CHAPTER VIII. 

     1. A king, desirous of investigating law cases, must enter his court of 
justice, preserving a dignified demeanour, together with Brahmanas and with
     experienced councillors. 

     2. There, either seated or standing, raising his right arm, without 
ostentation in his dress and ornaments, let him examine the business of suitors, 

     3. Daily (deciding) one after another (all cases) which fall under the 
eighteen titles (of the law) according to principles drawn from local usages. 
and
     from the Institutes of the sacred law. 

     4. Of those (titles) the first is the non-payment of debts, (then follow), 
(2) deposit and pledge, (3) sale without ownership, (4) concerns among partners,
     and (5) resumption of gifts, 

     5. (6) Non-payment of wages, (7) non-performance of agreements, (8) 
rescission of sale and purchase, (9) disputes between the owner (of cattle) and
     his servants, 

     6. (10) Disputes regarding boundaries, (11) assault and (12) defamation, 
(13) theft, (14) robbery and violence, (15) adultery, 

     7. (16) Duties of man and wife, (17) partition (of inheritance), (18) 
gambling and betting; these are in this world the eighteen topics which give 
rise to
     lawsuits. 

     8. Depending on the eternal law, let him decide the suits of men who mostly 
contend on the titles just mentioned. 

     9. But if the king does not personally investigate the suits, then let him 
appoint a learned Brahmana to try them. 

     10. That (man) shall enter that most excellent court, accompanied by three 
assessors, and fully consider (all) causes (brought) before the (king), either
     sitting down or standing. 

     11. Where three Brahmanas versed in the Vedas and the learned (judge) 
appointed by the king sit down, they call that the court of (four-faced)
     Brahman. 

     12. But where justice, wounded by injustice, approaches and the judges do 
not extract the dart, there (they also) are wounded (by that dart of
     injustice). 

     13. Either the court must not be entered, or the truth must be spoken; a 
man who either says nothing or speaks falsely, becomes sinful. 

     14. Where justice is destroyed by injustice, or truth by falsehood, while 
the judges look on, there they shall also be destroyed. 

     15. 'Justice, being violated, destroys; justice, being preserved, 
preserves: therefore justice must not be violated, lest violated justice destroy 
us.' 

     16. For divine justice (is said to be) a bull (vrisha); that (man) who 
violates it (kurute 'lam) the gods consider to be (a man despicable like) a 
Sudra
     (vrishala); let him, therefore, beware of violating justice. 

     17. The only friend who follows men even after death is justice; for 
everything else is lost at the same time when the body (perishes). 

     18. One quarter of (the guilt of) an unjust (decision) falls on him who 
committed (the crime), one quarter on the (false) witness, one quarter on all 
the
     judges, one quarter on the king. 

     19. But where he who is worthy of condemnation is condemned, the king is 
free from guilt, and the judges are saved (from sin); the guilt falls on the
     perpetrator (of the crime alone). 

     20. A Brahmana who subsists only by the name of his caste (gati), or one 
who merely calls himself a Brahmana (though his origin be uncertain), may, at
     the king's pleasure, interpret the law to him, but never a Sudra. 

     21. The kingdom of that monarch, who looks on while a Sudra settles the 
law, will sink (low), like a cow in a morass. 

     22. That kingdom where Sudras are very numerous, which is infested by 
atheists and destitute of twice-born (inhabitants), soon entirely perishes,
     afflicted by famine and disease. 

     23. Having occupied the seat of justice, having covered his body, and 
having worshipped the guardian deities of the world, let him, with a collected
     mind, begin the trial of causes. 

     24. Knowing what is expedient or inexpedient, what is pure justice or 
injustice, let him examine the causes of suitors according to the order of the
     castes (varna). 

     25. By external signs let him discover the internal disposition of men, by 
their voice, their colour, their motions, their aspect, their eyes, and their
     gestures. 

     26. The internal (working of the) mind is perceived through the aspect, the 
motions, the gait, the gestures, the speech, and the changes in the eye and of
     the face. 

     27. The king shall protect the inherited (and other) property of a minor, 
until he has returned (from his teacher's house) or until he has passed his
     minority. 

     28. In like manner care must be taken of barren women, of those who have no 
sons, of those whose family is extinct, of wives and widows faithful to
     their lords, and of women afflicted with diseases. 

     29. A righteous king must punish like thieves those relatives who 
appropriate the property of such females during their lifetime. 

     30. Property, the owner of which has disappeared, the king shall cause to 
be kept as a deposit during three years; within the period of three years the
     owner may claim it, after (that term) the king may take it. 

     31. He who says, 'This belongs to me,' must be examined according to the 
rule; if he accurately describes the shape, and the number (of the articles
     found) and so forth, (he is) the owner, (and) ought (to receive) that 
property. 

     32. But if he does not really know the time and the place (where it was) 
lost, its colour, shape, and size, he is worthy of a fine equal (in value) to 
the
     (object claimed). 

     33. Now the king, remembering the duty of good men, may take one-sixth part 
of property lost and afterwards found, or one-tenth, or at least
     one-twelfth. 

     34. Property lost and afterwards found (by the king's servants) shall 
remain in the keeping of (special) officials; those whom the king may convict of
     stealing it, he shall cause to be slain by an elephant. 

     35. From that man who shall truly say with respect to treasure-trove, 'This 
belongs to me,' the king may take one-sixth or one-twelfth part. 

     36. But he who falsely says (so), shall be fined in one-eighth of his 
property, or, a calculation of (the value of) the treasure having been made, in 
some
     smaller portion (of that). 

     37. When a learned Brahmana has found treasure, deposited in former 
(times), he may take even the whole (of it); for he is master of everything. 

     38. When the king finds treasure of old concealed in the ground let him 
give one half to Brahmanas and place the (other) half in his treasury. 

     39. The king obtains one half of ancient hoards and metals (found) in the 
ground, by reason of (his giving) protection, (and) because he is the lord of 
the
     soil. 

     40. Property stolen by thieves must be restored by the king to (men of) all 
castes (varna); a king who uses such (property) for himself incurs the guilt of
     a thief. 

     41. (A king) who knows the sacred law, must inquire into the laws of castes 
(gati), of districts, of guilds, and of families, and (thus) settle the peculiar
     law of each. 

     42. For men who follow their particular occupations and abide by their 
particular duty, become dear to people, though they may live at a distance. 

     43. Neither the king nor any servant of his shall themselves cause a 
lawsuit to be begun, or hush up one that has been brought (before them) by 
(some)
     other (man). 

     44. As a hunter traces the lair of a (wounded) deer by the drops of blood, 
even so the king shall discover on which side the right lies, by inferences
     (from the facts). 

     45. When engaged in judicial proceedings he must pay full attention to the 
truth, to the object (of the dispute), (and) to himself, next to the witnesses, 
to
     the place, to the time, and to the aspect. 

     46. What may have been practised by the virtuous, by such twice-born men as 
are devoted to the law, that he shall establish as law, if it be not
     opposed to the (customs of) countries, families, and castes (gati). 

     47. When a creditor sues (before the king) for the recovery of money from a 
debtor, let him make the debtor pay the sum which the creditor proves (to
     be due). 

     48. By whatever means a creditor may be able to obtain possession of his 
property, even by those means may he force the debtor and make him pay. 

     49. By moral suasion, by suit of law, by artful management, or by the 
customary proceeding, a creditor may recover property lent; and fifthly, by 
force. 

     50. A creditor who himself recovers his property from his debtor, must not 
be blamed by the king for retaking what is his own. 

     51. But him who denies a debt which is proved by good evidence, he shall 
order to pay that debt to the creditor and a small fine according to his
     circumstances. 

     52. On the denial (of a debt) by a debtor who has been required in court to 
pay it, the complainant must call (a witness) who was present (when the
     loan was made), or adduce other evidence. 

     53. (The plaintiff) who calls a witness not present at the transaction, who 
retracts his statements, or does not perceive that his statements (are) confused
     or contradictory; 

     54. Or who having stated what he means to prove afterwards varies (his 
case), or who being questioned on a fact duly stated by himself does not abide
     by it; 

     55. Or who converses with the witnesses in a place improper for such 
conversation; or who declines to answer a question, properly put, or leaves (the
     court); 

     56. Or who, being ordered to speak, does not answer, or does not prove what 
he has alleged; or who does not know what is the first (point), and
     what the second, fails in his suit. 

     57. Him also who says 'I have witnesses,' and, being ordered to produce 
them, produces them not, the judge must on these (same) grounds declare to
     be non-suited. 

     58. If a plaintiff does not speak, he may be punished corporally or fined 
according to the law; if (a defendant) does not plead within three fortnights, 
he
     has lost his cause. 

