1. The sages, having heard the duties of a Snataka thus declared, spoke to 
great-souled Bhrigu, who sprang from fire: 

     2. 'How can Death have power over Brahmanas who know the sacred science, 
the Veda, (and) who fulfil their duties as they have been explained (by
     thee), O Lord? ' 

     3. Righteous Bhrigu, the son of Manu, (thus) answered the great sages: 
'Hear, (in punishment) of what faults Death seeks to shorten the lives of

     4. 'Through neglect of the Veda-study, through deviation from the rule of 
conduct, through remissness (in the fulfilment of duties), and through faults
     (committed by eating forbidden) food, Death becomes eager to shorten the 
lives of Brahmanas.' 

     5. Garlic, leeks and onions, mushrooms and (all plants), springing from 
impure (substances), are unfit to be eaten by twice-born men. 

     6. One should carefully avoid red exudations from trees and (juices) 
flowing from incisions, the Selu (fruit), and the thickened milk of a cow (which 
     gives after calving). 

     7. Rice boiled with sesamum, wheat mixed with butter, milk and sugar, milk-
rice and flour-cakes which are not prepared for a sacrifice, meat which has
     not been sprinkled with water while sacred texts were recited, food offered 
to the gods and sacrificial viands, 

     8. The milk of a cow (or other female animal) within ten days after her 
calving, that of camels, of one-hoofed animals, of sheep, of a cow in heat, or 
     one that has no calf with her, 

     9. (The milk) of all wild animals excepting buffalo-cows, that of women, 
and all (substances turned) sour must be avoided. 

     10. Among (things turned) sour, sour milk, and all (food) prepared of it 
may be eaten, likewise what is extracted from pure flowers, roots, and fruit. 

     11. Let him avoid all carnivorous birds and those living in villages, and 
one-hoofed animals which are not specially permitted (to be eaten), and the
     Tittibha (Parra Jacana), 

     12. The sparrow, the Plava, the Hamsa, the Brahmani duck, the village-cock, 
the Sarasa crane, the Raggudala, the woodpecker, the parrot, and the

     13. Those which feed striking with their beaks, web-footed birds, the 
Koyashti, those which scratch with their toes, those which dive and live on 
     meat from a slaughter-house and dried meat, 

     14. The Baka and the Balaka crane, the raven, the Khangaritaka, (animals) 
that eat fish, village-pigs, and all kinds of fishes. 

     15. He who eats the flesh of any (animal) is called the eater of the flesh 
of that (particular creature), he who eats fish is an eater of every (kind of) 
     let him therefore avoid fish. 

     16. (But the fish called) Pathina and (that called) Rohita may be eaten, if 
used for offerings to the gods or to the manes; (one may eat) likewise Ragivas,
     Simhatundas, and Sasalkas on all (occasions). 

     17. Let him not eat solitary or unknown beasts and birds, though they may 
fall under (the categories of) eatable (creatures), nor any five-toed (animals).

     18. The porcupine, the hedgehog, the iguana, the rhinoceros, the tortoise, 
and the hare they declare to be eatable; likewise those (domestic animals)
     that have teeth in one jaw only, excepting camels. 

     19. A twice-born man who knowingly eats mushrooms, a village-pig, garlic, a 
village-cock, onions, or leeks, will become an outcast. 

     20. He who unwittingly partakes of (any of) these six, shall perform a 
Samtapana (Krikkhra) or the lunar penance (Kandrayana) of ascetics; in case (he
     who has eaten) any other (kind of forbidden food) he shall fast for one day 
(and a night ). 

     21. Once a year a Brahmana must perform a Krikkhra penance, in order to 
atone for unintentionally eating (forbidden food) but for intentionally (eating
     forbidden food he must perform the penances prescribed) specially. 

     22. Beasts and birds recommended (for consumption) may be slain by 
Brahmanas for sacrifices, and in order to feed those whom they are bound to
     maintain; for Agastya did this of old. 

     23. For in ancient (times) the sacrificial cakes were (made of the flesh) 
of eatable beasts and birds at the sacrifices offered by Brahmanas and

     24. All lawful hard or soft food may be eaten, though stale, (after having 
been) mixed with fatty (substances), and so may the remains of sacrificial

     25. But all preparations of barley and wheat, as well as preparations of 
milk, may be eaten by twice-born men without being mixed with fatty
     (substances), though they may have stood for a long time. 

