1. The vow (of studying) the three Vedas under a teacher must be kept for 
thirty-six years, or for half that time, or for a quarter, or until the 
     has perfectly learnt them. 

     2. (A student) who has studied in due order the three Vedas, or two, or 
even one only, without breaking the (rules of) studentship, shall enter the 
     of householders. 

     3. He who is famous for (the strict performance of) his duties and has 
received his heritage, the Veda, from his father, shall be honoured, sitting on 
     couch and adorned with a garland, with (the present of) a cow (and the 

     4. Having bathed, with the permission of his teacher, and performed 
according to the rule the Samavartana (the rite on returning home), a twice-born
     man shall marry a wife of equal caste who is endowed with auspicious 
(bodily) marks. 

     5. A damsel who is neither a Sapinda on the mother's side, nor belongs to 
the same family on the father's side, is recommended to twice-born men for
     wedlock and conjugal union. 

     6. In connecting himself with a wife, let him carefully avoid the ten 
following families, be they ever so great, or rich in kine, horses, sheep, 
grain, or
     (other) property, 

     7. (Viz.) one which neglects the sacred rites, one in which no male 
children (are born), one in which the Veda is not studied, one (the members of)
     which have thick hair on the body, those which are subject to hemorrhoids, 
phthisis, weakness of digestion, epilepsy, or white or black leprosy. 

     8. Let him not marry a maiden (with) reddish (hair), nor one who has a 
redundant member, nor one who is sickly, nor one either with no hair (on the
     body) or too much, nor one who is garrulous or has red (eyes), 

     9. Nor one named after a constellation, a tree, or a river, nor one bearing 
the name of a low caste, or of a mountain, nor one named after a bird, a
     snake, or a slave, nor one whose name inspires terror. 

     10. Let him wed a female free from bodily defects, who has an agreeable 
name, the (graceful) gait of a Hamsa or of an elephant, a moderate (quantity
     of) hair on the body and on the head, small teeth, and soft limbs. 

     11. But a prudent man should not marry (a maiden) who has no brother, nor 
one whose father is not known, through fear lest (in the former case she be
     made) an appointed daughter (and in the latter) lest (he should commit) 

     12. For the first marriage of twice-born men (wives) of equal caste are 
recommended; but for those who through desire proceed (to marry again) the
     following females, (chosen) according to the (direct) order (of the 
castes), are most approved. 

     13. It is declared that a Sudra woman alone (can be) the wife of a Sudra, 
she and one of his own caste (the wives) of a Vaisya, those two and one of
     his own caste (the wives) of a Kshatriya, those three and one of his own 
caste (the wives) of a Brahmana. 

     14. A Sudra woman is not mentioned even in any (ancient) story as the 
(first) wife of a Brahmana or of a Kshatriya, though they lived in the 

     15. Twice-born men who, in their folly, wed wives of the low (Sudra) caste, 
soon degrade their families and their children to the state of Sudras. 

     16. According to Atri and to (Gautama) the son of Utathya, he who weds a 
Sudra woman becomes an outcast, according to Saunaka on the birth of a
     son, and according to Bhrigu he who has (male) offspring from a (Sudra 
female, alone). 

     17. A Brahmana who takes a Sudra wife to his bed, will (after death) sink 
into hell; if he begets a child by her, he will lose the rank of a Brahmana. 

     18. The manes and the gods will not eat the (offerings) of that man who 
performs the rites in honour of the gods, of the manes, and of guests chiefly
     with a (Sudra wife's) assistance, and such (a man) will not go to heaven. 

     19. For him who drinks the moisture of a Sudra's lips, who is tainted by 
her breath, and who begets a son on her, no expiation is prescribed. 

     20. Now listen to (the) brief (description of) the following eight 
marriage-rites used by the four castes (varna) which partly secure benefits and 
     produce evil both in this life and after death. 

     21. (They are) the rite of Brahman (Brahma), that of the gods (Daiva), that 
of the Rishis (Arsha), that of Pragapati (Pragapatya), that of the Asuras
     (Asura), that of the Gandharvas (Gandharva), that of the Rhashasas 
(Rakshasa), and that of the Pisakas (Paisaka). 

     22. Which is lawful for each caste (varna) and which are the virtues or 
faults of each (rite), all this I will declare to you, as well as their good and 
     results with respect to the offspring. 

     23. One may know that the first six according to the order (followed above) 
are lawful for a Brahmana, the four last for a Kshatriya, and the same four,
     excepting the Rakshasa rite, for a Vaisya and a Sudra. 

     24. The sages state that the first four are approved (in the case) of a 
Brahmana, one, the Rakshasa (rite in the case) of a Kshatriya, and the Asura
     (marriage in that) of a Vaisya and of a Sudra. 

     25. But in these (Institutes of the sacred law) three of the five (last) 
are declared to be lawful and two unlawful; the Paisaka and the Asura (rites) 
     never be used. 

     26. For Kshatriyas those before-mentioned two rites, the Gandharva and the 
Rakshasa, whether separate or mixed, are permitted by the sacred

     27. The gift of a daughter, after decking her (with costly garments) and 
honouring (her by presents of jewels), to a man learned in the Veda and of good
     conduct, whom (the father) himself invites, is called the Brahma rite. 

     28. The gift of a daughter who has been decked with ornaments, to a priest 
who duly officiates at a sacrifice, during the course of its performance, they
     call the Daiva rite. 

     29. When (the father) gives away his daughter according to the rule, after 
receiving from the bridegroom, for (the fulfilment of) the sacred law, a cow
     and a bull or two pairs, that is named the Arsha rite. 

     30. The gift of a daughter (by her father) after he has addressed (the 
couple) with the text, 'May both of you perform together your duties,' and has
     shown honour (to the bridegroom), is called in the Smriti the Pragapatya 

     31. When (the bridegroom) receives a maiden, after having given as much 
wealth as he can afford, to the kinsmen and to the bride herself, according to
     his own will, that is called the Asura rite. 

     32. The voluntary union of a maiden and her lover one must know (to be) the 
Gandharva rite, which springs from desire and has sexual intercourse for
     its purpose. 

     33. The forcible abduction of a maiden from her home, while she cries out 
and weeps, after (her kinsmen) have been slain or wounded and (their
     houses) broken open, is called the Rakshasa rite. 

