; and mayMitra, Varun.a, Aditi--ocean, earth and heaven, 
preserve it to us]. 


 1.101.01 Offer adoration with oblations to him who is delighted (with praise), 
who, with R.jis'van, destroyed thepregnant wives of Kr.s.n.a; desirous of 
protection, we invoke, to become our friend, him, who is the showerer 
(ofbenefits), who holds the thunderbolt in his right hand, attended by the 
Maruts. [R.jis'van was a king and frien dofIndra; Kr.s.n.a was an asura, who was 
slain, together with his wives, that none of his posterity might 
survive.Kr.s.n.a, the black may be Vr.tra, the black cloud].  

 1.101.02 We invoke to be our friend, Indra, who is attended by the Maruts; he 
who, with increasing wrath, slewthe mutilated Vr.tra and S'ambara, and the 
unrighteous Pipru, and who extirpated the unabsorbable S'us.n.a[S'ambara and 
Pipru are asuras; pipru = avratam, not performing or opposing vratas, religious 
rites; as'us.ams'us.n.am = the dryer up, i.e. who cannot be absorbed].  

 1.101.03 We invoke to become our friend, Indra, who is attended by the Maruts; 
whose great power (pervades)heaven and earth, in whose service Varun.a and 
Su_rya are steadfast, and whose commadn the rivers obey.  

 1.101.04 Who is th elord over all horses and cattle, who is independent, who, 
propitiated by praise, is constant inevery act, and who is the slayer of the 
obstinate abstainer from libations; we invoke to become our friend, 
Indra,attended by the Maruts.  

 1.101.05 Who is the lord of all moving and breathing creatures, who first 
recovered the (stolen) kine for theBra_hman.a, and who slew the humbled Dasyus; 
we invoke to become our friend, Indra, attended by the Maruts.[Bra_hman.e = for 

 1.101.06 Who is to be invoked by the brave and by the timid, by the vanquished 
and by victors, and whom alleings place before them (in their ites); we invoke 
to become our friend, Indra, attended by the Maruts.  

 1.101.07 The radiant Indra proceeds (along the firmament) with the 
manifestation of the Rudras; through theRudras, speech spreads with more 
expansive celerity, and praise glorifies the renowned Indra; him, attended bythe 
Maruts, we invoke to become our friend. [Indra is radiant through identity with 
the sun; Rudras are radiantidentified with Maruts in their character of vital 
airs or pra_n.a; rudra = fr. rud, to weep; when the vital airs departfromt he 
body, they cause the kindred of the deceased to weep, hence they are called 

 1.101.08 Attended by the winds, giver of true wealth, whether you may be 
pleased (to dwell) in a stately mansionor in a lowly dwelling, come to our 
sacrifice; desirous of your presence, we offer you oblations. [Three luminaries= 
three fires: sun in heaven, lightning in mid-air, and fire (sacred or domestic) 
on earth].  

 1.101.09 Desirous of you, Indra, who are possessed of excellent strenghth, we 
pour forth to you libationsdesirous of you, who are obtained by prayer, we offer 
you oblations; therefore, do you, who are possessed ofhorses, sit down with 
pleasure upon the sacred grass, attended by the Maruts, at this sacrifice. [May 
Indra giveus (a son), an offerer of praises, all-wise, and the subduer of foes; 
and (give us) also a chariot foremost in battle]. 

 1.101.10 Rejoice, Indra, with the steeds who are of your nature; open your 
jaws, set wide your throat (to drinkSoma); let your horses bring you, who have a 
handsome chin, (hither), and, benignant towards us, be pleased byour oblations.  

 1.101.11 Protected by that destroyer (of foes), who is united in praise with 
the Maruts, we may receivesustenance from Indra; and may Mitra, Varun.a, Aditi -
- ocean, earth and heaven, preserve it to us. 


 1.102.01 I address to you, who are mighty, this excellent hymn, because your 
understanding has been gratifiedby my praise; the gods have successively 
delighted that victorious Indra with the power (of praise), for the sakeof 
prosperity and wealth. [para_cais = abhimukham eva, as if present; are in 
combination with: the sun and fireare the lustre of Indra; fire combines with 
the sun (sam.pr.cyate) in the day; the sun combines with fire in thenight].  

 1.102.02 The seven rivers display his glory; heaven, and earth, and sky display 
his visible form; the sun andmoon, Indra,perform their revolution, that we may 
see, and have faith in what we see. [Ahi and Vr.tra aredifferently-formed 
clouds. Rauhina = an asura, possibly, a red cloud].  

 1.102.03 Maghavan, despatch your chariot to bring us wealth; that victorious 
car which, Indra, who are muchpraised by us in time of war, we rejoice to behold 
in battle; do you, Maghavan, grant happiness to those who aredevoted to you.   

 1.102.04 May we, having you for our ally, overcome our adversaries in every 
encounter; defend our portion;render riches easily attained by us; enfeeble 
Maghavan, the vigour of our enemies. [na_ma bibhrat: na_ma,strength, that which 
is the bender or prostrator of foes; fr. nam, to bwo down; or, processing a 
name; manus.emayuga_ni = these mortal yugas, kr.ta, treta etc., which Indra 
successively evolves, in the character of the sun].  

 1.102.05 Many are the men who call upon you for your protection; mount your car 
to bring wealth to us, for yourmind, Indra, is composed, and resolved of 

 1.102.06 Your arms are the winners of cattle, your wisdom is unbounded, you are 
most excellent, the granter of ahundred aids in every rite; the author of war, 
Indra is uncontrolled; the type of strength; wherefore men, who aredesirous of 
wealth, invoke him in various ways.  

 1.102.07 The food, Maghavan, (which is to be given by you) to men, may be more 
than sufficient for a hundred,oor for more, even, than a thousand; great praise 
has glorified you, who are without limit, whereupon you destroyyour enemies.  

 1.102.08 Strong as a twice-twisted rope, you are the type of strength; 
protector of men, that are more than ableto sustain the three spheres, the three 
luminaries, and all this world of beings, Indra, who have from birth everbeen 
without a rival.  

 1.102.09 We invoke you, Indra, the first among the gods; you have been the 
victor in battles; may Indra putforemost in the battle this our chariot, which 
is efficient, impetuous, and the uprooter (of all impediments).  

 1.102.10 You conquer, and withhold not the booty; in trifling or in serious 
conflicts, we sharpen you, fierceMaghavan, for our defence; do you, therefore, 
inspirit us in our defiances.  

 1.102.01 May Indra daily be our vindicator, and may we, with undiverted course, 
enjoy abundant food; and mayMitra, Varun.a, Aditi--ocean, earth, and heaven, 
preserve it to us. 


 1.103.01 The sages have formerly been possessed of this your supreme power, 
Indra, as if it were present withthem, one light of whom shines upon the earth, 
the other in heaven, and both are in combination with each other,as banner 
(mingles with banner) in battle.  

 1.103.02 He upholds, and has spread out, the earth; having struck (the clouds), 
he has extricated the waters; hehas slain Ahi, he has pierced Rauhin.a, he has 
destroyed, by his prowess, the mutilated (Vr.tra).  

 1.103.03 Armed with the thunderbolt, and confident in his strength, he has gone 
on destroying the cities of theDasyus. Thunderer, acknowledging (the praises of 
your worshipper) cast, for his sake, your shaft agains theDasyu, and augment the 
strength and glory of the A_rya.  

 1.103.04 Maghavan, possessing a name that is to be glorified, offers to him who 
celebrates it, these (revolving)ages of man; the thunderer, the scatterer (of 
his foes), sallying forth to destroy the Dasyus, has obtained a name(renowned 
for victorious) prowess.  

 1.103.05 Behold this, the vast and extensive (might of Indra); have confidence 
in his prowess; he has recoveredthe cattle, he has recovered the horses, the 
plants, the waters, the woods.  

 1.103.06 We offer the Soma libation to him who is the performer of many 
exploits, the best (of the gods), theshowerer (of benefits), the possessor of 
true strength, the hero who, holding respect for wealth, takes it from himwho 
performs no sacrifice, like a foot-pad (from a traveller), and proceeds (to give 
it) to the sacrificer.  

 1.103.07 You did perform, Indra, a glorious deed, when you did awaken the 
sleeping Ahi with your thunderbolt;then the wives (of the gods), the Maruts, and 
all the gods, imitated your exultation.  

 1.103.08 Inasmuch, Indra, as you have slain S'us.n.a, Pipru, Kuyava and Vr.tra, 
and destroyed the cities ofS'ambara, therefore may Mitra, Varun.a, Aditi--ocean, 
earth, and heaven, grant us that (which we desire). 


 1.104.01 The altar has been raised, Indra, for your seat; hasten to sit upon it 
as a neighing horse (hastens to hisstable); slackening the reins, and letting 
your coursers free, who, at the season of sacrifice, bear you night andday. 
[Added: ya_gaka_le pra_pte = the time of sacrifice having arrived; the text has 
only, 'for the season ofsacrifice'; prapitve = pra_pte = lit. arrived, or 
adversb signifying proximity: near, nigh, at hand (Nirukta 3.20)].  

 1.104.02 These persons have come to Indra (to solicit) his protection; may he 
quickly direct them on the way;may the gods repress the wrathof the destroyer, 
and bring to our solemnity the obviator of evil.  

 1.104.03 (The Asura), knowing the wealth of others, carries it off of himself; 
present in the water, he carries off,of himself, the foam; the two wives of 
Kuyava bathe with the water; may they be drowned in the depths of theS'ipha_ 
river. [(The Asura): named Kuyava].  

 1.104.04 The abiding-place of the vagrant (Kuyava) was concealed (in the midst) 
of the water; the heroincreases with the waters formerly (carried off), and is 
renowned (throughout the world); the An~jasi_, kulis'i_ andVi_rapatni rivers, 
pleasing him with their substance, sustain him with their waters. [Vagrant: Aya 
is an appellativeof Kuyava; fr. ay, to go--one going about to do mischief to 

 1.104.05 Since the track that leads to the dwelling of the Dasyu has been seen 
by us, as a cow knows the way toher stall, therefore do you, Maghavan, (defend 
us) from his repeated violence; do not you cast away as alibertine throws away 
wealth. [Of the Dasyu: Of Kuyava].  

 1.104.06 Excite in us, Indra, veneration for the sun, for the waters, and for 
those who are worthy of the praise ofliving beings, as exempt from sin; injure 
not our offspring while yet in the womb, for our trust is in yourmightypower.  

 1.104.07 Hence, Indra, I meditate on you; on his (your power) has our trust 
been placed; showerer (of benefits),direct us to great wealth; consign us not, 
you who are invoked by many, to a destitute dwelling; give, Indra, foodand drink 
to the hungry.  

 1.104.08 Harm us not, Indra, abandon us not; deprive us not of the enjoyments 
that aare dear to us; injure not,affluent S'akra, our unborn offspring; harm not 
those who are capable (only of crawling) on their knees.  

 1.104.09 Come into our presence; they have called you, fond of the Soma; it is 
prepared; drink of it for yourexhilaration; vast of limb, distend your stomach, 
and when invoked hear us, as a father (listens to the words ofhis sons). 


 1.105.01 The graceful-movingmoonspeeds along the middle region in the sky; 
bright golden rays (my eyes)behold not your abidding-place. Heaven and earth, be 
conscious of this (my affliction). [candrama_h suparn.ah:suparn.aih = s'obhana-
patana, the elegantly-going; or, possibly connected with the ray of the sun 
calledsupran.a, which gives the moon its light; your abiding place: a reference 
to the supposed position of Trita at thebttom of the well, which, being covered 
over, shuts out from him all visible objects; be conscious of this: the texthas, 
'heaven and earth, know of this of me' (vittam me asya rodasi), i.e. 'be aware 
of this my affliction', or, 'attendto this my hymn'].  

 1.105.02 Those who seek for wealth, obtain it; a wife enjoys (the presence of) 
her husband, and from their unionprogeny is engendered. Heaven and earth, be 
conscious of this (my affliction).  

 1.105.03 Never, Gods, may this (my ancestry), abiding above in heaven, be 
excluded (from it); never may we bein want (of a son), the cause of joy (to his 
progenitors), entitled to libations of the Soma. Heaven and earth, beconscious 
of this (my affliction). [Be excluded from it: Trita anticipates for himself a 
failure of posterity: 'by a son aman conquers the worlds; there is no world 
(loka) for one who has no son' (na_putrasya lokosti) (AitareyaBra_hman.a 7.13)].  

 1.105.04 I implore the first (of the gods), the object of sacrifice, that he 
will become my messenger, and narrate(my condition to the other deities). Where, 
Agni, is your former benevolence, what new being now possesses it?Heaven and 
earth, be conscious of this (my affliction). [agnir-vai deva_na_m avamah, the 
first-produced of all thegods (Aitareya Bra_hman.a 1.1); agnir-mukham prathamo 
devata_na_m, Agni is the mouth, the first of the deities(Aitareya Bra_hman.a 

 1.105.05 Gods, who are present in the three worlds, who abide in the light of 
the sun, where now is your truth,where your untruth, where the ancient 
invocation (that I have addressed) to you? Heaven and earth, beconscious of (my 

 1.105.06 Where, deities, is your observance of the truth, where the (benignant) 
regard of Varun.a, where is thepath of the mighty Aryaman, (so that) we may 
overcome the malevolent? Heaven and earth, be conscious of this(my affliction). 
[Varun.a and Aryaman: Varun.a is the obstructor of evil, which is undesired 
(anis.t.aniva_raka);Aryaman, is the restrainer of enemies (arin.a_m niyanta_)].  

 1.105.07 I am he, Gods, who formerly recited (your praise) when the libation 
was poured out; yet sorrows assailme, like a wolf (that falls upon) a thirsty 
deer. Heaven and earth, be conscious of this (my affliction).  

 1.105.08 The ribs (of the well close) round me, like the rival wives (of one 
husband); cares consume me,S'atakratu, although your worshipper, as a rat (gnaws 
a weaver's) threads. Heaven and earth, be conscious ofthis (my affliction). 
[Weaver's threads: the threads are steepd in rice-water to add to the tension, 
and hence,become palatable to rats; the rendering is: 'As a rat gnaws, or licks, 
its tail, having just dipped it in oil or grease'(Nirukta 4.6). Manu (VIII.397) 
notes that the cloth returned shall be heavier than the thread given, 
becausethreads should be thickened with starch].  

 1.105.09 Those which are the seven rays (of the sun), in them is my navel 
expanded; Trita, the son of thewaters, knows that (it is so), and he praises 
them for his extrication (from the well). Heaven and earth, beconscious of this 
(my affliction). [na_bhi = navel; tes.u su_ryaras'mis.u adhya_tmam 
saptapra_n.aru_pen.avarma_nes.u, identifying the solar rays with the seven vital 
airs abiding in the ruling spirit; this is perhaps anallusion to the navel as 
the seat of the soul. Son of the waters: a_ptya = a_pya = apa_m putra, son of 

 1.105.10 May the five shedders (of benefits), who abide in the centre of the 
expanded heavens, having togetherconveyed my prayers quickly to the gods, 
(speedily) return. Heaven and earth, be conscious of this (myaffliction). [Five 
shedders of benefits: They are: Indra, Varun.a, Agni, Aryaman, and Savita_; or, 
fire, wind, thesun, the moon and the lightning, for these are luminous in their 
respective spheres; or, fire upon earth, wind inthe firmament, the sun in 
heaven, the moon in the planetary region, and lightning in the clouds. 
Taittiri_yaA_ran.yaka (1.20.1) substitutes the naks.atras (asterisms shining in 
the svar-loka) for lightning].  

 1.105.11 The rays of the sun abide in the surrounding centre of heaven; they 
drive back the wolf crossing thegreat waters from the path. Heaven and earth, be 
conscious of this (my affliction). [The wolf crossing: legend: awolf was about 
to swim across a river to devour Trita, but was deterred by the brightness of 
the solar rays; vr.ka= the moon; a_pah = the firmament; the passage is therefore 
rendered as: 'The rays of the sun prevent the moonfrom appearing, or being 
visible, in the firmament'].  

 1.105.12 That new praiseworthy and commended (vigour) is seated in you, ye 
Gods, (by which) the rivers urgeon the waters, and the sun diffuses his constant 
(light). Heaven and earth, be conscious of this (my affliction).[Commended 
vigour: bala = strength, which is ukthyam (praiseworthy)].  

 1.105.13 Worthy of praise, Agni, is that your relationship 9with the gods), do 
you, who are most wise, seated atour (solemnity) worship (the gods), as (at the 
sacrifice of) Manu.  

 1.105.14 May that wise and liberal Agni, a sage amongst the gods, seated at our 
rite, as at the sacrifice of Manu,be the invoker of the deities, and offer them 
oblations. Heaven and earth, be conscious of this (my affliction).  

 1.105.15 Varun.a performs the rite of preservation; we desire him as guide of 
our way; (to him, the repeater ofpraise) addresses praise with his (whole) 
heart; may he who is entitled to laudation become our true (support).Heaven and 
earth, be conscious of this (my affliction). [brahma_ kr.n.oto varun.ah = 
raks.a.naru_pakarma, theact which is of the nature of preserving].  

 1.105.16 The sun, who is avowedly made the path in heaven, is not to be 
disregarded, Gods, by you; but you,mortals, regard him not. Heaven and earth be 
conscious of this (my affliction). [asau yah pantha_ a_dityo diviprava_cyam 
kr.tah: pantha_ is an epithet of A_ditya, the sun, as satatagami_, the ever-
going; interpreted as apath, the sun is the road to heaven: su_ryadva_ren.a 
viraja_h praya_nti, those who are free from soul go by thegate of the sun].  

 1.105.17 Trita, fallen into the well, invokes the Gods for succour; Br.haspati, 
who liberates many from sin, heard(the submission). Heaven and earth, be 
conscious of this (my affliction).  

 1.105.18 Once, a tawny wolf beheld me faring on my way, and having seen me, 
rushed upon me, (rearing) as acarpenter, whose back aches (with stooping, 
standing erect in his work). [The wolf, like the carpenter, wasu_rdhva_bhimukha 
(standing in presence erect). If vr.ka = moon and ma_ sakr.t (me once) is 
rendered ma_sakr.t(month-maker), the rendering is: the moon, having contemplated 
the constellations goind along the path of thesky, became united with one of 
them; paying, therefore, no attention to Trita in the well].  

 1.105.19 By this recitation, may we, becoming possessed of Indra, and strong 
with multiplied progeny, overcomeour foes in battle; and may Mitra, Varun.a, 
Aditi---ocean, earth and heaven, be gracious to us in this (request). 


 1.106.01 We invoke, for our preservation, Indra, Mitra, Varun.a, Agni, the 
might of the Maruts, and Aditi; maythey, who are bountiful and bestowers of 
dwellings, extricate us from all sin, as a chariot from a defile.  

 1.106.02 Sons of Aditi, come with all (your hosts) to battle; be to us the 
cause of happiness in combats, and maythey, whoare bountiful and bestowers of 
dwellings, extricate us from all sin, as a chariot from a defile.  

 1.106.03 May the Pitrs., who are easily to be praised protect us; and may the 
two divinities, heaven and earth,the promoters of sacrifices, and of whom, the 
gods are progeny, protect us; and may they, who are bountiful andgivers of 
dwellings, extricate us from sin, as a chariot from a defile. [Pitr.s = 
agnis.va_ttas and others (Manu,III.195)].  

 1.106.04 Exciting him who is the praised of men and the giver of food, (to be 
present) at this rite, we solicit (also)with our praises him who is the purifier 
and destroyer of heroes; may they, who are bountiful and the givers offood, 
extricate us from sun, as a chariot from a defile [pos.akam devam = nourishing 
gods: Agni and Pu_s.an].  

 1.106.05 Br.haspati, always confer happiness upon us, we solicit that faculty 
of both (alleviating pain andobvitaing peril) implanted in you by Manu; may 
they, who are bountiful and the givers of dwellings extricate usfrom all sins, 
as a chariot from a defile. [s'am yor at te manurhitam = implanted in you by 
Manu: the good orblessing of those two (things, or properties, i.e. alleviating 
pain and obviating peril) placed in them by Manu].  

 1.106.06 Kutsa, the r.s.i, thrown into a well, has invoked to his succour, 
Indra, the slayer of enemies, theencourager of good works; may they, who are 
bountiful and the givers of dwellings, extricate us from all sin, as achariot 
from a defile. [Kutsa = Trita; 'saci-pati = husband of 'saci; s'aci = karma, act 
or rite].  

 1.106.07 May the goddess, Aditi, with the gods, protect us, and may the radiant 
guardian, (the sun), be vigilant forour protection; and may they, who are 
bountiful and the givers of dwellings, extricate us from all sin, as a 
chariotfrom a defile. 


 1.107.01 May our sacrifice give satisfaction to the gods; A_dityas, be 
gracious, and may your good intentions bedirected towards us, so as to be 
abundant source of affliction to the poor.  

 1.107.02 May the gods, who are to be lauded by the hymns of the An:girasas, 
come hither for our protection; mayIndra with his treasures, the Maruts with the 
vital airs, and Aditi with the A_dityas (come and) give us felicity.  

 1.107.03 May Indra, may Varun.a, may Agni, may Aryaman, may Savita_, bestow 
upon us that food (which wesolicit); and may Mitra, Varun.a, Aditi--ocean, earth 
and heaven, preserve it (to us). 


 1.108.01 Indra and Agni, sitting together in your car, that wonderful car which 
illuminates all beings, approachand drink of the effused Soma.  

 1.108.02 Vast as is the whole universe in expanse, and profound indepth, such, 
Indra and Agni, may this Somabe for you, sufficient for your desires.  

 1.108.03 You have made your associated names renowned, since, slayers of 
Vr.tra, you have been allied (for hisdeath); the showerers of benefits, Indra 
and Agni, are the two seated together (on the altar); receive (yourportion) of 
the Soma libation.  

 1.108.04 The first being kindled the two (priests stand by) sprinkling the 
clarified butter from the ladles, whichthey raise, and spreading the sacred 
grass (upon the altar); therefore, Indra and Agni, come before us for 
ourgratification, (attracted) by stimulating Soma sprinkled all round. [The two: 
are explained as adhvaryu and the hisassistant priest].  

 1.108.05 Whatever heroic exploits you ahve achieved whatever forms (you have 
created), whatever benefits(you have poured down), whatever ancient and 
fortunate friendships (you have contracted, come with them all),and drink of the 
effused Soma.  

 1.108.06 Come and witness the sincere faith with which, selecting you two, I 
first promised (you the libation);drink of the effused libation, for the Soma is 
prepared by the priests.  

 1.108.07 If, adorable Indra and Agni, you have ever been delighted 
(withlibations) in your own dwelling, in tha tofa Bra_hman.a, or in that of a 
prince, then, showerers of benefits, come hither from wherever you may be, 
anddrink of the effused Soma libation. [yad brahman.i ra_jani va_: bra_hman.e 
anyasmin yajama_ne, a differentinstitutor of a sacrifice, a bra_hman.a; ra_jani 
= ks.atriye, of a warrior].  

 1.108.08 If, Indra and Agni, you are amongst men who are in offensive, 
malevolent, or tyrannical, or those wholive (to fulfil the duties of life), or 
those who receive the fruits (of good deeds), then, showerers of benefits, 
comehither from wherever you may be, and drink of the effused Soma libation. 
[Men who are inoffensive, malevolent:the allusion may be to proper names or many 
families: yadus, turvas.as, druhyus, anus and purus, descendantsof the five sons 
of yaya_ti (Maha_bha_rata I.138); yadu = ahimsaka, non-injurious; turvas.a = 
himsaka, injurious;druhyu = upadravecchu, tyrannical; anu = pra_n.air yukta, 
having breath or life; puru = ka_mai purayitavya, to befilled full of the 
objects of desire].  

 1.108.09 Whether, Indra and Agni, you are in the lower, the central, or the 
upper region of the world, showerersof benefits, come hither from wherever you 
may be, and drink of the effused Soma libation.  

 1.108.10 Whether, Indra and Agni, you are in the upper, central, or lower 
region of the world, come,showerers ofbenefits, hither from wherever you may be, 
and drink of the effused Soma libation.  

 1.108.11 Whether, Indra and Agni, you are in heaven or upon earth, in the 
mountains, in the herbs, or in thewaters, showerers of benefits, come hither 
from wherever you may be, and drink of the effused Soma libation.  

 1.108.12 Although, Indra and Agni, in the midst of the sky, on the rising of 
the sun, you may be exhilarated byyour own splendour, yet, showerers of 
benefits, come hither from wherever you maybe, and drink of the effusedSoma 

 1.108.13 Thus, Indra and Agni, drinking deep of the libation, grant to us all 
(kinds of) wealth; and may Mitra,Varun.a and Aditi--ocean, earth, and heaven, 
preserve it to us. 


 1.109.01 Indra and Agni, desirous of wealth, I consider you, in my mind, as 
kinsmen and relations; the clearunderstanding you have given me, (is given) by 
no one else, and (so gifted), I have composed this hymn to you,intimating my 
wish for sustenance.  

 1.109.02 I have heard, Indra and Agni, that you are more munificent givers than 
an unworthy bridegroom, or thebrother of a bride; therefore, as I offer you a 
Soma libation, I address you, Indra and Agni, with a new hymn. [Anunworthy 
bridegroom: vijama_tr.; the prefix vi- refers to a son-in-law (ja_ma_tr.) who is 
not possessed of thequalifications required by the Vedas, and who is, therefore, 
obliged to conciliate his father-in-law by libereal gifts.In Nirukta 6.9 
vi_jama_tri_  = asusama_pta, the unfulfilled, or unaccomplished bridegroom. 
There may noimplication of a bride-price: 'let no father who knows the law 
receive a gratuity, however small, for giving hisdaughter in marriage, since the 
man who, through avarice, takes a gratuity for that purpose is a seller of 
hisoffspring' (Laws of Manu, III.51); 'A bribe, whether large or small, is an 
actual sale of the daughter, although a bulland cow might be given at a marriage 
of saintly persons or r.s.is' (Laws of Manu, III.53). sya_la = brother of 
themaiden, who makes her gifts through affection; sya = winnowing-basket; lo = 
la_ja_, fried grains (scattered at themarriage ceremony by the bride's 

 1.109.03 Never may we cut off the long line (of posterity); thus soliciting and 
asking for descendants endowedwith the vigour of their progenitors, the 
(worshippers), begetting children, praise Indra and Agni for theirhappiness, and 
they two, destroyers of foes, are nigh (to hear this adoration).  

 1.109.04 The sacred prayer, desiring your presence, offers to you both, Indra 
and Agni, for your exhilaration, theSoma libation; do you two, who have horses, 
handsome arms, and graceful hands, come quickly and mix (thelibation) with 
sweetness in the waters. [devi dhis.an.a_ = divine speech (sacred prayer); 
mantraru_pa = in theform of prayer].  

 1.109.05 I have heard, (when you were present) at the division of the treasure 
(among the worshippers), that youtwo, Indra and Agni, were most vigorous in the 
destruction of Vr.tra; beholders of all things seated at this sacrificeupon the 
sacred grass, be exhilarated, (by drinking of the effused libation).  

 1.109.06 Attending to the summons at the time of battle, you surpass all me (in 
magnitude); you are vaster thanthe earth, than the sky, than the rivers, than 
the mountains; you exceed all other existent things.  

 1.109.07 Bring wealth, thunderers, and give it to us; protect us, Indra and 
Agni, by your deeds; may those rays ofthe sun, by which our forefathers have 
attained together a hevenly region, shine also upon us. [Rays of the sun:the 
radiance of Indra and Agni, as identical with the sun; by praisint the sun, 
therefore, Indra and Agni are praisedalso: tercis.amabhisam.bhavantyarcis.ohah 
(Cha_ndoga Upanis.ad. 5.10.1); sapitvam = sahapra_ptavyamstha_nam, a place to be 
obtained together, i.e. the world of Brahma_, to which the pious proceed by the 
path oflight, etc. (arcira_di-ma_rgen.a brahmalokam upa_saka_ gacchanti)].  

 1.109.08 Indra and Agni, wielders of the thunderbolt, overturners of cities, 
grant us wealth, defens us in battles;and may Mitra, Varun.a, Aditi--ocean, 
earth and heaven, be propitious to this (our prayer). 


 1.110.01 R.bhus, the rite formerly celebrated by me is again repeated, and the 
melodious hymn is recited in yourpraise; in this ceremony, the Soma is 
sufficient for all the gods; drink of it to your utmost content when offered 
onthe fire.  

 1.110.02 When, R.bhus, you who are amongst my ancestors, yet immature (in 
wisdom), but desirous of enjoying(the Soma libations), retired to the forest to 
perform (penance), then, sons of Sudhanvan, throught he plenitudeof your 
completed (devotions), you came to the (sacrificial) hall of the worshipper 
Savita_. [r.bhurvibhva_ va_ja itisudhanvana a_n:girasasya trayah putra_h 
babhu_vuh (Nirukta 11.16): Sudhanvan, father of the R.bhus, was adescendant of 
An:giras; so is Kutsa; pra_n~cah = pu_rva ka_li_na, of a former period; Kutsa is 
a kinsman ofR.bhus of a former period].  

 1.110.03 Then Savita_ bestowed upon you immortality, when you came to him, who 
is not to be concealed, andrepresentd (your desire) to partake of the libations; 
and that ladle for the sacrificial viands which the Asura hadformed single, you 
made fourfold. [Who is not to be concealed: In the previous hymn, Savita_ (fr. 
su, to offeroblations) perhaps refers to the presenter of oblations; in this 
hymn, the sun is alluded to].  

 1.110.04 Associated with the priests, and quickly performing the holy rites, 
they, being yet mortals, acquiredimmortality and the son of Sudhanvan, the 
R.bhus, brilliant as the sun, became connected with the ceremonies(appropriated 
to the different season) of the year.  

 1.110.05 Lauded by the bystanders, the R.bhus, with a sharp weapon, meted outt 
the single sacrificial ladle, likea field (measured by a rod), soliciting the 
best (libations) and desiring (to participate of) sacrificial food amongsthte 
gods. 6 To the leaders (of the sacrifice), dwelling in the firmament, we 
present, as with a ladle, the appointed clarifiedbutter, and praise with 
knowledge those R.bhus, who, having equalled the velocityof the protector (of 
theuniverse, the sun), ascended to the region of heaven, through (the offerings) 
of (sacrificial) food. [nr.bhyah =yajn~asya netr.bhyah; r.bhavo hi yajn~asya 
neta_rah: 'the r.bhus are the leaders of the sacrifice'; because of 
thisposition, they obtained immortality; the term is perhaps connected with 
antariks.asya, to the chief of thefirmament; r.bhus also identified with the 
solar rays (a_dityaras'mayo api r.bhava ucyanti: the r.bhus are, indeed,said to 
be the rays of the sun].  

 1.110.07 The most excellent R.bhu is in strength our defender; R.bhu, through 
gifts of food and of wealth, is ourasylum; may he bestow them upon us, Gods, 
through your protection; may we, upon a favourable occasion,overcome the hosts 
of those who offer no libations.  

 1.110.08 R.bhus, you covered the cow with a hide, and reunited themother with 
the calf; sons of Sudhanvan,leaders (of sacrifice), through your good works you 
rendered your aged parents young. [Legend: a r.s.i, whosecow had died, leaving a 
calf prayed to the r.bhus for assistance, on which, they formed a living cow, 
and coveredit with the skin of the dead one, from which the calf imagined it to 
be its own mother].  

 1.110.09 Indra, associated with the R.bhus, supply us, in the distribution of 
viands, with food, and consent tobestow upon us wonderful riches; and may Mitra, 
Varun.a, Aditi--ocean, earth, and heaven, preserve them fo rus.[alternative: 
va_jebhir no va_jasa_tau aviddhi = protect us in battle with your horses]. 


 1.111.01 The R.bhus, possessed of skill in their work, constructed (for the 
As'vins) a well-built car; they framedthe vigorous horses bearing Indra; they 
gave youthful existence to their parents; they gave to the calf itsaccompanying 

 1.111.02 Prepare fully for our sacrifice resplendent sacrificial food, and for 
our rite and for our strength, suchnutriments as may be the cause of excellent 
progeny, so that we may live (surrounded) by vigorous descendants,such wealth do 
you confer upon us for our benefit. [r.bhumat = resplendent, having much light; 
fr. uru, much, andbha, to shine (Nirukta 11.15)].  

 1.111.03 R.bhus conductors (of sacrifice), bestow ample sustenance upon us, 
upon our chariots, upon ourhorses; let every one daily acknowledge our 
victorious wealth, and may we triumph in battle over our foes;whether strangers 
or kinsmen.  

 1.111.04 I invoke the mighty Indra for protection, and the R.bhu, Va_jas and 
Maruts to drink the Soma, also bothMitra, Varun.a and the As'vins; and may they 
direct us to opulence, to holy rites, and to victory. [r.bhuks.an.amindram: 
Indra who is R.buks.in (of which R.bhuks.an.am is the accusative), i.e. the 
mighty Indra; r.bhu_n andva_ja_n, pl. accu., refer to the three sons of 
Sudhanvan: R.bhu, Vibhu and Va_ja (Nirukta 11.16)].  

 1.111.05 May R.bhu supply us with wealth for war; may Va_ja, victorious in 
battle, protect us, and may Mitra,Varun.a, Aditi--ocean, earth, and heaven, be 
propitious ot this our prayer. 


 1.112.01 I praise Heaven and Earth for preliminary meditation, (prior to the 
coming of the As'vins); I praise the hotand bright-shining Agni upon their 
approach, (as preparatory) to their worship; with those appliances with whichyou 
sound the conch-shell in battle for your share (in the booty), with those aids, 
As'vins, come willingly hither.[utibhih, inst. pl.of uti, help, aid, assistance, 
protection; hence, without those aids].  

 1.112.02 Earnest and exclusive adorers stand, As'vins, round your car, (to 
benefit) by your bounty, as (discipleslisten) to the words (of a teacher) for 
instruction; with those aids with which you defend the pious who areengaged in 
acts of worship, come, As'vins,wilingly hither.  

 1.112.03 By the vigour infused from celestial nectar, you are able, leaders (of 
sacrifice), to rule over those beings(who people the three worldds); with those 
aids by which you gave (milk) to the barren cow, come, As'vins,willingly hither. 
[Legend: To the cow of a r.s.i, named S'ayu, to which, although barren, the 
As'vins, at hisentreaty, gave abundance of milk].  

 1.112.04 With those aids by which the circumambient (wind), endowed with the 
vigour of his son, the measurer ofthe two worlds (of heaven and earth), and 
swiftest of the swift, beautifies (all things), and by which (Kaks.i_vat)became 
learned in the three kinds of sacrifice; with them come, As'vins, willingly 
hither. [Endowed with the vigourof his son: Agni is the son of Va-yu; va_yor-
agnih (Taittiri_ya A_ran.yaka 8.1), either as generated, in thecharacter of 
digestive warmth, by the vital airs, or as having been excited into flame by the 
wind at the time ofcreation; Measurer of the two world: dvi_ma_tr. may relate to 
the wind inconjunction with Agni, as the occupantsof the firmament and the 
earth, respectively; or, explained as the son of two mothers, or the two sticks 
used forattrition, and hence, applicable to Agni; Learned in the three kinds of 
sacrifice: Or, trimantu, acquaintd with thepa_ka-yajn~as, or offering sof food; 
the havir yajn~as, or oblations of clarified butter, and the soma yajn~as, 
orlibations of Soma. Trimantu = Kaks.i_vat].  

 1.112.05 With those aids by which you raised up from the water, Rebha, who had 
been cst bound (into a well),and also Vandana (similarly circumstanced), to 
behold the sky; by which you protected Kan.va, when longing tosee the light; 
with them, As'vins, come willingly hither. [Legends: Rebha and Vandana are 
r.s.is who were castinto wells by the asuras. Kan.va threw them into darkness].  

 1.112.06 With those aids by which you rescued Antaka, (when cast into) a deep 
(pool), and about to bedestroyed; by which, inflicting no distress, you 
preserved Bhujyu, and by which you relieved Karkandhu andVayya; with them, 
As'vins, come willingly hither. [Antaka was a ra_jars.i, whom the asuras threw 
into a pond or awell; Bhujyu = son of Ra_ja_ Tugra. Bhujyu had embarked on a 
maritime expedition against the enemies of hisfather, but encountered a storm, 
in which his vessel was lost; he was saved, and brught back to his father by 
theintervention of the As'vins; Karkabandhu and Vayya: asuras whom the As'vins 
extricated from isfortunes; cf. RV.I.116.3].  

 1.112.07 With those aids by which you enriched S'ucanti, and gave him a 
handsome habitation, and renderedthe scorching heat pleasurable to Atri, and by 
which you preserved Pr.s'nigu and Purukutsa; with them, As'vins,come willingly 
hither. [Atri, the patriarch, was thrown by the asuras into a cave with a 
hundred doors, at all ofwhich fires of chaff were kindled; the fires were 
extinguished with cold water by the As'vins; or, Atri = Agni, theeater (attri)of 
clarified butter, but whose appetite, or intensity, being checked by the heat of 
the sun in the hotweather, was renovated by the rain sent down by the As'vins. 
Pr.s.nigu = pr.s.n.ayo ga_vo yasya, so named frompossessing bridled cows].  

 1.112.08 Showerers (of benefits), with those aids by which you enabled (the 
lame) Para_vr.j (to walk), the blind(R.jras'va) to see, and (the cripple) 
S'ron.a to go, and by which you set free the quail when seized (by a wolf);with 
those aids, As'vins, come willingly hither. [Para_vr.j, R.ras'va and S'ron.a 
were r.s.is. Pra_ndha was a totallyblind r.s.i (R.jras'va); S'ron.a is said to 
have been made to walk, though not a cripple. Va_rttika = quail, may alsobe a 
bird like a sparrow].  

 1.112.09 With those aids by which you caused the sweet stream to flow, by which 
you, who are exempt fromdecay, gratified Va_sis.t.ha, and by which you protected 
(r.s.is:) Kutsa, S'rutarya, and Narya; with them, As'vins,come willingly hither.   

 1.112.10 With those aids by which you enabled the opulent Vis'pala_, when she 
was unable to move, to go to thebattle rich in a thousand spoils, and by which 
you protected the devout Vas'a, the son of As'va; with them,As'vins, come 
willingly hither. [Vis'pala_ was the wife of Khela, son of Agastya. Vas'a and 
Asva were r.s.is].  

 1.112.11 With those aids by which, beauteous donors, the cloud (was made to) 
shed its sweet (water), for thesake of the merchant Di_rghas'ravas, the son of 
Us.ij, and by which you protected the devout Kaks.i_vat; withthem, As'vins, come 
willingly hither. [Di_rghas'ravas, a r.s.i, was the son of Di_rghatamas; in a 
time of famine, hebecame a trader to obtain a livelihood, hence he was a van.ik 
a merchant, too].  

 1.112.12 With those aids by which you filled the (dry) river-bed [rasa_ nadi_ 
bhavati rasateh s'abdakarman.ah)(Nirukta 11.25)] with water, by which you drove 
the chariot, without horses, to victory, and by which Tris'okarecovered his 
(stolen) cattle; with them, As'vins, come willingly hither. [Tris'oka was a 
r.s.i, the son of Kan.va].  

 1.112.13 With those aids by which you encompassed the sun, when afar off, (to 
extricate him from eclipse); bywhich you defended Mandha_ta_ in (the discharge 
of) his soverign functions, and by whcih you protected thesage Bharadva_ja; with 
them, As'vins, come willingly hither. [Mandha_ta_ was a ra_jar.s.i, a royal 
sage.Ma_ndha_tra_ is a celebrated prince of the solar dynasty (Vis.nu Pura_n.a, 
363); ks.etrapati = lord, either offields or of the earth. Bharadva_ja, vipra = 
bra_hman.a, medha_vin, wise (Vis.nu Pura_n.a 449)].  

 1.112.14 With those aids by which you defended the mighty and hospitable 
Divoda_sa, (when, havingundertaken) the death of S'ambara, he hid himself in the 
water (through fear of the asuras); by which youprotected Trasadasyu in war; 
with them, As'vins, come willingly hither. [Divoda_sa was a king (Vis.n.u 
Pura_n.a,407); he is called atithigva, the cherisher of guests (atithi); 
Trasadasyu was the son of Purukutsa (Vis.n.uPura_n.a)].  

 1.112.15 With those aids by which you preserved Vamra, praised by all around 
him, when drinking (the dews ofthe earth); by which you protected Kali when he 
had taken a wife, and Pr.thi,when had lost his horse; with them,As'vins, come 
willingly hither. [Vamra was a r.s.i, the son of Vikha_nas;he is called 
vipipa_nam, drinking muchand variously, earthly moisture or dew, pa_rthivam 
rasam. Kali was a r.s.i and Pr.thi was a ra_jar.s.i].  

 1.112.16 With those aids, leaders (of sacrifices), which you afforded to S'ayu, 
to Atri, and formerly to Manu,anxious (to show them) the way (to escape from 
evil); with those by which you shot arrows (upon the foes) ofSyu_maras'mi; with 
them, As'vis, willingly come hither. [ga_tum is.athuh, you wishem to go (out of 
evil or danger).Manu was a ra_jar.s.i, whom the As'vins extricated from want, by 
teaching him the art of sowing seeds of barleyand other grains. Syu_maras'mi was 
a r.s.i].  

 1.112.17 WIth those aids by which Paddarvan shone with with strngth of orm in 
battle, like a blazing fire piled up(with fuel); by which you defended S'arya_ta 
in war; with them, As'vins, come willingly hither. [Paddarvan was ara_jar.s.i; 
S'arya_ta = S'arya_ti, fourth son of Vaivasvata Manu (Vis.n.u Pura_n.a)].  

 1.112.18 An:giras, (prise the As'vins); As'vins, with those aids by which, with 
(gratified) minds, you delight (inpraise), and thence preceded the gods to the 
cavern, to recover the stolen cattle; by which you sustained theheroic Manu with 
food; with them, As'vins, come willingly hither. [Sustained Manu: By making him 
aware of thegrain hidden in the earth, or teaching him, in fact, agriculture].  

 1.112.19 With those aids by which you gave a wife to Vimada, by which you 
recovered the ruddy kine, by whichyou conferred excellent wealth upon Suda_s; 
with them, As'vins, come willingly hither. [Purumitra's daughter wasobtained as 
a wife for the r.s.i Vimada; Suda_s: name of a king, son of Pijavana. Paijavana, 
son of Pijavana isnoted (Manu, 8.110)].  

 1.112.20 With those aids by which you are bestowers of happiness upon the donor 
(of oblations), by which youhave protected Bhujyu and Adhrigu, and by which you 
have granted delighting and nourishing (food) toRitastubh; with them. As'vins, 
come willingly hither. [Adhrigu was a sacrificer, immolator, along with Capa, of 
thegods: adhrigus capas ca deva_na_m s'amita_rau (Taittiri_ya Bra_hman.a; R.tastubh was a r.s.i].  

 1.112.21 With those aids by which you defended Kr.s'a_nu in battle, with which 
you succoured the horse of theyoung Purukutsa in speed, and by which you deliver 
the pleasant honey to the bees; with them, As'vins, comewillingly hither. 
[Kr.s'a_nu are somapa_las, vendors or providers of Soma; hasta-suhasta-
kr.s'a_navah, te vahsomakrayan.ah (Taittiri_ya Sam.hita_ 1.2.7); kr.s'a_nu = 
agni; purukutsa was the son of Mandha_ta_ andhusband of Narmada_, the river; the 
text has only 'of the young', Purukutsa is added].  

 1.112.22 With those aids by which you succoured the worshipper contending in 
war for cattle, by which youassist him in the acquisition of houses and wealth, 
by which you preserve his chariots and horses; with them,As'vins, come willingly 

 1.112.23 With those aids by which you, who are worshipped in many rites, 
protected Kutsa, the son of Arjuna, aswell as Turviti, Dhabhiti, Dhvasant, and 
Purus'anti; with them, As'vins, come willingly hither. [S'atakratu, Indra, heto 
whom many rites are addressed, or by whom many acts are performed (here applied 
to the As'vins); Purus'antiwas a r.s.i].  