     26. Thus has the food, allowed and forbidden to twice-born men, been fully 
described; I will now propound the rules for eating and avoiding meat. 

     27. One may eat meat when it has been sprinkled with water, while Mantras 
were recited, when Brahmanas desire (one's doing it), when one is
     engaged (in the performance of a rite) according to the law, and when one's 
life is in danger. 

     28. The Lord of creatures (Pragapati) created this whole (world to be) the 
sustenance of the vital spirit; both the immovable and the movable (creation
     is) the food of the vital spirit. 

     29. What is destitute of motion is the food of those endowed with 
locomotion; (animals) without fangs (are the food) of those with fangs, those 
     hands of those who possess hands, and the timid of the bold. 

     30. The eater who daily even devours those destined to be his food, commits 
no sin; for the creator himself created both the eaters and those who are
     to be eaten (for those special purposes). 

     31. 'The consumption of meat (is befitting) for sacrifices,' that is 
declared to be a rule made by the gods; but to persist (in using it) on other 
     is said to be a proceeding worthy of Rakshasas. 

     32. He who eats meat, when he honours the gods and manes, commits no sin, 
whether he has bought it, or himself has killed (the animal), or has
     received it as a present from others. 

     33. A twice-born man who knows the law, must not eat meat except in 
conformity with the law; for if he has eaten it unlawfully, he will, unable to 
     himself, be eaten after death by his (victims). 

     34. After death the guilt of one who slays deer for gain is not as (great) 
as that of him who eats meat for no (sacred) purpose. 

     35. But a man who, being duly engaged (to officiate or to dine at a sacred 
rite), refuses to eat meat, becomes after death an animal during twenty-one

     36. A Brahmana must never eat (the flesh of animals unhallowed by Mantras; 
but, obedient to the primeval law, he may eat it, consecrated with Vedic

     37. If he has a strong desire (for meat) he may make an animal of clarified 
butter or one of flour, (and eat that); but let him never seek to destroy an
     animal without a (lawful) reason. 

     38. As many hairs as the slain beast has, so often indeed will he who 
killed it without a (lawful) reason suffer a violent death in future births. 

     39. Svayambhu (the Self-existent) himself created animals for the sake of 
sacrifices; sacrifices (have been instituted) for the good of this whole 
     hence the slaughtering (of beasts) for sacrifices is not slaughtering (in 
the ordinary sense of the word). 

     40. Herbs, trees, cattle, birds, and (other) animals that have been 
destroyed for sacrifices, receive (being reborn) higher existences. 

     41. On offering the honey-mixture (to a guest), at a sacrifice and at the 
rites in honour of the manes, but on these occasions only, may an animal be
     slain; that (rule) Manu proclaimed. 

     42. A twice-born man who, knowing the true meaning of the Veda, slays an 
animal for these purposes, causes both himself and the animal to enter a
     most blessed state. 

     43. A twice-born man of virtuous disposition, whether he dwells in (his 
own) house, with a teacher, or in the forest, must never, even in times of
     distress, cause an injury (to any creature) which is not sanctioned by the 

     44. Know that the injury to moving creatures and to those destitute of 
motion, which the Veda has prescribed for certain occasions, is no injury at 
     for the sacred law shone forth from the Veda. 

     45. He who injures innoxious beings from a wish to (give) himself pleasure, 
never finds happiness, neither living nor dead. 

     46. He who does not seek to cause the sufferings of bonds and death to 
living creatures, (but) desires the good of all (beings), obtains endless bliss. 

     47. He who does not injure any (creature), attains without an effort what 
he thinks of, what he undertakes, and what he fixes his mind on. 

     48. Meat can never be obtained without injury to living creatures, and 
injury to sentient beings is detrimental to (the attainment of) heavenly bliss; 
let him
     therefore shun (the use of) meat. 

     49. Having well considered the (disgusting) origin of flesh and the 
(cruelty of) fettering and slaying corporeal beings, let him entirely abstain 
from eating

     50. He who, disregarding the rule (given above), does not eat meat like a 
Pisaka, becomes dear to men, and will not be tormented by diseases. 

