1. Let the three twice-born castes (varna), discharging their (prescribed) 
duties, study (the Veda); but among them the Brahmana (alone) shall teach it,
     not the other two; that is an established rule. 

     2. The Brahmana must know the means of subsistence (prescribed) by law for 
all, instruct the others, and himself live according to (the law) 

     3. On account of his pre-eminence, on account of the superiority of his 
origin, on account of his observance of (particular) restrictive rules, and on
     account of his particular sanctification the Brahmana is the lord of (all) 
castes (varna). 

     4. Brahmana, the Kshatriya, and the Vaisya castes (varna) are the twice-
born ones, but the fourth, the Sudra, has one birth only; there is no fifth

     5. In all castes (varna) those (children) only which are begotten in the 
direct order on wedded wives, equal (in caste and married as) virgins, are to be
     considered as belonging to the same caste (as their fathers) 

     6. Sons, begotten by twice-born man on wives of the next lower castes, they 
declare to be similar (to their fathers, but) blamed on account of the fault
     (inherent) in their mothers. 

     7. Such is the eternal law concerning (children) born of wives one degree 
lower (than their husbands); know (that) the following rule (is applicable) to
     those born of women two or three degrees lower. 

     8. From a Brahmana a with the daughter of a Vaisya is born (a son) called 
an Ambashtha, with the daughter of a sudra a Nishada, who is also called

     9. From a Kshatriya and the daughter of a Sudra springs a being, called 
Ugra, resembling both a Kshatriya and a Sudra, ferocious in his manners, and
     delighting in cruelty. 

     10. Children of a Brahmana by (women of) the three (lower) castes, of a 
Kshatriya by (wives of) the two (lower) castes, and of a Vaisya by (a wife of)
     the one caste (below him) are all six called base-born (apasada). 

     11. From a Kshatriya by the daughter of a Brahmana is born (a son called) 
according to his caste (gati) a Suta; from a Vaisya by females of the royal
     and the Brahmana (castes) spring a Magadha and a Vaideha. 

     12. From a Sudra are born an Ayogava, a Kshattri, and a Kandala, the lowest 
of men, by Vaisya, Kshatriya, and Brahmana) females, (sons who owe
     their origin to) a confusion of the castes. 

     13. As an Ambashtha and an Ugra, (begotten) in the direct order on (women) 
one degree lower (than their husbands) are declared (to be), even so are
     a Kshattri and a Vaidehaka, though they were born in the inverse order of 
the castes (from mothers one degree higher than the fathers). 

     14. Those sons of the twice-born, begotten on wives of the next lower 
castes, who have been enumerated in due order, they call by the name
     Anantaras (belonging to the next lower caste), on account of the blemish 
(inherent) in their mothers. 

     15. A Brahmana begets on the daughter of an Ugra an Avrita, on the daughter 
of an Ambashtha an Abhira, but on a female of the Ayogava (caste) a

     16. From a Sudra spring in the inverse order (by females of the higher 
castes) three base-born (sons, apasada), an Ayogava, a Kshattri, and a
     Kandala, the lowest of men; 

     17. From a Vaisya are born in the inverse order of the castes a Magadha and 
a Vaideha, but from a Kshatriya a Suta only; these are three other
     base-born ones (apasada). 

     18. The son of a Nishada by a Sudra female becomes a Pukkasa by caste 
(gati), but the son of a Sudra by a Nishada female is declared to be a

     19. Moreover, the son of by Kshattri by an Ugra female is called a Svapaka; 
but one begotten by a Vaidehaka on an Ambashtha female is named a

     20. Those (sons) whom the twice-born beget on wives of equal caste, but 
who, not fulfilling their sacred duties, are excluded from the Savitri, one must
     designate by the appellation Vratyas. 

     21. But from a Vratya (of the) Brahmana (caste) spring the wicked 
Bhriggakantaka, the Avantya, the Vatadhana, the Pushpadha, and the Saikha. 

     22. From a Vratya (of the) Kshatriya (caste), the Ghalla, the Malla, the 
Likkhivi, the Nata, the Karana, the Khasa, and the Dravida. 

     23. From a Vratya (of the) Vaisya (caste) are born a Sudhanvan, an Akarya, 
a Karusha, a Viganman, a Maitra, and a Satvata. 

     24. By adultery (committed by persons) of (different) castes, by marriages 
with women who ought not to be married, and by the neglect of the duties
     and occupations (prescribed) to each, are produced (sons who owe their 
origin) to a confusion the castes. 

     25. I will (now) fully enumerate those (sons) of mixed origin, who are born 
of Anulomas and of Pratilomas, and (thus) are mutually connected. 