     34. When (a man) by stealth seduces a girl who is sleeping, intoxicated, or 
disordered in intellect, that is the eighth, the most base and sinful rite of 

     35. The gift of daughters among Brahmanas is most approved, (if it is 
preceded) by (a libation of) water; but in the case of other castes (it may be
     performed) by (the expression of) mutual consent. 

     36. Listen now to me, ye Brahmanas, while I fully declare what quality has 
been ascribed by Manu to each of these marriage-rites. 

     37. The son of a wife wedded according to the Brahma rite, if he performs 
meritorious acts, liberates from sin ten ancestors, ten descendants and
     himself as the twenty-first. 

     38. The son born of a wife, wedded according to the Daiva rite, likewise 
(saves) seven ancestors and seven descendants, the son of a wife married by
     the Arsha rite three (in the ascending and descending lines), and the son 
of a wife married by the rite of Ka (Pragapati) six (in either line). 

     39. From the four marriages, (enumerated) successively, which begin with 
the Brahma rite spring sons, radiant with knowledge of the Veda and
     honoured by the Sishtas (good men). 

     40. Endowded with the qualities of beauty and goodness, possessing wealth 
and fame, obtaining as many enjoyments as they desire and being most
     righteous, they will live a hundred years. 

     41. But from the remaining (four) blamable marriages spring sons who are 
cruel and speakers of untruth, who hate the Veda and the sacred law. 

     42. In the blameless marriages blameless children are born to men, in 
blamable (marriages) blamable (offspring); one should therefore avoid the
     blamable (forms of marriage). 

     43. The ceremony of joining the hands is prescribed for (marriages with) 
women of equal caste (varna); know that the following rule (applies) to
     weddings with females of a different caste (varna). 

     44. On marrying a man of a higher caste a Kshatriya bride must take hold of 
an arrow, a Vaisya bride of a goad, and a Sudra female of the hem of the
     (bridegroom's) garment. 

     45. Let (the husband) approach his wife in due season, being constantly 
satisfied with her (alone); he may also, being intent on pleasing her, approach
     her with a desire for conjugal union (on any day) excepting the Parvans. 

     46. Sixteen (days and) nights (in each month), including four days which 
differ from the rest and are censured by the virtuous, (are called) the natural
     season of women. 

     47. But among these the first four, the eleventh and the thirteenth are 
(declared to be) forbidden; the remaining nights are recommended. 

     48. On the even nights sons are conceived and daughters on the uneven ones; 
hence a man who desires to have sons should approach his wife in due
     season on the even (nights). 

     49. A male child is produced by a greater quantity of male seed, a female 
child by the prevalence of the female; if (both are) equal, a hermaphrodite or
     a boy and a girl; if (both are) weak or deficient in quantity, a failure of 
conception (results). 

     50. He who avoids women on the six forbidden nights and on eight others, is 
(equal in chastity to) a student, in whichever order he may live. 

     51. No father who knows (the law) must take even the smallest gratuity for 
his daughter; for a man who, through avarice, takes a gratuity, is a seller of
     his offspring. 

     52. But those (male) relations who, in their folly, live on the separate 
property of women, (e.g. appropriate) the beasts of burden, carriages, and 
     of women, commit sin and will sink into hell. 

     53. Some call the cow and the bull (given) at an Arsha wedding 'a 
gratuity;' (but) that is wrong, since (the acceptance of) a fee, be it small or 
great, is a
     sale (of the daughter). 

     54. When the relatives do not appropriate (for their use) the gratuity 
(given), it is not a sale; (in that case) the (gift) is only a token of respect 
and of
     kindness towards the maidens. 

     55. Women must be honoured and adorned by their fathers, brothers, 
husbands, and brothers-in-law, who desire (their own) welfare. 

     56. Where women are honoured, there the gods are pleased; but where they 
are not honoured, no sacred rite yields rewards. 

     57. Where the female relations live in grief, the family soon wholly 
perishes; but that family where they are not unhappy ever prospers. 

     58. The houses on which female relations, not being duly honoured, 
pronounce a curse, perish completely, as if destroyed by magic. 

     59. Hence men who seek (their own) welfare, should always honour women on 
holidays and festivals with (gifts of) ornaments, clothes, and (dainty)

     60. In that family, where the husband is pleased with his wife and the wife 
with her husband, happiness will assuredly be lasting. 

     61. For if the wife is not radiant with beauty, she will not attract her 
husband; but if she has no attractions for him, no children will be born. 

     62. If the wife is radiant with beauty, the whole house is bright; but if 
she is destitute of beauty, all will appear dismal. 

     63. By low marriages, by omitting (the performance of) sacred rites, by 
neglecting the study of the Veda, and by irreverence towards Brahmanas,
     (great) families sink low. 

     64. By (practising) handicrafts, by pecuniary transactions, by (begetting) 
children on Sudra females only, by (trading in) cows, horses, and carriages, by
     (the pursuit of) agriculture and by taking service under a king, 

     65. By sacrificing for men unworthy to offer sacrifices and by denying (the 
future rewards for good) works, families, deficient in the (knowledge of the)
     Veda, quickly perish. 

     66. But families that are rich in the knowledge of the Veda, though 
possessing little wealth, are numbered among the great, and acquire great fame. 

     67. With the sacred fire, kindled at the wedding, a householder shall 
perform according to the law the domestic ceremonies and the five (great)
     sacrifices, and (with that) he shall daily cook his food. 

     68. A householder has five slaughter-houses (as it were, viz.) the hearth, 
the grinding-stone, the broom, the pestle and mortar, the water-vessel, by
     using which he is bound (with the fetters of sin). 

     69. In order to successively expiate (the offences committed by means) of 
all these (five) the great sages have prescribed for householders the daily
     (performance of the five) great sacrifices. 

     70. Teaching (and studying) is the sacrifice (offered) to Brahman, the 
(offerings of water and food called) Tarpana the sacrifice to the manes, the 
     oblation the sacrifice offered to the gods, the Bali offering that offered 
to the Bhutas, and the hospitable reception of guests the offering to men. 

     71. He who neglects not these five great sacrifices, while he is able (to 
perform them), is not tainted by the sins (committed) in the five places of
     slaughter, though he constantly lives in the (order of) house (-holders). 