     51. He who permits (the slaughter of an animal), he who cuts it up, he who 
kills it, he who buys or sells (meat), he who cooks it, he who serves it up,
     and he who eats it, (must all be considered as) the slayers (of the 

     52. There is no greater sinner than that (man) who, though not worshipping 
the gods or the manes, seeks to increase (the bulk of) his own flesh by the
     flesh of other (beings). 

     53. He who during a hundred years annually offers a horse-sacrifice, and he 
who entirely abstains from meat, obtain the same reward for their
     meritorious (conduct). 

     54. By subsisting on pure fruit and roots, and by eating food fit for 
ascetics (in the forest), one does not gain (so great) a reward as by entirely 
     (the use of) flesh. 

     55. 'Me he (mam sah)' will devour in the next (world), whose flesh I eat in 
this (life); the wise declare this (to be) the real meaning of the word 'flesh'

     56. There is no sin in eating meat, in (drinking) spirituous liquor, and in 
carnal intercourse, for that is the natural way of created beings, but 
     brings great rewards. 

     57. I will now in due order explain the purification for the dead and the 
purification of things as they are prescribed for the four castes (varna). 

     58. When (a child) dies that has teethed, or that before teething has 
received (the sacrament of) the tonsure (Kudakarana) or (of the initiation), all
     relatives (become) impure, and on the birth (of a child) the same (rule) is 

     59. It is ordained (that) among Sapindas the impurity on account of a death 
(shall last) ten days, (or) until the bones have been collected, (or) three
     days or one day only. 

     60. But the Sapinda-relationship ceases with the seventh person (in the 
ascending and descending lines), the Samanodaka-relationship when the
     (common) origin and the (existence of a common family)- name are no 
(longer) known. 

     61. As this impurity on account of a death is prescribed for (all) 
Sapindas, even so it shall be (held) on a birth by those who desire to be 

     62. (Or while) the impurity on account of a death is common to all 
(Sapindas), that caused by a birth (falls) on the parents alone; (or) it shall 
fall on the
     mother alone, and the father shall become pure by bathing; 

     63. But a man, having spent his strength, is purified merely by bathing; 
after begetting a child (on a remarried female), he shall retain the impurity 
     three days. 

     64. Those who have touched a corpse are purified after one day and night 
(added to) three periods of three days; those who give libations of water,
     after three days. 

     65. A pupil who performs the Pitrimedha for his deceased teacher, becomes 
also pure after ten days, just like those who carry the corpse out (to the

     66. (A woman) is purified on a miscarriage in as many (days and) nights as 
months (elapsed after conception), and a menstruating female becomes pure
     by bathing after the menstrual secretion has ceased (to flow). 

     67. (On the death) of children whose tonsure (Kudakarman) has not been 
performed, the (Sapindas) are declared to become pure in one (day and)
     night; (on the death) of those who have received the tonsure (but not the 
initiation, the law) ordains (that) the purification (takes place) after three 

     68. A child that has died before the completion of its second year, the 
relatives shall carry out (of the village), decked (with flowers, and bury it) 
in pure
     ground, without collecting the bones (afterwards). 

     69. Such (a child) shall not be burnt with fire, and no libations of water 
shall be offered to it; leaving it like a (log of) wood in the forest, (the 
     shall remain impure during three days only. 

     70. The relatives shall not offer libations to (a child) that has not 
reached the third year; but if it had teeth, or the ceremony of naming it 
     had been performed, (the offering of water is) optional. 

     71. If a fellow-student has died, the Smriti prescribes an impurity of one 
day; on a birth the purification of the Samanodakas is declared (to take place)
     after three (days and) nights. 

     72. (On the death) of females (betrothed but) not married (the bridegroom 
and his) relatives are purified after three days, and the paternal relatives
     become pure according to the same rule. 

     73. Let (mourners) eat food without factitious salt, bathe during three 
days, abstain from meat, and sleep separate on the ground. 

     74. The above rule regarding impurity on account of a death has been 
prescribed (for cases where the kinsmen live) near (the deceased); (Sapinda)
     kinsmen and (Samanodaka) relatives must know the following rule (to refer 
to cases where deceased lived) at a distance (from them). 

