Chapter One : Genealogical Table of the Daughters of Manu

Sri Maitreya said: Svayambhuva Manu begot three daughters in his wife Satarupa, 
and their names were Akuti, Devahuti and Prasuti.

Akuti had two brothers, but in spite of her brothers, King Svayambhuva Manu 
handed her over to Prajapati Ruci on the condition that the son born of her be 
returned to Manu as his son. This he did in consultation with his wife, 

Ruci, who was very powerful in his brahminical qualifications and was appointed 
one of the progenitors of the living entities, begot one son and one daughter by 
his wife, Akuti.

Of the two children born of Akuti, the male child was directly an incarnation of 
the Supreme Personality of Godhead, and His name was Yajna, which is another 
name of Lord Vishnu. The female child was a partial incarnation of Laksmi, the 
goddess of fortune, the eternal consort of Lord Vishnu.

Svayambhuva Manu very gladly brought home the beautiful boy named Yajna, and 
Ruci, his son-in-law, kept with him the daughter, Daksina.

The Lord of the ritualistic performance of yajna later married Daksina, who was 
anxious to have the Personality of Godhead as her husband, and in this wife the 
Lord was also very much pleased to beget twelve children.

The twelve boys born of Yajna and Daksina were named Tosa, Pratosa, Santosa, 
Bhadra, Santi, Idaspati, Idhma, Kavi, Vibhu, Svahna, Sudeva and Rocana.

During the time of Svayambhuva Manu, these sons all became the demigods 
collectively named the Tusitas. Marici became the head of the seven rsis, and 
Yajna became the king of the demigods, Indra.

Svayambhuva Manu's two sons, Priyavrata and Uttanapada, became very powerful 
kings, and their sons and grandsons spread all over the three worlds during that 

My dear son, Svayambhuva Manu handed over his very dear daughter Devahuti to 
Kardama Muni. I have already spoken to you about them, and you have heard about 
them almost in full.

Svayambhuva Manu handed over his daughter Prasuti to the son of Brahma named 
Daksa, who was also one of the progenitors of the living entities. The 
descendants of Daksa are spread throughout the three worlds.

You have already been informed about the nine daughters of Kardama Muni, who 
were handed over to nine different sages. I shall now describe the descendants 
of those nine daughters. Please hear from me.

Kardama Muni's daughter Kala, who was married to Marici, gave birth to two 
children, whose names were Kasyapa and Purnima. Their descendants are spread all 
over the world.

My dear Vidura, of the two sons, Kasyapa and Purnima, Purnima begot three 
children, namely Viraja, Visvaga and Devakulya. Of these three, Devakulya was 
the water which washed the lotus feet of the Personality of Godhead and which 
later on transformed into the Ganges of the heavenly planets.

Anasuya, the wife of Atri Muni, gave birth to three very famous sons--Soma, 
Dattatreya and Durvasa--who were partial representations of Lord Vishnu, Lord 
Shiva and Lord Brahma. Soma was a partial representation of Lord Brahma, 
Dattatreya was a partial representation of Lord Vishnu, and Durvasa was a 
partial representation of Lord Shiva.

After hearing this, Vidura inquired from Maitreya: My dear master, how is it 
that the three deities Brahma, Vishnu and Shiva, who are the creator, maintainer 
and destroyer of the whole creation, became the offspring of the wife of Atri 

Maitreya said: When Lord Brahma ordered Atri Muni to create generations after 
marrying Anasuya, Atri Muni and his wife went to perform severe austerities in 
the valley of the mountain known as Rksa.

In that mountain valley flows a river named Nirvindhya. On the bank of the river 
are many asoka trees and other plants full of palasa flowers, and there is 
always the sweet sound of water flowing from a waterfall. The husband and wife 
reached that beautiful place.

There the great sage concentrated his mind by the yogic breathing exercises, and 
thereby controlling all attachment, he remained standing on one leg only, eating 
nothing but air, and stood there on one leg for one hundred years.

He was thinking: May the Lord of the universe, of whom I have taken shelter, 
kindly he pleased to offer me a son exactly like Him.

While Atri Muni was engaged in these severe austerities, a blazing fire came out 
of his head by virtue of his breathing exercise, and that fire was seen by the 
three principal deities of the three worlds.

At that time, the three deities approached the hermitage of Atri Muni, 
accompanied by the denizens of the heavenly planets, such as the celestial 
beauties, the Gandharvas, the Siddhas, the Vidyadharas and the Nagas. Thus they 
entered the asrama of the great sage, who had become famous by his austerities.

The sage was standing on one leg, but as soon as he saw that the three deities 
had appeared before him, he was so pleased to see them all together that despite 
great difficulty he approached them on one leg.

Thereafter he began to offer prayers to the three deities, who were seated on 
different carriers--a bull, a swan and Garuda--and who held in their hands a 
drum, kusa grass and a discus. The sage offered them his respects by falling 
down like a stick.

Atri Muni was greatly pleased to see that the three devas were gracious towards 
him. His eyes were dazzled by the effulgence of their bodies, and therefore he 
closed his eyes for the time being.

But since his heart was already attracted by the deities, somehow or other he 
gathered his senses, and with folded hands and sweet words he began to offer 
prayers to the predominating deities of the universe. The great sage Atri said: 
O Lord Brahma, Lord Vishnu and Lord Shiva, you have divided yourself into three 
bodies by accepting the three modes of material nature, as you do in every 
millennium for the creation, maintenance and dissolution of the cosmic 
manifestation. I offer my respectful obeisances unto all of you and beg to 
inquire whom of you three I have called by my prayer.

I called for the Supreme Personality of Godhead, desiring a son like Him, and I 
thought of Him only. But although He is far beyond the mental speculation of 
man, all three of you have come here. Kindly let me know how you have come, for 
I am greatly bewildered about this.

The great sage Maitreya continued: Upon hearing Atri Muni speak in that way, the 
three great deities smiled, and they replied in the following sweet words.

The three deities told Atri Muni: Dear brahmana, you are perfect in your 
determination, and therefore as you have decided, so it will happen; it will not 
happen otherwise. We are all the same person upon whom you were meditating, and 
therefore we have all come to you.

You will have sons who will represent a partial manifestation of our potency, 
and because we desire all good fortune for you, those sons will glorify your 
reputation throughout the world.

Thus, while the couple looked on, the three deities Brahma, Vishnu and Mahesvara 
disappeared from that place after bestowing upon Atri Muni the benediction.

Thereafter, from the partial representation of Brahma, the moon-god was born of 
them; from the partial representation of Vishnu, the great mystic Dattatreya was 
born; and from the partial representation of Sankara [Lord Shiva], Durvasa was 
born. Now you may hear from me of the many sons of Angira.

Angira's wife, Sraddha, gave birth to four daughters, named Sinivali, Kuhu, Raka 
and Anumati.

Besides these four daughters, she also had another two sons. One of them was 
known as Utathya, and the other was the learned scholar Brhaspati.

Pulastya begot in his wife, Havirbhu, one son of the name Agastya, who in his 
next birth became Dahragni. Besides him, Pulastya begot another very great and 
saintly son, whose name was Visrava.

Visrava had two wives. The first wife was Idavida, from whom Kuvera, the master 
of all Yaksas, was born, and the next wife was named Kesini, from whom three 
sons were born--Ravana, Kumbhakarna and Vihhisana.

Gati, the wife of the sage Pulaha, gave birth to three sons, named Karmarestha, 
Variyan and Sahisnu, and all of them were great sages.

Kratu's wife, Kriya, gave birth to sixty thousand great sages, named the 
Valakhilyas. All these sages were greatly advanced in spiritual knowledge, and 
their bodies were illuminated by such knowledge.

The great sage Vasistha begot in his wife, Urja, sometimes called Arundhati, 
seven spotlessly great sages, headed by the sage named Citraketu.

The names of these seven sages are as follows: Citraketu, Suroci, Viraja, Mitra, 
Ulbana, Vasubhrdyana and Dyuman. Some other very competent sons were born from 
Vasistha's other wife.

Citti, wife of the sage Atharva, gave birth to a son named Asvasira by accepting 
a great vow called Dadhyanca. Now you may hear from me about the descendants of 
the sage Bhrgu.

The sage Bhrgu was highly fortunate. In his wife, known as Khyati, he begot two 
sons, named Dhata and Vidhata, and one daughter, named Sri, who was very much 
devoted to the Supreme Personality of Godhead.

The sage Meru had two daughters, named Ayati and Niyati, whom he gave in charity 
to Dhata and Vidhata. Ayati and Niyati gave birth to two sons, Mrkanda and 

From Mrkanda, Markandeya Muni was born, and from Prana the sage Vedaira, whose 
son was Usana [Sukracarya], also known as Kavi. Thus Kavi also belonged to the 
descendants of the Bhrgu dynasty.

My dear Vidura, the population of the universe was thus increased by the 
descendants of these sages and the daughters of Kardama. Anyone who hears the 
descriptions of this dynasty with faith will be relieved from all sinful 
reactions. Another of Manu's daughters, known as Prasuti, married the son of 
Brahma named Daksa.

Daksa begot sixteen very beautiful daughters with lotuslike eyes in his wife 
Prasuti. Of these sixteen daughters, thirteen were given in marriage to Dharma, 
and one daughter was given to Agni.

One of the remaining two daughters was given in charity to the Pitrloka, where 
she resides very amicably, and the other was given to Lord Shiva, who is the 
deliverer of sinful persons from material entanglement. The names of the 
thirteen daughters of Daksa who were given to Dharma are Sraddha, Maitri, Daya, 
Santi, Tusti, Pusti, Kriya, Unnati, Buddhi, Medha, Titiksa, Hri and Murti. These 
thirteen daughters produced the following sons: Sraddha gave birth to Subha, 
Maitri produced Prasada, Daya gave birth to Abhaya, Santi gave birth to Sukha, 
Tusti gave birth to Muda, Pusti gave birth to Smaya, Kriya gave birth to Yoga, 
Unnati gave birth to Barpa, Buddhi gave birth to Artha, Medha gave birth to 
Smrti, Titiksa gave birth to Ksema, and Hri gave birth to Praraya. Murti, a 
reservoir of all respectable qualities, gave birth to Sri Nara-Narayana, the 
Supreme Personality of Godhead.

On the occasion of the appearance of Nara-Narayana, the entire world was full of 
joy. Everyone's mind became tranquil, and thus in all directions the air, the 
rivers and the mountains became pleasant.

In the heavenly planets, hands began to play, and they showered flowers from the 
sky. The pacified sages chanted Vedic prayers, the denizens of heaven known as 
the Gandharvas and Kinnaras sang, the beautiful damsels of the heavenly planets 
danced, and in this way, at the time of the appearance of Nara-Narayana, all 
signs of good fortune were visible. Just at that time, great demigods like 
Brahma also offered their respectful prayers.

The demigods said: Let us offer our respectful obeisances unto the 
transcendental Personality of Godhead, who created as His external energy this 
cosmic manifestation, which is situated in Him as the air and clouds are 
situated in space, and who has now appeared in the form of Nara-Narayana Rsi in 
the house of Dharma.

Let that Supreme Personality of Godhead, who is understood by truly authorized 
Vedic literature and who has created peace and prosperity to destroy all 
calamities of the created world, be kind enough to bestow His glance upon the 
demigods. His merciful glance can supersede the beauty of the spotless lotus 
flower which is the home of the goddess of fortune.

[Maitreya said:] O Vidura, thus the demigods worshiped with prayers the Supreme 
Personality of Godhead appearing as the sage Nara-Narayana. The Lord glanced 
upon them with mercy and then departed for Gandhamadana Hill.

That Nara-Narayana Rsi, who is a partial expansion of Krishna, has now appeared 
in the dynasties of Yadu and Kuru, in the forms of Krishna and Arjuna 
respectively, to mitigate the burden of the world.

The predominating deity of fire begot in his wife, Svaha, three children, named 
Pavaka, Pavamana and Suci, who exist by eating the oblations offered to the fire 
of sacrifice.

From those three sons another forty-five descendants were generated, who are 
also fire-gods. The total number of fire-gods is therefore forty-nine, including 
the fathers and the grandfather.

These forty-nine fire-gods are the beneficiaries of the oblations offered in the 
Vedic sacrificial fire by impersonalist brahmanas.

The Agnisvattas, the Barhisadas, the Saumyas and the Ajyapas are the Pitas. They 
are either sagnika or niragnika. The wife of all these Pitas is Svadha, who is 
the daughter of King Daksa.

Svadha, who was offered to the Pitas, begot two daughters named Vayuna and 
Dharini, both of whom were impersonalists and were expert in transcendental and 
Vedic knowledge.

The sixteenth daughter, whose name was Sati, was the wife of Lord Shiva. She 
could not produce a child, although she always faithfully engaged in the service 
of her husband.

The reason is that Sati's father, Daksa, used to rebuke Lord Shiva in spite of 
Shiva's faultlessness. Consequently, before attaining a mature age, Sati gave up 
her body by dint of yogic mystic power.

Chapter Two : Daksa Curses Lord Shiva

Vidura inquired: Why was Daksa, who was so affectionate towards his daughter, 
envious of Lord Shiva, who is the best among the gentle? Why did he neglect his 
daughter Sati?

Lord Shiva, the spiritual master of the entire world, is free from enmity, is a 
peaceful personality, and is always satisfied in himself. He is the greatest 
among the demigods. How is it possible that Daksa could be inimical towards such 
an auspicious personality?

My dear Maitreya, to part with one's life is very difficult. Would you kindly 
explain to me how such a son-in-law and father-in-law could quarrel so bitterly 
that the great goddess Sati could give up her life?

The sage Maitreya said: In a former time, the leaders of the universal creation 
performed a great sacrifice in which all the great sages, philosophers, demigods 
and fire-gods assembled with their followers.

When Daksa, the leader of the Prajapatis, entered that assembly, his personal 
bodily luster as bright as the effulgence of the sun, the entire assembly was 
illuminated, and all the assembled personalities became insignificant in his 

Influenced by his personal bodily luster, all the fire-gods and other 
participants in that great assembly, with the exceptions of Lord Brahma and Lord 
Shiva, gave up their own sitting places and stood in respect for Daksa.

Daksa was adequately welcomed by the president of the great assembly, Lord 
Brahma. After offering Lord Brahma respect, Daksa, by the order of Brahma, 
properly took his seat.

Before taking his seat, however, Daksa was very much offended to see Lord Shiva 
sitting and not showing him any respect. At that time, Daksa became greatly 
angry, and, his eyes glowing, he began to speak very strongly against Lord 

All sages, brahmanas and fire-gods present, please hear me with attention, for I 
speak about the manners of gentle persons. I do not speak out of ignorance or 

Shiva has spoiled the name and fame of the governors of the universe and has 
polluted the path of gentle manners. Because he is shameless, he does not know 
how to act.

He has already accepted himself as my subordinate by marrying my daughter in the 
presence of fire and brahmanas. He has married my daughter, who is equal to 
Gayatri, and has pretended to be just like an honest person.

He has eyes like a monkey's, yet he has married my daughter, whose eyes are just 
like those of a deer cub. Nevertheless he did not stand up to receive me, nor 
did he think it fit to welcome me with sweet words.

I had no desire to give my daughter to this person, who has broken all rules of 
civility. Because of not observing the required rules and regulations, he is 
impure, but I was obliged to hand over my daughter to him just as one teaches 
the messages of the Vedas to a sudra.

He lives in filthy places like crematoriums, and his companions are the ghosts 
and demons. Naked like a madman, sometimes laughing and sometimes crying, he 
smears crematorium ashes all over his body. He does not bathe regularly, and he 
ornaments his body with a garland of skulls and bones. Therefore only in name is 
he Shiva, or auspicious; actually, he is the most mad and inauspicious creature. 
Thus he is very dear to crazy beings in the gross mode of ignorance, and he is 
their leader.

On the request of Lord Brahma I handed over my chaste daughter to him, although 
he is devoid of all cleanliness and his heart is filled with nasty things.

The sage Maitreya continued: Thus Daksa, seeing Lord Shiva sitting as if against 
him, washed his hands and mouth and cursed him in the following words.

The demigods are eligible to share in the oblations of sacrifice, but Lord 
Shiva, who is the lowest of all the demigods, should not have a share.

Maitreya continued: My dear Vidura, in spite of the requests of all the members 
of the sacrificial assembly, Daksa, in great anger, cursed Lord Shiva and then 
left the assembly and went back to his home.

Upon understanding that Lord Shiva had been cursed, Nandisvara, one of Lord 
Shiva's principal associates, became greatly angry. His eyes became red, and he 
prepared to curse Daksa and all the brahmanas present there who had tolerated 
Daksa's cursing Shiva in harsh words.

Anyone who has accepted Daksa as the most important personality and neglected 
Lord Shiva because of envy is less intelligent and, because of visualizing in 
duality, will be bereft of transcendental knowledge.

Pretentiously religious householder life, in which one is attracted to material 
happiness and thus also attracted to the superficial explanation of the Vedas, 
robs one of all intelligence and attaches one to fruitive activities as all in 

Daksa has accepted the body as all in all. Therefore, since he has forgotten the 
visnu-pada, or visnu-gati, and is attached to sex life only, within a short time 
he will have the face of a goat.

Those who have become as dull as matter by cultivating materialistic education 
and intelligence are nesciently involved in fruitive activities. Such men have 
purposely insulted Lord Shiva. May they continue in the cycle of repeated birth 
and death.

May those who are envious of Lord Shiva, being attracted by the flowery language 
of the enchanting Vedic promises, and who have thus become dull, always remain 
attached to fruitive activities.

These brahmanas take to education, austerity and vows only for the purpose of 
maintaining the body. They shall be devoid of discrimination between what to eat 
and what not to eat. They will acquire money, begging from door to door, simply 
for the satisfaction of the body.

When all the hereditary brahmanas were thus cursed by Nandisvara, the sage 
Bhrgu, as a reaction, condemned the followers of Lord Shiva with this very 
strong brahminical curse.

One who takes a vow to satisfy Lord Shiva or who follows such principles will 
certainly become an atheist and be diverted from transcendental scriptural 

Those who vow to worship Lord Shiva are so foolish that they imitate him by 
keeping long hair on their heads. When initiated into worship of Lord Shiva, 
they prefer to live on wine, flesh and other such things.

Bhrgu Muni continued: Since you blaspheme the Vedas and the brahmanas, who are 
followers of the Vedic principles, it is understood that you have already taken 
shelter of the doctrine of atheism.

The Vedas give the eternal regulative principles for auspicious advancement in 
human civilization which have been rigidly followed in the past. The strong 
evidence of this principle is the Supreme Personality of Godhead, who is called 
Janardana, the well-wisher of all living entities.

By blaspheming the principles of the Vedas, which are the pure and supreme path 
of the saintly persons, certainly you followers of Bhutapati, Lord Shiva, will 
descend to the standard of atheism without a doubt.

The sage Maitreya said: When such cursing and countercursing was going on 
between Lord Shiva's followers and the parties of Daksa and Bhrgu, Lord Shiva 
became very morose. Not saying anything, he left the arena of the sacrifice, 
followed by his disciples.

The sage Maitreya continued: O Vidura, all the progenitors of the universal 
population thus executed a sacrifice for thousands of years, for sacrifice is 
the best way to worship the Supreme Lord, Hari, the Personality of Godhead.

My dear Vidura, carrier of bows and arrows, all the demigods who were performing 
the sacrifice took their bath at the confluence of the Ganges and the Yamuna 
after completing the yajna performance. Such a bath is called avabhrtha-snana. 
After thus becoming purified in heart, they departed for their respective 

Chapter Three : Talks Between Lord Shiva and Sati

Maitreya continued: In this manner the tension between the father-in-law and 
son-in-law, Daksa and Lord Shiva, continued for a considerably long period.

When Lord Brahma appointed Daksa the chief of all the Prajapatis, the 
progenitors of population, Daksa became very much puffed up.

Daksa began a sacrifice named vajapeya, and he became excessively confident of 
his support by Lord Brahma, He then performed another great sacrifice, named 

While the sacrifice was being performed, many brahmarsis, great sages, ancestral 
demigods and other demigods, their wives all very nicely decorated with 
ornaments, attended from different parts of the universe.

The chaste lady Sati, the daughter of Daksa, heard the heavenly denizens flying 
in the sky conversing about the great sacrifice being performed by her father. 
When she saw that from all directions the beautiful wives of the heavenly 
denizens, their eyes very beautifully glittering, were near her residence and 
were going to the sacrifice dressed in fine clothing and ornamented with 
earrings and necklaces with lockets, she approached her husband, the master of 
the bhutas, in great anxiety, and spoke as follows.

Sati said: My dear Lord Shiva, your father-in-law is now executing great 
sacrifices, and all the demigods, having been invited by him, are going there. 
If you desire, we may also go.

I think that all my sisters must have gone to this great sacrificial ceremony 
with their husbands just to see their relatives. I also desire to decorate 
myself with the ornaments given to me by my father and go there with you to 
participate in that assemble.

My sisters, my mother's sisters and their husbands, and other affectionate 
relatives must be assembled there, so if I go I shall be able to see them, and I 
shall be able to see the flapping flags and the performance of the sacrifice by 
the great sages. For these reasons, my dear husband, I am very much anxious to 

This manifested cosmos is a wonderful creation of the interaction of the three 
material modes, or the external energy of the Supreme Lord. This truth is fully 
known to you. Yet I am but a poor woman, and, as you know, I am not conversant 
with the truth. Therefore I wish to see my birthplace once more.

O never-born, O blue-throated one, not only my relatives but also other women, 
dressed in nice clothes and decorated with ornaments, are going there with their 
husbands and friends. Just see how their flocks of white airplanes have made the 
entire sky very beautiful.

O best of the demigods, how can the body of a daughter remain undisturbed when 
she hears that some festive event is taking place in her father's house? Even 
though you may be considering that I have not been invited, there is no harm if 
one goes to the house of one's friend, husband, spiritual master or father 
without invitation.

O immortal Shiva, please be kind towards me and fulfill my desire. You have 
accepted me as half of your body; therefore please show kindness towards me and 
accept my request.

The great sage Maitreya said: Lord Shiva, the deliverer of the hill Kailasa, 
having thus been addressed by his dear wife, replied smilingly, although at the 
same time he remembered the malicious, heart-piercing speeches delivered by 
Daksa before the guardians of the universal affairs.

The great lord replied: My dear beautiful wife, you have said that one may go to 
a friend's house without being invited, and this is true, provided such a friend 
does not find fault with the guest because of bodily identification and thereby 
become angry towards him.

Although the six qualities education, austerity, wealth, beauty, youth and 
heritage are for the highly elevated, one who is proud of possessing them 
becomes blind, and thus he loses his good sense and cannot appreciate the 
glories of great personalities.

One should not go to anyone's house, even on the consideration of his being a 
relative or a friend, when the man is disturbed in his mind and looks upon the 
guest with raised eyebrows and angry eyes.

Lord Shiva continued: If one is hurt by the arrows of an enemy, one is not as 
aggrieved as when cut by the unkind words of a relative, for such grief 
continues to rend one's heart day and night.

My dear white-complexioned wife, it is clear that of the many daughters of Daksa 
you are the pet, yet you will not be honored at his house because of your being 
my wife. Rather, you will be sorry that you are connected with me.

One who is conducted by false ego and thus always distressed, both mentally and 
sensually, cannot tolerate the opulence of self-realized persons. Being unable 
to rise to the standard of self-realization, he envies such persons as much as 
demons envy the Supreme Personality of Godhead.

My dear young wife, certainly friends and relatives offer mutual greetings by 
standing up, welcoming one another and offering obeisances. But those who are 
elevated to the transcendental platform, being intelligent, offer such respects 
to the Supersoul, who is sitting within the body, not to the person who 
identifies with the body.

I am always engaged in offering obeisances to Lord Vasudeva in pure Krna 
consciousness. Krishna consciousness is always pure consciousness, in which the 
Supreme Personality of Godhead, known as Vasudeva, is revealed without any 

Therefore you should not see your father, although he is the giver of your body, 
because he and his followers are envious of me. Because of his envy, O most 
worshipful one, he has insulted me with cruel words although I am innocent.

If in spite of this instruction you decide to go, neglecting my words, the 
future will not be good for you. You are most respectable, and when you are 
insulted by your relative, this insult will immediately be equal to death.

Chapter Four : Sati Quits Her Body

The sage Maitreya said: Lord Shiva was silent after speaking to Sati, seeing her 
between decisions. Sati was very much anxious to see her relatives at her 
father's house, but at the same time she was afraid of Lord Shiva's warning. Her 
mind unsettled, she moved in and out of the room as a swing moves this way and 

Sati felt very sorry at being forbidden to go see her relatives at her father's 
house, and due to affection for them, tears fell from her eyes. Shaking and very 
much afflicted, she looked at her uncommon husband, Lord Shiva, as if she were 
going to blast him with her vision.

Thereafter Sati left her husband, Lord Shiva, who had given her half his body 
due to affection. Breathing very heavily because of anger and bereavement, she 
went to the house of her father. This less intelligent act was due to her being 
a weak woman.

When they saw Sati leaving alone very rapidly, thousands of Lord Shiva's 
disciples, headed by Maniman and Mada, quickly followed her with his bull Nandi 
in front and accompanied by the Yaksas.