     72. But he who does not feed these five, the gods, his guests, those whom 
he is bound to maintain, the manes, and himself, lives not, though he

     73. They call (these) five sacrifices also, Ahuta, Huta, Prahuta, Brahmya-
huta, and Prasita. 

     74. Ahuta (not offered in the fire) is the muttering (of Vedic texts), Huta 
the burnt oblation (offered to the gods), Prahuta (offered by scattering it on 
     ground) the Bali offering given to the Bhutas, Brahmya-huta (offered in the 
digestive fire of Brahmanas), the respectful reception of Brahmana (guests),
     and Prasita (eaten) the (daily oblation to the manes, called) Tarpana. 

     75. Let (every man) in this (second order, at least) daily apply himself to 
the private recitation of the Veda, and also to the performance of the offering
     to the gods; for he who is diligent in the performance of sacrifices, 
supports both the movable and the immovable creation. 

     76. An oblation duly thrown into the fire, reaches the sun; from the sun 
comes rain, from rain food, therefrom the living creatures (derive their

     77. As all living creatures subsist by receiving support from air, even so 
(the members of) all orders subsist by receiving support from the householder. 

     78. Because men of the three (other) orders are daily supported by the 
householder with (gifts of) sacred knowledge and food, therefore (the order of)
     householders is the most excellent order. 

     79. (The duties of) this order, which cannot be practised by men with weak 
organs, must be carefully observed by him who desires imperishable (bliss
     in) heaven, and constant happiness in this (life). 

     80. The sages, the manes, the gods, the Bhutas, and guests ask the 
householders (for offerings and gifts); hence he who knows (the law), must give 
     them (what is due to each). 

     81. Let him worship, according to the rule, the sages by the private 
recitation of the Veda, the gods by burnt oblations, the manes by funeral 
     (Sraddha), men by (gifts of) food, and the Bhutas by the Bali offering. 

     82. Let him daily perform a funeral sacrifice with food, or with water, or 
also with milk, roots, and fruits, and (thus) please the manes. 

     83. Let him feed even one Brahmana in honour of the manes at (the Sraddha), 
which belongs to the five great sacrifices; but let him not feed on that
     (occasion) any Brahmana on account of the Vaisvadeva offering. 

     84. A Brahmana shall offer according to the rule (of his Grihya-sutra a 
portion) of the cooked food destined for the Vaisvadeva in the sacred domestic
     fire to the following deities: 

     85. First to Agni, and (next) to Soma, then to both these gods conjointly, 
further to all the gods (Visve Devah), and (then) to Dhanvantari, 

     86. Further to Kuhu (the goddess of the new-moon day), to Anumati (the 
goddess of the full-moon day), to Pragapati (the lord of creatures), to heaven
     and earth conjointly, and finally to Agni Svishtakrit (the fire which 
performs the sacrifice well). 

     87. After having thus duly offered the sacrificial food, let him throw Bali 
offerings in all directions of the compass, proceeding (from the east) to the
     south, to Indra, Yama, Varuna, and Soma, as well as to the servants (of 
these deities). 

     88. Saying, '(Adoration) to the Maruts,' he shall scatter (some food) near 
the door, and (some) in water, saying, '(Adoration to the waters;' he shall
     throw (some) on the pestle and the mortar, speaking thus, '(Adoration) to 
the trees.' 

     89. Near the head (of the bed) he shall make an offering to Sri (fortune), 
and near the foot (of his bed) to Bhadrakali; in the centre of the house let him
     place a Bali for Brahman and for Vastoshpati (the lord of the dwelling) 

     90. Let him throw up into the air a Bali for all the gods, and (in the day-
time one) for the goblins roaming about by day, (and in the evening one) for the
     goblins that walk at night. 

     91. In the upper story let him offer a Bali to Sarvatmabhuti; but let him 
throw what remains (from these offerings) in a southerly direction for the 

     92. Let him gently place on the ground (some food) for dogs, outcasts, 
Kandalas (Svapak), those afflicted with diseases that are punishments of former
     sins, crows, and insects. 

     93. That Brahmana who thus daily honours all beings, goes, endowed with a 
resplendent body, by a straight road to the highest dwelling-place (i.e.

     94. Having performed this Bali offering, he shall first feed his guest and, 
according to the rule, give alms to an ascetic (and) to a student. 

     95. A twice-born householder gains, by giving alms, the same reward for his 
meritorious act which (a student) obtains for presenting, in accordance
     with the rule, a cow to his teacher. 

     96. Let him give, in accordance with the rule, to a Brahmana who knows the 
true meaning of the Veda, even (a small portion of food as) alms, or a pot
     full of water, having garnished (the food with seasoning, or the pot with 
flowers and fruit). 

     97. The oblations to gods and manes, made by men ignorant (of the law of 
gifts), are lost, if the givers in their folly present (shares of them) to
     Brahmanas who are mere ashes. 

     98. An offering made in the mouth-fire of Brahmanas rich in sacred learning 
and austerities, saves from misfortune and from great guilt. 

     99. But let him offer, in accordance with the rule, to a guest who has come 
(of his own accord) a seat and water, as well as food, garnished (with
     seasoning), according to his ability. 

     100. A Brahmana who stays unhonoured (in the house), takes away (with him) 
all the spiritual merit even of a man who subsists by gleaning ears of
     corn, or offers oblations in five fires. 

     101. Grass, room (for resting), water, and fourthly a kind word; these 
(things) never fail in the houses of good men. 

     102. But a Brahmana who stays one night only is declared to be a guest 
(atithi); for because he stays (sthita) not long (anityam), he is called atithi 

     103. One must not consider as a guest a Brahmana who dwells in the same 
village, nor one who seeks his livelihood by social intercourse, even though
     he has come to a house where (there is) a wife, and where sacred fires (are 

     104. Those foolish householders who constantly seek (to live on) the food 
of others, become, in consequence of that (baseness), after death the cattle
     of those who give them food. 

     105. A guest who is sent by the (setting) sun in the evening, must not be 
driven away by a householder; whether he have come at (supper-) time or at
     an inopportune moment, he must not stay in the house without entertainment. 

     106. Let him not eat any (dainty) food which he does not offer to his 
guest; the hospitable reception of guests procures wealth, fame, long life, and
     heavenly bliss. 

     107. Let him offer (to his guests) seats, rooms, beds, attendance on 
departure and honour (while they stay), to the most distinguished in the best 
     to the lower ones in a lower form, to equals in an equal manner. 