     75. He who may hear that (a relative) residing in a distant country has 
died, before ten (days after his death have elapsed), shall be impure for the
     remainder of the period of ten (days and) nights only. 

     76. If the ten days have passed, he shall be impure during three (days and) 
nights; but if a year has elapsed (since the occurrence of the death), he
     becomes pure merely by bathing. 

     77. A man who hears of a (Sapinda) relative's death, or of the birth of a 
son after the ten days (of impurity have passed), becomes pure by bathing,
     dressed in his garments. 

     78. If an infant (that has not teethed), or a (grownup relative who is) not 
a Sapinda, die in a distant country, one becomes at once pure after bathing in
     one's clothes. 

     79. If within the ten days (of impurity) another birth or death happens, a 
Brahmana shall remain impure only until the (first) period of ten days has

     80. They declare that, when the teacher (akarya) has died, the impurity 
(lasts) three days; if the (teacher's) son or wife (is dead, it lasts) a day and 
     night; that is a settled (rule). 

     81. For a Srotriya who resides with (him out of affection), a man shall be 
impure for three days; for a maternal uncle, a pupil, an officiating priest, or 
     maternal relative, for one night together with the preceding and following 

     82. If the king in whose realm he resides is dead, (he shall be impure) as 
long as the light (of the sun or stars shines), but for (an intimate friend) who 
     not a Srotriya (the impurity lasts) for a whole day, likewise for a Guru 
who knows the Veda and the Angas. 

     83. A Brahmana shall be pure after ten days, a Kshatriya after twelve, a 
Vaisya after fifteen, and a Sudra is purified after a month. 

     84. Let him not (unnecessarily) lengthen the period of impurity, nor 
interrupt the rites to be performed with the sacred fires; for he who performs 
     (Agnihotra) rite will not be impure, though (he be) a (Sapinda) relative. 

     85. When he has touched a Kandala, a menstruating woman, an outcast, a 
woman in childbed, a corpse, or one who has touched a (corpse), he
     becomes pure by bathing. 

     86. He who has purified himself by sipping water shall, on seeing any 
impure (thing or person), always mutter the sacred texts, addressed to Surya, 
     the Pavamani (verses). 

     87. A Brahmana who has touched a human bone to which fat adheres, becomes 
pure by bathing; if it be free from fat, by sipping water and by touching
     (afterwards) a cow or looking at the sun. 

     88. He who has undertaken the performance of a vow shall not pour out 
libations (to the dead) until the vow has been completed; but when he has
     offered water after its completion, he becomes pure in three days only. 

     89. Libations of water shall not be offered to those who (neglect the 
prescribed rites and may be said to) have been born in vain, to those born in
     consequence of an illegal mixture of the castes, to those who are ascetics 
(of heretical sects), and to those who have committed suicide, 

     90. To women who have joined a heretical sect, who through lust live (with 
many men), who have caused an abortion, have killed their husbands, or
     drink spirituous liquor. 

     91. A student does not break his vow by carrying out (to the place of 
cremation) his own dead teacher (akarya), sub-teacher (upadhyaya), father,
     mother, or Guru. 

     92. Let him carry out a dead Sudra by the southern gate of the town, but 
(the corpses of) twice-born men, as is proper, by the western, northern, or
     eastern (gates). 

     93. The taint of impurity does not fall on kings, and those engaged in the 
performance of a vow, or of a Sattra; for the (first are) seated on the throne 
     Indra, and the (last two are) ever pure like Brahman. 

     94. For a king, on the throne of magnanimity, immediate purification is 
prescribed, and the reason for that is that he is seated (there) for the 
     of (his) subjects. 

     95. (The same rule applies to the kinsmen) of those who have fallen in a 
riot or a battle, (of those who have been killed) by lightning or by the king, 
     (of those who perished fighting) for cows and Brahmanas, and to those whom 
the king wishes (to be pure). 

     96. A king is an incarnation of the eight guardian deities of the world, 
the Moon, the Fire, the Sun, the Wind, Indra, the Lords of wealth and water
     (Kubera and Varuna), and Yama. 