The disciples of Lord Shiva arranged for Sati to be seated on the back of a bull 
and gave her the bird which was her pet. They bore a lotus flower, a mirror and 
all such paraphernalia for her enjoyment and covered her with a great canopy. 
Followed by a singing party with drums, conchshells and bugles, the entire 
procession was as pompous as a royal parade.

She then reached her father's house, where the sacrifice was being performed, 
and entered the arena where everyone was chanting the Vedic hymns. The great 
sages, brahmanas and demigods were all assembled there, and there were many 
sacrificial animals, as well as pots made of clay, stone, gold, grass and skin, 
which were all requisite for the sacrifice.

When Sati, with her followers, reached the arena, because all the people 
assembled were afraid of Daksa, none of them received her well. No one welcomed 
her but her mother and sisters, who, with tears in their eyes and with glad 
faces, welcomed her and talked with her very pleasingly.

Although she was received by her sisters and mother, she did not reply to their 
words of reception, and although she was offered a seat and presents, she did 
not accept anything, for her father neither talked with her nor welcomed her by 
asking about her welfare.

Present in the arena of sacrifice, Sati saw that there were no oblations for her 
husband, Lord Shiva. Next she realized that not only had her father failed to 
invite Lord Shiva, but when he saw Lord Shiva's exalted wife, Daksa did not 
receive her either. Thus she became greatly angry, so much so that she looked at 
her father as if she were going to burn him with her eyes.

The followers of Lord Shiva, the ghosts, were ready to injure or kill Daksa, but 
Sati stopped them by her order. She was very angry and sorrowful, and in that 
mood she began to condemn the process of sacrificial fruitive activities and 
persons who are very proud of such unnecessary and troublesome sacrifices. She 
especially condemned her father, speaking against him in the presence of all.

The blessed goddess said: Lord Shiva is the most beloved of all living entities. 
He has no rival. No one is very dear to him, and no one is his enemy. No one but 
you could be envious of such a universal being, who is free from all enmity.

Twice-born Daksa, a man like you can simply find fault in the qualities of 
others. Lord Shiva, however, not only finds no faults with others' qualities, 
but if someone has a little good quality, he magnifies it greatly. 
Unfortunately, you have found fault with such a great soul.

It is not wonderful for persons who have accepted the transient material body as 
the self to engage always in deriding great souls. Such envy on the part of 
materialistic persons is very good because that is the way they fall down. They 
are diminished by the dust of the feet of great personalities.

Sati continued: My dear father, you are committing the greatest offense by 
envying Lord Shiva, whose very name, consisting of two syllables, si and va, 
purifies one of all sinful activities. His order is never neglected. Lord Shiva 
is always pure, and no one but you envies him.

You are envious of Lord Shiva, who is the friend of all living entities within 
the three worlds. For the common man he fulfills all desires, and because of 
their engagement in thinking of his lotus feet, he also blesses higher 
personalities who are seeking after brahmananda [transcendental bliss].

Do you think that greater, more respectable personalities than you, such as Lord 
Brahma, do not know this inauspicious person who goes under the name Lord Shiva? 
He associates with the demons in the crematorium, his locks of hair are 
scattered all over his body, he is garlanded with human skulls and smeared with 
ashes from the crematorium, but in spite of all these inauspicious qualities, 
great personalities like Brahma honor him by accepting the flowers offered to 
his lotus feet and placing them with great respect on their heads.

Sati continued: If one hears an irresponsible person blaspheme the master and 
controller of religion, one should block his ears and go away if unable to 
punish him. But if one is able to kill, then one should by force cut out the 
blasphemer's tongue and kill the offender, and after that one should give up his 
own life.

Therefore I shall no longer bear this unworthy body, which has been received 
from you, who have blasphemed Lord Shiva. If someone has taken food which is 
poisonous, the best treatment is to vomit.

It is better to execute one's own occupational duty than to criticize others'. 
Elevated transcendentalists may sometimes forgo the rules and regulations of the 
Vedas, since they do not need to follow them, just as the demigods travel in 
space whereas ordinary men travel on the surface of the earth.

In the Vedas there are directions for two kinds of activities--activities for 
those who are attached to material enjoyment and activities for those who are 
materially detached. In consideration of these two kinds of activities, there 
are two kinds of people, who have different symptoms. If one wants to see two 
kinds of activities in one person, that is contradictory. But both kinds of 
activities may be neglected by a person who is transcendentally situated.

My dear father, the opulence we possess is impossible for either you or your 
flatterers to imagine, for persons who engage in fruitive activities by 
performing great sacrifices are concerned with satisfying their bodily 
necessities by eating foodstuff offered as a sacrifice. We can exhibit our 
opulences simply by desiring to do so. This can be achieved only by great 
personalities who are renounced, self-realized souls.

You are an offender at the lotus feet of Lord Shiva, and unfortunately I have a 
body produced from yours. I am very much ashamed of our bodily relationship, and 
I condemn myself because my body is contaminated by a relationship with a person 
who is an offender at the lotus feet of the greatest personality.

Because of our family relationship, when Lord Shiva addresses me as Daksayani I 
at once become morose, and my jolliness and my smile at once disappear. I feel 
very much sorry that my body, which is just like a bag, has been produced by 
you. I shall therefore give it up.

Maitreya the sage told Vidura: O annihilator of enemies, while thus speaking to 
her father in the arena of sacrifice, Sati sat down on the ground and faced 
north. Dressed in saffron garments, she sanctified herself with water and closed 
her eyes to absorb herself in the process of mystic yoga.

First of all she sat in the required sitting posture, and then she carried the 
life air upwards and placed it in the position of equilibrium near the navel. 
Then she raised her life air, mixed with intelligence, to the heart and then 
gradually towards the pulmonary passage and from there to between her eyebrows.

Thus, in order to give up her body, which had been so respectfully and 
affectionately seated on the lap of Lord Shiva, who is worshiped by great sages 
and saints, Sati, due to anger towards her father, began to meditate on the 
fiery air within the body.

Sati concentrated all her meditation on the holy lotus feet of her husband, Lord 
Shiva, who is the supreme spiritual master of all the world. Thus she became 
completely cleansed of all taints of sin and quit her body in a blazing fire by 
meditation on the fiery elements.

When Sati annihilated her body in anger, there was a tumultuous roar all over 
the universe. Why had Sati, the wife of the most respectable demigod, Lord 
Shiva, quit her body in such a manner?

It was astonishing that Daksa, who was Prajapati, the maintainer of all living 
entities, was so disrespectful to his own daughter, Sati, who was not only 
chaste but was also a great soul, that she gave up her body because of his 

Daksa, who is so hardhearted that he is unworthy to be a brahmana, will gain 
extensive ill fame because of his offenses to his daughter, because of not 
having prevented her death, and because of his great envy of the Supreme 
Personality of Godhead.

While people were talking among themselves about the wonderful voluntary death 
of Sati, the attendants who had come with her readied themselves to kill Daksa 
with their weapons.

They came forward forcibly, but Bhrgu Muni saw the danger and, offering 
oblations into the southern side of the sacrificial fire, immediately uttered 
mantric hymns from the Yajur Veda by which the destroyers of yajnic performances 
could be killed immediately.

When Bhrgu Muni offered oblations in the fire, immediately many thousands of 
demigods named Rbhus became manifested. All of them were powerful, having 
achieved strength from Soma, the moon.

When the Rbhu demigods attacked the ghosts and Guhyakas with half-burned fuel 
from the yajna fire, all these attendants of Sati fled in different directions 
and disappeared. This was possible simply because of brahma-tejas, brahminical 

Chapter Five : Frustration of the Sacrifice of Daksa

Maitreya said: When Lord Shiva heard from Narada that Sati, his wife, was now 
dead because of Prajapati Daksa's insult to her and that his soldiers had been 
driven away by the Rbhu demigods, he became greatly angry.

Thus Lord Shiva, being extremely angry, pressed his lips with his teeth and 
immediately snatched from his head a strand of hair which blazed like 
electricity or fire. He stood up at once, laughing like a madman, and dashed the 
hair to the ground.

A fearful black demon as high as the sky and as bright as three suns combined 
was thereby created, his teeth very fearful and the hairs on his head like 
burning fire. He had thousands of arms, equipped with various weapons, and he 
was garlanded with the heads of men.

When that gigantic demon asked with folded hands, "What shall I do, my lord?" 
Lord Shiva, who is known as Bhutanatha, directly ordered, "Because you are born 
from my body, you are the chief of all my associates. Therefore, kill Daksa and 
his soldiers at the sacrifice."

Maitreya continued: My dear Vidura, that black person was the personified anger 
of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, and he was prepared to execute the orders 
of Lord Shiva. Thus, considering himself capable of coping with any power 
offered against him, he circumambulated Lord Shiva.

Many other soldiers of Lord Shiva followed the fierce personality in a 
tumultuous uproar. He carried a great trident, fearful enough to kill even 
death, and on his legs he wore bangles which seemed to roar.

At that time, all the persons assembled in the sacrificial arena--the priests, 
the chief of the sacrificial performance, and the brahmanas and their wives--
wondered where the darkness was coming from. Later they could understand that it 
was a dust storm, and all of them were full of anxiety.

Conjecturing on the origin of the storm, they said: There is no wind blowing, 
and no cows are passing, nor is it possible that this dust storm could be raised 
by plunderers, for there is still the strong King Barhi, who would punish them. 
Where is this dust storm blowing from? Is the dissolution of the planet now to 

Prasuti, the wife of Daksa, along with the other women assembled, became very 
anxious and said: This danger has been created by Daksa because of the death of 
Sati, who, even though completely innocent, quit her body as her sisters looked 

At the time of dissolution, Lord Shiva's hair is scattered, and he pierces the 
rulers of the different directions with his trident. He laughs and dances 
proudly, scattering their hands like flags, as thunder scatters the clouds all 
over the world.

The gigantic black man bared his fearful teeth. By the movements of his brows he 
scattered the luminmies all over the sky, and he covered them with his strong, 
piercing effulgence. Because of the misbehavior of Daksa, even Lord Brahma, 
Daksa's father, could not have been saved from the great exhibition of anger.

While all the people talked amongst themselves, Daksa saw dangerous omens from 
all sides, from the earth and from the sky.

My dear Vidura, all the followers of Lord Shiva surrounded the arena of 
sacrifice. They were of short stature and were equipped with various kinds of 
weapons; their bodies appeared to be like those of sharks, blackish and 
yellowish. They ran all around the sacrificial arena and thus began to create 

Some of the soldiers pulled down the pillars which were supporting the pandal of 
sacrifice, some of them entered the female quarters, some began destroying the 
sacrificial arena, and some entered the kitchen and the residential quarters.

They broke all the pots made for use in the sacrifice, and some of them began to 
extinguish the sacrificial fire. Some tore down the boundary line of the 
sacrificial arena, and some passed urine on the arena.

Some blocked the way of the fleeing sages, some threatened the women assembled 
there, and some arrested the demigods who were fleeing the pandal.

Maniman, one of the followers of Lord Shiva, arrested Bhrgu Muni, and 
Virabhadra, the black demon, arrested Prajapati Daksa. Another follower, who was 
named Candesa, arrested Pusa. Nandisvara arrested the demigod Bhaga.

There was a continuous shower of stones, and all the priests and other members 
assembled at the sacrifice were put into immense misery. For fear of their 
lives, they dispersed in different directions.

Virabhadra tore off the mustache of Bhrgu, who was offering the sacrificial 
oblations with his hands in the fire.

Virabhadra immediately caught Bhaga, who had been moving his eyebrows during 
Bhrgu's cursing of Lord Shiva, and out of great anger thrust him to the ground 
and forcibly put out his eyes.

Just as Baladeva knocked out the teeth of Dantavakra, the King of Kalinga, 
during the gambling match at the marriage ceremony of Aniruddha, Virabhadra 
knocked out the teeth of both Daksa, who had shown them while cursing Lord 
Shiva, and Pusa, who by smiling sympathetically had also shown his teeth.

Then Virabhadra, the giantlike personality, sat on the chest of Daksa and tried 
to separate his head from his body with sharp weapons, but was unsuccessful.

He tried to cut the head of Daksa with hymns as well as weapons, but still it 
was hard to cut even the surface of the skin of Daksa's head. Thus Virabhadra 
was exceedingly bewildered.

Then Virabhadra saw the wooden device in the sacrificial arena by which the 
animals were to have been killed. He took the opportunity of this facility to 
behead Daksa.

Upon seeing the action of Virabhadra, the party of Lord Shiva was pleased and 
cried out joyfully, and all the bhutas, ghosts and demons that had come made a 
tumultuous sound. On the other hand, the brahmanas in charge of the sacrifice 
cried out in grief at the death of Daksa.

Virabhadra then took the head and with great anger threw it into the southern 
side of the sacrificial fire, offering it as an oblation. In this way the 
followers of Lord Shiva devastated all the arrangements for sacrifice. After 
setting fire to the whole arena, they departed for their master's abode, 

Chapter Six : Brahma Satisfies Lord Shiva

All the priests and other members of the sacrificial assembly and all the 
demigods, having been defeated by the soldiers of Lord Shiva and injured by 
weapons like tridents and swords, approached Lord Brahma with great fear. After 
offering him obeisances, they began to speak in detail of all the events which 
had taken place.

Both Lord Brahma and Vishnu had already known that such events would occur in 
the sacrificial arena of Daksa, and knowing beforehand, they did not go to the 

When Lord Brahma heard everything from the demigods and the members who had 
attended the sacrifice, he replied: You cannot be happy in executing a sacrifice 
if you blaspheme a great personality and thereby offend his lotus feet. You 
cannot have happiness in that way.

You have excluded Lord Shiva from taking part in the sacrificial results, and 
therefore you are all offenders at his lotus feet. Still, if you go without 
mental reservations and surrender unto him and fall down at his lotus feet, he 
will be very pleased.

Lord Brahma also advised them that Lord Shiva is so powerful that by his anger 
all the planets and their chief controllers can be destroyed immediately. Also, 
he said that Lord Shiva was especially sorry because he had recently lost his 
dear wife and was also very much afflicted by the unkind words of Daksa. Under 
the circumstances, Lord Brahma suggested, it would behoove them to go at once 
and beg his pardon.

Lord Brahma said that no one, not even himself, Indra, all the members assembled 
in the sacrificial arena, or all the sages, could know how powerful Lord Shiva 
is. Under the circumstances, who would dare to commit an offense at his lotus 

After thus instructing all the demigods, the Pitas and the lords of the living 
entities, Lord Brahma took them with him and left for the abode of Lord Shiva, 
known as the Kailasa Hill.

The abode known as Kailasa is full of different herbs and vegetables, and it is 
sanctified by Vedic hymns and mystic yoga practice. Thus the residents of that 
abode are demigods by birth and have all mystic powers. Besides them there are 
other human beings, who are known as Kinnaras and Gandharvas and are accompanied 
by their beautfful wives, who are known as Apsaras, or angels.

Kailasa is full of mountains filled with all kinds of valuable jewels and 
minerals and surrounded by all varieties of valuable trees and plants. The top 
of the hill is nicely decorated by various types of deer.

There are many waterfalls, and in the mountains there are many beautiful caves 
in which the very beautiful wives of the mystics are found.

On Kailasa Hill there is always the rhythmical sound of the peacocks' sweet 
vibrations and the bees' humming. Cuckoos are always singing, and other birds 
whisper amongst themselves.

There are tall trees with straight branches that appear to call the sweet birds, 
and when herds of elephants pass through the hills, it appears that the Kailasa 
Hill moves with them. When the waterfalls resound, it appears that Kailasa Hill 
does also.

The whole of Kailasa Hill is decorated with various kinds of trees, of which the 
following names may be mentioned: mandara, parijata, sarala, tamala, tala, 
kovidara, asana, arjuna, amra-jati (mango), kadamba, dhuli-kadamba, naga, 
punnaga, campaka, patala, asoka, bakula, kunda and kurabaka. The entire hill is 
decorated with such trees, which produce flowers with fragrant aromas.

There are other trees also which decorate the hill, such as the golden lotus 
flower, the cinnamon tree, malati, kubja, mallika and madhavi.

Kailasa Hill is also decorated with such trees as kata, jackfruit, julara, 
banyan trees, plaksas, nyagrodhas and trees producing asafetida. Also there are 
trees of betel nuts and bhurja-patra, as well as rajapuga, blackberries and 
similar other trees.

There are mango trees, priyala, madhuka and inguda. Besides these there are 
other trees, like thin bamboos, kicaka and varieties of other bamboo trees, all 
decorating the tract of Kailasa Hill.

There are different kinds of lotus flowers, such as kumuda, utpala and 
satapatra. The forest appears to be a decorated garden, and the small lakes are 
full of various kinds of birds who whisper very sweetly. There are many kinds of 
other animals also, like deer, monkeys, boars, lions, rksas, salyakas, forest 
cows, forest asses, tigers, small deer, buffalo and many other animals, who are 
fully enjoying their lives.

There are varieties of deer, such as karnantra, ekapada, asvasya, vrka and 
kasturi, the deer which bears musk. Besides the deer there are many banana trees 
which decorate the small hillside lakes very nicely.

There is a small lake named Alakananda in which Sati used to take her bath, and 
that lake is especially auspicious. All the demigods, after seeing the specific 
beauty of Kailasa Hill, were struck with wonder at the great opulence to be 
found there.

Thus the demigods saw the wonderfully beautiful region known as Alaka in the 
forest known as Saugandhika, which means "full of fragrance." The forest is 
known as Saugandhika because of its abundance of lotus flowers.

They also saw the two rivers named Nanda and Alakananda. These two rivers are 
sanctified by the dust of the lotus feet of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, 

My dear /ksatta, Vidura, the celestial damsels come down to those rivers in 
their airplanes with their husbands, and after sexual enjoyment, they enter the 
water and enjoy sprinkling their husbands with water.

After the damsels of the heavenly planets bathe in the water, it becomes 
yellowish and fragrant due to the kunkuma from their bodies. Thus the elephants 
come to bathe there with their wives, the she-elephants, and they also drink the 
water, although they are not thirsty.

The airplanes of the heavenly denizens are bedecked with pearls, gold and many 
valuable jewels. The heavenly denizens are compared to clouds in the sky 
decorated with occasional flashes of electric lightning.

While traveling, the demigods passed over the forest known as Saugandhika, which 
is full of varieties of flowers, fruits and desire trees. While passing over the 
forest, they also saw the regions of Yaksesvara.

In that celestial forest there were many birds whose necks were colored reddish 
and whose sweet sounds mixed with the humming of the bees. The lakes were 
abundantly decorated with crying swans as well as strong-stemmed lotus flowers.

All these atmospheric influences unsettled the forest elephants who flocked 
together in the sandalwood forest, and the blowing wind agitated the minds of 
the damsels there for further sexual enjoyment.

They also saw that the bathing ghatas and their staircases were made of 
vaidurya-mani. The water was full of lotus flowers. Passing by such lakes, the 
demigods reached a place where there was a great banyan tree.

That banyan tree was eight hundred miles high, and its branches spread over six 
hundred miles around. The tree cast a fine shade which permanently cooled the 
temperature, yet there was no noise of birds.

The demigods saw Lord Shiva sitting under that tree, which was competent to give 
perfection to mystic yogis and deliver all people. As grave as time eternal, he 
appeared to have given up all anger.

Lord Shiva sat there, surrounded by saintly persons like Kuvera, the master of 
the Guhyakas, and the four Kumaras, who were already liberated souls. Lord Shiva 
was grave and saintly.

The demigods saw Lord Shiva situated in his perfection as the master of the 
senses, knowledge, fruitive activities and the path of achieving perfection. He 
was the friend of the entire world, and by virtue of his full affection for 
everyone, he was very auspicious.

He was seated on a deerskin and was practicing all forms of austerity. Because 
his body was smeared with ashes, he looked like an evening cloud. On his hair 
was the sign of a half-moon, a symbolic representation.

He was seated on a straw mattress and speaking to all present, including the 
great sage Narada, to whom he specifically spoke about the Absolute Truth.

His left leg was placed on his right thigh, and his left hand was placed on his 
left thigh. In his right hand he held rudraksa beads. This sitting posture is 
called virasana. He sat in the virasana posture, and his finger was in the mode 
of argument.

All the sages and demigods, headed by Indra, offered their respectful obeisances 
unto Lord Shiva with folded hands. Lord Shiva was dressed in saffron garments 
and absorbed in trance, thus appearing to be the foremost of all sages.

Lord Shiva's lotus feet were worshiped by both the demigods and demons, but 
still, in spite of his exalted position, as soon as he saw that Lord Brahma was 
there among all the other demigods, he immediately stood up and offered him 
respect by bowing down and touching his lotus feet, just as Vamanadeva offered 
His respectful obeisances to Kasyapa Muni.

All the sages who were sitting with Lord Shiva, such as Narada and others, also 
offered their respectful obeisances to Lord Brahma. After being so worshiped, 
Lord Brahma, smiling, began to speak to Lord Shiva.

Lord Brahma said: My dear Lord Shiva, I know that you are the controller of the 
entire material manifestation, the combination father and mother of the cosmic 
manifestation, and the Supreme Brahman beyond the cosmic manifestation as well. 
I know you in that way.

My dear lord, you create this cosmic manifestation, maintain it, and annihilate 
it by expansion of your personality, exactly as a spider creates, maintains and 
winds up its web.

My dear lord, Your Lordship has introduced the system of sacrifices through the 
agency of Daksa, and thus one may derive the benefits of religious activities 
and economic development. Under your regulative principles, the institution of 
the four varnas and aramas is respected. The brahmanas therefore vow to follow 
this system strictly.

O most auspicious lord, you have ordained the heavenly planets, the spiritual 
Vaikuntha planets and the impersonal Brahman sphere as the respective 
destinations of the performers of auspicious activities. Similarly, for others, 
who are miscreants, you have destined different kinds of hells which are 
horrible and ghastly. Yet sometimes it is found that their destinations are just 
the opposite. It is very difficult to ascertain the cause of this.

My dear Lord, devotees who have fully dedicated their lives unto your lotus feet 
certainly observe your presence as Paramatma in each and every being, and as 
such they do not differentiate between one living being and another. Such 
persons treat all living entities equally. They never become overwhelmed by 
anger like animals, who can see nothing without differentiation.

Persons who observe everything with differentiation, who are simply attached to 
fruitive activities, who are mean minded, who are always pained to see the 
flourishing condition of others and who thus give distress to them by uttering 
harsh and piercing words have already been killed by providence. Thus there is 
no need for them to be killed again by an exalted personality like you.

My dear lord, if in some places materialists, who are already bewildered by the 
insurmountable illusory energy of the Supreme Godhead, sometimes commit 
offenses, a saintly person, with compassion, does not take this seriously. 
Knowing that they commit offenses because they are overpowered by the illusory 
energy, he does not show his prowess to counteract them.

My dear lord, you are never bewildered by the formidable influence of the 
illusory energy of the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Therefore you are 
omniscient and should be merciful and compassionate toward those who are 
bewildered by the same illusory energy and are very much attached to fruitive 

My dear Lord Shiva, you are a shareholder of a portion of the sacrifice, and you 
are the giver of the result. The bad priests did not deliver your share, and 
therefore you destroyed everything, and the sacrifice remains unfinished. Now 
you can do the needful and take your rightful share.

My dear lord, by your mercy the performer of the sacrifice (King Daksa) may get 
back his life, Bhaga may get back his eyes, Bhrgu his mustache, and Pusa his 

O Lord Shiva, may the demigods and the priests whose limbs have been broken by 
your soldiers recover from the injuries by your grace.

O destroyer of the sacrifice, please take your portion of the sacrifice and let 
the sacrifice be completed by your grace.

Chapter Seven :The Sacrifice Performed by Daksa

The sage Maitreya said: O mighty-armed Vidura, Lord Shiva, being thus pacified 
by the words of Lord Brahma, spoke as follows in answer to Lord Brahma's 

Lord Shiva said: My dear father, Brahma, I do not mind the offenses created by 
the demigods. Because these demigods are childish and less intelligent, I do not 
take a serious view of their offenses, and I have punished them only in order to 
right them.

Lord Shiva continued: Since the head of Daksa has already been burned to ashes, 
he will have the head of a goat. The demigod known as Bhaga will be able to see 
his share of sacrifice through the eyes of Mitra.

The demigod Pusa will be able to chew only through the teeth of his disciples, 
and if alone, he will have to satisfy himself by eating dough made from chickpea 
flour. But the demigods who have agreed to give me my share of the sacrifice 
will recover from all their injuries.

Those who have had their arms cut off will have to work with the arms of Asvini-
kumara, and those whose hands were cut off will have to do their work with the 
hands of Pusa. The priests will also have to act in that manner. As for Bhrgu, 
he will have the beard from the goat's head.

The great sage Maitreya said: My dear Vidura, all the personalities present were 
very much satisfied in heart and soul upon hearing the words of Lord Shiva, who 
is the best among the benedictors.

Thereafter, Bhrgu, the chief of the great sages, invited Lord Shiva to come to 
the sacrificial arena. Thus the demigods, accompanied by the sages, Lord Shiva, 
and Lord Brahma, all went to the place where the great sacrifice was being 

After everything was executed exactly as directed by Lord Shiva, Daksa's body 
was joined to the head of the animal meant to be killed in the sacrifice.

When the animal's head was fixed on the body of King Daksa, Daksa was 
immediately brought to consciousness, and as he awakened from sleep, the King 
saw Lord Shiva standing before him.