     108. But if another guest comes after the Vaisvadeva offering has been 
finished, (the householder) must give him food according to his ability, (but) 
     repeat the Bali offering. 

     109. A Brahmana shall not name his family and (Vedic) gotra in order to 
obtain a meal; for he who boasts of them for the sake of a meal, is called by
     the wise a foul feeder (vantasin). 

     110. But a Kshatriya (who comes) to the house of a Brahmana is not called a 
guest (atithi), nor a Vaisya, nor a Sudra, nor a personal friend, nor a
     relative, nor the teacher. 

     111. But if a Kshatriya comes to the house of a Brahmana in the manner of a 
guest, (the house-holder) may feed him according to his desire, after the
     above-mentioned Brahmanas have eaten. 

     112. Even a Vaisya and a Sudra who have approached his house in the manner 
of guests, he may allow to eat with his servants, showing (thereby) his
     compassionate disposition. 

     113. Even to others, personal friends and so forth, who have come to his 
house out of affection, he may give food, garnished (with seasoning)
     according to his ability, (at the same time) with his wife. 

     114. Without hesitation he may give food, even before his guests, to the 
following persons, (viz.) to newly-married women, to infants, to the sick, and
     to pregnant women. 

     115. But the foolish man who eats first without having given food to these 
(persons) does, while he crams, not know that (after death) he himself will be
     devoured by dogs and vultures. 

     116. After the Brahmanas, the kinsmen, and the servants have dined, the 
householder and his wife may afterwards eat what remains. 

     117. Having honoured the gods, the sages, men, the manes, and the guardian 
deities of the house, the householder shall eat afterwards what remains. 

     118. He who prepares food for himself (alone), eats nothing but sin; for it 
is ordained that the food which remains after (the performance of) the
     sacrifices shall be the meal of virtuous men. 

     119. Let him honour with the honey-mixture a king, an officiating priest, a 
Snataka, the teacher, a son-in-law, a father-in-law, and a maternal uncle, (if
     they come) again after a full year (has elapsed since their last visit). 

     120. A king and a Srotriya, who come on the performance of a sacrifice, 
must be honoured with the honey-mixture, but not if no sacrifice is being
     performed; that is a settled rule. 

     121. But the wife shall offer in the evening (a portion) of the dressed 
food as a Bali-oblation, without (the recitation of) sacred formulas; for that 
     which is called the) Vaisvadeva is prescribed both for the morning and the 

     122. After performing the Pitriyagna, a Brahmana who keeps a sacred fire 
shall offer, month by month, on the new-moon day, the funeral sacrifice
     (Sraddha, called) Pindanvaharyaka. 

     123. The wise call the monthly funeral offering to the manes Anvaharya (to 
be offered after the cakes), and that must be carefully performed with the
     approved (sorts of) flesh (mentioned below). 

     124. I will fully declare what and how many (Brahmanas) must be fed on that 
(occasion), who must be avoided, and on what kinds of food (they shall

     125. One must feed two (Brahmanas) at the offering to the gods, and three 
at the offering to the manes, or one only on either occasion; even a very
     wealthy man shall not be anxious (to entertain) a large company. 

     126. A large company destroys these five (advantages) the respectful 
treatment (of the invited, the propriety of) place and time, purity and (the
     selection of) virtuous Brahmana (guests); he therefore shall not seek (to 
entertain) a large company. 

     127. Famed is this rite for the dead, called (the sacrifice sacred to the 
manes (and performed) on the new-moon day; if a man is diligent in (performing)
     that, (the reward of) the rite for the dead, which is performed according 
to Smarta rules, reaches him constantly. 

     128. Oblations to the gods and manes must be presented by the givers to a 
Srotriya alone; what is given to such a most worthy Brahmana yields great

     129. Let him feed even one learned man at (the sacrifice) to the gods, and 
one at (the sacrifice) to the manes; (thus) he will gain a rich reward, not (if 
     entertains) many who are unacquainted with the Veda. 

     130. Let him make inquiries even regarding the remote (ancestors of) a 
Brahmana who has studied an entire (recension of the) Veda; (if descended
     from a virtuous race) such a man is a worthy recipient of gifts 
(consisting) of food offered to the gods or to the manes, he is declared (to 
procure as
     great rewards as) a guest (atithi). 

     131. Though a million of men, unaquainted with the Rikas, were to dine at a 
(funeral sacrifice), yet a single man, learned in the Veda, who is satisfied
     (with his entertainment), is worth them all as far as the (production of) 
spiritual merit (is concerned). 

     132. Food sacred to the manes or to the gods must be given to a man 
distinguished by sacred knowledge; for hands, smeared with blood, cannot be
     cleansed with blood. 

     133. As many mouthfuls as an ignorant man swallows at a sacrifice to the 
gods or to the manes, so many red-hot spikes, spears, and iron balls must
     (the giver of the repast) swallow after death. 

     134. Some Brahmanas are devoted to (the pursuit of) knowledge, and others 
to (the performance of) austerities; some to austerities and to the
     recitation of the Veda, and others to (the performance of) sacred rites. 

     135. Oblations to the manes ought to be carefully presented to those 
devoted to knowledge, but offerings to the gods, in accordance with the reason
     (of the sacred law), to (men of) all the four (above-mentioned classes). 

     136. If there is a father ignorant of the sacred texts whose son has 
learned one whole recension of the Veda and the Angas, and a son ignorant of the
     sacred texts whose father knows an entire recension of the Veda and the 

     137. Know that he whose father knows the Veda, is the more venerable one 
(of the two); yet the other one is worthy of honour, because respect is
     due to the Veda (which he has learned). 

     138. Let him not entertain a personal friend at a funeral sacrifice; he may 
gain his affection by (other) valuable gifts; let him feed at a Sraddha a
     Brahmana whom he considers neither as a foe nor as a friend. 

     139. He who performs funeral sacrifices and offerings to the gods chiefly 
for the sake of (gaining) friends, reaps after death no reward for Sraddhas and

     140. That meanest among twice-born men who in his folly contracts 
friendships through a funeral sacrifice, loses heaven, because he performed a
     Sraddha for the sake of friendship. 

     141. A gift (of food) by twice-born men, consumed with (friends and 
relatives), is said to be offered to the Pisakas; it remains in this (world) 
alone like
     a blind cow in one stable. 