 1.112.24 As'vins, sanctify our words with works; showerers (of benefits), 
subduers of foes (invigorate) ourunderstandin g(for the sacred study); we invoke 
you both, in the last watch of the night, for our preservation; beto us for 
increase in the provision of food. [adyu_tye, in the absense of light, i.e. in 
the last watch of the night, orthat preceding the dawn, at which time, according 
to A_s'vala_yana S'rauta Su_tra, the As'vins are especially tobe worshipped].  

 1.112.25 Cherish us, As'vins, always, by night or day, with undiminished 
blessings; and may Mitra, Varun.a,Aditi--ocean, earth and heaven, be favourable 
to this our (prayer). 


 1.113.01 This most excellent luminary of all luminaries has arrived; the 
wonderful and diffusive manifester (of allthings) has been born; in like manner 
as night is the offspring of the sun, so she becomes the birth-place of thedawn. 
[In like manner as the night: When the sun sets, the night comes on; or, it is 
generated by the setting of thesun, and may, figuratively be termed offspring of 
the sun; as the precursor, the night is termed the parent, orwomb of the dawn].  

 1.113.02 The white-shining dawn, the parent of the sun, has arrived; dark night 
has sought her own abode; bothallied to the same (sun), immortal, succeeding to 
each other, and mutually effacing each other's complexion, theytraverse the 
heavens. [Parents of the sun: dawn precedes, and, therefore, figuratively bears, 
or is the parent ofthe sun].  

 1.113.03 The path of the sisters is unending; they travel it alternately, 
guided by the radiant (sun); combined inpurpose, though of different forms, 
night and dawn, giving birth (to all things), obstruct not eachother, neither 
dothey stand still.  

 1.113.04 Brilliant guide of the speakers of truth, the many-tinted dawn, is 
recognized by us; she has opened ourdoors; having illuminated the world, she has 
made our riches manifest. Us.a_s gives back all the regions (thathad been 
swallowed up by night). [Brilliang guide of the speakers of truth: upon the 
appearance of the dawn, theanimals and birds utter their true, or natural, 

 1.113.05 The opulent (dawn) arouses to exertion the man bowed down in sleep--
one man to enjoyments, anotherto devotion, another to (the acquisition of) 
wealth; she has enabled those who were almost sightless to seedistinctly. The 
expansive Us.as has given back all the regions.  

 1.113.06 The dawn rouses one man to acquire wealth, another to earn food, 
another to achieve greatness,another to sacrifices, another to his own 
(pursuits), another to activity, and lights all men to their various meansof 
maintaining life. Us.a_s has given back all the regions.  

 1.113.07 The daughter of heaven, young, white-robed, the mistress of all 
earthly treasure, is beheld dissipatingthe darkness. Auspicious Us.a_s,shine 
upon us today in this (hall of sacrifice).  

 1.113.08 Following the path [pa_thontariks.am (Nirukta 6.7)] of the mornings 
that have passed, and first of theendless mornings that are to come, Us.a_s, the 
disperser of darkness, arouses living beings, and awakens everyone (that day) as 

 1.113.09 Us.a_s, inasmuch as you have caused the sacred fire to be kindled, 
inasmuch as you have lighted theworld with the light of the sun, inasmuch as you 
have wakened men to perform sacrifice, you have done goodservice to the gods.   

 1.113.10 For how long a period is it that the dawns have risen? for how long a 
period will they rise? still desirousto bring us light, Us.a_s pursues the 
functions of those that have gone before, and, shining brightly, proceedswith 
the others (that are to follow).  

 1.113.11 Those mortals who beheld the pristine Us.a_s dawning have passed away; 
to us she is now visible,and they approach who may behold her in after times.  

 1.113.12 The beings hostile (to acts of devotion) now withdraw, for she is the 
protectress of sacred rites, who ismanifested for their performance; she is the 
giver of happiness, the awakener of pleasant voices, the enjoyer offelicity, and 
provider of food for the gods; most excellent Us.a_s dawn today on this 
(sacrificial hall). [ra_ks.asas,and other malignant spirits, vanish with the 

 1.113.13 The divine Us.a_s dawned continually in former times; the source of 
wealth, she still rises on this(world); so will she give light hereafter, 
through future days, for, exempt from decay or death, she goes on in 

 1.113.14 The divine Us.a_s lights up with her beams the quarters of the 
heavens; she has thrown off her gloomyform, and, awaking (those who sleep), 
comes in her car, drawn by purple steeds.  

 1.113.15 Bringing with her life-sustaining blessings, and giving consciousness 
(to the unconscious), she imparts(to the world) her wonderful radiance. The 
similitude of numerous dawns that have gone by, the first of the billiant(dawns 
that are to come), Us.a_s has today appeared.  

 1.113.16 Arise; inspiring life revives; darkness has departed; light 
approaches. Us.a_s has opened the road forthe sun to travel; let us repair to 
where they distribute food.  

 1.113.17 The offerer of praise, the reciter of praise, celebrating the 
brilliant Us.as, repeats the well-connectedwords (of the Veda). Possessor of 
affluence, dawn today upon him who praise you; bestow upon us food,whence 
progeny may be obtained.  

 1.113.18 May he who has offered the libation obtain, upon the conclusion of his 
praises, (enunciated), life thewind, (with speed), (the favour of) those Us.asas 
who are givers of horses, and of cattle, and of progeny, andwho shed light upon 
the mortal presenting to them (offerings).  

 1.113.19 Mother of the gods, rival of Aditi, illuminator of the sacrificer, 
mighty Us.a_s, shine forth; approving ofour prayer, dawn upon us. Do you, who 
are cherished by all, make us eminent among the people. [Mother of thegods: the 
gods are awakened at dawn by the worship they then receive, and hence the dawn 
may be saidfiguratively to be their parent (ma_ta_ deva_na_m), and in that 
character she is the enemy, or rival, of Aditi, whois their mother.  

 1.113.20 Whatever valuable wealth the Us.a_s convey is beneficial to the 
sacrificer and to the praiser. MayMitra, Varun.a, Aditi--ocean, earth, and 
heaven, be favourable to this our prayer. 


 1.114.01 We offer these praises to the mighty Rudra, with the braided hair, the 
destroyer of heroes, in order thathealth may be enjoyed by bipeds and 
quadrupeds, and that all being sin this villag may be (well) nourished andexempt 
from disease. [Rudra; he cause sall to weep (rodayati) at the end of the world; 
or rut, signifying pain, painof living, which Rudra drives away (dravayati); or, 
rut, may mean 'word or text or the upanis.ads of the vedas' bywhich he is 
approached or propitiated (druyate); or, rut, may mean 'holyor divine speech or 
wisdom' which heconfers (ra_ti) upon his worshippers; or, rut, may mean 
'darkness' that which invests of obstructs (runaddhi) allthings and which Rudra 
dissipates (vr.na_ti); or, while the gods were engaged in battle with the 
asuras, Rudra,identified with Agni, came and stole their treasure; after 
conquering the enemy, the gods searched for the stolenwealth, and recovered it 
from the thief, who wept (arudat), and Agni was thence called Rudra 
(Taittiri_yaSam.hita_ With braided hair: kapardine, fr. kaparda, 
jat.a_ of S'iva; hence, = jat.ilaya. S'iva is recognizedas Rudra; Destroyer of 
heroes: ks'yad vi_ra_ya, in whom heroes (vi_ra) perish (vinas'yanti); or,of whom 
theimperial (ks.ayantah pra_ptais'varyah) heroed (that is, the Maruts) are the 

 1.114.02 Be gracious to us, Rudra; grant us happiness, for we worship the 
destroyer of heroes with oblations;and, by your directions, Rudra, may we obtain 
that freedom from disease and exemption from dangers which ourprogenitor, Manu, 
bestowed upon us, (having obtained them form the gods).  

 1.114.03 Rudra, showerer (of benefits), may we obtain, through our worship of 
the gods, the favour of you, whoare the destroyer of heroes;come to our 
posterity, purposing to promote their happiness, while we, having oursons in 
safety, offer you oblations.  

 1.114.04 We invoke for our preservation the illustrious Rudra, the accomplisher 
of sacrifices, the tortuous, thewise; may he remove far from us his celestial 
wrath, for we earnestly solicit his favour. [The accomplisher ofsacrifice: 
yajn~asa_dham, i.e. sa_dhayitaram, he who makes the sacrifice well-desired or 
perfet: svis.t.am or suis.t.am; The tortuous: van:ku, he who goes crookedly].  

 1.114.05 We invoke, from heaven, with reverence, him who has excellent food, 
who is radiant, and has braidedhair, who is brilliant, and is to be ascertained 
(by sacred study), holding in his hands excellent medicaments;mayhe grant us 
health, defensive armour, and a (secure) dwelling. [Him who has excellent food: 
vara_ha, lit. aboar and one who has a hard body, like a boar; this is an 
abbrieviation of vara_ha_ra, fr. vara, good, anda_ha_ra, food].  

 1.114.06 This praise, the sweetest of the sweet, and cause of increase (to the 
reciter), is addressed to Rudra,the father of the Maruts; immortal Rudra, grant 
us food sufficient for mortals, and bestow happiness on me, myson, and my 
grandson. [Rudra, the father of the Maruts: 'After their birth from Diti, under 
the circumstances told inthe Pura_n.as (Vis.n.u Pura_n.a), they were behdl in 
deep affliction by S'iva and Pa_rvati as they were passingsportively along; the 
latter sid to the former, "If you love me, transform these lumps of flesh into 
boys". Mahes'aaccordingly made them boys of like form, like age, and similarly 
accoutered, and gave them to Pa_rvati, as hersons, whence they are called the 
sons of Rudra.'  Hence, maruts are the sons of Rudra. Another legend:Pa_rvati, 
hearing the lamentations of Diti, entreated S'iva to give the shapeless births, 
forms, telling them not toweep (ma_ rodih); another, that he actually begot 
them, in the form of a bull, on Pr.thivi_, the earth, as a cow].  

 1.114.07 Injure not, Rudra, those amongst us who are old or young, who are 
capable of begetting, or who arebegotten, nor a father, nor a mother, nor 
afflict our precious persons.  

 1.114.08 Harm us not, Rudra, in our sons or grandsons, or other male 
descendants, nor in our cattle, nor in ourhorses; inflamed with anger, kill not 
our valiant men, for we, presenting clarified butter perpetually invoke you.   

 1.114.09 I restore to you the praises (derived from you), as a shepherd 
(returns his sheep to their owner); fatherof the Maruts, bestow happiness upon 
me; your auspicious benignityis the cause of successive delight, thereforewe 
especially solicit your protection.  

 1.114.10 Destroyer of heroes, may your cow-killing or man-slaying (weapon) be 
far away, and let the felicitygranted by you be ours; favour us; speak, 
brilliant hero, in our behalf, and grant us, you who are mighty over thetwo 
(realms of heaven and earth), prosperity.  

 1.114.11 Desirous of protection, we have said: reverence be to him; may Rudra, 
with the Maruts, hear ourinvocation; and may Mitra, Varun.a, Aditi--ocean, earth 
and heaven, be favourable to this (our prayer). 


 1.115.01 Thewonderful hostof rays has risen; th eye of Mitra, Varun.a and Agni; 
the sun, the soul of all thatmoves or is immoveable, has filled (with his glory) 
the heaven, the earth, and the firmament. [Agni: ca_ks.us = theenlightener. 
Mitra, Varun.a and Agni are typical of the world, or of the seasons, perhaps, 
over which they preside.a_tma_ jagatah = the soul of the world, fr. his 
pervading and animating all things; jagatah, of what is moveable;tathus.ah, of 
that which is fixed. The sun is the cause of all effects, whether moveableor 
immoveable: sa hisarvasya stha_varajan:gama_tmakasya ka_ryavargasya ka_ran.am].  

 1.115.02 The sun follows the divine and brilliant Us.a_, as a man (follows a 
young and elegant) woman; at whichseason, pious men perform (the ceremonies 
established for) ages, worshipping the auspicious (sun), for the sakeof good 
(reward). [Ages: yuga_ni, also meaning 'yokes for ploughs'; at this season 
(dawn), men seeking topropitiate the gods by the profit which agriculture 
yields, equip their ploughs, or engage in the labours of thefield].  

 1.115.03 The auspicious, swift horses of the sun, well-limbed, road-traversing, 
who merit to be pleased withpraise, revernced byus, have ascended to the summit 
of the sky, and quickly circumambulate earth and heaven.  

 1.115.04 Such is the divinity, such is the majesty of the sun, that when he has 
set, he has withdrawn (intohimself) the diffused (light which had been shed) 
upon the unfinished task; when he has unyoked his coursersfrom his car, then 
night extends the veiling darkness over all. [Diffused upon the unfinished task: 
madhyakartor-vitatam, spread in the middle of the affair (Nirukta 4.11); i.e. 
the cultivator, or artisan, desists from hislabour, although unfinished, upon 
the setting of the sun.  

 1.115.05 The sun, is the sight of Mitra and Varun.a, displays his form (of 
brightness) in the middle of theheavens, and his rays extend, on one hand, his 
infinite and brilliant power, or, on the other, (by their departure),bring on 
the blackness of night. [Mitra and Varun.a, by metonymy, refer to the world. His 
rays: haritah, may alsomean his horses].  

 1.115.06 This day, gods, with the rising of the sun, deliver us from heinous 
sin; and may Mitra, Varun.a,Aditi--ocean, earth and heaven, be favourable to 
this (our prayer). 


 1.116.01 In like manner as a worshipper strews the sacred grass for the 
Na_satyas, so do I urge on theirlaudations, as the wind drives on the clouds; 
they, who gave a bride to the youthful Vimada, and bore her awayin their car, 
outstripping the rival host. [Vimada having won his bride at Svayamvara, or 
choice of a husband by aprincess, was stopped on his way home by his 
unsuccessful competittors, when the As'vins came to his succour,and placed the 
bride in their chariot, repulsed the assailants, and carried the damsel to th 
eresidence of theprince.  

 1.116.02 Na_satyas,borne by strong and rapid (steeds), and (urged) by the 
encouragements of the gods, the assof you, thus instigated, overcame a thousand 
(enemies) in conflict, in the war grateful to Yama. [The ass: An ass(ra_sabha) 
given by Praja_pati. The chariot of the As'vins is drawn by two asses 
(ra_sabhavas'vinoh) (Nighan.t.u 

 1.14); or, it may mean, 'one going swiftly', and the rest of the passage, 
'obtained precedence for the As'vins overother gods in the oblation, through his 
mastering the stanzas declared by Praja_pati'].  

 1.116.03 Tugra, verily, As'vins, sent (his son) Bhujyu to sea, as a dying man 
parts with his riches; but youbrought him back in vessels of your own, floating 
over the ocean, and keeping out the waters. [Tugra was afriend of the As'vins; 
he was annoyed by enemies residing in a different island. He sen this son Bhujyu 
againsthtem, with an army on board a ship; after sailing some distance, the 
vessel foundered in a gale. Bhujyu appliedto the As'vins, who brought him an 
dhis troops back in their own ships, in three days' time].  

 1.116.04 Threenights, and three days, Na_satyas, have you conveyed Bhujyu in 
three rapid, revolving cars,having a hundred wheels, and drawn by six horses, 
along the dry bed of the ocean to the short of the sea.  

 1.116.05 this exploit you achieved, As'vins, in the ocean, where there is 
nothing to give support, nothing to restupon,nothing to cling to, that you 
brought Bhujyu, sailing in a hundred-oared ship, to his father's 
house.[s'ata_ritram na_vam = a ship with a hundred, i.e., with many oars].  

 1.116.06 As'vins, the white horse you gave to Pedu, whose horses were 
indestrucible, was ever to him success;that, your precious gift, is always to be 
celebrated; the horse of Pedu, the scatterer (of enemies), is always to 
beinvoked. [Pedu was a ra_jar.s.i, who worshipped the As'vins; therefore, they 
gave him a white horse, possessingwhich, he was always victorious over his 

 1.116.07 You gave, leaders (of sacrifice), to Kaks.i_vat, of the race of Pajra, 
various knowledge; you filled fromthe hoof of your vigorous steed, as if from a 
cask, a hundred jars of wine. [Pajras = An:giras; Kaks.i_vat was adescendant of 
this family].  

 1.116.08 You quenched with cold (water) the blazing flames (that encompassed 
Atri), and supplied him withfood-supported strength; you extricated him, 
As'vins, from the dark (cavern) into which he had been thrownheadlong and 
restored him to every kind of welfare.  

 1.116.09 Na_satyas, you raised up the well, and made th ebase, which had been 
turned upwards, the curvedmouth, so that the water issued for the beverage of 
the thirsty Gotama, the offerer. [Water issued: Related to theMaruts; describes 
the manner in which the well was presented to Gotama].  

 1.116.10 Na_satyas, you stripped off from the aged Cyavana his entire skin, as 
if it had been a coat of mail; youreversed, Dasras, the life of the sage who was 
without kindred, and constituted him the husband of manymaidens. [In Vana Parva, 
Maha_bha_rata, Cyavana is the son of Bhr.gu and was engaged inpenance near 
theNarmada_ river until the white ants constructed their nests round his body, 
and left only his eyes visible.Sukanya_, the daughter of Kinga S'arya_ti, having 
come to the place, and seeing two bright spots in whatseemed to be an ant-hill, 
pierced them with a stick; the sage visited the offence upon S'arya_ti and 
hisattendants, and was appeased only by the promise of the king to give him his 
daughter in marriage.Subsequently, the As'vins, coming to his hermitage, blessed 
Sukanya_s union, with so old and ugly a husbandas Cyavana. Admiring her 
fidelity, they bestowed on the sage a condition of youth and beauty like their 
own.Cyavana is jahita, abandoned; i.e. by sons, and others (putra_dibhih 
parityakta); an allusion, perhaps, to hissolitary condition as an ascetic. In 
return for heir friendly office, Cyavana compelled Indra to assent to the 
As'vins,receiving at sacrifices a share of the Soma].  

 1.116.11 Na_satyas, leaders, glorious was that exploit of yours, one to be 
celebrated, to be adored, to be desiredby us, when, becoming aware (of the 
circumstance), you extricated Vandana_, (hidden), like a concealedtreasure, from 
the (well) that was visible (to travellers). [dars'ata_t, well, i.e. that which 
was to be seen by thirstytravellers].  

 1.116.12 I proclaim, leadeers (of sacriifce), for the skae of acquiring wealth, 
that inimitable deed which youperformed, as the thunder (announces) rain, when 
provided by you with the head of a horse. Dadhyan~c, theson of Atharvan, taught 
you the mystic science. [Legend: Vana Parva, Maha_bha_rata: gods, being 
oppressedby the Ka_lakeya asuras, solicited from the sage Dadhica his bones, 
which he gave them, and from whichTvas.t.a_ fabricated the thunderbolt with 
which Indra slew Vr.tra and routed the asuras. The text: Indra, havingtaught the 
science called pravargya vidya_ and madhu-vidya_ to Dadhyan~c, threatened that 
he would cut offhis head if ever he taught them to any one else; the As'vins 
prevailed upon him, nevertheless, to teach them theprohibited knowledge, and, to 
evade Indra's threat, took off the head of the sage, replacing it by that of a 
horse;Indr, apprised of Dadhyan~c's breach of faith, sturck off his equine head 
with the thunderbolt; on which, theAs'vins restored to him his own. The 
pravargya vidya_ is said to imply certain verses of the r.k, yajur and 
sa_mavedas, and the madhu-vidya_ the Bra_hman.a].  

 1.116.13 The intelligent (Vadhrimati) invoked you. Na_satyas, who are the 
accom;ishers (of desires) and theprotectors of many, with a sacred hymn; her 
prayer was heard, like (the instruction of) a teacher, and you,As'vins, gave to 
the wife of an impotent husband, Hiran.yahasta, her son. [Vadrimati was the wife 
of a certainra_jar.s.i, who was im\potent. The As'vins, propitiated by her 
prayers, gave her a son].  

 1.116.14 Na_satyas, leaders, you liberated the quail from the mouth of the dog 
that had seized her, and you, whoare the benefactors of many, have granted to 
the sage who praises you, to behold (true wisdom). [The dog:vr.ka, a wolf, here 
equated with a s'va_n, a dog. Figuratively, vr.ka is A_ditya,t he sun, from 
whose grasp orover-powering radiance, the As'vins are said to have rescued the 
dawn, upon her appeal to them].  

 1.116.15 The foot of (Vispala_, the wife of) Khela, was cut off, like the wing 
of a bird, in an engagement by night;immediately you gave her a metallic leg, 
that she might walk, the hidden treasure (of the enemy being the objectof the 
conflict). [Khela was a king; Agastya was his purohita. Through his prayers the 
As'vins gave Vis'ala_ ametallic leg].  

 1.116.16 When his father caused,R.jra_s'va_, as he was giving to a she-wolf a 
hundred sheep cut up in pieces,to become blind, you, Dasras, physicians (of the 
gods), gave him eyes (that had been) unable to find their way,with which he 
might see. [R.jra_s'va was one of the sons of Vr.s.a_gir; a she-wolf: vr.ka_ was 
one of the asses ofthe As'vins in disguise, to test his charitable disposition; 
but, as he exacted the sheep from the people, his fatherwas angry, and caused 
him to lose his eyesight, which the As'vins restored to him].  

 1.116.17The daughter of the sun ascended your car, (like a runner) to a goal; 
when you won (the race) with yourswift horse, all the gods looked on with 
(anxious hearts), and you, Na_satyas, were associated with glory.[Su_rya was 
desirous of giving his daughter Su_rya to Soma, but all the gods desired her as 
a wife; they agreedthat he who should first reach the sun, as a goal should wed 
the damsel. The As'vins were victorious, andSu_rya, well pleased by their 
success, rushed immediately into their chariot].  

 1.116.18 When, As'vins, being invited, you went to his dwelling (to give due 
rewards) to Divoda_sa, offeringoblations, then your helping chariot conveyed 
(food and) treasure, and the bull and the porpoise were yokedtogether. [The bull 
and the porpoise: the Vr.s.abha and S'im.s'uma_ra. The latter is a graha, which 
is properly analligator; but the s'im.s'uma_ra is a gangetic porpoise; they were 
yoked to the car of the As'vins, to display theirpower].  

 1.116.19 Na_satyas, bearing strength and wealth with posterity and vigour-
sustaining food, you came, with oneintention, to the family of Jahnu, (provide) 
with (sacrificial) viands, and possessing a third portion of the 
daily(offerings). [Family of Jahnu: ja_hnavi_, an adjective of praja_, progeny 
(jahnoh praja_m). Jahnu is a Mahar.s.i;he is a prince of the lunar dynasty].  

 1.116.20 Undecaying Na_satyas, you bore away by night, in your foe-overwhelming 
car, Ja_hus.a, surroundedon every side by (enemies), through practicable roads, 
and went to (inaccessible) mountains. [Ja_hus.a: thename of a king].  

 1.116.21 You preserved Vas'a, As'vins, (that he might obtain) in a single day a 
thousand acceptable gifts;showerers (of benefits), associated with Indra, you 
destroyed the malignant enemies of Pr.thus'ravas. [Vas'a, ar.s.i, received daily 
presents to the number of one thousand].  

 1.116.22 You raised the water from the bottom to the top of the well, for the 
drinking of S'ara, the son of R.citka,and by your powers, Na_satyas, you filled, 
for the sake of the weary S'ayu, the barren cow (with milk). [S'ara =A_rcitka, 
son of R.citka].  

 1.116.23 Na_satyas, by your acts you restored to Vis'vaka, the son of Kr.s.n.a, 
soliciting your protection, adoringyou, and a lover of rectitude, hs son 
Vis.n.a_pu, (welcome) to his sight as an animal that has been lost. 
[Kr.s.n.a,Vis'vaka and Vis.n.a_pu were r.s.is].  

 1.116.24 As'vins, you raised up, like Soma in a ladle, Rebha, who for ten 
nights and nine days, had lain (in awell), bound with tight bonds, wounded, 
immersed, and suffering distress form the water.  

 1.116.25 Thus, As'vins, have I declared your exploits; may I become the master 
(of this place), having abundantcattle and a numerous progeny, and retaining my 
sight, and enjoying a long life; may I enter into old age, as (amaster enters) 
his house. 


 1.117.01 As'vins for your gratification by the pleasant Soma, your ancient 
worshipper adores you; the offering ispoured upon the sacred gras, thehymn is 
ready (for repetition); come, Na_satyas, with food and with vigour.  

 1.117.02 With that car, As'vins, which, rapid as thought, drawn by good horses, 
appears before men, andwithwhich you repair to the dwelling of the virtuous, 
come, leaders of (sacrifice), to our abode.  

 1.117.03 You liberated, leaders (of rites), the sage Atri, who was venerated by 
the five classes of men from thewicked prison, together with his troop (of 
children), destroying his enemies and baffling, showerers (of benefits),the 
devices of the malignant Dasyus.  

 1.117.04 Leaders (of sacrifice), showerers (of benefits), you restored Rebha, 
cast by unassailable (enemies) intothe water, and wounded, like a (sick) horse, 
by your (healing) skill; your ancient exploits do not fade (fromrecollection).  

 1.117.05 You extricated, Dasras, the sage (Vandana_) cast into a well, like a 
handsome and splendid ornamentdesigned for embellishment, and (lying) As'vins, 
like one sleepin gon the lap of the earth or like the sundisappearing in 

 1.117.06 That (exploit) of yours, leaders (of sacrifice), is to be celebrated, 
Na_satyas, by Kaks.i_vat, of the raceof Pajra, when you filled for the 
(expectant) man a hundred vases of sweet (liquors) from the hoof of your 

 1.117.07 You restored, leaders (of sacrifices), Vis.n.a_pu (his lost son) to 
Vis'vaka, the son of Kr.s.n.a, when hepraised you; you bestowed, As'vins, a 
husband upon Ghos.a_, growing old and tarrying inher father's dwelling.[Ghos.a_ 
was the daughter of Kaks.i_vat; she was a leper, and therefore, unfit to be 
married; but when advancedin years, she prayed to the As'vins, who healed her 
leprosy and restored her to youth and beauty, so that sheobtained a husband].  

 1.117.08 You gave, As'vins, a lovely bride to S'ya_va_; you gave sight to 
Kan.va, unable to see his way;showerers (of benefits), the deed is to be 
glorified by which you gave hearing to the son of Nr.s.ad. [S'ya_va, ar.s.i, had 
the black leprosy, but was cured of it by the As'vins, and consequently married. 
The son of Nr.s.ad is ar.s.i].  

 1.117.09 As'vins, who assume many forms, you gave to Pedu a swift horse, the 
bringer of a thousand(treasures), powerful, irresistible, the destroyer of foes, 
the object of praise, the bearer (over dangers).  

 1.117.10 Liberal givers, these your exploits are to be celebrated, and the 
resounding prayer propitiates you whileabiding in heaven and earth; when the 
descendants of Pajra invite you, As'vins, come with food, and grantstrength to 
the sage (who worships you).  

 1.117.11 As'vins, glorified by the praises of the son (of the jar), and giving 
food, nourishers (of men), to the sage(Bharadva_ja), exalted by Agastya 
withprayer, you restored Na_satyas, Vis.pala_. [The son of the jar: sunu =son; 
kubha_t prasuta, i.e. Agastya; vipra_ya = Bharadva_ja_ya r.s.aye].  

 1.117.12 Wither were you going, sons of heaven, showerers (of benefits), when, 
on your way to the dwellingofKa_vya, (to receive his) adoration, you raised up 
(Rebha), As'vins, on the tenth day, like a buried vessel full ofgold?  

 1.117.13 You rendered, by your power, As'vins, the aged Cyavana again young; 
the daughter of the sun,Na_satyas, invested your chariot with beauty.  

 1.117.14 Dissipators of affliction, as you were praised with former praises by 
Tugra, so were you again adored(by him), when you brought Bhujyu safe from the 
tossing ocean with swift ships and rapid horses. [vibhih = swiftnaubhih 

 1.117.15 Th sun of Tugra, brought back by you, As'vins, (to his father), 
glorified you whenhe ahd crossed theocean in safety, and you bore him, showerers 
(of benefits), with your well-harnessed car, swift as thought, tosafety.  

 1.117.16 The quail glorified you, As'vins, when you saved her from the mouth of 
the wolf; you carried off(Ja_hus.a) to the top of the mountain in your 
triumphant chariot; and slew the son of Vis.va_n~c with a poisoned(arrow). 
[Vis.va_n~c is an asura,  The text has, 'whose son you killed with poison'; a 
poisoned arrow is implied].  

 1.117.17 You restored eyes to R.jra_s'va, who, on presenting a hundred sheep to 
the she-wolf, had beencondemned to darkness by his indignant father, and gave 
light to the blind, wherewith to behold all things.  

 1.117.18 (Desiring) that the enjoyment (arising from the perfection) of the 
senses (should be restored to theblind), the she-wolf invoked you, (saying), 
"As'vins, showerers (of benefits), leaders (of sacrifices), R.jra_s'va,(lavish) 
as a youthful gallant, (has given me) a hundred and one sheep, cutting them into 

 1.117.19 As'vins, your powerful protection is the source of happiness; worthy 
of laudation, you have made wholethe maimed; therefore, has the intelligent 
(Ghos.a_) called upon you; showerers (of benefits) come hither withyour 

 1.117.20 Dasras, you fille dthe milkless, barren, and emaciated cow of S'ayu 
with milk; you brought, by yourpowers, the daughter of Purumitra, as a wife, of 
Vimada. [Purumitra was a ra_ja_].  

 1.117.21 As'vins, causing the barley to be sown (in the fields that had been 
prepared) by the plough; milking (theclouds) for the sake of Manu; destroying 
the Dasyu with the thunderbolt; you have bestowed brilliant light uponthe A_rya. 
[A_rya_ya: vidus.e, to the sage, that is to Manu; Manus.a = Manu].  

 1.117.22 You replaced, As'vins, with the head of a horse, (the head of) 
Dadhyan~c, the son of Atharvan, and,true to his promise, he revealed to you the 
mystic knowledge which he had learned from Tvas.t.a_, and whichwas as a ligature 
of the waist to you. [Tvas.t.a_ = Indra; the knowlege was kaks.yam. va_m = a 
girdle to youboth; strengthening them to perform religious rites].  

 1.117.23 Sapient As'vins, I ever solicit your favour; protect all my religious 
duties, and grant, Na_satyas,abundant and excellent wealth, together with 

 1.117.24 Liberal As'vins, leaders (of sacrifices), you gave to Vadhr.mati her 
son Hiran.yahasta; bounteousAs'vins, you restored to life the triply-mutilated 
S'ya_va. [S'ya_va was cut into three pieces by the asuras; thepieces were 
reunited into one by the As'vins].  

 1.117.25 These, your ancient exploits, As'vins, our forefathers have 
celebrated, and we offer adoration to you,showerers (of benefits) repeating your 
praises, accompanied by our dependants. 


 1.118.01 May your elegant and rich car, swift as a hawk, come, As'vins, to our 
presence, fo rit as quick as themind of man, surmounted, showerers (of benefits) 
by three columns, and rapid as the wind.  

 1.118.02 Come to us with your tri-columnar, triangular, three-wheeled, and 
well-constructed car; replenish ourcows (with milk), give spirit to our horses, 
and augment, As'vins, our posterity.  

 1.118.03 Dasras (having come) with your quick-moving well-constructed car, hear 
this hymn, (recited by one)who reveres you; do not the ancient sages say that 
you are most prompt, As'vins, (to avert) poverty from theworshipper?  

 1.118.04 May your quick-moving, prancing steeds, rapid as hawks, yoked to your 
car, bear you, As'vins, (hither),who, quick as (falling) water, like vultures 
flying through the air, convey you, Na_satyas, to the sacrifice.  

 1.118.05 Leaders (of sacrifice), the youthful daughter of Su_rya ascended, 
delighted, this your car; may yourstrong-bodied prancing, fleet, and shining 
horses, bring you near us.   

 1.118.06 By your deeds, Dasras, you raised up Vandana_, and, showerers (of 
benefits), Rebha; you bore theson of Tugra over the sea, and made Cyavana young.  

 1.118.07 You (gave relief) to the imprisoned Atri, (quenching the) scorching 
heat, and fed him with grateful food;solicitous of worthy praise, you gave sight 
of Kan.va, blinded (by darkness).  

 1.118.08 You filled his cow with milk, As'vins, for the ancient S'ayu, when 
imploring (yoru aid); you liberated thequail from danger; you gave a leg to 

 1.118.09 You gave to Pedu, As'vins, the white and foe-trampling steed which you 
had received from Indra,loud-neighing (in battle), defying enemies, high-
spirited, the acquirer of a thousand tresures, vigorous, and firm inbody.  

 1.118.10 Earnestly we call you, leaders (of the sacrifice), such (as you have 
been described), and who are wellborn, to our succour, soliciting, As'vins, 
wealth; contented with our laudations, come to us with your wealthy car,to brign 
us felicity.  

 1.118.11 Come to us, auspicious Na_satyas, with the fresh velocity of a hawk; 
bearing an oblation, I invoke you,As'vins, at the rising of the ever constant 


 1.119.01 Desiringfood, I invoke, (As'vins), to support my life, your wonderful 
car, swift as thought, drawn by fleethorses, worthy of veneration, many-
bannered, bringing rain, containing wealth, abundantly yielding delight, 
andconferring riches.  

 1.119.02 Upon its moving, our minds have been raised on high in praise; our 
hymns reach (the As'vins). Isweeten the oblation; the assistants come nigh; 
U_rja_ni, (the daughter of the sun), has ascended, As'vins, yourcar.  

 1.119.03 When devout and unnumbered (men), victorious in battle, mutually 
contending for wealth, cometogether, your car, As'vins, is perceived on its 
downward course, in which you bear excellent (treasure) to theworshipper.  

 1.119.04 You brought back to his ancestor (Bhujyu, who, borne by his own 
steeds, had perished), (but that yourescued him) with your self-harnessed 
horses, and sent showerers (o fbenefits), to his distant dwellign; and greatwas 
the succour whichit is know you rendered to Divoda_sa.  

 1.119.05 As'vins, your admirable (horses) bore the car which you had carnessed, 
(first) to the goal, for the sakeof honour, and the damsel, who was the prize, 
came through  affection, to you, and acknowledged your(husbandship), saying, 
"you are (my) lords".  

 1.119.06 You preserved Rebha from the violence around him; you quenched with 
snow, for Atri, the scorchingheat; you generated milk in the cow of S'ayu; and 
(by you) was Vandana_ endowed with prolonged life.  

 1.119.07 Skillful Dasras, you restored Vandana_, when debilitated by old age, 
as a (wheelwright repairs aworn-out) car; (moved) by his praises, you brought 
forth the sage (Va_madeva) from the womb; may your(glorious) deeds be 
(displayed) for him who in this place offers you worship. [Va_madeva, the sage, 
invoked theaid of the As'vins, whilst yet in his mother's womb].  

 1.119.08 You repaired to him who, aflicted by the abandonment of his own 
father, praised you from afar; henceyour prompt and wonderful succours have been 
wished to be at hand (by all). [Allusion is to Bhujyu, whom hisfather, Tugra, 
had abandoned, or rather, perhaps, was unable to succour].  

 1.119.09 That honey-seeking bee also murmured your praise; the son of Us;ij 
invokes you to the exhilaratin ofSoma; you conciliated the mind of Dadhyan~c, so 
that, provided with the head of a horse, he taught you (themystic science).  

 1.119.10 As'vins, you gave to Pedu the white (horse) desired by many, the 
breaker-through of combatants,shining, unconquerable by foes in battle, fit for 
every work; like Indra, the conquerer of men. 


 1.120.01 What praise may propitiate you, As'vins? who may give satisfaction to 
you both? how may an ignorant(man) pay fitting homage?  

 1.120.02 Thus may an ignorant man inquire the means of worshipping the all-
wise, for every (one) other (thanthe As'vins) is unknowing; they, the 
unconquered, quickly(show favour) to the man (who worships them).  

 1.120.03 We invoke you, who know all things; may you, who are omniscient, 
declare to us today the praise thatis acceptable; desirous of your presence, I 
reverence you, offering (oblations).  

 1.120.04 I invite not the gods immature (in wisdom), but you, Dasras; drink of 
the wonderful and strength-givingburnt-offering, and make us vigorous. [Pa_kya_ 
= to be ripened;not yet mature in wisdom,paktavyaprajn~a_nan].  

 1.120.05 Powerful is the hymn that was repeated by the son of Ghos.a_, and by 
Bhr.gu, and with which hymn theAn:girasas adore you; may the sage (kaks.i_vat), 
desirous (of food), obtain it abundantly. [Ghos.a_ =Suhasti].  

 1.120.06 Hear the song of the stumbling (blind man), for verily, As'vins, I 
glorify you, recovering my eyes (throughyou), who are protectors of good works 
[R.jra"sva = the blidn man].  

 1.120.07 You have been givers of great riches; you have again caused them to 
disappear; do you, who aredonors of dwellings, become our preservers; protect us 
from the felonous robber.  

 1.120.08 deliver us not, As'vins, to our enemies; never may our cows, who 
nourish us with their udders, strayfrom our houses, separated from their calves.  

 1.120.09 Those who adore you obtain (wealth) for the support of their friends; 
direct us to opulence, bestowingfood; direct us to food, associated with kine.  

 1.120.10 I have obtained, without horses, the car of the food-bestowing 
As'vins, and expect (to gain) by it much(wealth).  

 1.120.11 This (is he who has obtained you), wealth- bearing (car); augment (my 
prosperity); may the delightfulcar bear the Soma beverage (to the As'vins).  

 1.120.12 Now am I disdainful of sleep, and of the rich man who benefits not 
others, for both (the morning sleepand the selfish rich man) quickly perish. 


 1.121.01 When willIndra, the protector of men and granter of riches, listen to 
the praises thus (recited) of theAn:girasas, who are devoted to the gods? When 
he perceives the ministers of the master of the mansion, and isto be the object 
of worship in the sacrifice, he greatly exults.  

 1.121.02 He verily upholds the heaven; he, the brilliant, the leader of the 
(stolen) herd, pours forth the flowing(water), for the sake of food; the mighty 
Indra manifests himself after his own daughter (the dawn); he made thefemale of 
the horse unnaturally the mother of the cow. [Indra = the sun. In jest (?), 
Indra is said to have made amare bring forth a calf].  

 1.121.03 May he, illuminating the purple (dawn), listen to the invocation 
(addressed to him) of old, daily besowingwealth upon the race of An:giras; he 
has sharpened his fatal shaft; he has supported the heaven for the good ofmen, 
of quadrupeds, andbipeds.  

 1.121.04 In the exhilaration of the Soma, you have restored the celebrated herd 
of cattle, hidden (in the cave), forthe sake of sacrifice, (to the An:girasas); 
when, Indra, the threefold crest engages in combat, he opens the doorsof the 
tyrannical descendants of Manu [Threefold crest: elevated as a triple crest in 
the three worlds].  

 1.121.05 When your parents, (heaven and earth), theprotectors (of the world), 
brought the nutritious andinvigorating oblation to you, who are quick in act, 
and when they offered you the pure and precious milk of thecow. [The cow: i.e. 
the clarified butter of the oblations, from which the nutriment of all things 
proceeds, for theoblation ascends to the sun, by whom rain is engendered, from 
which springs corn, the support of living beings;when this has beendone, Indra 
opens the doors of the cave, and rescues the cattle, as described in 
thepreceding verse, with which this is connected].  

 1.121.06 Now is Indra manifested; may he, the over-comer (of his foes), grant 
us happiness,he, who shinesbrightly, like the sun of this dawn; may the 
excellent Soma, being sprinklled upon the placeof sacrifice with aladle, 
(exhilarate us), by whom, presenting the oblations we had prepared, it was 

 1.121.07 When the bright-edged hatchet is ready for its work, the directing 
priest is able to have the victim boundin the sacrifice; when Indra, you shine 
upon the days that are appropriated to sacred rites, then (successattends) upon 
the man who goes with his cart (for fuel), the driver (of cattle), or the active 
(shepherd). [Hatchet:vanadhiti, the weapon used to cut down the trees in the 
forest; pari rodhana_ goh: the phrase has no verb; it isexplained as: pasvi 
rodhana_ya yupe niyoja_ya, pari samartho bhavati, the priest, the adhvaryu, is 
competent forthe attachment of the animal to the stake. Alternative: vanadhiti = 
a collection of water (goh = water or rain; vana= meghama_la_, body of clouds, 
ready to rain); hence, Indra in the firmament is able to remove any impedimentto 
the shower. Upon the man who goes: anarvis'e pas'vis.e tura_ya = to the cartman 
to the cattle-driver, to thequick; explained as: abhimatam sidhyet = his wish 
may succeed; anarvis'e = cartman, 'he who goes to fetch fuelfrom the wood, in 
his cart'; pas'vis.e = the driver of cattle; tura_ya = active or quick; gopa_la 
= shepherd].  

 1.121.08 Send hither your horses, the quaffers of the exhilarating libation; 
overcome, warrior, the adversaryplundering us of our treasure; when they express 
with stones, for the increase (of your strength), the delightful,exhilarating, 
invigorating (Soma), to be overtaken by you, who are swifter than the wind.  

 1.121.09 You did hurl your metal bolt upon the quick-moving (asura), the swift 
destroyer of foes, that was brought(to you) by R.bhu from heaven; when you, who 
are worshipped by many, striking S'us.n.a, for the sake of Kutsa,did encompass 
him with numberless fatal (weapons). [Brought by R.bhu from heaven: divo 
a_ni_tam R.bhva_;R.bhu = Tvas.t.a_, fabricator of Indra's thunderbolt. S'us.n.a 
= drought; Indra removes drought for the benefit ofhis worshippers,by many drops 
of rain].  

 1.121.10 When the sun (had emerged) from the struggle with darkness, you did 
break, wielder of the thunderbolt,the cloud that had been his annoyance, and did 
under the well-fastened covering in which S'us.n.a hadenveloped him.  

 1.121.11 Then the vast, powerful, and immoveable earth and heaven animated you, 
Indra, to glorious needs, andyou did hurl down into the waters, with your 
mightythunderbolt, the everywhere-spreading and destroying Vr.tra.  

 1.121.12 Indra, friend of man, mount the horses whom you cherish, who are fleet 
as the wind, are easily yoked,and who bear (theri burden) well; you have 
sharpened the foe-destroying thunderbolt, the slayer of Vr.tra, whichinspiring 
(weapon) Us'anas, the son of Kavi, gave you. [Which inspiring weapon: The weapon 
was the gift ofR.bhu;and is also attributed to Us'anas].  

 1.121.13 Stop, Su_ra, your yellow horses, for this Etas'a, Indra, drags the 
wheel; having driven those who offerno sacrifices to the opposite bank of the 
ninety rivers, you compel them (to do) what is to be done. [Su_ra =Indra, as the 
sun; etas'a = a horse of the sun; also the name of a R.s.i; ninety rivers = 
na_vya_na_m, ofnavigable rivers, or of such as must be crossed by a boat].  

 1.121.14 Indra, bearer of the thunderbolt, preserve us from this (poverty), 
that is so difficult to be destroyed, andfrom misfortune in war; grant us 
riches, conspicuous for chariots, remarkable for horses, for the sake of food, 
offame, and of truth.  

 1.121.15 Famous for affluence, Indra, never may your favour be withdrawn from 
us; may food ever sustain us;opulent Maghavan, make us possessors of cattle, and 
may we, most assiduous in your adoration, be happy,together (with our families).  


 Second As.t.aka Anuva_ka XVIII 

 1.122.01 Present, mild-tempered (priests), the sacrificial viands which you 
have prepared, to therewarm-showering Rudra. I praise him who, with his heroid 
(followers) as (with shafts) from a quiver, expelled (theasuras) from heaven; 
and (I praise) the Maruts, (who abide) between heaven and earth. [Mild-
tempered:raghu-manyavah,of light or little anger; fr. raghu = laghu, light and 
manyu = anger. The second pa_da: lit. 'I havepraised of the expeller from heaven 
with arrows as if from a quiver the Maruts of heaven and earth'].  