     59. In the double of that sum which (a defendant) falsely denies or on 
which (the plaintiff) falsely declares, shall those two (men) offending against
     justice be fined by the king. 

     60. (A defendant) who, being brought (into court) by the creditor, (and) 
being questioned, denies (the debt), shall be convicted (of his falsehood) by at
     least three witnesses (who must depose) in the presence of the Brahmana 
(appointed by) the king. 

     61. I will fully declare what kind of men may be made witnesses in suits by 
creditors, and in what manner those (witnesses) must give true (evidence). 

     62. Householders, men with male issue, and indigenous (inhabitants of the 
country, be they) Kshatriyas, Vaisyas, or Sudras, are competent, when
     called by a suitor, to give evidence, not any persons whatever (their 
condition may be) except in cases of urgency. 

     63. Trustworthy men of all the (four) castes (varna) may be made witnesses 
in lawsuits, (men) who know (their) whole duty, and are free from
     covetousness; but let him reject those (of an) opposite (character). 

     64. Those must not be made (witnesses) who have an interest in the suit, 
nor familiar (friends), companions, and enemies (of the parties), nor (men)
     formerly convicted (of perjury), nor (persons) suffering under (severe) 
illness, nor (those) tainted (by mortal sin). 

     65. The king cannot be made a witness, nor mechanics and actors, nor a: 
Srotriya, nor a student of the Veda, nor (an ascetic) who has given up (all)
     connexion (with the world), 

     66. Nor one wholly dependent, nor one of bad fame, nor a Dasyu, nor one who 
follows forbidden occupations, nor an aged (man), nor an infant, nor
     one (man alone), nor a man of the lowest castes, nor one deficient in 
organs of sense, 

     67. Nor one extremely grieved, nor one intoxicated, nor a madman, nor one 
tormented by hunger or thirst, nor one oppressed by fatigue, nor one
     tormented by desire, nor a wrathful man, nor a thief. 

     68. Women should give evidence for women, and for twice-born men twice-born 
men (of the) same (kind), virtuous Sudras for Sudras, and men of the
     lowest castes for the lowest. 

     69. But any person whatsoever, who has personal knowledge (of an act 
committed) in the interior apartments (of a house), or in a forest, or of (a 
crime
     causing) loss of life, may give evidence between the parties. 

     70. On failure (of qualified witnesses, evidence) may given (in such cases) 
by a woman, by an infant, by an aged man, by a pupil, by a relative, by a
     slave, or by a hired servant. 

     71. But the (judge) should consider the evidence of infants, aged and 
diseased men, who (are apt to) speak untruly, as untrustworthy, likewise that of
     men with disordered minds. 

     72. In all cases of violence, of theft and adultery, of defamation and 
assault, he must not examine the (competence of) witnesses (too strictly). 

     73. On a conflict of the witnesses the king shall accept (as true) the 
evidence of the) majority; if (the conflicting parties are) equal in number, 
(that of)
     those distinguished by good qualities; on a difference between (equally) 
distinguished (witnesses, that of) the best among the twice-born. 

     74. Evidence in accordance with what has actually been seen or heard, is 
admissible; a witness who speaks truth in those (cases), neither loses spiritual
     merit nor wealth. 

     75. A witness who deposes in an assembly of honourable men (Arya) anything 
else but what he has seen or heard, falls after death headlong into hell
     and loses heaven. 

     76. When a man (originally) not appointed to be a witness sees or hears 
anything and is (afterwards) examined regarding it, he must declare it (exactly)
     as he saw or heard it. 

     77. One man who is free from covetousness may be (accepted as) witness; but 
not even many pure women, because the understanding of females is
     apt to waver, nor even many other men, who are tainted with sin. 

     78. What witnesses declare quite naturally, that must be received on 
trials; (depositions) differing from that, which they make improperly, are 
worthless
     for (the purposes of) justice. 

     79. The witnesses being assembled in the court in the presence of the 
plaintiff and of the defendant, let the judge examine them, kindly exhorting 
them in
     the following manner: 

     80. 'What ye know to have been mutually transacted in this matter between 
the two men before us, declare all that in accordance with the truth; for ye
     are witnesses in this (cause). 

     81. 'A witness who speaks the truth in his evidence, gains (after death) 
the most excellent regions (of bliss) and here (below) unsurpassable fame; such
     testimony is revered by Brahman (himself). 

     82. 'He who gives false evidence is firmly bound by Varuna's fetters, 
helpless during one hundred existences; let (men therefore) give true evidence. 

     83. 'By truthfulness a witness is purified, through truthfulness his merit 
grows, truth must, therefore, be spoken by witnesses of all castes (varna). 

     84. 'The Soul itself is the witness of the Soul, and the Soul is the refuge 
of the Soul; despise not thy own Soul, the supreme witness of men. 

     85. 'The wicked, indeed, say in their hearts, "Nobody sees us;" but the 
gods distinctly see them and the male within their own breasts. 

     86. 'The sky, the earth, the waters, (the male in) the heart, the moon, the 
sun, the fire, Yama and the wind, the night, the two twilights, and justice know
     the conduct of all corporeal beings.' 

     87. The (judge), being purified, shall ask in the forenoon the twice-born 
(witnesses) who (also have been) purified, (and stand) facing the north or the
     east, to give true evidence in the presence of (images of) the gods and of 
Brahmanas. 

     88. Let him examine a Brahmana (beginning with) 'Speak,' a Kshatriya 
(beginning with) 'Speak the truth,' a Vaisya (admonishing him) by (mentioning)
     his kine, grain, and gold, a Sudra (threatening him) with (the guilt of) 
every crime that causes loss of caste; 

     89. (Saying), 'Whatever places (of torment) are assigned (by the sages) to 
the slayer of a Brahmana, to the murderer of women and children, to him
     who betrays a friend, and to an ungrateful man, those shall be thy 
(portion), if thou speakest falsely. 

     90. '(The reward) of all meritorious deeds which thou, good man, hast done 
since thy birth, shall become the share of the dogs, if in thy speech thou
     departest from the truth. 

     91. 'If thou thinkest, O friend of virtue, with respect to thyself, "I am 
alone," (know that) that sage who witnesses all virtuous acts and all crimes, 
ever
     resides in thy heart. 

     92. 'If thou art not at variance with that divine Yama, the son of 
Vivasvat, who dwells in thy heart, thou needest neither visit the Ganges nor the 
(land of
     the) Kurus. 

     93. 'Naked and shorn, tormented with hunger and thirst, and deprived of 
sight, shall the man who gives false evidence, go with a potsherd to beg food
     at the door of his enemy. 

     94. 'Headlong, in utter darkness shall the sinful man tumble into hell, who 
being interrogated in a judicial inquiry answers one question falsely. 

     95. 'That man who in a court (of justice) gives an untrue account of a 
transaction (or asserts a fact) of which he was not an eye-witness, resembles a
     blind man who swallows fish with the bones. 

     96. 'The gods are acquainted with no better man in this world than him, of 
whom his conscious Soul has no distrust, when he gives evidence. 

     97. 'Learn now, O friend, from an enumeration in due order, how many 
relatives he destroys who gives false evidence in several particular cases. 

     98. 'He kills five by false Testimony regarding (small) cattle, he kills 
ten by false testimony regarding kine, he kills a hundred by false evidence
     concerning horses, and a thousand by false evidence concerning men. 

     99. 'By speaking falsely in a cause regarding gold, he kills the born and 
the unborn; by false evidence concerning land, he kills everything; beware,
     therefore, of false evidence concerning land. 

     100. 'They declare (false evidence) concerning water, concerning the carnal 
enjoyment of women, and concerning all gems, produced in water, or
     consisting of stones (to be) equally (wicked) as a lie concerning land. 

     101. 'Marking well all the evils (which are produced) by perjury, declare 
thou openly everything as (thou hast) heard or seen (it).' 

     102. Brahmanas who tend cattle, who trade, who are mechanics, actors (or 
singers), menial servants or usurers, the (judge) shall treat like Sudras. 

     103. In (some) cases a man who, though knowing (the facts to be) different, 
gives such (false evidence) from a pious motive, does not lose heaven;
     such (evidence) they call the speech of the gods. 

     104. Whenever the death of a Sudra, of a Vaisya, of a Kshatriya, or of a 
Brahmana would be (caused) by a declaration of the truth, a falsehood may
     be spoken; for such (falsehood) is preferable to the truth. 

     105. Such (witnesses) must offer to Sarasvati oblations of boiled rice 
(karu) which are sacred to the goddess of speech, (thus) performing the best
     penance in order to expiate the guilt of that falsehood. 