     142. As a husbandman reaps no harvest when he has sown the seed in barren 
soil, even so the giver of sacrificial food gains no reward if he presented
     it to a man unacquainted with the Rikas. 

     143. But a present made in accordance with the rules to a learned man, 
makes the giver and the recipient partakers of rewards both in this (life) and
     after death. 

     144. (If no learned Brahmana be at hand), he may rather honour a (virtuous) 
friend than an enemy, though the latter may be qualified (by learning and
     so forth); for sacrificial food, eaten by a foe, bears no reward after 

     145. Let him (take) pains (to) feed at a Sraddha an adherent of the Rig-
veda who has studied one entire (recension of that) Veda, or a follower of the
     Yagur-veda who has finished one Sakha, or a singer of Samans who (likewise) 
has completed (the study of an entire recension). 

     146. If one of these three dines, duly honoured, at a funeral sacrifice, 
the ancestors of him (who gives the feast), as far as the seventh person, will 
     satisfied for a very long time. 

     147. This is the chief rule (to be followed) in offering sacrifices to the 
gods and manes; know that the virtuous always observe the following subsidiary

     148. One may also entertain (on such occasions) one's maternal grandfather, 
a maternal uncle, a sister's son, a father-in-law, one's teacher, a daughter's
     son, a daughter's husband, a cognate kinsman, one's own officiating priest 
or a man for whom one offers sacrifices. 

     149. For a rite sacred to the gods, he who knows the law will not make (too 
close) inquiries regarding an (invited) Brahmana; but when one performs a
     ceremony in honour of the manes, one must carefully examine (the qualities 
and parentage of the guest). 

     150. Manu has declared that those Brahmanas who are thieves, outcasts, 
eunuchs, or atheists are unworthy (to partake) of oblations to the gods and

     151. Let him not entertain at a Sraddha one who wears his hair in braids (a 
student), one who has not studied (the Veda), one afflicted with a
     skin-disease, a gambler, nor those who sacrifice for a multitude (of 

     152. Physicians, temple-priests, sellers of meat, and those who subsist by 
shop-keeping must be avoided at sacrifices offered to the gods and to the

     153. A paid servant of a village or of a king, man with deformed nails or 
black teeth, one who opposes his teacher, one who has forsaken the sacred
     fire, and a usurer; 

     154. One suffering from consumption, one who subsists by tending cattle, a 
younger brother who marries or kindles the sacred fire before the elder,
     one who neglects the five great sacrifices, an enemy of the Brahmana race, 
an elder brother who marries or kindles the sacred fire after the younger,
     and one who belongs to a company or corporation, 

     155. An actor or singer, one who has broken the vow of studentship, one 
whose (only or first) wife is a Sudra female, the son of a remarried woman, a
     one-eyed man, and he in whose house a paramour of his wife (resides); 

     156. He who teaches for a stipulated fee and he who is taught on that 
condition, he who instructs Sudra pupils and he whose teacher is a Sudra, he
     who speaks rudely, the son of an adulteress, and the son of a widow, 

     157. He who forsakes his mother, his father, or a teacher without a 
(sufficient) reason, he who has contracted an alliance with outcasts either 
     the Veda or through a marriage, 

     158. An incendiary, a prisoner, he who eats the food given by the son of an 
adulteress, a seller of Soma, he who undertakes voyages by sea, a bard, an
     oil-man, a suborner to perjury, 

     159. He who wrangles or goes to law with his father, the keeper of a 
gambling-house, a drunkard, he who is afflicted with a disease (in punishment of
     former) crimes, he who is accused of a mortal sin, a hypocrite, a seller of 
substances used for flavouring food, 

     160. A maker of bows and of arrows, he who lasciviously dallies with a 
brother's widow, the betrayer of a friend, one who subsists by gambling, he
     who learns (the Veda) from his son, 

     161. An epileptic man, who suffers from scrofulous swellings of the glands, 
one afflicted with white leprosy, an informer, a madman, a blind man, and
     he who cavils at the Veda must (all) be avoided. 

     162. A trainer of elephants, oxen, horses, or camels, he who subsists by 
astrology, a bird-fancier, and he who teaches the use of arms, 

     163. He who diverts water-courses, and he who delights in obstructing them, 
an architect, a messenger, and he who plants trees (for money), 

     164. A breeder of sporting-dogs, a falconer, one who defiles maidens, he 
who delights in injuring living creatures, he who gains his subsistence from
     Sudras, and he who offers sacrifices to the Ganas, 

     165. He who does not follow the rule of conduct, a (man destitute of energy 
like a) eunuch, one who constantly asks (for favours), he who lives by
     agriculture, a club-footed man, and he who is censured by virtuous men, 

     166. A shepherd, a keeper of buffaloes, the husband of a remarried woman, 
and a carrier of dead bodies, (all these) must be carefully avoided. 

     167. A Brahmana who knows (the sacred law) should shun at (sacrifices) both 
(to the gods and to the manes) these lowest of twice-born men, whose
     conduct is reprehensible, and who are unworthy (to sit) in the company (at 
a repast). 

     168. As a fire of dry grass is (unable to consume the offerings and is 
quickly) extinguished, even so (is it with) an unlearned Brahmana; sacrificial 
     must not be given to him, since it (would be) offered in ashes. 

     169. I will fully declare what result the giver obtains after death, if he 
gives food, destined for the gods or manes, to a man who is unworthy to sit in 

     170. The Rakshasas, indeed, consume (the food) eaten by Brahmanas who have 
not fulfilled the vow of studentship, by a Parivettri and so forth, and
     by other men not admissible into the company. 

     171. He must be considered as a Parivettri who marries or begins the 
performance of the Agnihotra before his elder brother, but the latter as a 

     172. The elder brother who marries after the younger, the younger brother 
who marries before the elder, the female with whom such a marriage is
     contracted, he who gives her away, and the sacrificing priest, as the 
fifth, all fall into hell. 

     173. He who lasciviously dallies with the widow of a deceased brother, 
though she be appointed (to bear a child by him) in accordance with the sacred
     law, must be known to be a Didhishupati. 

     174. Two (kinds of) sons, a Kunda and a Golaka, are born by wives of other 
men; (he who is born) while the husband lives, will be a Kunda, and (he
     who is begotten) after the husband's death, a Golaka. 