 1.122.02 Animated by our diversified praise, hasten, Morning and Night, to 
attend to our first invocation, as a wife(to the first call of her husband); and 
may the--Dawn, beautiful with the lustre of the (rising) Sun, and robbing 
likethe Sun (her) vast expanse with golden rays, (come to our early rite). 
[Stari_h = what covers or expands, smoke;the Sun invested or clothed with light, 
or destructive of foes: s'atru_n.a_m him.sakah tejasa_channo va_A_dityah].  

 1.122.03 May the circumambient divinity, the wearer of various forms, grant us 
delight; may the wind, theshedder of rain, grant us delight; do you, Indra and 
Parvata, sharpen our (intellects), and may all the gods showus favour. [Agni = 
vasarha_n, i.e. assuming various vestures (vasa) or forms (ga_rhapatya and other 
fires); or, asdestroyingthe vesture of the earth--the trees; or, as causing the 
revolutions of day and night].  

 1.122.04 Whenever I, the son of Us'ij, worship with my offerings (of food) 
those two (As'vins) who eat and drink(of oblations and libations) at (the 
season) of the world-whitening (dawn); do you, Priests, glorify the grandson 
ofthe waters (Agni), and render (the divinities of the day and night) the 
mothers (as it were) of the man who repeatstheir praise. [Trees and shrubs 
spring up from the moisture of the waters, and fire proceeds from 
timber;hence,Agni is the grandson of the waters; or son of the waters (Manu, IX. 

 1.122.05 I, the son of Us'ij, address to you (As'vins) audible praises, in like 
manner as Ghos.a_ praised you forthe removal of her white-tinted (skin); I 
glorify (gods) the bountiful Pu_s.an (associated) with you, and I proclaimthe 
munificence of Agni.  

 1.122.06 Mitra and Varun.a, hear these my invocations, and moreover listen to 
those (that are) everywhere(uttered) in the chamber of sacrifice; and may 
Sindhu, the renowned bestower of wealth, hear us, (fertilizing our)broad fields 
with water. [Sindhu: deity presiding over water, jala_bhima_ni devah].  

 1.122.07 I praise you, Mitra and Varun.a, for your gift of numerous cattle to 
the Pajra, and (from those praises)may abundant food (proceed). May (the gods), 
bestowing nourishment on me, come quickly unimpeded, (each)in his famous and 
favourite car. [Kaks.i_vat, of the family of Pajra; s'rutarathe priyarathe 
(mayi): 'on mepossessing a famous car'].  

 1.122.08 I laud the treasures of that opulent (assemblyof the gods); may we, 
men who (are blessed) withexcellent descendants, partake of them together; the 
assembly conferring upon the Pajras abundant food, hasbeen my benefactor, and 
has made me the master of horses and chariots. [mahimaghasya ra_dhas = the 
richesof that, or of him, who or which ispossessed of great wealth; i.e., deva-
san:gha, the assembly or company of thegods; the assembly: the text ahs: jano 
yah, the man who; yas'ca deva san:ghah, the assembly of the godswhich].  

 1.122.09 The mman who does you wrong, Mitra and Varun.a, who injures you in any 
way, who does not presentyou with oblations, contracts for himself sickness in 
his heart; but he who, performing worship, (celebrates it) withpraises. 
[aks.n.aya_ dhruk: cakren.a, ma_rgen.a druhyati, offends by a wheel, or a way; 
this is the equivalent ofanyatha_ prakaren.a, in another manner; yaks.mam 
hr.daye nidhatte:he places or deposits consumption in theheart; but yaks.ma = 
vya_dhi, sickness in general; a reference, perhaps, to the sense of 
mortificationexperienced by those who neglect the gods on observing the 
blessings which recompense devotion.  

 1.122.10 He, borne by well-trained horses, endowed with surpassing strength, 
renowned above men, munificentin gifts, moves a hero, ever undaunted in all 
combats, (even) against mightymen.  

 1.122.11 Royal bestowers of delight, listen to the invocation of (your) undying 
worshipper, and then come hither,that you who traverse the sky may be 
propitiated by the greatness of the (sacrificial) wealth presented to you bythe 
sacrificer, who acknowledges no other protector. [amr.tasya nahus.o havam sureh 
= a_hava_namamarn.asya stotra_diprerakasya manus.yasya mama, the invocation of 
me, a mortal, instigating praises and thelike, not dying. Alternative rendering: 
the invocation of the immortal (deity) by me, a mortal worshipper].  

 1.122.12 The gods have declared: we confer present vigour upon the worshipper 
(who invokes us) to partake ofthe (ibation). May all (the gods) in whom 
splendour and riches abound, bestow (abundant) food at (solemn)sacrifices. 
[das'ataya = a decade: food, by which the vigour of the ten senses is augment; 
or Soma offered in tenladles. Alternative rendering of the second pa_da:  May 
all the gods partake of the abundant food (or Soma) atthose sacrifices in which 
the priests are the distributors of the riches of copious libations].  

 1.122.13 We rejoice tha tfor the satisfaction of the ten (organs of sense), the 
(priests) bearing the twice five(ladles of) sacrificial food, proceed (to the 
altar). What can Is.t.as'va, (what can) Is.t.aras'mi, (what can) thosewho are 
now lords of the earth, achieve (with respect) to the leaders of men, the 
conquerors of their foes?[das'ataya = das'atayasya dha_se, i.e. the ten 
indriyas,or organs of sense; twice five: ten ladles by the Soma isthrown on the 
fire; or, the ten articles offered in sacrifices, such as honey,butter, curds, 
milk, water, grain, offeredto fire at the as'vamedha; whaat can those: what can 
the princes who are named, or any other princes, doagainst those who enjoy the 
protection of Mitra and Varun.a].  

 1.122.14 May all the gods favour us with a person decorated with golden 
earrings and jewel necklace; may thevenerable (company of the deities) be 
propitiated by the praises issuing (from the mouth of the worshipper); mayour 
offerings be acceptable to them, and (may they be pleased) with both (our 
praises and offerings). [arn.as =ru_pe, form; i.e., a son; may they be pleased 
with both = may they reward us in both worlds; the text has onlyubhayes.u, in 

 1.122.15 The four (silly) sons of Mas'ar's'a_ra, the three of the victorious 
monarch A_yavasa (annoy) me. Letyour spacious and bright-rayed chariot, Mitra 
and Varun.a, blaze (before them) like the sun (filling them with fear).[s'is'vah 
= s'is'avah, infant, i.e. infantile, childish]. 


 1.123.01 The spacious chariot of the graceful (dawn) has been harnessed; the 
immortal gods have ascended it;the noble and all-pervading Us.a_ has risen up 
from the darkness, bringing health to human habitations.[daks.in.a_ya_h = of the 
clever one; she who is skilled in her own function, svavya_pa_ra-kus'ala; 
bringinghealth: cikitsanti, healing, remedying the malady of darkness].  

 1.123.02 First of all the world is she awake, triumphing over transitory 
(darkness); the mighty, the giver (of light)from on high, she beholds (all 
things); ever youthful, ever reviving, she comes first to the invocation. 
[jayanti_va_jam: va_ja, moving, motive; the darkness that goes away with the 
dawn; or, food, producing food (annam vaiva_jah: S'atapatha Bra_hman.a, 
as the reward of the morning sacrifice].  

 1.123.03 Well-born and divine Us.a_, who are the protectress of mortals; 
whatever share (of light) you apportiontoday to men, may the radiant Savita_ 
bedisposed (to confirm) the gift, and declar us free from sin; so that (he)the 
sun (may come to our sacrificial hall). [bha_gam, a share (of light, 
praka_s'asya);or, a share of the offeringsto the gods; so that the sun may come: 
the text has only su_rya_ya, for the sake of the sun].  

 1.123.04 Ahana, charged with downward-bending (light), goes daily from house to 
house; she comes, perpetuallydiffusing light, and desirous of bestowing 
(benefits), and accepts the choicest portions of (the sacrificial)treasures. 
[ahana_ = us.a_(ahana_ dyotana_: Nirukta 1.8.11)].  

 1.123.05 Us.a_, endowed with truth, who are the sister of Bhaga, the sister of 
Varun.a, be you hymned first (ofthe gods); then let the worker of iniquity 
depart, for we shall overcome him with our chariot, through yourassistance.  

 1.123.06 Let words of truth be spoken; let works of wisdom (be performed); let 
the blazing fires rise up, so thatthe many radiant Us.a_ may make manifest the 
desirable treasures hidden by the darkness.  

 1.123.07 The twofold day proceeds unseparated; one (part going) forward, one 
backward; one of these twoalternating (periods) effects the concealment (of 
things); the dawn illumines them with her radiant chariot.[twofold day: day and 

 1.123.08 The same today, the same tomorrow, the irreproachable (dawn) precede 
the distant course of Varun.aby thirtyyojanas, and each in succession revolves 
in its (appointed) office. [Varun.a = sun, the remover ofdarkness, revolving 
daily round Mount Meru, the centre of the earth, performing a diurnal circuit of 
5,059 yojanas;the dawn being always 30 yojanas in advance of his rising, or 
first appearance frombehind the mountain in theeast,the period called dawn is 
reckoned from the disappearance of the stars to the appearance of the sun, and 
ismeasured, as to the duration, by 21 ghat.ika_s and 26 paras. Taking the 
ghat.ika_ at its lowest valuation of half aallotted to the dawn. The sun's daily 
journey equates to more than 20,000 miles, i.e. the equatorial circumferenceof 
the earth. According to the Pura_n.as, the sun travels, in a day of 30 muhurtas, 
or 60 ghat.ika_s, 94,500,000yojanas or 1,575,000 yojanas in one ghat.ika_. One 
ghat.ika_ is assigned to the sandhya, the morning twilight ordawn, and 3 
muhurtas or 2 hours 24 minutes, to the Pratar, or early morning (Bently, Hindu 
Astronomy, p. 185)].  

 1.123.09 The self-illumined dawn, announcing the declination of the first 
(portion) of the day, is bornwhite-shining out of the gloom; cleansing (with the 
radiance) of the sun, she impairs not his splendour, but dailyadds embellishment 
(to his lustre).  

 1.123.10 Goddess, manifest in person like a maiden, you go to the resplendent 
and munificent (sun), and, like ayouthful bride (beforeher husband), you 
uncover, smiling, yor bosom in his presence.  

 1.123.11 Radiant as a bride decorated by her mother, you willingly display your 
person to the view. Do you,auspicious Us.a_, remove the investing (gloom), for, 
other dawns than you do not disperse it.  

 1.123.12 Possessed of horses, possessed of cows, existing through all time, 
vying with the rays of the sun (indissipating darkness), auspicious dawns, 
sending down benefits (on mankind), pass away and again return.  

 1.123.13 Co-operating with the rays of the true (sun), confirm in us every 
propitious act; earnestly invoked byustoday, disperse, Us.a_, (the darkness), 
that wealth may devolve upon us, (already) affluent (in sacrificialtreasures). 


 1.124.01 When the (sacred) fire is kindled, Us.a_ sheds abundant light, 
dispersing (the darkness) like the risingsun; may the divine Savita_bestow upon 
usfor our use, wealth of both bipeds and quadrupeds. [For our use:ityatai, lit. 
= for going; i.e. for carrying on our own affairs].  

 1.124.02 Unimpeding divine rites, although wearing away the ages of mankind, 
the dawn shines the similitude ofthe (mornings) that have passed, or that are to 
be forever, the first of those that are to come. [unimpeding:aminati 
ahim.santi_, not injuring, not opposing, not unsuited to; being the fit season 
for performance].  

 1.124.03 She, the daughter of heaven, is beheld in the east, gracious and 
arrayed in light; she travels steadilyalong the path of the sun, as if cognizant 
(of his pleasure), and damages not the quarters (of the horizon).  

 1.124.04 She is beheld nigh at hand, (radiant) as the breast of the illuminator 
(the sun); and, like Nodhas, hasmade manifest many pleasing (objects); like a 
matron she awakens (her) sleeping (children), and of all (femaleswho are) 
stirring betimes, she, the most unvarying, repeatedly appears. [s'undhyuvo na 
vaks.as: s'undhyu = sun,the collective solar rays; s'undhyu = a water-bird of 
white colour; the morning light is compared to its whiteplumage; s'undhyuvah = 
pl. waters (Nirukta 4.16); Nodhas, the r.s.i, displays his wishes by his prayers 
andpraises, so the dawn puts forth the light that is accessible to all the 
world; admasad: adma, food or a dwelling;sad, who abides; the mistress of the 
house, or one who has to cook the food of her family; she rises with thedawn and 
wakes up the sleepers of the household].  

 1.124.05 Born in the eastern quarter of the spacious firmament, she displays a 
banner of rays of light. Placed onthe lap of both parents (heaven and earth), 
filling them (with radiance), she enjoys vast and wide-spread renown. 

 1.124.06 Verily she, the wide-expanded Us.a_, neglects not (to give) the joy of 
sight to those of her own or of adifferent nature; visible in her faultless 
person, and brightly shining, she passes not by the littleror the great.[aja_mim 
na parivr.n.akti ja_mim: ja_mi = saja_ti_ya, of the same species, i.e. of divine 
beings, the gods; aja_mi= notof the same species; vija_ti_ya, mankind; she 
passes not by: she lights up all things, from an atom to amountain].  

 1.124.07 She goes to the west, as (a woman who has) no brother (repairs) to her 
male (relatives); and like oneascending the hall (of justice) for the recovery 
of property, (she mounts in the sky to claim her lustre); and like awife 
desirous to please her husband, Us.a_ puts on becoming attire, and smiling as it 
were, displays her charms.[abhra_teva pum.sa eti prati_ci_ = as a damsel who has 
no brother, averted from her own abiding place (garta itigr.hana_ma, kr.daro 
gartah (Nirukta 3.4.3), goes to or relies upon her male relatives, pum.sah, for 
support; or itmay mean that she is in such case to offer the funeral cakes to 
her progenitors; prati_ci_, with face averted, asapplicable to Us.a_, means 
looking or going to the west; garta_rug iva sanaye dhana_na_m, like one 
whoascends (a_ruh, to mount) a house (garta-gr.ha) for the gift or receipt of 
riches; garta = stool or table on whichdice are thrown; there is a practice in 
the south, in which a childless widow seeks to obtain support from herhusband's 
relatives by repairing to a gambling-house; cf. Muller, Preface, 2nd vol. of the 
R.gveda,p. xvi].  

 1.124.08 The sister (night) has prepared a birth-place for her elder sister 
(day), and having amde it known to her,departs. Us.a_, dispersing the darkness 
with the rays of the sun, illumines the world, like congregated lightnings.  

 1.124.09 Of all these sisters who have gone before, a successor daily follows 
the one that has preceded. So maynew dawns, like the old, bringing fortunate 
days, shine upon us blessed with affluence.  

 1.124.10 Awaken, wealth-abounding, Us.a_, those whose delight (in holy 
offerings); let the (niggard) traders,reluctant wake (for such a purpose), sleep 
on. Arise, opulent Us.a_, bearing wealth to the liberal (worshipper);speaker of 
truth, who are the waster away (of living creatures), arise, bearing wealth to 
him who praises you.  

 1.124.11 This youthful Us.a_, approached from the east; she harnesses her team 
of purple oxen. Assuredly shewill disperse the darkness, a manifest sign (of 
day) in the firmament; the (sacred) fire is kindled in every dwelling.  

 1.124.12 At your dawning, (Us.a_), the various birds rise up from their nests, 
and men who have to earn theirbread (quit their homes). You bring, divine 
(Us.a_), much wealth to the liberal mortal who is present in thechamber (of 
sacrifice). [naras'ca pitubha_jah-anna_rthinah, seeking for food].  

 1.124.13 Praiseworthy Us.a_s, be glorified by this (my hymn); graciously 
disposed towards us, augment (ourprosperity); and may we obtain, goddesses, 
through your favour, wealth; a hundred and a thousand fold. 


 1.125.01 Having come in the early morning, (Svanaya) presents precious 
(wealth), knowing it (to be worthy ofacceptance); and having, (therefore), 
accepted it, (Kaks.i_vat) brings it (to his father); wherewith the parent 
ofexcellent sons, maintaining his progeny, passes his life in the enjoyment of 
affluence. [Legend: Kaks.i_vat,having finished his course of study, and taken 
leave of his preceptor, journeyed homewards. As he fell asleep bythe road-side, 
Ra_ja_ Svanaya, the son of Bha_vavyavya, attended by his retinue, came by and 
disturbed thebra_hman.a's slumber. Ra_ja_ was struck by Kaks.i_vat's personality 
and got the latter married to ten of hisdaughters, presenting him with a hundred 
nis.kas of gold, a hundred horses, a hundred bulls, one thousand andsixty cows 
and eleven four-horse-drawn-chariots (one each the wives and one for 
Kaks.i_vat). Kaksi_vatreturned home and presented the gifts to his father, 
Di_rghatamas. The hymn is a praise of the munificence ofSvanaya].  

 1.125.02 May he (the Ra_ja_) be rich in kine, in gold, in horses; may Indra 
grant abundant food to him whodelays you, returning home in the early morning, 
by costly gifts, as (a hunter arrests the) wandering (animals) byhis snares.  

 1.125.03 Desirous (of again beholding you), I have this day obtained you, who 
have done in the morning a gooddeed; the performer of a sacrifice with a wealth-
laden car, refresh yoursel fwiththe effused libation of theexhilarating (Soma), 
and augment with sincere prayers (the prosperity) of the chief of the 
flourishing race. [is.t.ehputram = lit. the son of sacrifice; putram = 
purutrataram, the much-protecting; or,  karta_ram, performer].  

 1.125.04 The copiously-yielding and joy-conferringkine, distil (their milk) for 
the celebration of the (Soma)sacrifice; and for him who has undertaken its 
celebration; the nutritious streams of butter coverage from everyquarter towards 
him, who both propitiates (his progenitors), and benefits (mankind). [pr.n.antam 
ca papurim- ca =agent who gives pleasure or who gives satisfaction; pr.n.antam 
is applied to the pitr.s, or progenitors (pitrampr.n.ayantam; papurm is applied 
to all living beings (pra_n.inah sarvada_ pr.n.ayantam purus.am)].  

 1.125.05 He who propitiates (the gods), gives to the gods, and sits at ease 
upon the summit of heaven; to himthe flowing waters bear their essence; to him 
this fertile (earth) ever yields abundance. [iyam daks.in.a_: by this,capable 
earth; bhu_mi, earth, that is able, daks.a, to bear crops].  

 1.125.06 These wonderful (rewards) verily are for those who give (pious) 
donations; for the donors of (pious)gifts the suns shine in heaven; the givers 
of (pious) donations attain immortality; the givers of (pious) gifts 
prolongtheir (worldly) existence. [ima_ni citra_, these wonders of these 
variegated things,which are personaldecorations-- garlands, sandal, jewels, 
pearls; daks.in.a_vata_m- daks.in.a_da_tr.n.a_m, of the givers ofdak.s.in.a_ or 
donations to brahmins at the end of a sacrifice, or any particular solemnity].  

 1.125.07 May those who propitiate (the gods), never commit degrading sin; may 
those who praise the gods andobserve holy vows, never experience decay; may some 
(honourable) individual ever be their defence; and mayafflictions fall upon him 
who does not propitiate (the gods). [anyas tes.a_m paridhir astu kas'cit, may 
some otherone be their surrounding defence; or, kavacastha_ni_ya, in the place 
of armour; anyah kas'cit = some other{man, or divinity or merit (dharma-
vis'es.a_t) or Svanaya as the type of patron or protector}]. 


 1.126.01 I repeat with a (willing) mind, the unreluctant praises of Bhavya, 
dwellingon th ebanks of the Sindhu; aprince of unequalled (might), desirous of 
renown, who has enabled me to celebrate a thousand sacrifices.[Bha_vya = 
Svanaya, his son; sindhu adhi = upon the Sindhu, either the river Sindhu or the 

 1.126.02 From which generous prince, soliciting (my acceptance), I, Kaks.i_vat, 
unhesitatingly accepted ahundred nis.kas, a hundred vigorous steeds, and a 
hundred bulls, whereby he has spread his imperishable famethrough heaven. 
[nis.ka = a weight of gold = four suvarn.a (Manu. viii.134); = 108 suvarn.as 

 1.126.03 Ten chariots drawn by bay steeds, and carrying my wives, stood near 
me, given meby Svanaya; and athousand and sixty cows followed; these, after a 
short interval of time, did Kaks.i_vat deliver (to his father).  

 1.126.04 Forty bay horses, (harnessed) to the chariots, lead the procession in 
front of a thousand (followers).The Pajras, the kinsmen of Kaks.i_vat, rub down 
the high-spirited steeds, decorated with golden trappings.  

 1.126.05 I have accepted a prior grant, (kinsmen), for you; three and eight 
harnessed chariots and cattle ofincalculable value; may the kindred Pajras, like 
well-disposed relations, be desirous of acquiring renown by theirabundant 
offerings. [Perhaps, 3 and 8 connote a different sense of 11; aridha_yaso ga_h 
=aribhir-is'varair-dha_ran.i_ya_, to be held or attained by rich men; i.e. 
bahumu_lyah, of great price; vis'ya_ ivavra_h = vis'a_m vra_ta_ yatha_ 
parasparam anura_gavantah, like troops of people having mutual 
affection;abundant offerings: the text has, having carts or barrows, anasvantah; 
anas = small cart or truck in which Somawas brought to the place of sacrifice].  

 1.126.06 She, who, when her desires are assented to, clings as tenaciously as a 
female weasel, and who is ripefor enjoyment, yields me infinite delight. 
[Bha_vya says this to his wife Lomas'a; weasel: Kas'i_ka_ = sutavatsa_nakuli_, 
the female, mongoose, having brought forth young].  

 1.126.07 Approach me, (husband); deem me not immature; I am covered with down 
like a eve of thegandha_rins. [This is Lomas'a's reply. [This and previous verse 
are brought in abruptly and in a different metre;perhaps, these hymns echoe some 
ancient popular song]. 


 1.127.01 I venerate Agni, the invoker (of the gods), the munificent, the giver 
of dwellings, the son of strength; hewho knows all that exists, like a sage who 
is endowed with knowledge; who, the divine regenerator of sacrifices,through his 
lofty and reverntial devotion, covets for the gods the blaze of the liquefied 
butter which is offered inoblation with his flames.  [Atyas.t.i is a stanza of 
four lines, and has 68 syllables. The metrical system of the Vedas, or Chandas 
has agraduated series of metres. Utkr.ti has 104 syllables and descends by a 
diminution of four through eight classesto atyas.t.i, the ninth, which gives it 
68 syllables. In this su_kta, the hymns are arranged in three verses and 
thenumber fo syllables vary from 57 to 70, the average being 65 to 67].  

 1.127.02 We, the institutors of the ceremony, invoke you, Agni, who are most 
deserving of worship, and are theeldest of the An:girasas, with (acceptable) 
prayers; and with prayers (recited) by the priests, (we adore) you,who, like the 
traverser of the sky, (the sun), are the invoker (of the gods on behalf) of men, 
and whom, thebright-haired showeree (of blessings), many people approaching 
propitiate for the attainment of felicity.  

 1.127.03 Verily, that Agni, far shining with brilliant vigour, is the destroyer 
of foes, like a hatchet that cuts downtrees; whatever is most solid and stable 
dissolves like water at his contact; unsparing, he sports (amidstenemies), nor 
desists (from their destruction), like an archer who retreats not (frombattle).  

 1.127.04 They have presented substantial donations to him, as (they give 
riches) to a sage, and by resplendentmeans he grants us (grace) for our 
preservation; (the worshipper) presents (gifts) to Agni for preservation; hewho 
pervades the (many offerings made to him) consumes them (as rapidly) as (he 
consumes) forests; hematures the standing corn by his potency; he destroys 
whatever (things) are stationary by his potency. [Hedestroys whatever: 
sthira_n.i ni rin.a_tiajasa_: sthira_n.i = pa_pa_ni, sins (amitra_n.i, 

 1.127.05 We place near the altar the (sacrificial) food of him who is more 
conspicuous by night than by day; (weoffer it) to him who is scarcely alive by 
day; hence his (sacrificial) food finds prompt acceptance, like dwelling(given 
by a father) to a son; these undecaying fires, (although) discriminating between 
the devout and theundevout, grant (both) protection, and accepting (the 
offerings of the pious), they are exempt from decay.[apra_yus.e diva_tara_t 
(Taittiri_ya A_ran.yaka 1.14), to him who has not prominent or vigorous life 
through theday, being dimmed or enfeebled by the superior effulgence of the 

 1.127.06 He roars aloud, like the roaring of the winds, amidst the sanctified 
and selected (rites of sacred)solemnities; he who is to be worshipped, who is to 
be adored (for victory) over hosts (of enemies); he, thereceiver 9of oblations), 
the manifester of the sacrifice; he, who is deserving of veneration, devours the 
oblations;hence, all men for their good pursue the path of Agni, who gives 
pleasure (to his worshipper), being pleased(himself), in like manner as men 
follow a path (that leads) to happiness.  

 1.127.07 The descendants of Bhr.gu, celebrating him (Agni) in both his forms, 
glorifying him, and payig himhomage, proclaim his praises; the descendants of 
Bhr.gu, rubbing (the flame) for the oblation. For the radiantAgni, who is the 
guardian of all these treasures, has power (to distribute them). Mayhe, the 
receier of sacrifices,partake of the agreeable (offerings) given to satiety; may 
he, the receiver of sacrifices, partake (of the oblations).[dvita_ yad im 
kri_sta_sah, celebrating him as twofold; i.e. either as recognized in both the 
S'ruti and Smr.ti, thebooks of religion and law; or, as the giver of happiness 
in both this world and the next; or, as manifold in theA_havani_ha and other 
fires, 'two' connoting multiple or many].  

 1.127.08 We invoke you, the protector of all people, the same alike to all, the 
preserver of the house, to enjoy(the oblation); you, who are the wafter of our 
infallible prayer, to enjoy (the oblation); we invoke you, who are theguest of 
men, to whom all these immortals apply for their sustenance, as (a son) to a 
father; you, to whom thepriests offer oblations amongst the gods.  

 1.127.09 You, Agni, the destroyer (of enemies) by your strength, the possessor 
of great splendour, as born forthe sake of sacrificing to the gods, as riches 
(are generated) for the sake of sacrificing to the gods; verily yourexhilaration 
is most brilliant, your worship is most productive of renown; hence, undecaying 
Agni, (sacrificers)wait upon you, like envoys (upon a prince; upon you), who 
preserve (your votaries) from decay. [ajara =undecaying, not causing decay; or, 
one who does not praise others; one to whom along praise is due].  

 1.127.10 May your praise, (oh priests), become grateful to Agni, who is 
desrving of laudation, who is of strengthto overcome the strong, who is awakened 
at the dawn; to Agni, as if to a giver of cattle. Inasmuch as thepresenter of 
the oblation repairs assiduously to every altar, the invoking priest, well-
skilled in (pious) praise,glorifies him (Agni) as the first of the attaining 
(divinities), as a herald (recites the praises) of illustrious (men).[The last 
pa_da: lit. 'in front, a herald, like praisers of the illustrious 

 1.127.11 Agni, do youur becoming visible close to us, and partaking with 
benignant intent of (the sacrificial) foodalong with the gods, bestow upon us 
abundant riches, with benignant intent. Most mighty Agni, render usillustrious, 
that we may behold and enjoy (this earth); and grant greatness with excellent 
progeny to those whopraise you, possessor of wealth, destroyer of foes, like a 
fierce (giant) in strength. [ugra na savasa: kas'cinkru_ra, some one cruel or 


 1.128.01 This Agni, the invoker of the gods, the assiduous offerer of 
sacrifices, is generated of man, (for thefulfilment of the) duty of those who 
desire (the fruit of) pious rites as well as for (the discharge of) his own 
duty;he is the bestower of all blessings on him who desires his friendship, and 
is wealth to (such a  one) seeking forfood; the unobstructed offerer of 
oblations, he sits down, surrounded (by ministering priests), on the most 
sacredspot of earth upon the footmark of Il.a. [nis.adad-il.aspade parivi_ta: 
nis.adad-il.aspade = bhu_mya_ha pade, ona spot or site of ground; dharimani (of 
previous hymn) = that spot which contains the essence of the earth, i.e.the 
altar. vedima_huh paramantam pr.thivya_h = they call the altar the utmost end of 
the earth (Taittiri_yaSamhita_; eta_vati vai pr.thivi_r ya_vati_ 
vediriti = so much, verily, as is the earth as much is the altar(Taittiri_ya 
Samhita_ parivi_ta il.aspade: the reference is to Il.a_, daughter of 
Manu and pada = the spotwhere in the form a cow (goru_pa). she placed her feet; 
pa_danya_sa prades'e = allusion to the legend ofManu's daughter being the first 
institutor of sacrificial rites; il.a vai ma_navi_ yajn~a_nu_ka_s'in 
ya_si_diti_da_ya_ pade ghr.tavati sva_ha_ (Taittiri_ya Samhita_ = Ida, 
the daughter of Manu, was the institutorof sacrifice, glory to the butter 
charged footmark of Il.a].  

 1.128.02 We propitiate that instrument of sacrifice by the path of sacrifice, 
by reverential salutation, and byoblations of clarified butter; by oblations 
(offered) to the gods and he accepts our offerings, and through hisbenignity 
quits not (the rite until its close), the divinity whom the wind brought from 
afar for the service of Manu;(may he come) from afar (to our sacrifice). [bha_h 
para_vata-abha_si_t, shone or made to shine, placed suitablyupon earth, having 
been brought from the distant sun: atidu_ram gatavata a_ditya_d abha_si_t 
aucityenabhu_mau stha_pitava_n].  

 1.128.03 Agni, who is ever to be hymned, the giver of food, the showerer (of 
benefits), comes immediately (uponour invocation), in approach to (the altar of) 
earth, loud-sounding, vigorous, and loud-sounding; the rapid anddivine (Agni, 
incited by praise), manifests himself a hundredfold by his flames; Agni, having 
his abode in highplace, (comes quickly) to pious rites.  

 1.128.04 That Agni, who is (the performer of) holy acts, the priest of the 
family, thinks in every dwelling of theimperishable sacrifice; he thinks of the 
sacrifice (reminded) by (its) celebration; for through such pious rite, he,the 
bestower of (fit) rewards, accepts all the offered oblations for (the good of) 
the worshipper, whence he hasbecome as a guest, fed abundantly with butter; and 
the offere (of the oblations) has become the realizer of therewards (of the 

 1.128.05 Inasmuch as (all men) offer in holy rite (food) for his satisfaction 
in the blazing (flames) of Agni, like (thegrains that) are to be enjoyed by the 
winds, and like the viands that are to be given to him who solicits 
them;therefore the worshipper presents gifts to him, according to the extent of 
his opulence; and he preserves us,when oppressed (by sin), from wickedness; from 
overpowering malevolence and sin.  

 1.128.06 The universal mighty and imperious (Agni) holds riches in his right 
hand; but, like the sun, he loosenshis grip (in favour of his worshipper), 
although he relaxes not from his desire of the (sacrificial) food. Verily, 
Agni,you bear the oblation to every one of the gods who desires it; Agni grants 
blessings to every pious (worshipper),and opens for him the gates (of heaven). 
[arati = one who is not easily pleased, a sovereign: aratiri_s'varaaramama_nah 
va_ apri_ti_; taran.ir na = ta_rakah su_rya iva, like whom who conveys across 
(the sea of life orthe world), i.e. the sun or Agni: na s'is'rathat, not 
loosened; i.e. the conveyor (across the world) has not desertedhis worshipper].  

 1.128.07 Agni is a most amiable friend in human infirmity through the means of 
sacrifices; the beloved protectorof all in sacrifices, like a victorious prince, 
he alights upon the oblations of men when placed upon the altar; hepreserves us 
from the malignity of Varun.a; from the malignity of the mighty deity (of sin). 
[tra_sate varun.asyadhu_rter maho devasya dhu_rteh, preserves us from the 
malevolence of the obstructor of religious rites (varun.a= va_raka, the 
impeder)-- from the malevolence of the mighty deity presiding over sin, pa_pa-

 1.128.08 They, (the devout), praise Agni, the invoker (of the gods), the 
possessor of wealth, the beloved, thethoughtful; they have recourse to him as to 
a sovereign; they have recourse to him as the bearer of oblations; tohim, who is 
the life (of all living beings), who knows all things, the offerer of oblations, 
the object of worship, thesage; the sacred (priests), desirous of affluence, 
murmur (his praises) to obtain his protection; desirous ofaffluence, they murmur 
(his praises) in their hymns. 


 1.129.01 Indra, frequenter of sacrifices, quickly enable him to attain his 
desires, to whom you repair in your car toreceive the oblation; and for whom, as 
he is mature (in understanding) and devout, you who are without fault,entertain 
regard. Accept his offering, for you who are without fault, are prompt to favour 
us (among) the pious(offerrs of oblations) as (you accept) this our praise.  

 1.129.02 Hear our invocation, Indra; you who in various battles (associated) 
with the Maruts, are animatedthrough their encouragement; (and are able), with 
the Maruts, to destroy (your foes); (for you are) he, who,(aided) by heroes, are 
of yourself the giver (of victory); or, (when praised) by the pious, the giver 
of food, andwhom the lords (of prayer) celebrate as swift-moving and eager (for 
sacrificial food), like a fleet courser (eager forforage). [nr.bhih = maruts; 
or, by men, i.e. by the worshippers].  

 1.129.03 You, the subduer (of adversaries), pierce every rain (confining) skin; 
you overtake, hero, every flyingmortal (cloud), and abandon (it) when exhausted 
(of its water) for such glorious deed, Indra, I offer praise to you;to heaven; 
to the self-glorifying Rudra; to Mitra; (to each) the benefactor (of mankind) 
for such glorious (deed).[ya_vir aruram martyam, parivr.n.aks.i martyam = you 
mix with the departing mortal, you abandon the mortal;martyam = cloud, the skin 
that contains the rain, vr.s.anam, tvacam, trying to escape, like an enemy, from 
thehero S'ura; the second martyam = cloud, but after it has parted with its 
water, like an enemy who has been killed,and whom the victor abandons. [rudra_ya 
svayas'ase = to Rudra,i.e. Agni (rudro vai kru_ro yadayamagnih(Taittiri_ya 
Samhita_,possessed o fhis own fame, svaki_yayas'o- yukta_ya agnaye].  

 1.129.04 We desire, (priests), Indra to be present at your sacrifice, (he who 
is) our friend, the frequenter of all(ceremonies), the endurer (of enemies), the 
ally (of his worshippers), the patient expecter of (sacrificial) 
viands,associated (with the Maruts); do you, Indra, guard our holy rite for our 
preservation, for in whatsoever contests(you may engage), no enemy whom you 
oppose, prevails against you; you prevail over every enemy whom (youoppose).  

 1.129.05 Humble the adversary of every one (your worshippers) fierce (Indra), 
by your aids, like radiant paths, (toglory); by your powerful aids, gude us, 
hero, as you have guided our forefathers, for you are honoured (by all).You 
(Indra), who are the sustainer (of the world), remove all (the sins) of man; 
present at our sacrifice, you arethe bearer (of good things).  

 1.129.06 May I be competent to utter (praise) for the (Soma) libation, 
sustaining existence, which, like the (deity)to be invoked, (Indra), goes 
abounding with food to (each) venerable (rite); the destroyer (of ra_ks.asas) 
at(each) venerable (rite). May that (libation) of itself repress with 
chastisement the malevolence of him who revilesus; let the thief fall downwards 
(and perish), like a little (water) running down (a declivity).  

 1.129.07 We praise, you, Indra, with praises, making known (your glory); we 
solicit, giver of riches, the wealththat bestows vigour, that is agreeable, 
durable, and the support of progeny. May we (ever) be possessed of(abundant) 
food, through the praises of you, whom it is difficult adequately to honour; may 
we attain the adorable(Indra) by true and earnest invocations; by invocations, 
(offering sacrificial) food.  

 1.129.08 Indra is powerful in discomfiture of the malevolent by his self-
glorifying aids, (granted) unto you andunto us; (he is) the tearer o fthe 
malevolent (to pieces); the impetuous ogre that was sent against us bydevouring 
(foes) to destroy us, has been itself destroyed; it will not reach us; it will 
not do us harm.  

 1.129.09 Do you, Indra, come to us with abundant riches by a path free from 
evil; (by a path) unobstructed byra_ks.asas; be with us when afar; be with us 
when nigh; favour us, whether afar or nigh, with the objects of ourdesires; ever 
favour us with the objects of our desires.  

 1.129.10 Do you, Indra, (sustain us) with wealth that transports (man beyond 
calamity); for, (enhanced)greatness accrues to you, however mighty, (from our 
thanks) for (your ) protection, as it does to Mitra for hispowerful protection, 
most potent and immortal (Indra), our defender and preserver, (ascend) some 
chariot, (andcome hither); devourer (of foes), repel any one assailing us; any 
one assailing us, devourer (of foes). [tva_mahima_ saks.ad avase mahe mitram na 
avase = lit. greatness is present to you for protection as to mitra forgreat 
protection; or, mitra may be rendered 'friend', as praises animate a friend with 
great attachment, tamsakhyam yatha_ mahatyai pri_taye sam.bhajante. Adrivs, voc. 
of adrivat = wielder of the thunderbolt (adri); but,ad = eat; i.e. adrivat = 
s'atru_n.a_m atis'ayena bhaks.aka = the eater in excess of enemies (Nirukta 
iv.4). is'ahparivr.tah: allusion to the rains shut up in the clouds; and the 
second reference, to the seeds shut up in the earthgerminating on the fall of 
the rain, and affording, in either case, 'food', is'ah].  

 1.129.11 Deservedly-lauded Indra, preserve us from suffering; for you are 
always verily the chastiser of themalevolent; your, being divine, (are the 
chastiser) of the malevolent; (you are) the slayer of the wicked raks.as,the 
preserver of a pious (worshipper), such as I am; for asylum (of all men), the 
progenitor has begotten (for thispurpose); has begotten you, asylum (of all 
men), the destroyer of the ra_ks.asas. 


 1.130.01 Come to us, Indra, from afar; not as this (fire) which is before us, 
(but) like the pious institutor ofsacrifices, or like the royal lord of the 
constellations (when going) to his setting. Bearing oblations, we, along 
with(the priests), invoke you to accept the effused (Soma), as sons (invite) a 
father to partake of food; (we invoke)you, who are most entitled to reverence, 
to (accept of) the sacrificial viands.  

 1.130.02 Drink, Indra, the Soma, that has been expressed by the stones, and 
spinkled with the sacred grass; asa thirsty ox or a thirsty man hastens to a 
well. (Drink) fo ryour exhilaration, for your invogoration, for yourexceedingly 
great augmentation; let your horses bring you hither, as his steeds convey the 
sun; as they carry him(through heaven) day by day.  

 1.130.03 He (Indra) found the (Soma) treasure (that had been brought) from 
heaven, and hidden like thenestlings of a bird in a rock; amidst (a pile of) 
vast rocks enclosed (by bushes); desiring to partake (of thebeverage), the 
thunderer (found it), as the chief of the An:girasas (discovered) the hiding-
place of the cows; heopened the doors of (the waters, the sources of) food, when 
shut up (in the clouds, the sources of) food, thatwere spread (over the earth).  

 1.130.04 Grasping his sharp thunderbolt with both hands, Indra whetted it to 
hurl it (on his foes), like the water(of an imprecation); he whetted it for the 
destruction of Ahi. Indra, who are fully endowed with strength, withenergy, with 
might, you cut (our enemies) to pieces, as a wood-cutter the trees of a forest; 
you cut them to piecesas if with a hatchet.[Like the water of an imprecation: 
udakam yatha_ s'atru_n.a_m nirasna_ya abhyimantran.a_disam.ska_ren.a 
tiks.ni_kr.yate = that is, like water which is poured out for the destruction of 
enemies, renderedfatal by the formula of imprecation].  

 1.130.05 You have without effort created the river (that are) to flow to the 
sea, like chariots (bearing you tosacrifices), as those (construct) chariots who 
are desirous of (going to) battle; (the streams) flowing hither havegathered 
together their water for a common purpose, like the cows that yielded all things 
to Manu; that yield allthings to man. [Without effort: vr.tha_ = fruitlessly, in 
vain; or, apryatnena, without effort].  

 1.130.06 Men who are desirous of wealth have recited this your praise, as a 
resolute and provident man(prepares) a chariot (for a journey); they have 
propitiated you for their good; glorifying you, sage Indra, asimpetuous in 
conflicts, they have praised you (as men praise) a conqueror. We praise you for 
(the acquisition of)strength, wealth, and every kind of affluence; as (they 
command) a courser (for his good qualities) in battle.  

 1.130.07 For Pur, the giver of offerings, for the mighty Divoda_sa, you, Indra, 
the dancer (with delight in battle),have destroyed ninety cities; dancer (in 
battle), you have destroyed them with (your thunderbolt), for (the sake of)the 
giver of offerings. For (the sake of) Atithigva, the fierce (indra) hurled 
S'ambara from off the mountainbestowing (uon the prince) immense treasure, 
(acquired) by (his) prowess; all kinds of wealth (acquired) by (his)prowess. 
[nr.to = voc.of nr.tu, a dancer; ran.e nartanas'i_la, dancing in war; S'ambara 
is an asura who wasengaged in hostilities with Kr.s.n.a, and finally destroyed, 
together with his six hundred sons, by Pradyumna, thegrandson of Kr.s.n.a (cf. 
Harivams'a, Langlois, vol. iii, p. 169). Mah_bha_rata represents S'ambara as 
anadversary of Indra, in Dron.a-vijaya].  

 1.130.08 Indra, the manifold protector (of his worship) battles, defends his 
A_rya worshipper in all conflicts, inconflicts that confer heaven; he punished 
for (the benefit of) man the neglecters of religious rites; he tore off theblack 
skin (of the aggressor); as if burning (with flame), he consumes the malignant; 
he utterly consumes himwho delights in cruelty. [The black skin: The legens is 
that an asura, named Kr.s.n.a the black, advanced withten thousand followers to 
the banks of the Am.s'umati river, where he committed fearful devastation until 
Indra,with the Maruts, was sent against him by Br.haspati, when he was defeated 
by Indra, and stripped of his skin].  

 1.130.09 Endowed with augmented vigour, he hurled (aginst the foes) the wheel 
(of the chariot) of the sun; and,ruddy of hue, deprived them of existence; he, 
the sovereign lord, deprived them of existence. As you, sage Indra,come from 
afar to the succour of Us'ana_, so do you come quickly, bearing all good things 
(to us) every day.[su_ras'cakram pravr.had = he threw the sun's wheel; su_ryasya 
rathasya cakram, the wheel of the chariot of thesun: the legend is that the 
asuras obtained a boon from Brahma_, that they should not be destroyed by 
thethunderbolt of Indra, and having in consequence defied him, he cast at them 
the wheel of the sun's car, whichwas equally fatal. Another legend: the sun (of 
Indra) having risen, urges on his car, and Arun.a (his charioteer)silences the 
clamour (of his enemies); the lord (of day) dissipates the gloom. Deprives them 
of existence: va_cammus.a_yati = lit. steals or takes away speech; speech is a 
metonymy for breath, i.e. life; or, it may mean, silenceclamour or suppress his 
own exclamation].  

 1.130.10 Showerer of benefits, destroyer of cities, propitiated by our new 
songs, reward us with gratifyingblessings; glorified, Indra, by the descendants 
of Divoda_sa, increse (in power), like the sun in (revolving) 
days.[divoda_sebhih = by us, the paruchepas, or me, parucchepa, the pl. is 


 1.131.01 To Indra heaven, that excludes the wicked, verilyhas bowed; to Indra 
the wide-spread earth (hasoffered homage) with acceptable (praises); with 
acceptablepraises (the worshipper has propitiated Indra) for thesake of food; 
all the gods well pleased have given precedence to Indra; let all the sacrifices 
ofmen (beappropriated) to Indra; let all the offerings of menbe (presented to 

 1.131.02 Hoping to partake of your bounties, (your worshippers) hasten 
severally in every rite to (adore) you,who ask one and all; each severally 
seeking heaven. We meditate on you, the sustainer of our strength, like aboat 
that bears (passengers) across (a stream); mortals, indeed, knowing Indra, 
propitiate him with sacrifices;mortals (propitiate him) with hymns.  