     26. The Suta, the Vaidehaka, the Kandala, that lowest of mortals, the 
Magadha, he of the Kshattri caste (gati), and the Ayogava, 

     27. These six (Pratilomas) beget similar races (varna) on women of their 
own (caste), they (also) produce (the like) with females of their mother's caste
     (gati), and with females (of) higher ones. 

     28. As a (Brahmana) begets on (females of) two out of the three (twice-born 
castes a son similar to) himself, (but inferior) on account of the lower
     degree (of the mother), and (one equal to himself) on a female of his own 
race, even so is the order in the case of the excluded (races, vahya). 

     29. Those (six mentioned above) also beget, the one on the females of the 
other, a great many (kinds of) despicable (sons), even more sinful than their
     (fathers), and excluded (from the Aryan community, vahya). 

     30. Just as a Sudra begets on a Brahmana female a being excluded (from the 
Aryan community), even so (a person himself) excluded pro creates with
     (females of) the four castes (varna, sons) more (worthy of being) excluded 
(than he himself). 

     31. But men excluded (by the Aryans, vahya), who approach females of higher 
rank, beget races (varna) still more worthy to be excluded, low men
     (hina) still lower races, even fifteen (in number). 

     32. A Dasyu begets on an Ayogava (woman) a Sairandhra, who is skilled in 
adorning and attending (his master), who, (though) not a slave, lives like a
     slave, (or) subsists by snaring (animals). 

     33. A Vaideha produces (with the same) a sweet-voiced Maitreyaka, who, 
ringing a bell at the appearance of dawn, continually. praises (great) men. 

     34. A Nishada begets (on the same) a Margava (or) Dasa, who subsists by 
working as a boatman, (and) whom the inhabitants of Aryavarta call a

     35. Those three base-born ones are severally begot on Ayogava women, who 
wear the clothes of the dead, are wicked, and eat reprehensible food. 

     36. From a Nishada springs (by a woman of the Vaideha caste) a Karavara, 
who works in leather; and from a Vaidehaka (by women of the Karavara
     and Nishada castes), an Andhra and a Meda, who dwell outside the village. 

     37. From a Kandala by a Vaideha woman is born a Pandusopaka, who deals in 
cane; from a Nishada (by the same) an Ahindika. 

     38. But from a Kandala by a Pukkasa woman is born the sinful Sopaka, who 
lives by the occupations of his sire, and is ever despised by good men. 

     39. A Nishada woman bears to a Kandala a son (called) Antyavasayin, 
employed in burial-grounds, and despised even by those excluded (from the
     Aryan community). 

     40. These races, (which originate) in a confusion (of the castes and) have 
been described according to their fathers and mothers, may be known by
     their occupations, whether they conceal or openly show themselves. 

     41. Six sons, begotten (by Aryans) on women of equal and the next lower 
castes (Anantara), have the duties of twice-born men; but all those born in
     consequence of a violation (of the law) are, as regards their duties, equal 
to Sudras. 

     42. By the power of austerities and of the seed (from which they sprang), 
these (races) obtain here among men more exalted or lower rank in
     successive births. 

     43. But in consequence of the omission of the sacred rites, and of their 
not consulting Brahmanas, the following tribes of Kshatriyas have gradually sunk
     in this world to the condition of Sudras; 

     44. (Viz.) the Paundrakas, the Kodas, the Dravidas, the Kambogas, the 
Yavanas, the Sakas, the Paradas, the Pahlavas, the Kinas, the Kiratas, and the

     45. All those tribes in this world, which are excluded from (the community 
of) those born from the mouth, the arms, the thighs, and the feet (of
     Brahman), are called Dasyus, whether they speak the language of the 
Mlekkhas (barbarians) or that of the Aryans. 

     46. Those who have been mentioned as the base-born (offspring, apasada) of 
Aryans, or as produced in consequence of a violation (of the law,
     apadhvamsaga), shall subsist by occupations reprehended by the twice-born. 

     47. To Sutas (belongs) the management of horses and of chariots; to 
Ambashthas, the art of healing; to Vaidehakas, the service of women; to
     Magadhas, trade; 

     48. Killing fish to Nishadas; carpenters' work to the Ayogava; to Medas, 
Andhras, Kunkus, and Madgus, the slaughter of wild animals; 

     49. To Kshattris, Ugras, and Pukkasas, catching and killing (animals) 
living in holes; to Dhigvanas, working in leather; to Venas, playing drums. 

     50. Near well-known trees and burial-grounds, on mountains and in groves, 
let these (tribes) dwell, known (by certain marks), and subsisting by their
     peculiar occupations. 