At that time, when Daksa saw Lord Shiva, who rides upon a bull, his heart, which 
was polluted by envy of Lord Shiva, was immediately cleansed, just as the water 
in a lake is cleansed by autumn rains.

King Daksa wanted to offer prayers to Lord Shiva, but as he remembered the ill-
fated death of his daughter Sati, his eyes filled with tears, and in bereavement 
his voice choked up, and he could not say anything.

At this time, King Daksa, afflicted by love and affection, was very much 
awakened to his real senses. With great endeavor, he pacified his mind, checked 
his feelings, and with pure consciousness began to offer prayers to Lord Shiva.

King Daksa said: My dear Lord Shiva, I committed a great offense against you, 
but you are so kind that instead of withdrawing your mercy, you have done me a 
great favor by punishing me. You and Lord Vishnu never neglect even useless, 
unqualified brahmanas. Why, then, should you neglect me, who am engaged in 
performing sacrifices?

My dear great and powerful Lord Shiva, you were created first from the mouth of 
Lord Brahma in order to protect the brahmanas in pursuing education, 
austerities, vows and self-realization. As protector of the brahmanas, you 
always protect the regulative principles they follow, just as a cowherd boy 
keeps a stick in his hand to give protection to the cows.

I did not know your full glories. For this reason, I threw arrows of sharp words 
at you in the open assembly, although you did not take them into account. I was 
going down to hell because of my disobedience to you, who are the most 
respectable personality, but you took compassion upon me and saved me by 
awarding punishment. I request that you be pleased by your own mercy, since I 
cannot satisfy you by my words.

The great sage Maitreya said: Thus being pardoned by Lord Shiva, King Daksa, 
with the permission of Lord Brahma, again began the performance of the yajna, 
along with the great learned sages, the priests and others.

Thereafter, in order to resume the activities of sacrifice, the brahmanas first 
arranged to purify the sacrificial arena of the contamination caused by the 
touch of Virabhadra and the other ghostly followers of Lord Shiva. Then they 
arranged to offer into the fire the oblations known as purodaa.

The great sage Maitreya said to Vidura: My dear Vidura, as soon as King Daksa 
offered the clarified butter with Yajur Veda mantras in sanctified meditation, 
Lord Vishnu appeared there in His original form as Narayana.

Lord Narayana was seated on the shoulder of Stotra, or Garuda, who had big 
wings. As soon as the Lord appeared, all directions were illuminated, 
diminishing the luster of Brahma and the others present.

His complexion was blackish, His garment yellow like gold, and His helmet as 
dazzling as the sun. His hair was bluish, the color of black bees, and His face 
was decorated with earrings. His eight hands held a conchshell, wheel, club, 
lotus flower, arrow, bow, shield and sword, and they were decorated with golden 
ornaments such as bangles and bracelets. His whole body resembled a blossoming 
tree beautifully decorated with various kinds of flowers.

Lord Vishnu looked extraordinarily beautiful because the goddess of fortune and 
a garland were situated on His chest. His face was beautifully decorated with a 
smiling attitude which can captivate the entire world, especially the devotees. 
Fans of white hair appeared on both sides of the Lord like white swans, and the 
white canopy overhead looked like the moon.

As soon as Lord Vishnu was visible, all the demigods--Lord Brahma and Lord 
Shiva, the Gandharvas and all present there--immediately offered their 
respectful obeisances by falling down straight before Him.

In the presence of the glaring effulgence of the bodily luster of Narayana, 
everyone else's luster faded away, and everyone stopped speaking. Fearful with 
awe and veneration, all present touched their hands to their heads and prepared 
to offer their prayers to the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Adhoksaja.

Although the mental scope of even demigods like Brahma was unable to comprehend 
the unlimited glories of the Supreme Lord, they were all able to perceive the 
transcendental form of the Supreme Personality of Godhead by His grace. Only by 
such grace could they offer their respectful prayers according to their 
different capacities.

When Lord Vishnu accepted the oblations offered in the sacrifice, Daksa, the 
Prajapati, began with great pleasure to offer respectful prayers unto Him. The 
Supreme Personality of Godhead is actually the master of all sacrifices and 
preceptor of all the Prajapatis, and He is served even by such personalities as 
Nanda and Sunanda.

Daksa addressed the Supreme Personality of Godhead: My dear Lord, You are 
transcendental to all speculative positions. You are completely spiritual, 
devoid of all fear, and You are always in control of the material energy. Even 
though You appear in the material energy, You are situated transcendentally. You 
are always free from material contamination because You are completely self-

The priests addressed the Lord, saying: O Lord, transcendental to material 
contamination, by the curse offered by Lord Shiva's men we have become attached 
to fruitive activities, and thus we are now fallen and therefore do not know 
anything about You. On the contrary, we are now involved in the injunctions of 
the three departments of the Vedic knowledge under the plea of executing rituals 
in the name of yajna. We know that You have made arrangements for distributing 
the respective shares of the demigods.

The members of the assembly addressed the Lord: O exclusive shelter for all who 
are situated in troubled life, in this formidable fort of conditional existence 
the time element, like a snake, is always looking for an opportunity to strike. 
This world is full of ditches of so-called distress and happiness, and there are 
many ferocious animals always ready to attack. The fire of lamentation is always 
blazing, and the mirage of false happiness is always alluring, but one has no 
shelter from them. Thus foolish persons live in the cycle of birth and death, 
always overburdened in discharging their so-called duties, and we do not know 
when they will accept the shelter of Your lotus feet.

Lord Shiva said: My dear Lord, my mind and consciousness are always fixed on 
Your lotus feet, which, as the source of all benediction and the fulfillment of 
all desires, are worshiped by all liberated great sages because Your lotus feet 
are worthy of worship. With my mind fixed on Your lotus feet, I am no longer 
disturbed by persons who blaspheme me, claiming that my activities are not 
purified. I do not mind their accusations, and I excuse them out of compassion, 
just as You exhibit compassion toward all living entities.

Sri Bhrgu said: My dear Lord, all living entities, beginning from the highest, 
namely Lord Brahma, down to the ordinary ant, are under the influence of the 
insurmountable spell of illusory energy, and thus they are ignorant of their 
constitutional position. Everyone believes in the concept of the body, and all 
are thus submerged in the darkness of illusion. They are actually unable to 
understand how You live in every living entity as the Supersoul, nor can they 
understand Your absolute position. But You are the eternal friend and protector 
of all surrendered souls. Therefore, please be kind toward us and forgive all 
our offenses.

Lord Brahma said: My dear Lord, Your personality and eternal form cannot be 
understood by any person who is trying to know You through the different 
processes of acquiring knowledge. Your position is always transcendental to the 
material creation, whereas the empiric attempt to understand You is material, as 
are its objectives and instruments.

King Indra said: My dear Lord, Your transcendental form with eight hands and 
weapons in each of them appears for the welfare of the entire universe, and it 
is very pleasing to the mind and eyes. In such a form, Your Lordship is always 
prepared to punish the demons, who are envious of Your devotees.

The wives of the performers of the sacrifice said: My dear Lord, this sacrifice 
was arranged under the instruction of Brahma, but unfortunately Lord Shiva, 
being angry at Daksa, devastated the entire scene, and because of his anger the 
animals meant for sacrifice are lying dead. Therefore the preparations of the 
yajna have been lost. Now, by the glance of Your lotus eyes, the sanctity of 
this sacrificial arena may be again invoked.

The sages prayed: Dear Lord, Your activities are most wonderful, and although 
You do everything by Your different potencies, You are not at all attached to 
such activities. You are not even attached to the goddess of fortune, who is 
worshiped by the great demigods like Brahma, who pray to achieve her mercy.

The Siddhas prayed: Like an elephant that has suffered in a forest fire but can 
forget all its troubles by entering a river, our minds, O Lord, always merge in 
the nectarean river of Your transcendental pastimes, and they desire never to 
leave such transcendental bliss, which is as good as the pleasure of merging in 
the Absolute.

The wife of Daksa prayed as follows: My dear Lord, it is very fortunate that You 
have appeared in this arena of sacrifice. I offer my respectful obeisances unto 
You, and I request that You be pleased on this occasion. The sacrificial arena 
is not beautiful without You, just as a body is not beautiful without the head.

The governors of various planets spoke as follows: Dear Lord, we believe only in 
our direct perception, but under the circumstances we do not know whether we 
have actually seen You with our material senses. By our material senses we can 
simply perceive the cosmic manifestation, but You are beyond the five elements. 
You are the sixth. We see You, therefore, as a creation of the material world.

The great mystics said: Dear Lord, persons who see You as nondifferent from 
themselves, knowing that You are the Supersoul of all living entities, are 
certainly very, very dear to You. You are very favorable toward those who engage 
in devotional service, accepting You as the Lord and themselves as the servants. 
By Your mercy, You are always inclined in their favor.

We offer our respectful obeisances unto the Supreme, who has created varieties 
of manifestations and put them under the spell of the three qualities of the 
material world in order to create, maintain and annihilate them. He Himself is 
not under the control of the external energy; in His personal feature He is 
completely devoid of the variegated manifestation of material qualities, and He 
is under no illusion of false identification.

The personified Vedas said: We offer our respectful obeisances unto You, the 
Lord, the shelter of the quality of goodness and therefore the source of all 
religion, austerity and penance, for You are transcendental to all material 
qualities and no one knows You or Your actual situation.

The fire-god said: My dear Lord, I offer my respectful obeisances unto You 
because by Your favor I am as luminous as blazing fire and I accept the 
offerings mixed with butter and offered in sacrifice. The five kinds of 
offerings according to the Yajur Veda are all Your different energies, and You 
are worshiped by five kinds of Vedic hymns. Sacrifice means Your Supreme 
Personality of Godhead.

The demigods said: Dear Lord, formerly, when there was a devastation, You 
conserved all the different energies of material manifestation. At that time, 
all the inhabitants of the higher planets, represented by such liberated souls 
as Sanaka, were meditating on You by philosophical speculation. You are 
therefore the original person, and You rest in the water of devastation on the 
bed of the Sesa snake. Now, today, You are visible to us, who are all Your 
servants. Please give us protection.

The Gandharvas said: Dear Lord, all the demigods, including Lord Shiva, Lord 
Brahma, Indra and Marici and the great sages, are all only differentiated parts 
and parcels of Your body. You are the Supreme Almighty Great; the whole creation 
is just like a plaything for You. We always accept You as the Supreme 
Personality of Godhead, and we offer our respectful obeisances unto You.

The Vidyadharas said: Dear Lord, this human form of body is meant for attaining 
the highest perfectional objective, but, impelled by Your external energy, the 
living entity misidentifies himself with his body and with the material energy, 
and therefore, influenced by maya, he wants to become happy by material 
enjoyment. He is misled and always attracted by temporary, illusory happiness. 
But Your transcendental activities are so powerful that if one engages in the 
hearing and chanting of such topics, he can be delivered from illusion.

The brahmanas said: Dear Lord, You are sacrifice personified. You are the 
offering of clarified butter, You are the fire, You are the chanting of Vedic 
hymns by which the sacrifice is conducted, You are the fuel, You are the flame, 
You are the kusa grass, and You are the sacrificial pots. You are the priests 
who perform the yajna, You are the demigods headed by Indra, and You are the 
sacrificial animal. Everything that is sacrificed is You or Your energy.

Dear Lord, O personified Vedic knowledge, in the past millennium, long, long 
ago, when You appeared as the great boar incarnation, You picked up the world 
from the water, as an elephant picks up a lotus flower from a lake. When You 
vibrated transcendental sound in that gigantic form of a boar, the sound was 
accepted as a sacrificial hymn, and great sages like Sanaka meditated upon it 
and offered prayers for Your glorification.

Dear Lord, we were awaiting Your audience because we have been unable to perform 
the yajnas according to the Vedic rituals. We pray unto You, therefore, to be 
pleased with us. Simply by chanting Your holy name, one can surpass all 
obstacles. We offer our respectful obeisances unto You in Your presence.

Sri Maitreya said: After Lord Vishnu was glorified by all present, Daksa, his 
consciousness purified, arranged to begin again the yajna which had been 
devastated by the followers of Lord Shiva.

Maitreya continued: My dear sinless Vidura, Lord Vishnu is actually the enjoyer 
of the results of all sacrifices. Yet because of His being the Supersoul of all 
living entities, He was satisfied simply with His share of the sacrificial 
offerings. He therefore addressed Daksa in a pleasing attitude.

Lord Vishnu replied: Brahma, Lord Shiva and I are the supreme cause of the 
material manifestation. I am the Supersoul, the self sufficient witness. But 
impersonally there is no difference between Brahma, Lord Shiva and Me.

The Lord continued: My dear Daksa Dvija, I am the original Personality of 
Godhead, but in order to create, maintain and annihilate this cosmic 
manifestation, I act through My material energy, and according to the different 
grades of activity, My representations are differently named.

The Lord continued: One who is not in proper knowledge thinks that demigods like 
Brahma and Shiva are independent, or he even thinks that the living entities are 

A person with average intelligence does not think the head and other parts of 
the body to be separate. Similarly, My devotee does not differentiate Vishnu, 
the all-pervading Personality of Godhead, from any thing or any living entity.

The Lord continued: One who does not consider Brahma, Vishnu, Shiva or the 
living entities in general to be separate from the Supreme, and who knows 
Brahman, actually realizes peace; others do not.

The sage Maitreya said: Thus Daksa, the head of all Prajapatis, having been 
nicely instructed by the Supreme Personality of Godhead, worshiped Lord Vishnu. 
After worshiping Him by performing the prescribed sacrificial ceremonies, Daksa 
separately worshiped Lord Brahma amd Lord Shiva.

With all respect, Daksa worshiped Lord Shiva with his share of the remnants of 
the yajna. After finishing the ritualistic sacrificial activities, he satisfied 
all the other demigods and the other people assembled there. Then, after 
finishing all these duties with the priests, he took a bath and was fully 

Thus worshiping the Supreme Lord Vishnu by the ritualistic performance of 
sacrifice, Daksa was completely situated on the religious path. Moreover, all 
the demigods who had assembled at the sacrifice blessed him that he might 
increase his piety, and then they left.

Maitreya said: I have heard that after giving up the body she had received from 
Daksa, Daksayani (his daughter) took her birth in the kingdom of the Himalayas. 
She was born as the daughter of Mena. I heard this from authoritative sources.

Ambika [goddess Durga], who was known as Daksayini [Sati], again accepted Lord 
Shiva as her husband, just as different energies of the Supreme Personality of 
Godhead act during the course of a new creation.

Maitreya said: My dear Vidura, I heard this story of the Daksa yajna, which was 
devastated by Lord Shiva, from Uddhava, a great devotee and a disciple of 

The great sage Maitreya concluded: If one hears and again narrates, with faith 
and devotion, this story of the Daksa yajna as it was conducted by the Supreme 
Personality of Godhead, Vishnu, then certainly one is cleared of all 
contamination of material existence, O son of Kuru.

Chapter Eight : Dhruva Maharaja Leaves Home for the Forest

The great sage Maitreya said: The four great Kumara sages headed by Sanaka, as 
well as Narada, Rbhu, Hamsa, Aruni and Yati, all sons of Brahma did not live at 
home, but became urdhva-reta, or naisthika-brahmacaris, unadulterated celibates.

Another son of Lord Brahma was Irreligion, whose wife's name was Falsity. From 
their combination were born two demons named Dambha, or Bluffing, and Maya, or 
Cheating. These two demons were taken by a demon named Nirrti, who had no 

Maitreya told Vidura: O great soul, from Dambha and Maya were born Greed and 
Nikrti, or Cunning. From their combination came children named Krodha (Anger) 
and Himsa (Envy), and from their combination were born Kali and his sister 
Durukti (Harsh Speech).

O greatest of all good men, by the combination of Kali and Harsh Speech were 
born children named Mrtyu (Death) and Bhiti (Fear). From the combination of 
Mrtyu and Bhiti came children named Yatana (Excessive Pain) and Niraya (Hell).

My dear Vidura, I have summarily explained the causes of devastation. One who 
hears this description three times attains piety and washes the sinful 
contamination from his soul.

Maitreya continued: O best of the Kuru dynasty, I shall now describe before you 
the descendants of Svayambhuva Manu, who was born of a part of a plenary 
expansion of the Supreme Personality of Godhead.

Svayambhuva Manu had two sons by his wife, Satarupa, and the names of the sons 
were Uttanapada and Priyavrata. Because both of them were descendants of a 
plenary expansion of Vasudeva, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, they were 
very competent to rule the universe to maintain and protect the citizens.

King Uttanapada had two queens, named Suniti and Suruci. Suruci was much more 
dear to the King; Suniti, who had a son named Dhruva, was not his favorite.

Once upon a time, King Uttanapada was patting the son of Suruci, Uttama, placing 
him on his lap. Dhruva Maharaja was also trying to get on the King's lap, but 
the King did not very much welcome him.

While the child, Dhruva Maharaja, was trying to get on the lap of his father, 
Suruci, his stepmother, became very envious of the child, and with great pride 
she began to speak so as to be heard by the King himself.

Queen Suruci told Dhruva Maharaja: My dear child, you do not deserve to sit on 
the throne or on the lap of the King. Surely you are also the son of the King, 
but because you did not take your birth from my womb, you are not qualified to 
sit on your father's lap.

My dear child, you are unaware that you were born not of my womb but of another 
woman. Therefore you should know that your attempt is doomed to failure. You are 
trying to fulfill a desire which is impossible to fulfill.

If you at all desire to rise to the throne of the King, then you have to undergo 
severe austerities. First of all you must satisfy the Supreme Personality of 
Godhead, Narayana, and then, when you are favored by Him because of such 
worship, you shall have to take your next birth from my womb.

The sage Maitreya continued: My dear Vidura, as a snake, when struck by a stick, 
breathes very heavily, Dhruva Maharaja, having been struck by the strong words 
of his stepmother, began to breathe very heavily because of great anger. When he 
saw that his father was silent and did not protest, he immediately left the 
palace and went to his mother.

When Dhruva Maharaja reached his mother, his lips were trembling in anger, and 
he was crying very grievously. Queen Suniti immediately lifted her son onto her 
lap, while the palace residents who had heard all the harsh words of Suruci 
related everything in detail. Thus Suniti also became greatly aggrieved.

This incident was unbearable to Suniti's patience. She began to burn as if in a 
forest fire, and in her grief she became just like a burnt leaf and so lamented. 
As she remembered the words of her co-wife, her bright, lotuslike face filled 
with tears, and thus she spoke.

She also was breathing very heavily, and she did not know the factual remedy for 
the painful situation. Not finding any remedy, she said to her son: My dear son, 
don't wish for anything inauspicious for others. Anyone who inflicts pains upon 
others suffers himself from that pain.

Suniti said: My dear boy, whatever has been spoken by Suruci is so, because the 
King, your father, does not consider me his wife or even his maidservant. He 
feels ashamed to accept me. Therefore it is a fact that you have taken birth 
from the womb of an unfortunate woman, and by being fed from her breast you have 
grown up.

My dear boy, whatever has been spoken by Suruci, your stepmother, although very 
harsh to hear, is factual. Therefore, if you desire at all to sit on the same 
throne as your stepbrother, Uttama, then give up your envious attitude and 
immediately try to execute the instructions of your stepmother. Without further 
delay, you must engage yourself in worshiping the lotus feet of the Supreme 
Personality of Godhead.

Suniti continued: The Supreme Personality of Godhead is so great that simply by 
worshiping His lotus feet, your great-grandfather, Lord Brahma, acquired the 
necessary qualifications to create this universe. Although he is unborn and is 
the chief of all living creatures, he is situated in that exalted post because 
of the mercy of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, whom even great yogis 
worship by controlling the mind and regulating the life air [prana].

Suniti informed her son: Your grandfather Svayambhuva Manu executed great 
sacrifices with distribution of charity, and thereby, with unflinching faith and 
devotion, he worshiped and satisfied the Supreme Personality of Godhead. By 
acting in that way, he achieved the greatest success in material happiness and 
afterwards achieved liberation, which is impossible to obtain by worshiping the 

My dear boy, you also should take shelter of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, 
who is very kind to His devotees. Persons seeking liberation from the cycle of 
birth and death always take shelter of the lotus feet of the Lord in devotional 
service. Becoming purified by executing your allotted occupation, just situate 
the Supreme Personality of Godhead in your heart, and without deviating for a 
moment, engage always in His service.

My dear Dhruva, as far as I am concerned, I do not find anyone who can mitigate 
your distress but the Supreme Personality of Godhead, whose eyes are like lotus 
petals. Many demigods such as Lord Brahma seek the pleasure of the goddess of 
fortune, but the goddess of fortune herself, with a lotus flower in her hand, is 
always ready to render service to the Supreme Lord.

The great sage Maitreya continued: The instruction of Dhruva Maharaja's mother, 
Suniti, was actually meant for fulfilling his desired objective. Therefore, 
after deliberate consideration and with intelligence and fixed determination, he 
left his father's house.

The great sage Narada overheard this news, and understanding all the activities 
of Dhruva Maharaja, he was struck with wonder. He approached Dhruva, and 
touching the boy's head with his all-virtuous hand, he spoke as follows.

How wonderful are the powerful ksatriyas. They cannot tolerate even a slight 
infringement upon their prestige. Just imagine! This boy is only a small child, 
yet harsh words from his stepmother proved unbearable to him.

The great sage Narada told Dhruva: My dear boy, you are only a little boy whose 
attachment is to sports and other frivolities. Why are you so affected by words 
insulting your honor?

My dear Dhruva, if you feel that your sense of honor has been insulted, you 
still have no cause for dissatisfaction. This kind of dissatisfaction is another 
feature of the illusory energy; every living entity is controlled by his 
previous actions, and therefore there are different varieties of life for 
enjoying or suffering.

The process of the Supreme Personality of Godhead is very wonderful. One who is 
intelligent should accept that process and be satisfied with whatever comes, 
favorable or unfavorable, by His supreme will.

Now you have decided to undertake the mystic process of meditation under the 
instruction of your mother, just to achieve the mercy of the Lord, but in my 
opinion such austerities are not possible for any ordinary man. It is very 
difficult to satisfy the Supreme Personality of Godhead.

Narada Muni continued: After trying this process for many, many births and 
remaining unattached to material contamination, placing themselves continually 
in trance and executing many types of austerities, many mystic yogis were unable 
to find the end of the path of God realization.

For this reason, my dear boy, you should not endeavor for this; it will not be 
successful. It is better that you go home. When you are grown up, by the mercy 
of the Lord you will get a chance for these mystic performances. At that time 
you may execute this function.

One should try to keep himself satisfied in any condition of life--whether 
distress or happiness--which is offered by the supreme will. A person who 
endures in this way is able to cross over the darkness of nescience very easily.

Every man should act like this: when he meets a person more qualified than 
himself, he should be very pleased; when he meets someone less qualified than 
himself, he should be compassionate toward him; and when he meets someone equal 
to himself, he should make friendship with him. In this way one is never 
affected by the threefold miseries of this material world.

Dhruva Maharaja said: My dear Lord Naradaji, for a person whose heart is 
disturbed by the material conditions of happiness and distress, whatever you 
have so kindly explained for attainment of peace of mind is certainly a very 
good instruction. But as far as I am concerned, I am covered by ignorance, and 
this kind of philosophy does not touch my heart.

My dear lord, I am very impudent for not accepting your instructions, but this 
is not my fault. It is due to my having been born in a ksatriya family. My 
stepmother, Suruci, has pierced my heart with her harsh words. Therefore your 
valuable instruction does not stand in my heart.

O learned brahmana, I want to occupy a position more exalted than any yet 
achieved within the three worlds by anyone, even by my fathers and grandfathers. 
If you will oblige, kindly advise me of an honest path to follow by which I can 
achieve the goal of my life.

My dear lord, you are a worthy son of Lord Brahma, and you travel, playing on 
your musical instrument, the vina, for the welfare of the entire universe. You 
are like the sun, which rotates in the universe for the benefit of all living 

The sage Maitreya continued: The great personality Narada Muni, upon hearing the 
words of Dhruva Maharaja, became very compassionate toward him, and in order to 
show him his causeless mercy, he gave him the following expert advice.

The great sage Narada told Dhruva Maharaja: The instruction given by your 
mother, Suniti, to follow the path of devotional service to the Supreme 
Personality of Godhead, is just suitable for you. You should therefore 
completely absorb yourself in the devotional service of the Lord.

Any person who desires the fruits of the four principles religiosity, economic 
development, sense gratification and, at the end, liberation, should engage 
himself in the devotional service of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, for 
worship of His lotus feet yields the fulfillment of all of these.

My dear boy, I therefore wish all good fortune for you. You should go to the 
bank of the Yamuna, where there is a virtuous forest named Madhuvana, and there 
be purified. Just by going there, one draws nearer to the Supreme Personality of 
Godhead, who always lives there.

Narada Muni instructed: My dear boy, in the waters of the Yamuna River, which is 
known as Kalindi, you should take three baths daily because the water is very 
auspicious, sacred and clear. After bathing, you should perform the necessary 
regulative principles for astanga-yoga and then sit down on your asana [sitting 
place] in a calm and quiet position.

After sitting on your seat, practice the three kinds of breathing exercises, and 
thus gradually control the life air, the mind and the senses. Completely free 
yourself from all material contamination, and with great patience begin to 
meditate on the Supreme Personality of Godhead.