 1.131.03 The (married) couples; anxious to satisfy you, and presenting 
(oblations) together, celebrate (yourworship), for the sake of (obtaining) herds 
of catle; presenting (you), Indra (oblations); you well know that thesetwo 
persons are desirous of cattle, are desirous of heaven, and (ou abide), 
displaying your thunderbolt, theshowerer (of benefits), your constant companion, 
ever, Indra, associated (with you). [mithuna_h = the pairs;couples consisting of 
husband and wife. The Mi_ma_m.sa_ is cited to show that the wife may be 
associated withher husband in oblations to fire: ja_ya_pati_ agnim 
a_dadhi_ya_ta_m, let wife and husband place the fire;adhyayana_bha_ve api vedam 
patnyai prada_ya va_cayet: since there is no regular reading (of the Veda) 
he(the husband), having imparted the Veda to his wife may cause her to recite it 
(A_s'vila_yana S'rautasu_tra 1.11); she joins in the mantra: suprajasas tva_ 
vayam: we, having good progeny, praise you (Taittiri_ya Samhita_1.1.10.1).  

 1.131.04 The ancients have have known of that your prowess, by which, Indra, 
you destroy the perennial cities(of the asuras); you have destroyed them, 
humiliating (their defenders). You have chastised, Lord of Strength,the mortal 
who offers not sacrifice; you have rescued this spacious earth and these waters; 
exulting, (you haverecovered) these waters. [purah s'a_radi_h, defended, for a 
year by walls, ditches and the like: sam.vatsaraparyantam pra_ka_ra-
parikha_dibhir dr.d.hi_kr.ta_h].  

 1.131.05 Thenceforth have your worshippers scattered (libations) for the 
augmentation of your vigour; that inyour exhilaration, showerer, (of benefits), 
you may defend those who are solicitous (of your favour); that you maydefend 
those who are desirous of (your) friendship; for them you have uttered a shout 
to encourage them incombats; from you they obtain many and many an enjoyment; 
anxious for food, they obtain it (from you). [Uttereda shout: cakartha ka_ram; 
ka_ra = s'abda, sound; sim.hana_da-lak.s.an.am = war-cry; i.e. you have done 
adeed, i.e., performed a service].  

 1.131.06 Will (Indra) be present at this our morning rite; be appraised, 
(Indra), of the oblation offered with (due)observances; offered with (due) 
observances for the sake of (obtaining) heaven; and since, wielder of 
thethunderbolt, showerer (of benefits), you know how to destroy the malevolent, 
do you, therefore, listen to theacceptable (praise) of me, intelligent, though a 
novice; (hear it from me) a novice.  

 1.131.07 Indra, endowed with many (excellences), do you, who are exalted (by 
our praises), and are welldisposed towards us, (slay) the man who is unfriendly 
to us; (slay) swuch a man, hero, with your thunderbolt; killhim who sins against 
us; ever most prompt to hear, hear (us); let every ill-intent (towards us, such 
as alarms) awearied (traveller) on the road, be counteracted; let every ill-
intent be counteracted. [r.s.t.am na ya_man = likeone wearied on the road; 
towards whom evil designs may be entertained by robbers, 


 1.132.01 (Possessed of) former opulence, Maghavan, (through your bounty); 
protected, Indra, by you, may weovercome those who are arrayed in (hostile) 
hoste; may we anticipate (our) assailants. (The sacrifice) of todaybeing nigh, 
speak encouragingly to the presenter of the libation; may we bring together at 
this rite (suitableofferings and praises) to you, the victor in war; worshipping 
you, the victor in war. [bhare kr.tam = san:gra_mejayasya karta_ram; bhara iti 
san:gra_mana_ma, bharaterva_ haraterva_ (Nirukta 4.24)].  

 1.132.02 In the combat which secures heaven, Indra, (treading) in the 
appropriate and straight path of the active(combatant), as well as in his own 
appropriate and straight (path), destroys (the adversary) of him who wakes 
atdawn and celebrates (pious rites); he therefore to be adored with the head 
(bowed down), as revernce is paid byprostration to a holy sage. May your 
treasures, (Indra), be accumulated upon us; may the treasures of you whoare 
auspicious be auspicious (to us). [svasminnan~jasi, are the words reiterated; 
vakma = vakmani, own,peculiar; ma_rge = in the road or path, i.e. honest, 
straight, free from fraud, kapat.a_dirahite or open,unconcaled, apracchanne].  

 1.132.03 Indra, in whatsoever rite (the priests) from of old have placed the 
brilliant (sacrificial) food for you uponthe altar, in that place of sacrifice 
you abide; do you declare what (rite), that men may thence behold 
theintermediate (firmament bright) with the rays (of the sun); for this, Indra, 
the searcher (of rain, is) the searcherafter cattle, for (the benefit of) his 
kindred (worshippers), and knows in due course (the season of the rain).[r.tasya 
va_rasi ks.ayam yajn~asya niva_sastha_nam sam.bhaktosi, you are possessed o fthe 
place of theabode of the sacrifice, termed r.ta, or the true, as giving 
unfailing reward; or r.ta = water; i.e. you abide in thedwelling of the water = 
sender of rain, vr.s.tiprado asi; another interpretation: r.ta meaning the sun, 
you cause(the sacrificer) to go to the region of the sun. sa gha_ vide anvindro 
gaves.an.a bandhuks.idbhyo gaves.an.ah =lit. he verily knows in order, Indra, 
the searcher, gaves.an.a; udakasya_nves.an.a- s'i_lah, possessed of orpractising 
the seeking after water, the sender of rain; gava_m es.an.akarta_, the maker of 
search after the cows,alluding to the old legend; or, it may mean: the seeker 
for the reward of the worshipper, yajama_na- phalasyamr.gayita_; vide, anuvide: 
he knows in order, is filled up by udakapra_ptipraka_ram, he understands 
themanifestation of the attainemnt or arrival, in due season, of the rains].  

 1.132.04 Your exploits, Indra, are worthy to be glorified; now, verily, as well 
as in former times, when you didopen the cloud for the An:girasas, restoring to 
them their cattle--conquer for us, fight for us, as you did for them;humble in 
behalf of those who present libations, him who offers no worship; him who rages 
against us, and offersno worship. [vrajam = a cloud; in the second repetition, 
the cattle of the An:girasas, stolen by Pan.i; hence,vrajam = a cow-pen or 

 1.132.05 Inasmuch as the hero (indra), rightly judges men by their deeds, 
therefore do the (pious), sacrificing (tohim) for sustenance, become enabled, by 
the wealth that has been attained, to overcome (their foes); desirous offood, 
they diligently worship (him); the (sacrificial) food offered to him in the 
source of progeny (to theworshipper), and (men) worship him, that by their own 
strength they may overcome (their foes); pious sacrificersenjoy residence in the 
heaven of Indra; pious sacrificers are, as it were, in the presence of the 
gods.[s'ravasyavah, pl. of s'ravasyu = fr. vb. s'ravasya; s'ravas, food or fame, 
a wish or desire for food or fame; firstoccurrence: 'they, desirous of food'; 
second occurrence: 'desirous of offering food' oblations to Indra. In theheaven 
of Indra: the text has only indre, in Indra; i.e. in the abode or vicinity of 
Indra; an example of metonymy:gan:ga_ya_m ghos.ah, a village in or on the Ganga, 
i.e. on the banks of the Ganga].  

 1.132.06 Indra and Parvata, who are foremost in battles, slay every one who is 
arrayed against us; slay everysuch (adversary) with the thunderbolt--(the shaft 
that) bent upon his destruction pursues him, however far, or towhatever hiding 
place he may have fled. You, hero, (tear) our enemies entirely to pieces; the 
tearer (of foes, thethunderbolt), rends them entirely asunder. [parvata = a 
cloud, or the deity presiding over clouds, another form ofIndra]. 


 1.133.01 By sacriice I purify both the heaven and the earth; I burn the wide 
(realms of earth) that are withoutIndra, and are (the haunts) of the wicked; 
wherever the enemies have congregated they have been slain; and,utterly 
destroyed, they sleep in a deep pit. [vailastha_nam as'eran = they have slept; 
or, they sleep in a placewhich is of the nature of a vila, a hole, a cavern, a 
pit; equivalent to smas'a_na, a place where dead bodies areburned, or, a place 
where they are buried (tatra s'ava_h ks.ipyante iti vailastha_nam s'mas'a_nam); 
alternative:vailastha_nam = na_galoka, the serpent-world; pa_ta_la, the regions 
below the earth].  

 1.133.02 Devourer (of foes) having trampled on the heads of the malignant 
(hosts), crush them with yourwide-spreading foot; you vast wide-spreading foot. 
[ya_tumati_na_m = him.savati_na_m sena_na_m, ofinjury-inflicting armies, or 
ayudhavati_na_m, of those possessing weapons; or, ya_tu = ra_ks.asas, of 
hostscomposed of ra_ks.asas].  

 1.133.03 Annihilate, Maghavan, the might of malignant (hosts), hurl them into 
the vile pit; and vast and vile pit.  

 1.133.04 That you have destroyed, by your assaults, thirce fifty of such 
(hosts), is a deed that well becomes you,although thought by you of little 

 1.133.05 Destroy, Indra, the tawny-coloured, fearfully-roaring, pis'a_ci; 
annihilate all the ra_ks.asas. [pis'a_ci_ =decay].  

 1.133.06 Hurl headlong, Indra, the vast (cloud); hear our supplications; verily 
the heaven is in sorrow like theearth, through fear, wielder of the thunderbolt, 
(of famine), as (formerly through fear of) Tvas.t.a_; most powerfulwithmighty 
energies, you assail, Indra, (the clouds) with terrible blows; and, doing no 
injury to man (you march)invincible, hero, by (your) enemies attended, hero, by 
three or by seven followers. [Of famine = from the absenceof rain; Tvas.t.a_: 
ghr.n.a_n-na bhi_s.a: ghr.n.a_ is a name of Tvas.t.a_, or of blazing fire 
personified; legend: theworld being enveloped by thick darkness, the gods prayed 
to Agni, on which he burst forth suddenly from heavenand earth, in the shape of 
Tvas.t.a_, to the dismay of both regions: sa cobhe tvas.t.ur bibhyatuh; by three 
or byseven followers: trisaptaih s'u_rasatvabhih: tribhih saptabhir va_ 
anucaraih. An allusion perhaps to the sevenplatters offered to the Maruts].  

 1.133.07 Offering libations, (the worshipper) obtains a (safe) asylum; offering 
libations, he destroys his prostratefoes; (he destroys) the enemies of the gods; 
abounding with food, and unsubdued (by adversaries), he hopes toattain, when 
offering libations, infinite (riches), for Indra grants to him who offers 
libations whatever there is (thathe desires); he grants (him) accumulated 


 1.134.01 Let your swift coursers, Va_yu, bring you quickly hither, that you may 
be the first to drink; the first (ofthe gods) to drink of the Soma. May our 
appraised, discriminating, and sincere (praise) be acceptable to yourmind; come 
with your steed-yoked car for (the libation) to be presented to you; come, 
Va_yu, for granting (theobjects of worship). [Steed-yoked car: niyutvata_ 
rathena_: with the car having the niyuts; denominating thehorse of Va_yu; For 
granting the objects: da_vane: fr. dav, to give; i.e. 'come for that which is to 
be given by us',da_yavyayu; and, 'for giving to us that we solicit'].  

 1.134.02 May the exhilarating drops (of the libation) exhilarate you, Va_yu, 
being fitly prepared, doing their office,administered opportunely, rendered 
efficacious by (our) praises, and flowing (in due season); for which 
purpose,your docile and active steeds, the niyuts, attending (your presence, 
bring you) to the sacrificial hall to accept theoffering; to the sacrifice in 
which the pious (priests) represent their desires.  

 1.134.03 Va_yu yokes to his car his two red horses; Va_yu (yokes) his purple 
steeds; Va_yu (yokes) his twounwearied (coursers) to his car to bear their 
burden; for most able are they to bear the burden. Arouse Va_yu theintelligent 
(sacrificer), as a gallant (awakens) his sleeping mistress; summon heaven and 
earth; light up thedawn; light up the dawn (to receive) your sacrificial food. 
[rohita = red; arun.a = purple].  

 1.134.04 For you, the brilliant dawns, (rising) from afar, spread abroad their 
auspicious raiment in inviting rays; invariegated and glorious rays; for these, 
the cow that yields ambrosia milks all kinds of treasure; you beget theMaruts, 
of the firmament, for (the purpose) of showering rain; (for the purpose of 
replenishing) the rivers. [Invitingrays: dam.su, ras'mis.u: dam.su = dam.ses.u 
karmavatsu, doing their work; or, dam.sa = a house, i.e. in raysinvesting or 
covering the world like a house; or, it may refer to the chamber of sacrifice, 
in which the fires arelighted at dawn, and the rays or flames of the fire may be 
said to offer a raiment to Va_yu; bhadra vastra,auspicious garments; 
sabardugha_: sabar = amr.ta].  

 1.134.05 For you, the bright, pure, quick-flowing (Soma), potent for 
exhilaration, are eager for the (fire of)oblation; are eager for the cloud 
(showering) waters. The timid and anxious (worshipper) praises you, who 
areauspicious, for (driving away) thieves; for you defend (us) from all beings, 
(as the reward) of our righteousness;you protect us from the fear of evil 
spirits, (as the reward) of our righteousness. [The oblations that are offered 
tofire are the remote cause of the rain; bhurvan = ya_ga, a sacrifice; and, a 
cloud; You who are auspicious: tva_mbhagamo takvavi_ye: bhajani_yam, that which 
is to be enjoyed, that which is agreeable or acceptable;taskara_n.a_m yajn~a- 
vighatina_m anyatra gamana_ya, for causing to go elsewhere thieves,i.e., 
obstructers ofsacrifices].  

 1.134.06 You, Va_yu, who are preceded by none, are entitled to drink first of 
these our Soma libations; you areentitled to drink of the effused, moreover, (of 
all) oblations and sin-offerings of men; for you, their cattle yield milk;(for 
you) they yield butter. [A_s'iram = ks.i_ram; ghr.ta; in both meanings, 
as.rayana dravyam, an article which isthe material of oblations and the like]. 


 1.135.01 Approach our strewngrass, Va_yu, with (your) thousand steeds, to 
partake of the (offered) food,(prepared) for the lord of the steeds; (approach) 
with hundreds (to the sacrifice prepared) for thelord of thesteeds; the gods 
holdback for you as the deity (entitled) first to drink (Soma); the sweet 
effused (Soma) are readyfor your exhilaration; are redy for their function.  

 1.135.02 For you this Soma, purified by the stones (that bruise), and clothed 
with enviable (splendour), flows toits (appropriate) receptacle; clothed with 
brilliant (splendour), this Soma is offered as your portion amongst menand 
amongst gods; (having received it), harness your horses, and depart well 
effected towards us; gratified, andwell disposed towards us, depart. [paripu_to 
adribhih = abhis.avas'a_dhanair apagatarji_s'odhitah, purified by theimpurity 
which has been removed by the purifying means of the effusion; r.jis.a = 
gatasarah soma, i.e. soma thathas lost its strength; das'a_pavitras'odhanena 
grahan.ena va_ s'odhitah = purified by straining through kus'agrass, or by 
taking hold of; spa_rha_ vasa_nah = sprhan.i_ya_ni teja_m.si pidha_nah, putting 
on desirable orenviable splendours; pari kos'am ars.ati = kos'a-stha_ni_yam 
grahampra_pnoti, it goes to the ladle, as it were, inplace of a receptacle].  

 1.135.03 Come with hundreds and thousand of your steeds to our sacrifice to 
partake of (the sacrificial) food;(come), Va_yu, to partake of the oblations; 
this is your reasonable portion, and it is radiant along with the sun;the Soma 
(portions) borne by the priests are prepared; the pure Soma (portions), Va_yu, 
are prepared.  

 1.135.04 Let the chariot drawn by the Niyuts convey you both, (Indra and Va_yu, 
to the sacrifice), for ourpreservation, and to partake of the consecrated 
viands; to partake, Va_yu, of the oblations; drink of the sweetbeverage;for the 
first draught is your (joing) due. Va_yu (and Indra), come with joy-bestowing 
wealth; Indra (andVa_yu), come with wealth.  [Precedence is given to Va_yu; 
Va_yava_gatam, nom. is in the singular and the verbin the dual; indras'ca-
a_gatam, implying therefore, that one of the two is understood].  

 1.135.05 The pious acts (addressed) to you have given augmented (efficacy) to 
our sacrifices; for you, (thepriests) strain this quick-dropping Soma, as (the 
grooms rub down) a fleet, quick-running courser; drink of their(libations), and 
come hither, well disposed towards us, for our protection; do you both drink of 
the Soma thathave been expressed by the stones, for you are both givers of food. 
[As the grooms rub down: the intended verbis: marmr.janta, have strained or 
cleaned, or rubbed; va_jinam, a_s'umatyam na va_jinam = lit. going quick, like 
aquick horse, going quick].  

 1.135.06 These Soma, poured out in our rites, and borne by the priests, are 
prepared for you both; the pureSoma, Va_yu (and Indra), are prepared; these 
pervading (effusions) have passed through the oblique filter foryou both; the 
Soma intended for you both, pass through the woolly fleece; the inexhaustible 
soma.[abhyasr.ks.ata tirah pavitram: pavitram is a term applied to bundle of 
kus'a grass, which is supposed to purifythe Soma or the butter poured upon it; 
it is here explained the receiver of the Soma placed slopingly or obliquely,or a 
filter or a strainer made of wool. atiroma_n.yavyaya_ soma_so atyavyaya_: Soma 
having gone through (ati)the unclipped (avyaya_ni for acchinna_ni) hairs; or, 
avyaya = avimaya_ni, made from the sheep, sheep's wool;fall into the vessel that 
receives them; in the second occurrence, avyaya_ = unexpended, unexhausted].  

 1.135.07 Pass, (Va_yu), by the many sleeping (worshippers) and go (with Indra) 
to the house where the stoneresounds; Indra (and Va_yu), go to that dwelling; 
(go where) the (word of) truth is manifest; (go where) the butterflows; go both 
well-fed horses to the sacrifice; Indra (and Va_yu), repair to the sacrifice.  

 1.135.08 Then, accept the libations of the sweet Soma at the sacrifice in which 
the triumphant priests standround the rock-born (plant); may they ever be 
victorious for us; (for you) together the cows distil (their milk); the(offering 
of) barley is dressed; and never for you, (Va_yu), will the cows grow meagre. 
never will the kine becarried off (by thieves). [as'vattham upatis.t.hanti: 
as'vattha = the religious fig tree; explained here as the Somafound spread 
through mountains and the like, parvata_di vya_tiprades'e sthitam; na 
upadasyantidhenavah-na_pa dasyanti dhenavah: upadas = infirm, or wasted by 
sickness; apadas = to be carried off bythieves].  

 1.135.09 These your horses, excellent Va_yu, strong of limb, youthful and full 
of vigour, bear you through thespace between heaven and earth; growing (are 
they) in bulk, and strong as oxen; they are not lost in thefirmament, but hold 
on their speed, unretarded by reviling; difficult are they to be arrested as the 
beams of thesun; difficult are they to be arrested by force. [Unretarded by 
reviling: agiraukasah = lit. having no dweling byspeech; i.e. they are not 
brought to a stop by abusive speech of the like, bhartsna_dina_ sthitim 
alabhama_na_h;hastayor dur-niyantavah, difficult to be checked by both hands, or 
by physical force; they are not to be deterredby words, such as voh voh; or by 
pulling up the rains, from coming to the sacrifice]. 


 1.136.01 Offer most excellent and ample adoration, and reverential oblation, to 
those two deities who haveexisted from of old; who confer happiness (on their 
worshippers), and delight in most sweet (libations); for theyare both imperial 
(sovereigns, in whose honour) oblations of butter are poured out 
(ghr.tama_su_yate a_di_yateya_bhya_m tau ta_dr.s'au; yadva_ ghr.tamudakam 
vr.s.t.ilaks.an.am prasu_yate sarvatra_nujn~a_yateya_bhya_m tau), and who are 
glorified at every sacrifice, whence their might is not in any way to be 
opposed;their divinity is not to be resisted. [Imperial sovereigns: ta_ 
samra_ja_; or, sa_mra_ja = thoroughly shining,samyakra_jama_nau].  

 1.136.02 The most excellent dawn has been seen proceeding to the comprehensive 
(rite); the path of therevolving (sun) has been lighted up by (his) rays; the 
eyes of men (have been opened) by the rays of Bhaga; thebrilliant mansion of 
Mitra, of Aryaman, of Varun.a, (has been lighted up by his rays), and therefore 
do you twoaccept the commendable and copious oblation; the praise-worthy and 
copious oblation. [The brilliant mansion:the firmament is lighted by the sun; 
the several names of designations or forms of the sun; several names areused to 
to multiply  his praises].  

 1.136.03 (Your worshipper) has prepared ground (for tha altar), free from 
defect, radiant (with sacrificial fire), andconferring heaven; come to it 
together every day, you who are vigilant; every day (at sacrifices) 
receiveinvigorated energy (by coming hither), sons of Aditi, lords of 
munificence; of those two, Mitra is the animator ofmankind, and so is Varun.a; 
Aryaman (likewise) is the animator of mankind. [The animator of 
mankind:ya_tayaj-janah, by whom men are being impelled to exertion, or incited 
to the discharge of their respectivefunctions; as applied to Aryaman, in the 
repetition, it may imply one by whom the irreligious, or those notperforming 
religious worship, may be cast into the infernal regions, ya_tya_ma_nah 
nipatyama_nah narake].  

 1.136.04 May this Soma be gratifying to Mitra and Varun.a, to be enjoyed by 
them as they drink of it incliningdownwards; a divine (beverage), fit to be 
enjoyed by the gods; may all the gods, well pleased, today accept it;therefore, 
royal (deities), do as we request; you, who are ever truthful, do as we request.  

 1.136.05 Whatever individual offers adoration to Mitra and Varun.a, do you 
preserve him entirely unharmed fromsin; (preserve) from sin the mortal who 
presents you (with oblations); may Aryaman protect him who is sincere inhis 
devotion, who offers worship addressed to both (Mitra and Varun.a) with prayers; 
who offers worship withpraises.  

 1.136.06 I proclaim veneration to the mighty Sun, to heaven and earth, to 
Mitra, to the benevolent Varun.a, to theconferer of happiness, the showerer of 
benefits. Praise Indra, Agni, the brilliant Aryaman, and Bhaga, so thatenjoying 
long life, we may be blessed with progeny; we may be happy through the 
protecting virtues of the Soma.[varun.a_ya mi_l.hus.e sumr.l.i_ka_ya 
mi_l.hus.e:The first attributive is an epithet of Rudra, the showerer ofdesired 
benefits, abhimataphalasya sektre; the two next words are applied to Mitra, 
Varun.a and Rudra].   

 1.136.07 Worshiping Indra, and favoured by the Maruts, may we rely upon the 
protection of the gods; and maywe, affluent (through their bounty), enjoy the 
felicity which Agni, Mitra, and Varun.a are bestowing (upon us). 


 1.137.01 Come, (Mitra and Varun.a, to our sacrifice); where we express (the 
Soma) with stones; these Somamixed with milk are exhilarating; these (Soma) are 
exhilarating; come to us, royal divinities, dwellers in heavenand our 
protectors; these Soma are mixed with milk for you, Mitra and Varun.a, they are 
pure, mixed with milk.[matsara_h = the repetition of the word suggests the sense 
of 'envious', envious or emulous of those presentedat other ceremonies.  

 1.137.02 Come, for the dipping Soma are mixed with curds; they are expressed 
and mixed with curds; whetherthey be prepared for you at the awaking of the 
dawn, or (be associated) with the rays of the sun; the juice iseffused for Mitra 
and Varun.a, for their drinking the grateful (libation); for their drinking at 
the sacrifice.  

 1.137.03 They milk for you two with stones, that succulent creeper, like a 
productive cow; they milk the Somawith stones; come to us as our protectors; be 
present with us to drink the Soma; thos Soma has been effused,Mitra and Varun.a, 
for you both; effused for your drinking. 


 1.138.01 The greatness of the strength of the many-worshipped Pu_s.an is 
universally lauded; no one detracts(from his praise); his praise displeases no 
one. Desirous of happiness, I adore him, whose protection is evernigh; who is 
the source of felicity; who, when devoutly worshipped, blends with the thoughts 
of all (hisworshippers); who, (thought) a deity, is united with the sacrifice. 
[mana a_yuyuve makha, deva a_yuyuvemakhah : the text intends to identify 
Pu_s.an, spiritually or mystically, with the performer and and theperformance of 
the worship; a different explanation is offered: makha = yajn~ava_n, having or 
receiving sacrifice,who confers the boon the sacrificer solicits, thus 'mixing 
with' or assenting to his thoughts or mind (mana ayuyuvesamanta_d mis'rayati 
s'Ighravara prada_na_t); makha repeated is equated with makham, objective case, 
thesacrifice, with which Pu_s.an mixes, or is present at, until completed, 
sampu_rtiparyantam mis'rayati].  

 1.138.02 I exalt you, Pu_s.an, with praises, that you may hasten (to the 
sacrifice), like a rapid (courser) to thebattle; that you may bear us across the 
combat, like a camel; therefore do I, a mortal, invoke you, the divinebestower 
of happiness, for your friendship; and do you render our invocation productive 
(of benefit); render themproductive (of success) in battle. [us.t.ro na = like a 
camel; as a camel bears a burden; productive of benefit:dyumninaskr.dhi, make 
them possessed of wealth = dyumna = dyotanavatah, brilliant or having fame of 
food,yas'ovatah or annavatah; in the reiteration, the latter is explained as the 
result of conquests.  

 1.138.03 Through your friendship, Pu_s.an, they who are diligent in your praise 
and assiduous in your worshipenjoy (abundance), through your protection; by 
(assiduous) worship they enjoy (abundance); as consequentupon your recent 
favour, we solicit infinite riches. Free from anger, and entitled to ample 
praise, be everaccessible to us; be our leader in every encounter.  

 1.138.04 Free from anger, and liberal of gifts, be nigh to us, Aja_s'va, for 
the acceptance of this our (offering); benigh to those, Aja_s'va, who solicit 
food; we have recourse to you, destroyer of enemies, with pious hymns. Inever 
cease, Pu_s.an, accepter of offerings, to think of you; I never disregard your 
friendship. [aja_s'va = he whois drawn by goats, or has goats for horses, 
according to Ya_ska]. 


 1.139.01 May our prayers be heard, I place before (me) Agni with reverence; we 
have recourse to his celestialmight; we have recourse to Indra and to Va_yu; 
which doing, a new (hymn) has been addressed (by us) to theradiant navel (of the 
earth); and thereupon may our pious rites attain the gods; may our pious rites 
attain thepresence of the gods. [astu sraus.at = asya_h stuter s'ravan.am 
bhavatu, may there be a hearing of this hymn, ors'rota_ bhavatu = may Agni or 
other deity be a hearer. s'raus.at. is an exclamation uttered when the butter 
ispoured upon the fire, on the altar, as an offering to the gods. The radiant 
navel of the earth: may refer to the altaror the sacrifice; yajn~am a_hur 
bhuvanasya na_bhim (yajama_hurbhuvanasya na_bhim--Taittiri_ya 
Sam.hita_7.4.17.2), they have called the sacrifice the navel of the world; the 
text adds vivasvati = di_ptimat, shining;Vivasvat may also refer to the Sun-

 1.139.02 Mitra and Varun.a, bestow (upon us) abundantly that unenduring water 
which you obtain from the sun,through your own energy; through the inherent 
energy of the vigorous; may we thus behold your golden (forms)in our halls of 
sacrifice, (brought thither) by our sacred rites, and by our thoughts and senses 
(intent upon you);by our senses (intent upon offering) the Soma.  

 1.139.03 As'vins, men who desire to glorify you with (their) hymns, cause, as 
it were, their praises to be heard,propitiating you with oblations; for, from 
you, who are possessed of all opulence, (they obtain) every kind ofwealth and 
abundant food. Dasras, the fellies (of the wheels) of your honey-laden car drop 
honey, (carried) inyour golden (car). [hiran.yaye rathe dasra_ hiran.yaye: the 
epithet means 'golden'; the first occurrence isinterpreted as madhupu_rn.a = 
prus.a_yante pavayah (pavi_ rathanemirbhavati yadvipuna_ti bhu_mim--Nirukta5.5), 
the circumferences of the wheels distil (ks.aranti sravanti), or scatter honey, 
as they revolve; in the secondoccurrence, hirn.yaye is explained as 'pleasing, 
heart-delighting', hr.dayaraman.a; and to provide an assumedellipse, by havir-
vahatam, 'convey the oblation in your delightful chariot'].  

 1.139.04 Dasras, your purpose is known; you would repair to heaven; your 
charioteers harness (your steeds) foryour heavenward journey; the horses that 
injure not (the car) on your journey to heaven. We have placed you,Dasras, in 
your golden three-shafted chariot, going by an (easy) road to heaven, 
humiliators (of enemies), andprincipal regulators of the rain. [an~jasa_ 
s'a_sata_ rajas = udakam, water; vr.s.ti-laks.an.am, metony for rain].  

 1.139.05 Enriched by holy rites, grant us, by day and night, (all good things), 
on account of our pious acts; nevermay your donations, never may our 
(donations), be withheld.  

 1.139.06 Indra, showerer (of blessings), these effused Soma, (expressed) by 
stones, and which have sprung(from mountain), are for your drinking; these 
libations have burst forth for you; may they satisfy you as an offeringpresented 
(in the hope of receiving) great and wonderful riches. Acceptor of laudations, 
come to us, glorified byour hymns; come to us well pleased.  

 1.139.07 Agni, listen attentively when you are praised by us, and repeat (those 
praises) to the gods who areentitled to worship; to the royal (deities) entitled 
to worship; on which accoun tthe gods gave to the An:girasasthe cow which 
Aryaman milked for (you), the maker (of all), together with the gods; that cow 
(the nature of whichyou have said), he, along with me, comprehends. [The cow 
which Aryaman milked: The legend is tha An:girasas,having propitiated the gods, 
solicited the gift of a cow; the gods them the cow of plenty, but they were 
unable tomilk her, and applied to Aryaman, who drew from the cow milk 
convertible to butter for oblations to fire. es.a ta_mveda me saca_ = he knows 
her along with me; this is explained: aryama_ham api ja_na_mi, either I, Aryama_ 
, orI and Aryama_ know her].  

 1.139.08 Never, Maruts, may your glorious energies be exerted against us; may 
our (riches) never diminish;never may our towns decay; and may whatever is 
wonderful, admirable immortal, or (whatever is recognized tobe living), from its 
sound, that has been yours from age to age, (devolve) upon us; whatever is most 
difficult (ofattainment) bestow upon us; whatever is most difficult (to be 
attained). [ghos.a_t = ghos.a_h, pl. sounds, noises;and by metonymy, those who 
utter them, either cattle or people].  

 1.139.09 The ancient Dadhyan~c, An:giras, Priyamedha, Kan.va, Atri, Manu, have 
known my birth; they whowere of old and Manu have known (my progenitors); for of 
them is long life amongst the gods, and in them is ourexistence; for the sake of 
their nigh station, I adore (the gods) with praise; I worship Indra and Agni 
with praise.[My birth: the birth of me, Parucchepas, the r.s.i of the hymn; he 
is subsequent to them or of more recent date. teme pu_rve manur viduh: added is 
pitra_di_n, fathers; Manu = manavah, pl., i.e. former Manus; pu_rve is appliedto 
those previously named, Dadhyan~c and the rest; manavas'ca and the Manus. In 
them is our existence:asma_kam tes.u na_bhayah, in them are our 'navels'; 
explained as vital airs, in connection with life, ji_vena sahasam.bandhavantah 
pra_n.a_h; or by sacrifices in relation to their rewards, phalena sam.baddha_h 

 1.139.10 Let the invoker (of the gods) offer sacrifice, and may they, desirous 
of the offering, (partake of) theacceptable (libation); Br.haspati himself, 
desiring (the libation), celebrates worship with libations; with copiousand 
excellent libations. We catch from a distant quarter the sound of the stones, 
whereby the performer of piousacts has of himself secured the waters (of the 
clouds); the performer of pious acts (has secured) manyhabitations. [atmana_ 
adha_rayad ararinda_ni (ararinda_ni dhvasmanvat--Nirukta 1.12.16= 
vr.s.tilaks.an.a_nyudaka_ni atmana_ dharayati, he sustains by himself the 
waters, that is, the rains; or, he producessuch waters by his sacrifices, 
tadr.s'an.yudakam ya_gena utpa_dayati, rain being the result of worship. 
Piousacts: sakratuh = yajama_na or Br.haspati, as the adhvaryu, or ministering 

 1.139.11 Gods who are eleven in heaven; who are eleven on earth; and who are 
eleven dwelling with glory inmid-air; may you be pleased with our sacrifice. 
[tisrah eva devata_h (Nirukta 7.5)]. 


 1.140.01 Prepare a (fit) place, as it were an offering, for the radiant Agni, 
who is seated on the altar, and fond ofhis station; strew the sacred, light-
bearing, bright and gloom-dispelling (spot), with agreeable (kus'a grass), 
aswith a garment.  

 1.140.02 (Agni), the two-fold generated, devours the triple (sacrificial) food, 
and when the year expires renovateswhat has been eaten; the showerer (of 
benefits) is invigorated (inone form), by eating with the tongue of another;in a 
different form the restrainer (of) all consumes the forest trees. [Two-fold 
generated: either as produced byattrition from the two sticks, or first by 
attrition and second by consecration for sacrificial use; triple-food:trivr.d-
annam; 1. clarified butter; 2. purod.a_s'a butter, with other articles or cakes 
fried in butter; and 3. soma;renovates what has been eaten: same articles are 
offered annually; consumes the forest trees: anyasya-a_sa_jihvaya_ jenyo 
vr.s.a_nyanyena-mr.s.t.a = lit., the victorious showerer by the mouth-tongue of 
another; byanother consumes. a_sa_ = asyena, with the mouth; anyasya = of the 
oblation, or with the mouth in one form (orsacrificial fire) he receives the 
oblation through the tongue of another, i.e. the ladle of the ministering 
priest; inanother form, i.e., the fire that burns forests, da_va_gni, he 
consumes the trees].  

 1.140.03 Both his associated mothers, blackened (by combustion), are in 
movement, and give birth to an infant,whose tongue (of flame glows) in the east; 
(who) dissipates darkness; (who) rapidly issues forth; (who) is 
readilydeveloped; (who) is (ever) to be cherished, and is the augmenter (of the 
prosperity) of his parent, (the institutor ofthe rite).  

 1.140.04 The (flames of Agni), light-moving, dark-tracked, quick (consuming), 
capricious, restless, playing lightly,fanned by the wind, wide-spreading, and 
ensuring liberation (to the devout), are kindled for (the benefit of) thepious 
reverencer of (holy) priests. ['Flames of Agni' is inserted to explain the 
epithets: raghu-druvah, going lightly;kr.s.n.asi_ta_sah, black-pathed; juvah, 
quick; asamana_, not same-minded (some going east, some west or indifferent 
colours); ajira_sah, moving; raghus.yadah, light-gliding; va_taju_tah, wind-
impelled; a_s'avah,pervading; mumuks.vah, giving liberation].  

 1.140.05 Thereupon those (flames of Agni) extend together in all directions, 
dispersing gloom, and spreadinggreat light along the path of darkness; when 
(Agni) illumines repeatedly the whole earth, and proceeds pantingthundering, and 
roaring aloud.  

 1.140.06 He stoops down among the bushes as if embellishing them (with his 
lustre), and rushes roaring like abull amongst (a herd of) cows; thence 
increasing in intensity, he enhances (the fierceness) of his form, and 
isdifficult to be arrested as a formidable (animal), when he brandishes his 
horns. Like a bull amongst: vr.s.evapantir abhyeti; patnir = pa_layitri_h, those 
who cherish him, Agni, i.e., bushes, timber; patni_ = a cow].  

 1.140.07 Now hidden, now displayed, he seizes (on the fuel), as if 
understanding (the purpose of theworshipper), and even reposes amidst the 
conscious (flames); again they break forth, and repair to the divine(fire of 
sacrifice), blending with which they give a different (luminous)form to their 
parents, (heaven and earth).  

 1.140.08 The curving tresses (of the flames) embrace him, (Agni), and when 
expiring spring aloft again to (greet)their coming (lord); rescuing them from 
decrepitude, he comes sounding aloud, generating (in them) intenseranimation and 
unimpaired vitality. [The curving tresses: agruva kes'ini_h; agruvah = fingers, 
as an attributive,implies either those that are in front, agratah sthitah, or 
crooked or curved like fingers].  

 1.140.09 Licking up the (verdant) vesture of the mother (of all things, earth), 
the rapid (Agni) proceeds withresounding existences; granting sustenance to 
(every) footed (creature); ever consuming (fuel), so that ablackened track 
follows (hispath). [Proceeds with resounding existences: tuvigrebhih satvabhih 
viya_ti = he goesvariously with living beings, sounding loudly, or going 
quickly, accompanied by the cries or the flight of animalswhen he sets fire to a 
forest; footed: padvate = to that which has feet, either bipeds or quadrupeds].  

 1.140.10 Shine, Agni, in our opulent (abodes), vivifying, showering 
(blessings), bounteous, casting off infantine(glimmerings); blaze (fiercely), 
repelling repeatedly, like a coat of mail, (our enemies) in combats.  

 1.140.11 May this oblation, Agni, carefully placed upon the rugged but 
agreeable (pile of fuel), be mostacceptable to you, so that the pure radiance of 
your person may shine brightly, and you may grant us wealth.  

 1.140.12 Bestow, Agni, upon our exfellent patron a boat ever fitted with oars 
and feet, (one that may render) ourposterity prosperous, and may bear mankind 
across (the ocean of life) to felicity. [Upon our excellent patron:ratha_ya no 
gr.ha_ya = lit. to our carriage-house; ratha_ya, an adjective for ran:hana_ya, 
agreeable; gr.ha, ahouse (applies to the yajama_na, as the asylum of the needy, 
or of the priests); a boat ever fitted: na_vamnitya_ritra_m padvati_m; the boat 
is explained by yajn~a the sacrifice, the oars are the priests, the materials 
arethe fuel and apparatus and the feet are the divinities, the prayers, and 

 1.140.13 Agni, be propitiated by this our earnest praise, and may heaven and 
earth, and thespontaneously-flowing (streams), provide for us the produce of the 
herd, and of the field; and may the purplecoursers (of the dawn) bestow upon us 
abundant food through a length of days. 


 1.141.01 Verily, that visible radiance of the divine (Agni) has been so 
apprehended (by all, that it may be) for (thesupport of) the body, for which end 
it has been generated by (bodily) strength; and that my mind may apprehendand 
apply (that radiance), they address the sacred prayers associated with oblations 
(to Agni). [tejormeyi_ va_k:Cha_ndogya Upanis.ad 6.5.4)].  

 1.141.02 First, he reposes (on the earth) as the digestive (faculty), the 
embodied, the accepter of food, theeternal secondly, (he dwells) among the seven 
auspicious mothers (of fertility); thirdly, the associated (regions)generate 
him, delighting in the ten (quarters) of space, for the sake of milking this 
showerer (of rain). [Thedigestive faculty: pr.ks.ah = anna sa_dhaka, the 
perfecter or digester of food; the embodied: vapuh = vapus.mat,having body; 
s'ari_ra_bhivr.ddhihetuh, the causes of the growth of the body; the seven 
auspicious mothers:saptas'iva_su ma_tr.s.u, the rains fertilizing the seven 
lokas, or worlds; for the sake of milking this showerer: asyavr.s.abhasya 
dohase; allusion is to the rays of the sun; agni is identified with solar fire, 
or the sun in heaven, oras the solar rays, which in the hot season milk the 
earth by the evaporation of its moisture, and then conveyed tothe solar region, 
whence it is transferred to the clouds, and in due season descends again as 

 1.141.03 As powerful priests extract by force (of prayer) this Agni from his 
primitive seat, (for the evolution) of hismighty form; as the wind arouses him 
lurking in the hiding-place (of the altar), for the sake of offering 
oblationsnow as of old. [By the force (of prayer): or by bodily strength, 
applied to attrition as producing fire].  

 1.141.04 As from the excellence of the nutritious (offering) be, (Agni), is 
brought forth and the consumablebranches rise amidst (the flames); and as both 
(the institutor of the rite and the priest) combine for his generation,therefore 
has he been generated, pure, youthful, and radiant. [As from the excellence: pra 
yat pituhparama_n-ni_yate parya_ pr.ks.udho virudho dam.su rohati; pituh 
parama_t, from the excellence of the sacrificialor the nutriment or food; pituh 
= genitive of pitr., a father or progenitor, i.e., figuratively, the ga_rhapatya 
agni,from which fire is taken, niyate, to the a_havani_ya; pr.ks.udha = that 
which is to be consumed amonst theofferings, or what expects or desires to be 
consumed; virudh = shrub or creeper; fuel; dam.su = dantes.u, teeth,or flames; 
a_rohati = a_rohanti, the singular for the plural].  

 1.141.05 Therefore has the brilliant Agni entered the maternal (quarters of 
space), amidst which pure, andunharmed, he had evolved into magnitude, so that 
he mounted (the bushes) placed before him, as he had(consumed others) prior to 
them, and runs rapidly among the more recent and inferior branches.  

 1.141.06 Pious worshippers then adore the invoker (of the gods), for (the 
propitiation of) the dwellers in heaven,as (such men) adore a powerful prince, 
since the many-lauded, and all upholding (Agni) knows how by (holy) actand 
(bodily) strength to bring together the gods and their mortal worshipper for the 
sake of obtaining (mutual)sustenance. [A powerful prince: bhagam = bhaga, a 
great prince; or, A_ditya, or the sun].  

 1.141.07 Since the adorable (Agni), impelled by the wind, spreads in various 
directions, like an insincere andunrestrained chatterer, (who utters 
indiscriminate) praises, therefore the world is assiduous in the worship of 
him,the consumer of all, whose way is dark, who is pure of birth and follows 
various paths. [Like an insincere: hva_rona vakva_ jaran.a_ ana_kr.tah: hva_rah 
= kut.ila, crooked; vakva_ = bahuvakta_, a prolific speaker; ana_kr.tah 
=unrestrained, aniva_ritah; jaran.ah = stutih, praises].  

 1.141.08 Like a chariot drawn by ropes, Agni, set in movement by his own 
revolving members (his flames),proceeds to the heavens; the paths he traverses 
are blackened by smoke, as he consumes (the fuel), and(beasts and) birds fly 
from his radiance as (enemies fly from the prowess) of a hero. [Flames: 
angebhirarus.ebhih gamanas'i_lair avayavair jva_la_bhih, by limbs, i.e., flames, 
having motion; beasts and birds: vayahgamanavantah paks.imr.ga_dayah, creatures 
having motion--birds, beasts and the like].  

 1.141.09 By you, Agni; Varun.a, observant of his duties and Mitra and Aryaman, 
bountiful divinities, are animated,so that yo have been born comprehending them 
all universally in all (their) functions, and encompassing (themall) as the 
circumference (encompasses) the spokes (of a wheel).  

 1.141.10 Most youthful Agni, for the good of him who praises you and offers you 
libations, you make the precious(offering) acceptable to the gods; new-born of 
strength we glorify you who are to be lauded; to whom richofferings (are to be 
presented); (we glorify you) in (our) hymn as (men eulogize) a powerful prince. 
[As meneulogize a powerful prince: bhagamiva].  

 1.141.11 In like manner as you confer upon us riches, (so you bestow upon us) a 
well-disposed, docile, andenergetic (son); the receptacle (of learning and other 
merits), one who is the performer of holy rites, Agni, whoregulates as it were 
his own rays, (and the condition) both (his) births, (or heaven and earth), he 
regulates at(our) sacrifice the adoration of the gods. [Riches: rayim na 
svartham bhagam daks.am na dharnasim: putram, ason is added; daks.am na = 
daks.a-like, or, utsa_havantam, having energy; bhaga = sarvair bhajantyam, to 
beenjoyed, or approved by all; dharn.asim = vidya_der dharan.a kus'alam, skilful 
in containing knowledge].  