     175. But those two creatures, who are born of wives of other men, cause to 
the giver the loss (of the rewards), both in this life and after death, for the
     food sacred to gods or manes which has been given (to them). 

     176. The foolish giver (of a funeral repast) does not reap the reward for 
as many worthy guests as a man, inadmissible into company, can look on while
     they are feeding. 

     177. A blind man by his presence causes to the giver (of the feast) the 
loss of the reward for ninety (guests), a one-eyed man for sixty, one who 
     from white leprosy for a hundred, and one punished by a (terrible) disease 
for a thousand. 

     178. The giver (of a Sraddha) loses the reward, due for such a non-
sacrificial gift, for as many Brahmanas as a (guest) who sacrifices for Sudras 
     touch (during the meal) with his limbs. 

     179. And if a Brahmana, though learned in the Veda, accepts through 
covetousness a gift from such (a man), he will quickly perish, like a vessel of
     unburnt clay in water. 

     180 (Food) given to a seller of Soma becomes ordure, (that given) to a 
physician pus and blood, but (that presented) to a temple-priest is lost, and
     (that given) to a usurer finds no place (in the world of the gods). 

     181. What has been given to a Brahmana who lives by trade that is not 
(useful) in this world and the next, and (a present) to a Brahmana born of a
     remarried woman (resembles) an oblation thrown into ashes. 

     182. But the wise declare that the food which (is offered) to other unholy, 
inadmissible men, enumerated above, (is turned into) adipose secretions,
     blood, flesh, marrow, and bone. 

     183. Now hear by what chief of twice-born men a company defiled by (the 
presence of) unworthy (guests) is purified, and the full (description of) the
     Brahmanas who sanctify a company. 

     184. Those men must be considered as the sanctifiers of a company who are 
most learned in all the Vedas and in all the Angas, and who are the
     descendants of Srotriyas. 

     185. A Trinakiketa, one who keeps five sacred fires, a Trisuparna, one who 
is versed in the six Angas, the son of a woman married according to the
     Brahma rite, one who sings the Gyeshthasaman, 

     186. One who knows the meaning of the Veda, and he who expounds it, a 
student, one who has given a thousand (cows), and a centenarian must be
     considered as Brahmanas who sanctify a company. 

     187. On the day before the Sraddha-rite is performed, or on the day when it 
takes place, let him invite with due respect at least three Brahmanas, such
     as have been mentioned above. 

     188. A Brahmana who has been invited to a (rite) in honour of the manes 
shall always control himself and not recite the Veda, and he who performs the
     Sraddha (must act in the same manner). 

     189. For the manes attend the invited Brahmanas, follow them (when they 
walk) like the wind, and sit near them when they are seated. 

     190. But a Brahmana who, being duly invited to a rite in honour of the gods 
or of the manes, in any way breaks (the appointment), becomes guilty (of a
     crime), and (in his next birth) a hog. 

     191. But he who, being invited to a Sraddha, dallies with a Sudra woman, 
takes upon himself all the sins which the giver (of the feast) committed. 

     192. The manes are primeval deities, free from anger, careful of purity, 
ever chaste, averse from strife, and endowed with great virtues. 

     193. Now learn fully from whom all these (manes derive) their origin, and 
with what ceremonies they ought to be worshipped. 

     194. The (various) classes of the manes are declared to be the sons of all 
those sages, Mariki and the rest, who are children of Manu, the son of

     195. The Somasads, the sons of Virag, are stated to be the manes of the 
Sadhyas, and the Agnishvattas, the children of Mariki, are famous in the world
     (as the manes) of the gods. 

     196. The Barhishads, born of Atri, are recorded to be (the manes) of the 
Daityas, Danavas, Yakshas, Gandharvas, Snake-deities, Rakshasas,
     Suparnas, and a Kimnaras, 

     197. The Somapas those of the Brahmanas, the Havirbhugs those of the 
Kshatriyas, the Agyapas those of the Vaisyas, but the Sukalins those of the

     198. The Somapas are the sons of Kavi (Bhrigu), the Havishmats the children 
of Angiras, the Agyapas the offspring of Pulastya, but the Sukalins (the
     issue) of Vasishtha. 

     199. One should know that (other classes), the Agnidagdhas, the 
Anagnidagdhas, the Kavyas, the Barhishads, the Agnishvattas, and the Saumyas, 
     (the manes) of the Brahmanas alone. 

     200. But know also that there exist in this (world) countless sons and 
grandsons of those chief classes of manes which have been enumerated. 

     201. From the sages sprang the manes, from the manes the gods and the 
Danavas, but from the gods the whole world, both the movable and the
     immovable in due order. 

     202. Even water offered with faith (to the manes) in vessels made of silver 
or adorned with silver, produces endless (bliss). 

     203. For twice-born men the rite in honour of the manes is more important 
than the rite in honour of the gods; for the offering to the gods which
     precedes (the Sraddhas), has been declared to be a means of fortifying (the 

     204. Let him first invite a (Brahmana) in honour of the gods as a 
protection for the (offering to the manes); for the Rakshasas destroy a funeral 
     which is left without such a protection. 

     205. Let him make (the Sraddha) begin and end with (a rite) in honour of 
the gods; it shall not begin and end with a (rite) to the manes; for he who
     makes it begin and end with a (rite) in honour of the manes, soon perishes 
together with his progeny. 

     206. Let him smear a pure and secluded place with cowdung, and carefully 
make it sloping towards the south. 

     207. The manes are always pleased with offerings made in open, naturally 
pure places, on the banks of rivers, and in secluded spots. 

     208. The (sacrificer) shall make the (invited) Brahmanas, who have duly 
performed their ablutions, sit down on separate, prepared seats, on which
     blades of Kusa grass have been placed. 

     209. Having placed those blameless Brahmanas on their seats, he shall 
honour them with fragrant garlands and perfumes, beginning with (those who are
     invited in honour of) the gods. 

     210. Having presented to them water, sesamum grains, and blades of Kusa 
grass, the Brahmana (sacrificer) shall offer (oblations) in the sacred fire,
     after having received permission (to do so) from (all) the Brahmana 
(guests) conjointly. 

     211. Having first, according to the rule, performed, as a means of 
protecting (the Sraddha), oblations to Agni, to Soma, and to Yama, let him
     afterwards satisfy the manes by a gift of sacrificial food. 