[The form of the Lord is described herein.] The Lord's face is perpetually very 
beautiful and pleasing in attitude. To the devotees who see Him, He appears 
never to be displeased, and He is always prepared to award benedictions to them. 
His eyes, His nicely decorated eyebrows, His raised nose and His broad forehead 
are all very beautiful. He is more beautiful than all the demigods.

Narada Muni continued: The Lord's form is always youthful. Every limb and every 
part of His body is properly formed, free from defect. His eyes and lips are 
pinkish like the rising sun. He is always prepared to give shelter to the 
surrendered soul, and anyone so fortunate as to look upon Him feels all 
satisfaction. The Lord is always worthy to be the master of the surrendered 
soul, for He is the ocean of mercy.

The Lord is further described as having the mark of Srivatsa, or the sitting 
place of the goddess of fortune, and His bodily hue is deep bluish. The Lord is 
a person, He wears a garland of flowers, and He is eternally manifest with four 
hands, which hold [beginning from the lower left hand] a conchshell, wheel, club 
and lotus flower.

The entire body of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Vasudeva, is decorated. 
He wears a valuable jeweled helmet, necklaces and bracelets, His neck is adorned 
with the Kaustubha jewel, and He is dressed in yellow silk garments.

The Lord is decorated with small golden bells around His waist, and His lotus 
feet are decorated with golden ankle bells. All His bodily features are very 
attractive and pleasing to the eyes. He is always peaceful, calm and quiet and 
very pleasing to the eyes and the mind.

Real yogis meditate upon the transcendental form of the Lord as He stands on the 
whorl of the lotus of their hearts, the jewellike nails of His lotus feet 

The Lord is always smiling, and the devotee should constantly see the Lord in 
this form, as He looks very mercifully toward the devotee. In this way the 
meditator should look toward the Supreme Personality of Godhead, the bestower of 
all benedictions.

One who meditates in this way, concentrating his mind upon the always auspicious 
form of the Lord, is very soon freed from all material contamination, and he 
does not come down from meditation upon the Lord.

O son of the King, now I shall speak unto you the mantra which is to be chanted 
with this process of meditation. One who carefully chants this mantra for seven 
nights can see the perfect human beings flying in the sky.

Om namo bhagavate vasudevaya. This is the twelve-syllable mantra for worshiping 
Lord Krishna. One should install the physical forms of the Lord, and with the 
chanting of the mantra one should offer flowers and fruits and other varieties 
of foodstuffs exactly according to the rules and regulations prescribed by 
authorities. But this should be done in consideration of place, time, and 
attendant conveniences and inconveniences.

One should worship the Lord by offering pure water, pure flower garlands, 
fruits, flowers and vegetables, which are available in the forest, or by 
collecting newly grown grasses, small buds of flowers or even the skins of 
trees, and if possible, by offering tulasi leaves, which are very dear to the 
Supreme Personality of Godhead.

It is possible to worship a form of the Lord made of physical elements such as 
earth, water, pulp, wood and metal. In the forest one can make a form with no 
more than earth and water and worship Him according to the above principles. A 
devotee who has full control over his self should be very sober and peaceful and 
must be satisfied simply with eating whatever fruits and vegetables are 
available in the forest.

My dear Dhruva, besides worshiping the Deity and chanting the mantra three times 
a day, you should meditate upon the transcendental activities of the Supreme 
Personality of Godhead in His different incarnations, as exhibited by His 
supreme will and personal potencies.

One should follow in the footsteps of previous devotees regarding how to worship 
the Supreme Lord with the prescribed paraphernalia, or one should offer worship 
within the heart by reciting the mantra to the Personality of Godhead, who is 
nondifferent from the mantra.

Anyone who thus engages in the devotional service of the Lord, seriously and 
sincerely, with his mind, words and body, and who is fixed in the activities of 
the prescribed devotional methods, is blessed by the Lord according to his 
desire. If a devotee desires material religiosity, economic development, sense 
gratification or liberation from the material world, he is awarded these 

If one is very serious about liberation, he must stick to the process of 
transcendental loving service, engaging twenty-four hours a day in the highest 
stage of ecstasy, and he must certainly be aloof from all activities of sense 

When Dhruva Maharaja, the son of the King, was thus advised by the great sage 
Narada, he circumambulated Narada, his spiritual master, and offered him 
respectful obeisances. Then he started for Madhuvana, which is always imprinted 
with the lotus footprints of Lord Krishna and which is therefore especially 

After Dhruva entered Madhuvana Forest to execute devotional service, the great 
sage Narada thought it wise to go to the King to see how he was faring within 
the palace. When Narada Muni approached, the King received him properly, 
offering him due obeisances. After being seated comfortably, Narada began to 

The great sage Narada inquired: My dear King, your face appears to be withering 
up, and you look like you have been thinking of something for a very long time. 
Why is that? Have you been hampered in following your path of religious rites, 
economic development and sense gratification?

The King replied: O best of the brahmanas, I am very much addicted to my wife, 
and I am so fallen that I have abandoned all merciful behavior, even to my son, 
who is only five years old. I have banished him and his mother, even though he 
is a great soul and a great devotee.

My dear brahmana, the face of my son was just like a lotus flower. I am thinking 
of his precarious condition. He is unprotected, and he might he very hungry. He 
might have lain down somewhere in the forest, and the wolves might have attacked 
him to eat his body.

Alas, just see how I was conquered by my wife! Just imagine my cruelty! Out of 
love and affection the boy was trying to get up on my lap, but I did not receive 
him, nor did I even pat him for a moment. Just imagine how hardhearted I am.

The great sage Narada replied: My dear King, please do not he aggrieved about 
your son. He is well protected by the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Although 
you have no actual information of his influence, his reputation is already 
spread all over the world.

My dear King, your son is very competent. He will perform activities which would 
he impossible even for great kings and sages. Very soon he will complete his 
task and come back home. You should know that he will also spread your 
reputation all over the world.

The great Maitreya continued: The King, Uttanapada, after being advised by 
Narada Muni, practically gave up all duties in relation with his kingdom, which 
was very vast and wide, opulent like the goddess of fortune, and he simply began 
to think of his son Dhruva.

Elsewhere, Dhruva Maharaja, having arrived at Madhuvana, took his bath in the 
River Yamuna and observed fasting in the night with great care and attention. 
After that, as advised by the great sage Narada, he engaged himself in 
worshiping the Supreme Personality of Godhead.

For the first month Dhruva Maharaja ate only fruits and berries on every third 
day, only to keep his body and soul together, and in this way he progressed in 
his worship of the Supreme Personality of Godhead.

In the second month Dhruva Maharaja ate only every six days, and for his 
eatables he took dry grass and leaves. Thus he continued his worship.

In the third month he drank water only every nine days. Thus he remained 
completely in trance and worshiped the Supreme Personality of Godhead, who is 
adored by selected verses.

In the fourth month Dhruva Maharaja became a complete master of the breathing 
exercise, and thus he inhaled air only every twelfth day. In this way he became 
completely fixed in his position and worshiped the Supreme Personality of 

By the fifth month, Maharaja Dhruva, the son of the King, had controlled his 
breathing so perfectly that he was able to stand on only one leg, just as a 
column stands, without motion, and concentrate his mind fully on the 

He completely controlled his senses and their objects, and in this way he fixed 
his mind, without diversion to anything else, upon the form of the Supreme 
Personality of Godhead.

When Dhruva Maharaja thus captured the Supreme Personality of Godhead, who is 
the refuge of the total material creation and who is the master of all living 
entities, the three worlds began to tremble.

As Dhruva Maharaja, the King's son, kept himself steadily standing on one leg, 
the pressure of his big toe pushed down half the earth, just as an elephant 
being carried on a boat rocks the boat left and right with his every step.

When Dhruva Maharaja became practically one in heaviness with Lord Vishnu, the 
total consciousness, due to his fully concentrating, and closing all the holes 
of his body, the total universal breathing became choked up, and all the great 
demigods in all the planetary systems felt suffocated and thus took shelter of 
the Supreme Personality of Godhead.

The demigods said: Dear Lord, You are the refuge of all moving and nonmoving 
living entities. We feel all living entities to be suffocating, their breathing 
processes choked up. We have never experienced such a thing. Since You are the 
ultimate shelter of all surrendered souls, we have therefore approached You; 
kindly save us from this danger.

The Supreme Personality of Godhead replied: My dear demigods, do not be 
perturbed by this. It is due to the severe austerity and full determination of 
the son of King Uttanapada, who is now fully absorbed in thought of Me. He has 
obstructed the universal breathing process. You can safely return to your 
respective homes. I shall stop this boy in his severe acts of austerities, and 
you will be saved from this situation.

Chapter Nine : Dhruva Maharaja Returns Home

The great sage Maitreya told Vidura: When the demigods were thus reassured by 
the Personality of Godhead, they were freed from all fears, and after offering 
their obeisances, they returned to their heavenly planets. Then the Lord, who is 
nondifferent from the Sahasrasirsa incarnation, got on the back of Garuda, who 
carried Him to the Madhuvana Forest to see His servant Dhruva.

The form of the Lord, which was brilliant like lightning and in which Dhruva 
Maharaja, in his mature yogic process, was fully absorbed in meditation, all of 
a sudden disappeared. Thus Dhruva was perturbed, and his meditation broke. But 
as soon as he opened his eyes he saw the Supreme Personality of Godhead 
personally present, just as he had been seeing the Lord in his heart.

When Dhruva Maharaja saw his Lord just in front of him, he was greatly agitated 
and offered Him obeisances and respect. He fell flat before Him like a rod and 
became absorbed in love of Godhead. Dhruva Maharaja, in ecstasy, looked upon the 
Lord as if he were drinking the Lord with his eyes, kissing the lotus feet of 
the Lord with his mouth, and embracing the Lord with his arms.

Although Dhruva Maharaja was a small boy, he wanted to offer prayers to the 
Supreme Personality of Godhead in suitable language. But because he was 
inexperienced, he could not adjust himself immediately. The Supreme Personality 
of Godhead, being situated in everyone's heart, could understand Dhruva 
Maharaja's awkward position. Out of His causeless mercy He touched His 
conchshell to the forehead of Dhruva Maharaja, who stood before Him with folded 

At that time Dhruva Maharaja became perfectly aware of the Vedic conclusion and 
understood the Absolute Truth and His relationship with all living entities. In 
accordance with the line of devotional service to the Supreme Lord, whose fame 
is widespread, Dhruva, who in the future would receive a planet which would 
never be annihilated, even during the time of dissolution, offered his 
deliberate and conclusive prayers.

Dhruva Maharaja said: My dear Lord, You are all-powerful. After entering within 
me, You have enlivened all my sleeping senses--my hands, legs, ears, touch 
sensation, life force and especially my power of speech. Let me offer my 
respectful obeisances unto You.

My Lord, You are the supreme one, but by Your different energies You appear 
differently in the spiritual and material worlds. You create the total energy of 
the material world by Your external potency, and after creation You enter within 
the material world as the Supersoul. You are the Supreme Person, and through the 
temporary modes of material nature You create varieties of manifestation, just 
as fire, entering into wood of different shapes, burns brilliantly in different 

O my master, Lord Brahma is fully surrendered unto You. In the beginning You 
gave him knowledge, and thus he could see and understand the entire universe, 
just as a person awakens from sleep and visualizes his immediate duties. You are 
the only shelter of all persons who desire liberation, and You are the friend of 
all who are distressed. How, therefore, can a learned person who has perfect 
knowledge ever forget You?

Persons who worship You simply for the sense gratification of this bag of skin 
are certainly influenced by Your illusory energy. In spite of having You, who 
are like a desire tree and are the cause of liberation from birth and death, 
foolish persons, such as me, desire benedictions from You for sense 
gratification, which is available even for those who live in hellish conditions.

My Lord, the transcendental bliss derived from meditating upon Your lotus feet 
or hearing about Your glories from pure devotees is so unlimited that it is far 
beyond the stage of brahmananda, wherein one thinks himself merged in the 
impersonal Brahman as one with the Supreme. Since brahmananda is also defeated 
by the transcendental bliss derived from devotional service, then what to speak 
of the temporary blissfulness of elevating oneself to the heavenly planets, 
which is ended by the separating sword of time? Although one may be elevated to 
the heavenly planets, he falls down in due course of time.

Dhruva Maharaja continued: O unlimited Lord, kindly bless me so that I may 
associate with great devotees who engage in Your transcendental loving service 
constantly, as the waves of a river constantly flow. Such transcendental 
devotees are completely situated in an uncontaminated state of life. By the 
process of devotional service I shall surely be able to cross the nescient ocean 
of material existence, which is filled with the waves of blazing, firelike 
dangers. It will be very easy for me, for I am becoming mad to hear about Your 
transcendental qualities and pastimes, which are eternally existent.

O Lord who have a lotus navel, if a person happens to associate with a devotee 
whose heart always hankers after Your lotus feet, seeking always their 
fragrance, he is never attached to the material body or, in a bodily 
relationship, to offspring, friends, home, wealth and wife, which are very, very 
dear to materialistic persons. Indeed, he does not care for them.

My dear Lord, O Supreme Unborn, I know that the different varieties of living 
entities, such as animals, trees, birds, reptiles, demigods and human beings, 
are spread throughout the universe, which is caused by the total material 
energy, and I know that they are sometimes manifest and sometimes unmanifest; 
but I have never experienced the supreme form I behold as I see You now. Now all 
kinds of methods of theorizing have come to an end.

My dear Lord, at the end of each millennium the Supreme Personality of Godhead 
Garbhodakasayi Vishnu dissolves everything manifested within the universe into 
His belly. He lies down on the lap of Sesa Naga, from His navel sprouts a golden 
lotus flower on a stem, and on that lotus Lord Brahma is created. I can 
understand that You are the same Supreme Godhead. I therefore offer my 
respectful obeisances unto You.

My Lord, by Your unbroken transcendental glance You are the supreme witness of 
all stages of intellectual activities. You are eternally liberated, Your 
existence is situated in pure goodness, and You are existent in the Supersoul 
without change. You are the original Personality of Godhead, full with six 
opulences, and You are eternally the master of the three modes of material 
nature. Thus, You are always different from the ordinary living entities. As 
Lord Vishnu, You maintain all the affairs of the entire universe, and yet You 
stand aloof and are the enjoyer of the results of all sacrifices.

My dear Lord, in Your impersonal manifestation of Brahman there are always two 
opposing elements--knowledge and ignorance. Your multienergies are continually 
manifest, but the impersonal Brahman, which is undivided, original, changeless, 
unlimited and blissful, is the cause of the material manifestation. Because You 
are the same impersonal Brahman, I offer my respectful obeisances unto You.

My Lord, O Supreme Lord, You are the supreme personified form of all 
benediction. Therefore, for one who abides in Your devotional service with no 
other desire, worshiping Your lotus feet is better than becoming king and 
lording it over a kingdom. That is the benediction of worshiping Your lotus 
feet. To ignorant devotees like me, You are the causelessly merciful maintainer, 
just like a cow, who takes care of the newly born calf by supplying milk and 
giving it protection from attack.

The great sage Maitreya continued: My dear Vidura, when Dhruva Maharaja, who had 
good intentions in his heart, finished his prayer, the Supreme Lord, the 
Personality of Godhead, who is very kind to His devotees and servants, 
congratulated him, speaking as follows.

The Personality of Godhead said: My dear Dhruva, son of the King, you have 
executed pious vows, and I also know the desire within your heart. Although your 
desire is very ambitious and very difficult to fulfill, I shall favor you with 
its fulfillment. All good fortune unto you.

The Supreme Personality of Godhead continued: My dear Dhruva, I shall award you 
the glowing planet known as the polestar, which will continue to exist even 
after the dissolution at the end of the millennium. No one has ever ruled this 
planet, which is surrounded by all the solar systems, planets and stars. All the 
luminaries in the sky circumambulate this planet, just as bulls tread around a 
central pole for the purpose of crushing grains. Keeping the polestar to their 
right, all the stars inhabited by the great sages like Dharma, Agni, Kasyapa and 
Sukra circumambulate this planet, which continues to exist even after the 
dissolution of all others.

After your father goes to the forest and awards you the rule of his kingdom, you 
will rule continuously the entire world for thirty-six thousand years, and all 
your senses will continue to be as strong as they are now. You will never become 

The Lord continued: Sometime in the future your brother, Uttama, will go hunting 
in the forest, and while absorbed in hunting, he will be killed. Your 
stepmother, Suruci, being maddened upon the death of her son, will go to search 
him out in the forest, but she will be devoured by a forest fire.

The Lord continued: I am the heart of all sacrifices. You will be able to 
perform many great sacrifices and also give great charities. In this way you 
will be able to enjoy the blessings of material happiness in this life, and at 
the time of your death you will be able to remember Me.

The Personality of Godhead continued: My dear Dhruva, after your material life 
in this body, you will go to My planet, which is always offered obeisances by 
the residents of all other planetary systems. It is situated above the planets 
of the seven rsis, and having gone there you will never have to come back again 
to this material world.

The great sage Maitreya said: After being worshiped and honored by the boy, 
Dhruva Maharaja, and after offering him His abode, Lord Vishnu, on the back of 
Garuda, returned to His abode, as Dhruva Maharaja looked on.

Despite having achieved the desired result of his determination by worshiping 
the lotus feet of the Lord, Dhruva Maharaja was not very pleased. Thus he 
returned to his home.

Sri Vidura inquired: My dear brahmana, the abode of the Lord is very difficult 
to attain. It can be attained only by pure devotional service, which alone 
pleases the most affectionate, merciful Lord. Dhruva Maharaja achieved this 
position even in one life, and he was very wise and conscientious. Why, then, 
was he not very pleased?

Maitreya answered: Dhruva Maharaja's heart, which was pierced by the arrows of 
the harsh words of his stepmother, was greatly aggrieved, and thus when he fixed 
upon his goal of life he did not forget her misbehavior. He did not demand 
actual liberation from this material world, but at the end of his devotional 
service, when the Supreme Personality of Godhead appeared before him, he was 
simply ashamed of the material demands he had in his mind.

Dhruva Maharaja thought to himself: To endeavor to be situated in the shade of 
the lotus feet of the Lord is not an ordinary task because even the great 
brahmacaris headed by Sanandana, who practiced astanga-yoga in trance, attained 
the shelter of the Lord's lotus feet only after many, many births. Within six 
months I achieved the same result, yet due to my thinking differently from the 
Lord, I fell down from my position.

Alas, just look at me! I am so unfortunate. I approached the lotus feet of the 
Supreme Personality of Godhead, who can immediately cut the chain of the 
repetition of birth and death, but still, out of my foolishness, I prayed for 
things which are perishable.

Since all the demigods who are situated in the higher planetary system will have 
to come down again, they are all envious of my being elevated to Vaikunthaloka 
by devotional service. These intolerant demigods have dissipated my 
intelligence, and only for this reason could I not accept the genuine 
benediction of the instructions of Sage Narada.

Dhruva Maharaja lamented: I was under the influence of the illusory energy; 
being ignorant of the actual facts, I was sleeping on her lap. Under a vision of 
duality, I saw my brother as my enemy, and falsely I lamented within my heart, 
thinking, "They are my enemies."

It is very difficult to satisfy the Supreme Personality of Godhead, but in my 
case, although I have satisfied the Supersoul of the whole universe, I have 
prayed only for useless things. My activities were exactly like treatment given 
to a person who is already dead. Just see how unfortunate I am, for in spite of 
meeting the Supreme Lord, who can cut one's link with birth and death, I have 
prayed for the same conditions again.

Because of my state of complete foolishness and paucity of pious activities, 
although the Lord offered me His personal service, I wanted material name, fame 
and prosperity. My case is just like that of the poor man who, when he satisfied 
a great emperor who wanted to give him anything he might ask, out of ignorance 
asked only a few broken grains of husked rice.

The great sage Maitreya continued: My dear Vidura, persons like you, who are 
pure devotees of the lotus feet of Mukunda [the Supreme Personality of Godhead, 
who can offer liberation] and who are always attached to the honey of His lotus 
feet, are always satisfied in serving at the lotus feet of the Lord. In any 
condition of life, such persons remain satisfied, and thus they never ask the 
Lord for material prosperity.

When King Uttanapada heard that his son Dhruva was coming back home, as if 
coming back to life after death, he could not put his faith in this message, for 
he was doubtful of how it could happen. He considered himself the most wretched, 
and therefore he thought that it was not possible for him to attain such good 

Although he could not believe the words of the messenger, he had full faith in 
the word of the great sage Narada. Thus he was greatly overwhelmed by the news, 
and he immediately offered the messenger a highly valuable necklace in great 

Then King Uttanapada, being very eager to see the face of his lost son, mounted 
a chariot drawn by excellent horses and bedecked with golden filigree. Taking 
with him many learned brahmanas, all the elderly personalities of his family, 
his officers, his ministers and his immediate friends, he immediately left the 
city. As he proceeded in this parade, there were auspicious sounds of 
conchshells, kettledrums, flutes, and the chanting of Vedic mantras to indicate 
all good fortune.

Both the queens of King Uttanapada, namely Suniti and Suruci, along with his 
other son, Uttama, appeared in the procession. The queens were seated on a 

Upon seeing Dhruva Maharaja approaching the neighboring small forest, King 
Uttanapada with great haste got down from his chariot. He had been very anxious 
for a long time to see his son Dhruva, and therefore with great love and 
affection he went forward to embrace his long-lost boy. Breathing very heavily, 
the King embraced him with both arms. But Dhruva Maharaja was not the same as 
before; he was completely sanctified by spiritual advancement due to having been 
touched by the lotus feet of the Supreme Personality of Godhead.

Reunion with Dhruva Maharaja fulfilled King Uttanapada's long-cherished desire, 
and for this reason he smelled Dhruva's head again and again and bathed him with 
torrents of very cold tears.

Then Dhruva Maharaja, the foremost of all nobles, first of all offered his 
obeisances at the feet of his father and was honored by his father with various 
questions. He then bowed his head at the feet of his two mothers.

Suruci, the younger mother of Dhruva Maharaja, seeing that the innocent boy had 
fallen at her feet, immediately picked him up, embracing him with her hands, and 
with tears of feeling she blessed him with the words, "My dear boy, long may you 

Unto one who has transcendental qualities due to friendly behavior with the 
Supreme Personality of Godhead, all living entities offer honor, just as water 
automatically flows down by nature.

The two brothers Uttama and Dhruva Maharaja also exchanged their tears. They 
were overwhelmed by the ecstasy of love and affection, and when they embraced 
one another, the hair on their bodies stood up.

Suniti, the real mother of Dhruva Maharaja, embraced the tender body of her son, 
who was dearer to her than her own life, and thus forgot all material grief, for 
she was very pleased.

My dear Vidura, Suniti was the mother of a great hero. Her tears, together with 
the milk flowing from her breasts, wet the whole body of Dhruva Maharaja. This 
was a great, auspicious sign.

The residents of the palace praised the Queen: Dear Queen, your beloved son was 
lost a long time ago, and it is your great fortune that he now has come back. It 
appears, therefore, that your son will be able to protect you for a very long 
time and will put an end to all your material pangs.

Dear Queen, you must have worshiped the Supreme Personality of Godhead, who 
delivers His devotees from the greatest danger. Persons who constantly meditate 
upon Him surpass the course of birth and death. This perfection is very 
difficult to achieve.

The sage Maitreya continued: My dear Vidura, when everyone was thus praising 
Dhruva Maharaja, the King was very happy, and he had Dhruva and his brother 
seated on the back of a she-elephant. Thus he returned to his capital, where he 
was praised by all classes of men.

The whole city was decorated with columns of banana trees containing bunches of 
fruits and flowers, and betel nut trees with leaves and branches were seen here 
and there. There were also many gates set up which were structured to give the 
appearance of sharks.

At each and every gate there were burning lamps and big waterpots decorated with 
differently colored cloth, strings of pearls, flower garlands and hanging mango 

In the capital city there were many palaces, city gates and surrounding walls, 
which were already very, very beautiful, and on this occasion all of them were 
decorated with golden ornaments. The domes of the city palaces glittered, as did 
the domes of the beautiful airplanes which hovered over the city.

All the quadrangles, lanes and streets in the city, and the raised sitting 
places at the crossings, were thoroughly cleansed and sprinkled with sandalwood 
water; and auspicious grains such as rice and barley, and flowers, fruits and 
many other auspicious presentations were scattered all over the city.

Thus as Dhruva Maharaja passed on the road, from every place in the neighborhood 
all the gentle household ladies assembled to see him, and out of maternal 
affection they offered their blessings, showering him with white mustard seed, 
barley, curd, water, newly grown grass, fruits and flowers. In this way Dhruva 
Maharaja, while hearing the pleasing songs sung by the ladies, entered the 
palace of his father.

Dhruva Maharaja thereafter lived in his father's palace, which had walls 
bedecked with highly valuable jewels. His affectionate father took particular 
care of him, and he dwelled in that house just as the demigods live in their 
palaces in the higher planetary systems.

The bedding in the palace was as white as the foam of milk and was very soft. 
The bedsteads were made of ivory with embellishments of gold, and the chairs, 
benches and other sitting places and furniture were made of gold.

The palace of the King was surrounded by walls made of marble with many 
engravings made of valuable jewels like sapphires, which depicted beautiful 
women with shining jewel lamps in their hands.