 1.141.12 May he who is one with light, who has fleet horses, the invoker (of 
the gods), full of joy, and borne in agolden chariot, listen to us; may that 
irresistible, yet placable Agni, conduct us, by the most efficacious (means),to 
that desirable and accessible (heaven).  

 1.141.03 Agni, possessing eminent (fitness) for supreme sovereignty, has been 
glorified by us, with holy rites(s'imi_ s'aktih: Nirukta 2.1.24), and with 
hymns. Let all who are presen1, as well as we ourselves, enriched (byhis 
favour), shout aloud (the praise of Agni), as (loudly as) the sun (causes) the 
rain-cloud (to thunder). 


 1.142.01 Agni, who are samiddha, bring the gods today (to the worshipper), 
whose ladle is uplifted; extent (themerit of) former sacrificer to the giver (of 
the offering), by whom the Soma is poured forth. [A_pri's of Agni: cf. 

 1.142.02 Tanu_napa_t, be present at this well-flavoured and cutter-fed 
sacrifice, (the offering) of a pious offerer(of oblations); glorifying you.  

 1.142.03 The pure, purifying, wonderful Nara_s'am.sa, an adorable god among 
gods, (having come) fromheaven, thrice mixes the sacrifice with the sweet 
(Soma). [Nara_s'am.sa is the deity presiding over the sacrifice:yajn~a_bhima_ni 
devah; thrice mixes: he comes thrice, or he thrice bestows rewards, perhaps an 
allusion to thethree daily sacrifices].  

 1.142.04 Agni, who are Il.ita, bring hither Indra, the wonderful, the beloved; 
this my praise is recited,bright-tongued, before you.  

 1.142.05 The priests, bearing ladles, are strewing the sacred grass in this 
holy sacrifice, to prepare agod-frequented and well-spread abode for Indra.  

 1.142.06 Let the bright, separable doors, the augmenters of sacrifice, the 
purifiers of rites, the desired of many,be set open for the gods to enter. [The 
hymn is addressed to the divinities presiding over th e doors of thechamber of 
sacrifice; asas'cata = not adhering together, mutually separable; asajyama_na-
parasparaviprakr.s.t.a, perhaps folding-doors of wide or open doors].  

 1.142.07 Beautiful night and morning, ever hymned, ever associated, progeny 
(yahuh sunuh--Nirukta 2.2.11) (oftime), parents of sacrifice, sit down of your 
own good will on the sacred grass.  

 1.142.08 May the two pleasing-tongued receivers of praise, the divine and sage 
invokers (of the gods), officiatetoday at this our sacrifice, which confers 
(rewards) and attains heaven. [Attains heaven: mandra-jihva_ is anapithet 
applied to Agni, the two flames that give delight to the gods].  

 1.142.09 May the pure hota_, placed among the gods, and Bha_rati_, among the 
Maruts, and may the adorableIl.a_, Sarasvati_, Mahi_, sit down upon the sacred 
grass. [hota_ = homa-nis.pa_dika_, the presenter of theoblation; deves.u arpita_ 
= delivered amongst the gods, the praisers of priests (Marutsu); or, marutsu-
bha_rati_ =va_c, situated in heaven, dyustha_na_ and connected with bharata, an 
A_ditya, or name of the sun; il.a_,sarasvati_, mahi_ = sound (va_c); or the 
goddesses presiding over sound in the three regions, severally of 
earth,firmament, and heaven].  

 1.142.10 May Tvas.t.a_, favourably disposed towards us, send to us, for our 
nourishment and prosperity, thequick (falling), wonderful, abundant (water), in 
the centre (of the cloud, effecting), of itself much (good). [Qucik(falling), 
wonderful: the hymn has epithets only related to udakam, water: turi_pam 
adbhutam puru va_ram purutmana_; in the centre: na_bha_ na_bhau meghasya 
avasthitam udakam, i.e. rain; Tvas.t.a_ = personified fire orlightning, in which 
capacity he is the sender of rain, vr.s.t.ya_deh karta_].  

 1.142.11 Vanaspati, here present of your own accord, convey our offerings to 
the gods; the divine and intelligentAgni accepts (the oblations) for the 
deities. [vanaspati: the fire,or Agni of the sacrificial post, or yupa, from 
itsbeing of timber].  

 1.142.12 (Priests), present the oblation with sva_ha_ to Indra, in the form of 
Ga_yatra, along with Pu_s.an andthe Maruts; also to the assembled gods, and the 
Va_yu. [In the form of Ga_yatra: Ga_yatra-vepase--ga_yatra issubstituted for 
itara-sa_ma: vepas = ru_pa; ga_yatram- ru_pam yasya; ga_yatravepas = a name or 
form of Indra;along with Pu_s.an and the Maruts: lit., having or possessed of 
Pu_s.an or the Maruts: pus.anvate marutvate;vis'vadeva_ya (singular)  = 
vis'vadeva- san:gha_ya, the assemblage of all the gods; or, an epithet to 
identifyIndra with all the deities; the personification of Agni is sva_ha_, as 
one of the A_pris].  

 1.142.13 Approach, Indra, to partake of the oblations consecrated with sva_ha_; 
approach and hear theinvocation, as they invoke you to the sacrifice. 


 1.143.01 I offer devoutly to Agni, the son of strength, an invigorating and 
most new sacrifice, with words ofadoration; (that Agni), the grandson of the 
waters, who, (present) in due season, the friend and ministering priest(of the 
sacrificer), sits upon the altar with (many) good things. [The grandson of the 
waters: apa_m napa_t;vegetable substances are the progeny of rain, and fire is 
the progeny of vegetable substances, timber, or fuel;upon the altar: pr.thivya_m 
= lit. on the earth, on the mount of earth constituting the altar].  

 1.143.02 As soon as born, what that (Agni) manifested to Mataris'van in the 
highest atmosphere, and hisradiance, kindled by vigorous effort, spread through 
heaven and earth.  [ma_taris'van: to the wind, to be fannedinto flame; in 
another text: tvam agne prathamo ma_taris'vane a_virbhava, by first manifest, 
Agni, to the wind; orma_taris'van = yajama_na, or sacrificer].  

 1.143.03 His radiance is undecaying; the rays of him who is of pleasing aspect, 
are everywhere visible andbright; the intensely shining, all-pervading, 
unceasing, undecaying (rays) of Agni, desist not (from their functions).[Desist 
not: na rejante, do not tremble; they do not move, or are moved in burning, 
maturing; da_hapa_ka_dis.una calanti na ca_lyante va_ anyaih, or na may imply 
comparison, when bha_tvaks.asasor na sindhavah = like therays of the sun].  

 1.143.04 Bring to his own abode with hymns that Agni, the possessor of all 
riches, whom the descendants ofBhr.gu placed by the strength of all beings upon 
the navel of the earth; for, like Varun.a, he reigns sole (monarch)over (all) 

 1.143.05 Agni, who, like the roaring of the winds, like a victorious host, like 
the thunderbolt in heaven, is not to bearrested, devours and destroys (our foes) 
with sharpened teeth (bharva him.sa_ya_m; bharvatirattikarma_:Nirukta 9.23), 
and, as a warrior (annihilates his enemies), he, (Agni), lays waste the woods.  

 1.143.06 May Agni be ever desirous of our praise; may the giver of wealth 
satisfy our utmost expectation withriches; may the inspirer (of our devotion) 
hasten our rites to fruition. I glorify him, the radiant-limbed (Agni), withthis 

 1.143.07 The kindler (of the sacrificial fire) propitiates Agni, of glistening 
form; the upholder of your ceremony,like a friend; well kindled and well 
supplied (with fuel); blazing brightly at holy rites, he illumines our pure 
andpious observances. [Well kindled: akrah = fr. kram, to go= akranta or 
anukra_nta, surpassed or exceeded by;jva_la_ samida_dibhih, flame, fuel and the 

 1.143.08 Agni, never heedless (of us), guard us with never heedless, 
auspicious, and joy-bestowing cares; doyou, who are desired (by all), protect 
us, and those born of us, with unobstructed unovercome, and neverslumbering 



 1.144.01 The ministering priest, (qualified) by experience, and possessing 
exalted and gracefuldevotion,proceeds (to celebrate) his, (Agni's), worship, 
having circumambulated (the altar), he takes up the ladleswhich are first to 
present theoblations. [ya_ asya dha_ma prathamam ha nim.sate = lit., which first 
kiss hisdwelling agneh stha_nam cumbanti; explained as: which are first to 
present the oblations].  

 1.144.02 The drops of rain, enveloped (by the solar rays), are renewed in the 
dwelling of the divine (sun), theirbirth-place; when he, (Agni), abides 
cherished on the lap of the waters, then (the world) drinks the 
nectareous(rain), with which he, (as the lightning), associates.  

 1.144.03 The two (priests, the hoti_ and adhvaryu), of equal honour, and alike 
assiduous, labouring mutually fora common object, combine the form of Agni (with 
their respective functions); whereupon he to whom the oblationis to be offered, 
collects the drops (of clarified butter), as Bhaga (accepts the worship of all), 
or as a charioteer(gathers the reins of the horses) that draw (the car). [The 
two priests: or the two, in both this and the next hymn,may refer to the husband 
and wife associated in the performance of the sacrifice; as a charioteer 
gathers: thecomparison is justified by ras'min = rays of light or reins and 
also, streams of butter spreading like rays].  

 1.144.04 He, whom the two, a pair of equal power, dwelling in the same place, 
and engaged in the sameceremony, worship night and day; he, whether old or 
young, has been engendered for the sake of mortalcouples, accepting many 
(oblations), and exempt from decay.  

 1.144.05 The ten fingers intertwined propitiate that divine (Agni), whom we 
mortals invoke for protection; he darts(his rays) like swift (arrows) from a 
bow, and accepts the new praises (uttered) by those who crowd round thealtar.  

 1.144.06 You, Agni, reign over (the dweller in) heaven, and over those of 
earth, according to thine own (will), asa herdsman over his (herd), and those 
two, (heaven and earth), bright, vast, adorable, beneficent, and 
sounding(agreeably), partake of the oblation.  

 1.144.07 Agni, who confers happiness, who accepts oblations, who was born for 
sacrifice, and are the performerof good works, be pleased (with this rite), 
attend to this prayer; for you are in presence of all (the world), arevisible 
(to all), are pleasant in their sight, and are their refuge, like a (bountiful) 
distributor of food. 


 1.145.01 Ask (of Agni what you desire), for he goes (everywhere), he knows (all 
things); possessed ofintelligence, he proceeds (to ascertain what is to be 
done), and is had recourse to (by his worshippers); for in himis the power of 
restraining (unreasonable desires) in him (is the power of granting) enjoyment; 
he is the giver offood and of strength; the protector of the mighty. [He 
proceeds: the text has only iyate and nviyate,he goes, andgoes quickly, or is 
gone to or worshipped; the verb, with a passive signification is added: sevyate;  
in him is thepower of granting enjoyment: tasmin-t-santi pras'is.ah 
tasminnis.t.ayah: pras'is.a = pras'a_sana_ni orniyamanasa_marthyam, power of 
restraining; i.e., having restrained what is not to be accomplished, he is able 
toaccomplish what may be effected; is.t.i = sacrifice; here it is interpreted as 
bhogah = enjoyments, or those acts ofworship which confer rewards].  

 1.145.02 They ask of Agni, but no one asks improperly; for a sensible man 
(replies to solicitation) as he hasdetermined in his own mind; Agni tolerates 
not a speech that anticipates (his reply), nor endures a rejoinder; hewho is 
devoid of arrogance is favoured by his protection. [na mr.s.yate prathamam 
na_param vacas = lit. he doesnot bear a first or a subsequent speech; i.e. nor 
endures a rejoinder].  

 1.145.03 To him the (sacrificial) ladles are directed; to him (our) praises are 
addressed; he alone hears all myprayers; be is the instigator of many, the 
transporter (across the world), the instrument of sacrifice, theunintermitting 
preserver (of mankind), and (gentle as) an infant; provided with the 
preparations (of sacrifice), heaccepts libations.  

 1.145.04 When (the priest) proceeds to effect his development, he is (at once) 
manifested; and as soon asengendered, is associated with his objects; he 
provides for the gratification (of his worshipper), placidly engagedin the 
agreeable (rite), when the (oblations) that desire (his acceptance) reach him 
present (at the sacrifice). [Isassociated with his objects: tatsa_ra yujyebhih; 
tsara = to go; yujya = that which may be joined with;explanations: as being 
joined with abilities, that may be associated with their objects, or with 
energies (tejobhih)fit to be connected with their consequences, or with his 
horses joined to his car].  

 1.145.05 He, the searcher, the accessible, the dweller in woods, has been 
placed (amidst the fuel), as in thesimilitude of (an enveloping) skin; the wise 
Agni, the appreciater of sacrifice, the veracious, has declared tomortals (the 
knowledge of) their religious duties. 


 1.146.01 Glorify the three-headed, seven-rayed Agni, who is sibject to no 
diminution, seated on the lap of hisparents, (heaven and earth); and gratifying 
all (desires); as the universal radiance of the divine (Agni), whethermoving or 
stationary, (spreads around). [The three-headed: a reference to three daily 
sacrifices, or the threehousehold fires, or the three regions, heaven, earth and 
mid-air; the seven-rayed Agni: the seven flames of fire;or, ras'mi, a ray = 
reign or rule, a possible reference to the seven chandas (metres) of the Vedas].  

 1.146.02 The great showerer (of benefits) has pervaded these two (worlds); 
undecaying and adorable, he is(ever) present, bestowing protection; he places 
his foot on the summit of the earth, and his radiant (flames) lickthe udder (of 
the firmament).  

 1.146.03 (there are) two well-disposed cows together approaching their common 
progeny, and fully nourishing(him); pointingout the paths that are free from all 
that is to be avoided, and possessing more than the greatintelligence (necessary 
for his development). [Two well-disposed cows: either the institutor of the rite 
and theministering priest, or the sacrificer and his wife: the vatsa calf, or 
offspring, is Agni; and possessing more:vis'va_n keta_n adhi maho dadha-ne: keta 
= knowledge; sarva_n.i prajn~a_ni pravardhanavis.aya_n.i, having fortheir object 
the augmentation of all sorts of wisdom of the highest description].  

 1.146.04 Experienced sages (kavayah: ye va_ anu_ca_ste kavayah--Aitareya 
Bra_hman.a 2.2) bring theinvincible (Agni), to his station (onthe altar); 
cherishing him in manifold (ways) in their hearts; desirous ofpropitiating him, 
they worshipthe (boon) shedding (Agni); and to those men he is manifest as the 

 1.146.05 He is willing to be seen in the (ten) regions (of space); the 
victorious, the adorable, the source of life togreat and small; inasmuch as in 
many places the opulent (possessor of sacrificial food), who is visible to all, 
isthe parent of that (pious) progeny. [That pious progeny: the priests are 
considered the offspring of Agni, as theyderive their character from the 
performance of his worship]. 


 1.147.01 How have your shining and evaporating (rays), Agni, supported life 
(and supplied) food; so that ,enjoying both, the devout (worshippers), 
possessing sons and grandsons, may repeat the hymns of the sacrifice.  

 1.147.02 Youthful (Agni), to whom oblations are due, appreciate this my 
reverential and earnest praise; one manreviles (you), another propitiates (you); 
I, your worshipper, glorify, your person.  

 1.147.03 Your fostering (rays), Agni, beholding the blind son of Mamata_, 
relieved him of the affliction; he whoknows all things protect the pious, and 
(their) malevolent enemies are unable to do them harm. [The blind son ofMamata_: 
the legend: Mamata_ was the the wife of Utatthya; her son was Di_rghatamas, 
long-darkness, beingthe blindness or ignorance which is the natural offspring of 
Mamata_, mine-ness, or selfishness].  

 1.147.04 When a wicked (man), with twofold (malignity of thought and speech), 
obstructing our offerings, andrefraining from gifts (himself), reviles us, may 
his prayer be heavy on him, and involve his person (in theconsequences of) his 
evil words. [The epithets such as agha_ya seem to refer to asmai (not to 
mantra); theallusion is to the use of maledictory prayers or imprecations].  

 1.147.05 When, Son of Strength, a man skilful (in deception) assails another 
man with a doubly (malignantprayer), do you, Agni, duly propitiated, protect him 
who worships you (from its effects); consign us not tomisfortune. 


 1.148.01 The wind, penetrating (amidst the fuel), has excited (Agni), the 
invoker (of the gods), the multiform, theminister of all the deities, whom they 
have established amongst mortal worshippers for the accomplishment ofsacrifice, 
like the wonderful and variously radiant sun. [vapus.e = yajn~asiddhaye, for the 
fulfilment of thesacrifice, or of its object].  

 1.148.02 Let not (my enemies) prevail against me, when presenting acceptable 
(oblations), for (Agni) is desirousof my so offered adoration, and all they (the 
gods) are gratified by the (pious) acts of me, the reciter of theirpraise, and 
the celebrator (of the sacrifice).  

 1.148.03 Him, whom the worshippers lay hold of in his perpetual abode, they 
detain by their praises, and theholders convey him diligently to the sacrifice, 
as rapid coursers, harnessed to a car, (bear the rider to hisdestination). 
[Holders convey him: pran.ayanta: the allusion is to the solemn conveyance of 
fire from thega_rhapatya or household, to the a_havani_ya, or sacrificial fire].  

 1.148.04 The destroyer, (Agni), consumes numerous (trees) by his flames, and 
shares with manifold radiance inthe forest; the favouring wind blows (the 
flames) onwards day by day, like the swift arrows (s'arya_ is.avahs'aramayyah--
Nirukta 5.4) of an archer.  

 1.148.05 The blind (of intellect), or those who see not (physically), detract 
not from his glory, whom no enemiesno malevolent adversaries, harm, even whilst 
yet in (his) embryo (condition), for his constant encouragers defendhim. 


 1.149.01 Agni, the lord of great wealth, the granter (of desires) comes (to the 
place of sacrifice); he, the lord oflords, comes to the place of affluence, (the 
altar); the stones prepare (the libation fo rhim) as he approaches.  

 1.149.02 He, who is, as it were, the generator of men as well as of heaven and 
earth, of whom creation hasimbibed life, abides with his glories; he it is who, 
entering into the womb (of being), procreates (all livingcreatures). [Who 
procreates all living creatures: Agni presents to the Sun the oblations offered 
with fire;thus Agniis identified with solar rays, engenders rain, on which the 
food and consequent existence of all living beingsdepends; of whom, therefore, 
Agni may be said to be the begetter].  

 1.149.03 He who is wise, and goes (wheresoever he will), like the rapid 
ethereal (wind), has lighted up thedelightful spot, (the altar), and, identical 
with many forms, is radiant as the sun.  

 1.149.04 He the twice-born, illuminating the three bright (regions), and 
shining over all the lustrous spheres, theadorable invoker of the gods, is 
present at the place where the waters are collected. [The two-fold 
born:dvijanma, as born either from the two pieces of stick; or, from attrition 
and from oblation; or, born of earth andheaven, the parents of Agni; the three 
bright regions: tri rocana_ni, either heaven, earth and mid-air or the 

 1.149.05 He is the offerer of oblations, who is of twofold birth; and, through 
desire of (sacrificial) food, has in hiskeeping all good things; the man who 
presents offerings to him is the parent of excellent offspring.[At the 
placewhere waters are: apa_m sadasthe, the place of sacrifice where water is 
collected for the different purificatorysprinklings required; or, it might refer 
to the antariks.a, or firmament, in which Agni exists as lightning. This andthe 
preceding hymn appear in Sa_maveda and explained by Benfey: 'he who illumes the 
place the cheerful, (whois) the wise, the swift, like a horse, springing in the 
air like a bright sun full of life'; 'The twofold born abides,illuming with his 
radiance the three bright regions, all the world, the most sacred priest in the 
realm of thewaters']. 


 1.150.01 Presenting many offerings, I address you, Agni, ever coming into your 
presence (like a servant) in thedwelling of a mighty master. [Like a servant: 
arir agne tava svida_: ari = enemy, assailant amitra, unfriend(Nirukta 5.7); the 
word is equated with arta_, a servant, in the character of bringing oblations 
and the like beforeAgni: yato aham agne tava svit tavaiva a_ abhimukhyena arir 
arta_ havira_di pra_pan.ena sevako aham, 'Since I,Agni, going verily into your 
presence for the purpose of conveying oblations, I am a servant'. A mighty 
master:todasya, a governor, a master; s'iks.akasya sva_minah = lit. a tormentor, 
a tyrant].  

 1.150.01 (I ask you also to withhold your favour) from (those) two godless 
(persons), from the rich man, whoacknowledging you not as his lord, is chary of 
gifts at sacred rites, and from him who rarely praises (the gods).  

 1.150.03 Sage Agni, the mortal (who propitiates you) becomes a moon in heaven, 
the most eminent of the great(deities); may we, therefore, ever be in an 
especial manner your worshippers. [A moon in heaven:  so candromaryah: he 
becomes like the moon the rejoicer of all, a_hla_dakah sarves.a_m; or, he even 
becomes the moon,candra eva bhavati; according to the Chandoga_s: 
candratvapra_ptim chandoga_ a_mananti, the Chandoga_sare authority for obtaining 
the condition of the moon; pitr.loka_da_ka_s'am a_ka_s'a_c-candramasam es.a 
somora_ja_, from the region of the pitr.s to the a_ka_s'a; from a_ka_s'a to the 
moon, this is soma, the king. Mun.d.akaUpanis.ad also refers to: 
dyulokapra_ptih, the attainement of heaven]. 


 1.151.01 Heaven and earth have been terrified by the strength and the noise (of 
him), whom pious worshippers,desirous of acquiring cattle, have generated by 
their (sacred) acts, amidst the waters (of the firmament), at thesacrifice, as a 
friend for the preservation of living beings, the benefactor (of man), and 
entitled to adoration. [As afriend: mitram na: Agni is compared to a friend; 
Mitram is identified with Agni of the firmament, or lightning].   

 1.151.02 Since they, (the priests), like friends, have prepared for you both, 
(Mitra and Varun.a a libation) of theabundantly-flowing and spontaneous Soma, 
therefore do you consent to come to the rite of the worshipper, andlisten, 
showerers (of blessings), to the (prayers of the) householder.  [Abundantly 
flowing: alternative rendering:purumi_l.hasya sominah = Soma offering 
Purumi_l.ha, a prince].  

 1.151.03 For the sake (of obtaining) great vigour, showerers (of benefits), men 
glorify your birth from heaven andearth, which is to be extolled, inasmuch as 
you bestow (his desires) upon the worshipper (as the reward) of hissacrifice, 
and accept the rite (that is solemnized) with praise and oblation. [Your birth 
from heaven and earth:va_m janma rodasyoh = yuvayoh sambandhi janma jananam 
utpattim, dya_vapr.thivyoh sakas'a_t, the birthconnected with you two from 
heaven and earth].  

 1.151.04 Powerful divinities, most acceptable to you both is that spot, (where 
you are worshipped); accepters ofsacrifice, proclaim the great ceremony (as duly 
performed); for you two connect the efficacious andcomprehensive rise with the 
vast heaven, like a cow with a burden. [You two connect: divo br.hato 
daks.ama_bhuvam ga_m na dhuri upayun~ja_the apas, you two join the work (apas) 
able (to support the burden) ofheaven, and applying to all creatures, as a cow 
to a load; the allusion is to the adequacy of worship or sacrificeto effect its 
objects, or realize its rewards, as the cow is able to bear a burden suited to 
her bodily strength:dhuri_s'a_ri_rabalasya nirva_he tad artham ga_m na dhenum 
iva; or, the allusion may be to her ability to givemilk and the rest, 
ks.i_ra_dikam iva].  

 1.151.05 You bring (the cattle) to their acceptable (pasture) upon earth, 
whence the milk-yielding cows, protectedby your power, return unharmed to their 
stalls; they cry to the sun (in heaven) above, both at evening and atdawn, as 
one (cries aloud) who detects a thief.  

 1.151.06 The tresses of Agni minister, Mitra and Varun.a, to your sacrifice, 
when you honour (with yourpresence) the sacrificial chamber; send down of your 
own accord (the rain), and prosper our offerings, for youhave command over the 
praise of the pious men.  

 1.151.07 Come to the devout (worshipper), who, glorifying you, and providing 
(all that is) acceptable, presentsyou with oblations; (to him), the sage, the 
invoker, who offers you worship; accept his sacrifice; favourablydisposed 
towards us, (accept) our praises.  

 1.151.08 Accepter of sacrifices, you are the first whom (worshippers) 
propitiate with offerings, the produce of thecow; like (the application) of the 
mind (in the first instance) to the results (of the senses); hymns (prompted) 
bythoughts wholly intent upon you, celebrate (your praise); do you, with humble 
minds, bestow upon us wealth.  

 1.151.09 You distribute food, accompanied by riches; you bestow upon us, 
leaders (of sacrifice), wealth, ample,and defended by your wise provisions; the 
days with the nights have not attained your divinity; neither have therivers, 
nor have the asuras, and they have not obtained (your) wealth. [The days with 
the nights: dya_vo ahabhirna: dya_va_h = days; ahan = night; have not attained 
your divinity: na_nas'urmagham: a_nas'uh pra_pnuvanti nava_m dya_vo, i.e, there 
is no one in the three worlds more powerful than Mitra and Varun.a: lokatraye 
yuvayohpara_bhavita_ro na ke api santi]. 


 1.152.01 Robust Mitra and Varun.a, you wear vestments (of light); your natures 
are to be regarded as withoutdefect; you annihilate all untruths; you associate 
(us) with sacrifice. [Robust: pi_vasa_ = pi_nau, fat, stout, as anepithet of 
Mitra_varun.a; or, acchinna_ni, untorn; vastra_n.i, garments; or, in the 3rd 
case, singular, with great orintense radiance, tejasa_].  

 1.152.02 He amongst those (who are your followers), who observes truth, who is 
considerate, who iscommended by the wise, who is able to (inflict) harm, 
carefully weighs (the means whereby), fierce andwell-armed, he slays (a foe) 
less efficiently accoutred, and (by which) the revilers of the gods, however 
mighty,may perish. [etaccana tva_ es.a_m = etayor madhye tvasvana ekah, one of 
you tow, the plural is honorific; Mitraor Varun.a,if one of you can do such 
things (etad), how much more irresistible must you be together; or, es.a_m =tad 
anucara, their followers of worshippers; triras'rim. hanti caturas'rih = lit. he 
who has a quadrangular weaponkills him who has a triangular one; i.e. implying 
one with most arms or weapons, adhika_yudhava_n is more thana match for one who 
has fewer or inferior arms or weapons].  

 1.152.03 Who knows, Mitra and Varun.a, that it is your doing, that the footless 
dawn is the precursor of footedbeings; and that your infant (progeny, the sun), 
sustains the burden of this (world); he diffuses (the) truth (oflight), and 
disperses the falsehood (of darkness). [Mitra and Varun.a (ahora_tre vai 
mitra_varun.au--Taittiri_yaSam.hita_ are respectively the divinities 
presiding over day and night, consequently the break of day,and the course of 
the sun, may be considered as their work; the dawn is termed apa_d or footless, 
or not movingby its own feet or steps, but as depending upon the motion of the 

 1.152.04 We behold the lover of the maiden (dawns), ever in movement, never 
resting for an instant, wearinginseparable and diffusive (radiance), the beloved 
abode of Mitra and Varun.a [The lover of the maiden: the Sun].  

 1.152.05 Without steeds, without stay, (he is nevertheless) borne swift-moving 
and loud-sounding; he travels,ascending higher and higher, connecting the 
inconceivable mystery (of sacred rites) with the radiance (abiding)in Mitra and 
Varun.a, (which men), eulogizing, glorify. [Connecting the inconceivable 
mystery: acittambrahmayuva_nah: acittam = citta avis.ayam,not an object of the 
mind or thought; brahma = parivr.d.ham uktaru_pamkarma, the act of which the 
nature is declared very great].  

 1.152.06 May the cow, propitious to the devout son of Mamata_, be possessed of 
well-filled udders; knowing therites (necessary to be performed), let him beg 
(the residue) of the offerings for his eating, and worshipping (youboth) 
complete the perfect (ceremony). [Be possessed of well-filled udders: To supply 
appropriate offerings toMitra and Varun.a, who are the products of milk: 
mitra_varun.a_bhya_m payasyeti s'ruteh; let him beg: pitvobhiks.eta, let him beg 
of or for food, i.e., for what is not consumed in oblations].  

 1.152.07 Divine Mitra and Varun.a, may I render the oblation acceptable to you 
with reverence and prayer; maythe sacred rite enable us (to overcome) in 
battles, and may the heavenly rain be to us the means of satisfying ourwants. 
[May the heavenly rain: let the rain be supa_ra_, carrying us well accross, or 
to the completion of ourduties, by causing the growth of grain which is to be 
offered in sacrifice]. 


 1.153.01 Mighty Mitra and Varun.a, dispensers of butter, we worship you, 
rejoicing, with oblations; withreverential homage, and with (offerings of) 
water; so that our ministrant priests may propitiate you by (our)devotions.  

 1.153.02 The purpose of worshipping you, Mitra and Varun.a, is not the 
performance, but (even by so much) Imay attain to your glory, and there is 
acquittance (of my duty); for when the priest offers you oblations insacrifices, 
then the pious man, showerers (of benefits), being desirous of worshipping you, 
(obtains) felicity.[There is acquittance: prastutih va_m dha_ma na prayuktir 
aya_mi suvr.ktih = lit. the previous purpose of praisingyou is not the 
fulfilment, but I come to your abode well detached; suvr.ktih-s'obhana a_varjako 

 1.153.03 Let the productive cow, Mitra and Varun.a, furnish abundant nutriment 
to the pious man who presentsyou with oblations, as when Ra_tahavya, glorifying 
you, propitiates you in the solemnity, like the ministrant priestof a man (who 
institutes the rite). [Ra_tahavya = name of a ra_ja_, king].  

 1.153.04 May the divine cows, and the waters, supply you with (sacrificial) 
food, for the prosperity of the peoplewhom you favour; or may (Agni), the former 
protector of this (our patron), be the donor (of the oblation); eat (ofthe 
butter and curds), drink of the milk of the kine. [Milk of the kine: vi_tam 
pa_tam payasa usriya_ya_h, eat,drink, of the milk of the cow; 'eating' may refer 
to the coagulation of the milk, or curds, butter, or the like]. 


 1.154.01 Earnetly I glorify the exploits of Vis.n.u, who made the three worlds; 
who sustained the lofty aggregatesite (of the spheres); thrice traversing (the 
whole); who is praised by the exalted. [pa_rthiva_ni vimame raja_m.si= lit. he 
made the earthly regions; pr.thivi_ = three worlds: atra trayo loka_ api 
pr.thivi_ s'abdava_cya_; Indra andAgni are said to abide in the lower, middle 
and upper pr.thivi_ or world-- yad indra_gni_ avamasya_mpr.thi_vya_m 
madhyamasya_m paramasyam uta stha (RV. 1.108.9; Taittiri_ya Sam.hita_; 
seven lowerloka_s are also included in the word pr.thivi_;or, the term is 
limited to the three regions addressed in prayer,bhu_h bhuvar svar; who 
sustained the lofty: uttaram sadhastham askabha_yat: sadastha = the firmament, 
as theasylum of the three regions-- lokatraya_s'rayabhu_tam antariks.am; or, the 
seven regions above the earth; or, thehighest region of all, whence there is no 
return; or the above of the righteous, the satya-loka; askabha_yat =nirmitava_n, 
created; thrice traversing: vicakrama_n.as tredha_ (idam vis.n.urvi cakrame: RV. 
1.22.17); traversing in various ways in own created worlds].  

 1.154.02 Vis.n.u is therefore glorified, that by his prowess he is like a 
fearful, ravenous, and mountain-hauntingwild beast, and because of that in his 
three paces all worlds abide. [Mountain-haunting wild beast: mr.ga orsim.ha, a 
lion, as applicable to Vis.n.u: one who seeks for his enemies to inflict 
punishment on them, and istherefore, fearful and fierce; giris.t.ha_h = he who 
dwells on high, or who abides in prayer and the like:mantra_diru_pa_ya_m va_ci 

 1.154.03 May acceptable vigour attend Vis.n.u, who abides in prayer, the hymned 
of many, the showerer (ofbenefits), who alone made, by three steps, this 
spacious and durable aggregate (of the three worlds). [Whoabides in prayer: 
giriks.it, who dwells in speech, or who abides in high places].  

 1.154.04 Whose three imperishable paces, filled with ambrosia, delight 
(mankind) with sacred food; who verilyalone upholds the three elements, and 
earth and heaven. [The three elements: tr.dha_tu, the aggregate of 
threeelements, earth, water, light: pr.thivyaptejoru_pa dha_tutrayavis'is.t.am; 
or, the three periods of time, or the threequalities].  

 1.154.05 May I attain his favourite path, in which god-seeking men delight; 
(the path) of that wide-steppingVis.n.u, in whose exalted station there is a 
(perpetual) flow of felicity; for to such a degree is he the friend (of 
thepious). [His favourite path: the firmament: patho anatariks.am].  

 1.154.06 We pary (to Vis.n.u) that you may both go to those regions where the 
many-pointed and wide-spreadingrays (of light expand); for here the supreme 
station of the many-hymned, the showerer (of benefits), shines (with)great 
(splendour). [You both: the sacrificer and his wife. In the Yajus. VI.3 the 
pa_da: ta_ va_m va_stu_nyus'masigamadhyai is varied: ya te dha_ma_nyus'masi 
gamadhyai, those places to which we desire your going; the hymnis addressed to 
the yu_pa, or post of sacrifice, while trimming it to shape; the second pa_da is 
retained in tact,replacing avabha_ti with avabha_ri]. 


 1.155.01 Offer your nutritious viands to the great hero, (Indra), who is 
pleased by praise, and to Vis.n.u, the twoinvincible deities who ride upon the 
radiant summit of the clouds as upon a well-trained steed.  

 1.155.02 Indra and Vis.n.u, the devout worshipper glorifies the radiant 
approach of you two, who are the grantersof desires, and who bestow upon the 
mortal who worships you an immediately-receivable (reward), through 
thedistribution of that fire which is the scatterer (of desired blessings). 
[That fire which is: kr.s.a_nor astuh, of fire,which is the scatterer (of good 
things); or, the disperser of enemies -- nirasita_ s'atru_n.a_m].  

 1.155.03 These (oblations) augment his (Indra's), mighty manhood, by which he 
fits the parents (of all creaturesheaven and earth), for generation and 
enjoyment; whereby, in the upper region of the sky, the son has an inferiorand 
superior appellation, and a third (name) of father. [The son has: dadha_tiputro 
avaram param pitur na_matr.ti_yam, the son of the father has an inferior name, 
or that of grandson; a superior, or that of son; and a thirdexplanation: the 
oblation, ascending to the solar region, nourish Indra and Vis.n.u, as two of 
the A_dityas,or formsof the Sun; who thereupon sends down rain, whereby the 
earth is rendered fruitful, and the generations of manare sustained; whence 
fathers, sons and grandsons, are successively engendered].  

 1.155.04 Therefore, verily, we celebrate the manhood of that lord (of all), the 
preserver, the innocuous, thevigorous who traversed the three regions with three 
wide steps in different directions for the many-praised(preservation of) 

 1.155.05 Man glorifying (Vis.n.u), tracks two steps of that heaven-beholding 
(deity), but he apprehends not thethird; nor can the soaring-winged birds 
(pursue it). [But he apprehends not the third: his path on earth and in 
thefirmament iw within mortal observation; not so that in heaven; the soaring-
winged birds: vayas'cana patayantapatatrin.ah; the first two are the everywhere-
going Maruts; patatrin.ah = garud.a, and other brids, or the winds].  

 1.155.06 He causes, by his gyrations, ninety and four periodical revolutions, 
like a circular wheel, vast of body,and evolving in many forms, through the 
praises (addressed to him); ever young, though not infantine, he comesat our 
invocations. [Ninety and four periodical revolutions: vis.n.u = time, comprising 
ninet-four periods; the year,two solstices, five seasons, twelve months, twenty-
four half months, thirty days, eight watches, and twelvezodiacal signs; though 
not infantine: yuva_ akuma_rah, young a boy; akuma_rah = analpah, not little]. 


 1.156.01 Be (to us), Vis.n.u, like a friend, the giver of happiness, the 
acepter of oblations, abounding with food,the granter of protection, and every 
way accessible; on which account your praise is to be repeatedly recited bythe 
wise, and your worship to be celebrated by the offerer of oblations.  

 1.156.02 He who presents (offerings) to Vis.n.u, the ancient, the creator, the 
recent, the self-born; he whocelebrates the great birth of that mighty one; he 
verily possessed of abundance, attains (the station) that is to besought (by 
all). [s'ravobhir yujyam cidabhyasat, by food, or by fame, he attains whatsoever 
is to be joined with; tocomplete the ellipse: annairyuktah san sarvair gantavyam 
tat padam gacchati].  

 1.156.03 Hymners, propitiate of your own accord that ancient Vis.n.u, since you 
know him as the germ ofsacrifice, cognizant of his greatness, celebrate his 
name; may we, Vis.n.u, enjoy your favour. [Propitiate of yourown accord: 
janus.a_ pipartana = lit. please or propitiate (him) by your birth; i.e. svata 
eva, of yourself orspontaneously, not from any interested motive: na kenacid 
vara la_bha_dina_; the germ of sacrifice: r.tasyagarbham, born as one with 
sacrifice (yajn~o vai vis.n.uh: Aitareya Bra_hman.a; verily (is) 
Vis.n.u; or, ifr.ta keep the sense of water, then the phrase applies to Vis.n.u 
as the cause or creator of water: apa eva sasarjaa_dau (Manu 1.8), in the 
beginning he created water].  

 1.156.04 The royal Varun.a associates (himself) with the sacrifice of the pious 
worshipper, assisted by thecompany of the priests; the As'vins (unite with it); 
Vis.n.u, with his friend (Indra), possesses supremeheaven-conferring power, and 
sits upon the clouds. [Assisted by the company of the priests: kratum 
sacantama_rutasya vedhasah; ma_ruta = troop of the Maruts; vedhas = the creator, 
or Vis.n.u; the sacrifice offered toVis.n.u, attended by the Maruts; or, Ma_ruta 
= Indra; Possesses heaven-conferringpower: da_dha_ra daks.amuttamam aharvidam, 
he has the best power cognizant of day; aharvidam: generative of 
svarga:svargotpa_dakam; sits upon the clouds: or, sends down rain].  

 1.156.05 The divine Vis.n.u, the best of the doers of good deeds, who came to 
the pious institutor of the rite, toassist (at its celebration), knowing (the 
desire of the worshipper), and present at the three connected periods 
(ofworship), shows favour to te Arya, and admits the author if the ceremony to a 
share of the sacrifice. [Who came:sacatha_ya indra_ya: 1. giving assistance at 
the ceremony; 2. to the yajama_na, or sacrificer (indra = ira_mdra_vayati, who 
pours out the sacrificial food or oblation (indra ira_m dr.n.a_ti_ti 
idam.karan.a_ditya_gra_yan.ah(Nirukta 10.8); the three connected periods: 
tris.adhastham; allusion is to the three daily celebrations of worship,or to the 
three worlds; share of the sacrifice: r.tasya bha_ge = share that follows the 
rite; the blessings grantedas a reward]. 


 1.157.01 Agni is awakened upon earth; the Sun rises; the spreading dawn, 
exhilarating (all) by her radiance, hasdispersed (the darkness); harness, 
(therefore), As'vins your chariot, to come (to the sacrifice), that the 
divineSavita_ may animate allbeings to (the performance of) their several 

 1.157.02 When, As'vins, you harness your bounty-shedding chariot, refresh our 
strength with trickling honey;bestow (abundant) food upon our people; may we 
acquire riches in the strife of heroes. [With trickling honey:madhuna_ ghr.tena: 
madhu iti udakana_ma (Nirukta 1.12.11), madhu may be an adjective for madhura, 
sweet,with sweet water; or, it may be a substantive for amr.ta, ambrosia, with 
trickling nectar; or, it may just be honey, inthe context of the next hymn where 
the chariot of the As'vins is termed madhuva_hana, honey-bearing; upon 
ourpeople: asma_kam brahma pr.tana_su: pr.tana_ = manus.ya (pr.tana_ iti 
manus.yana_ma--- Nirukta 2.3.25); i.e.,children and dependants. Brahma_ = anna, 

 1.157.03 May the three-wheeled car of the As'vins, drawn by swift horses, laden 
with honey, three-canopied,filled with treasure, and every way auspicious, come 
to our presence, and bring prosperity to our people and ourcattle. [Our people 
and our cattle: dvipade-catus.pade = lit., to our bipeds and quadrupeds].  

 1.157.04 Bring us, As'vins, vigour; animate us with your honied speech; prolong 
our existence; wipe away oursins; destroy our foes; be ever our associates. 
[With your honied speech: madhumatya_ nah kas'aya_mimiks.atam = lit., mix us 
with your honied whip; kas.a = va_k, speech; mimiks.atam = pr.n.ayatam].  

 1.157.05 You, As'vins, sustain the germ in all moving creatures; you are in the 
interior of all beings; do you,showerers of benefits, supply (for our own use) 
fire and water and the trees of the forest.  

 1.157.06 You two are physicians, (conversant) with (all) medicaments; you ride 
in a chariot (drawn by)well-trained steeds; therefore, mighty (divinities), 
resolutely uphold (the worshipper), who, with a mind (devotedto you), offers you 


 1.158.01Dasras, showerers (of benefits), granters of dwellings, dispellers of 
sin, cognizant of many (things),increasing (through praise), and fulfillers (of 
desires), inasmuch as Aucatthya offer you (sacrificial) wealth, andyou protect 
(your worshippers) with unobjectionable aids, bestow uponus (our prayers). 
[Granter of dwellings:vasus-va_sayita_rau praja_na_m, causers of the habitations 
ofmanking; or, possessorsof vasu, wealth;dispellers of sin: the text has rudras 
(rudro rauti_ti satah-- Nirukta 10.5): fr. rut, pain or its cause, sin; and 
dru,what drives away; or, fr. rut, to sound, a reference perhaps to those who 
shout in battle].  

 1.158.02 Granters of dwellings, who may make you offerings so propitiatory of 
that your good will, that (invoked)by our adoration, to the site of the altar, 
you may entertain (favourable intentions towards us), and grant us kinerich in 
milk, coming with minds made up to grant the desires (of the worshipper). [To 
the site of the altar: padegoh = lit. to the place of the earth, i.e. the vedi 
or altar; rich in milk: revatih purandhih = lit. wealth-possessing,sustainers of 
the body; i.e. cows abounding in milk].  

 1.158.03 In like manner, As'vins, as your strong-drawn (car), able to cross 
(the sea), was placed,harnessed, inthe middle of the water, for (the rescue of) 
the son of Tugra, so may I attain to your preserving protection (withthe same 
alacrity) as a victorious hero (returns home) with bounding steeds. [Tugra: the 
text has arn.aso madhye= in the midst of the water].  

 1.158.04 May the praise addressed to you, As'vins, preserve the son of 
Ucatthya; let not those revolving (daysand nights) exhaust me; let not the ten 
times kindled fire consume me; let it not be, that one who is your,(dependant), 
bound (with bonds), should of himself bite the earth. [Should of himself bite 
the earth: tmanikha_date ks.a_m = lit. by himself he eats the earth; i.e. being 
unable, from age and infirmity, to walk, he crawls orrolls on the ground].  

 1.158.05 Let not the maternal waters swallow me, since the slaves hurled down 
this decrepit (old man); in likemanner as Traitana wounded his head, so has the 
slave wounded his own, and has struck his breast andshoulders. [vitaks.at = 
imperative, taks.atu: tasma_t sa da_sah svayam svaki_yam eva s'iras taks.atu, 
thereforemay that slave of his own accord wound his own head. The silent 
repetition of the hymn is said to be a sureprotection against a murderer, a 
wolf, or a tiger; particularly, a traveller is asked to repeat it for three 
times, untilsunrise].  