     106. Or such (a witness) may offer according to the rule, clarified butter 
in the fire, reciting the Kushmanda texts, or the Rik, sacred to Varuna, 'Untie,
     O Varuna, the uppermost fetter,' or the three verses addressed to the 
Waters. 

     107. A man who, without being ill, does not give evidence in (cases of) 
loans and the like within three fortnights (after the summons), shall become
     responsible for the whole debt and (pay) a tenth part of the whole (as a 
fine to the king). 

     108. The witness to whom, within seven days after he has given evidence, 
happens (a misfortune through) sickness, a fire, or the death of a relative,
     shall be made to pay the debt and a fine. 

     109. If two (parties) dispute about matters for which no witnesses are 
available, and the (judge) is unable to really ascertain the truth, he may cause 
it to
     be discovered even by an oath. 

     110. Both by the great sages and the gods oaths have been taken for the 
purpose of (deciding doubtful) matters; and Vasishtha even swore an oath
     before king (Sudas), the son of Pigavana. 

     111. Let no wise man swear an oath falsely, even in a trifling matter; for 
he who swears an oath falsely is lost in this (world) and after death. 

     112. No crime, causing loss of caste, is committed by swearing (falsely) to 
women, the objects of one's desire, at marriages, for the sake of fodder for
     a cow, or of fuel, and in (order to show) favour to a Brahmana. 

     113. Let the (judge) cause a Brahmana to swear by his veracity, a Kshatriya 
by his chariot or the animal he rides on and by his weapons, a Vaisya by
     his kine, grain, and gold, and a Sudra by (imprecating on his own head the 
guilt) of all grievous offences (pataka). 

     114. Or the (judge) may cause the (party) to carry fire or to dive under 
water, or severally to touch the heads of his wives and children. 

     115. He whom the blazing fire burns not, whom the water forces not to come 
(quickly) up, who meets with no speedy misfortune, must be held
     innocent on (the strength of) his oath. 

     116. For formerly when Vatsa was accused by his younger brother, the fire, 
the spy of the world, burned not even a hair (of his) by reason of his
     veracity. 

     117. Whenever false evidence has been given in any suit, let the (judge) 
reverse the judgment, and whatever has been done must be (considered as)
     undone. 

     118. Evidence (given) from covetousness, distraction, terror, friendship, 
lust, wrath, ignorance, and childishness is declared (to be) invalid. 

     119. I will propound in (due) order the particular punishments for him who 
gives false evidence from any one of these motives. 

     120. (He who commits perjury) through covetousness shall be fined one 
thousand (panas), (he who does it) through distraction, in the lowest
     amercement; (if a man does it) through fear, two middling amercements shall 
be paid as a fine, (if he does it) through friendship, four times the amount
     of the lowest (amercement). 

     121. (He who does it) through lust, (shall pay) ten times the lowest 
amercement, but (he who does it) through wrath, three times the next (or second
     amercement); (he who does it) through ignorance, two full hundreds, but (he 
who does it) through childishness, one hundred (panas). 

     122. They declare that the wise have prescribed these fines for perjury, in 
order to prevent a failure of justice, and in order to restrain injustice. 

     123. But a just king shall fine and banish (men of) the three (lower) 
castes (varna) who have given false evidence, but a Brahmana he shall (only)
     banish. 

     124. Manu, the son of the Self-existent (Svayambhu), has named ten places 
on which punishment may be (made to fall) in the cases of the three (lower)
     castes (varna); but a Brahmana shall depart unhurt (from the country). 

     125. (These are) the organ, the belly, the tongue, the two hands, and 
fifthly the two feet, the eye, the nose, the two ears, likewise the (whole) 
body. 

     126. Let the (king), having fully ascertained the motive, the time and 
place (of the offence), and having considered the ability (of the criminal to 
suffer)
     and the (nature of the) crime, cause punishment to fall on those who 
deserve it. 

     127. Unjust punishment destroys reputation among men, and fame (after 
death), and causes even in the next world the loss of heaven; let him,
     therefore, beware of (inflicting) it. 

     128. A king who punishes those who do not deserve it, and punishes not 
those who deserve it, brings great infamy on himself and (after death) sinks
     into hell. 

     129. Let him punish first by (gentle) admonition, afterwards by (harsh) 
reproof, thirdly by a fine, after that by corporal chastisement. 

     130. But when he cannot restrain such (offenders) even by corporal 
punishment, then let him apply to them even all the four (modes cojointly). 

     131. Those technical names of (certain quantities of) copper, silver, and 
gold, which are generally used on earth for the purpose of business transactions
     among men, I will fully declare. 

     132. The very small mote which is seen when the sun shines through a 
lattice, they declare (to be) the least of (all) quantities and (to be called) a
     trasarenu (a floating particle of dust). 

     133. Know (that) eight trasarenus (are equal) in bulk (to) a liksha (the 
egg of a louse), three of those to one grain of black mustard (ragasarshapa), 
and
     three of the latter to a white mustard-seed. 

     134. Six grains of white mustard are one middle-sized barley-corn, and 
three barley-corns one krishnala (raktika, or gunga-berry); five krishnalas are
     one masha (bean), and sixteen of those one suvarna. 

     135. Four suvarnas are one pala, and ten palas one dharana; two krishnalas 
(of silver), weighed together, must be considered one mashaka of silver. 

     136. Sixteen of those make a silver dharana, or purana; but know (that) a 
karsha of copper is a karshapana, or pana. 

     137. Know (that) ten dharanas of silver make one satamana; four suvarnas 
must be considered (equal) in weight to a nishka. 

     138. Two hundred and fifty panas are declared (to be) the first (or lowest) 
amercement, five (hundred) are considered as the mean (or middlemost),
     but one thousand as the highest. 

     139. A debt being admitted as due, (the defendant) shall pay five in the 
hundred (as a fine), if it be denied (and proved) twice as much; that is the
     teaching of Manu. 

     140. A money-lender may stipulate as an increase of his capital, for the 
interest, allowed by Vasishtha, and take monthly the eightieth part of a 
hundred.

     141. Or, remembering the duty of good men, he may take two in the hundred 
(by the month), for he who takes two in the hundred becomes not a
     sinner for gain. 

     142. Just two in the hundred, three, four, and five (and not more), he may 
take as monthly interest according to the order of the castes (varna). 

     143. But if a beneficial pledge (i.e. one from which profit accrues, has 
been given), he shall receive no interest on the loan; nor can he, after keeping
     (such) a pledge for a very long time, give or sell it. 

     144. A pledge (to be kept only) must not be used by force, (the creditor), 
so using it, shall give up his (whole) interest, or, (if it has been spoilt by 
use)
     he shall satisfy the (owner) by (paying its) original price; else he 
commits a theft of the pledge. 

     145. Neither a pledge nor a deposit can be lost by lapse of time; they are 
both recoverable, though they have remained long (with the bailee). 

     146. Things used with friendly assent, a cow, a camel, a riding-horse, and 
(a beast) made over for breaking in, are never lost (to the owner). 

     147. (But in general) whatever (chattel) an owner sees enjoyed by others 
during ten years, while, though present, he says nothing, that (chattel) he 
shall
     not recover. 

     148. If (the owner is) neither an idiot nor a minor and if (his chattel) is 
enjoyed (by another) before his eyes, it is lost to him by law; the adverse
     possessor shall retain that property. 

     149. A pledge, a boundary, the property of infants, an (open) deposit, a 
sealed deposit, women, the property of the king and the wealth of a Srotriya
     are not lost in consequence of (adverse) enjoyment. 

     150. The fool who uses a pledge without the permission of the owner, shall 
remit half of his interest, as a compensation for (such) use. 

     151. In money transactions interest paid at one time (not by instalments) 
shall never exceed the double (of the principal); on grain, fruit, wool or hair,
     (and) beasts of burden it must not be more than five times (the original 
amount). 

     152. Stipulated interest beyond the legal rate, being against (the law), 
cannot be recovered; they call that a usurious way (of lending); (the lender) is 
(in
     no case) entitled to (more than) five in the hundred. 

     153. Let him not take interest beyond the year, nor such as is unapproved, 
nor compound interest, periodical interest, stipulated interest, and corporal
     interest. 

     154. He who, unable to pay a debt (at the fixed time), wishes to make a new 
contract, may renew the agreement, after paying the interest which is due.

     155. If he cannot pay the money (due as interest), he may insert it in the 
renewed (agreement); he must pay as much interest as may be due. 

     156. He who has made a contract to carry goods by a wheeled carriage for 
money and has agreed to a certain place or time, shall not reap that
     reward, if he does not keep to the place and the time (stipulated). 