     51. But the dwellings of Kandalas and Svapakas shall be outside the 
village, they must be made Apapatras, and their wealth (shall be) dogs and

     52. Their dress (shall be) the garments of the dead, (they shall eat) their 
food from broken dishes, black iron (shall be) their ornaments, and they must
     always wander from place to place. 

     53. A man who fulfils a religious duty, shall not seek intercourse with 
them; their transactions (shall be) among themselves, and their marriages with 

     54. Their food shall be given to them by others (than an Aryan giver) in a 
broken dish; at night they shall not walk about in villages and in towns. 

     55. By day they may go about for the purpose of their work, distinguished 
by marks at the king's command, and they shall carry out the corpses (of
     persons) who have no relatives; that is a settled rule. 

     56. By the king's order they shall always execute the criminals, in 
accordance with the law, and they shall take for themselves the clothes, the 
beds, and
     the ornaments of (such) criminals. 

     57. A man of impure origin, who belongs not to any caste, (varna, but whose 
character is) not known, who, (though) not an Aryan, has the appearance
     of an Aryan, one may discover by his acts. 

     58. Behaviour unworthy of an Aryan, harshness, cruelty, and habitual 
neglect of the prescribed duties betray in this world a man of impure origin. 

     59. A base-born man either resembles in character his father, or his 
mother, or both; he can never conceal his real nature. 

     60. Even if a man, born in a great family, sprang from criminal 
intercourse, he will certainly possess the faults of his (father), be they small 
or great. 

     61. But that kingdom in which such bastards, sullying (the purity of) the 
castes, are born, perishes quickly together with its inhabitants. 

     62. Dying, without the expectation of a reward, for the sake of Brahmanas 
and of cows, or in the defence of women and children, secures beatitude to
     those excluded (from the Aryan community, vahya.) 

     63. Abstention from injuring (creatures), veracity, abstention from 
unlawfully appropriating (the goods of others), purity, and control of the 
     Manu has declared to be the summary of the law for the four castes. 

     64. If (a female of the caste), sprung from a Brahmana and a Sudra female, 
bear (children) to one of the highest caste, the inferior (tribe) attains the
     highest caste within the seventh generation. 

     65. (Thus) a Sudra attains the rank of a Brahmana, and (in a similar 
manner) a Brahmana sinks to the level of a Sudra; but know that it is the same 
     the offspring of a Kshatriya or of a Vaisya. 

     66. If (a doubt) should arise, with whom the preeminence (is, whether) with 
him whom an Aryan by chance begot on a non-Aryan female, or (with the
     son) of a Brahmana woman by a non-Aryan, 

     67. The decision is as follows: 'He who was begotten by an Aryan on a non-
Aryan female, may become (like to) an Aryan by his virtues; he whom an
     Aryan (mother) bore to a non-Aryan father (is and remains) unlike to an 

     68. The law prescribes that neither of the two shall receive the 
sacraments, the first (being excluded) on account of the lowness of his origin, 
the second
     (because the union of his parents was) against the order of the castes. 

     69. As good seed, springing up in good soil, turns out perfectly well, even 
so the son of an Aryan by an Aryan woman is worthy of all the sacraments. 

     70. Some sages declare the seed to be more important, and others the field; 
again others (assert that) the seed and the field (are equally important); but
     the legal decision on this point is as follows: 

     71. Seed, sown on barren ground, perishes in it; a (fertile) field also, in 
which no (good) seed (is sown), will remain barren. 

     72. As through the power of the seed (sons) born of animals became sages 
who are honoured and praised, hence the seed is declared to be more

     73. Having considered (the case of) a non-Aryan who acts like an Aryan, and 
(that of) an Aryan who acts like a non-Aryan, the creator declared,
     'Those two are neither equal nor unequal.' 

     74. Brahmanas who are intent on the means (of gaining union with) Brahman 
and firm in (discharging) their duties, shall live by duly performing the
     following six acts, (which are enumerated) in their (proper) order. 

     75. Teaching, studying, sacrificing for himself, sacrificing for others, 
making gifts and receiving them are the six acts (prescribed) for a Brahmana. 

     76. But among the six acts (ordained) for him three are his means of 
subsistence, (viz.) sacrificing for others, teaching, and accepting gifts from 

     77. (Passing) from the Brahmana to the Kshatriya, three acts (incumbent on 
the former) are forbidden, (viz.) teaching, sacrificing for others, and, 
     the acceptance of gifts. 

     78. The same are likewise forbidden to a Vaisya, that is a settled rule; 
for Manu, the lord of creatures (Pragapati), has not prescribed them for (men 
     those two (castes). 