     97. Because the king is pervaded by those lords of the world, no impurity 
is ordained for him; for purity and impurity of mortals is caused and removed
     by (those) lords of the world. 

     98. By him who is slain in battle with brandished weapons according to the 
law of the Kshatriyas, a (Srauta) sacrifice is instantly completed, and so is
     the period of impurity (caused by his death); that is a settled rule. 

     99. (At the end of the period of impurity) a Brahmana who has performed the 
necessary rites, becomes pure by touching water, a Kshatriya by
     touching the animal on which he rides, and his weapons, a Vaisya by 
touching his goad or the nose-string (of his oxen), a Sudra by touching his 

     100. Thus the purification (required) on (the death of) Sapindas has been 
explained to you, O best of twice-born men; hear now the manner in which
     men are purified on the death of any (relative who is) not a Sapinda. 

     101. A Brahmana, having carried out a dead Brahmana who is not a Sapinda, 
as (if he were) a (near) relative, or a near relative of his mother, becomes
     pure after three days; 

     102. But if he eats the food of the (Sapindas of the deceased), he is 
purified in ten days, (but) in one day, if he does not eat their food nor dwells 
in their

     103. Having voluntarily followed a corpse, whether (that of) a paternal 
kinsman or (of) a stranger, he becomes pure by bathing, dressed in his clothes,
     by touching fire and eating clarified butter. 

     104. Let him not allow a dead Brahmana to be carried out by a Sudra, while 
men of the same caste are at hand; for that burnt-offering which is defiled
     by a Sudra's touch is detrimental to (the deceased's passage to) heaven. 

     105. The knowledge (of Brahman) austerities, fire, (holy) food, earth, 
(restraint of) the internal organ, water, smearing (with cowdung), the wind,
     sacred rites, the sun, and time are the purifiers of corporeal (beings). 

     106. Among all modes of purification, purity in (the acquisition of) wealth 
is declared to be the best; for he is pure who gains wealth with clean hands,
     not he who purifies himself with earth and water. 

     107. The learned are purified by a forgiving disposition, those who have 
committed forbidden actions by liberality, secret sinners by muttering (sacred
     texts), and those who best know the Veda by austerities. 

     108. By earth and water is purified what ought to be made pure, a river by 
its current, a woman whose thoughts have been impure by the menstrual
     secretion, a Brahmana by abandoning the world (samnyasa). 

     109. The body is cleansed by water, the internal organ is purified by 
truthfulness, the individual soul by sacred learning and austerities, the 
intellect by
     (true) knowledge. 

     110. Thus the precise rules for the purification of the body have been 
declared to you; hear now the decision (of the law) regarding the purification 
     the various (inanimate) things. 

     111. The wise ordain that all (objects) made of metal, gems, and anything 
made of stone are to be cleansed with ashes, earth, and water. 

     112. A golden vessel which shows no stains, becomes pure with water alone, 
likewise what is produced in water (as shells and coral), what is made of
     stone, and a silver (vessel) not enchased. 

     113. From the union of water and fire arose the glittering gold and silver; 
those two, therefore, are best purified by (the elements) from which they

     114. Copper, iron, brass, pewter, tin, and lead must be cleansed, as may be 
suitable (for each particular case), by alkaline (substances), acids or

     115. The purification prescribed for all (sorts of) liquids is by passing 
two blades of Kusa grass through them, for solid things by sprinkling (them with
     water), for (objects) made of wood by planing them. 

     116. At sacrifices the purification of (the Soma cups called) Kamasas and 
Grahas, and of (other) sacrificial vessels (takes place) by rubbing (them) with
     the hand, and (afterwards) rinsing (them with water). 

     117. The Karu and (the spoons called) Sruk and Sruva must be cleaned with 
hot water, likewise (the wooden sword, called) Sphya, the
     winnowing-basket (Surpa), the cart (for bringing the grain), the pestle and 
the mortar. 

     118. The manner of purifying large quantities of grain and of cloth is to 
sprinkle them with water; but the purification of small quantities is prescribed 
     take place) by washing them. 