     157. Whatever rate men fix, who are expert in sea-voyages and able to 
calculate (the profit) according to the place, the time, and the objects 
(carried),
     that (has legal force) in such cases with respect to the payment (to be 
made). 

     158. The man who becomes a surety in this (world) for the appearance of a 
(debtor), and produces him not, shall pay the debt out of his own property.

     159. But money due by a surety, or idly promised, or lost at play, or due 
for spirituous liquor, or what remains unpaid of a fine and a tax or duty, the
     son (of the party owing it) shall not be obliged to pay. 

     160. This just mentioned rule shall apply to the case of a surety for 
appearance (only); if a surety for payment should die, the (judge) may compel 
even
     his heirs to discharge the debt. 

     161. On what account then is it that after the death of a surety other than 
for payment, whose affairs are fully known, the creditor may (in some cases)
     afterwards demand the debt (of the heirs)? 

     162. If the surety had received money (from him for whom he stood bail) and 
had money enough (to pay), then (the heir of him) who received it, shall
     pay (the debt) out of his property; that is the settled rule. 

     163. A contract made by a person intoxicated, or insane, or grievously 
disordered (by disease and so forth), or wholly dependent, by an infant or very
     aged man, or by an unauthorised (party) is invalid. 

     164. That agreement which has been made contrary to the law or to the 
settled usage (of the virtuous), can have no legal force, though it be 
established
     (by proofs). 

     165. A fraudulent mortgage or sale, a fraudulent gift or acceptance, and 
(any transaction) where he detects fraud, the (judge) shall declare null and
     void. 

     166. If the debtor be dead and (the money borrowed) was expended for the 
family, it must be paid by the relatives out of their own estate even if they
     are divided. 

     167. Should even a person wholly dependent make a contract for the behoof 
of the family, the master (of the house), whether (living) in his own
     country or abroad, shall not rescind it. 

     168. What is given by force, what is enjoyed by force, also what has been 
caused to be written by force, and all other transactions done by force,
     Manu has declared void. 

     169. Three suffer for the sake of others, witnesses, a surety, and judges; 
but four enrich themselves (through others), a Brahmana, a money-lender, a
     merchant, and a king. 

     170. No king, however indigent, shall take anything that ought not to be 
taken, nor shall he, however wealthy, decline taking that which he ought to
     take, be it ever so small. 

     171. In consequence of his taking what ought not to be taken, or of his 
refusing what ought to be received, a king will be accused of weakness and
     perish in this (world) and after death. 

     172. By taking his due, by preventing the confusion of the castes (varna), 
and by protecting the weak, the power of the king grows, and he prospers in
     this (world) and after death. 

     173. Let the prince, therefore, like Yama, not heeding his own likings and 
dislikings, behave exactly like Yama, suppressing his anger and controlling
     himself. 

     174. But that evil-minded king who in his folly decides causes unjustly, 
his enemies soon subjugate. 

     175. If, subduing love and hatred, he decides the causes according to the 
law, (the hearts of) his subjects turn towards him as the rivers (run) towards
     the ocean. 

     176. (The debtor) who complains to the king that his creditor recovers (the 
debt) independently (of the court), shall be compelled by the king to pay
     (as a fine) one quarter (of the sum) and to his (creditor) the money (due). 

     177. Even by (personal) labour shall the debtor make good (what he owes) to 
his creditor, if he be of the same caste or of a lower one; but a (debtor)
     of a higher caste shall pay it gradually (when he earns something). 

     178. According to these rules let the king equitably decide between men, 
who dispute with each other the matters, which are proved by witnesses and
     (other) evidence. 

     179. A sensible man should make a deposit (only) with a person of (good) 
family, of good conduct, well acquainted with the law, veracious, having
     many relatives, wealthy, and honourable (arya). 

     180. In whatever manner a person shall deposit anything in the hands of 
another, in the same manner ought the same thing to be received back (by the
     owner); as the delivery (was, so must be) the re-delivery. 

     181. He who restores not his deposit to the depositor at his request, may 
be tried by the judge in the depositor's absence. 

     182. On failure of witnesses let the (judge) actually deposit gold with 
that (defendant) under some pretext or other through spies of suitable age and
     appearance (and afterwards demand it back). 

     183. If the (defendant) restores it in the manner and shape in which it was 
bailed, there is nothing (of that description) in his hands, for which others
     accuse him. 

     184. But if he restores not that gold, as be ought, to those (spies), then 
he shall be compelled by force to restore both (deposits); that is a settled 
rule of
     law. 

     185. An open or a sealed deposit must never be returned to a near relative 
(of the depositor during the latter's lifetime); for if (the recipient) dies
     (without delivering them), they are lost, but if he does not die, they are 
not lost. 

     186. But (a depositary) who of his own accord returns them to a near 
relative of a deceased (depositor), must not be harassed (about them) by the
     king or by the depositor's relatives. 

     187. And (in doubtful cases) he should try to obtain that object by 
friendly means, without (having recourse to) artifice, or having inquired into
     (depositary's) conduct, he should settle (the matter) with gentle means. 

     188. Such is the rule for obtaining back all those open deposits; in the 
case of a sealed deposit (the depositary) shall incur no (censure), unless he 
has
     taken out something. 

     189. (A deposit) which has been stolen by thieves or washed away by water 
or burned by fire, (the bailee) shall not make it good, unless he took part
     of it (for himself). 

     190. Him who appropriates a deposit and him (who asks for it) without 
having made it, (the judge) shall try by all (sorts of) means, and by the oaths
     prescribed in the Veda. 

     191. He who does not return a deposit and he who demands what he never 
bailed shall both be punished like thieves, or be compelled to pay a fine
     equal (to the value of the object retained or claimed). 

     192. The king should compel him who does not restore an open deposit, and 
in like manner him who retains a sealed deposit, to pay a fine equal (to its
     value). 

     193. That man who by false pretences may possess himself of another's 
property, shall be publicly punished by various (modes of) corporal (or capital)
     chastisement, together with his accomplices. 

     194. If a deposit of a particular description or quantity is bailed by 
anybody in the presence of a number (of witnesses), it must be known to be of 
that
     particular (description and quantity; the depositary) who makes a false 
statement (regarding it) is liable to a fine. 

     195. But if anything is delivered or received privately, it must be 
privately returned; as the bailment (was, so should be) the re-delivery. 

     196. Thus let the king decide (causes) concerning a deposit and a friendly 
loan (for use) without showing (undue) rigour to the depositary. 

     197. If anybody sells the property of another man, without being the owner 
and without the assent of the owner, the (judge) shall not admit him who is
     a thief, though he may not consider himself as a thief, as a witness (in 
any case). 

     198. If the (offender) is a kinsman (of the owner), he shall be fined six 
hundred panas; if he is not a kinsman, nor has any excuse, he shall be guilty of
     theft. 

     199. A gift or sale, made by anybody else but the owner, must be considered 
as null and void, according to the rule in judicial proceedings. 

     200. Where possession is evident, but no title is perceived, there the 
title (shall be) a proof (of ownership), not possession; such is the settled 
rule. 

     201. He who obtains a chattel in the market before a number (of witnesses), 
acquires that chattel with a clear legal title by purchase. 

     202. If the original (seller) be not producible, (the buyer) being 
exculpated by a public sale, must be dismissed by the king without punishment, 
but (the
     former owner) who lost the chattel shall receive it (back from the buyer). 

     203. One commodity mixed with another must not be sold (as pure), nor a bad 
one (as good), nor less (than the proper quantity or weight), nor
     anything that is not at hand or that is concealed. 

     204. If, after one damsel has been shown, another be given to the 
bridegroom, he may marry them both for the same price; that Manu ordained. 

     205. He who gives (a damsel in marriage), having first openly declared her 
blemishes, whether she be insane, or afflicted with leprosy, or have lost her
     virginity, is not liable to punishment. 

     206. If an officiating priest, chosen to perform a sacrifice, abandons his 
work, a share only (of the fee) in proportion to the work (done) shall be given
     to him by those who work with him. 

     207. But he who abandons his work after the sacrificial fees have been 
given, shall obtain his full share and cause to be performed (what remains) by
     another (priest). 

     208. But if (specific) fees are ordained for the several parts of a rite, 
shall he (who performs the part) receive them, or shall they all share them? 

     209. The Adhvaryu priest shall take the chariot, and the Brahman at the 
kindling of the fires (Agnyadhana) a horse, the Hotri priest shall also take a
     horse, and the Udgatri the cart, (used) when (the Soma) is purchased. 

     210. The (four) chief priests among all (the sixteen), who are entitled to 
one half, shall receive a moiety (of the fee), the next (four) one half of that, 
the
     set entitled to a third share, one third, and those entitled to a fourth a 
quarter. 