 1.158.06 Di_rghatamas, the son of Mamata_, has grown old after the tenth yuga 
(has passed); he is theBrahma_ of those who seek to obtain the object of their 
(pious) works; he is their charioteer. [ He is the Brahma_:apa_m artham 
yati_na_m brahma_ bhavati sa_rathih: he is the Brahma_, like Brahma 
(brahma_brahma_sadr.s'ah parivr.d.hah bhavati), the great, the chief; 
parivr.d.ha = the progenitor,or creator of people.apa_m = apka_rya_n.a_m, of 
those by whom offerings of water, obsequial libations to the manes are to be 
made;or, apa_m = apasam, of works, religious rites in general; sa_ratih = lit. a 
charioteer; i.e. a conveyer, to heaven, adeity]. 



 1.159.01 I glorify with sacred rites themighty Heaven and Earth, the augmenters 
of sacrifice, who (are to becontemplated) with devotion at holy ceremonies; 
those two, who, cherishing their worshippers as children, arevenerated by the 
devout, and therefore with favour bestow (upon us) desirable blessings. 
[Cherishing theirworshippers as children: devebhir ye devaputre sudam.sasa" = 
who having the gods for children, are reverencedby the gods; deva = yajama_na].  

 1.159.02 Verily I propitiate, by my invocations, the mind of the benevolent 
father, and the great and spontaneous(affection) of the mother (of all beings). 
The parents, with kindness, have secured, by their excellent protections,the 
vast and manifold immortality of their progeny. [The mother of all beings: 
Heaven, dyuloka is the father, andearth, pr.thivi, the mother: dyaur vah pita_, 
pr.thivi_ ma_ta_;ma_ta_ = antariks.a, the firmament(ma_ta_ntariks.am 
nirma_yantesminbhu_ta_ni-- Nirukta 2.8)].  

 1.159.03 These, your children, the performers of good works, and of goodly 
appearance, recognize you as theirgreat parents, through experience of former 
(kindness); preserve uninterrupted stability in the functions of yourprogeny, 
whether stationary or moving, (depending for existence) on none other than you. 
[On none other thanyou: advaya_vinah = having no second parent or protector, no 
other to depend upon for subsistence].  

 1.159.04 Those provident and intelligent sisters, (the rays of light), 
conceived of the same womb, (ever) united(with each other), and dwelling in the 
same abode, metre out (all things); knowing (their functions), andbright-
shining, they spread in ever new (directions) throughout the radiant firmament. 
[The epithets are to agreewith te, they two;but some epithers are in plura, not 
the dual: te ma_yinah supracetasah, kavayah sudi_tyah;some are in the dual: 
sayoni, samokasa_; the plurals seem to imply another substantive: ras'mayah, 
rays of light:e.g., supracetasah = prakars.en.a cetitum s'akta_ ras'mayah, rays 
able distinctly to apprehend; sudi_tayahudyotana_h, ras'mayah, rising rays; the 
dual s are consistently referred to 'heaven and earth': samokasa_, bothdwelling 
together in the same space: dyu pr.thivyor ekasmin neva_ vaka_s'aru_pe a_ka_s'e 

 1.159.05 We solicit today of the divine sun, his favour being propitiated, that 
wealth which is desirable. BenignantHeaven and Earth, bestow upon us riches, 
(consisting of) habitations and hundreds (of cattle and the like). 


 1.160.01 Those two, the divine Heaven and Earth, are the diffusers of happiness 
on all, encouragers of truth,able to sustain the water (of the rains), 
auspicious of birth, and energetic (in action); in the interval betweenwhom 
proceeds the pure and divine Sun for (the discharge of his) duties.  

 1.160.02 Wide-spreading, vast, unconnected, the father and mother (of all 
beings), they two preservethe worlds.Resolute, as if (for the good) of embodied 
(beings), are Heaven and Earth, and the father ahs invested evry thingwith 
(visible) forms.  

 1.160.03 The pure and the resolute son of (these) parents, the bearer (of 
rewards), sanctifies the worlds by hisintelligence;. as well as the cow (the 
earth), and the vigorous bull (the heaven), and daily milks the pellucid milk(of 
the sky). [The bearer of rewards: sa vahni putrah pitroh: vahni = fire or 
Agni;or, A_ditya, the Sun, of whomvahni is an epithet, the bearer of the rewards 
of pious rites, phalasya vod.ha_].  

 1.160.04 He it is, amongst gods (the most divine), amongst (pious) works the 
most pious, who gave birth to theall-delighting heaven and earth; who measured 
them both, and, for the sake of holy rites, propped them up withundecaying 

 1.160.05 Glorified by us, grant to us, Heaven and Earth abundant food and great 
strength; whereby we may dailymultiply mankind; bestow upon us commendable 


 1.161.01 Is this our senior or our junior who has come (to us); has he come 
upon a message (from the gods);what is it we should say? Agni,brother, we revile 
not the ladle which is of exalted race; verily we assert the dignityof the 
wooden (implement). [The legend: the three R.bhus were engaged in a sacrifice 
and about to drink theSoma; the gods sent Agni to see what they were doing. Agni 
noticed that they resembled each other; Agniassumed a like form. The hymn refers 
to this form, calling himbrother, and questionign his comparative age. Thenext 
hymn states the purpose of Agni's visit is to order the conversion of one spoon 
or ladle, camasa, used fordrinking Soma, or for libations, into four spoons].  

 1.161.02 Make fourfold the single ladle; so the gods command you; and for that 
purpose have I come, sons ofSudhanvan; if you accomplish this, you will be 
entitled to sacrifices along with the gods.  

 1.161.03 Then said they, in answer to Agni, the messenger (of the gods). 
Whatever is to be done, whether ahorse is to be made, or a car is to be made, or 
a cow is to be made, or the two (old parents) are to be madeyoung, having done 
all these (acts), Brother Agni, we are then ready to do (what you desire) to be 
done. [cf.su_ktas 20, 110 and 111 which relate the marvelsof the R.bhus].  

 1.161.04 So doing R.bhus, you inquired: where, indeed, is he who came to us as 
a messenger? When Tvas.t.a_observed the one ladle become four, he was 
immediately lost amongst the women. [gna_su antarnya_naje; theverb is explained: 
nyakto abhu_t; the combination of ni and anj is perhaps the converse of vyan~j, 
to be manifest,i.e. to be concealed, indistinct, or invisible. gna_ = stri_ 
(mena gna_ iti stri_n.a_m--Nirukta 3.21); str.yama_tma_nam amanyata = he, 
Tvas.t.a_, fancied himself; woman, that is, he felt humbled, as feeble as a 

 1.161.05 When Tvas.t.a_ said: let us slay those who have profaned the ladle, 
(designed) for the drinking of thegods; then they made use of other names for 
one another as the libation was poured out; and the maiden(mother) propitiated 
them by different appellations. [Then they made us of other names: a legend 
accounts forthe origin of the names of the chief officiating priests; to evade 
the indignation of Tvas.t.a_, the R.bhus assumedthe titles: adhvaryu, hota_ and 
udgata_;an individual engaged in priestly functions at a sacrifice is to be 
alwaysaddressed by these titles, and never by his own name; propitiated themby 
different appellations: anyair ena_nkanya_ na_mabhih sparat: kanya_ = 
svotpa_dayitri_ ma_ta_, a mother self-engendering].  

 1.161.06 Indra has caparisoned his horses; the As'vins have harnessed their 
car; Br.haspati has accepted theomniform (cow); therefore, R.bhu, Vibhva and 
Va_ja, go the gods, doers of good deeds, enjoy your sacrificialportion.  

 1.161.07 Sons of Sudhanvan, from a hideless (cow) you have formed a living one; 
by your marvellous acts youhave made your aged parents young; from one horse you 
have fabricated another; harness now your chariot,and repair unto the gods.  

 1.161.08 They, (the gods), have said, sons of Sudhanvan, drink of this water, 
(the Soma); or drink that which hasbeen filtered through the mun~ja grass; or, 
if you be pleased with neither of these, be exhilarated (by that whichis drunk) 
at the third (daily) sacrifice. [R.bhus may be participants of the libations 
offered at dawn or at noon; theright of the R.bhus to share in the third, or 
evening sacrifice is always acknowledged].  

 1.161.09 Waters are the most excellent said one (of them). Agni is that most 
excellent, said another; the thirddeclared to many the Earth (to be the most 
excellent), and thus speaking true things the R.bhus divided the ladle.[The 
earth: vardhayanti_m = a line of clouds or the earth: vadhah arkah (Nirukta 

 1.161.10 One pours the red water (the blood) upon the ground; one cuts the 
flesh, divided into fragments by thechopper; and a third seperates the excrement 
from the other parts; in what manner may the parents (of thesacrifice) render 
assistance to their sons? [The R.bhus are identified with the priests employed 
in the sacrifice ofa victim; the parents of the sacrifice: the parents pitr.s, = 
the institutor of the ceremony and his wife].  

 1.161.11 R.bhus, leaders (of the rains), you have caused the grass to grow upon 
the high places; you havecaused the waters to flow over the low places; for (the 
promotion of) good works; as you have reposed for awhile in the dwelling of the 
unapprehensible (Sun), so desist not today from (the discharge of) this 
(yourfunction). [R.bhus are identified in this and following hymns with the rays 
of the sun, as the instruments of therain and the causes of fertility; 
a_dityaras'mayo api r.bhava ucyante: (Nirukta 11.16); unapprehensible 
Sun:agohyasya gr.he: agohya = a name of the sun (Nirukta); who is not to be 
hidden, aguhani_ya;or, agrahan.i_ya,not to be apprehended, literally or 
metaphorically; so desist not: idam na_nugacchatha; anusr.tya na 
gacchatha,having come forth, go not away without doing this,idam, your office of 
sending down rain for as long a period asyou repose in the solar orb; a truism 
is explained in Nirukta: ya_vat tatra bhavatha na ta_vadiha bhavatha, aslong as 
you are there, you are not here].  

 1.161.12 As you glide along enveloping the regions (in clouds); where, then, 
are the parents (of the world)?curse him who arrests your arm; reply sternly to 
him who speaks disrespectfully (to you). [The parents of theworld: the sun and 
the moon, the protectors of the world, which, during the rains, are hidden by 
the clouds; whospeaks disrespectfully:  yah pra_bravi_t pra tasma_ abravi_tana: 
pra prefixed to bru_ = either to speak harshly orkindly, to censure or to 

 1.161.13 R.bhus, reposing in the solar orb, you inquire: who awakens us, 
unapprehensive (Sun), to this office (ofsending rain). The Sun replies: the 
awakener is the wind; and the year (being ended), you again today light upthis 
(world). [The awakener is the wind: s'va_nam bodhayita_ram = the awakener is the 
dog; but, s'va_nam =antarks.e svasantam va_yum, the reposer in the firmament, 
the wind; sam.vatsare idam adya_ vyakhyata, youhave made this world today 
luminous, after the year has expired; i.e. the rainy season has passed, the rays 
ofthe sun and moon are again visible].  

 1.161.14 Sons of Strength, the Maruts, desirous of your coming, advance from 
the sky; Agni comes (to meet you)from the earth; the wind traverses the 
firmament; and Varun.a comes with undulating waters. 


 1.162.01 Let neither Mitra nor Varun.a, Aryaman, A_yu, Indra, R.bhuks.in,nor 
the Maruts, censure us; when weproclaim in the sacrifice the virtus of the swift 
horse sprung from the gods. [a_yu = va_yu (a_yuh satataganta_va_yuh, vaka_ralopo 
va_); r.bhuks.in = Indra; but,here Praja_pati, he in whom the r.bhus,or the 
devas, abide(ks.iyanti); sprung from the gods: devaja-tasya = born as the type 
of various divinities, who are identified withdifferent parts (e.g. us.a_ va_ 
as'vasya medhyasya s'irah: Br.hada_ran.yaka Upanis.ad 1.1.1); legend: thehorse's 
origin from the sun, either direct, or through the agency of the Vasus: sura_d 
as'vam vasavo niratas.t.a].  

 1.162.02 When they, (the priests), bring the prepared offering to the presence 
(of the horse), who has beenbathed and decorated with rich (trappings), the 
various-coloured goat going before him, bleating, becomes anacceptable offering 
to Indra and Pu_s.an. [The prepared offering: ra_tim-gr.bhi_ta_m = lit. the 
seized wealth; theoffering to be made for the horse; pu_s.an = Agni; the goat is 
to be tied to the front of the horse at the sacrificialpost, such a goat, black-
necked, kr.s.nagri_va (a_gneyah kr.s.n.agri_vah: Taittiri_ya Sam.hita_ 5.5.22), 
beingalways regarded as an a_gneya pas'u, or victim sacred to Agni, and to be 
offered to him (Ka_tya_yana Su_tra98). A black goat is also dedicated to 
pu_s.an, along with soma (Yajus. xxix.58; but, he is also to be attached tothe 
na_bhi or middle of the horse (Yajus. xxiv.1)].  

 1.162.03 This goat, the portion of Pu+s.an fit for all the gods, is brought 
first with the fleet courser, to thatTvas.t.a_ may prepare him along with the 
horse, as an acceptable preliminary offering for the (sacrificial) food.[The 
portion of Pu_s.an: he is to be offered in sacrifice to Pu_s.an or Agni; 
Tvas.t.a_ = sarvasyotpa_daka, theproducer of all forms; tvas.t.a_ ru_pa_n.i 
vikaroti (Taittiri_ya Sam.hita_ 1.5.92); or, identified wiithAgni;preliminary 
offering purod.a_s'am = offering of cakes and butter; purasta_d-da_tavyam, that 
which is to befirst offered].  

 1.162.04 When the priests at the season (of the ceremony), lead forth the 
horse, the offering devoted to thegods, thrice round (the sacrificial fire); 
then the goat, the portion of Pu_s.an, goes first, announcing the sacrificerto 
the gods. [The goat is to be first immolated].  

 1.162.05 The invoker of the gods, the minister of the rite, the offerer of the 
oblation, the kindler of the fire, thebruiser of the Soma, the director of the 
ceremony, the saage (superintendent of the whole); do you replenish therivers by 
this well-ordered, well-conducted, sacrifice. [The invoker of the gods: 
designations applied to eight ofthe sixteen priests employed at a solemn rite: 
the two first are: hota_ and adhvaryu; avaya_j = pratiprastha_ta_,who brings and 
places the offering; agnimindha = agni_dh, the kindler of the fire; 
gra_vagra_bha = the praiser ofthe stones that bruise the Soma,or he who applies 
the stones to that purpose; s'am.sta_ = pras'a_sta_; suvipra =Brahma_ (brahmaiko 
ja_te ja_te vidya_m vadatibrahma_ sarvavidyah sarva veditumarhati: Nirukta 1.8); 
replenish the rivers: vaks.an.a_ apr.n.adhvam, nadi_h pu_rayata, fill the 
rivers; the consequence ofsacrifice being rain and fertility; or, it may mean, 
offer rivers of butter, milk, curds, and the like].  

 1.162.06 Whether they be those who cut the (sacrificial) post, or those who 
bear the post, or those who fastenthe rings on the top of the post, to which the 
horse (is bound); or those who prepare the vessels in which thefood of the horse 
is dressed; let the exertions of them all fulfil our expectation. [The post: 
twenty-one posts, ofdifferent kinds of wood, each twenty-one cubits long, are to 
be set up, to which the different animals are to befastened, amounting to three 
hundred and forty-nine, besides two hundred and sixty wild animals, making a 
totalof six hundred and nine (Ka_tya_yana); the text seems to refer to a single 
post: cas.a_lam ye as'vayu_pa_yataks.ati: cas.a_la = a wooden ring, or bracelet, 
on the top of the sacrificial post; or, it was perhaps a metal ring atthe foot 
of the post].  

 1.162.07 May my desire be of itself accomplished, such as it has been 
entertained, that the smooth-backed steedshould come to (gratify) the 
expectations of the gods; we have made him well-secured for the nutriment of 
thegods; let the wise saints now rejoice.  

 1.162.08 May the halter and the heel-ropes of the fleet courser, and the head-
ropes, the  girths, and any other(part of the harness); and the grass that has 
been put into his mouth; may all these be with you, (horse), amongstthe gods. 
[The heel-ropes: da_ma = a rope fastened round the horse's neck; sanda_na = one 
that fastens hisfeet; any other part of the harness: s'is.an.ya_ ras'ana_ 
rajjuh: s'irs.an.ya_ = the rope that is fastened to thehead, the reins; rajjuh = 

 1.162.09 Whatever the flies may eat of the raw flesh of the horse; whatever 
(grease) is smeared upon the brushor upon the axe; (what is smeared) upon the 
hands or the nails of the immolator, may all this be with you, (horse),amongst 
the gods. [Whatever is smeared: svarau svadhitau riptam, or liptam, smeared: the 
flesh that issmeared;or, unguent with which the animal is anointed; svaru = 
implement used used in anointing; svarun.a_pas'um anakti = grease of fat; 
svadhiti = axe; explained elliptically: chedanaka_le,or avada_naka_le, at the 
timeof cutting up or dissecting, or, pas'uchedana-sa_dhana a_si_h = a sword or 
knife, the instrument of cutting up thevictim; Ni_ti-man~jari cites a text, in 
which the sacrificers are vais.n.avas: dhanyaste vais.n.ava_ deva_n 
yajantepas'orami_s.am s'amiturnakha hastastham deves.t.am maks.ika_sitam = happy 
are the vais.n.avas, who worshipthe gods with the consecrated flesh of an 
animal, adhering to the nails and hands of the immolator, and eaten byflies; 
maks.ika_ = pyrites ores].  

 1.162.10 Whatever undigested grass fall from this belly; whatever particle of 
raw flesh may remain; let theimmolators make the whole free from defect, and so 
cook the pure (offering) that it may be perfectly dressed.[Particle: gandhan = 
les'ah, a little part; may be perfectly dressed: medham s'r.tapa_kam pacantu = 
let them cookthe pure flesh with perfect cooking; i.e. make it fit for the gods, 
and not done toomuch or toolittle, as may be fit forpitr.s and men].  

 1.162.11 Whatever (portion) of your slaughtered (body) fall from your carcass 
when it is being roasted by the fire,(escaping) from the spit; let it not be 
left on the ground,nor on the (sacred) grass, but let it (all) be given to 
thelonging gods. [ga_tra_d agnina_ pacyama_na_d abhi s'u_lam:in the preceding 
hymn, s'r.tapa_kam = boiling; anda ukha, a pot or cauldron is specified in hymn 
13 for the same purpose; this use is at variance with the use ofs'u_la or spit; 
the inference is that part was boiled and part was roasted; it is suggested that 
the portion that fallsmay be the rasa, the dripping, which is to be received 
upon darbha grass, afterwards probably to be thrown onthe fire].  

 1.162.12 Let their exertions be for our good who watch the cooking of the 
horse; who say, it is fragrant; thereforegive us some; who solicit the flesh of 
the horse as alms. [Therefore give us some: ya i_m a_huh suribhir nirhareti= ye 
cainam s'obhana gandho atah kin~cid asmabhyam dehi = who say of it, it is 
fragrant, therefore, give ussome; or, give to to the gods; nirhara = take off, 
or give, having no government].  

 1.162.13 The stick that is dipped into the cauldron in which the flesh is 
boiled; the vessels that distribute thebroth; the covers of the dishes, the 
skewers, the knives, all do honour (to the horse). [The stick: 
i_ks'an.amma_m.spacanya_ ukha_yah; i_ks'an.am = pa_kapari_ks.a_ sa_dhanam 
ka_s.t.ham, a piece of wood, animplement for testing if the cooking is effected; 
the vessels: pa_tra_n.i yu_s.n.a a_secana_ni = the vessels thatare sprinklers of 
the boiled juice or broth, rasasya kvathitasya; the dishes: u_s.man.ya_ 
pidha_na_, coversconfining the heat; u_s.man.ya_ = vessels for confining the 
heat, u_s.maniva_ran.a_rha_n.i pa_tra_n.i;pidha_na_ = covers of the dishes, 
apidha_na_ caru_n.a_m; skewers: an:ka, slips of cane, vetasas'a_kha_, formarking 
the members of the horse as they are to be dissected. According to Ka_tya_yana, 
Su_tra 155, this is tobe done by the queens, or wives of the sacrificer, and 
their attendants, with one hundred and one needles orskewers, which may of gold, 
silve,or bronze or other metal, so embellished; the knives: su_na_h 
avada_nasa_dhana_h = implements of dissection, the svadhiti and others].  

 1.162.14 May the place of going forth, of tarrying, of rolling on the ground; 
the foot-fastening of the horse, (thewater) that he has drunk, the grass that he 
has eaten; may all these be thine among the gods.  

 1.162.15 Let not smoke-smelling Agni cause you, (horse), to utter sound; let 
not the glowing cauldron,odoriferous (with its contents), be overturned; the 
gods accept a horse that has been selected (for sacrifice); thathas been led 
(round the fire); that has been devoutly offered, and has been consecrated by 
(the exclamation),vas.at. [Let not: this may be addressed to the horse before 
the horse is killed; or, to the horse's limbs in processof cooking, to desire 
them not to boil too loud, that is, too fast, lest the fire split the cauldron; 
odoriferous: jaghrihtapena jighrati, smellling with heat].  

 1.162.16 The cloth which they spread as a covering for the horse; the golden 
(trappings with which theydecorate him), the head-ropes, the foot-ropes, all 
these they offer as acceptable to the gods. [As a covering forthe horse: at the 
time of putting the horse to death, the adhi_va_sa (cf. Ka_tya_yana Su_tra 145), 
a curtain isheld,behind which the principal queen lies through the night by the 
side of the horse].  

 1.162.17 Whoever has goaded you in your paces, either with heel or with whip, 
whilst nothing in your strength--all these (vexations) I pour out with holy 
prayers, as oblation with the ladle.  

 1.162.18 The axe penetrates the thirty-four ribs of the swift horse; the 
beloved of the gods, (the immolators), cutup (the horse) with skill, so that the 
limbs may be unperforated, and recapitulating joint by joint. [Thirty-four ribs: 
itis noted that other animals have only 24 ribs; unperforated: acchidra_ 
ga_tra_: the vis'asana karta_rah, ordissectors, are to utter the name of the 
parts, as heart, tongue,breast, as they divide them; and are to soseparate them 
that they may not have holes or perforations, they may not be mangled].  

 1.162.19 There is one immolator of the radiant horse, which is Time; there are 
two that hold him fast; such ofyour limbs as I cut up in due season, I offer 
them, made into balls (of meat) upon the fire. [Time: r.tuh, properlyseason; by 
metonymy, time; there are two: day and night, or heaven and earth].  

 1.162.20 Let not your precious body grieve you, who are going verily (to the 
gods); let not the axe linger in yourbody; let not the greedy and unskilful 
(immolator) missing the members, mangle your limbs needlessly with hisknife.  

 1.162.21 Verily at this moment you do not die; nor are you harmed; for you go 
by auspicious paths to the gods.The horses of Indra, the steeds of the Maruts 
shall be yoked (to their ears), and a courser shall be placed in theshaft of the 
ass of the As'vins (to bear you to heaven).  

 1.162.22 May this horse bring to us all-sustaining wealth, with abundance of 
cows of excellent horses, and ofmale offspring; may the spirited steed bring us 
exemption from wickedness; may this horse, offered in oblation,procure for us 
bodily vigour. [The spirited steed; aditi = not poor or mean, adi_na, as an 
epithet of as'va]. 


 1.163.01 Your great birth, O Horse, is to be glorified; whether first springing 
from the firmament or from the waterinasmuchas you have neighed (auspiciously), 
for you have the wings of the falcon and the limbs of the deer.[Spring from the 
firmament: samudra_d uta va_ puri_s.a_t = antariks.a, the firmament, and udaka, 
water;samudra = the sun].  

 1.163.02 Trita harnessed the horse which was given by yama; Indra first mounted 
him, and gandharva seized hisreins. Vasus, you fabricated the horse from the 
sun. [Trita = Va_yu, as pervading the three regions; Yama = Agni;gandharva = 
Soma; Vasus = demi-gods or personified solar rays; su_ra = a_dityaman.d.ala, the 
solar sphere].  

 1.163.03 Your horse is Yama and you are A_ditya; you are Trita by a mysterious 
act; you are associated withSoma. The sages have said there are three bindings 
of you in heaven. [By a mysterious act: guhyena vratenagopani_yena, durdina 
ru_pen.a va_ karman.a_ sarvatra vya_ptiru_pen.a, by a secret nature of a cloudy 
day,oran act of a universally penetrating character; the three bindings: 
bandhana_ni tri_n.i = utpattika_ran.a_ni, mediaof origin, that is the Vasus, 
A_ditya and heaven].  

 1.163.04 They have said that there are your bindings in heaven three upon 
earth; and three in the firmament.You declare to me, Horse, who are (one with) 
Varun.a, that which they have called your most excellent birth.[There upon 
earth: tri_n.yapsu = three in the waters; the three bindings are: food,site, 

 1.163.05 I have beheld, Horse, these your purifying (regions) these impressions 
of the feet of you who share inthe sacrifice; and here your auspicious reins, 
which are the protectors of the rite that preserve it.[avama_rjana_ni = the 
water with which the horse is sprinkled; s'apha_na_m nidha_na_, the place of 
sacrifice, orthe field  in which he is pastured; ras'ana_ r.tasya gopa_ = either 
the guards attending on the horse, or thepriests].  

 1.163.06 I recognize in my mind your form afar off, going from (the earth) 
below, by way of heaven, to the sun. Ibehold your head soaring aloft, and 
mountain quickly by unobstructed paths, unsullied by dust.  

 1.163.07 I behold your most excellent form coming eagerly to (receive) your 
food in your (holy) place of earth;when your attendant brings you nigh to the 
enjoyment (of the provender), therefore gredy, you devour the fodder.[The 
fodder: identical with the sun; applied to his acceptance of the oblations 
offered in the ceremony].  

 1.163.08 The car follows you, O Horse; men attend you; cattle follow you; the 
loveliness of maidens (waits) uponyou; troops of demi-gods following you have 
sought your friendship; the gods themselves have been admirers ofyour vigour 
[Loveliness of maidens: bhagah kani_na_m = kanya_na_m saubha_gyam or 

 1.163.09 His mane is of gold; his feet are of bronze; and fleet as thought, 
Indra is his inferior (in speed). Thegods have come to partake ofhis (being 
offered as) oblation; the first who mounted the horse was Indra. [Hismane is of 
gold: hirn.yas'r.n:ga = lit. golden-horned; but figuratively, golden-maned].  

 1.163.10 The full-haunched, slender-waistd, high-spirited, and celestial 
coursers (of the sun), gallop along likeswans in rows, when the horses spread 
along the heavenly path. [i_rma_nta_sah silika madhya ma_sah =thin-ended or 
thin-haunched, and plump-waisted; the allusion is to a troop or herd of horses].  

 1.163.11 Your body, horse, is made for motion; your mind is rapid (in 
intention) as the wind; the hairs  (of yourmane) are tossed in manifold 
directions; and spread beautiful in the forests. [The horse is identified with 
Agni,whose flames consume the forests].  

 1.163.12 The swift horse approaches the place of immolation, meditating with 
mind intent upon the gods; thegoat bound to him is led before him; after him 
follow the priests and the singers. [The goat bound to him: ajahpuroni_yate 
na_bhirasya_nu pas'ca_t kavayo yanti rebha_h: na_bhi is connected with aja, 
implying nahanam, abinding; or, as not detached from him; anu andpas'ca_t are 
connected = following after; kavih mani_s.i_ (Nirukta3.15.10), i.e. the priests; 
rebhah jarita_ (Nirukta 3.16.1), i.e. the singers; stota_rah, i.e. the praisers 
follow thegoat fastened to the horse's waist].  

 1.163.13 The horse proceeds to that assembly which is most excellent; to the 
presence of his father and hismother, (heaven and earth). Go, (Horse), today 
rejoicing to the gods, that (the sacrifice) may yield blessings tothe donor. 


 1.164.01 I have beheld the Lord of men with seven sons; of which delightful and 
benevolent (deity), who is theobject of our invocation, there is an all-
pervading middle brother, and a third brother, well fed with (oblations of)ghee. 
[Seven sons: seven solar rays; A_ditya, the seventh son of Aditi; a third 
brother: V_yu and Agni, theyounger brothers of A_ditya: Parames'vara = A_ditya, 
the three sons refer to the attributes of Parames'vara ofcreating, preserving 
and destroying]. [The su_kta enunciates the doctrines of veda_nta, the spiritual 
unity of Brahma_ and the universe; A_ditya or thesun, is glorified aqnd 
identified with all creation. S'aunaka explains the su_kta at the level of 
repentance for acrime: if a bra_hman.a has committed theft, he may expiate the 
offence by fasting three nights and repeating thesu_kta silently].  

 1.164.02 They yoke the seven (horses) to the one-wheeled car; one horse, named 
seven, bears it along; thethree-axled wheel is undecaying, never loosened, and 
in it all these regions of the universe abide. [One-wheeledcar: either the orb 
of the sun, or time, or a year; the seven horses may be the seven solar rays,or 
the sixseasons, with their aggregation and year; or the six doublemonths, and 
the intercalary month; or the seven daysof the week; the wheels of the car, as 
typical and identical are said to be one; one horse; eko as'vo saptana_ma= the 
Sun or A_ditya, either as the absorber of the seven flavours, or as praised by 
the seven r.s.i; it may be apun, since sapta = a horse, seven; three-axled 
wheel: the day with its three sandhya_s; or time, past, presentand fugure; all 
these regions: all things are dependent upon time, which of itself is 
imperishable: ana_dinidhanahka_lah, time is without beginning or end].  

 1.164.03 The seven who preside over this sevenpwheeled chariot (are) the seven 
horses who draw it; sevensisters ride in it together, and in are deposited the 
seven forms of utterance. [The seven: either the solar rays orthe seven portions 
of a year: ayana (solstine season), month, fortnight, day, night, hour; seven 
horses: sevenwheels and seven horses are the seven solar rays; seven sisters: 
either the rays of the run, or the six seasonsand the aggregate year of the six 
double and one intercalary month; seven forms of utterance: seven notes ofmusic 
as employed in chanting the praises of the Sun; or, if gava_m is used in the 
sense of water, the sevenforms may be the seven divine rivers].  

 1.164.04 Who has seen the primeval (being) at the time of his being born; what 
is that endowed with substancewhich the unsubstantial sustains; from earth are 
the breath and blood; but where is the soul; who may repair tothe sage to ask 
this? [Tha endowed with subtance: asthanvantam yad anastha_ bibharti = lit., 
that which havingbone the boneless sustains; the boneless is the prakr.ti of the 
sa_n:khya, or the ma_ya_ of the veda_ntins, whichis formless matter, or 
spiritual illusion, from which the material and visible world proceeds; where is 
the soul:bhu_mya_ asur-asr.g-a_tma_ kva svit: bhu_mi = sthu_la s'ari_ra, gross 
body; asuh = breath, the su_ks.mas'ari_ra, or suble body; asr.j = blood, the 
aggregate elements of which the body is formed; a_tma_ or cetana_,the thinking 
principle, although connected with gross and subtle form, is nowhere perceptible 
as a separateobject, and not to be apprehended, either by pupil or teacher].  

 1.164.05 Immature (in understanding) undiscerning in mind, I inquire of those 
things which are hidden (even)from the gods; (what are) the seven threads which 
the sages have spread to envelop the sun, in whom all abide?[Immature: pa_kah = 
lit. ripening, being or making mature; here, it is equated with paktavyah, what 
is to bematured; apakvamatiraham, I of immature mind; seven threads: sapta 
tantu_n = seven forms of the somasacrifice, or the seven metres of the vedas; 
the seen: vatse bas.kaye adhi: vatse = sarvasya niva_sa bhu_te;bas.kaye = 
a_ditye; the lit. meaning is, a yearling calf, just as vatsa also means a calf; 
the term vatse is alreadyused, hence, bas.kaya = time or the sun].  

 1.164.06 Ignorant, I inquire of the sages who know (the truth); not as one 
knowing (do I inquire), for the sake of(gaining) knowledge; what is that one 
alone, who has upheld these six spheres in the form of the unborn? [Whatis that 
one alone: yas tastambha s'ad ima_ raja_m.si ajasya ru_pe kim apisvidekam: the 
'one' is: 1) the orb of theungenerated sun on which the six seasons depend; 2) 
satyaloka, whence there is no return, the stay of the othersix worlds or 
regions; 3) the sole form of the unborn creator].  

 1.164.07 Let him who knows this (truth) quickly declare it; the mysterious 
condition of the beautiful ever-moving(sun); the rays shed (their) milk from his 
(exalted) head investing his form with radiance; they have drunk up thewater by 
the paths (by which they were poured forth). [By the paths: the solar rays, 
which sedn down rain andalso reabsorb water].  

 1.164.08 The mother, (earth), worships the father, (sun), with holy rites, for 
the sake of water; but he hasanticipated (her wants) in his mind; whereupon 
desirous of progeny, she is penetrated by the dews ofimpregnation, and, (all) 
expectant of abundance, exchange words (of congratulation). [Exchange 
words:metaphocial account of the agency of the sun sending rain upon the earth 
and its consequent fertility].  

 1.164.09 The mother, (sky), was associated in (sustaining) the burden of the 
fulfiller of desires, (the earth); theembryo (water) rested within the (womb of 
the) clouds; thereupon the calf bellowed, and beheld the omniformcow in the 
three combinations. [The calf bellowed: the cloud thundered; the omniform cow: 
vis'varu_pyam ga_mtris.u yojanes.u = the earth diversified by various crops in 
consequence of the co-operation of the cloud, thewind, and the rays of the sun].  

 1.164.10 The one sole (sun), having three mothers and three fathers, stood on 
high; none ever over-weary him;the (gods) on the summit of the sky take counsel 
respecting him in language all-comprehending (but) notextending to all. [Three 
mothers and three fathers: the three worlds, earth, sky , heaven; and the three 
deitiespresiding over them: agni, va_yu, su_rya; in language: vis'vavidam va_cam 
avis'vaminva_m = speech ordiscourse, knowing all, or which may be known by all; 
or, that which does not extend to all, a-sarvavya_pini_m;speech = thunder: 
va_cam garjitalaks.an.am].  

 1.164.11 The twelve-spoked wheel, of the true (sun) revolves round the heavens, 
and never (tends) to decay;seven hundred and twenty children in pais, Agni, 
abide in it. [Twelve-spoked wheel: the twelve signs of thezodiac: dva_das'a_ram 
dva_das'a san:khya_kames.a_dira_s'ya_tmakaih ma_sa_tmakairva_ 
araihratha_n:ga_vayavayairyuktam; the term may also mean twelve months; seven 
hundred and twenty children:nights and days; three hundred and sixty of each: 
sapta ca vai s'ata_ni vim.s'atis'ca sam.vatsarasya_hora_tra_hsa es.ohah smma_nah 
(Aitareya A_ran.yaka 3.2.1)].  

 1.164.12 They have termed the five-footed, twelve-formed parent, Puris.in, when 
in the further hemisphere of thesky; and others have termed in Arpita, when in 
the hither (portion of the sky); shining in his seven-wheeled car),each (wheel) 
having six spokes. [Puris.in: fr. puris.a, water; puris.in = the sun, as the 
source of rain; the first fivefeet are the five seasons, the dewy and cold 
seasons forming one; the twelve forms are the twelve months, ortwelve a_dityas; 
arpita = adhi_nam or para_yattam, dependent upon, and applicable to the sun, as 
dependentupon, or influenced by, the course of the year, or recurrence of the 
solstices; moving quick or slow according tohis southern or northern 
declination; in the hither portion of the sky: upare = where living creatures 
aredelighted--uparamanta asmin pra_n.inah; or, it may mean a year, va_ 
sam.vatsarah; it may be related to the firstline of the hymn: divah pare ardhe, 
in the further part of the sky; upara may imply the nearer or hither 
part,referring to the two ayanas, or solstices; the seven wheels are the seven 
rays, or the seven days of the week,the six spokes are the six seasona].  

 1.164.13 All beings abide in this five-spoked revolving wheel; the heavily-
loaded axle is never heated; its eternalcompact nave is never worn away. [Five-
spoked wheel: the five seasons; or the cycle of five years].  

 1.164.14 The even-fellied, undecaying wheel, repeatedly revolves; ten, united 
on the upper surface, bear (theworld); the orb of the sun proceeds, invested 
with water, and in it are all beings deposited. [Ten: the ten organsof sense, or 
he five lokapa_las, guardians of the world, and five classes of human beings; 
upper surface:utta_na_ya_m, or the upper part; u_rdhvatana_ya_m, or the pole, 
i_s.a_ya_m; or the earth spread above, upari_vistr.ta bh_mya_m; the orb of the 
sun: su_ryasya caks.us. = lit., the eye of the sun, either the display of 
thenature or radiance of the sun, or his orb, being, as it were, the eye of all; 
sarvasya caks.uh stha_ni_yam va_man.d.alam].  

 1.164.15 Of those that are born together, sages have called the seventh single-
born; for six are twins, and aremoveable, and born of the gods; their desirable 
(properties), placed severally in their proper abode, are various(also) in form, 
and revolve for (the benefit of) that which is stationary. [Six are twins: six 
seasons, made of twomonths each; the seventh is the intercalary month, which has 
no a_ditya to preside over it; the six seasons arealso r.si, r.s.ayah = 
ganta_rah, goers; a r.s.i is present in the sun's car in each of the twelve 
months; revolve forthe benefit: the seasons are diversified by classes of 
temperature, produce, for the benefit of the world].  

 1.164.16 They have called thes, my virtuous females, males; he who has eyes 
beholds; the blind man sees not;he whois a sage son understands this, and he who 
discriminates is the father of the father. [Males: an instance ofgrammatical 
mysticism: ras'mi, a ray of the sun, is here personified as a female, is 
properly a noun masculine; thefather of the father: the sun is to be considered 
as the father of the rays of light, which are the cause of rain, orthe fosterers 
or parent of the earth; the sun is, therefore, the father of the father, and he 
who knows this isidentical with the sun].  

 1.164.17 The cow, holding her calf underneath with her fore-feet, and then 
above with her hind-feet, has risenup; whither is she gone; to whom has she 
turned back when half-way; where does she bear young; it is notamidst the herd. 
[The cow is the burnt-offering and the calf is Agni and the positions of the two 
indicate thestation of the offerer with respect to the sun; or, the cow may 
typify the solar rays collectively and the calf theworshipper].  

 1.164.18 He who knows the protector of this (world) as the inferior associated 
with the superior, and the superiorassociated with the inferior, he is, as it 
were, a sage; but who in this world can expound (it); whence is the divinemind 
in its supremacy engendered.   

 1.164.19 Those which (the sages) have termed descending, they have also termed 
ascending; and those theyhave termed ascending, they have also called 
descending; and those (orbits) which your, Soma and Indra, havemade, bear along 
the worlds like (oxen) yoked to a twain. [Those which: the rays of light, or the 
planets changingtheir relative position as they revolve; Soma and Indra: the 
moon and the sun; Indra is one of the twelve A_dityasor identical here with the 

 1.164.20 Two birds associated together, and mutual friends, take refuge in the 
same tree; one of them eats thesweet fig; the other abstaining from food, merely 
looks on. [Two birds associated together: the vital and supremespirit, jiva_tma_ 
and parama_tma_, are here alluded to using the metaphor of the two birds; eats 
the sweet fig:pippalam sva_du atti: the vital spirit enjoys the rewards of acts. 
dvau dvau pratis.t.hitau sukr.taudharmakarta_rau: two species of souls to be 
intended as abiding in one body (Nirukta 14.30)].  

 1.164.21 Where the smooth-gliding (rays), cognizant (of their duty), distil the 
perpetual portion of ambrosia(water); there has the lord and steadfast protector 
all beings consigned me, (though) immature (in wisdom).[Smooth-gliding: supran.a 
= supatanah s'obhana gamana ras'mayah, the goers easily or beautifully, the rays 
ofthe sun; consigned me: A_ditya has admitted, or admits me, the reciter of the 
hymn, to the sphere of the sun].  

 1.164.22 In the tree into which the smooth-gliding (rays) feeders on the sweet 
(produce), enter, and again bringforth (light) over all, they have called the 
fruit sweet, but he partakes not of it who knows not the protector (of 
theuniverse). [The tree: the orb or region of the sun; he partakes not of it, 
who: tan na unna s'ad yah pitaram naveda: pitaram = pa_laka, cherisher, 
protector; the sun, the supreme spirit].  

 1.164.23 They who know the station of Agni upon the earth; the station of Va_yu 
that was fabricated from thefirmament; and that station of the Sun which is 
placed in heaven, obtain immortality. [yadga_yatre adhiga_yatram tras.tubha_d 
va_ trais.t.ubham: perhaps, a mystical reference to the text of the Veda, a 
knowledge ofwhich is essential to final felicity; ga_yatra is derived from 
ga_yatri_ the earth; it is the pada, or station of Agni;trais.t.ubha is 
identified with the firmament, and the place of Va_yu; ja_gat is identified with 
the sun: ja_gat, thesolar region (Taittiri_ya Sam.hita_].  

 1.164.24 He constructs the prayer with the ga_yatri_ metre; with the prayer (he 
constructs) the Soma, and withthe tris.t.ubh metre the couplet (or triplet); 
with the couplet (or triplet) he constructs the hymn with (verses of) twoor four 
distichs; and with the syllable they construct the seven metres. [ga_yatren.a 
parimimi_te arkam: he,severally measures the mantra with the ga_yatri_ metre;or, 
a part being put for the whole, with any Vedic metre;tr.s.t.ubhena va_kam: va_ka 
signifies either dvr.ca or tr.ca ru_pam, the form or phrase of two or three 
hymns; or,it may imply a su_kta; va_kena va_kam: the first va_ka is interpreted 
as su_kta, when repeated it implies thevarga or anuva_ka; if va_ka signifies a 
couplet or triplet, is may be applicable to the su_kta; aks.arena saptava_n.i_h 
= the seven generic metres of the Veda with the syllable, the syllable being the 
chief element of themetre; ga_yatri_ has eight syllables; trs.t.ubh has eleven 
syllables; jagati_ has twelve syllables. The classificationof the metrical 
system of the Vedas is ascribed to Brahma_ or the r.s.is, the priests].  

 1.164.25 With the hymns in the jagati_ metre he fixed the rain in heaven, and 
surveyed the Sun in the rathantara.They have declared three divisions of the 
ga_yatri_ metre, whence it surpasses (all the rest) in force andmajesty. [Fixed 
the rain in heaven: sindhum dvi astabha_yat: Brahma_, at the time of creation, 
fixed the shederof  water, udakasya syandakam, in the sky; or, a refernce is to 
A_ditya: ja_gato va_ es.a ya es.a tapati: he maybe termed ja_gata who gives heat 
(to the world); rathantara: a portion of the Sa_ma; Praja_pati beheld the sun 
inthe hymn which sustains it: tada_dha_ra bhu_ta_ya_m r.ci; ga_yatra metre: 
ga_yatrasya samidhas tisra a_huh:samidh signifies pada, a division of a hymn; of 
which ga_yatri_ metre has three].  

 1.164.26 I invoke the cow that is easily milked, that the handy milker may milk 
her; may Savita_ accept this ourexcellent libation, that his heat may (thereby) 
increase; it is for this, verily, that I earnestly invoke him. [The cow isthe 
cloud, the milk is the rain; Va_yu or win, is the milker; the metaphor is 
continued in the following three hymns,where the calf is the world or mankind 
anxious for the rain, as the cause of abundance].  

 1.164.27 She comes lowing, abounding in rich (products), desiring her calf in 
her mind;may this cow grant hermilk to the As'vins; may she thrive for our great 

 1.164.28 The cow bellows for her calf, (who stands) with winking eyes, and lows 
as (she proceeds to lick hisforehead; she utters a cry, as, anxious, she sees 
the moisture in the corners of his mouth, and nourishes him withher milk.  

 1.164.29 He, too, bellows, and the cow utters inarticulate sounds, as, 
encompassed by him, she repairs to herstall; (influenced) by her instincts, she 
acts like a human being, and, radiant, manifests her nature. [Life reposes:anat 
s'aye ji_vam ejat, life-breathing comes to repose, reposes or abides].  