     79. To carry arms for striking and for throwing (is prescribed) for 
Kshatriyas as a means of subsistence; to trade, (to rear) cattle, and 
agriculture for
     Vaisyas; but their duties are liberality, the study of the Veda, and the 
performance of sacrifices. 

     80. Among the several occupations the most commendable are, teaching the 
Veda for a Brahmana, protecting (the people) for a Kshatriya, and trade
     for a Vaisya. 

     81. But a Brahmana, unable to subsist by his peculiar occupations just 
mentioned, may live according to the law applicable to Kshatriyas; for the 
     is next to him in rank. 

     82. If it be asked, 'How shall it be, if he cannot maintain himself by 
either (of these occupations?' the answer is), he may adopt a Vaisya's mode of 
     employing himself in agriculture and rearing cattle. 

     83. But a Brahmana, or a Kshatriya, living by a Vaisya's mode of 
subsistence, shall carefully avoid (the pursuit of) agriculture, (which causes) 
injury to
     many beings and depends on others. 

     84. (Some) declare that agriculture is something excellent, (but) that 
means of subsistence is blamed by the virtuous; (for) the wooden (implement) 
     iron point injuries the earth and (the beings) living in the earth. 

     85. But he who, through a want of means of subsistence, gives up the 
strictness with respect to his duties, may sell, in order to increase his 
wealth, the
     commodities sold by Vaisyas, making (however) the (following) exceptions. 

     86. He must avoid (selling) condiments of all sorts, cooked food and 
sesamum, stones, salt, cattle, and human (beings), 

     87. All dyed cloth, as well as cloth made of hemp, or flax, or wool, even 
though they be not dyed, fruit, roots, and (medical) herbs 

     88. Water, weapons, poison, meat, Soma, and perfumes of all kinds, fresh 
milk, honey, sour milk, clarified butter, oil, wax, sugar, Kusa-grass; 

     89. All beasts of the forest, animals with fangs or tusks, birds, 
spirituous liquor, indigo, lac, and all one-hoofed beasts. 

     90. But he who subsists by agriculture, may at pleasure sell unmixed 
sesamum grains for sacred purposes, provided he himself has grown them and has
     not kept them long. 

     91. If he applies sesamum to any other purpose but food, anointing, and 
charitable gifts, he will be born (again) as a worm and, together with his
     ancestors, be plunged into the ordure of dogs. 

     92. By (selling) flesh, salt, and lac a Brahmana at once becomes an 
outcast; by selling milk he becomes (equal to) a Sudra in three days. 

     93. But by willingly selling in this world other (forbidden) commodities, a 
Brahmana assumes after seven nights the character of a Vaisya. 

     94. Condiments may be bartered for condiments, but by no means salt for 
(other) condiments; cooked food (may be exchanged) for (other kinds of)
     cooked food, and sesamum seeds for grain in equal quantities. 

     95. A Kshatriya who has fallen into distress, may subsist by all these 
(means); but he must never arrogantly adopt the mode of life (prescribed for 

     96. A man of low caste who through covetousness lives by the occupations of 
a higher one, the king shall deprive of his property and banish. 

     97. It is better (to discharge) one's own (appointed) duty incompletely 
than to perform completely that of another; for he who lives according to the 
     of another (caste) is instantly excluded from his own. 

     98. A Vaisya who is unable to subsist by his own duties, may even maintain 
himself by a Sudra's mode of life, avoiding (however) acts forbidden (to
     him), and he should give it up, when he is able (to do so). 

     99. But a Sudra, being unable to find service with the twice-born and 
threatened with the loss of his sons and wife (through hunger), may maintain
     himself by handicrafts. 

     100. (Let him follow) those mechanical occupations and those various 
practical arts by following which the twice-born are (best) served. 

     101. A Brahmana who is distressed through a want of means of subsistence 
and pines (with hunger), (but) unwilling to adopt a Vaisya's mode of life
     and resolved to follow his own (prescribed) path, may act in the following 

     102. A Brahmana who has fallen into distress may accept (gifts) from 
anybody; for according to the law it is not possible (to assert) that anything 
     can be sullied. 

     103. By teaching, by sacrificing for, and by accepting gifts from 
despicable (men) Brahmanas (in distress) commit not sin; for they (are as pure) 
as fire
     and water. 

     104. He who, when in danger of losing his life, accepts food from any 
person whatsoever, is no more tainted by sin than the sky by mud. 

     105. Agigarta, who suffered hunger, approached in order to slay (his own) 
son, and was not tainted by sin, since he (only) sought a remedy against

     106. Vamadeva, who well knew right and wrong, did not sully himself when, 
tormented (by hunger), he desired to eat the flesh of a dog in order to
     save his life. 