     211. By the application of these principles the allotment of shares must be 
made among those men who here (below) perform their work conjointly. 

     212. Should money be given (or promised) for a pious purpose by one man to 
another who asks for it, the gift shall be void, if the (money is)
     afterwards not (used) in the manner (stated). 

     213. But if the (recipient) through pride or greed tries to enforce (the 
fulfilment of the promise), he shall be compelled by the king to pay one suvarna 
as
     an expiation for his theft. 

     214. Thus the lawful subtraction of a gift has been fully explained; I will 
next propound (the law for) the non-payment of wages. 

     215. A hired (servant or workman) who, without being ill, out of pride 
fails to perform his work according to the agreement, shall be fined eight
     krishnalas and no wages shall be paid to him. 

     216. But (if he is really) ill, (and) after recovery performs (his work) 
according to the original agreement, he shall receive his wages even after (the 
lapse
     of) a very long time. 

     217. But if he, whether sick or well, does not (perform or) cause to be 
performed (by others) his work according to his agreement, the wages for that
     work shall not be given to him, even (if it be only) slightly incomplete. 

     218. Thus the law for the non-payment of wages has been completely stated; 
I will next explain the law concerning men who break an agreement. 

     219. If a man belonging to a corporation inhabiting a village or a 
district, after swearing to an agreement, breaks it through avarice, (the king) 
shall
     banish him from his realm, 

     220. And having imprisoned such a breaker of an agreement, he shall compel 
him to pay six nishkas, (each of) four suvarnas, and one satamana of
     silver. 

     221. A righteous king shall apply this law of fines in villages and castes 
(gati) to those who break an agreement. 

     222. If anybody in this (world), after buying or selling anything, repent 
(of his bargain), he may return or take (back) that chattel within ten days. 

     223. But after (the lapse of) ten days he may neither give nor cause it to 
be given (back); both he who takes it (back) and he who gives it (back, except
     by consent) shall be fined by the king six hundred (panas). 

     224. But the king himself shall impose a fine of ninety-six panas on him 
who gives a blemished damsel (to a suitor) without informing (him of the
     blemish). 

     225. But that man who, out of malice, says of a maiden, 'She is not a 
maiden,' shall be fined one hundred (panas), if he cannot prove her blemish. 

     226. The nuptial texts are applied solely to virgins, (and) nowhere among 
men to females who have lost their virginity, for such (females) are excluded
     from religious ceremonies. 

     227. The nuptial texts are a certain proof (that a maiden has been made a 
lawful) wife; but the learned should know that they (and the marriage
     ceremony are complete with the seventh step (of the bride around the sacred 
fire). 

     228. If anybody in this (world) repent of any completed transaction, (the 
king) shall keep him on the road of rectitude in accordance with the rules given
     above. 

     229. I will fully declare in accordance with the true law (the rules 
concerning) the disputes, (arising) from the transgressions of owners of cattle 
and of
     herdsmen. 

     230. During the day the responsibility for the safety (of the cattle rests) 
on the herdsman, during the night on the owner, (provided they are) in his 
house;
     (if it be) otherwise, the herdsman will be responsible (for them also 
during the night). 

     231. A hired herdsman who is paid with milk, may milk with the consent of 
the owner the best (cow) out of ten; such shall be his hire if no (other)
     wages (are paid). 

     232. The herdsman alone shall make good (the loss of a beast) strayed, 
destroyed by worms, killed by dogs or (by falling) into a pit, if he did not 
duly
     exert himself (to prevent it). 

     233. But for (an animal) stolen by thieves, though he raised an alarm, the 
herdsman shall not pay, provided he gives notice to his master at the proper
     place and time. 

     234. If cattle die, let him carry to his master their ears, skin, tails, 
bladders, tendons, and the yellow concrete bile, and let him point out their 
particular.
     marks. 

     235. But if goats or sheep are surrounded by wolves and the herdsman does 
not hasten (to their assistance), lie shall be responsible for any (animal)
     which a wolf may attack and kill. 

     236. But if they, kept in (proper) order, graze together in the forest, and 
a wolf, suddenly jumping on one of them, kills it, the herdsman shall bear in
     that case no responsibility. 

     237. On all sides of a village a space, one hundred dhanus or three samya-
throws (in breadth), shall be reserved (for pasture), and thrice (that space)
     round a town. 

     238. If the cattle do damage to unfenced crops on that (common), the king 
shall in that case not punish the herdsmen. 

     239. (The owner of the field) shall make there a hedge over which a camel 
cannot look, and stop every gap through which a dog or a boar can thrust
     his head. 

     240. (If cattle do mischief) in an enclosed field near a highway or near a 
village, the herdsman shall be fined one hundred (panas); (but cattle),
     unattended by a herdsman, (the watchman in the field) shall drive away. 

     241. (For damage) in other fields (each head of) cattle shall (pay a fine 
of one (pana) and a quarter, and in all (cases the value of) the crop 
(destroyed)
     shall be made good to the owner of the field; that is the settled rule. 

     242. But Manu has declared that no fine shall be paid for (damage done by) 
a cow within ten days after her calving, by bulls and by cattle sacred to the
     gods, whether they are attended by a herdsman or not. 

     243. If (the crops are destroyed by) the husbandman's (own) fault, the fine 
shall amount to ten times as much as (the king's) share; but the fine (shall be)
     only half that amount if (the fault lay) with the servants and the farmer 
had no knowledge of it. 

     244. To these rules a righteous king shall keep in (all cases of) 
transgressions by masters, their cattle, and herdsmen. 

     245. If a dispute has arisen between two villages concerning a boundary, 
the king shall settle the limits in the month of Gyaishtha, when the landmarks
     are most distinctly visible. 

     246. Let him mark the boundaries (by) trees, (e.g.) Nyagrodhas, Asvatthas, 
Kimsukas, cotton-trees, Salas, Palmyra palms, and trees with milky juice, 

     247. By clustering shrubs, bamboos of different kinds, Samis, creepers and 
raised mounds, reeds, thickets of Kubgaka; thus the boundary will not be
     forgotten. 

     248. Tanks, wells, cisterns, and fountains should be built where boundaries 
meet, as well as temples, 

     249. And as he will see that through men's ignorance of the boundaries 
trespasses constantly occur in the world, let him cause to be made other hidden
     marks for boundaries, 

     250. Stones, bones, cow's hair, chaff, ashes, potsherds, dry cowdung, 
bricks, cinders, pebbles, and sand, 

     251. And whatever other things of a similar kind the earth does not corrode 
even after a long time, those he should cause to be buried where one
     boundary joins (the other). 

     252. By these signs, by long continued possession, and by constantly 
flowing streams of water the king shall ascertain the boundary (of the land) of 
two
     disputing parties. 

     253. If there be a doubt even on inspection of the marks, the settlement of 
a dispute regarding boundaries shall depend on witnesses. 

     254. The witnesses, (giving evidence) regarding a boundary, shall be 
examined concerning the landmarks in the presence of the crowd of the villagers
     and also of the two litigants. 

     255. As they, being questioned, unanimously decide, even so he shall record 
the boundary (in writing), together with their names. 

     256. Let them, putting earth on their heads, wearing chaplets (of red 
flowers) and red dresses, being sworn each by (the rewards for) his meritorious
     deeds, settle (the boundary) in accordance with the truth. 

     257. If they determine (the boundary) in the manner stated, they are 
guiltless (being) veracious witnesses; but if they determine it unjustly, they 
shall be
     compelled to pay a fine of two hundred (panas). 

     258. On failure of witnesses (from the two villages, men of) the four 
neighbouring villages, who are pure, shall make (as witnesses) a decision
     concerning the boundary in the presence of the king. 

     259. On failure of neighbours (who are) original inhabitants (of the 
country and can be) witnesses with respect to the boundary, (the king) may hear 
the
     evidence even of the following inhabitants of the forest. 

     260. (Viz.) hunters, fowlers, herdsmen, fishermen, root-diggers, snake-
catchers, gleaners, and other foresters. 

     261. As they, being examined, declare the marks for the meeting of the 
boundaries (to be), even so the king shall justly cause them to be fixed between
     the two villages. 

     262. The decision concerning the boundary-marks of fields, wells, tanks, of 
gardens and houses depends upon (the evidence of) the neighbours. 

     263. Should the neighbours give false evidence, when men dispute about a 
boundary-mark, the king shall make each of them pay the middlemost
     amercement as a fine. 

     264. He who by intimidation possesses himself of a house, a tank, a garden, 
or a field, shall be fined five hundred (panas); (if he trespassed) through
     ignorance, the fine (shall be) two hundred (panas). 