The King's residence was surrounded by gardens wherein there were varieties of 
trees brought from the heavenly planets. In those trees there were pairs of 
sweetly singing birds and almost-mad bumblebees, which made a very relishable 
buzzing sound.

There were emerald staircases which led to lakes full of variously colored lotus 
flowers and lilies, and swans, karandavas, cakravakas, cranes and similar other 
valuable birds were visible in those lakes.

The saintly King Uttanapada, hearing of the glorious deeds of Dhruva Maharaja 
and personally seeing also how influential and great he was, felt very 
satisfied, for Dhruva's activities were wonderful to the supreme degree.

When, after concentration, King Uttanapada saw that Dhruva Maharaja was suitably 
mature to take charge of the kingdom and that his ministers were agreeable and 
the citizens were also very fond of him, he enthroned Dhruva as emperor of this 

After considering his advanced age and deliberating on the welfare of his 
spiritual self, King Uttanapada detached himself from worldly affairs and 
entered the forest.

Chapter Ten : Dhruva Maharaja's Fight With the Yaksas

The great sage Maitreya said: My dear Vidura, thereafter Dhruva Maharaja married 
the daughter of Prajapati Sisumara, whose name was Bhrami, and two sons named 
Kalpa and Vatsara were born of her.

The greatly powerful Dhruva Maharaja had another wife, named Ila, who was the 
daughter of the demigod Vayu. By her he begot a son named Utkala and a very 
beautiful daughter.

Dhruva Maharaja's younger brother Uttama, who was still unmarried, once went on 
a hunting excursion and was killed by a powerful Yaksa in the Himalaya 
Mountains. Along with him, his mother, Suruci, also followed the path of her son 
[she died].

When Dhruva Maharaja heard of the killing of his brother Uttama by the Yaksas in 
the Himalaya Mountains, being overwhelmed with lamentation and anger, he got on 
his chariot and went out for victory over the city of the Yaksas, Alakapuri.

Dhruva Maharaja went to the northern direction of the Himalayan range. In a 
valley he saw a city full of ghostly persons who were followers of Lord Shiva.

Maitreya continued: My dear Vidura, as soon as Dhruva Maharaja reached 
Alakapuri, he immediately blew his conchshell, and the sound reverberated 
throughout the entire sky and in every direction. The wives of the Yaksas became 
very much frightened. From their eyes it was apparent that they were full of 

O hero Vidura, the greatly powerful heroes of the Yaksas, unable to tolerate the 
resounding vibration of the conchshell of Dhruva Maharaja, came forth from their 
city with weapons and attacked Dhruva.

Dhruva Maharaja, who was a great charioteer and certainly a great bowman also, 
immediately began to kill them by simultaneously discharging arrows three at a 

When the heroes of the Yaksas saw that all their heads were being thus 
threatened by Dhruva Maharaja, they could very easily understand their awkward 
position, and they concluded that they would certainly be defeated. But, as 
heroes, they lauded the action of Dhruva.

Just like serpents, who cannot tolerate being trampled upon by anyone's feet, 
the Yaksas, being intolerant of the wonderful prowess of Dhruva Maharaja, threw 
twice as many arrows--six from each of their soldiers--and thus they very 
valiantly exhibited their prowess.

The Yaksa soldiers were 130,000 strong, all greatly angry and all desiring to 
defeat the wonderful activities of Dhruva Maharaja. With full strength they 
showered upon Maharaja Dhruva, along with his chariot and charioteer, various 
types of feathered arrows, parighas [iron bludgeons], nistrimsas [swords], 
prasasulas [tridents], parasvadhas [lances], saktis [pikes], rstis [spears] and 
bhusundi weapons.

Dhruva Maharaja was completely covered by an incessant shower of weapons, just 
as a mountain is covered by incessant rainfall.

All the Siddhas from the higher planetary systems were observing the fight from 
the sky, and when they saw that Dhruva Maharaja had been covered by the 
incessant arrows of the enemy, they roared tumultuously, "The grandson of Manu, 
Dhruva, is now lost!" They cried that Dhruva Maharaja was just like the sun and 
that now he had set within the ocean of the Yaksas.

The Yaksas, being temporarily victorious, exclaimed that they had conquered 
Dhruva Maharaja. But in the meantime Dhruva's chariot suddenly appeared, just as 
the sun suddenly appears from within foggy mist.

Dhruva Maharaja's bow and arrows twanged and hissed, causing lamentation in the 
hearts of his enemies. He began to shoot incessant arrows, shattering all their 
different weapons, just as the blasting wind scatters the assembled clouds in 
the sky.

The sharp arrows released from the bow of Dhruva Maharaja pierced the shields 
and bodies of the enemy, like the thunderbolts released by the King of heaven, 
which dismantle the bodies of the mountains.

The great sage Maitreya continued: My dear Vidura, the heads of those who were 
cut to pieces by the arrows of Dhruva Maharaja were decorated very beautifully 
with earrings and turbans. The legs of their bodies were as beautiful as golden 
palm trees, their arms were decorated with golden bracelets and armlets, and on 
their heads there were very valuable helmets bedecked with gold. All these 
ornaments lying on that battlefield were very attractive and could bewilder the 
mind of a hero.

The remaining Yaksas who somehow or other were not killed had their limbs cut to 
pieces by the arrows of the great warrior Dhruva Maharaja. Thus they began to 
flee, just as elephants flee when defeated by a lion.

Dhruva Maharaja, the best of human beings, observed that in that great 
battlefield not one of the opposing soldiers was left standing with proper 
weapons. He then desired to see the city of Alakapuri, but he thought to 
himself, "No one knows the plans of the mystic Yaksas."

In the meantime, while Dhruva Maharaja, doubtful of his mystic enemies, was 
talking with his charioteer, they heard a tremendous sound, as if the whole 
ocean were there, and they found that from the sky a great dust storm was coming 
over them from all directions.

Within a moment the whole sky was overcast with dense clouds, and severe 
thundering was heard. There was glittering electric lightning and severe 

My dear faultless Vidura, in that rainfall there was blood, mucus, pus, stool, 
urine and marrow falling heavily before Dhruva Maharaja, and there were trunks 
of bodies falling from the sky.

Next, a great mountain was visible in the sky, and from all directions 
hailstones fell, along with lances, clubs, swords, iron bludgeons and great 
pieces of stone.

Dhruva Maharaja also saw many big serpents with angry eyes, vomiting forth fire 
and coming to devour him, along with groups of mad elephants, lions and tigers.

Then, as if it were the time of the dissolution of the whole world, the fierce 
sea with foaming waves and great roaring sounds came forward before him.

The demon Yaksas are by nature very heinous, and by their demoniac power of 
illusion they can create many strange phenomena to frighten one who is less 

When the great sages heard that Dhruva Maharaja was overpowered by the illusory 
mystic tricks of the demons, they immediately assembled to offer him auspicious 

All the sages said: Dear Dhruva, O son of King Uttanapada, may the Supreme 
Personality of Godhead known as Sarngadhanva, who relieves the distresses of His 
devotees, kill all your threatening enemies. The holy name of the Lord is as 
powerful as the Lord Himself. Therefore, simply by chanting and hearing the holy 
name of the Lord, many men can be fully protected from fierce death without 
difficulty. Thus a devotee is saved.

Chapter Eleven : Svayambuva Manu Advises Dhruva Maharaja to Stop Fighting

Sri Maitreya said: My dear Vidura, when Dhruva Maharaja heard the encouraging 
words of the great sages, he performed the acamana by touching water and then 
took up his arrow made by Lord Narayana and fixed it upon his bow.

As soon as Dhruva Maharaja joined the narayanastra arrow to his bow, the 
illusion created by the Yaksas was immediately vanquished, just as all material 
pains and pleasures are vanquished when one becomes fully cognizant of the self.

Even as Dhruva Maharaja fixed the weapon made by Narayana Rsi onto his bow, 
arrows with golden shafts and feathers like the wings of a swan flew out from 
it. They entered the enemy soldiers with a great hissing sound, just as peacocks 
enter a forest with tumultuous crowing.

Those sharp arrows dismayed the enemy soldiers, who became almost unconscious, 
but various Yaksas on the battlefield, in a rage against Dhruva Maharaja, 
somehow or other collected their weapons and attacked. Just as serpents agitated 
by Garuda rush towards Garuda with upraised hoods, all the Yaksa soldiers 
prepared to overcome Dhruva Maharaja with their upraised weapons.

When Dhruva Maharaja saw the Yaksas coming forward, he immediately took his 
arrows and cut the enemies to pieces. Separating their arms, legs, heads and 
bellies from their bodies, he delivered the Yaksas to the planetary system which 
is situated above the sun globe and which is attainable only by first-class 
brahmacaris, who have never discharged their semen.

When Svayambhuva Manu saw that his grandson Dhruva Maharaja was killing so many 
of the Yaksas who were not actually offenders, out of his great compassion he 
approached Dhruva with great sages to give him good instruction.

Lord Manu said: My dear son, please stop. It is not good to become unnecessarily 
angry--it is the path to hellish life. Now you are going beyond the limit by 
killing Yaksas who are actually not offenders.

My dear son, the killing of the sinless Yaksas which you have undertaken is not 
at all approved by authorities, and it does not befit our family, which is 
supposed to know the laws of religion and irreligion.

My dear son, it has been proved that you are very much affectionate towards your 
brother and are greatly aggrieved at his being killed by the Yaksas, but just 
consider--for one Yaksa's offense, you have killed many others, who are 

One should not accept the body as the self and thus, like the animals, kill the 
bodies of others. This is especially forbidden by saintly persons, who follow 
the path of devotional service to the Supreme Personality of Godhead.

It is very difficult to achieve the spiritual abode of Hari, in the Vaikuntha 
planets, but you are so fortunate that you are already destined to go to that 
abode by worshiping Him as the supreme abode of all living entities.

Because you are a pure devotee of the Lord, the Lord is always thinking of you, 
and you are also recognized by all His confidential devotees. Your life is meant 
for exemplary behavior. I am therefore surprised--why have you undertaken such 
an abominable task?

The Lord is very satisfied with His devotee when the devotee greets other people 
with tolerance, mercy, friendship and equality.

One who actually satisfies the Supreme Personality of Godhead during one's 
lifetime becomes liberated from the gross and subtle material conditions. Thus 
being freed from all material modes of nature, he achieves unlimited spiritual 

The creation of the material world begins with the five elements, and thus 
everything, including the body of a man or a woman, is created of these 
elements. By the sexual life of man and woman, the number of men and women in 
this material world is further increased.

Mahu continued: My dear King Dhruva, it is simply by the illusory, material 
energy of the Supreme Personality of Godhead and by the interaction of the three 
modes of material nature that creation, maintenance and annihilation take place.

My dear Dhruva, the Supreme Personality of Godhead is uncontaminated by the 
material modes of nature. He is the remote cause of the creation of this 
material cosmic manifestation. When He gives the impetus, many other causes and 
effects are produced, and thus the whole universe moves, just as iron moves by 
the integrated force of a magnet.

The Supreme Personality of Godhead, by His inconceivable supreme energy, time, 
causes the interaction of the three modes of material nature, and thus varieties 
of energy become manifest. It appears that He is acting, but He is not the 
actor. He is killing, but He is not the killer. Thus it is understood that only 
by His inconceivable power is everything happening.

My dear Dhruva, the Supreme Personality of Godhead is ever existing, but in the 
form of time, He is the killer of everything. He has no beginning, although He 
is the beginning of everything, nor is He ever exhaustible, although everything 
is exhausted in due course of time. The living entities are created through the 
agency of the father and killed through the agency of death, but He is 
perpetually free of birth and death.

The Supreme Personality of Godhead, in His feature of eternal time, is present 
in the material world and is neutral towards everyone. No one is His ally, and 
no one is His enemy. Within the jurisdiction of the time element, everyone 
enjoys or suffers the result of his own karma, or fruitive activities. As, when 
the wind blows, small particles of dust fly in the air, so, according to one's 
particular karma, one suffers or enjoys material life.

The Supreme Personality of Godhead, Vishnu, is all-powerful, and He awards the 
results of one's fruitive activities. Thus, although one living entity's 
duration of life is very small whereas that of another is very great, He is 
always in His transcendental position, and there is no question of lessening or 
increasing His duration of life.

The differentiation among varieties of life and their suffering and enjoyment is 
explained by some to be the result of karma. Others say it is due to nature, 
others due to time, others due to fate, and still others say that it is due to 

The Absolute Truth, Transcendence, is never subject to the understanding of 
imperfect sensory endeavor, nor is He subject to direct experience. He is the 
master of varieties of energies, like the full material energy, and no one can 
understand His plans or actions; therefore it should be concluded that although 
He is the original cause of all causes, no one can know Him by mental 

My dear son, those Yaksas, who are descendants of Kuvera, are not actually the 
killers of your brother; the birth and death of every living entity are caused 
by the Supreme, who is certainly the cause of all causes.

The Supreme Personality of Godhead creates this material world, maintains it, 
and annihilates it in due course of time, but because He is transcendental to 
such activities, He is never affected by ego in such action or by the modes of 
material nature.

The Supreme Personality of Godhead is the Supersoul of all living entities. He 
is the controller and maintainer of everyone; through the agency of His external 
energy, He creates, maintains and annihilates everyone.

My dear boy Dhruva, please surrender unto the Supreme Personality of Godhead, 
who is the ultimate goal of the progress of the world. Everyone, including the 
demigods headed by Lord Brahma, is working under His control, just as a bull, 
prompted by a rope in its nose, is controlled by its owner.

My dear Dhruva, at the age of only five years you were very grievously afflicted 
by the words of your mother's co-wife, and you very boldly gave up the 
protection of your mother and went to the forest to engage in the yogic process 
for realization of the Supreme Personality of Godhead. As a result of this you 
have already achieved the topmost position in all the three worlds.

My dear Dhruva, please, therefore, turn your attention to the Supreme Person, 
who is the infallible Brahman. Face the Supreme Personality of Godhead in your 
original position, and thus, by self-realization, you will find this material 
differentiation to be merely flickering.

Thus regaining your natural position and rendering service unto the Supreme 
Lord, who is the all-powerful reservoir of all pleasure and who lives in all 
living entities as the Supersoul, you will very soon forget the illusory 
understanding of "I" and "my."

My dear King, just consider what I have said to you, which will act as medicinal 
treatment upon disease. Control your anger, for anger is the foremost enemy on 
the path of spiritual realization. I wish all good fortune for you. Please 
follow my instructions.

A person who desires liberation from this material world should not fall under 
the control of anger because when bewildered by anger one becomes a source of 
dread for all others.

My dear Dhruva, you thought that the Yaksas killed your brother, and therefore 
you have killed great numbers of them. But by this action you have agitated the 
mind of Lord Shiva's brother Kuvera, who is the treasurer of the demigods. 
Please note that your actions have been very disrespectful to Kuvera and Lord 

For this reason, my son, you should immediately pacify Kuvera with gentle words 
and prayers, and thus his wrath may not affect our family.

Thus Svayambhuva Manu, after giving instruction to Dhruva Maharaja, his 
grandson, received respectful obeisances from him. Then Lord Manu and the great 
sages went back to their respective homes.

Chapter Twelve : Dhruva Maharaja Goes Back to Godhead

The great sage Maitreya said: My dear Vidura, Dhruva Maharaja's anger subsided, 
and he completely ceased killing Yaksas. When Kuvera, the most blessed master of 
the treasury, learned this news, he appeared before Dhruva. While being 
worshiped by Yaksas, Kinnaras and Caranas, he spoke to Dhruva Maharaja, who 
stood before him with folded hands.

The master of the treasury, Kuvera, said: O sinless son of a ksatriya, I am very 
glad to know that under the instruction of your grandfather you have given up 
your enmity, although it is very difficult to avoid. I am very pleased with you.

Actually, you have not killed the Yaksas, nor have they killed your brother, for 
the ultimate cause of generation and annihilation is the eternal time feature of 
the Supreme Lord.

Misidentification of oneself and others as "I" and "you" on the basis of the 
bodily concept of life is a product of ignorance. This bodily concept is the 
cause of repeated birth and death, and it makes us go on continuously in 
material existence.

My dear Dhruva, come forward. May the Lord always grace you with good fortune. 
The Supreme Personality of Godhead, who is beyond our sensory perception, is the 
Supersoul of all living entities, and thus all entities are one, without 
distinction. Begin, therefore, to render service unto the transcendental form of 
the Lord, who is the ultimate shelter of all living entities.

Engage yourself fully, therefore, in the devotional service of the Lord, for 
only He can deliver us from this entanglement of materialistic existence. 
Although the Lord is attached to His material potency, He is aloof from her 
activities. Everything in this material world is happening by the inconceivable 
potency of the Supreme Personality of Godhead.

My dear Dhruva Maharaja, son of Maharaja Uttanapada, we have heard that you are 
constantly engaged in transcendental loving service to the Supreme Personality 
of Godhead, who is known for His lotus navel. You are therefore worthy to take 
all benedictions from us. Please, therefore, ask without hesitation whatever 
benediction you want from me.

The great sage Maitreya continued: My dear Vidura, when thus asked to accept a 
benediction from Kuvera the Yaksaraja [King of the Yaksas], Dhruva Maharaja, 
that most elevated pure devotee, who was an intelligent and thoughtful king, 
begged that he might have unflinching faith in and remembrance of the Supreme 
Personality of Godhead, for thus a person can cross over the ocean of nescience 
very easily, although it is very difficult for others to cross.

The son of Idavida, Lord Kuvera, was very pleased, and happily he gave Dhruva 
Maharaja the benediction he wanted. Thereafter he disappeared from Dhruva's 
presence, and Dhruva Maharaja returned to his capital city.

As long as he remained at home, Dhruva Maharaja performed many great ceremonial 
sacrifices in order to please the enjoyer of all sacrifices, the Supreme 
Personality of Godhead. Prescribed ceremonial sacrifices are especially meant to 
please Lord Vishnu, who is the objective of all such sacrifices and who awards 
the resultant benedictions.

Dhruva Maharaja rendered devotional service unto the Supreme, the reservoir of 
everything, with unrelenting force. While carrying out his devotional service to 
the Lord, he could see that everything is situated in Him only and that He is 
situated in all living entities. The Lord is called Acyuta because He never 
fails in His prime duty, to give protection to His devotees.

Dhruva Maharaja was endowed with all godly qualities; he was very respectful to 
the devotees of the Supreme Lord and very kind to the poor and innocent, and he 
protected religious principles. With all these qualifications, he was considered 
to be the direct father of all the citizens.

Dhruva Maharaja ruled over this planet for thirty-six thousand years; he 
diminished the reactions of pious activities by enjoyment, and by practicing 
austerities he diminished inauspicious reactions.

The self-controlled great soul Dhruva Maharaja thus passed many, many years 
favorably executing three kinds of worldly activities, namely religiosity, 
economic development and satisfaction of all material desires. Thereafter he 
handed over the charge of the royal throne to his son.

Srila Dhruva Maharaja realized that this cosmic manifestation bewilders living 
entities like a dream or phantasmagoria because it is a creation of the 
illusory, external energy of the Supreme Lord.

Thus Dhruva Maharaja, at the end, left his kingdom, which extended all over the 
earth and was bounded by the great oceans. He considered his body, his wives, 
his children, his friends, his army, his rich treasury, his very comfortable 
palaces and his many enjoyable pleasure-grounds to be creations of the illusory 
energy. Thus in due course of time he retired to the forest in the Himalayas 
known as Badarikasrama.

In Badarikasrama Dhruva Maharaja's senses became completely purified because he 
bathed regularly in the crystal-clear purified water. He fixed his sitting 
position and by yogic practice controlled the breathing process and the air of 
life; in this way his senses were completely withdrawn. Then he concentrated his 
mind on the arca-vigraha form of the Lord, which is the exact replica of the 
Lord and, thus meditating upon Him, entered into complete trance.

Because of his transcendental bliss, incessant tears flowed from his eyes, his 
heart melted, and there was shivering and standing of the hairs all over his 
body. Thus transformed, in a trance of devotional service, Dhruva Maharaja 
completely forgot his bodily existence, and thus he immediately became liberated 
from material bondage.

As soon as the symptoms of his liberation were manifest, he saw a very beautiful 
airplane coming down from the sky, as if the brilliant full moon were coming 
down, illuminating all the ten directions.

Dhruva Maharaja saw two very beautiful associates of Lord Vishnu in the plane. 
They had four hands and a blackish bodily luster, they were very youthful, and 
their eyes were just like reddish lotus flowers. They held clubs in their hands, 
and they were dressed in very attractive garments with helmets and were 
decorated with necklaces, bracelets and earrings.

Dhruva Maharaja, seeing that these uncommon personalities were direct servants 
of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, immediately stood up. But, being puzzled, 
in hastiness he forgot how to receive them in the proper way. Therefore he 
simply offered obeisances with folded hands and chanted and glorified the holy 
names of the Lord.

Dhruva Maharaja was always absorbed in thinking of the lotus feet of Lord 
Krishna. His heart was full with Krishna. When the two confidential servants of 
the Supreme Lord, who were named Nanda and Sunanda, approached him, smiling 
happily, Dhruva stood with folded hands, bowing humbly. They then addressed him 
as follows.

Nanda and Sunanda, the two confidential associates of Lord Vishnu, said: Dear 
King, let there be all good fortune unto you. Please attentively hear what we 
shall say. When you were only five years old, you underwent severe austerities, 
and you thereby greatly satisfied the Supreme Personality of Godhead.

We are representatives of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, the creator of the 
whole universe, who carries in His hand the bow named Sarnga. We have been 
specifically deputed to take you to the spiritual world.

To achieve Vishnuloka is very difficult, but by your austerity you have 
conquered. Even the great rsis and demigods cannot achieve this position. Simply 
to see the supreme abode [the Vishnu planet], the sun and moon and all the other 
planets, stars, lunar mansions and solar systems are circumambulating it. Now 
please come; you are welcome to go there.

Dear King Dhruva, neither your forefathers nor anyone else before you ever 
achieved such a transcendental planet. The planet known as Vishnuloka, where 
Lord Vishnu personally resides, is the highest of all. It is worshipable by the 
inhabitants of all other planets within the universe. Please come with us and 
live there eternally.

O immortal one, this unique airplane has been sent by the Supreme Personality of 
Godhead, who is worshiped by selected prayers and who is the chief of all living 
entities. You are quite worthy to board such a plane.

The great sage Maitreya continued: Maharaja Dhruva was very dear to the Supreme 
Personality of Godhead. When he heard the sweet speeches of the Lord's chief 
associates in the Vaikuntha planet, he immediately took his sacred bath, dressed 
himself with suitable ornaments, and performed his daily spiritual duties. 
Thereafter he offered his respectful obeisances to the great sages present there 
and accepted their blessings.

Before getting aboard, Dhruva Maharaja worshiped the airplane, circumambulated 
it, and also offered obeisances to the associates of Vishnu. In the meantime he 
became as brilliant and illuminating as molten gold. He was thus completely 
prepared to board the transcendental plane.

When Dhruva Maharaja was attempting to get on the transcendental plane, he saw 
death personified approach him. Not caring for death, however, he took advantage 
of the opportunity to put his feet on the head of death, and thus he got up on 
the airplane, which was as big as a house.

At that time drums and kettledrums resounded from the sky, the chief Gandharvas 
began to sing and other demigods showered flowers like torrents of rain upon 
Dhruva Maharaja.

Dhruva was seated in the transcendental airplane, which was just about to start, 
when he remembered his poor mother, Suniti. He thought to himself, "How shall I 
go alone to the Vaikuntha planet and leave behind my poor mother?"

The great associates of Vaikunthaloka, Nanda and Sunanda, could understand the 
mind of Dhruva Maharaja, and thus they showed him that his mother, Suniti, was 
going forward in another plane.

While Dhruva Maharaja was passing through space, he gradually saw all the 
planets of the solar system, and on the path he saw all the demigods in their 
airplanes showering flowers upon him like rain.

Dhruva Maharaja thus surpassed the seven planetary systems of the great sages 
who are known as saptarsi. Beyond that region, he achieved the transcendental 
situation of permanent life in the planet where Lord Vishnu lives.

The self-effulgent Vaikuntha planets, by whose illumination alone all the 
illuminating planets within this material world give off reflected light, cannot 
be reached by those who are not merciful to other living entities. Only persons 
who constantly engage in welfare activities for other living entities can reach 
the Vaikuntha planets.

Persons who are peaceful, equipoised, cleansed and purified, and who know the 
art of pleasing all other living entities, keep friendship only with devotees of 
the Lord; they alone can very easily achieve the perfection of going back home, 
back to Godhead.

In this way, the fully Krishna conscious Dhruva Maharaja, the exalted son of 
Maharaja Uttanapada, attained the summit of the three statuses of planetary 

Saint Maitreya continued: My dear Vidura, descendant of Kuru, as a herd of bulls 
circumambulates a central pole on their right side, all the luminaries within 
the universal sky unceasingly circumambulate the abode of Dhruva Maharaja with 
great force and speed.

After observing the glories of Dhruva Maharaja, the great sage Narada, playing 
his vina, went to the sacrificial arena of the Pracetas and very happily chanted 
the following three verses.

The great sage Narada said: Simply by the influence of his spiritual advancement 
and powerful austerity, Dhruva Maharaja, the son of Suniti, who was devoted to 
her husband, acquired an exalted position not possible to attain even for the 
so-called Vedantists or strict followers of the Vedic principles, not to speak 
of ordinary human beings.