 1.164.30 Life endowed with breath, eager (in discharge of its functions), 
reposes, steady, in the midst of its(proper) abodes; the life of the mortal 
body, cognate with the mortal frame, endures immortal (sustained) by(obsequial) 
offerings. [By obsequial offerings: svadha_bhih putra kr.taih, by offerings made 
by the sons].  

 1.164.31 I have beheld the unwearied protector of the universe, the sun, 
travelling upwards, the downwards byvarious paths;invested with aggregative and 
diffusive radiance, he revolves in the midst of the regions.  

 1.164.32 He who has made (this state of things) does not comprehend it; he who 
has beheld it, has it also verilyhidden (from him); he, whilst yet enveloped in 
his mother's womb, is subject to many births, and has enteredupon evil. [He who 
has: Man; Nirukta, considers wind as the cause of rain and alludes to it 

 1.164.33 The heaven is my parent and progenitor; the navel (of the earth) is my 
kinsman; the spacious earth ismy mother. The womb (of all beings) lies between 
the two uplifted ladles, and in it the parent has deposited thegerm (of the 
fruitfulness) of the daughter. [My parent: na_bhir atra bandhu: na_bhi is 
related to me pita_ janita_,i.e. the moisture of the earth, by which corn is 
abundant, and which, as derived from the rain of heaven, makesthe latter the 
parent and progenitor of man; bandhuh = bandhika_, binding or supporting; this 
word is an epithetof pr.thivi_, the earth; two uplifted ladles: utta_nayos' 
camvor yonir antar: the uplifted ladles are heaven andearth, and the womb of all 
beings between them is the firmament, the region of the rain; the parent 
hasdeposited: the father, the heaven, may be regarded as identical with either 
A_ditya or Indra; the daughter is theearth, whose fertility depends upon the 
rain deposited as a germ in the firmament].  

 1.164.34 I ask you, (institutor of the rite), what is the uttermost end of the 
earth; I ask you, where is the navel ofthe world. I ask you, what is the 
fecundating power of the rain-shedding steed; I ask you, what is the 
supremeheaven of (holy) speech. [The next hymn answers the questions].  

 1.164.35 This altar is the uttermost end of the earth; this sacrifice is the 
navel of the world; this Soma is thefecundating power of the rain-shedding 
steed; this Brahma_ is the supreme heavn of (holy) speech. [This altar:eta_vati_ 
vai pr.thivi_ ya_va_ti_ vedih, such or so much, verily, as the earth, so much is 
the altar; it is theessence of the whole earth (Taittiri_ya Sam.hita_ 2.6.4); 
the navel of the world: na_bhi = sannahana, the bindingtogether of man with the 
mans of subsistence, or the crops that spring from the rain which falls as 
theconsequence of sacrifice or of oblations; holy speech: the texts of the 
Vedas, of which Brahma_, or the priest, isthe author ir expounder].  

 1.164.36 The seven (sustaining), the embryo (rain) for half a year, the 
fecundating (element) of the world, abide,by appointment, in the various 
functions of Vis.n.u. By their intelligence they pervade in thought all 
around(them), for they are intelligent and diffusive. [The seven: the solar 
rays, sapta_rdhagarbha_h; either retaining therains for half a year, i.e. during 
the dry months, or abiding in a part or half of space, or in the mid-heaven 
orfirmament. Vis.n.u is the pervading sun; vya_pakasya A_dityasya, in whose 
various duties of cherishing theworld, the solar rays are, by direction, 
pradis'a_, especially employed].  

 1.164.37 I distinguish not if I am this all; for I go perplexed, and bound in 
mind; when the first-born (perceptions)of the truth reach me, then immediately 
shall I obtain a portion (of the meaning) of that (sacred) word. [Idistinguish 
not: na vija_na_mi yadiva idam asmi: this may be read as: yadi va idam, that I 
am like that which thisis; or, if I am this; in either meaning, the 
philosophical implication is the identity of individual and universal spirit].  

 1.164.38 The immortal cognate with the mortal, affected by (desire of) 
enjoyment, goes to the lower or the upper(sphere); but (men beholding them) 
associated, going everywhere (in this world together); going everywhere (inother 
worlds together); have comprehended the one, but have not comprehended the 
other. [Affected by desireor enjoyment: svadhya_ gr.bhi_tah = lit., seized by 
food; i.e., any sensual gratification; have comprehended theone: they have not 
distinguished between body and soul; or, they have not made any distinction 
between thethree kinds of bodies with which soul is invested, the gross body, 
the subtle body, and the union of the two].  

 1.164.39 All the gods have taken their seats upon this supreme heaven, the 
imperishable (text) of  the Veda;what will he, who knows not this, do with the 
Veda? but they who do know it, they are perfect. [Upon thissupreme: r.co aks.are 
parame vyomani: r.k = all the Vedas; aks.ara: yena_ks.aram purus.am veda 
satyam(Mun.d.aka Upanis.ad 1.2.13)].  

 1.164.40 Cow, may you be rich in milk through abundant fodder; that we also may 
be rich (in abundance); eatgrass at all seasons, and, roaming (at will), drink 
pure water.  

 1.164.41 The sound (of the clouds) has been uttered, fabricating the waters, 
and being one-footed, two-footed,four-footed, eight-footed, nine-footed, or 
infinite in the highest heaven. [In the highest heaven: the sound gauri_:clouds 
or sky, as differently originated; in one station, ekapadi_, from the clouds; in 
two, dvipadi_, from theclouds and sky; in four, the four quarters of space; in 
eight, the four points and four intermediate points of thehorizon; or from them 
and the zenith, navapadi_, nine-stationed; articulate speech, gauri_: single as 
the crudeform only, double as declension and conjugation, fourfold as nouns, 
verbs, prepositions and particles; eightfoldas the eight cases, including the 
vocative; and ninefold as the same, with the addition of indeclinable; 
articulatesound, gauri_: diversified according to the nine parts of the body 
whence it may be supposed to proceed, navel,chest, throat; the highest heaven is 
hr.daya a_ka_s'a, ethereal element of the heart, as the basis of 

 1.164.42 From her the clouds shed abundant rain, and thence (the people of) the 
four quarters live; thence themoisture spreads (to the grain), and the universe 
exists. [From her: the sound of the clouds or sky, the thunder].  

 1.164.43 I beheld near (me) the smoke of burning cow-dung; and by that tall-
pervading mean (effect, discoveredthe cause (fire); the priests have the Soma 
ox, for such are their first duties. [The Soma ox: uks.a_n.am pr.s'nimapacanta: 
pr.s'ni = Soma; uks.a_n.am =  the shedder or bestower of the reward of the 

 1.164.44 The three, with beautiful tresses, look down in their several seasons 
upon the earth; one of them, whenthe year is ended, shears (the ground); one, by 
his acts, overlooks the universe; the course of one is visible,though not his 
form. [The three: Agni, who burns up the earth; the Sun, who revives it by his 
light, and the rainwhich he sends; and Va_yu, the wind, who contributes to the 
fall of rain].  

 1.164.45 Four are the definite grades of spech; those Brahman.as who are wise 
know them; three, deposited insecret, indicate no meaning; men speak the fourth 
grade of speech. [Four are: catva_ri va_kparimita_ pada_ni:the language of the 
mantras, the kalpa, the bra_hman.a and laukika, or current speech (Taittiri_ya 
Samhita_1.3 1.2); those bra_hman.as: bra_hman.a_ ye mani_s.in.ah: bra_hman.a_ = 
those acquainted with thes'abdabrahma, brahma as the word, or, the yogis, 
mystics; fourth grad eof speech: va_k, speech, was createdfourfold, three kinds 
of which are in the three regions, the fourth amongst the pas'us; the form on 
earth,associated with Agni is in the rathantara; the form in the firmament, 
associated with Va_yu, is in the Va_madevyamantras; that which is in heaven, 
with A_ditya, is Br.hati_, or in the thunder (stanayitnau); whatever else 
wasmore than this was placed amongst the pas'us, lit., animals; here the 
bra_hman.as are implied: atha pas'us.u tatoya_ va_g atiricyate ta_m 
bra_hman.es.u adaduh; thus, the bra_hman.as speak both languages, that of the 
godsand that of man (tasma_d bra_hman.a_ ubharyo va_cam vadanti ya_ ca deva_na_m 
ya_ ca manus.ya_n.a(m(Nirukta 13.9)].  

 1.164.46 They have styled (him, the Sun), Indra, Mitra, Varun.a, Agni, and he 
is the celestial, well-wingedGarutmat, for learned priests call one by many 
names as they speak of Agni, Yama, Ma_taris'van. [Hi, the Sun:Sun is assumed; 
Nirukta assumes the Agni: agni is all the divinities (Aitareya Bra_hman.a 2.3)].  

 1.164.47 The smooth-gliding wafters (of the rain, the solar rays), clothing the 
waters with a dark cloud, ascend toheaven; they come down again from the 
dwelling of the rain, and immediately the earth is moistened with water.  

 1.164.48 The fellies are twelve; the wheel is one; three are the axles; but who 
knows it? within it are collected360 (spokes), which are, as it were, moveable 
and immoveable. [The wheel is the year of twelve months; thethree axles are the 
three doubble seasons, or hot, wet and cold; and the three hundred and sixty 
spokes are thedays of the lunar-solar year; stanah s'as'ayah, s'aya_na, 
sleeping; dehe vartama_nah, abiding in the body].  

 1.164.49 Sarasvati_, that retiring breast, which is the source of delight, with 
which you bestow all good things,which is the container of wealth, the 
distributor of riches, the giver of good (fortune); that (bodom) do you layopen 
at this season for our nourishment.  

 1.164.50 The gods sacrifice with sacrifice, for such are their first duties; 
those mighty ones assemble in heaven,where the divinities who are to be 
propitiated (by sacred rites) abide. [Where the divinities: yatra 
pu_rvesa_dhya_h santi deva_h: sa_dhya_h = karma-devah, divinities presiding over 
or giving effect to religious acts,yajn~a_di sa_dhanavantah; or, the term may 
mean those who have obtained the portion, or the condition ofgods, by the former 
worship of Agni, or the sa_dhya_s = a_dityas, or the an:girasas, or deities 
presiding over themetres, chando abhima_ninah; sa_dhya_s are named among the 
minor divinities in Amarakos'a].  

 1.164.50 The uniform water passes upwards and downwards in the course of days; 
clouds give joy to the earth;fires rejoice the heaven.  

 1.164.52 I invoke for our protection the celestial, well-winged, swift-moving, 
majestic (Sun); who is the germ ofthe waters; the displayer of herbs; the 
cherisher of lakes replenishing the ponds with rain. [Replenishing theponds: 
abhi_pato vr.s.tibhis tarpayantam, satisfying with rain the reservoirs, 
salila_dha_ra_n; abhi_pata =favourably, willingly, a_nuku_lyena]. 


 1.165.01 (Indra speaks): With what auspicious fortune have the Maruts, who are 
of one age, one residence, onedignity, watered (the earth) together; with what 
intention; whence have they come; showerers of rain, theyvenerate through desire 
of wealth, the energy (that is generated in the world by rain).  

 1.165.02 Of whose oblations do the youthful (Maruts) approve; who attracts them 
to his (own) sacrifice (from therites of others); with what powerful praise may 
we propitiate (them), wandering like kites in the mid-air?  

 1.165.03 (The Maruts): Indra, lord of the good, whither do you, who are 
entitled to honour, proceed alone; whatmeans this (absence of attendance); when 
followed (by us), you require (what is right); lord of fleet horses say tous, 
with pleasant words, that which you (have to say) to us. [You require what is 
right: sampr.cchase =sami_ci_nam pr.ccase].  

 1.165.04  (Indra): Sacred rites are mine; (holy) praises give me pleasure; 
libations are for me; my vigorousthunderbolt, hurled (against my foes), goes (to 
its mark); me, do (pious worshippers) proptiate; hymns areaddressed tome; these 
horses bear us to the presence (ofwhose worshippers, and worship).  

 1.165.05  (The Maruts): Therefore we also, decorating our persons, are ready, 
with our docile and night-standingsteeds, (to attend) you, with all our 
splendour, to those rites; verily, Indra, you appropriate our (sacrificial) 
food.[You appropriate: svadha_m anu hi no babhu_tha, you have been upon or after 
our food; or, balam, strength; or,udakam, water; i.e. you seek after the 
oblations generated either by our strenght, or the water we have created].  

 1.165.06 (Indra): Where, Maruts, has that (sacrificial) food been assigned to 
you, which, for the destruction of Ahiwas appropriated to me alone; for I indeed 
am fierce and strong, and mighty, and have bowed down all mineenemies with 
death-dealing shafts.  

 1.165.07 (The Maruts): Showerer (of benefits), you have done much; but it has 
been without united equalenergies; for we, too, most powerful Indra, have done 
many things, and by our deeds (we are, as) we desire tobe, Maruts.  

 1.165.08 (Indra): By my own prowess, Maruts, I , mighty in my wrath, slew 
Vr.tra; armed with my thunderbolt, Icreated all these pellucid gently-flowing 
waters for (the good of) man.  

 1.165.09 (The Maruts): Verily, Maghvan, nothing (done) by you is unavailing; 
there is no divinity as wise as you;no one being born, or that has been born, 
ever surpasses the glorious deeds which you, mighty (Indra), haveachieved. 
[Verily, Maghavan: anuttama_ te maghavan nakir nu na = whatever is said by you, 
Indra, is true;anuttama_ = an exclamation or assent that which is not sent or 
driven away].  

 1.165.10 (Indra): May the prowes of me alone be irresistible; may I quickly 
accomplish whatever I contemplate inmy mind; for verily, Maruts, I am fierce and 
sagacious and to whatever (objects) I direct (my thoughts), of them Iam the 
lord, and rule (over them).  

 1.165.11 Maruts, on this occasion praise delights me; that prise which is to be 
heard (by all), which men haveoffered me. To Indra, the showerer (of benefits), 
the object of pious sacrifice; to me, (endowed) with many forms(do you) my 
friends (offer sacrifices) for (the nourishment of my) person.  

 1.165.12 Maruts, verily, glorifying me, and enjoying boundless fame and food 
(through my favour), edo you, ofgolden colour, and invested with glory, cover me 
in requital verily, (with renown).  

 1.165.13 (Agastya): What mortal, Maruts, worships you in this world; hasten, 
friends, to the presence of yourfriends; wonderful (divinities), be to them the 
means of acquiring riches, and be not uncognizant of my merits. [Benot 
uncognizant: es.a_m bhu_ta naveda_ me r.ta_na_m = be cognizant of these my 
truths, madi_ya_na_mavitatha_na_m jn~a_ta_ro bhavata].  

 1.165.14 Since the experienced intellect of a venerable (sage), competent to 
bestow praise upon (you), whodeserve praise, has been exerted for us; do you, 
Maruts, come to the presence of the devout (worshipper), who,glorifying (you), 
worships you with these holy rites.  

 1.165.15 This praise, Maruts, is for you; this hymn is for you, (the work) of a 
venerable author, capable ofconferring delight (by his laudations). May the 
praise reach you, for (the good of your) persons, so that we may(thence) obtain 
food, strength, and long life. [Capable of conferring: ma_nda_yasya ka_roh: the 
epithet isstutivis'es.air mandayituh; or, stutibhir madasya prerayituh, causer 
of pleasure by praises; food, strength andlong life: is.am vr.janam ji_rada_num: 
ji_rada_num = jayas'i_lam da_nam, donation connected with victory; thehymn is 
repeated at the end of the next su_kta; where it is explained as: ciraka_la 
ji_vanam, long life]. 


 1.166.01 We proclaim eagerly, Maruts, your ancient greatness, for (the sake of 
inducing) your promptappearance, as the indication of (the approach of) the 
showerer (of benefits). Loud-roaring and mighty Maruts,you exert your vigorous 
energies for the advance (to the sacrifice), as if it was to battle.  

 1.166.02 Ever accepting the sweet (libation), as (they would) a son, they sport 
playfully at sacrifices, demolishing(all intruders); the Rudras come to the 
offerer of prayers and oblations, for his protection, and powerul as theyare, do 
him no harm.  

 1.166.03 To him, the presenter (of offerings), the protecting and immortal 
Maruts, (gratified) by the oblation, havegiven abundance of riches; they, the 
bestowers of happiness, becoming, as it were, the friends (of theworshipper), 
sprinkle the regions plentifully with water.  

 1.166.04 Those, your coursers, which traverse the regions in their speed, 
proceed, self-guided; all worlds, alldwellings, are alarmed, for marvellous is 
your coming; (such fear as is felt) when spears are thrust forth (inbattle).  

 1.166.05 When your brilliant coursers make the mountains echo; and, friendly to 
man, traverse the summit of thefirmament; then all the forest lords are alarmed 
at your approach, and the bushes wave to and fro, as a woman ina chariot.  

 1.166.06 Fierce Maruts, free from malevolence in your kindly thoughts, fulfil 
towards us your good purposes;when your missile lightning rends (the clouds), as 
a well-hurled weapon wound the deer. [Asa a well-hurledweapon: pas'vah sudhiteva 
barhan.a_: pas'u_n is connected with with krivirdati_, the missile of the winds; 
whenthe wind blows, animals are withered or chilled].  

 1.166.07 Givers without stint, possessors of inexhaustible riches, devoid of 
malevolence, ever glorified atsacrifices, they worship the adorable (Indra), for 
(the sake of) drinking (the Soma) wine; for they know the firstmanly exploits of 
the hero.  

 1.166.08 Maruts, gratify, with infinite and complete enjoyments, him, whom you 
proect from degrading sin; thatman whom, fierce and mighty, and glorified (as 
you are), you defend from calumny, by (providing for) thenourishment of his 
descendants. [Of his descendants: tanayasya pus.t.is.u: tanaya, a son = 

 1.166.09 Maruts, all good things are in your cars; on your shoulders abides 
emulous strength; at yourresting-places on the road refreshments (are ready); 
the axle of your (chariot) wheels holds them firmly together.[At your resting 
places: prapathes.u kha_dayah, an indication of facilities for shelter and 
provisions to travellers].  

 1.166.10 Maruts, in your arms, propitious to man, are many good things; on your 
breasts are golden (ornaments)brilliant and conspicuous; while garlands (hang) 
on your shoulders; sharp are (the edges of) your weapons; theMaruts have various 
decorations, as birds have (many-coloured) wings.  

 1.166.11 Maruts, mighty with mighty power, all-pervading, manifest afar off, as 
the gods (are made manifest) bythe constellations; exhilarating, soft-tongued, 
speaking gently with your mouths, associated with Indra, glorifiedby praise; 
(come to our sacrifice).  

 1.166.12 Such, well-born Maruts, is your greatness, that your munificence is as 
long (continued) as the functionof Aditi; and Indra does not exceed, by his own 
liberality, (the value of) that which you have bestowed upon thedevout man (who 
worships you). [aditer iva vratam, the act or obligation of Aditi, either the 
mother of the gods, orthe earth].  

 1.166.13 Your alliance with us, Maruts, is of a long duration on which account, 
immortals, accept our amplepraise and, having accepted ourlaudation, be 
gratified, leaders (of sacrifice), by our holy acts, through this 
(your)favourable disposition towards mankind.  

 1.166.14 Quick-moving Maruts, we augment the long (offered ceremony) upon your 
mighty (approach), wherebymen triumph in war; may we obtain, by these our 
sacrifices, your wished-for (presence).  

 1.166.15 This praise, Maruts, is for you; this hymn is for you; (the work) of a 
venerable author, capable ofconferring (by his laudations); may the praise reach 
you (for the good of your) persons, so that we may thenceobtain food, strength, 
and long life. 


 1.167.01 May your thousand benefits, Indra, come to us; may a thousand kinds of 
abundant food come to us,lord of horses; may a thousand (sorts of wealth) come 
to exhilarate us; may thousands of horses be ours.  

 1.167.02 May the Maruts come to our presence with benefaction; may they who are 
possessed of knowledge(come) with most excellent and brilliant (treasures), 
since their glorious horses, the Niyutas, gather wealth evenon the farther shore 
of the sea. [samudrasya cid dhanayanta pa_ra, bearing or collecting wealth, even 
on thefarther shore of the sea; parasmin, on the other bank; metaphorically, the 
explanation is: winds bring wealth, i.e.rain, from the skirts of the horizon or 

 1.167.03 In whom the water-shedding, golden-coloured lighting, is fitly 
deposited like a chaplet (of clouds)moving in the firmament like the 
(splendidly-attired) wife of a man (of rank), and distinguished in assemblies 
like asacrificial hymn. [guha_ caranti manus.o na yos.a_, going in the darkness 
of the sky, as if it was in private or insecret, like the wife of a man, who, 
although, is brilliantly attired, remains in the privacy of the female 
apartments,suves.a_ntahpura eva madhye carati; distinguished in assemblies: 
sabha_vati vidatheva sam. va_k; the first isreferred to the lightning, which, at 
times, shows itself as if in an assembly, sabha_; the reference may also be 
toyos.a_, a woman who is not always restricted to the private chambers, but 
appears occasionally in public].  

 1.167.04 The radiant, ever-moving Maruts, have mingled with (their) associate, 
(lightning), like (youths) withcommon women; the formidable divinities do not 
overwhelm heaven and earth (with rain), but promote theirprosperity through 
(friendly) regard. [With a common woman: sa_dha_ran.yeva = a public, or common 

 1.167.05 Rodasi_, the associate of the scatterers (of the clouds), with 
dishevelled tresses, and mind devoted toher lords, woos them to associate (with 
her); radiant in form, she has ascended the car of the restless (Maruts)as 
Su_rya (ascended the car of the As'vins), and comes hither (with the celerity) 
of the sun. [Rodasi_ = heavenand earth; here, it signifies the lightning; or the 
bride of the Maruts, marutpatni_ vidyud va_; Su_rya: su_ryeva,like su_rya; 
either the wife or the daughter of su_rya].  

 1.167.06 The youthful (Maruts) have placed the young (lightning) in (their) 
brilliant (car), commingling (withthem), and vigorous (in yielding rain) on 
sacrifices (being solemnized); when, Maruts, your worshipper,presenting 
oblations, pouring out the Soma, and offering adoration, chants the sacred song.  

 1.167.07 I celebrate that greatness of the Maruts, which is true, and worthy of 
celebration, inasmuch as theirhigh-minded,haughty, and ever-enduring (bride), 
supports a flourishing progeny. [High-minded, haughty: Theepithets, 
vr.s.aman.a_, aham.yuh, sthira_ are feminine; the reference is to Rodasi_, the 
wife of the Maruts, who,by contributing to the rain, assists in the sustenance 
of mankind].  

 1.167.08 Mitra and Varun.a, and Aryaman, defend (this) sacrifice from (all that 
is) reprehensible, and destroy (allthat are) unworthy. They cause the yet 
unfallen and showering (rains) to descend, when, Maruts, thewater-yielding 
(season) gives increase to this (world). [When the water-yielding season: 
va_vr.dha im marutoda_tiva_rah: the last term may refer to the yajama_na; i.e. 
when, Maruts, the worshipper, or he by whom theoffering is presented, promotes 
this your increase].  

 1.167.09 None of us, Maruts, have attained, either nearly or remotely, the 
limit of your strength; those (Maruts),increasing in energy and vigour, 
overwhelm their enemies like an ocean.  

 1.167.10 Let us, who are beloved of Indra, glorify him today; let us glorify 
him tomorrow, at the sacred rite; let usglorify him for our great (good), in 
future days as of old, so that R.bhuks.in may ever be favourable to us 

 1.167.11 This praise, Maruts, is for you, this hymn is for you, (the work) of a 
venerable author, capable ofconferring delight (by his laudations); may the 
praise reach you for (the good of your) persons, so that we maythence obtain 
food, strength, and long life. 


 1.168.01 Maruts, at every sacrifice your alacrity is uniform; you, verily, 
discharge your every function for thebenefit of the gods; therefore, do I invite 
you to come hither, by sacred hymns, for (the sake of) your powerfulprotection 
of heaven and earth, and your benevolent praise.  

 1.168.02 They who are as if embodied, self-born, self-invigorated, and (ever) 
tremulous (in movement), aregenerated (to confer) abundant food and heaven; they 
are numerous as the undulations of the waters; they areto be praised when 
present, shedding water, like cows (yielding milk).  

 1.168.03 They, who are like the Soma, with well-nourished shoots, and then 
poured out (in libations), areimbibed; they abide, like devoted adherents, in 
the hearts (of men); upon their shoulders hangs (a lance) like ayouthful female, 
and in their hands a guard and sword are wielded. [With well-nourished shoots: 
tr.pta_m.s'avah= tr.pta_vayavah, having satisfied or well-nourished limbs; hangs 
(lance): what is suspended on the shoulders ofthe Maruts is not specified; the 
suggestion is, either a lance, s'akti or the beuty of the arms, bhujalaks.mi_].  

 1.168.04 Mutually supported, they descend readily from the sky; immortal 
Maruts, animate us by your own words(to praise you); exempt from toil, present 
at many (sacrifices), brilliant-eyed, the Maruts ahve shaken the 

 1.168.05 Maruts, lightning-armed, who, (standing) amongst you, sets you of 
yourselves in motion, as the jawsare (set in motion) by the tongue; as falling 
rains(are essential) for the obtaining of food, so (those, desirous 
ofsustenance), excite you in various ways, like a horse in (his) daily 

 1.168.06 Where, Maruts, is the limit of the vast region (whence you come); 
where is the beginning of that towhich you proceed; when you scatter the dense 
vapour like light grass, and hurl down the brilliant rain-cloud bythe 
thunderbolt. [The limit of the vast region: rajaso mahasparam = the limit of the 
rains; rajas = loka, or, udaka].  

 1.168.07 Like your possession of treasure, Maruts, is your liberality; 
ministerial (of Indra's bounty),heaven-bestowing, brilliant, fruitful, 
favourable to the husbandman, propitious; it is like the donation of a 
wealthy(donor), prompt (of distribution), and like the all-subduing force of the 
asuras. [Like the all-subduing force:asuryeva jan~jati_ = asurasya 
sarva_bhibhavanti_ s'akti: as the asuras take from one to give to another, so 
thewinds plunder the clouds to enrich the earth].  

 1.168.08 The rivers are arrested by the thunderbolts when they utter the voice 
of the clouds; but the lightningssmile in the firmament when the Maruts sprinkle 
water on the earth.  

 1.168.09 Pr.s'ni bore the brilliant troop of the quick-moving Maruts for the 
great combat (with the clouds),whereupon (mankind) immediately beheld the 
desiderated food. [pr.s'niyai vai payaso maruto ja_ta_h (Taittiri_yaSam.hita_].  

 1.168.10 This praise, Maruts, is for you; this hymn is for you, (the work) of a 
venerable author, capable ofconferring delight (by his laudations); may the 
praise reach you for (the good of your) persons, so that we maythence obtain 
food, strength and long life. 

 1.169.01 You, Indra, are mighty from the might of those of whom you are the 
protector against abandonmenttherefore, creator of the Maruts, favourably-minded 
towards us, grant us those blessings which are most dear toyou.  

 1.169.02 Rulers over all men, and impelling towards man the water-shedding 
clouds, they are united, Indra, (withyou); the host of Maruts is delighted by 
(your) acquisition of heaven-bestowing wealth.  

 1.169.03 Your weapon, Indra, is at hand for our (good); the Maruts send down 
the long-accumulated rain; Agni isblazing for the ceremony; the oblations 
encompass him as the waters (surround) an island.  

 1.169.04 Do you, Indra, quickly grant us that wealth (which you possess, for we 
gratify) the donor with a mostworthy present; we, your praisers, offer to you, 
the ready giver of boons, the laudations that would propitiate you;(and the 
priests) nourish you with sacrificial food, as they cherish the bosom (of a 
female for the sakeofreplenishing it) with sweet (milk).  

 1.169.05 Your riches, Indra, are most delighting; the exciters of any one 
desirous to sacrifice; may those Marutsbe propitious to us; the divine beings 
who were anxious to go first to the ceremony. [Your riches, Indra: tve 
ra_yaindra tos'atama_h: raya may also mean, kinsmen or friends;i.e. the Maruts].  

 1.169.06 Go, Indra, to the mighty rain-shedding leaders (of the clouds), and 
exert yourself in (thine) aerialdwelling; for their broad-footed steeds stand 
(firm), like the manly energies of an enemy in the field of battle. [Likethe 
manly energies: ti_rthe na_ryah paum.sya_ni tasthuh: a_rya = areh, s'atroh, of 
an enemy; ti_rthe =yuddhama_rge, the way of battle; another rendering: the 
broad-based, dark-coloured clouds stand like the manlyarmies of a prince, 
sva_minah, on the royal road, ra_ja_ vithya_m].  

 1.169.07 The noise of the formidable, dark-coloured, swift-moving and advancing 
Maruts, is everywhere echoed;(the noise) of them who strike down their mortal 
(foes) gathering in a host against them, by their self-defendingblows, as (they 
strike down) a contemptible enemy. [r.na_va_nam = a contemptible enemy; it may 
imply a debtor,as if the cloud was debtor to the winds for its contents].  

 1.169.08 Associated with the Maruts, do you, Indra, for your own honour and the 
good of all, pierce theexhilarating receptacles of the waters, for you, Indra, 
are glorified by the lauded divinities; may we obtain for youfood, strength, and 
long life. 


 1.170.01 (Indra speaks): It is not certain what today or what tomorrow will 
yield to us; who comprehends thismystery; verily, the mind of any other (being) 
is of an unsteady (nature), and even that which has beenprofoundly studied, is 
(in time) forgotten. [This su_kta is related to a olegend: Agastya, intended to 
offer asacrifice to Indra; he proposed to make offerings also to the Maruts; 
Indra complained about this. This is anapparent allusion to the objections by 
worshippers of Indra about the inclusion of offerings to Maruts. It is 
notcertain what today: na nu_nam asti no s'vah = lit., it is not certain, nor is 
it tomorrow; the explanation: it is notcertain, Indra says, wherther I shall 
receive any offering either today or tomorrow; verily the mind of any 
other:anyasya cittam abhisan~caren.yam uta_dhitam vinas'yati = lit., the mind of 
another is very wandering; althoughread, (it) perishes].  

 1.170.02 (Agstya): Why, Indra, do you purpose to slay us; the Maruts are your 
brothers; share with them (theoffering) in peace; destroy us not in enmity. [The 
Maruts are your brothers: being equally with Indra, the sons ofAditi; the 
allusion is to the affinity of function].  

 1.170.03 (Indra): Wherefore, brother Agastya, do you, who are my friend, treat 
me with regard; verily, we knowwhat is in your mind; you do not intend to give 
us anything. [Brother Agastya: an allusion to a relationship,founded on the 
interchange of benefits, the presentation of oblations by one, the reward given 
by the other].  

 1.170.04 (Agastya): Let the priests decorate the altar; let them kindle the 
fire to the east; and then let us bothconsummate the sacrifice, the inspirerof 
immortal (wisdom). [The hymn is also attributed to Indra; let us both: thetwo 
are either the sacrificer and his wife, or the institutor of the ceremony and 
the officiating priest].  1.170.05 (Agastya); You, Vasupati, are the lord of 
riches; you, Mitrapati, are the firm stay (of us), your friends;declare, Indra, 
along with the Maruts, (your approval of our acts), and partake of the oblation 
offered in dueseason. 


 1.171.01 I approach you, Maruts, with this reverential homage, and with a hymn 
implore your favour againsteager (foes); with minds pacified by our praises, 
suppress your anger, and let loose your horses. [i.e. take thehorses out of your 
car, that you may not come back to the sacrifice in anger].  

 1.171.02 This praise, accompanied by offerings, Maruts, is for you, offered 
from the heart; accept it, divinities,with favour, and come with willing minds 
(to receive) these (laudations), for you are the augmenters of sacrificialfood.  

 1.171.03 May the Maruts, now hymned, bestow happiness upon us; may Maghavan, 
now glorified, be propitiousto us; Maruts, may all the ensuing days that may be 
expected by us prove gratifying and full of enjoyment.  

 1.171.04 Maruts, through fear of that violent Indra, I fly, trembling, (from 
his presence); the oblations that hadbeen prepared for you have been put away; 
nevertheless, have patience with us.  

 1.171.05 The rays of the ever-recurring mornings, favoured, Indra, by your 
vigour, confer consciousness as theyshine; showerer of benefits, ancient (of 
days), bestower of strength, fierce, (and attended), by the fierce Maruts,grant 
us (abundant) food.  

 1.171.06 Do you, Indra, cherish the vigorous leaders (of the rains), be free 
from displeasure against the Maruts;overcoming (our) enemies along with the 
intelligent (Maruts), support us (so that) we may obtain food, strength,and long 


 1.172.01 Maruts, of inseparable splendour, may your coming be marvellous, 
liberal benefactors, for ourprotection.  

 1.172.02 Maruts, liberal benefactors, may your bright destructive (shaft) be 
far from us; may the stone which youhurl be far from us.  

 1.172.03 Maruts, liberal benefactors, protect my people, (although I be) as 
insignificant as grass; lift us up, thatwe may live. 


 1.173.01 The priests chant the heaven-ascending sa_ma, as you know (it), for 
such (praise) do we venerate asthe cause of increase and conferrer of heaven, 
whence the kine, unimpeded, do honour to the divine (Indra), whois seated on the 
sacred grass. [The heaven-ascending sa_ma: the sa_ma, the hymn that the udgata_ 
chants; thekind, unimpeded: ga_vo dhenavah; dhenavah = adabdha_, unimpeded, 
unharmed;the cows may refer to therains].  

 1.173.02 The showerer (of the oblation, the offerer of the sacrifice, assisted) 
by (the priests), presenting theoblations which have been provided by himself, 
adores (Indra), in order that he may hasten (to the rite), as a(thirsty) deer to 
the water. The mortal invoker (of the gods), O mighty Indra, whilst glorifying 
them who aredesirous of praise, presents a twofold offering (to you). [The 
mortal invoker of the gods: the priest, or theinstitutor of the sacrifice; a 
twofold offering: either or praise and oblation,or in the capacity of the 
institutor of theceremony and his wife].  

 1.173.03 The invoker (of the gods, Agni), pervades the measured stations (of 
the altars), and accepts that(oblation), which is the germ of the year of the 
earth; as a horse neighs when bringing (the offering to Indra), as abull bellows 
like a messenger proclaiming (his message) between heaven and earth. [As a horse 
neighs: thesimile may illustrate the roaring of the sacrificial fire].  

 1.173.04 We offer to him, (Indra), the most pious (oblations); the worshippers 
of the gods present to himsubstantial (adorations); may he, of conspicuous 
lustre, standing in his car, and light-moving like the As'vins, begratified (by 
our worship). [Substantial adorations: cyautna_ni = causing to fall down; but, 
this explained asdr.d.ha_ni, firm, hard].  

 1.173.05 Glorify that Indra who is mighty, who is a hero, possessing abundant 
wealth, standing in his car, avaliant combatant against adversaries, the wilder 
of the thunderbolt, the dispenser of all-enveloping gloom.  

 1.173.06 Heaven and earth are insufficient for the girth of that Indra, who, 
with his greatness, rules over theleaders (of sacrifice); as the atmosphere 
encompasses the earth, so he encompasses (the three worlds), and,being the 
master of the rain, he upholds the sky as well as the firmament and the earth. 
[He upholds the sky:opas'am iva bibharti: opas'am = near to; may be appied to 
the earth and sky, as contiguous to heaven; opas'am =a horn; i.e. he upholds the 
sky as easily as a bull bears his horns].  

 1.173.07 Those people, who, jointly worshipping Indra, diligently endeavour, O 
hero, to propitiate you, theinvigorator in combats, the guide in the right way; 
provide, for his gratification, with sacrificial viands.  

 1.173.08 The libations (offered) to you are, verily, the cause of happiness, 
since the divine waters (effused) inthe firmament for the benefit of mankind 
afford you satisfaction. All praise, Indra, is acceptable to you, and youreward 
with understanding those who praise you.  

 1.173.09 May we be, as it were, your valued friends, O Lord, and obtain our 
desires, like those (who gain theirobjects) by the praise of princes. May Indra, 
propitiated by our eulogies, be brought to the sacrifice by our hymns. 

 1.173.10 Emulous in commendation, like (those contending for the favour) of 
men, may Indra, the wielder of thethunderbolt, be equally (a friend) to us; like 
those who, desirous of his friendship, (conciliate) the lord of a city(ruling) 
with good government, so do our intermediate (representatives) propitiate 
(Indra) with sacrifices. [Thelord of a city: mitra_yuvo na pu_rpatim = purah 
sva_minam, the master or governor of a city].  

 1.173.11 One man propitiates Indra, augmenting (his vigour) by sacrifice; 
another, who is insincere, worships(him), with mind averted, (to worldly 
thoughts); (to the first he is) like a lake to a thirsty (pilgrim) near a 
sacredspot; (to the other) like a long road, which retards the end (of the 
journey). [Like a lake: the comparisons mayalso refer to the sacrificers].  

 1.173.12 Indra, associated with the Maruts in battles (with the clouds), 
abandon us not; for a share of the offeringis set apart, mighty one, for you, 
for whom, the shedder of rain and accepter of oblations, the worship is 
offeredwith oblations, whilst the hymn glorifies the Maruts.   

 1.173.13 This hymn, Indra, is addressed to you. Lord of steeds, learn by it the 
way to our sacrifice, and comehither for our good, that we may thence obtain 
food, strength, and long life. 


 1.174.01 You, Indra, are king; they who are gods (are subject) to you; 
therefore, scatterer (of foes), do youprotect and cherish us men; you are the 
protector of the good, the possessor of wealth, the extricator of us (fromsin); 
you are true, the invester (of all with your lustre) the giver of strength.  

 1.174.02 You have humbled the people, suing for pardon when you have destroyed 
their seven new cities; youthe irrproachable have dispersed the flowing waters; 
you have destroyed Vr.tra for the sake of the youthfulPurukutsa. [You have 
humbled the people: dano vis'a indra mr.dhrava_cas = make liberal men soft-
spoken,da_namanaso manus.ya_n indra mr.duva_cah kuru; another interpretation, 
based on rurhi, current aceptation:you have made the subject (rain), soliciting 
ofrbearance, descend (in showers); when you have rent asunder thegliding, world-
filling (clouds), then, irreproachable one, you did make the wates flow in 
channels, and did openthe chief cloud for young Purukutsa].  

 1.174.03 Go the cities inhabited by the ra_ks.asas, and thence to heaven 
(attended), receiver of many sacrificesby those who (attend you). Defend, like a 
lion, the untamed, quick-moving Agni, that he may abide in his 
dwelling,fulfilling his functions. [To the cities inhabited by ra_ks.asas: 
vr.tah s'ura patni_h = raksobhih pa_layita_ vr.tahpuri_h; defend like a lion: as 
a lion protects the forest, in which his lair is, from the depredations of other 

 1.174.04 Let (your foes, Indra), humbled by the might of your thunderbolt rest 
in their own station, for your glory;when you move, (armed) with your weapons, 
you send down the waters; arresting your horses, increase, by yourpower, (the 
abundance of) food. [Rest in their own station: in the firmament, the enemies 
are the clouds].  

 1.174.05 Bear, Indra, with your obedient horses, as swift as the wind, (the 
sage) Kutsa, to that ceremony (towhich) you desire (to convey him); let the sun 
bring near the wheel of his chariot, and let the thunder-armedadvance against 
his opponents.  

 1.174.06 Indra, lord of steeds, invigorated by our animating praise, you have 
slain those who make you noofferings and disturb your worshippers; but they who 
look upon you as (their) protector, and are associated for(the presentation of 
sacrificial) food, obtain from the posterity.  

 1.174.07 The sage praises you, Indra, for the grant of desirable (food), since 
you have made the earth the bed ofthe asura; Maghavan has made the three 
(regions) marvellous by his gifts, and has destroyed for (the prince)Duryon.i 
(the asura), Kuyava_ca, in combat. [The three regions: bhu_mih is added to the 
term of the text, tisrah:either earth in three aspects as identical with the 
three rituals of the dars'a or lunar periods; the pas'u or victim;and Soma, or 
libation; or, as implying earth, firmament and heaven].  

 1.174.08 The sages have celebrated your everlasting (as well as your) recent 
(exploits, in achieving which) youhave endured many injuries in putting an end 
to war; verily, you have demolished hostile and undivine cities; youhave bowed 
down the thunderbolt of the undivine asura.  

 1.174.09 You, Indra, are the terrifier (of your foes); you have made the 
trembling waters overspread (the earth)like flowing rivers; but, hero, when you 
fill the ocean you have protected in their well-being Turvas'a and Yadu.[Like 
flowing rivers: si_ra_h na sravanti_h: si_ra_ may be a certain river; or river, 
in general; you haveprotected:pa_raya_ turvas'am yadum svasti: pa_raya = 
apa_layah, you have protected; svasti = avina_s'am,without loss or detriment; 
pa_raya = bear across, convey over in safety].  

 1.174.10 Be you, Indra, at all times our especial defender; the preserver of 
our people, the bestower of strengthupon all these our emulous (followers); that 
we may obtain food, strength, and long life. 


 1.175.01 Lord of steeds, you are exhilarated when the sacred (Soma) has been 
imbibed by you as by its(appropriate) vessel; for to you, showerer (of 
benefits), it is exhilarating, inebriating, invigorating, the yielder ofdelight, 
(satisfying as) food, and the giver of a thousand (pleasures).  

 1.175.02 May our soma libation reach you, (for it is) exhilarating, 
invigorating, inebriating, most precious; it iscompanionable, Indra, enjoyable, 
the over-thrower of hosts, immortal.  

 1.175.03 You are a hero, a benefactor, accelerate the vehicle of man (that 
bears him to heaven); consume,mightyone, the irreligious Dasyu, as a (woode) 
vessel is burnt by fire.  

 1.175.04 Sage Indra, who are the lord, you have carried off by your strength 
one wheel of (the chariot of) thesun. Take up your bolt for the death of 
S'us.n.a, and proceed with your horses, swift as the wind, to Kutsa.[Kutsa = 

 1.175.05 Your inebriety is most intense; nevertheless, your acts (for our good) 
are most beneficent. You desire,bountiful giver of horses, that (both your 
inebriety and your beneficence should be the means of) destroyingenemies and 
distributing riches. [Your inebriety and your beneficence: the epithets are dual 
and refer to themada, intoxication; and kratu, the acts of Indra].  

 1.175.06 Inasmuch Indra, as you have been the (giver of) happiness to your 
ancient encomiasts, like water toone who is thirsty, therefore I constantly 
repeat this your praise, that I may thence obtain food, strength and longlife. 


 1.176.01 Soma, exhilarate Indra (at the sacrifice we offer), for the sake of 
obtaining wealth; pervade him,showerer (ofbenefits), for when imbibed you are 
the annihilator (of enemies), and suffer not a foe to be nigh.  

 1.176.02 Pervade with our praise him who is the sole sustainer of men, to whom 
the oblation is presented andwho, the showerer (of benefits), causes (every 
desire) to bud like barley.  

 1.176.03 In whosehands are all the treasures (that are desired by) the five 
classes of beings; destroy, Indra, himwho oppresses us; slay him, (as if you 
were yourself) the heavenly thunderbolt.  

 1.176.04 Slay every one who offers not libations, however difficult to be 
destroyed; slay every one who is nodelight to you; bestow upon us his wealth, 
for the pious (worshipper) deserves it.  

 1.176.05 Soma, you protect him in whose prayers, doubly devout, there is the 
combination (of praise andoblation); protect, especially, Indra in war; protect 
the vigorous Indra in battles.  

 1.176.06 Inasmuch Indra, as you have been the giver of happiness to your 
ancient encomiasts, like water to onewho is thirsty, therefore I constantly 
repeat this your praise, that I may thence obtain food, strength, and long life. 


 1.177.01 May Indra, who is the cherisher of men, the benefactor of mankind,t he 
lord of men, the adored of many,(come to us), Indra, who are praised (by us), 
and are desirous of the oblation, harness your vigorous steeds, andcome down to 
me for (my preservation).  

 1.177.02 Mount, Indra, your steeds, who are young and vigorous, tractable to 
prayer, and harnessed to abounty-shedding car; come down with them to us. We 
invoke you, Indra, the libation being poured out. [Youngand vigorous: the words 
vars.a and vars.an.am are repeated: showering, shedding, effusing; the horses 
arevr.s.an.a; the car is vars.an.a; Indra is vr.s.abha; Soma is vr.s.an].  