     265. If the boundary cannot be ascertained (by any evidence), let a 
righteous king with (the intention of) benefiting them (all), himself assign 
(his) land
     (to each); that is the settled rule. 

     266. Thus the law for deciding boundary (disputes) has been fully declared, 
I will next propound the (manner of) deciding (cases of) defamation. 

     267. A Kshatriya, having defamed a Brahmana, shall be fined one hundred 
(panas); a Vaisya one hundred and fifty or two hundred; a Sudra shall suffer
     corporal punishment. 

     268. A Brahmana shall be fined fifty (panas) for defaming a Kshatriya; in 
(the case of) a Vaisya the fine shall be twenty-five (panas); in (the case of) a
     Sudra twelve. 

     269. For offences of twice-born men against those of equal caste (varna, 
the fine shall be) also twelve (panas); for speeches which ought not to be
     uttered, that (and every fine shall be) double. 

     270. A once-born man (a Sudra), who insults a twice-born man with gross 
invective, shall have his tongue cut out; for he is of low origin. 

     271. If he mentions the names and castes (gati) of the (twice-born) with 
contumely, an iron nail, ten fingers long, shall be thrust red-hot into his 
mouth. 

     272. If he arrogantly teaches Brahmanas their duty, the king shall cause 
hot oil to be poured into his mouth and into his ears. 

     273. He who through arrogance makes false statements regarding the learning 
(of a caste-fellow), his country, his caste (gati), or the rites by which his
     body was sanctified, shall be compelled to pay a fine of two hundred 
(panas). 

     274. He who even in accordance with the true facts (contemptuously) calls 
another man one-eyed, lame, or the like (names), shall be fined at least one
     karshapana. 

     275. He who defames his mother, his father, his wife, his brother, his son, 
or his teacher, and he who gives not the way to his preceptor, shall be
     compelled to pay one hundred (panas). 

     276. (For mutual abuse) by a Brahmana and a Kshatriya a fine must be 
imposed by a discerning (king), on the Brahmana the lowest amercement, but
     on the Kshatriya the middlemost. 

     277. A Vaisya and a Sudra must be punished exactly in the same manner 
according to their respective castes, but the tongue (of the Sudra) shall not be
     cut out; that is the decision. 

     278. Thus the rules for punishments (applicable to cases) of defamation 
have been truly declared; I will next propound the decision (of cases) of
     assault. 

     279. With whatever limb a man of a low caste does hurt to (a man of the 
three) highest (castes), even that limb shall be cut off; that is the teaching 
of
     Manu. 

     280. He who raises his hand or a stick, shall have his hand cut off; he who 
in anger kicks with his foot, shall have his foot cut off. 

     281. A low-caste man who tries to place himself on the same seat with a man 
of a high caste, shall be branded on his hip and be banished, or (the king)
     shall cause his buttock to be gashed. 

     282. If out of arrogance he spits (on a superior), the king shall cause 
both his lips to be cut off; if he urines (on him), the penis; if he breaks wind
     (against him), the anus. 

     283. If he lays hold of the hair (of a superior), let the (king) 
unhesitatingly cut off his hands, likewise (if he takes him) by the feet, the 
beard, the neck, or
     the scrotum. 

     284. He who breaks the skin (of an equal) or fetches blood (from him) shall 
be fined one hundred (panas), he who cuts a muscle six nishkas, he who
     breaks a bone shall be banished. 

     285. According to the usefulness of the several (kinds of) trees a fine 
must be inflicted for injuring them; that is the settled rule. 

     286. If a blow is struck against men or animals in order to (give them) 
pain, (the judge) shall inflict a fine in proportion to the amount of pain 
(caused). 

     287. If a limb is injured, a wound (is caused), or blood (flows, the 
assailant) shall be made to pay (to the sufferer) the expenses of the cure, or 
the
     whole (both the usual amercement and the expenses of the cure as a) fine 
(to the king). 

     288. He who damages the goods of another, be it intentionally or 
unintentionally, shall give satisfaction to the (owner) and pay to the king a 
fine equal to
     the (damage). 

     289. In the case of (damage done to) leather, or to utensils of leather, of 
wood, or of clay, the fine (shall be) five times their value; likewise in the 
case
     of (damage to) flowers, roots, and fruit. 

     290. They declare with respect to a carriage, its driver and its owner, 
(that there are) ten cases in which no punishment (for damage done) can be
     inflicted; in other cases a fine is prescribed. 

     291. When the nose-string is snapped, when the yoke is broken, when the 
carriage turns sideways or back, when the axle or a wheel is broken, 

     292. When the leather-thongs, the rope around the neck or the bridle are 
broken, and when (the driver) has loudly called out, 'Make way,' Manu has
     declared (that in all these cases) no punishment (shall be inflicted). 

     293. But if the cart turns off (the road) through the driver's want of 
skill, the owner shall be fined, if damage (is done), two hundred (panas). 

     294. If the driver is skilful (but negligent), he alone shall be fined; if 
the driver is unskilful, the occupants of the carriage (also) shall be each 
fined one
     hundred (panas). 

     295. But if he is stopped on his way by cattle or by (another) carriage, 
and he causes the death of any living being, a fine shall without doubt be
     imposed. 

     296. If a man is killed, his guilt will be at once the same as (that of) a 
thief; for large animals such as cows, elephants, camels or horses, half of 
that. 

     297. For injuring small cattle the fine (shall be) two hundred (panas); the 
fine for beautiful wild quadrupeds and birds shall amount to fifty (panas). 

     298. For donkeys, sheep, and goats the fine shall be five mashas; but the 
punishment for killing a dog or a pig shall be one masha. 

     299. A wife, a son, a slave, a pupil, and a (younger) brother of the full 
blood, who have committed faults, may be beaten with a rope or a split bamboo,

     300. But on the back part of the body (only), never on a noble part; he who 
strikes them otherwise will incur the same guilt as a thief. 

     301. Thus the whole law of assault (and hurt) has been declared completely; 
I will now explain the rules for the decision (in cases) of theft. 

     302. Let the king exert himself to the utmost to punish thieves; for, if he 
punishes thieves, his fame grows and his kingdom prospers. 

     303. That king, indeed, is ever worthy of honour who ensures the safety (of 
his subjects); for the sacrificial session (sattra, which he, as it were,
     performs thereby) ever grows in length, the safety (of his subjects 
representing) the sacrificial fee. 

     304. A king who (duly) protects (his subjects) receives from each and all 
the sixth part of their spiritual merit; if he does not protect them, the sixth 
part
     of their demerit also (will fall on him). 

     305. Whatever (merit a man gains by) reading the Veda, by sacrificing, by 
charitable gifts, (or by) worshipping (Gurus and gods), the king obtains a
     sixth part of that in consequence of his duly protecting (his kingdom). 

     306. A king who protects the created beings in accordance with the sacred 
law and smites those worthy of corporal punishment, daily offers (as it
     were) sacrifices at which hundred thousands (are given as) fees. 

     307. A king who does not afford protection, (yet) takes his share in kind, 
his taxes, tolls and duties, daily presents and fines, will (after death) soon 
sink
     into hell. 

     308. They declare that a king who affords no protection, (yet) receives the 
sixth part of the produce, takes upon himself all the foulness of his whole
     people. 

     309. Know that a king who heeds not the rules (of the law), who is an 
atheist, and rapacious, who does not protect (his subjects, but) devours them,
     will sink low (after death). 

     310. Let him carefully restrain the wicked by three methods,- by 
imprisonment by putting them in fetters, and by various (kinds of) corporal
     punishments. 

     311. For by punishing the wicked and by favouring the virtuous, kings are 
constantly sanctified, just as twice-born men by sacrifices. 

     312. A king who desires his own welfare must always forgive litigants, 
infants, aged and sick men, who inveigh against him. 

     313. He who, being abused by men in pain, pardons (them), will in reward of 
that (act) be exalted in heaven; but he who, (proud) of his kingly state,
     forgives them not, will for that (reason) sink into hell. 

     314. A thief shall, running, approach the king, with flying hair, 
confessing that theft (and saying), 'Thus have I done, punish me;' 

     315. (And he must) carry on his shoulder a pestle, or a club of Khadira 
wood, or a spear sharp at both ends, or an iron staff. 

     316. Whether he be punished or pardoned, the thief is freed from the (guilt 
of) theft; but the king, if he punishes not, takes upon himself the guilt of the
     thief. 

     317. The killer of a learned Brahmana throws his guilt on him who eats his 
food, an adulterous wife on her (negligent) husband, a (sinning) pupil or
     sacrificer on (their negligent) teacher (or priest), a thief on the king 
(who pardons him). 