The great sage Narada continued: Just see how Dhruva Maharaja, aggrieved at the 
harsh words of his stepmother, went to the forest at the age of only five years 
and under my direction underwent austerity. Although the Supreme Personality of 
Godhead is unconquerable, Dhruva Maharaja defeated Him with the specific 
qualifications possessed by the Lord's devotees.

Dhruva Maharaja attained an exalted position at the age of only five or six 
years, after undergoing austerity for six months. Alas, a great ksatriya cannot 
achieve such a position even after undergoing austerities for many, many years.

The great sage Maitreya continued: My dear Vidura, whatever you have asked from 
me about the great reputation and character of Dhruva Maharaja I have explained 
to you in all detail. Great saintly persons and devotees very much like to hear 
about Dhruva Maharaja.

By hearing the narration of Dhruva Maharaja one can fulfill desires for wealth, 
reputation and increased duration of life. It is so auspicious that one can even 
go to a heavenly planet or attain Dhruvaloka, which was achieved by Dhruva 
Maharaja, just by hearing about him. The demigods also become pleased because 
this narration is so glorious, and it is so powerful that it can counteract all 
the results of one's sinful actions.

Anyone who hears the narration of Dhruva Maharaja, and who repeatedly tries with 
faith and devotion to understand his pure character, attains the pure devotional 
platform and executes pure devotional service. By such activities one can 
diminish the threefold miserable conditions of material life.

Anyone who hears this narration of Dhruva Maharaja acquires exalted qualities 
like him. For anyone who desires greatness, prowess or influence, here is the 
process by which to acquire them, and for thoughtful men who want adoration, 
here is the proper means.

The great sage Maitreya recommended: One should chant of the character and 
activities of Dhruva Maharaja both in the morning and in the evening, with great 
attention and care, in a society of brahmanas or other twice-born persons.

Persons who have completely taken shelter of the lotus feet of the Lord should 
recite this narration of Dhruva Maharaja without taking remuneration. 
Specifically, recitation is recommended on the full moon or dark moon day, on 
the day after Ekadasi, on the appearance of the Sravana star, at the end of a 
particular tithi, or the occasion of Vyatipata, at the end of the month, or on 
Sunday. Such recitation should of course be performed before a favorable 
audience. When recitation is performed this way, without professional motive, 
the reciter and audience become perfect.

The narration of Dhruva Maharaja is sublime knowledge for the attainment of 
immortality. Persons unaware of the Absolute Truth can be led to the path of 
truth. Those who out of transcendental kindness take on the responsibility of 
becoming master-protectors of the poor living entities automatically gain the 
interest and blessings of the demigods.

The transcendental activities of Dhruva Maharaja are well known all over the 
world, and they are very pure. In childhood Dhruva Maharaja rejected all kinds 
of toys and playthings, left the protection of his mother and seriously took 
shelter of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Vishnu. My dear Vidura, I 
therefore conclude this narration, for I have described to you all its details.

Chapter Thirteen : Description of the Descendants of Dhruva Maharaja

Suta Gosvami, continuing to speak to all the rsis, headed by Saunaka, said: 
After hearing Maitreya Rsi describe Dhruva Maharaja's ascent to Lord Vishnu's 
abode, Vidura became very much enlightened in devotional emotion, and he 
inquired from Maitreya as follows.

Vidura inquired from Maitreya: O greatly advanced devotee, who were the 
Pracetas? To which family did they belong? Whose sons were they, and where did 
they perform the great sacrifices?

Vidura continued: I know that the great sage Narada is the greatest of all 
devotees. He has compiled the pancaratrika procedure of devotional service and 
has directly met the Supreme Personality of Godhead.

While all the Pracetas were executing religious rituals and sacrificial 
ceremonies and thus worshiping the Supreme Personality of Godhead for His 
satisfaction, the great sage Narada described the transcendental qualities of 
Dhruva Maharaja.

My dear brahmana, how did Narada Muni glorify the Supreme Personality of 
Godhead, and what pastimes were described in that meeting? I am very eager to 
hear of them. Kindly explain fully about that glorification of the Lord.

The great sage Maitreya replied: My dear Vidura, when Maharaja Dhruva departed 
for the forest, his son, Utkala, did not desire to accept the opulent throne of 
his father, which was meant for the ruler of all the lands of this planet.

From his very birth, Utkala was fully satisfied and unattached to the world. He 
was equipoised, for he could see everything resting in the Supersoul and the 
Supersoul present in everyone's heart.

By expansion of his knowledge of the Supreme Brahman, he had already attained 
liberation from the bondage of the body. This liberation is known as nirvana. He 
was situated in transcendental bliss, and he continued always in that blissful 
existence, which expanded more and more. This was possible for him by continual 
practice of bhakti-yoga, which is compared to fire because it burns away all 
dirty, material things. He was always situated in his constitutional position of 
self-realization, and he could not see anything else but the Supreme Lord and 
himself engaged in discharging devotional service.

Utkala appeared to the less intelligent persons on the road to be foolish, 
blind, dumb, deaf and mad, although actually he was not so. He remained like 
fire covered with ashes, without blazing flames.

For this reason the ministers and all the elderly members of the family thought 
Utkala to be without intelligence and, in fact, mad. Thus his younger brother, 
named Vatsara, the son of Bhrami, was elevated to the royal throne, and he 
became king of the world.

King Vatsara had a very dear wife whose name was Svarvithi, and she gave birth 
to six sons, named Pusparna, Tigmaketu, Isa, Urja, Vasu and Jaya.

Pusparna had two wives, named Prabha and Dosa. Prabha had three sons, named 
Pratar, Madhyandinam and Sayam.

Dosa had three sons--Pradosa, Nisitha and Vyusta. Vyusta's wife was named 
Puskarini, and she gave birth to a very powerful son named Sarvateja.

Sarvateja's wife, Akuti, gave birth to a son named Caksusa, who became the sixth 
Manu at the end of the Manu millennium. Nadvala, the wife of Caksusa Manu, gave 
birth to the following faultless sons: Puru, Kutsa, Trita, Dyumna, Satyavan, 
Rta, Vrata, Agnistoma, Atiratra, Pradyumna, Sibi and Ulmuka.

Of the twelve sons, Ulmuka begot six sons in his wife Puskarini. They were all 
very good sons, and their names were Anga, Sumana, Khyati, Kratu, Angira and 

The wife of Anga, Sunitha, gave birth to a son named Vena, who was very crooked. 
The saintly King Anga was very disappointed with Vena's bad character, and he 
left home and kingdom and went out to the forest.

My dear Vidura, when great sages curse, their words are as invincible as a 
thunderbolt. Thus when they cursed King Vena out of anger, he died. After his 
death, since there was no king, all the rogues and thieves flourished, the 
kingdom became unregulated, and all the citizens suffered greatly. On seeing 
this, the great sages took the right hand of Vena as a churning rod, and as a 
result of their churning, Lord Vishnu in His partial representation made His 
advent as King Prthu, the original emperor of the world.

Vidura inquired from the sage Maitreya: My dear brahmana, King Anga was very 
gentle. He had high character and was a saintly personality and lover of 
brahminical culture. Mow is it that such a great soul got a bad son like Vena, 
because of whom he became indifferent to his kingdom and left it?

Vidura also inquired: How is it that the great sages, who were completely 
conversant with religious principles, desired to curse King Vena, who himself 
carried the rod of punishment, and thus awarded him the greatest punishment 

It is the duty of all citizens in a state never to insult the king, even though 
he sometimes appears to have done something very sinful. Because of his prowess, 
the king is always more influential than all other ruling chiefs.

Vidura requested Maitreya: My dear brahmana, you are well conversant with all 
subjects, both past and future. Therefore I wish to hear from you all the 
activities of King Vena. I am your faithful devotee, so please explain this.

Sri Maitreya replied: My dear Vidura, once the great King Anga arranged to 
perform the great sacrifice known as asvamedha. All the expert brahmanas present 
knew how to invite the demigods, but in spite of their efforts, no demigods 
participated or appeared in that sacrifice.

The priests engaged in the sacrifice then informed King Anga: O King, we are 
properly offering the clarified butter in the sacrifice, but despite all our 
efforts the demigods do not accept it.

O King, we know that the paraphernalia to perform the sacrifice is well 
collected by you with great faith and care and is not polluted. Our chanting of 
the Vedic hymns is also not deficient in any way, for all the brahmanas and 
priests present here are expert and are executing the performances properly.

Dear King, we do not find any reason that the demigods should feel insulted or 
neglected in any way, but still the demigods who are witnesses for the sacrifice 
do not accept their shares. We do not know why this is so.

Maitreya explained that King Anga, after hearing the statements of the priests, 
was greatly aggrieved. At that time he took permission from the priests to break 
his silence and inquired from all the priests who were present in the 
sacrificial arena.

King Anga addressed the priestly order: My dear priests, kindly tell me what 
offense I have committed. Although invited, the demigods are neither taking part 
in the sacrifice nor accepting their shares.

The head priests said: O King, in this life we do not find any sinful activity, 
even within your mind, so you are not in the least offensive. But we can see 
that in your previous life you performed sinful activities due to which, in 
spite of your having all qualifications, you have no son.

O King, we wish all good fortune for you. You have no son, but if you pray at 
once to the Supreme Lord and ask for a son, and if you execute the sacrifice for 
that purpose, the enjoyer of the sacrifice, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, 
will fulfill your desire.

When Hari, the supreme enjoyer of all sacrifices, is invited to fulfill your 
desire for a son, all the demigods will come with Him and take their shares in 
the sacrifice.

The performer of the sacrifices [under karma-kanda activities] achieves the 
fulfillment of the desire for which he worships the Lord.

Thus for the sake of a son for King Anga, they decided to offer oblations to 
Lord Vishnu, who is situated in the hearts of all living entities.

As soon as the oblation was offered in the fire, a person appeared from the fire 
altar wearing a golden garland and a white dress. He was carrying a golden pot 
filled with rice boiled in milk.

The King was very liberal, and after taking permission from the priests, he took 
the preparation in his joined palms, and after smelling it he offered a portion 
to his wife.

Although the Queen had no son, after eating that food, which had the power to 
produce a male child, she became pregnant by her husband, and in due course of 
time she gave birth to a son.

That boy was born partially in the dynasty of irreligion. His grandfather was 
death personified, and the boy grew up as his follower; he became a greatly 
irreligious person.

After fixing his bow and arrow, the cruel boy used to go to the forest and 
unnecessarily kill innocent deer, and as soon as he came all the people would 
cry, "Here comes cruel Vena! Here comes cruel Vena!"

The boy was so cruel that while playing with young boys of his age he would kill 
them very mercilessly, as if they were animals meant for slaughter.

After seeing the cruel and merciless behavior of his son, Vena, King Anga 
punished him in different ways to reform him, but was unable to bring him to the 
path of gentleness. He thus became greatly aggrieved.

The King thought to himself: Persons who have no son are certainly fortunate. 
They must have worshiped the Lord in their previous lives so that they would not 
have to suffer the unbearable unhappiness caused by a bad son.

A sinful son causes a person's reputation to vanish. His irreligious activities 
at home cause irreligion and quarrel among everyone, and this creates only 
endless anxiety.

Who, if he is considerate and intelligent, would desire such a worthless son? 
Such a son is nothing but a bond of illusion for the living entity, and he makes 
one's home miserable.

Then the King thought: A bad son is better than a good son because a good son 
creates an attachment for home, whereas a bad son does not. A bad son creates a 
hellish home from which an intelligent man naturally becomes very easily 

Thinking like that, King Anga could not sleep at night. He became completely 
indifferent to household life. Once, therefore, in the dead of night, he got up 
from bed and left Vena's mother [his wife], who was sleeping deeply. He gave up 
all attraction for his greatly opulent kingdom, and, unseen by anyone, he very 
silently gave up his home and opulence and proceeded towards the forest.

When it was understood that the King had indifferently left home, all the 
citizens, priests, ministers, friends, and people in general were greatly 
aggrieved. They began to search for him all over the world, just as a less 
experienced mystic searches out the Supersoul within himself.

When the citizens could not find any trace of the King after searching for him 
everywhere, they were very disappointed, and they returned to the city, where 
all the great sages of the country assembled because of the King's absence. With 
tears in their eyes the citizens offered respectful obeisances and informed the 
sages in full detail that they were unable to find the King anywhere.

Chapter Fourteen : The Story of King Vena

The great sage Maitreya continued: O great hero Vidura, the great sages, headed 
by Bhrgu, were always thinking of the welfare of the people in general. When 
they saw that in the absence of King Anga there was no one to protect the 
interests of the people, they understood that without a ruler the people would 
become independent and nonregulated.

The great sages then called for the Queen Mother, Sunitha, and with her 
permission they installed Vena on the throne as master of the world. All the 
ministers, however, disagreed with this.

It was already known that Vena was very severe and cruel; therefore, as soon as 
all the thieves and rogues in the state heard of his ascendance to the royal 
throne, they became very much afraid of him. Indeed, they hid themselves here 
and there as rats hide themselves from snakes.

When the King ascended to the throne, he became all-powerful with eight kinds of 
opulences. Consequently he became too proud. By virtue of his false prestige, he 
considered himself to be greater than anyone. Thus he began to insult great 

When he became overly blind due to his opulences, King Vena mounted a chariot 
and, like an uncontrolled elephant, began to travel through the kingdom, causing 
the sky and earth to tremble wherever he went.

All the twice-born [brahmanas] were forbidden henceforward to perform any 
sacrifice, and they were also forbidden to give charity or offer clarified 
butter. Thus King Vena sounded kettledrums throughout the countryside. In other 
words, he stopped all kinds of religious rituals.

Therefore all the great sages assembled together and, after observing cruel 
Vena's atrocities, concluded that a great danger and catastrophe was approaching 
the people of the world. Thus out of compassion they began to talk amongst 
themselves, for they themselves were the performers of the sacrifices.

When the great sages consulted one another, they saw that the people were in a 
dangerous position from both directions. When a fire blazes on both ends of a 
log, the ants in the middle are in a very dangerous situation. Similarly, at 
that time the people in general were in a dangerous position due to an 
irresponsible king on one side and thieves and rogues on the other.

Thinking to save the state from irregularity, the sages began to consider that 
it was due to a political crisis that they made Vena king although he was not 
qualified. But alas, now the people were being disturbed by the king himself. 
Under such circumstances, how could the people be happy?

The sages began to think within themselves: Because he was born from the womb of 
Sunitha, King Vena is by nature very mischievous. Supporting this mischievous 
king is exactly like maintaining a snake with milk. Now he has become a source 
of all difficulties.

We appointed this Vena king of the state in order to give protection to the 
citizens, but now he has become the enemy of the citizens. Despite all these 
discrepancies, we should at once try to pacify him. By doing so, we may not be 
touched by the sinful results caused by him.

The saintly sages continued thinking: Of course we are completely aware of his 
mischievous nature. Yet nevertheless we enthroned Vena. If we cannot persuade 
King Vena to accept our advice, he will be condemned by the public, and we will 
join them. Thus by our prowess we shall burn him to ashes.

The great sages, having thus decided, approached King Vena. Concealing their 
real anger, they pacified him with sweet words and then spoke as follows.

The great sages said: Dear King, we have come to give you good advice. Kindly 
hear us with great attention. By doing so, your duration of life and your 
opulence, strength and reputation will increase.

Those who live according to religious principles and who follow them by words, 
mind, body and intelligence are elevated to the heavenly kingdom, which is 
devoid of all miseries. Being thus rid of the material influence, they achieve 
unlimited happiness in life.

The sages continued: O great hero, for this reason you should not be the cause 
of spoiling the spiritual life of the general populace. If their spiritual life 
is spoiled because of your activities, you will certainly fall down from your 
opulent and royal position.

The saintly persons continued: When the king protects the citizens from the 
disturbances of mischievous ministers as well as from thieves and rogues, he 
can, by virtue of such pious activities, accept taxes given by his subjects. 
Thus a pious king can certainly enjoy himself in this world as well as in the 
life after death.

The king is supposed to be pious in whose state and cities the general populace 
strictly observes the system of eight social orders of varna and asrama, and 
where all citizens engage in worshiping the Supreme Personality of Godhead by 
their particular occupations.

O noble one, if the king sees that the Supreme Personality of Godhead, the 
original cause of the cosmic manifestation and the Supersoul within everyone, is 
worshiped, the Lord will be satisfied.

The Supreme Personality of Godhead is worshiped by the great demigods, 
controllers of universal affairs. When He is satisfied, nothing is impossible to 
achieve. For this reason all the demigods, presiding deities of different 
planets, as well as the inhabitants of their planets, take great pleasure in 
offering all kinds of paraphernalia for His worship.

Dear King, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, along with the predominating 
deities, is the enjoyer of the results of all sacrifices in all planets. The 
Supreme Lord is the sum total of the three Vedas, the owner of everything, and 
the ultimate goal of all austerity. Therefore your countrymen should engage in 
performing various sacrifices for your elevation. Indeed, you should always 
direct them towards the offering of sacrifices.

When all the brahmanas engage in performing sacrifices in your kingdom, all the 
demigods, who are plenary expansions of the Lord, will be very much satisfied by 
their activities and will give you your desired result. Therefore, O hero, do 
not stop the sacrificial performances. If you stop them, you will disrespect the 

King Vena replied: You are not at all experienced. It is very much regrettable 
that you are maintaining something which is not religious and are accepting it 
as religious. Indeed, I think you are giving up your real husband, who maintains 
you, and are searching after some paramour to worship.

Those who, out of gross ignorance, do not worship the king, who is actually the 
Supreme Personality of Godhead, experience happiness neither in this world nor 
in the world after death.

You are so much devoted to the demigods, but who are they? Indeed, your 
affection for these demigods is exactly like the affection of an unchaste woman 
who neglects her married life and gives all attention to her paramour.

Lord Vishnu; Lord Brahma; Lord Shiva; Lord Indra; Vayu, the master of air; Yama, 
the superintendent of death; the sun-god; the director of rainfall; Kuvera, the 
treasurer; the moon-god; the predominating deity of the earth; Agni, the fire-
god; Varuna, the lord of waters, and all others who are great and competent to 
bestow benedictions or to curse, all abide in the body of the king. For this 
reason the king is known as the reservoir of all demigods, who are simply parts 
and parcels of the king's body.

King Vena continued: For this reason, O brahmanas, you should abandon your envy 
of me, and, by your ritualistic activities, you should worship me and offer me 
all paraphernalia. If you are intelligent, you should know that there is no 
personality superior to me, who can accept the first oblations of all 

The great sage Maitreya continued: Thus the King, who became unintelligent due 
to his sinful life and deviation from the right path, became actually bereft of 
all good fortune. He could not accept the requests of the great sages, which the 
sages put before him with great respect, and therefore he was condemned.

My dear Vidura, all good fortune unto you. The foolish King, who thought himself 
very learned, thus insulted the great sages, and the sages, being brokenhearted 
by the King's words, became very angry at him.

All the great saintly sages immediately cried: Kill him! Kill him! He is the 
most dreadful, sinful person. If he lives, he will certainly turn the whole 
world into ashes in no time.

The saintly sages continued: This impious, impudent man does not deserve to sit 
on the throne at all. He is so shameless that he even dared insult the Supreme 
Personality of Godhead, Lord Vishnu.

But for King Vena, who is simply inauspicious, who would blaspheme the Supreme 
Personality of Godhead, by whose mercy one is awarded all kinds of fortune and 

The great sages, thus manifesting their covert anger, immediately decided to 
kill the King. King Vena was already as good as dead due to his blasphemy 
against the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Thus without using any weapons, the 
sages killed King Vena simply by high-sounding words.

After all the sages returned to their respective hermitages, the mother of King 
Vena, Sunitha, became very much aggrieved because of her son's death. She 
decided to preserve the dead body of her son by the application of certain 
ingredients and by chanting mantras [mantra-yogena].

Once upon a time, the same saintly persons, after taking their bath in the River 
Sarasvati, began to perform their daily duties by offering oblations into the 
sacrificial fires. After this, sitting on the bank of the river, they began to 
talk about the transcendental person and His pastimes.

In those days there were various disturbances in the country that were creating 
a panic in society. Therefore all the sages began to talk amongst themselves: 
Since the King is dead and there is no protector in the world, misfortune may 
befall the people in general on account of rogues and thieves.

When the great sages were carrying on their discussion in this way, they saw a 
dust storm arising from all directions. This storm was caused by the running of 
thieves and rogues, who were engaged in plundering the citizens.

Upon seeing the dust storm, the saintly persons could understand that there were 
a great deal of irregularities due to the death of King Vena. Without 
government, the state was devoid of law and order, and consequently there was a 
great uprising of murderous thieves and rogues, who were plundering the riches 
of the people in general. Although the great sages could subdue the disturbance 
by their powers--just as they could kill the King--they considered it improper 
on their part to do so. Thus they did not attempt to stop the disturbance.

The great sages began to think that although a brahmana is peaceful and 
impartial because he is equal to everyone, it is still not his duty to neglect 
poor humans. By such neglect, a brahmana's spiritual power diminishes, just as 
water kept in a cracked pot leaks out.

The sages decided that the descendants of the family of the saintly King Anga 
should not be stopped, for in this family the semen was very powerful and the 
children were prone to become devotees of the Lord.

After making a decision, the saintly persons and sages churned the thighs of the 
dead body of King Vena with great force and according to a specific method. As a 
result of this churning, a dwarf-like person was born from King Vena's body.

This person born from King Vena's thighs was named Bahuka, and his complexion 
was as black as a crow's. All the limbs of his body were very short, his arms 
and legs were short, and his jaws were large. His nose was flat, his eyes were 
reddish, and his hair copper-colored.

He was very submissive and meek, and immediately after his birth he bowed down 
and inquired, "Sirs, what shall I do?" The great sages replied, "Please sit down 
[nisida]." Thus Nisada, the father of the Naisada race, was born.

After his [Nisada's] birth, he immediately took charge of all the resultant 
actions of King Vena's sinful activities. As such, this Naisada class are always 
engaged in sinful activities like stealing, plundering and hunting. Consequently 
they are only allowed to live in the hills and forests.

Chapter Fifteen : King Prthu's Appearance and Coronation

The great sage Maitreya continued: My dear Vidura, thus the brahmanas and the 
great sages again churned the two arms of King Vena's dead body. As a result a 
male and female couple came out of his arms.

The great sages were highly learned in Vedic knowledge. When they saw the male 
and female born of the arms of Vena's body, they were very pleased, for they 
could understand that the couple was an expansion of a plenary portion of 
Vishnu, the Supreme Personality of Godhead.

The great sages said: The male is a plenary expansion of the power of Lord 
Vishnu, who maintains the entire universe, and the female is a plenary expansion 
of the goddess of fortune, who is never separated from the Lord.

Of the two, the male will be able to expand his reputation throughout the world. 
His name will be Prthu. Indeed, he will be the first among kings.

The female has such beautiful teeth and beautiful qualities that she will 
actually beautify the ornaments she wears. Her name will be Arci. In the future 
she will accept King Prthu as her husband.

In the form of King Prthu, the Supreme Personality of Godhead has appeared 
through a part of His potency to protect the people of the world. The goddess of 
fortune is the constant companion of the Lord, and therefore she has incarnated 
partially as Arci to become King Prthu's queen.

The great sage Maitreya continued: My dear Viduraji, at that time all the 
brahmanas highly praised and glorified King Prthu, and the best singers of 
Gandharvaloka chanted his glories. The inhabitants of Siddhaloka showered 
flowers, and the beautiful women in the heavenly planets danced in ecstasy.

Conchshells, bugles, drums and kettledrums vibrated in outer space. Great sages, 
forefathers and personalities from the heavenly planets all came to earth from 
various planetary systems.

Lord Brahma, the master of the entire universe, arrived there accompanied by all 
the demigods and their chiefs. Seeing the lines of Lord Vishnu's palm on King 
Prthu's right hand and impressions of lotus flowers on the soles of his feet, 
Lord Brahma could understand that King Prthu was a partial representation of the 
Supreme Personality of Godhead. One whose palm bears the sign of a disc, as well 
as other such lines, should be considered a partial representation or 
incarnation of the Supreme Lord.

The learned brahmanas, who were very attached to the Vedic ritualistic 
ceremonies, then arranged for the King's coronation. People from all directions 
collected all the different paraphernalia for the ceremony. Thus everything was 

All the rivers, seas, hills, mountains, serpents, cows, birds, animals, heavenly 
planets, the earthly planet and all other living entities collected various 
presentations, according to their ability, to offer the King.

Thus the great King Prthu, exquisitely dressed with garments and ornaments, was 
coronated and placed on the throne. The King and his wife, Arci, who was also 
exquisitely ornamented, appeared exactly like fire.

The great sage continued: My dear Vidura, Kuvera presented the great King Prthu 
with a golden throne. The demigod Varuna presented him with an umbrella that 
constantly sprayed fine particles of water and was as brilliant as the moon.

The demigod of air, Vayu, presented King Prthu with two whisks [camaras] of 
hair; the King of religion, Dharma, presented him with a flower garland which 
would expand his fame; the King of heaven, Indra, presented him with a valuable 
helmet; and the superintendent of death, Yamaraja, presented him with a sceptor 
with which to rule the world.