     119. Skins and (objects) made of split cane must be cleaned like clothes; 
vegetables, roots, and fruit like grain; 

     120. Silk and woollen stuffs with alkaline earth; blankets with pounded 
Arishta (fruit); Amsupattas with Bel fruit; linen cloth with (a paste of) yellow

     121. A man who knows (the law) must purify conch-shells, horn, bone and 
ivory, like linen cloth, or with a mixture of cow's urine and water. 

     122. Grass, wood, and straw become pure by being sprinkled (with water), a 
house by sweeping and smearing (it with cowdung or whitewash), an
     earthen (vessel) by a second burning. 

     123. An earthen vessel which has been defiled by spirituous liquor, urine, 
ordure, saliva, pus or blood cannot be purified by another burning. 

     124. Land is purified by (the following) five (modes, viz.) by sweeping, by 
smearing (it with cowdung), by sprinkling (it with cows' urine or milk), by
     scraping, and by cows staying (on it during a day and night). 

     125. (Food) which has been pecked at by birds, smelt at by cows, touched 
(with the foot), sneezed on, or defiled by hair or insects, becomes pure by
     scattering earth (over it). 

     126. As long as the (foul) smell does not leave an (object) defiled by 
impure substances, and the stain caused by them (does not disappear), so long
     must earth and water be applied in cleansing (inanimate) things. 

     127. The gods declared three things (to be) pure to Brahmanas, that (on 
which) no (taint is) visible, what has been washed with water, and what has
     been commended (as pure) by the word (of a Brahmana). 

     128. Water, sufficient (in quantity) in order to slake the thirst of a cow, 
possessing the (proper) smell, colour, and taste, and unmixed with impure
     substances, is pure, if it is collected on (pure) ground. 

     129. The hand of an artisan is always pure, so is (every vendible 
commodity) exposed for sale in the market, and food obtained by begging which a
     student holds (in his hand) is always fit for use; that is a settled rule. 

     130. The mouth of a woman is always pure, likewise a bird when he causes a 
fruit to fall; a calf is pure on the flowing of the milk, and a dog when he
     catches a deer. 

     131. Manu has declared that the flesh (of an animal) killed by dogs is 
pure, likewise (that) of a (beast) slain by carnivorous (animals) or by men of 
     caste (Dasyu), such as Kandalas. 

     132. All those cavities (of the body) which lie above the navel are pure, 
(but) those which are below the navel are impure, as well as excretions that 
     from the body. 

     133. Flies, drops of water, a shadow, a cow, a horse, the rays of the sun, 
dust, earth, the wind, and fire one must know to be pure to the touch. 

     134. In order to cleanse (the organs) by which urine and faeces are 
ejected, earth and water must be used, as they may be required, likewise in
     removing the (remaining ones among) twelve impurities of the body. 

     135. Oily exudations, semen, blood, (the fatty substance of the) brain, 
urine, faeces, the mucus of the nose, ear-wax, phlegm, tears, the rheum of the
     eyes, and sweat are the twelve impurities of human (bodies). 

     136. He who desires to be pure, must clean the organ by one (application 
of) earth, the anus by (applying earth) three (times), the (left) hand alone by
     (applying it) ten (times), and both (hands) by (applying it) seven (times). 

     137. Such is the purification ordained for householders; (it shall be) 
double for students, treble for hermits, but quadruple for ascetics. 

     138. When he has voided urine or faeces, let him, after sipping water, 
sprinkle the cavities, likewise when he is going to recite the Veda, and always
     before he takes food. 

     139. Let him who desires bodily purity first sip water three times, and 
then twice wipe his mouth; but a woman and a Sudra (shall perform each act)
     once (only). 

     140. Sudras who live according to the law, shall each month shave (their 
heads); their mode of purification (shall be) the same as that of Vaisyas, and
     their food the fragments of an Aryan's meal. 

     141. Drops (of water) from the mouth which do not fall on a limb, do not 
make (a man) impure, nor the hair of the moustache entering the mouth, nor
     what adheres to the teeth. 

     142. Drops which trickle on the feet of him who offers water for sipping to 
others, must be considered as equal to (water collected on the ground; they
     render him not impure. 

     143. He who, while carrying anything in any manner, is touched by an impure 
(person or thing), shall become pure, if he performs an ablution, without
     putting down that object. 