     212. But if no (sacred) fire (is available), he shall place (the offerings) 
into the hand of a Brahmana; for Brahmanas who know the sacred texts declare,
     'What fire is, even such is a Brahmana.' 

     213. They (also) call those first of twice-born men the ancient deities of 
the funeral sacrifice, free from anger, easily pleased, employed in making men

     214. After he has performed (the oblations) in the fire, (and) the whole 
series of ceremonies in such a manner that they end in the south, let him 
     water with his right hand on the spot (where the cakes are to be placed). 

     215. But having made three cakes out of the remainder of that sacrificial 
food, he must, concentrating his mind and turning towards the south, place
     them on (Kusa grass) exactly in the same manner in which (he poured out the 
libations of) water. 

     216. Having offered those cakes according to the (prescribed) rule, being 
pure, let him wipe the same hand with (the roots of) those blades of Kusa
     grass for the sake of the (three ancestors) who partake of the wipings 

     217. Having (next) sipped water, turned round (towards the north), and 
thrice slowly suppressed his breath, (the sacrificer) who knows the sacred
     texts shall worship (the guardian deities of) the six seasons and the 

     218. Let him gently pour out the remainder of the water near the cakes, 
and, with fixed attention, smell those cakes, in the order in which they were
     placed (on the ground). 

     219. But taking successively very small portions from the cakes, he shall 
make those seated Brahmana eat them, in accordance with the rule, before
     (their dinner). 

     220. But if the (sacrificer's) father is living, he must offer (the cakes) 
to three remoter (ancestors); or he may also feed his father at the funeral 
     as (one of the) Brahmana (guests). 

     221. But he whose father is dead, while his grandfather lives, shall, after 
pronouncing his father's name, mention (that of) his great-grandfather. 

     222. Manu has declared that either the grandfather may eat at that Sraddha 
(as a guest), or (the grandson) having received permission, may perform it,
     as he desires. 

     223. Having poured water mixed with sesamum, in which a blade of Kusa grass 
has been placed, into the hands of the (guests), he shall give (to each)
     that (above-mentioned) portion of the cake, saying, 'To those, Svadha!' 

     224. But carrying (the vessel) filled with food with both hands, the 
(sacrificer) himself shall gently place it before the Brahmanas, meditating on 

     225. The malevolent Asuras forcibly snatch away that food which is brought 
without being held with both hands. 

     226. Let him, being pure and attentive, carefully place on the ground the 
seasoning (for the rice), such as broths and pot herbs, sweet and sour milk,
     and honey, 

     227. (As well as) various (kinds of) hard food which require mastication, 
and of soft food, roots, fruits, savoury meat, and fragrant drinks. 

     228. All this he shall present (to his guests), being pure and attentive, 
successively invite them to partake of each (dish), proclaiming its qualities. 

     229. Let him on no account drop a tear, become angry or utter an untruth, 
nor let him touch the food with his foot nor violently shake it. 

     230. A tear sends the (food) to the Pretas, anger to his enemies, a 
falsehood to the dogs, contact with his foot to the Rakshasas, a shaking to the

     231. Whatever may please the Brahmanas, let him give without grudging it; 
let him give riddles from the Veda, for that is agreeable to the manes. 

     232. At a (sacrifice in honour) of the manes, he must let (his guests) hear 
the Veda, the Institutes of the sacred law, legends, tales, Puranas, and Khilas. 

     233. Himself being delighted, let him give delight to the Brahmanas, cause 
them to partake gradually and slowly (of each dish), and repeatedly invite
     (them to eat) by (offering) the food and (praising) its qualities. 

     234. Let him eagerly entertain at a funeral sacrifice a daughter's son, 
though he be a student, and let him place a Nepal blanket on the on the seat (of
     each guest), scattering sesamum grains on the ground. 

     235. There are three means of sanctification, (to be used) at a Sraddha, a 
daughter's son, a Nepal blanket, and sesamum grains; and they recommend
     three (other things) for it, cleanliness, suppression of anger, and absence 
of haste. 

     236. All the food must be very hot, and the (guests) shall eat in silence; 
(even though) asked by the giver (of the feast), the Brahmanas shall not
     proclaim the qualities of the sacrificial food. 

     237. As long as the food remains warm, as long as they eat in silence, as 
long as the qualities of the food are not proclaimed, so long the manes partake
     (of it). 

     238. What (a guest) eats, covering his head, what he eats with his face 
turned towards the south, what he eats with sandals on (his feet), that the
     Rakshasas consume. 

     239. A Kandala, a village pig, a cock, a dog, a menstruating woman, and a 
eunuch must not look at the Brahmanas while they eat. 

     240. What (any of) these sees at a burnt-oblation, at a (solemn) gift, at a 
dinner (given to Brahmanas), or at any rite in honour of the gods and manes,
     that produces not the intended result. 

     241. A boar makes (the rite) useless by inhaling the smell (of the 
offerings), a cock by the air of his wings, a dog by throwing his eye (on them), 
     low-caste man by touching (them). 

     242. If a lame man, a one-eyed man, one deficient in a limb, or one with a 
redundant limb, be even the servant of the performer (of the Sraddha), he
     must be removed from that place (where the Sraddha is held). 

     243. To a Brahmana (householder), or to an ascetic who comes for food, he 
may, with the permission of (his) Brahmana (guests), show honour
     according to his ability. 

     244. Let him mix all the kinds of food together, sprinkle them with water 
and put them, scattering them (on Kusa grass), down on the ground in front of
     (his guests), when they have finished their meal. 

     245. The remnant (in the dishes), and the portion scattered on Kusa grass, 
shall be the share of deceased (children) who received not the sacrament (of
     cremation) and of those who (unjustly) forsook noble wives. 

     246. They declare the fragments which have fallen on the ground at a 
(Sraddha) to the manes, to be the share of honest, dutiful servants. 

     247. But before the performance of the Sapindikarana, one must feed at the 
funeral sacrifice in honour of a (recently-) deceased Aryan (one
     Brahmana) without (making an offering) to the gods, and give one cake only. 

     248. But after the Sapindikarana of the (deceased father) has been 
performed according to the sacred law, the sons must offer the cakes with those
     ceremonies, (described above.) 

     249. The foolish man who, after having eaten a Sraddha (-dinner), gives the 
leavings to a Sudra, falls headlong into the Kalasutra hell. 