Lord Brahma presented King Prthu with a protective garment made of spiritual 
knowledge. Bharati [Sarasvati], the wife of Brahma, gave him a transcendental 
necklace. Lord Vishnu presented him with a Sudarsana disc, and Lord Vishnu's 
wife, the goddess of fortune, gave him imperishable opulences.

Lord Shiva presented him with a sword within a sheath marked with ten moons, and 
his wife, the goddess Durga, presented him with a shield marked with one hundred 
moons. The moon-demigod presented him with horses made of nectar, and the 
demigod Visvakarma presented him with a very beautiful chariot.

The demigod of fire, Agni, presented him with a bow made of the horns of goats 
and cows. The sun-god presented him with arrows as brilliant as sunshine. The 
predominating deity of Bhurloka presented him with slippers full of mystic 
power. The demigods from outer space brought him presentations of flowers again 
and again.

The demigods who always travel in outer space gave King Prthu the arts to 
perform dramas, sing songs, play musical instruments and disappear at his will. 
The great sages also offered him infallible blessings. The ocean offered him a 
conchshell produced from the ocean.

The seas, mountains and rivers gave him room to drive his chariot without 
impediments, and a suta, a magadha and a vandi offered prayers and praises. They 
all presented themselves before him to perform their respective duties.

Thus when the greatly powerful King Prthu, the son of Vena, saw the 
professionals before him, to congratulate them he smiled, and with the gravity 
of the vibrating sounds of clouds he spoke as follows.

King Prthu said: O gentle suta, magadha and other devotee offering prayers, the 
qualities of which you have spoken are not distinct in me. Why then should you 
praise me for all these qualities when I do not shelter these features? I do not 
wish for these words meant for me to go in vain, but it is better that they be 
offered to someone else.

O gentle reciters, offer such prayers in due course of time, when the qualities 
of which you have spoken actually manifest themselves in me. The gentle who 
offer prayers to the Supreme Personality of Godhead do not attribute such 
qualities to a human being, who does not actually have them.

How could an intelligent man competent enough to possess such exalted qualities 
allow his followers to praise him if he did not actually have them? Praising a 
man by saying that if he were educated he might have become a great scholar or 
great personality is nothing but a process of cheating. A foolish person who 
agrees to accept such praise does not know that such words simply insult him.

As a person with a sense of honor and magnanimity does not like to hear about 
his abominable actions, a person who is very famous and powerful does not like 
to hear himself praised.

King Prthu continued: My dear devotees, headed by the suta, just now I am not 
very famous for my personal activities because I have not done anything 
praiseworthy you could glorify. Therefore how could I engage you in praising my 
activities exactly like children?

Chapter Sixteen : Praise of King Prthu by the Professional Reciters

The great sage Maitreya continued: While King Prthu thus spoke, the humility of 
his nectarean speeches pleased the reciters very much. Then again they continued 
to praise the King highly with exalted prayers, as they had been instructed by 
the great sages.

The reciters continued: Dear King, you are a direct incarnation of the Supreme 
Personality of Godhead, Lord Vishnu, and by His causeless mercy you have 
descended on this earth. Therefore it is not possible for us to actually glorify 
your exalted activities. Although you have appeared through the body of King 
Vena, even great orators and speakers like Lord Brahma and other demigods cannot 
exactly describe the glorious activities of Your Lordship.

Although we are unable to glorify you adequately, we nonetheless have a 
transcendental taste for glorifying your activities. We shall try to glorify you 
according to the instructions received from authoritative sages and scholars. 
Whatever we speak, however, is always inadequate and very insignificant. Dear 
King, because you are a direct incarnation of the Supreme Personality of 
Godhead, all your activities are liberal and ever laudable.

This King, Maharaja Prthu, is the best amongst those who are following religious 
principles. As such, he will engage everyone in the pursuit of religious 
principles and give those principles all protection. He will also be a great 
chastiser to the irreligious and atheistic.

This King alone, in his own body, will be able in due course of time to maintain 
all living entities and keep them in a pleasant condition by manifesting himself 
as different demigods to perform various departmental activities. Thus he will 
maintain the upper planetary system by inducing the populace to perform Vedic 
sacrifices. In due course of time he will also maintain this earthly planet by 
discharging proper rainfall.

This King Prthu will be as powerful as the sun-god, and just as the sun-god 
equally distributes his sunshine to everyone, King Prthu will distribute his 
mercy equally. Similarly, just as the sun-god evaporates water for eight months 
and, during the rainy season, returns it profusely, this King will also exact 
taxes from the citizens and return these monies in times of need.

This King Prthu will be very, very kind to all citizens. Even though a poor 
person may trample over the King's head by violating the rules and regulations, 
the King, out of his causeless mercy, will be forgetful and forgiving. As a 
protector of the world, he will be as tolerant as the earth itself.

When there is no rainfall and the citizens are in great danger due to the 
scarcity of water, this royal Personality of Godhead will be able to supply 
rains exactly like the heavenly King Indra. Thus he will very easily be able to 
protect the citizens from drought.

This King, Prthu Maharaja, by virtue of his affectionate glances and beautiful 
moonlike face, which is always smiling with great affection for the citizens, 
will enhance everyone's peaceful life.

The reciters continued: No one will be able to understand the policies the King 
will follow. His activities will also be very confidential, and it will not be 
possible for anyone to know how he will make every activity successful. His 
treasury will always remain unknown to everyone. He will be the reservoir of 
unlimited glories and good qualities, and his position will be maintained and 
covered just as Varuna, the deity of the seas, is covered all around by water.

King Prthu was born of the dead body of King Vena as fire is produced from arani 
wood. Thus King Prthu will always remain just like fire, and his enemies will 
not be able to approach him. Indeed, he will be unbearable to his enemies, for 
although staying very near him, they will never be able to approach him but will 
have to remain as if far away. No one will be able to overcome the strength of 
King Prthu.

King Prthu will be able to see all the internal and external activities of every 
one of his citizens. Still no one will be able to know his system of espionage, 
and he himself will remain neutral regarding all matters of glorification or 
vilification paid to him. He will be exactly like air, the life force within the 
body, which is exhibited internally and externally but is always neutral to all 

Since this King will always remain on the path of piety, he will be neutral to 
both his son and the son of his enemy. If the son of his enemy is not 
punishable, he will not punish him, but if his own son is punishable, he will 
immediately punish him.

Just as the sun-god expands his shining rays up to the Arctic region without 
impedance, the influence of King Prthu will cover all tracts of land up to the 
Arctic region and will remain undisturbed as long as he lives.

This King will please everyone by his practical activities, and all of his 
citizens will remain very satisfied. Because of this the citizens will take 
great satisfaction in accepting him as their ruling king.

The King will be firmly determined and always situated in truth. He will be a 
lover of the brahminical culture and will render all service to old men and give 
shelter to all surrendered souls. Giving respect to all, he will always be 
merciful to the poor and innocent.

The King will respect all women as if they were his own mother, and he will 
treat his own wife as the other half of his body. He will be just like an 
affectionate father to his citizens, and he will treat himself as the most 
obedient servant of the devotees, who always preach the glories of the Lord.

The King will consider all embodied living entities as dear as his own self, and 
he will always be increasing the pleasures of his friends. He will intimately 
associate with liberated persons, and he will be a chastising hand to all 
impious persons.

This King is the master of the three worlds, and he is directly empowered by the 
Supreme Personality of Godhead. He is without change, and he is an incarnation 
of the Supreme known as a saktyavesa-avatara. Being a liberated soul and 
completely learned, he sees all material varieties as meaningless because their 
basic principle is nescience.

This King, being uniquely powerful and heroic, will have no competitor. He will 
travel around the globe on his victorious chariot, holding his invincible bow in 
his hand and appearing exactly like the sun, which rotates in its own orbit from 
the south.

When the King travels all over the world, other kings, as well as the demigods, 
will offer him all kinds of presentations. Their queens will also consider him 
the original king, who carries in His hands the emblems of club and disc, and 
will sing of his fame, for he will be as reputable as the Supreme Personality of 

This King, this protector of the citizens, is an extraordinary king and is equal 
to the Prajapati demigods. For the living facility of all citizens, he will milk 
the earth, which is like a cow. Not only that, but he will level the surface of 
the earth with the pointed ends of his bow, breaking all the hills exactly as 
King Indra, the heavenly King, breaks mountains with his powerful thunderbolt.

When the lion travels in the forest with its tail turned upward, all menial 
animals hide themselves. Similarly, when King Prthu will travel over his kingdom 
and vibrate the string of his bow, which is made of the horns of goats and bulls 
and is irresistible in battle, all demoniac rogues and thieves will hide 
themselves in all directions.

At the source of the River Sarasvati, this King will perform one hundred 
sacrifices known as asvamedha. In the course of the last sacrifice, the heavenly 
King Indra will steal the sacrificial horse.

This King Prthu will meet Sanat-kumara, one of the four Kumaras, in the garden 
of his palace compound. The King will worship him with devotion and will be 
fortunate to receive instructions by which one can enjoy transcendental bliss.

In this way when the chivalrous activities of King Prthu come to be known to the 
people in general, King Prthu will always hear about himself and his uniquely 
powerful activities.

No one will be able to disobey the orders of Prthu Maharaja. After conquering 
the world, he will completely eradicate the threefold miseries of the citizens. 
Then he will be recognized all over the world. At that time both the suras and 
the asuras will undoubtedly glorify his magnanimous activities.

Chapter Seventeen : Maharaja Prthu Becomes Angry at the Earth

The great sage Maitreya continued: In this way the reciters who were glorifying 
Maharaja Prthu readily described his qualities and chivalrous activities. At the 
end, Maharaja Prthu offered them various presentations with all due respect and 
worshiped them adequately.

King Prthu thus satisfied and offered all respect to all the leaders of the 
brahmanas and other castes, to his servants, to his ministers and to the 
priests, citizens, general countrymen, people from other communities, admirers 
and others, and thus they all became happy.

Vidura inquired from the great sage Maitreya: My dear brahmana, since mother 
earth can appear in different shapes, why did she take the shape of a cow? And 
when King Prthu milked her, who became the calf, and what was the milking pot?

The surface of the earth is by nature low in some places and high in others. How 
did King Prthu level the surface of the earth, and why did the King of heaven, 
Indra, steal the horse meant for the sacrifice ?

The great saintly King, Maharaja Prthu, received knowledge from Sanat-kumara, 
who was the greatest Vedic scholar. After receiving knowledge to be applied 
practically in his life, how did the saintly King attain his desired 

Prthu Maharaja was a powerful incarnation of Lord Krishna's potencies; 
consequently any narration concerning his activities is surely very pleasing to 
hear, and it produces all good fortune. As far as I am concerned, I am always 
your devotee as well as a devotee of the Lord, who is known as Adhoksaja. Please 
therefore narrate all the stories of King Prthu, who, in the form of the son of 
King Vena, milked the cow-shaped earth.

Suta Gosvami continued: When Vidura became inspired to hear of the activities of 
Lord Krishna in His various incarnations, Maitreya, also being inspired and 
being very pleased with Vidura, began to praise him. Then Maitreya spoke as 

The great sage Maitreya continued: My dear Vidura, at the time King Prthu was 
enthroned by the great sages and brahmanas and declared to be the protector of 
the citizens, there was a scarcity of food grains. The citizens actually became 
skinny due to starvation. Therefore they came before the King and informed him 
of their real situation.

Dear King, just as a tree with a fire burning in the hollow of the trunk 
gradually dries up, we are drying up due to the fire of hunger in our stomachs. 
You are the protector of surrendered souls, and you have been appointed to give 
employment to us. Therefore we have all come to you for protection. You are not 
only a king, but the incarnation of God as well. Indeed, you are the king of all 
kings. You can give us all kinds of occupational engagements, for you are the 
master of our livelihood. Therefore, O king of all kings, please arrange to 
satisfy our hunger by the proper distribution of food grains. Please take care 
of us, lest we soon die for want of food.

After hearing this lamentation and seeing the pitiable condition of the 
citizens, King Prthu contemplated this matter for a long time to see if he could 
find out the underlying causes.

Having arrived at a conclusion, the King took up his bow and arrow and aimed 
them at the earth, exactly like Lord Shiva, who destroys the whole world out of 

When the earth saw that King Prthu was taking his bow and arrow to kill her, she 
became very much afraid and began to tremble. She then began to flee, exactly 
like a deer, which runs very swiftly when followed by a hunter. Being afraid of 
King Prthu, she took the shape of a cow and began to run.

Seeing this, Maharaja Prthu became very angry, and his eyes became as red as the 
early-morning sun. Placing an arrow on his bow, he chased the cow-shaped earth 
wherever she would run.

The cow-shaped earth ran here and there in outer space between the heavenly 
planets and the earth, and wherever she ran, the King chased her with his bow 
and arrows.

Just as a man cannot escape the cruel hands of death, the cow-shaped earth could 
not escape the hands of the son of Vena. At length the earth, fearful, her heart 
aggrieved, turned back in helplessness.

Addressing the great, opulent King Prthu as the knower of religious principles 
and shelter of the surrendered, she said: Please save me. You are the protector 
of all living entities. Now you are situated as the King of this planet.

The cow-shaped earth continued to appeal to the King: I am very poor and have 
not committed any sinful activities. I do not know why you want to kill me. 
Since you are supposed to be the knower of all religious principles, why are you 
so envious of me, and why are you so anxious to kill a woman?

Even if a woman does commit some sinful activity, no one should place his hand 
upon her. And what to speak of you, dear King, who are so merciful. You are a 
protector, and you are affectionate to the poor.

The cow-shaped earth continued: My dear King, I am just like a strong boat, and 
all the paraphernalia of the world is standing upon me. If you break me to 
pieces, how can you protect yourself and your subjects from drowning?

King Prthu replied to the earthly Planet: My dear earth, you have disobeyed my 
orders and rulings. In the form of a demigod you accepted your share of the 
yajnas we performed, but in return you have not produced sufficient food grains. 
For this reason I must kill you.

Although you are eating green grass every day, you are not filling your milk bag 
so we can utilize your milk. Since you are willfully committing offenses, it 
cannot be said that you are not punishable due to your assuming the form of a 

You have so lost your intelligence that, despite my orders, you do not deliver 
the seeds of herbs and grains formerly created by Brahma and now hidden within 

Now, with the help of my arrows, I shall cut you to pieces and with your flesh 
satisfy the hunger-stricken citizens, who are now crying for want of grains. 
Thus I shall satisfy the crying citizens of my kingdom.

Any cruel person--be he a man, woman or impotent eunuch--who is only interested 
in his personal maintenance and has no compassion for other living entities may 
be killed by the king. Such killing can never be considered actual killing.

You are very much puffed up with pride and have become almost insane. Presently 
you have assumed the form of a cow by your mystic powers. Nonetheless I shall 
cut you into small pieces like grain, and I will uphold the entire population by 
my personal mystic powers.

At this time Prthu Maharaja became exactly like Yamaraja, and his whole body 
appeared very angry. In other words, he was anger personified. After hearing 
him, the planet earth began to tremble. She surrendered, and with folded hands 
began to speak as follows.

The planet earth spoke: My dear Lord, O Supreme Personality of Godhead, You are 
transcendental in Your position, and by Your material energy You have expanded 
Yourself in various forms and species of life through the interaction of the 
three modes of material nature. Unlike some other masters, You always remain in 
Your transcendental position and are not affected by the material creation, 
which is subject to different material interactions. Consequently You are not 
bewildered by material activities.

The planet earth continued: My dear Lord, You are the complete conductor of the 
material creation. You have created this cosmic manifestation and the three 
material qualities, and therefore You have created me, the planet earth, the 
resting place of all living entities. Yet You are always fully independent, my 
Lord. Now that You are present before me and ready to kill me with Your weapons, 
let me know where I should go to take shelter, and tell me who can give me 

In the beginning of creation You created all these moving and nonmoving living 
entities by Your inconceivable energy. Through this very same energy You are now 
prepared to protect the living entities. Indeed, You are the supreme protector 
of religious principles. Why are You so anxious to kill me, even though I am in 
the form of a cow?

My dear Lord, although You are one, by Your inconceivable potencies You have 
expanded Yourself in many forms. Through the agency of Brahma, You have created 
this universe. You are therefore directly the Supreme Personality of Godhead. 
Those who are not sufficiently experienced cannot understand Your transcendental 
activities because these persons are covered by Your illusory energy.

My dear Lord, by Your own potencies You are the original cause of the material 
elements, as well as the performing instruments (the senses), the workers of the 
senses (the controlling demigods), the intelligence and the ego, as well as 
everything else. By Your energy You manifest this entire cosmic creation, 
maintain it and dissolve it. Through Your energy alone everything is sometimes 
manifest and sometimes not manifest. You are therefore the Supreme Personality 
of Godhead, the cause of all causes. I offer my respectful obeisances unto You.

My dear Lord, You are always unborn. Once, in the form of the original boar, You 
rescued me from the waters in the bottom of the universe. Through Your own 
energy You created all the physical elements, the senses and the heart, for the 
maintenance of the world.

My dear Lord, in this way You once protected me by rescuing me from the water, 
and consequently Your name has been famous as Dharadhara--He who holds the 
planet earth. Yet at the present moment, in the form of a great hero, You are 
about to kill me with sharpened arrows. I am, however, just like a boat on the 
water, keeping everything afloat.

My dear Lord, I am also the creation of one of Your energies, composed of the 
three modes of material nature. Consequently I am bewildered by Your activities. 
Even the activities of Your devotees cannot be understood, and what to speak of 
Your pastimes. Thus everything appears to us to be contradictory and wonderful.

Chapter Eighteen :Prthu Maharaja Milks the Earth Planet

The great saint Maitreya continued to address Vidura: My dear Vidura, at that 
time, after the planet earth finished her prayers, King Prthu was still not 
pacified, and his lips trembled in great anger. Although the planet earth was 
frightened, she made up her mind and began to speak as follows in order to 
convince the King.

My dear Lord, please pacify your anger completely and hear patiently whatever I 
submit before you. Please turn your kind attention to this. I may be very poor, 
but a learned man takes the essence of knowledge from all places, just as a 
bumblebee collects honey from each and every flower.

To benefit all human society, not only in this life but in the next, the great 
seers and sages have prescribed various methods conducive to the prosperity of 
the people in general.

One who follows the principles and instructions enjoined by the great sages of 
the past can utilize these instructions for practical purposes. Such a person 
can very easily enjoy life and pleasures.

A foolish person who manufactures his own ways and means through mental 
speculation and does not recognize the authority of the sages who lay down 
unimpeachable directions is simply unsuccessful again and again in his attempts.

My dear King, the seeds, roots, herbs and grains, which were created by Lord 
Brahma in the past, are now being used by nondevotees, who are devoid of all 
spiritual understanding.

My dear King, not only are grains and herbs being used by nondevotees, but, as 
far as I am concerned, I am not being properly maintained. Indeed, I am being 
neglected by kings who are not punishing these rascals who have turned into 
thieves by using grains for sense gratification. Consequently I have hidden all 
these seeds, which were meant for the performance of sacrifice.

Due to being stocked for a very long time, all the grain seeds within me have 
certainly deteriorated. Therefore you should immediately arrange to take these 
seeds out by the standard process, which is recommended by the acaryas or 

O great hero, protector of living entities, if you desire to relieve the living 
entities by supplying them sufficient grain, and if you desire to nourish them 
by taking milk from me, you should make arrangements to bring a calf suitable 
for this purpose and a pot in which the milk can be kept, as well as a milkman 
to do the work. Since I will be very much affectionate towards my calf, your 
desire to take milk from me will be fulfilled.

My dear King, may I inform you that you have to make the entire surface of the 
globe level. This will help me, even when the rainy season has ceased. Rainfall 
comes by the mercy of King Indra. Rainfall will remain on the surface of the 
globe, always keeping the earth moistened, and thus it will be auspicious for 
all kinds of production.

After hearing the auspicious and pleasing words of the planet earth, the King 
accepted them. He then transformed Svayambhuva Manu into a calf and milked all 
the herbs and grains from the earth in the form of a cow, keeping them in his 
cupped hands.

Others, who were as intelligent as King Prthu, also took the essence out of the 
earthly planet. Indeed, everyone took this opportunity to follow in the 
footsteps of King Prthu and get whatever he desired from the planet earth.

All the great sages transformed Brhaspati into a calf, and making the senses 
into a pot, they milked all kinds of Vedic knowledge to purify words, mind and 

All the demigods made Indra, the King of heaven, into a calf, and from the earth 
they milked the beverage soma, which is nectar. Thus they became very powerful 
in mental speculation and bodily and sensual strength.

The sons of Diti and the demons transformed Prahlada Maharaja, who was born in 
an asura family, into a calf, and they extracted various kinds of liquor and 
beer, which they put into a pot made of iron.

The inhabitants of Gandharvaloka and Apsaroloka made Visvavasu into a calf, and 
they drew the milk into a lotus flower pot. The milk took the shape of sweet 
musical art and beauty.

The fortunate inhabitants of Pitrloka, who preside over the funeral ceremonies, 
made Aryama into a calf. With great faith they milked kavya, food offered to the 
ancestors, into an unbaked earthen pot.

After this, the inhabitants of Siddhaloka, as well as the inhabitants of 
Vidyadhara-loka, transformed the great sage Kapila into a calf, and making the 
whole sky into a pot, they milked out specific yogic mystic powers, beginning 
with anima. Indeed, the inhabitants of Vidyadhara-loka acquired the art of 
flying in the sky.

Others also, the inhabitants of planets known as Kimpurusa-loka, made the demon 
Maya into a calf, and they milked out mystic powers by which one can disappear 
immediately from another's vision and appear again in a different form.

Then the Yaksas, Raksasas, ghosts and witches, who are habituated to eating 
flesh, transformed Lord Shiva's incarnation Rudra [Bhutanatha] into a calf and 
milked out beverages made of blood and put them in a pot made of skulls.

Thereafter cobras and snakes without hoods, large snakes, scorpions and many 
other poisonous animals took poison out of the planet earth as their milk and 
kept this poison in snake holes. They made a calf out of Taksaka.

The four-legged animals like the cows made a calf out of the bull who carries 
Lord Shiva and made a milking pot out of the forest. Thus they got fresh green 
grasses to eat. Ferocious animals like tigers transformed a lion into a calf, 
and thus they were able to get flesh for milk. The birds made a calf out of 
Garuda and took milk from the planet earth in the form of moving insects and 
nonmoving plants and grasses.

The trees made a calf out of the banyan tree, and thus they derived milk in the 
form of many delicious juices. The mountains transformed the Himalayas into a 
calf, and they milked a variety of minerals into a pot made of the peaks of 

The planet earth supplied everyone his respective food. During the time of King 
Prthu, the earth was fully under the control of the King. Thus all the 
inhabitants of the earth could get their food supply by creating various types 
of calves and putting their particular types of milk in various pots.

My dear Vidura, chief of the Kurus, in this way King Prthu and all the others 
who subsist on food created different types of calves and milked out their 
respective eatables. Thus they received their various foodstuffs, which were 
symbolized as milk.

Thereafter King Prthu was very satisfied with the planet earth, for she 
sufficiently supplied all food to various living entities. Thus he developed an 
affection for the planet earth, just as if she were his own daughter.

After this, the king of all kings, Maharaja Prthu, leveled all rough places on 
the surface of the globe by breaking up the hills with the strength of his bow. 
By his grace the surface of the globe almost became flat.

To all the citizens of the state, King Prthu was as good as a father. Thus he 
was visibly engaged in giving them proper subsistence and proper employment for 
subsistence. After leveling the surface of the globe, he earmarked different 
places for residential quarters, inasmuch as they were desirable.

In this way the King founded many types of villages, settlements and towns and 
built forts, residences for cowherdsmen, stables for the animals, and places for 
the royal camps, mining places, agricultural towns and mountain villages.

Before the reign of King Prthu there was no planned arrangement for different 
cities, villages, pasturing grounds, etc. Every thing was scattered, and 
everyone constructed his residential quarters according to his own convenience. 
However, since King Prthu plans were made for towns and villages.

Chapter Nineteen :King Prthu's One Hundred Horse Sacrifices

The great sage Maitreya continued: My dear Vidura, King Prthu initiated the 
performance of one hundred horse sacrifices at the spot where the River 
Sarasvati flows towards the east. This piece of land is known as Brahmavarta, 
and it was controlled by Svayambhuva Manu.

When the most powerful Indra, the King of heaven, saw this, he considered the 
fact that King Prthu was going to exceed him in fruitive activities. Thus Indra 
could not tolerate the great sacrificial ceremonies performed by King Prthu.

The Supreme Personality of Godhead, Lord Vishnu, is present in everyone's heart 
as the Supersoul, and He is the proprietor of all planets and the enjoyer of the 
results of all sacrifices. He was personally present at the sacrifices made by 
King Prthu.

When Lord Vishnu appeared in the sacrificial arena, Lord Brahma, Lord Shiva and 
all the chief predominating personalities of every planet, as well as their 
followers, came with Him. When He appeared on the scene, the residents of 
Gandharvaloka, the great sages, and the residents of Apsaroloka all praised Him.

The Lord was accompanied by the residents of Siddhaloka and Vidyadhara-loka, all 
the descendants of Diti, and the demons and the Yaksas. He was also accompanied 
by His chief associates, headed by Sunanda and Nanda.

Great devotees, who were always engaged in the service of the Supreme 
Personality of Godhead, as well as the great sages named Kapila, Narada and 
Dattatreya, and masters of mystic powers, headed by Sanaka Kumara, all attended 
the great sacrifice with Lord Vishnu.