     318. But men who have committed crimes and have been punished by the king, 
go to heaven, being pure like those who performed meritorious deeds. 

     319. He who steals the rope or the water-pot from a well, or damages a hut 
where water is distributed, shall pay one masha as a fine and restore the
     (article abstracted or damaged) in its (proper place). 

     320. On him who steals more than ten kumbhas of grain corporal punishment 
(shall be inflicted); in other cases he shall be fined eleven times as much,
     and shall pay to the (owner the value of his) property. 

     321. So shall corporal punishment be inflicted for stealing more than a 
hundred (palas) of articles sold by the weight, (i.e.) of gold, silver, and so 
forth,
     and of most excellent clothes. 

     322. For (stealing) more than fifty (palas) it is enacted that the hands 
(of the offender) shall be cut off; but in other cases, let him inflict a fine 
of eleven
     times the value. 

     323. For stealing men of noble family and especially women and the most 
precious gems, (the offender) deserves corporal (or capital) punishment. 

     324. For stealing large animals, weapons, or medicines, let the king fix a 
punishment, after considering the time and the purpose (for which they were
     destined). 

     325. For (stealing) cows belonging to Brahmanas, piercing (the nostrils of) 
a barren cow, and for stealing (other) cattle (belonging to Brahmanas, the
     offender) shall forthwith lose half his feet. 

     326. (For stealing) thread, cotton, drugs causing fermentation, cowdung, 
molasses, sour milk, sweet milk, butter-milk, water, or grass, 

     327. Vessels made of bamboo or other cane, salt of various kinds, earthen 
(vessels), earth and ashes, 

     328. Fish, birds, oil, clarified butter, meat, honey, and other things that 
come from beasts, 

     329. Or other things of a similar kind, spirituous liquor, boiled rice, and 
every kind of cooked food, the fine (shall be) twice the value (of the stolen
     article). 

     330. For flowers, green corn, shrubs, creepers, trees, and other unhusked 
(grain) the fine (shall be) five krishnalas. 

     331. For husked grain, vegetables, roots, and fruit the fine (shall be) one 
hundred (panas) if there is no connexion (between the owner and the thief),
     fifty (panas) if such a connexion exists. 

     332. An offence (of this description), which is committed in the presence 
(of the owner) and with violence, will be robbery; if (it is committed) in his
     absence, it will be theft; likewise if (the possession of) anything is 
denied after it has been taken. 

     333. On that man who may steal (any of) the above-mentioned articles, when 
they are prepared for (use), let the king inflict the first (or lowest)
     amercement; likewise on him who may steal (a sacred) fire out of the room 
(in which it is kept). 

     334. With whatever limb a thief in any way commits (an offence) against 
men, even of that (the king) shall deprive him in order to prevent (a repetition
     of the crime). 

     335. Neither a father, nor a teacher, nor a friend, nor a mother, nor a 
wife, nor a son, nor a domestic priest must be left unpunished by a king, if 
they do
     not keep within their duty. 

     336. Where another common man would be fined one karshapana, the king shall 
be fined one thousand; that is the settled rule. 

     337. In (a case of) theft the guilt of a Sudra shall be eightfold, that of 
a Vaisya sixteenfold, that of a Kshatriya two-and-thirtyfold, 

     338. That of a Brahmana sixty-fourfold, or quite a hundredfold, or (even) 
twice four-and-sixtyfold; (each of them) knowing the nature of the offence. 

     339. (The taking of) roots and of fruit from trees, of wood for a 
(sacrificial) fire, and of grass for feeding cows, Manu has declared (to be) no 
theft. 

     340. A Brahmana, seeking to obtain property from a man who took what was 
not given to him, either by sacrificing for him or by teaching him, is even
     like a thief. 

     341. A twice-born man, who is travelling and whose provisions are 
exhausted, shall not be fined, if he takes two stalks of sugar-cane or two 
(esculent)
     roots from the field of another man. 

     342. He who ties up unbound or sets free tied up (cattle of other men), he 
who takes a slave, a horse, or a carriage will have incurred the guilt of a
     thief. 

     343. A king who punishes thieves according to these rules, will gain fame 
in this world and after death unsurpassable bliss. 

     344. A king who desires to gain the throne of Indra and imperishable 
eternal fame, shall not, even for a moment, neglect (to punish) the man who
     commits violence. 

     345. He who commits violence must be considered as the worst offender, 
(more wicked) than a defamer, than a thief, and than he who injures
     (another) with a staff. 

     346. But that king who pardons the perpetrator of violence quickly perishes 
and incurs hatred. 

     347. Neither for friendship's sake, nor for the sake of great lucre, must a 
king let go perpetrators of violence, who cause terror to all creatures. 

     348. Twice-born men may take up arms when (they are) hindered (in the 
fulfilment of their duties, when destruction (threatens) the twice-born castes
     (varna) in (evil) times, 

     349. In their own defence, in a strife for the fees of officiating priests, 
and in order to protect women and Brahmanas; he who (under such
     circumstances) kills in the cause of right, commits no sin. 

     350. One may slay without hesitation an assassin who approaches (with 
murderous intent), whether (he be one's) teacher, a child or an aged man, or a
     Brahmana deeply versed in the Vedas. 

     351. By killing an assassin the slayer incurs no guilt, whether (he does 
it) publicly or secretly; in that case fury recoils upon fury. 

     352. Men who commit adultery with the wives of others, the king shall cause 
to be marked by punishments which cause terror, and afterwards banish. 

     353. For by (adultery) is caused a mixture of the castes (varna) among men; 
thence (follows) sin, which cuts up even the roots and causes the
     destruction of everything. 

     354. A man formerly accused of (such) offences, who secretly converses with 
another man's wife, shall pay the first (or lowest) amercement. 

     355. But a man, not before accused, who (thus) speaks with (a woman) for 
some (reasonable) cause, shall not incur any guilt, since in him there is no
     transgression. 

     356. He who addresses the wife of another man at a Tirtha, outside the 
village, in a forest, or at the confluence of rivers, suffer (the punishment 
for)
     adulterous acts (samgrahana). 

     357. Offering presents (to a woman), romping (with her), touching her 
ornaments and dress, sitting with her on a bed, all (these acts) are considered
     adulterous acts (samgrahana). 

     358. If one touches a woman in a place (which ought) not (to be touched) or 
allows (oneself to be touched in such a spot), all (such acts done) with
     mutual consent are declared (to be) adulterous (samgrahana). 

     359. A man who is not a Brahmana ought to suffer death for adultery 
(samgrahana); for the wives of all the four castes even must always be carefully
     guarded. 

     360. Mendicants, bards, men who have performed the initiatory ceremony of a 
Vedic sacrifice, and artisans are not prohibited from speaking to
     married women. 

     361. Let no man converse with the wives of others after he has been 
forbidden (to do so); but he who converses (with them), in spite of a 
prohibition,
     shall be fined one suvarna. 

     362. This rule does not apply to the wives of actors and singers, nor (of) 
those who live on (the intrigues of) their own (wives); for such men send their
     wives (to others) or, concealing themselves, allow them to hold criminal 
intercourse. 

     363. Yet he who secretly converses with such women, or with female slaves 
kept by one (master), and with female ascetics, shall be compelled to pay
     a small fine. 

     364. He who violates an unwilling maiden shall instantly suffer corporal 
punishment; but a man who enjoys a willing maiden shall not suffer corporal
     punishment, if (his caste be) the same (as hers). 

     365. From a maiden who makes advances to a (man of) high (caste), he shall 
not take any fine; but her, who courts a (man of) low (caste), let him
     force to live confined in her house. 

     366. A (man of) low (caste) who makes love to a maiden (of) the highest 
(caste) shall suffer corporal punishment; he who addresses a maiden (on)
     equal (caste) shall pay the nuptial fee, if her father desires it. 

     367. But if any man through insolence forcibly contaminates a maiden, two 
of his fingers shall be instantly cut off, and he shall pay a fine of six 
hundred
     (panas). 

     368. A man (of) equal (caste) who defiles a willing maiden shall not suffer 
the amputation of his fingers, but shall pay a fine of two hundred (panas) in
     order to deter him from a repetition (of the offence). 

     369. A damsel who pollutes (another) damsel must be fined two hundred 
(panas), pay the double of her (nuptial) fee, and receive ten (lashes with a)
     rod. 

     370. But a woman who pollutes a damsel shall instantly have (her head) 
shaved or two fingers cut off, and be made to ride (through the town) on a
     donkey. 

     371. If a wife, proud of the greatness of her relatives or (her own) 
excellence, violates the duty which she owes to her lord, the king shall cause 
her to
     be devoured by dogs in a place frequented by many. 