     250. If the partaker of a Sraddha (-dinner) enters on the same day the bed 
of a Sudra female, the manes of his (ancestors) will lie during that month in
     her ordure. 

     251. Having addressed the question, 'Have you dined well?' (to his guests), 
let him give water for sipping to them who are satisfied, and dismiss them,
     after they have sipped water, (with the words) 'Rest either (here or at 

     252. The Brahmana (guests) shall then answer him, 'Let there be Svadha;' 
for at all rites in honour of the manes the word Svadha is the highest benison.

     253. Next let him inform (his guests) who have finished their meal, of the 
food which remains; with the permission of the Brahmanas let him dispose (of
     that), as they may direct. 

     254. At a (Sraddha) in honour of the manes one must use (in asking of the 
guests if they are satisfied, the word) svaditam; at a Goshthi-sraddha, (the
     word) susrutam; at a Vriddhi-sraddha, (the word) sampannam; and at (a rite) 
in honour of the gods, (the word) rukitam. 

     255. The afternoon, Kusa grass, the due preparation of the dwelling, 
sesamum grains, liberality, the careful preparation of the food, and (the 
     of) distinguished Brahmanas are true riches at all funeral sacrifices. 

     256. Know that Kusa grass, purificatory (texts), the morning, sacrificial 
viands of all kinds, and those means of purification, mentioned above, are
     blessings at a sacrifice to the gods. 

     257. The food eaten by hermits in the forest, milk, Soma-juice, meat which 
is not prepared (with spices), and salt unprepared by art, are called, on
     account of their nature, sacrificial food. 

     258. Having dismissed the (invited) Brahmanas, let him, with a concentrated 
mind, silent and pure, look towards the south and ask these blessings of
     the manes: 

     259. 'May liberal men abound with us! May (our knowledge of) the Vedas and 
(our) progeny increase! May faith not forsake us! May we have much
     to give (to the needy)!' 

     260. Having thus offered (the cakes), let him, after (the prayer), cause a 
cow, a Brahmana, a goat, or the sacred fire to consume those cakes, or let him
     throw them into water. 

     261. Some make the offering of the cakes after (the dinner); some cause 
(them) to be eaten by birds or throw them into fire or into water. 

     262. The (sacrificer's) first wife, who is faithful and intent on the 
worship of the manes, may eat the middle-most cake, (if she be) desirous of 
bearing a

     263. (Thus) she will bring forth a son who will be long-lived, famous, 
intelligent, rich, the father of numerous offspring, endowed with (the quality 
     goodness, and righteous. 

     264. Having washed his hands and sipped water, let him prepare (food) for 
his paternal relations and, after giving it to them with due respect, let him
     feed his maternal relatives also. 

     265. But the remnants shall be left (where they lie) until the Brahmanas 
have been dismissed; afterwards he shall perform the (daily) domestic
     Bali-offering; that is a settled (rule of the) sacred law. 

     266. I will now fully declare what kind of sacrificial food, given to the 
manes according to the rule, will serve for a long time or for eternity. 

     267. The ancestors of men are satisfied for one month with sesamum grains, 
rice, barley, masha beans, water, roots, and fruits, which have been given
     according to the prescribed rule, 

     268. Two months with fish, three months with the meat of gazelles, four 
with mutton, and five indeed with the flesh of birds, 

     269. Six months with the flesh of kids, seven with that of spotted deer, 
eight with that of the black antelope, but nine with that of the (deer called) 

     270. Ten months they are satisfied with the meat of boars and buffaloes, 
but eleven months indeed with that of hares and tortoises, 

     271. One year with cow-milk and milk-rice; from the flesh of a long-eared 
white he-goat their satisfaction endures twelve years. 

     272. The (vegetable called) Kalasaka, (the fish called) Mahasalka, the 
flesh of a rhinoceros and that of a red goat, and all kinds of food eaten by
     hermits in the forest serve for an endless time. 

     273. Whatever (food), mixed with honey, one gives on the thirteenth lunar 
day in the rainy season under the asterism of Maghah, that also procures
     endless (satisfaction). 

     274. 'May such a man (the manes say) be born in our family who will give us 
milk-rice, with honey and clarified butter, on the thirteenth lunar day (of
     the month of Bhadrapada) and (in the afternoon) when the shadow of an 
elephant falls towards the east.' 

     275. Whatever (a man), full of faith, duly gives according to the 
prescribed rule, that becomes in the other world a perpetual and imperishable
     (gratification) for the manes. 

     276. The days of the dark half of the month, beginning with the tenth, but 
excepting the fourteenth, are recommended for a funeral sacrifice; (it is) not
     thus (with) the others. 

     277. He who performs it on the even (lunar) days and under the even 
constellations, gains (the fulfilment of) all his wishes; he who honours the 
     on odd (lunar days) and under odd (constellations), obtains distinguished 

     278. As the second half of the month is preferable to the first half, even 
so the afternoon is better for (the performance of) a funeral sacrifice than the

     279. Let him, untired, duly perform the (rites) in honour of the manes in 
accordance with the prescribed rule, passing the sacred thread over the right
     shoulder, proceeding from the left to the right (and) holding Kusa grass in 
his hands, up to the end (of the ceremony). 

     280. Let him not perform a funeral sacrifice at night, because the (night) 
is declared to belong to the Rakshasas, nor in the twilight, nor when the sun 
     just risen. 

     281. Let him offer here below a funeral sacrifice, according to the rule 
given above, (at least) thrice a year, in winter, in summer, and in the rainy
     season, but that which is included among the five great sacrifices, every 

     282. The burnt-oblation, offered at a sacrifice to the manes, must not be 
made in a common fire; a Brahmana who keeps a sacred fire (shall) not
     (perform) a funeral sacrifice except on the new-moon day. 

     283. Even when a Brahmana, after bathing, satisfies the manes with water, 
he obtains thereby the whole reward for the performance of the (daily)

     284. They call (the manes of) fathers Vasus, (those of) grandfathers 
Rudras, and (those of) great-grandfathers Adityas; thus (speaks) the eternal 

     285. Let him daily partake of the vighasa and daily eat amrita (ambrosia); 
but vighasa is what remains from the meal (of Brahmana guests) and the
     remainder of a sacrifice (is called) amrita. 

     286. Thus all the ordinances relating to the five (daily great) sacrifices 
have been declared to you; hear now the law for the manner of living fit for

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