 1.177.03 Ascend your bounty-shedding car, for you the Soma, the showerer of 
benefits, is effused, the sweetlibations are prepared. Bounty-shedding Indra, 
having harnessed them, come with your vigorous steeds for (thegood of) mankind; 
come with your rapid (car) to my presence.  

 1.177.04 This is the sacrifice offered to the gods; this is the offering of the 
victim; these are the prayers; this,Indra, is the Soma; the sacred grass is 
ready strewn; come, therefore, Indra, quickly, sit down, drink (the 
libation);here let loose your steeds. [This is the offering of the victim: ayam 
miyedha; miyedha is an epithet of yajn~a, fr.medha = pas'u, a victim].  

 1.177.05 Glorified by us, Indra, come to (our) presence to accept the prayers 
of the venerable offerer (of theoblation); so that we may ever enjoy prosperity 
through your protection, and thence obtain food, strength andlong life. 


 1.178.01 Inasmuch, Indra, as the praise by which you are (induced to bestow) 
protection on your adorers isheard (by all), therefore disappoint not the desire 
(that would raise us) to greatness; may I obtain, through your(favour), all 
things that are obtainable by man.  

 1.178.02 Let not the royal Indra frustrate those our actions, which the 
sisters, (Day and Night), are directing totheir object. May these invigorating 
offerings propitiate hi, so that he may bestow upon us friendly (regard), 
and(abundant) food. [The sisters: svasa_ra_ = lit., sisters; day and night; or, 
institutor of the right and the officiatingpriest; or, the fingers used in 
ritual manipulations].  

 1.178.03 Indra, the hero, the victor in battles, along with the leaders (of his 
hosts, the Maruts), will hear theinvocation of his supplicating worshipper, and 
when disposed to accept his praises, will, of his own accord, drivehis chariot 
close to the donor (of the oblation).  

 1.178.04 Verily, Indra through desire of (sacrificial) food, is the devourer 
(of that which is presented) by (his)worshippers, and overcomes (the 
adversaries) of his friend; in the many-voiced assembly (of men), Indra, 
thefaithful (performer of his promise), commending (the piety) of his 
worshipper, approves of the (offered) food.  

 1.178.05 By you, opulent Indra, may we overcome our mighty and formidable 
enemies; you are our protector;may you be propitious to our prosperity, that we 
may thence obtain food, strength and long life. 


 1.179.01 (Lopa_mudra_): Many years have I been serving you diligently, both day 
and night, and throughmornings, bringing on old age; decay now impairs the 
beauty of my limbs; what, therefore, is now (to be done);let husbands approach 
their wives.  

 1.179.02 The ancient sages, disseminators of truth, who, verily, conversed of 
tuths with the gods, begot(progeny), nor thereby violated (their vow of 
continence), therefore should wives be approached by theirhusbands.  

 1.179.03 (Agastya): Penance has not been practised in vain; since the gods 
protect us, we may indulge all ourdesires; in this world we may triumph in many 
conflicts, if we exert ourselves mutually together.  

 1.179.04 Desire, either from this cause or from that, has come upon me whilst 
engaged in prayer andsuppressing (passion); let Lopa_mudra_ approach her 
husband; the unsteady female beguiles the firm andresolute man. [Either from 
this cause or that: itoamutah kutas'cit, from some cause, from this, or from 
that; fromyour society or from the influence of the season, as spring and the 
like; or from the suggestions of this world or ofthe next].  

 1.179.05 (Pupil): I beseech the Soma, which has been drunk in my heart, that it 
may fully expiate the sin we havecommitted; man is subject to many desires. 
[What has been drunk in my heart: antito hr.tsu pi_tam, drunkmentally, not 
actually; the sin we have committed: the sin of listening ot the conversation of 
their guru with hiswife].  

 1.179.06 Agastya, a venerable sage, working with (fit) implements, desiring 
progeny, offspring, and strength,practised both classes (of obligations), and 
received true benedictions from the gods. [Working with fitimplements: 
khanama_nah khanitraih = lit., digging with diggin gtools; i.e. effecting his 
objects by appropriatemeans, earning his reward by sacrifice and hymns; desring 
progeny: praja_m apatyam balam icchama_nah:praja_ implies repeated successions, 
descendants, and apatya signifies more immediate descent, sons,grandsons; both 
classes of obligations: ka_ma and tapas, desire and devotion; the duties of 
domestic as well asascetic life]. 


 1.180.01 As'vins, your horses are traversers of the (three) regions, when your 
chariot proceeds to (its desired)quarters; the golden fellies of your wheels 
grant (whatever is wished for); drinking the Soma, you participate inthe morning 

 1.180.02 Direct downwards (the course) of your (car) swift moving, variously 
going, friendly to man, and to beespecially venerated, when all adorable, your 
sister (dawn) prepares (for your approach), and (the institutor ofthe ceremony) 
worships you, drinkers of the Soma, for the sake (of obtaining) strength and 

 1.180.03 Youhave restored milk to the cow; you have (brought) down the prior 
mature (secretion) into the unripe(or barren udder) of the cow; the devout 
offerer of the oblation worships you, whose forms are truth, (as vigilantin the 
midst of the ceremony), as a thief (in the midst) of a thicket.  

 1.180.04 You rendered the heat as soothing as sweet butter to Atri; wishing 
(for relief), and invested it withcoolness,like water; therefore, for you, 
As'vins, leaders (of rites) the fire-offering (is made); to you the Soma(drips) 
run like chariot wheels (down a declivity). [The fire-offering is made: tad vam 
pas'va is.t.i_ pas'u = fire;agrees with the text agnir pas'ur-a_si_t, agni was 
the victim; the implication is that the oblations are presentedthrough fire to 
the As'vins].  

 1.180.05 Dasras, may I bring you, by the vehicle of my prayers, (hither), to 
bestow (upon me your aid), like theinfirm son of Tugra; heaven and earth combine 
(to worship you) through your greatness; may this, your aged(worshipper), 
adorable (As'vins), enjoy long life, (exempt) from sin.  

 1.180.06 Bountiful givers, when you yoke your horses you replenish the earth 
with viands; may this yourworshipper be (swift) as the wind to propitiate and 
please you, that, through your great (favour), he may, like apious man, obtain 

 1.180.07 Your sincere adorers, we verily praise you in various ways. The 
pitcher has been placed (ready for theSoma). Irreproachable As'vins, showerers 
(of benefits) drink freely of the juice in the presence of the gods. [Thepitcher 
has been placed: vipan.ir-hita_va_n: pan.i = dron.a kalas'a, the jar or vessel 
into which the Soma, afterexpression, is strained through a filter; pan.i may 
also mean a merchant or trader; hita_va_n = being placed oropulent; vi = 
viyujyata_m, let him be separated; the imlication is: let the niggardly rich man 
who does not offerworship be cast off; another reading is: a_havih pan.i = a 
niggard, offering no oblation].  

 1.180.08 As'vins, Agastya, eminent among the leader of men, arouses you daily 
with numerous (invocations) likean instrument of sound, for the sake of 
obtaining a manifold (flow) of a torrent (of rain). [Like an instrument ofsound: 
ka_radhuni_va = fr. ka_ra_, sound, s'abda; dhuni = generating, utpa_dayita_ such 
as the conch-shell andthe like, s'an:kha_di sa iva].  

 1.180.09 When, by the virtue of your chariot, you come (to the sacrifice), and 
when, like the ministering priest(after discharging his rfunction), you depart, 
gliding away, you give to the devout (worshippers a reward), thogh itbe store of 
good horses; may we be enriched, Na_satya_s (by your favour).  

 1.180.10 We invoke today, As'vins, with hymns, for the sake of good things, 
your praiseworthy chariot ofundamaged wheels, and traversing the sky, that we 
may obtain (from it) food, strength and long life. 



 1.181.01 When, beloved (As'vins), do you bear aloft (the materials) of food and 
riches, that, desirous of thesacrifice, you may send down the rain; this 
sacrifice offers you adoration, givers of riches, protectors of men.  

 1.181.02 As'vins, may your horses, pure, rain-drinking, swift as the wind, 
heaven-born, quick-moving, fleet asthought, vigorous, well-backed, and self-
irradiating, bring you hither.  

 1.181.03 As'vins, excellent and steady, may your chariot, vast as the earth, 
broad-fronted, rapid as the rain (fleet)as thought, cumulative and adorable, 
come hither for (our) good. [Emulative: ahampu_rvah, I first, is normallyrelated 
to a warrior, one who would be first in battle; here, it is explained as 
intelligent, manasvin; or verygenerous atyuda_rah].  

 1.181.04 Born here (in the middle region) and here (in the upper region), you 
are glorified together, as faultless inyour forms and (perfect in) your own many 
excellences; one (of you) the victorious son (of the firmament), thedevout 
(promoter) of sacred sacrifice, the other, the auspicious son of heaven, (each) 
upholds (the world). [Bornhere and here: iheha ja_ta_ = lit., born here and 
here, iha iha; the amplification identifies the As'vins with the sunand the 
moon; faultless in your forms: arepasa_ tanva_ na_mabhih svaih: arepasa_ = free 
from sin, apa_pau; theallusion is to the legend of the decapitation of 
Dadhyan~c, by which act, with reference to its result, no sin wasincurred; the 
auspicious son of heaven: as the same with the moon and sun, one As'vin may be 
termed the son ofthe middle region or firmament; the other, the son of the upper 
region, heaven or sky].  

 1.181.05 As'vins, may the golden-coloured (car of one of you), traversing at 
will the quarters of space, come toour dwellings; may mankind encourage the 
horses of the other by food, by friction, and by shouts. [Traversing atwill: 
niceruh kakuho vas'a_m anu: kakuha is an epithet of ratha, signifying best, 
s'res.t.ha; it may also mean thepoints of the horizon].  

 1.181.06 (One of you), the disperser (of the clouds), like Indra, the 
annihilator (of his foes), desirous of theoblation, proceeds (bestowing) 
abundant food. (Devout worshippers) cherish with (sacrificial) viands, 
(thefaculties) of the other, for the sake of favours, which flow upon us like 
swelling rivers. [Disperser of the clouds:s'aradva_n = s'aran.ava_n, blighting, 
withering as leaves, or many-yeared, old, eternal, bahu-sam.vatsarah; 
or,autumnal, with reference to one of the As'vins as the moon, s'aratka_lava_n; 
faculties of the other: the referenceis to ekasya, of the one and anyasya, of 
the other].  

 1.181.07 As'vins, creators, the perpetual threefold hymn addressed to you, has 
been uttered, (to secure) yoursteady (favour); thus glorified protect him who 
solicits (your bounty), and whether moving or resting, hear hisinvocation.  

 1.181.08 May the praise of your resplendent forms, (uttered) in the hall of 
sacrifice, thrice strewn with sacredgrass, bring prosperity to the conductors 
(of the sacrifice). Showerers (of benefits), may the raining-cloud,proceeding to 
man, nourish him lik a a sprinkling of water.  

 1.181.09 The wise offerer of oblations, like Pu_s.an, praises you, As'vins, as 
(he would praise) Agni and Us.a_,(at the season) at which I invoke you praising 
with devotion that we may thence obtain food, strength, and longlife. [At the 
season: the allusion is to the time at which it is especially proper to worship 
As'vins, the morningsacrifice]. 



 1.182.01 The information, sage (priests), has been received; be ready with your 
praises, for the (benefit)showering car (of the As'vins has arrived); propitiate 
(the divinities), for they show favour to the doer of goodworks; they are 
entitled to praise, rich in benevolence to mankind the grandsons of heaven, and 
observers ofholy rites. [Rich in benevolence: vis'pala_vasu, having wealth; 
vasu, which is cherishing pala_ for pa_la;mankind, vis'; the reference may be to 
the legend of the metal or golden leg given to vis'pala) (RV. 1.17 1.15)].  

 1.182.02 Dasras, in truth most imperial, adorable, swifter than the winds, and 
eminent in good works, riders in acar, and most distinguished charioteers, bring 
hither your car, full heaped up with ambrosia, and with it come,As'vins, to the 
donor (of the offering). [Most imperial: indratama_, superlatively indra; so, 
maruttama_,superlatively maruts; marutttama_ may also mean, of moderated 
passions, mild, gentle, mitara_gin.au; or, notnoisy, mitara_vin.au].  

 1.182.03 What makes you here, As'vins; why do you tarry, (where) any man who 
makes no oblation is respected;humble him; take away the life of the niggard; 
grant light to the pious man striving to speak your praise.  

 1.182.04 Annihilate, As'vins, the dogs who bark at us; slay them warring 
(against us); you know their (means ofharm); render every word of him who 
praises you affluent in precious (rewards); accept Na_satyas, both of you,may 

 1.182.05 You constructed a pleasant, substantial winged bark, borne on the 
ocean waters for the son of Tugra,by which, with minddevoted to the gods, you 
bore him up, and quickly descending (from the sky), you made apath for him 
across the great waters. [Winged bark: plava, a float,a  raft; son of Tugra: cf. 
1.17 1.3].   

 1.182.06 Four ships launched into the midst of the receptable (of the waters), 
sent by the As'vins, brought safe toshore the son of Tugra, who had been cast 
headlong into the waters (by his foes), and plunged in extricabledarkness. [Four 
ships: catasro na_vah, four boats or ships; in this context, samudra = ocean].  

 1.182.07 What was the tree that was stationed in the midst of the ocean, to 
which the supplicating son of Tugraclung; as leaves (are caught hold of) for the 
support of a falling animal; you, As'vins, bore him up to safety, toyour great 
renown. [As leaves for the support: parn.a_ mr.gasya patatoriva_rabhe: mr.ga = 
ma_rjaytri_s'odhayitri_, a sweeper, a cleaner; thus, like leaves for the support 
or prop in the occurrence of injury, and thelike, of a sweeper when falling, 
patanas'i_lasya ma_rjayituh s'odhayitur him.sa_der a_rabhe 
a_lambana_yaparn.a_niva, as they are sufficient for support, ta_ni 
yatha_lambana_ya prabhavanti tad vat].  

 1.182.08 May the praise which your devout adorers have uttered be acceptable to 
you, Na_satyas, leaders (inpious rites); be propitiated today by the libations 
of our assembly, that we may obtain food, strength and long life. 


 1.183.01 Showerers of benefits, harness the car which has three benches, three 
wheels, and is as quick asthought; with which, embellished with three metals, 
you come to the dwelling of the pious (worshipper), and inwhich you travel like 
a bird with wings. [Three metals: gold, silver and copper].  

 1.183.02 Your easy-rolling car alights upon the earth, where favourable to the 
sacred rite, you stop for the sakeof the (sacrificial) food; may this hymn, 
promotive of your personal (welfare), be associated with your forms, anddo you 
unite with the dawn, the daughter of heaven.  

 1.183.03 Ascend your rolling car, which approaches the sacred rite of the 
offerer of the oblation; the car in which,Na_satyas, leaders, you purpose to 
come to the sacrifice, and proceed to the dwelling (of the worshipper), 
for(bestowing upon him) offspring, and for his own (good).  

 1.183.04 Let not the wolf, let not the she-wolf, harm me safe (in your 
protection); abandon me not, nor deliver me(to another). This your share (of the 
offering) is prepared; this prayer, Dasras, (is addressed) to you; 
thesetreasures of Soma are for you.  

 1.183.05 Gotama, Purimil.ha, Atri, (each) offering oblations, invokes you for 
his protection; like unto a wayfarer,who (makes for his intended direction) by a 
straight (path) do you, Dasras, come (direct) to my invocation). [Likeunto a 
wayfarer: the simile applies to the person invoking As'vins, as the direct path 
to the realization of hiswishes].  

 1.183.06 (Through your aid) As'vins, we cross over this (limit of) darkness; to 
you this (our) hymn has beenaddressed; come hither by the paths traversed by the 
gods, that we may obtain food, and strength, and long life. 


 1.184.01 We invoke you two, (As'vins), today; the same two on any other day; 
when the morning dawns.Na_satyas, grandsons of heaven, wherever you may be, the 
pious reciter (of the hymn) invokes you with praiseson behalf of the liberal 
donor (of the offering).  

 1.184.02 Showerers (of benefits), rejoicing in (our) libations), make us happy, 
and destroy the niggard(withholder) of offerings; hear, leaders, with your ears, 
my praises addressed to you with pure words, for you areseekers (after praise), 
you are retentive (of laudation).  

 1.184.03 Divine As'vins, in whom is no untruth, (darting) like arrows to 
acquire glory, and to carry off Su_rya, toyou are addressed the prayers that are 
recited at holy rites, for (the completion of) the uninterrupted,sin-removing 
(sacrifice), as ancient ages (offered them). [divine As'vins: the text has 
Pu_s.an, an appellation of aform of the sun; it here connotes both the As'vins, 
the one as the sun and the other as the moon; su_rya: thelegend: a prize was 
offered of a hymn of thousand stanzas, which the As'vins also won; but, at the 
request ofAgni and other competitors, they gave up to them portions of the 
hyumn; sin removing sacrifice: varun.asyabhureh = avicchinnasya varun.asya phala 
pratibandhaka pa_paniva_rakasya ya_gasya, of the uninterruptedsacrifice which is 
obstructive of the sin that intercepts the reward].  

 1.184.04 Receivers of the oblation, may your liberality be displayed towards 
us; be pleased with the hymn of thevenerable author, so that men may honour the 
institutor of the ceremony, as (they honour) you, liberal donors, forthe sake of 

 1.184.05 As'vins, possessors of wealth, this sin-removing hymn has been 
addressed to you, together withrespectful (oblations); Na_satyas be favourable 
to Agastya; come to his dwelling for (conferring on him) progeny,and for his own 

 1.184.06 (Through your aid), As'vins, we cross over the limit of darkness; to 
you this (our hymn) has beenaddressed; come hither by the path traversed by thd 
gods, thatwe may obtain food, strength and long life. 


 1.185.01 Which of these two, (Heaven and Earth), is prior which posterior; how 
were they engendered; (declare),sages, who knows this? verily, you uphold the 
universe of itself, and the days (and nights) revolve as if they hadwheels. 
[Days and nights revolve: ahan cakriyeva, two days as if wheeled; i.e. the 
succession of day and night,each of which may be considered in turn as preceding 
or folliowing the other, like the rotations of a wheel].  

 1.185.02 Footless and motionless, they sustain numerous moving and footed 
races, as a son is even (nursed) onthe lap of his parents; defend us, Heaven and 
Earth, from great (danger). [raks.atam no abhva_t = great; thesubstantive is 
supplied: fr. sin as the cause of great danger: mahato bhayahetah pa_pa_t].  

 1.185.03 I solicit of Aditi, wealth, without pain or decay, like heaven (in 
fullness of enjoyment), exempt from injury,and abounding in food; grant, Heaven 
and Earth, such wealth to him who praises you; defend us, Heaven andEarth, from 
great (danger). [Aditi = the firmament].  

 1.185.04 May we ever be (devoted to) that Heaven and Earth, who are not subject 
to annoyance, who satisfy (allbeings) with food, who have the gods (and men) for 
sons, and who are both endowed with the double (condition)of the divine days 
(and nights); defend us, Heaven and Earth, from great (danger). [Divine days and 
nights: ubhedeva_na_m ubhayebhir ahna_m: ahan = night as well as day].  

 1.185.0\5 Going always together, equally young, and of the like termination, 
sisters, and kindred, and scentingthe navel of the world, placed on their lap as 
its parents; defend us, Heaven and Earth, from great danger.[Scenting the navel: 
abhijighranti_ bhuvanasya na_bhim pitror upasthe: na_bhi = water, udakam, as the 
bindingof all beings, bhu_taja_tasya bandhakam; this may be regarded as the 
child of heaven and earth, as they bothcontribute to its production: ubhayor 
udaka pradatvam prasiddham; or, the two here mentioned may imply waterand the 
oblation, which are also connected].  

 1.185.06 I invoke to the sacrifice, for the preservation of gods (and men), the 
two vast, all-supporting, and mightyparents (of the rain and corn); who, 
beautiful in form, sustain ambrosial (showers); defend us, Heaven and Earth,from 
great danger.  

 1.185.07 I glorify with reverence, at this sacrifice, (the two), who are vast, 
expansive, multiform, infinite,auspicious;who support (all beings) by their 
bounty; defend us, Heaven and Earth, from great danger.  

 1.185.08 May this sacrifice be the means of expiating those offences which we 
may have committed against thegods, against a friend at any time, against a son-
in-law; defend us, Heaven and Earth, from great danger. [Ason-in-law: jaspatim 
va_: ja_h = daughters; patim = lord or husband].  

 1.185.09 May both these, accepting praise, and friendly to man, be favourable 
to me; may they both beassociated as guardians for my protection; deities, we 
your adorers, propitiating you with (sacrificial) food, desireample (wealth), 
for the sake of makign liberal donations.  

 1.185.10 Endowed with understanding, I repeat to Heaven and Earth this initial 
praise, to be heard around; maypaternal (heaven) and maternal (earth) preserve 
us from reprehensible iniquity; and ever nigh defend us withtheir protection.  

 1.185.11 May this (hymn), Heaven and Earth,be successful; (the hymn) which, 
Father and Mother, I repeat toyou both on this occasion; be ever with your 
protection in the proximity of those who praise you; that we mayobtain food, 
strength, and long life. [In the proximity of those: deva_na_m avame: the first 
is interpretedstotr.na_m = of praisers]. 



 1.186.01 May the divine Savita_, the benefactor of all men, come benignantly to 
our solemnity, together with thedivinities of earth, and do you, who are 
(always) young, willingly present at our sacrifice, exhilarate us, as 
(youexhilarate) the whole world. [Another interpretation: vis'va_nara = an 
epithet of Savita_, vis'va nara hitaka_ri, thedoer of good to all men; il.a = 
food, yatha_ sarve ira_m bhaks.ayanti tatha_ etu; but, il.a_bhih saha 
=bhu_mistha_na_bhih deva_bhih, with the divinities, whose place is earth; jagad 
= jan:gama, moveable, i.e. cattleand offspring].  

 1.186.02 May all the triumphant gods, Mitra, Aryaman, Varun.a equally well 
pleased, come (to our rite); may theyall be propitious to us; may they not leave 
us in want of food, after overcoming (our foes).  

 1.186.03 I praise with hymns, (O gods), your best beloved guest, Agni, who is 
prompt (to partake of the oblation)and who is well pleased along (with you); so 
that (thereby) Varun.a, the possessor of renown, the subduer offoes, the 
animator (of men), may fill us with food.  

 1.186.04 I approach you, (deities), with reverence, night and day, in the hope 
of overcoming (sin), as (willingly),as a genttle cow (comes to be milked), 
mixing (for you) on the appropriate day the (sacrificial) food, (consisting)of 
multiform (preparations) of milk (generated) from the same udder. [Multiform 
preparations: vis.uru_pe payasisasminnu_dhan = in multiform milk in a common 
udder; i.e. the manifold water or solution of the Soma preparedfor the 
sacrifice; since it yields rewards, it is compared to an udder yielding milk 
whence butter, ghee].  

 1.186.05 May, Ahirbudhnya grant us happiness; may Sindhu come, nourishing us as 
a (cow her) calf, wherebywe may propitiate the grandson of the waters, (Agni), 
whom the clouds, swift as thought, convey. [Sindhu = nameof a river; 
ahirbudhnya: or, ahir who is also budhnya; ahi and budhna = antariks.a; the 
compound implies adivinity presiding over the firmament; ahirvradhna of the 
Pura_n.as is enumerated as one of the Rudras;ahirbradhna is the name of S'iva].  

 1.186.06 Or may Tvas.t.a_ come to this sacrifice, equally well pleased with 
those who praise (him) at theexcellent (rite) at which he is present; may the 
most potent Indra, the protector of man, the destroyer of Vr.tra,come to the 
(solemnity) of our leaders.  

 1.186.07 For our minds, yoked together like horses tend to the ever youthful 
Indra, as cows to their calves; andthe praises of men, (addressed) to him, are 
generating most fragrant (fruit), as wives bear (children to theirhusbands). 
[Most fragrant fruit: surabhis.t.amam = atis'ayena surabhim, exceedingly 

 1.186.08 Or may the Maruts, being of one mind, come from heaven and earth (to 
the sacrifice); they who are amighty host, who have parti-coloured steeds, who 
are like protecting chariots, and who are devourers of foesmay they come like 
friendly deities. [Like protecting chariots: avanayo na ratha_h  = raks.aka_h 
ratha_h;avanaya = bending, or inclining downwards].  

 1.186.09 For, verily, their greatness is well known, (as) they diligently 
discharge their functions; by which theirspot pours rain upon every arid soil, 
as light spreads (universally) on a fine day.  

 1.186.10 Propitiate the As'vins and Pu_s.an, for my protection; (propitiate) 
those (deities), who are ofindependent powers, as Vis.n.u, devoid of hatred, 
Va_yu and R.bhuks.in, and may I influence the gods to bepresent for my felicity. 
[Who are of independent powers: svatavaso hi santi = ye sva_yattabala_h santi, 
thosewho are self-dependent, powerful; r.bhuks.in = Indra].  

 1.186.11 Objects of admiration, may that wealth-abounding effulgence which 
manifests itself amongst the gods,give animation to our existence, and 
(permanence to) our dwellings; that we may (thence) obtain food, strength,and 
long life. 


 1.187.01 I glorify Pitu, the great, the upholder, the strong, by whose 
invigorating power Trita slew themutilatedVr.tra. [Anna-devata_ = anna, the 
divinity presidingover food, or merely food; pitu = pa_lakam, that 
whichnourishes; Trita = Indra; he whose fame is spread through the three worlds; 
or, tr.stha_na-indraha, thethree-stationed Indra: Yajurveda 34.7].  

 1.187.02 Savoury Pita_; sweet pita_; we worship you; become our protector.  

 1.187.03 Come to us, Pita_, auspicious with auspicious aids; a source of 
delight;not unpalatable; a friend wellrespected, and having none (but agreeable 
properties). [Having none but agreeable properties: The text hasadvaya_h, 
notbeing twofold, i.e. being of the property described alone;not comprisingany 
incompatible property;or, it may be an epithet of sakha_, a friend, one who does 
not differ in mind or act].  

 1.187.04 Your flavours, Pita_, are diffused through the regions, as the winds 
are spread through the sky.  

 1.187.05 Those (men), Pita_, (are the enjoyers of your bounty), who are your 
distributors, most sweet Pita_, (toothers); they who are the relishers of your 
flavours, are as if they had stiff necks. [tuvigri_vah iva irate: tuvi 
=bahu,much, many; or, pravr.ddha, enlarged; when people eat, they are 
dr.d.ha_n:ga, erect, firm; and when theyare without food, the neck is bent, or 
bends down; or it may mean, that they are great eaters, as if they had 

 1.187.06 The thoughts of the mighty gods are fixed, Pita_, upon you; by your 
kind and intelligent assistance,(Indra) slew Ahi. [There is no nominative in the 
text to ahim avadhi_t; Indra is assumed].  

 1.187.07 When, Pita_, this (product) of the water-wealthy clouds, (the rain), 
arrives; then do you, sweet Pita_, beat hand with sufficiency for our eating.  

 1.187.08 And since we enjoy the abundance of the waters and the plants; 
therefore, Body, do you grow fat.[va_ta_pe pi_va id bhava: va_ta_pi = s'ari_ra, 
that which is sustained by vitality, va_ta].  

 1.187.09 And since we enjoy, Soma, your mixture with boiled milk or boiled 
barley; therefore, Body, do you growfat. [Soma: The object addressed is now not 
food in general, but a modified form of the Soma; your mixture withboiled milk 
or boiled barley: gava_s'iro yava_s'iro = preparations of milk and barley, 
boiled; govika_raks.i_ra_dya_s'rayan.a dravyam and yavavika_ra_s'ryan.a 

 1.187.10 Vegetable cake of fried meal, do you be substantial, wholesome, and 
invigorating; and, Body, do yougrow fat. [Vegetable cake of fried meal: karambha 
os.adhe: karambha = a lump or cake of parched meal, s'aktupin.d.a, identified 
with a herb or vegetable, tada_tmaka os.adhih].  

 1.187.11 We extract from you, Pita_, by our praises, (the sacrificial food), as 
cows yield butter for oblation; fromyou, who are exhilarating to the gods; 
exhilarating also to us. [Pita_ = Soma; ?pun on pi_ta, yellow, golden]. 


   1.188.01 You shine today, divine conqueror of thousands, kindled by the 
priests; do you, who are the sapientmessenger (of the gods), convey (to them) 
our oblation. [The A_pris are also praya_jas; kim. devata_ = what sortof 
divinities are these; praya_ja, that which is an especial object of worship; 
such as divinities presiding over theseasons, over the metres of the Veda, over 
animals, over life, over the spirit, which are forms of Agni: 
praya_jaritudevata_s'chandodevata_h pas'udevata_h pra_n.adevata_ a_tmadevata_ 
itya_dina_ bahu_n paks.a_nupnyasyu bra_hman.a_ni ca pradars'ya a_gneya_ eveti 
siddha_ntitam. samiddha is a particple, an epithet ofdeva; susamiddha = well-
kindled, a name of Agni].  

 1.188.02 The adorable Tanu_napa_t proceeds to the rite and combines with the 
oblation, bearing (for thesacrificer) infinite (abundance of) food.  

 1.188.03 Agni, who are to be glorified, bring hither, being invoked by us, the 
adorable gods, for you are the donorof thousands. [Who are to be glorified: 
id.ya = i_l.ita; nara_s'amsa, a term which normally precedes i_l.ita, is 

 1.188.04 By the power (of their prayers) they have strewn the sacred grass, the 
seat of numerous heroes,pointing to the east; on which, A_dityas, you are 

 1.188.05 They have sprinkled water on the doors (of the hall of sacrifice), 
which are variously and perfectlyradiant, manifold, excellent, many, and 
numerous. [The doors: vira_t samra_t. vibhvi_h prabhvi_h bahvi_s'cabhu_yasi_s'ca 
ya_h: the last two epithets are epithets of number, and the rest are names].  

 1.188.06 Let the brilliant and beautiful Day and Night, who shine with 
surpassing lustre, sit down here (upon thesacred grass).  

 1.188.07 Let these two chief, well-spoken, divine sages, the invokers (of the 
gods), perform this our sacrifice.  

 1.188.08 Bha_rati_, Il.a_, Sarasvati_, I invoke you all, that you may direct us 
to prosperity. [Bha_rati_, thegoddess presiding over the heaven; Il.a_, the 
goddess presiding over the earth; Sarasvati_, the goddesspresiding over the 
firmament; they are all three considered to be special manifestations of the 
majesty of the sun:etis tisra a_dityaprabha_va vis'es.aru_pa itya_huh].  

 1.188.09 Tvas.t.a_, who is the master (in fashioning) the forms (of beings), 
has made all animals distinct; grantus, (Tvas.t.a), their increase. [Tvas.t.a 
ru_pa_n.i hi prabhuh: kartum = to make, is understood; Tvas.t.a_ is thedivinity 
presiding over the implements of sacrifice;he also fashions beings in the womb 
as soon as begotten:retasah siktasya tvas.t.a_ ru_Pa_n.i vikaroti; or, yonau 
sr.s.t.a_ni ru_pa_n.i kartumprabhuh].  

 1.188.10 Vanaspati, deliver of yourself the victim to the gods, so that Agni 
may taste the oblation.  

 1.188.11 Agni, the preceder of the gods [puroga_ puroga_mi_; agnih 
kasma_dagran.i_rbhavati (Nirukta 7.14), ischaracterized by the Ga_yatri_ 
measure; he blazes when the oblations are offered. 



 1.189.01 Agni, knowing all kinds of knowledge, lead us by good ways to wealth; 
remove from from us the sunthat would force us astray, that we may offer to you 
most ample adoration.   

 1.189.02 Adorable Agni, convey us by the sacred sets (of worship), beyond all 
evil ways; may our city bespacious; our land be extensive; be the bestower of 
happiness upon our offspring, upon our sons.  

 1.189.03 Agni, do you remove from us disease, and those men who, unprotected by 
Agni, are adverse to us; and,adorable divinity (visit) the earth, with all the 
immortals, for our welfare.  

 1.189.04 Cherish us, Agni, with incessant bounties; shine always in your 
favourite abode; let no danger,youngest (of the gods), assails your worshipper 
today; nor, mighty one, let t assail him any other season.  

 1.189.05 Abandon us not, Agni, to a wicked, voracious, malevolent foe; (abandon 
us) not to one who has fangs,and who bites; nor to one without teeth; nor to the 
malignant; nor give us up, powerful Agni, to disgrace. [To onewho has fangs and 
who bites: snakes and venomous reptiles; to one without teeth: and who, 
therefore, domischief with other natural weapons, as horns and claws; nor to the 
malignant: ri_s.ate = to one who injures asthieves and ra_ks.asas].  

 1.189.06 Agni, born for sacrifice, (a man) praising you, who are excellent, for 
(the sake of cherishing) his body,becomes such as you are; exempts himself from 
all who are inclined to harm or revile him; for you, Agni, are theespecial 
adversary of those who do wrong.  

 1.189.07 Adorable Agni, you are sagacious, and in a short time discriminate 
between both those men (who doand do not worshhip you); approach the worshipper 
at the proper time, and be compliant (with his wishes); likean institutor of the 
rite, (who is directed) by the desires (of the priests).  

 1.189.08 We address our pious prayers to you, Agni, the son of prayer, the 
subduer of foes; may we procure, bythese sacred supplications, infinite wealth, 
that we may thence obtain food, strength and long life. 



 1.190.01 (Priests), augment by your hymns Br.haspati, who deserts not (his 
worshipper); the showerer (ofbenefits) the pleasant-tongued, the adorable; of 
whom resplendent gods and men, (the ministers) of the institutorof the 
sacrifice, emulous in sacred songs, proclaim (the praise). [Br.haspati is here 
defined as mantrasyapa_layita_ram, the protector of cherisher of the prayer].  

 1.190.02 The hymns of the (rainy) season are addressed to him, who is verily 
the creator (of the rain), and hasgranted it (to the prayers) of the devout; for 
that Br.haspati is the manifester (of all), the expansive wind that(dispensing) 
blessings has been produced for (the diffusion of) water. [The hymns of the 
rainy season: r.tivya_ =vars.arttu sambandhinyo va_cah, prayers connected with 
the season of the rain].  

 1.190.03 He is ready (to accept) the offered praise, the presentation of the 
homage, the hymn, as the sun (isready) to put forth his rays; by the acts of him 
whom the ra_ks.asas (oppose not), the daily (revolving sun) exists,and he is 
strong as a fearful beast of prey. [He: or, the pronoun may apply to the 
yajama_na, who exerts himselfto offer the praise, the oblation].  

 1.190.04 The gloryof this Br.haspati spreads through heaven and earth like the 
sun; receiving worship, andgiving intelligence, he bestows (the rewards of 
sacrifice); like the weapons of the hunters, so these (weapons) ofBr.haspati 
fall daily upon the workers of guile. [Like the weapons of the hunters: 
mr.ga_n.a_m na hetayah =hantum anvis.yatam a_yudhani_va, like the weapons of 
those seeking to kill].  

 1.190.05 Divine Br.haspati, you do not bestow desired (wealth) upon those 
stupid (men), who, sinful and meansubsist, considering you, who are auspicious, 
as an old ox; but you favour him who offers (you) libations. [As anold ox: tva_ 
usriyam manyama_nah: usriya = a cow giving little milk; or an old one, ji_rn.am 
anad.va_ham va_;but your favour: cayasa it piya_rum, you go to bestow favour on 
him who sacrifices with the Soma; anotherinterpretation: you destroy the 
malevolent (Nirukta 4.25)].  

 1.190.06 Be a (pleasant) way to him who goes well and makes good offerings, 
like the affectionate friend of (aruler who) restrains the bad; and may those 
sinless men who instruct us, although yet enveloped (by ignorance),stand 
extricated from their covering. [Those sinless men: abhi ye caks.ate nah, those 
who speak to us; who,bodhayanti_, waken or instruct us;; api_vr.ta_, 
ajn~a_nena_vr.ta_, enveloped by ignorance; let those whorevileus, and are being 
protected be deprived of that protection].  

 1.190.07 To whom praises (necessarily) proceed, as men (assemble round a 
master); as rivers, rolling betweentheir banks, flow to the ocean; that wise 
Br.haspati greedy (after rain), and stationary in the midst, contemplatesboth 
(the ferry and the water). [That wise Br.haspati: ubhayam cas.t.e antam. 
br.haspatistara a_pas'ca gr.dhrah:gr.dhrah = vr.s.tim a_ka_n:ks.ama_n.a, 
desirous of rain; taras = taran.am jala_bhivr.ddhim, crossing, or a ferry 
orincrease of water; apah =water; ubhayam antar madhye sthitva_, having stood in 
the middle; cas.t.e pas'yate,hesees; or karoti, he does; identifying Br.haspati 
with Indra, ubhayam, both, may denote heaven and earth,between which in the 
antariks.a or firmament, the region of the rain, is his proper station].  

 1.190.08 So, Br.haspati, the mighty, be beneficent, the powerful, the showerer 
(of benefits), the divine, has beenglorified; praised by us, may he make us 
possessed of progeny and cattle, that hence we may obtain food,strength and long 


 1.191.01 Some creature of little venom, some creature of great venom; or some 
venomous aquatic reptile;creatures of two kinds, both destructive (of life),or 
(poisonous) unseen creatures, have anointed me with theirpoison. [The su_kta is 
a mystical antidote against poison. This was recited by Agastya under an 
apprehension ofhaving been poisoned. kan:kata, na kan:kata, sati_na kan:kata = 
alpavis.ah kas;cit, something of little venom;tadvipari_to analpavis.o 
mahoraga_i, the opposite of that of not little venom, like great snakes and the 
like; satina= water; of two kinds: of little or of much venom; or creatures of 
land or water; unseen creatures: adr.s.t.a_ = ofinvisible forms; the appellation 
of certain poisonous insects; a class of poisons, or of poisonous 
creatures:vis'avis'es.ah vis.adhara vis'es.a va_; having anointed: alipsata = 
have smeared, have spread over all the limbs].  

 1.191.02 (the antidote), coming (to the bitten person), destroys the unseen 
(venomous creatures); departing (itdestroys them); deprived (of substance), it 
destroys them (by its odour); being ground, it pulverises them.[Deprives of 
substance: avaghnati_ = avahanyama_naaus.adhih, a drug or antidote being 
destroyed; losing itssubstance, and reduced to its odour; or it may mean that a 
certain drug,understood, is destructive of poisonouscreatures].  

 1.191.03 (Blades of) s'ara_ grass, (of) kus'ara_, (of) darbha, (of) sairya_, 
(of) mun~ja, (of) vi_ran.a, all (the haunt)of unseen (venomous creatures), have 
together anointed me (with their venom). [Blades of s'ara_: these are,saccarum 
s'ara, poa cynosuroides, saccharum spontaneum, saccarum mun~ja, andropogon 
muricatum,long-reed like grasses, amidst which reptiles may lurk unseen].  

 1.191.04 The cows had lain down in their stalls; the wild beasts had retreated 
(to their lairs); the senses of menwere at rest; when the unseen (venomous 
creatures) anointed me (with their venom). [The unseen venomouscreatures: these 
reptiles being most frequent at night or in the dark].  

 1.191.05 Or they may be discovered (in the dark), as thieves in the (dusk of) 
evening; for although they beunseen, yet all are seen by them; therefore, men, 
be vigilant. [Discovered in the dark: as snakes by theirbreathing; yet all are 
seen by them: vis'vadr.s.t.a_, undertood it as a bahuvri_hi compound].  

 1.191.06 Heaven, (serpents), is your father; Earth, your mother; Soma, your 
brother; Aditi, your sister; unseenall-seeing abide (in your own holes); enjoy 
(your own) good pleasure. [Soma is here the moon; heaven is theresidence of 
Soma: somadharo dyulokah].  

 1.191.07 Those (who move with their) shoulders, those (who move with their) 
bodies, those who sting with sharpfangs, those who are virulently venomous; what 
do you here, you unseen, depart together far from us. [Thosewho move: ye am.sya_ 
ye an:gya_h, what relates to the shoulders, or the body generally; am.sya_ = 
being suitedto the shoulders, moving with or by them, born or produced in or on 
them, biting with them: am.sa_rha_h,am.saga_h, am.se bhava_h, am.sa_bhya_m 
kha_dantah; am.gya_ = moving with the body or poisoning with thebody, as certain 
spiders, whose contact is poisonous, and the like; who stings with sharp fangs: 
suci_ka_h,having sharp needle-like stings, like a scorpion].  

 1.191.08 The all-seeing Sun rises in the east, the destroyer of the unseen, 
driving away all the unseen(venomous creatures), and all evil spirits. 
[Destroyer of the unseen: adr.s.t.ha_ may also mean the dissipator ofdarkness; 
adr.s.t.a occurs in the sense of invisible venomous creatures, these as well as 
the ya_tudha_nas, orra_ks.asas, disappear at sunrise; cf. AV 5.23.6].  

 1.191.09 The Sun has risen on high, destroying all the many (poisons); A_ditya, 
the all-seeing, the destroyer ofthe unseen, (rises) for (the good of) living 
beings. [cf. AV 6.52.1].  

 1.191.10 I deposit the poison in the solar orb, like a leather bottle in the 
house of a vendor of spirits; verily, thatadorable (Sun) never dies; nor, 
(through his favour), shall we die (of the venom); for, though afar off, yet 
drawnby his coursers, he will overtake (the poison); the science of antidoes 
converted you, (Poison), to ambrosia. [Thisand the following three hymns are 
derived from the vis.a vidya_, the science of poisons,or of antidoes, whence 
itis also termed madhu-vidya_, science of ambrosia; 'having taken the poison in 
the solar orb with the fourth finger,having made it ambrosia and caused them to 
blend together, may it become poisonless'; su_rya man.d.ala or orbof the sun; 
or, perhaps a reference to a mystical diagram or figure typical of the solar 
orb; madhuta = madhuvidya_ was originally taught by Indra to Dadhyan~c, who 
communicated it to the As'vins, and thereby lost hishead].  

 1.191.11 That little insignifcant bird has swallowed your venom; she does not 
die; nor shall we die; for, althoughafar off, yet drawn by his coursers, (the 
Sun) will overtake (the poison); the science of antidotes has convertedyou, 
(Poison), to ambrosia. [The insignificant bird: the female kapin~jala, or 
francoline partridge, which wasknown as a remover of poison, vis.a hartri_].  

 1.191.12 May the thrice-seven sparks (of Agni) consume the influence of the 
venom; they verily do not perish;norshall we die; for, although afar off, the 
Sun, drawn by his coursers, will overtake the poison; the science ofantidotes 
has converted you, (Poison), to ambrosia. [The thice seven sparks: the seven 
tongues, or flames offire, may be multiplied as red, white and black; or 
vis'pulin:gaka_ = catika_, a female sparrow of which there are21 varieties, 
eaters of poison with impunity].  

 1.191.13 I recite the names of ninety and nine (rivers), the destroyers of 
poison; although afar off, (the Sun),drawn by his coursers, will overtake the 
poison; the science of antidotes has converted you, (Poison), toambrosia.  

 1.191.14 May the thrice-seven peahens, the seven-sister rivers, carry off, (O 
Body), your poison, as maidens,with pitchers, carry away water. [Thrice-seven 
peahen: tri saptamayu_ryah, an allusion to the enmity betweenpeafowl and snakes; 
21 varities of mayuri_ or peahen; the seven rivers are those of heaven, or the 
branches ofthe divine gan:ga_; all running streams are possibly regarded as 

 1.191.15 May the insignificant mongoose (carry off) your venom, (Poison); if 
not, I will crush the vile (creature)with a stone; so may the poison depart 
(from my body) and go to distant regions. [The mongoose: kus.umbakonakulah, the 
mongoose, whose hostility to the snake is proverbial].  

 1.191.16 Hastening forth at the command (of Agastya), thus spoke the mongoose: 
the venom of the scorpion isinnocuous; scorpion, your venom is innocuous. 


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