     372. Let him cause the male offender to be burnt on a red-hot iron bed; 
they shall put logs under it, (until) the sinner is burned (to death). 

     373. On a man (once) convicted, who is (again) accused within a year, a 
double fine (must be inflicted); even thus (must the fine be doubled) for
     (repeated) intercourse with a Vratya and a Kandali. 

     374. A Sudra who has intercourse with a woman of a twice-born caste 
(varna), guarded or unguarded, (shall be punished in the following manner): if
     she was unguarded, he loses the part (offending) and all his property; if 
she was guarded, everything (even his life). 

     375. (For intercourse with a guarded Brahmana a Vaisya shall forfeit all 
his property after imprisonment for a year; a Kshatriya shall be fined one
     thousand (panas) and be shaved with the urine (of an ass). 

     376. If a Vaisya or a Kshatriya has connexion with an unguarded Brahmana, 
let him fine the Vaisya five hundred (panas) and the Kshatriya one
     thousand. 

     377. But even these two, if they offend with a Brahmani (not only) guarded 
(but the wife of an eminent man), shall be punished like a Sudra or be burnt
     in a fire of dry grass. 

     378. A Brahmana who carnally knows a guarded Brahmani against her will, 
shall be fined one thousand (panas); but he shall be made to pay five
     hundred, if he had connexion with a willing one. 

     379. Tonsure (of the head) is ordained for a Brahmana (instead of) capital 
punishment; but (men of) other castes shall suffer capital punishment. 

     380. Let him never slay a Brahmana, though he have committed all (possible) 
crimes; let him banish such an (offender), leaving all his property (to him)
     and (his body) unhurt. 

     381. No greater crime is known on earth than slaying a Brahmana; a king, 
therefore, must not even conceive in his mind the thought of killing a
     Brahmana. 

     382. If a Vaisya approaches a guarded female of the Kshatriya caste, or a 
Kshatriya a (guarded) Vaisya woman, they both deserve the same
     punishment as in the case of an unguarded Brahmana female. 

     383. A Brahmana shall be compelled to pay a fine of one thousand (panas) if 
he has intercourse with guarded (females of) those two (castes); for
     (offending with) a (guarded) Sudra female a fine of one thousand (panas 
shall be inflicted) on a Kshatriya or a Vaisya. 

     384. For (intercourse with) an unguarded Kshatriya a fine of five hundred 
(panas shall fall) on a Vaisya; but (for the same offence) a Kshatriya shall be
     shaved with the urine (of a donkey) or (pay) the same fine. 

     385. A Brahmana who approaches unguarded females (of the) Kshatriya or 
Vaisya (castes), or a Sudra female, shall be fined five hundred (panas); but
     (for intercourse with) a female (of the) lowest (castes), one thousand. 

     386. That king in whose town lives no thief, no adulterer, no defamer, no 
man guilty of violence, and no committer of assaults, attains the world of
     Sakra (Indra). 

     387. The suppression of those five in his dominions secures to a king 
paramount sovereignty among his peers and fame in the world. 

     388. A sacrificer who forsakes an officiating priest, and an officiating 
priest who forsakes a sacrificer, (each being) able to perform his work and not
     contaminated (by grievous crimes), must each be fined one hundred (panas). 

     389. Neither a mother, nor a father, nor a wife, nor a son shall be cast 
off; he who casts them off, unless guilty of a crime causing loss of caste, 
shall be
     fined six hundred (panas). 

     390. If twice-born men dispute among each other concerning the duty of the 
orders, a king who desires his own welfare should not (hastily) decide
     (what is) the law. 

     391. Having shown them due honor, he should, with (the assistance of) 
Brahmanas, first soothe them by gentle (speech) and afterwards teach them
     their duty. 

     392. A Brahmana who does not invite his next neighbour and his neighbour 
next but one, (though) both (he) worthy (of the honour), to a festival at
     which twenty Brahmanas are entertained, is liable to a fine of one masha. 

     393. A Srotriya who does not entertain a virtuous Srotriya at auspicious 
festive rites, shall be made to pay him twice (the value of) the meal and a
     masha of gold (as a fine to the king). 

     394. A blind man, an idiot, (a cripple) who moves with the help of a board, 
a man full seventy years old, and he who confers benefits on Srotriyas, shall
     not be compelled by any (king) to pay a tax. 

     395. Let the king always treat kindly a Srotriya, a sick or distressed man, 
an infant and an aged or indigent man, a man of high birth, and an honourable
     man (Arya). 

     396. A washerman shall wash (the clothes of his employers) gently on a 
smooth board of Salmaliwood he shall not return the clothes (of one person)
     for those (of another), nor allow anybody (but the owner) to wear them. 

     397. A weaver (who has received) ten palas (of thread), shall return (cloth 
weighing) one pala more; he who acts differently shall be compelled to pay a
     fine of twelve (panas). 

     398. Let the king take one-twentieth of that (amount) which men, well 
acquainted with the settlement of tolls and duties (and) skilful in (estimating 
the
     value of) all kinds of merchandise, may fix as the value for each saleable 
commodity. 

     399. Let the king confiscate the whole property of (a trader) who out of 
greed exports goods of which the king has a monopoly or (the export of which
     is) forbidden. 

     400. He who avoids a custom-house (or a toll), he who buys or sells at an 
improper time, or he who makes a false statement in enumerating (his
     goods), shall be fined eight times (the amount of duty) which he tried to 
evade. 

     401. Let (the king) fix (the rates for) the purchase and sale of all 
marketable goods, having (duly) considered whence they come, whither they go, 
how
     long they have been kept, the (probable) profit and the (probable) outlay. 

     402. Once in five nights, or at the close of each fortnight, let the king 
publicly settle the prices for the (merchants). 

     403. All weights and measures must be duly marked, and once in six months 
let him re-examine them. 

     404. At a ferry an (empty) cart shall be made to pay one pana, a man's 
(load) half a pana, an animal and a woman one quarter of a (pana), an unloaded
     man one-half of a quarter. 

     405. Carts (laden) with vessels full (of merchandise) shall be made to pay 
toll at a ferry according to the value (of the goods), empty vessels and men
     without luggage some trifle. 

     406. For a long passage the boat-hire must be proportioned to the places 
and times; know that this (rule refers) to (passages along) the banks of rivers;
     at sea there is no settled (freight). 

     407. But a woman who has been pregnant two months or more, an ascetic, a 
hermit in the forest, and Brahmanas who are students of the Veda, shall
     not be made to pay toll at a ferry. 

     408. Whatever may be damaged in a boat by the fault of the boatmen, that 
shall be made good by the boatmen collectively, (each paying) his share. 

     409. This decision in suits (brought) by passengers (holds good only) in 
case the boatmen are culpably negligent on the water; in the case of (an
     accident) caused by (the will of) the gods, no fine can be (inflicted on 
them). 

     410. (The king) should order a Vaisya to trade, to lend money, to cultivate 
the land, or to tend cattle, and a Sudra to serve the twice-born castes 

     411. (Some wealthy) Brahmana shall compassionately support both a Kshatriya 
and a Vaisya, if they are distressed for a livelihood, employing them on
     work (which is suitable for) their (castes). 

     412. But a Brahmana who, because he is powerful, out of greed makes 
initiated (men of the) twice-born (castes) against their will do the work of
     slaves, shall be fined by the king six hundred (panas). 

     413. But a Sudra, whether bought or unbought, he may compel to do servile 
work; for he was created by the Self-existent (Svayambhu) to be the slave
     of a Brahmana. 

     414. A Sudra, though emancipated by his master, is not released from 
servitude; since that is innate in him, who can set him free from it? 

     415. There are slaves of seven kinds, (viz.) he who is made a captive under 
a standard, he who serves for his daily food, he who is born in the house,
     he who is bought and he who is given, he who is inherited from ancestors, 
and he who is enslaved by way of punishment. 

     416. A wife, a son, and a slave, these three are declared to have no 
property; the wealth which they earn is (acquired) for him to whom they belong. 

     417. A Brahmana may confidently seize the goods of (his) Sudra (slave); 
for, as that (slave) can have no property, his master may take his possessions.

     418. (The king) should carefully compel Vaisyas and Sudra to perform the 
work (prescribed) for them; for if these two (castes) swerved from their
     duties, they would throw this (whole) world into confusion. 

     419. Let him daily look after the completion of his undertakings, his 
beasts of burden, and carriages, (the collection of) his revenues and the
     disbursements, his mines and his treasury. 

     420. A king who thus brings to a conclusion. all the legal business 
enumerated above, and removes all sin, reaches the highest state (of bliss). 




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