     107. Bharadvaga, a performer of great austerities, accepted many cows from 
the carpenter Bribu, when he was starving together with his sons in a
     lonely forest. 

     108. Visvamitra, who well knew what is right or wrong, approached, when he 
was tormented by hunger, (to eat) the haunch of a dog, receiving it the
     hands of a Kandala. 

     109. On (comparing) the acceptance (of gifts from low men), sacrificing 
(for them), and teaching (them), the acceptance of gifts is the meanest (of 
     acts) and (most) reprehensible for a Brahmana (on account of its results) 
in the next life. 

     110. (For) assisting in sacrifices and teaching are (two acts) always 
performed for men who have received the sacraments; but the acceptance of gifts
     takes place even in (case the giver is) a Sudra of the lowest class. 

     111. The guilt incurred by offering sacrifices for teaching (unworthy men) 
is removed by muttering (sacred texts) and by burnt offerings, but that
     incurred by accepting gifts (from them) by throwing (the gifts) away and by 

     112. A Brahmana who is unable to maintain himself, should (rather) glean 
ears or grains from (the field of) any (man); gleaning ears is better than
     accepting gifts, picking up single grains is declared to be still more 

     113. If Brahmanas, who are Snatakas, are pining with hunger, or in want of 
(utensils made of) common metals, or of other property, they may ask the
     king for them; if he is not disposed to be liberal, he must be left. 

     114. (The acceptance on an untilled field is less blamable than (that of) a 
tilled one; (with respect to) cows, goats, sheep, gold, grain, and cooked food,
     (the acceptance of) each earlier-named (article is less blamable than of 
the following ones). 

     115. There are seven lawful modes of acquiring property, (viz.) 
inheritance, finding or friendly donation, purchase, conquest, lending at 
interest, the
     performance of work, and the acceptance of gifts from virtuous men. 

     116. Learning, mechanical arts, work for wages, service, rearing cattle, 
traffic, agriculture, contentment (with little), alms, and receiving interest on
     money, are the ten modes of subsistence (permitted to all men in times of 

     117. Neither a Brahmana, nor a Kshatriya must lend (money at) interest; but 
at his pleasure (either of them) may, in times of distress when he requires
     money) for sacred purposes, lend to a very sinful man at a small interest. 

     118. A Kshatriya (king) who, in times of distress, takes even the fourth 
part (of the crops), is free from guilt, if he protects his subjects to the best 
of his

     119. His peculiar duty is conquest, and he must not turn back in danger; 
having protected the Vaisyas by his weapons, he may cause the legal tax to be

     120. (Viz.) from Vaisyas one-eighth as the tax on grain, one-twentieth (on 
the profits on gold and cattle), which amount at least to one Karshapana;
     Sudras, artisans, and mechanics (shall) benefit (the king) by (doing) work 
(for him). 

     121. If a Sudra, (unable to subsist by serving Brahmanas,) seeks a 
livelihood, he may serve Kshatriyas, or he may also seek to maintain himself by
     attending on a wealthy Vaisya. 

     122. But let a (Sudra) serve Brahmanas, either for the sake of heaven, or 
with a view to both (this life and the next); for he who is called the servant 
     a Brahmana thereby gains all his ends. 

     123. The service of Brahmanas alone is declared (to be) an excellent 
occupation for a Sudra; for whatever else besides this he may perform will bear
     him no fruit. 

     124. They must allot to him out of their own family (-property) a suitable 
maintenance, after considering his ability, his industry, and the number of 
     whom he is bound to support. 

     125. The remnants of their food must be given to him, as well as their old 
clothes, the refuse of their grain, and their old household furniture. 

     126. A Sudra cannot commit an offence, causing loss of caste (pataka), and 
he is not worthy to receive the sacraments; he has no right to (fulfil) the
     sacred law (of the Aryans, yet) there is no prohibition against (his 
fulfilling certain portions of) the law. 

     127. (Sudras) who are desirous to gain merit, and know (their) duty, commit 
no sin, but gain praise, if they imitate the practice of virtuous men without
     reciting sacred texts. 

     128. The more a (Sudra), keeping himself free from envy, imitates the 
behaviour of the virtuous, the more he gains, without being censured, 
     in) this world and the next. 

     129. No collection of wealth must be made by a Sudra, even though he be 
able (to do it); for a Sudra who has acquired wealth, gives pain to

     130. The duties of the four castes (varna) in times of distress have thus 
been declared, and if they perform them well, they will reach the most blessed

     131. Thus all the legal rules for the four castes have been proclaimed; I 
next will promulgate the auspicious rules for penances. 

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