     144. He who has vomited or purged shall bathe, and afterwards eat clarified 
butter; but if (the attack comes on) after he has eaten, let him only sip
     water; bathing is prescribed for him who has had intercourse with a woman. 

     145. Though he may be (already) pure, let him sip water after sleeping, 
sneezing, eating, spitting, telling untruths, and drinking water, likewise when 
he is
     going to study the Veda. 

     146. Thus the rules of personal purification for men of all castes, and 
those for cleaning (inanimate) things, have been fully declared to you: hear now 
     duties of women. 

     147. By a girl, by a young woman, or even by an aged one, nothing must be 
done independently, even in her own house. 

     148. In childhood a female must be subject to her father, in youth to her 
husband, when her lord is dead to her sons; a woman must never be

     149. She must not seek to separate herself from her father, husband, or 
sons; by leaving them she would make both (her own and her husband's)
     families contemptible. 

     150. She must always be cheerful, clever in (the management of her) 
household affairs, careful in cleaning her utensils, and economical in 

     151. Him to whom her father may give her, or her brother with the father's 
permission, she shall obey as long as he lives, and when he is dead, she must
     not insult (his memory). 

     152. For the sake of procuring good fortune to (brides), the recitation of 
benedictory texts (svastyayana), and the sacrifice to the Lord of creatures
     (Pragapati) are used at weddings; (but) the betrothal (by the father or 
guardian) is the cause of (the husband's) dominion (over his wife). 

     153. The husband who wedded her with sacred texts, always gives happiness 
to his wife, both in season and out of season, in this world and in the

     154. Though destitute of virtue, or seeking pleasure (elsewhere), or devoid 
of good qualities, (yet) a husband must be constantly worshipped as a god
     by a faithful wife. 

     155. No sacrifice, no vow, no fast must be performed by women apart (from 
their husbands); if a wife obeys her husband, she will for that (reason
     alone) be exalted in heaven. 

     156. A faithful wife, who desires to dwell (after death) with her husband, 
must never do anything that might displease him who took her hand, whether
     he be alive or dead. 

     157. At her pleasure let her emaciate her body by (living on) pure flowers, 
roots, and fruit; but she must never even mention the name of another man
     after her husband has died. 

     158. Until death let her be patient (of hardships), self-controlled, and 
chaste, and strive (to fulfil) that most excellent duty which (is prescribed) 
for wives
     who have one husband only. 

     159. Many thousands of Brahmanas who were chaste from their youth, have 
gone to heaven without continuing their race. 

     160. A virtuous wife who after the death of her husband constantly remains 
chaste, reaches heaven, though she have no son, just like those chaste men.

     161. But a woman who from a desire to have offspring violates her duty 
towards her (deceased) husband, brings on herself disgrace in this world, and
     loses her place with her husband (in heaven). 

     162. Offspring begotten by another man is here not (considered lawful), nor 
(does offspring begotten) on another man's wife (belong to the begetter),
     nor is a second husband anywhere prescribed for virtuous women. 

     163. She who cohabits with a man of higher caste, forsaking her own husband 
who belongs to a lower one, will become contemptible in this world, and
     is called a remarried woman (parapurva). 

     164. By violating her duty towards her husband, a wife is disgraced in this 
world, (after death) she enters the womb of a jackal, and is tormented by
     diseases (the punishment of) her sin. 

     165. She who, controlling her thoughts, words, and deeds, never slights her 
lord, resides (after death) with her husband (in heaven), and is called a
     virtuous (wife). 

     166. In reward of such conduct, a female who controls her thoughts, speech, 
and actions, gains in this (life) highest renown, and in the next (world) a
     place near her husband. 

     167. A twice-born man, versed in the sacred law, shall burn a wife of equal 
caste who conducts herself thus and dies before him, with (the sacred fires
     used for) the Agnihotra, and with the sacrificial implements. 

     168. Having thus, at the funeral, given the sacred fires to his wife who 
dies before him, he may marry again, and again kindle (the fires). 

     169. (Living) according to the (preceding) rules, he must never neglect the 
five (great) sacrifices, and, having taken a wife, he must dwell in (his own)
     house during the second period of his life. 

Hosted by