My dear Vidura, in that great sacrifice the entire land came to be like the 
milk-producing kama-dhenu, and thus, by the performance of yajna, all daily 
necessities for life were supplied.

The flowing rivers supplied all kinds of tastes--sweet, pungent, sour, etc.--and 
very big trees supplied fruit and honey in abundance. The cows, having eaten 
sufficient green grass, supplied profuse quantities of milk, curd, clarified 
butter and similar other necessities.

King Prthu was presented with various gifts from the general populace and 
predominating deities of all planets. The oceans and seas were full of valuable 
jewels and pearls, and the hills were full of chemicals and fertilizers. Four 
kinds of edibles were produced profusely.

King Prthu was dependent on the Supreme Personality of Godhead, who is known as 
Adhoksaja. Because King Prthu Performed so many sacrifices, he was superhumanly 
enhanced by the mercy of the Supreme Lord. King Prthu's opulence, however, could 
not be tolerated by the King of heaven, Indra, who tried to impede the progress 
of his opulence.

When Prthu Maharaja was performing the last horse sacrifice [asvamedha-yajna], 
King Indra, invisible to everyone, stole the horse intended for sacrifice. He 
did this because of his great envy of King Prthu.

When King Indra was taking away the horse, he dressed himself to appear as a 
liberated person. Actually this dress was a form of cheating, for it falsely 
created an impression of religion. When Indra went into outer space in this way, 
the great sage Atri saw him and understood the whole situation.

When the son of King Prthu was informed by Atri of King Indra's trick, he 
immediately became very angry and followed Indra to kill him, calling, "Wait! 

King Indra was fraudulently dressed as a sannyasi, having knotted his hair on 
his head and smeared ashes all over his body. Upon seeing such dress, the son of 
King Prthu considered Indra a religious man and pious sannyasi. Therefore he did 
not release his arrows.

When Atri Muni saw that the son of King Prthu did not kill Indra but returned 
deceived by him, Atri Muni again instructed him to kill the heavenly King 
because he thought that Indra had become the lowliest of all demigods due to his 
impeding the execution of King Prthu's sacrifice.

Being thus informed, the grandson of King Vena immediately began to follow 
Indra, who was fleeing through the sky in great haste. He was very angry with 
him, and he chased him just as the king of the vultures chased Ravana.

When Indra saw that the son of Prthu was chasing him, he immediately abandoned 
his false dress and left the horse. Indeed, he disappeared from that very spot, 
and the great hero, the son of Maharaja Prthu, returned the horse to his 
father's sacrificial arena.

My dear Lord Vidura, when the great sages observed the wonderful prowess of the 
son of King Prthu, they all agreed to give him the name Vijitasva.

My dear Vidura, Indra, being the King of heaven and very powerful, immediately 
brought a dense darkness upon the sacrificial arena. Covering the whole scene in 
this way, he again took away the horse, which was chained with golden shackles 
near the wooden instrument where animals were sacrificed.

The great sage Atri again pointed out to the son of King Prthu that Indra was 
fleeing through the sky. The great hero, the son of Prthu, chased him again. But 
when he saw that Indra was carrying in his hand a staff with a skull at the top 
and was again wearing the dress of a sannyasi, he still chose not to kill him.

When the great sage Atri again gave directions, the son of King Prthu became 
very angry and placed an arrow on his bow. Upon seeing this, King Indra 
immediately abandoned the false dress of a sannyasi and, giving up the horse, 
made himself invisible.

Then the great hero, Vijitasva, the son of King Prthu, again took the horse and 
returned to his father's sacrificial arena. Since that time, certain men with a 
poor fund of knowledge have adopted the dress of a false sannyasi. It was King 
Indra who introduced this.

Whatever different forms Indra assumed as a mendicant because of his desire to 
seize the horse were symbols of atheistic philosophy.

In this way, King Indra, in order to steal the horse from King Prthu's 
sacrifice, adopted several orders of sannyasa. Some sannyasis go naked, and 
sometimes they wear red garments and pass under the name of kapalika. These are 
simply symbolic representations of their sinful activities. These so-called 
sannyasis are very much appreciated by sinful men because they are all godless 
atheists and very expert in putting forward arguments and reasons to support 
their case. We must know, however, that they are only passing as adherents of 
religion and are not so in fact. Unfortunately, bewildered persons accept them 
as religious, and being attracted to them, they spoil their life.

Maharaja Prthu, who was celebrated as very powerful, immediately took up his bow 
and arrows and prepared to kill Indra himself, because Indra had introduced such 
irregular sannyasa orders.

When the priests and all the others saw Maharaja Prthu very angry and prepared 
to kill Indra, they requested him: O great soul, do not kill him, for only 
sacrificial animals can be killed in a sacrifice. Such are the directions given 
by sastra.

Dear King, Indra's powers are already reduced due to his attempt to impede the 
execution of your sacrifice. We shall call him by Vedic mantras which were never 
before used, and certainly he will come. Thus by the power of our mantra, we 
shall cast him into the fire because he is your enemy.

My dear Vidura, after giving the King this advice, the priests who had been 
engaged in performing the sacrifice called for Indra, the King of heaven, in a 
mood of great anger. When they were just ready to put the oblation in the fire, 
Lord Brahma appeared on the scene and forbade them to start the sacrifice.

Lord Brahma addressed them thus: My dear sacrificial performers, you cannot kill 
Indra, the King of heaven. It is not your duty. You should know that Indra is as 
good as the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Indeed, he is one of the most 
powerful assistants of the Personality of Godhead. You are trying to satisfy all 
the demigods by the performance of this yajna, but you should know that all 
these demigods are but parts and parcels of Indra, the King of heaven. How, 
then, can you kill him in this great sacrifice?

In order to make trouble and impede the performance of King Prthu's great 
sacrifice, King Indra has adopted some means that in the future will destroy the 
clear path of religious life. I draw your attention to this fact. If you oppose 
him any further, he will further misuse his power and introduce many other 
irreligious systems.

"Let there be only ninety-nine sacrificial performances for Maharaja Prthu," 
Lord Brahma concluded. Lord Brahma then turned towards Maharaja Prthu and 
informed him that since he was thoroughly aware of the path of liberation, what 
was the use in performing more sacrifices?

Lord Brahma continued: Let there be good fortune to both of you, for you and 
King Indra are both part and parcel of the Supreme Personality of Godhead. 
Therefore you should not be angry with King Indra, who is nondifferent from you.

My dear King, do not be agitated and anxious because your sacrifices have not 
been properly executed due to providential impediments. Kindly take my words 
with great respect. We should always remember that if something happens by 
providential arrangement, we should not be very sorry. The more we try to 
rectify such reversals, the more we enter into the darkest region of 
materialistic thought.

Lord Brahma continued: Stop the performance of these sacrifices, for they have 
induced Indra to introduce so many irreligious aspects. You should know very 
well that even amongst the demigods there are many unwanted desires.

Just see how Indra, the King of heaven, was creating a disturbance in the midst 
of the sacrifice by stealing the sacrificial horse. These attractive sinful 
activities he has introduced will be carried out by the people in general.

O King Prthu, son of Vena, you are the part-and-parcel expansion of Lord Vishnu. 
Due to the mischievous activities of King Vena, religious principles were almost 
lost. At that opportune moment you descended as the incarnation of Lord Vishnu. 
Indeed, for the protection of religious principles you have appeared from the 
body of King Vena.

O protector of the people in general, please consider the purpose of your being 
incarnated by Lord Vishnu. The irreligious principles created by Indra are but 
mothers of so many unwanted religions. Please therefore stop these imitations 

The great sage Maitreya continued: When King Prthu was thus advised by the 
supreme teacher, Lord Brahma, he abandoned his eagerness to perform yajnas and 
with great affection concluded a peace with King Indra.

After this, Prthu Maharaja took his bath, which is customarily taken after the 
performance of a yajna, and received the benedictions and due blessings of the 
demigods, who were very pleased by his glorious activities.

With great respect, the original king, Prthu, offered all kinds of rewards to 
the brahmanas present at the sacrifice. Since all these brahmanas were very much 
satisfied, they gave their heartfelt blessings to the King.

All the great sages and brahmanas said: O mighty King, by your invitation all 
classes of living entities have attended this assembly. They have come from 
Pitrloka and the heavenly planets, and great sages as well as common men have 
attended this meeting. Now all of them are very much satisfied by your dealings 
and your charity towards them.

Chapter Twenty ; Lord Vishnu's Appearance in the

The great sage Maitreya continued: My dear Vidura, being very much satisfied by 
the performance of ninety-nine horse sacrifices, the Supreme Personality of 
Godhead, Lord Vishnu, appeared on the scene. Accompanying Him was King Indra. 
Lord Vishnu then began to speak.

Lord Vishnu, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, said: My dear King Prthu, 
Indra, the King of heaven, has disturbed your execution of one hundred 
sacrifices. Now he has come with Me to be forgiven by you. Therefore excuse him.

O King, one who is advanced in intelligence and eager to perform welfare 
activities for others is considered best amongst human beings. An advanced human 
being is never malicious to others. Those with advanced intelligence are always 
conscious that this material body is different from the soul.

If a personality like you, who are so much advanced because of executing the 
instructions of the previous acaryas, is carred away by the influence of My 
material energy, then all your advancement may be considered simply a waste of 

Those who are in full knowledge of the bodily conception of life, who know that 
this body is composed of nescience, desires and activities resulting from 
illusion, do not become addicted to the body.

How can a highly learned person who has absolutely no affinity for the bodily 
conception of life be affected by the bodily conception in regard to house, 
children, wealth and similar other bodily productions?

The individual soul is one, Pure, nonmaterial and self-effulgent. He is the 
reservoir of all good qualities, and He is all-pervading. He is without material 
covering, and He is the witness of all activities. He is completely 
distinguished from other living entities, and He is transcendental to all 
embodied souls.

Although within the material nature, one who is thus situated in full knowledge 
of the Paramatma and atma is never affected by the modes of material nature, for 
he is always situated in My transcendental loving service.

The Supreme Personality of Godhead, Lord Vishnu, continued: My dear King Prthu, 
when one situated in his occupational duty engages in My loving service without 
motive for material gain, he gradually becomes very satisfied within.

When the heart is cleansed of all material contamination, the devotee's mind 
becomes broader and transparent, and he can see things equally. At that stage of 
life there is peace, and one is situated equally with Me as sac-cid-ananda-

Anyone who knows that this material body, made of the five gross elements, the 
sense organs, the working senses and the mind, is simply supervised by the fixed 
soul is eligible to be liberated from material bondage.

Lord Vishnu told King Prthu: My dear King, the constant change of this material 
world is due to the interaction of the three modes of material nature. The five 
elements, the senses, the demigods who control the senses, as well as the mind, 
which is agitated by the spirit soul--all these taken together comprise the 
body. Since the spirit soul is completely different from this combination of 
gross and subtle material elements, My devotee who is connected with Me in 
intense friendship and affection, being completely in knowledge, is never 
agitated by material happiness and distress.

My dear heroic King, please keep yourself always equipoised and treat people 
equally, whether they are greater than you, in the intermediate stage or lower 
than you. Do not be disturbed by temporary distress or happiness. Fully control 
your mind and senses. In this transcendental position, try to execute your duty 
as king in whatever condition of life you may be posted by My arrangement, for 
your only duty here is to give protection to the citizens of your kingdom.

To give protection to the general mass of people who are citizens of the state 
is the prescribed occupational duty for a king. By acting in that way, the king 
in his next life shares one sixth of the result of the pious activities of the 
citizens. But a king or executive head of state who simply collects taxes from 
the citizens but does not give them proper protection as human beings has the 
results of his own pious activities taken away by the citizens, and in exchange 
for his not giving protection he becomes liable to punishment for the impious 
activities of his subjects.

Lord Vishnu continued: My dear King Prthu, if you continue to protect the 
citizens according to the instructions of the learned brahmana authorities, as 
they are received by the disciplic succession--by hearing--from master to 
disciple, and if you follow the religious principles laid down by them, without 
attachment to ideas manufactured by mental concoction, then every one of your 
citizens will be happy and will love you, and very soon you will be able to see 
such already liberated personalities as the four Kumaras [Sanaka, Sanatana, 
Sanandana and Sanat-kumara].

My dear King, I am very captivated by your elevated qualities and excellent 
behavior, and thus I am very favorably inclined toward you. You may therefore 
ask from Me any benediction you like. One who does not possess elevated 
qualities and behavior cannot possibly achieve My favor simply by performance of 
sacrifices, severe austerities or mystic yoga. But I always remain equipoised in 
the heart of one who is also equipoised in all circumstances.

The great saint Maitreya continued: My dear Vidura, in this way Maharaja Prthu, 
the conqueror of the entire world, accepted the instructions of the Supreme 
Personality of Godhead on his head.

As King Indra was standing by, he became ashamed of his own activities and fell 
down before King Prthu to touch his lotus feet. But Prthu Maharaja immediately 
embraced him in great ecstasy and gave up all envy against him for his having 
stolen the horse meant for the sacrifice.

King Prthu abundantly worshiped the lotus feet of the Supreme Personality of 
Godhead, who was so merciful to him. While worshiping the lotus feet of the 
Lord, Prthu Maharaja gradually increased his ecstasy in devotional service.

The Lord was just about to leave, but because He was so greatly inclined toward 
the behavior of King Prthu, He did not depart. Seeing the behavior of Maharaja 
Prthu with His lotus eyes, He was detained because He is always the well-wisher 
of His devotees.

The original king, Maharaja Prthu, his eyes full of tears and his voice 
faltering and choked up, could neither see the Lord very distinctly nor speak to 
address the Lord in any way. He simply embraced the Lord within his heart and 
remained standing in that way with folded hands.

The Supreme Personality of Godhead stood with His lotus feet almost touching the 
ground while He rested the front of His hand on the raised shoulder of Garuda, 
the enemy of the snakes. Maharaja Prthu, wiping the tears from his eyes, tried 
to look upon the Lord, but it appeared that the King was not fully satisfied by 
looking at Him. Thus the King offered the following prayers.

My dear Lord, You are the best of the demigods who can offer benedictions. Why, 
therefore, should any learned person ask You for benedictions meant for living 
entities bewildered by the modes of nature? Such benedictions are available 
automatically, even in the lives of living entities suffering in hellish 
conditions. My dear Lord, You can certainly bestow merging into Your existence, 
but I do not wish to have such a benediction.

My dear Lord, I therefore do not wish to have the benediction of merging into 
Your existence, a benediction in which there is no existence of the nectarean 
beverage of Your lotus feet. I want the benediction of at least one million 
ears, for thus I may be able to hear about the glories of Your lotus feet from 
the mouths of Your pure devotees.

My dear Lord, You are glorified by the selected verses uttered by great 
personalities. Such glorification of Your lotus feet is just like saffron 
particles. When the transcendental vibration from the mouths of great devotees 
carries the aroma of the saffron dust of Your lotus feet, the forgetful living 
entity gradually remembers his eternal relationship with You. Devotees thus 
gradually come to the right conclusion about the value of life. My dear Lord, I 
therefore do not need any other benediction but the opportunity to hear from the 
mouth of Your pure devotee.

My dear highly glorified Lord, if one, in the association of pure devotees, 
hears even once the glories of Your activities, he does not, unless he is 
nothing but an animal, give up the association of devotees, for no intelligent 
person would be so careless as to leave their association. The perfection of 
chanting and hearing about Your glories was accepted even by the goddess of 
fortune, who desired to hear of Your unlimited activities and transcendental 

Now I wish to engage in the service of the lotus feet of the Supreme Personality 
of Godhead and to serve just like the goddess of fortune, who carries a lotus 
flower in her hand, because His Lordship, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, is 
the reservoir of all transcendental qualities. I am afraid that the goddess of 
fortune and I would quarrel because both of us would be attentively engaged in 
the same service.

My dear Lord of the universe, the goddess of fortune, Laksmi, is the mother of 
the universe, and yet I think that she may be angry with me because of my 
intruding upon her service and acting on that very platform to which she is so 
much attached. Yet I am hopeful that even though there is some misunderstanding, 
You will take my part, for You are very much inclined to the poor and You always 
magnify even insignificant service unto You. Therefore even though she becomes 
angry, I think that there is no harm for You, because You are so self-sufficient 
that You can do without her.

Great saintly persons who are always liberated take to Your devotional service 
because only by devotional service can one be relieved from the illusions of 
material existence. O my Lord, there is no reason for the liberated souls to 
take shelter at Your lotus feet except that such souls are constantly thinking 
of Your feet.

My dear Lord, what You have said to Your unalloyed devotee is certainly very 
much bewildering. The allurements You offer in the Vedas are certainly not 
suitable for pure devotees. People in general, bound by the sweet words of the 
Vedas, engage themselves again and again in fruitive activities, enamored by the 
results of their actions.

My Lord, due to Your illusory energy, all living beings in this material world 
have forgotten their real constitutional position, and out of ignorance they are 
always desirous of material happiness in the form of society, friendship and 
love. Therefore, please do not ask me to take some material benefits from You, 
but as a father, not waiting for the son's demand, does everything for the 
benefit of the son, please bestow upon me whatever You think best for me.

The great sage Maitreya continued by saying that the Lord, the seer of the 
universe, after hearing Prthu Maharaja's prayer, addressed the King: My dear 
King, may you always be blessed by engaging in My devotional service. Only by 
such purity of purpose, as you yourself very intelligently express, can one 
cross over the insurmountable illusory energy of maya.

My dear King, O protector of the citizens, henceforward be very careful to 
execute My orders and not be misled by anything. Anyone who lives in that way, 
simply carrying out My orders faithfully, will always find good fortune all over 
the world.

The great saint Maitreya told Vidura: The Supreme Personality of Godhead amply 
appreciated the meaningful prayers of Maharaja Prthu. Thus, after being properly 
worshiped by the King, the Lord blessed him and decided to depart.

King Prthu worshiped the demigods, the great sages, the inhabitants of Pitrloka, 
the inhabitants of Gandharvaloka and those of Siddhaloka, Caranaloka, 
Pannagaloka, Kinnaraloka, Apsaroloka, the earthly planets and the planets of the 
birds. He also worshiped many other living entities who presented themselves in 
the sacrificial arena. With folded hands he worshiped all these, as well as the 
Supreme Personality of Godhead and the personal associates of the Lord, by 
offering sweet words and as much wealth as possible. After this function, they 
all went back to their respective abodes, following in the footsteps of Lord 

The infallible Supreme Personality of Godhead, having captivated the minds of 
the King and the priests who were present, returned to His abode in the 
spiritual sky.

King Prthu then offered his respectful obeisances unto the Supreme Personality 
of Godhead, who is the Supreme Lord of all demigods. Although not an object of 
material vision, the Lord revealed Himself to the sight of Maharaja Prthu. After 
offering obeisances to the Lord, the King returned to his home.

Chapter Twenty-one : Instructions by Maharaja Prthu

The great sage Maitreya told Vidura: When the King entered his city, it was very 
beautifully decorated to receive him with pearls, flower garlands, beautiful 
cloth and golden gates, and the entire city was perfumed with highly fragrant 

Fragrant water distilled from sandalwood and aguru herb was sprinkled everywhere 
on the lanes, roads and small parks throughout the city, and everywhere were 
decorations of unbroken fruits, flowers, wetted grains, varied minerals, and 
lamps, all presented as auspicious paraphernalia.

At the street crossings there were bunches of fruits and flowers, as well as 
pillars of banana trees and betel nut branches. All these combined decorations 
everywhere looked very attractive.

As the King entered the gate of the city, all the citizens received him with 
many auspicious articles like lamps, flowers and yogurt. The King was also 
received by many beautiful unmarried girls whose bodies were bedecked with 
various ornaments, especially with earrings which collided with one another.

When the King entered the palace, conchshells and kettledrums were sounded, 
priests chanted Vedic mantras, and professional reciters offered different 
prayers. But in spite of all this ceremony to welcome him, the King was not the 
least bit affected.

Both the important citizens and the common citizens welcomed the King very 
heartily, and he also bestowed upon them their desired blessings.

King Prthu was greater than the greatest soul and was therefore worshipable by 
everyone. He performed many glorious activities in ruling over the surface of 
the world and was always magnanimous. After achieving such great success and a 
reputation which spread throughout the universe, he at last obtained the lotus 
feet of the Supreme Personality of Godhead.

Suta Gosvami continued: O Saunaka, leader of the great sages, after hearing 
Maitreya speak about the various activities of King Prthu, the original king, 
who was fully qualified, glorified and widely praised all over the world, 
Vidura, the great devotee, very submissively worshiped Maitreya Rsi and asked 
him the following question.

Vidura said: My dear brahmana Maitreya, it is very enlightening to understand 
that King Prthu was enthroned by the great sages and brahmanas. All the demigods 
presented him with innumerable gifts, and he also expanded his influence upon 
personally receiving strength from Lord Vishnu. Thus he greatly developed the 

Prthu Maharaja was so great in his activities and magnanimous in his method of 
ruling that all the kings and demigods on the various planets still follow in 
his footsteps. Who is there who will not try to hear about his glorious 
activities? I wish to hear more and more about Prthu Maharaja because his 
activities are so pious and auspicious.

The great saintly sage Maitreya told Vidura: My dear Vidura, King Prthu lived in 
the tract of land between the two great rivers Ganges and Yamuna. Because he was 
very opulent, it appeared that he was enjoying his destined fortune in order to 
diminish the results of his past pious activities.

Maharaja Prthu was an unrivaled king and possessed the scepter for ruling all 
the seven islands on the surface of the globe. No one could disobey his 
irrevocable orders but the saintly persons, the brahmanas and the descendants of 
the Supreme Personality of Godhead [the Vaisnavas].

Once upon a time King Prthu initiated the performance of a very great sacrifice 
in which great saintly sages, brahmanas, demigods from higher planetary systems 
and great saintly kings known as rajarsis all assembled together.

In that great assembly, Maharaja Prthu first of all worshiped all the 
respectable visitors according to their respective positions. After this, he 
stood up in the midst of the assembly, and it appeared that the full moon had 
arisen amongst the stars.

King Prthu's body was tall and sturdy, and his complexion was fair. His arms 
were full and broad and his eyes as bright as the rising sun. His nose was 
straight, his face very beautiful and his personality grave. His teeth were set 
beautifully in his smiling face.

The chest of Maharaja Prthu was very broad, his waist was very thick, and his 
abdomen, wrinkled by lines of skin, resembled in construction a leaf of a banyan 
tree. His navel was coiled and deep, his thighs were of a golden hue, and his 
instep was arched.

The black, slick hair on his head was very fine and curly, and his neck, like a 
conchshell, was decorated with auspicious lines. He wore a very valuable dhoti, 
and there was a nice wrapper on the upper part of his body.

As Maharaja Prthu was being initiated to perform the sacrifice, he had to leave 
aside his valuable dress, and therefore his natural bodily beauty was visible. 
It was very pleasing to see him put on a black deerskin and wear a ring of kusa 
grass on his finger, for this increased the natural beauty of his body. It 
appears that Maharaja Prthu observed all the regulative principles before he 
performed the sacrifice.

Just to encourage the members of the assembly and to enhance their pleasure, 
King Prthu glanced over them with eyes that seemed like stars in a sky wet with 
dew. He then spoke to them in a great voice.

Maharaja Prthu's speech was very beautiful, full of metaphorical language, 
clearly understandable and very pleasing to hear. His words were all grave and 
certain. It appears that when he spoke, he expressed his personal realization of 
the Absolute Truth in order to benefit all who were present.

King Prthu said: O gentle members of the assembly, may all good fortune be upon 
you! May all of you great souls who have come to attend this meeting kindly hear 
my prayer attentively. A person who is actually inquisitive must present his 
decision before an assembly of noble souls.

King Prthu continued: By the grace of the Supreme Lord I have been appointed the 
king of this planet, and I carry the scepter to rule the citizens, protect them 
from all danger and give them employment according to their respective positions 
in the social order established by Vedic injunction.

Maharaja Prthu said: I think that upon the execution of my duties as king, I 
shall be able to achieve the desirable objectives described by experts in Vedic 
knowledge. This destination is certainly achieved by the pleasure of the Supreme 
Personality of Godhead, who is the seer of all destiny.

Any king who does not teach his citizens about their respective duties in terms 
of varna and asrama but who simply exacts tolls and taxes from them is liable to 
suffer for the impious activities which have been performed by the citizens. In 
addition to such degradation, the king also loses his own fortune.

Prthu Maharaja continued: Therefore, my dear citizens, for the welfare of your 
king after his death, you should execute your duties properly in terms of your 
positions of varna and asrama and should always think of the Supreme Personality 
of Godhead within your hearts. By doing so, you will protect your own interests, 
and you will bestow mercy upon your king for his welfare after death.

I request all the pure-hearted demigods, forefathers and saintly persons to 
support my proposal, for after death the result of an action is equally shared 
by its doer, its director and its supporter.

My dear respectable ladies and gentlemen, according to the authoritative 
statements of sastra, there must be a supreme authority who is able to award the 
respective benefits of our present activities. Otherwise, why should there be 
persons who are unusually beautiful and powerful both in this life and in the 
life after death?

This is confirmed not only by the evidence of the Vedas but also by the personal 
behavior of great personalities like Manu, Uttanapada, Dhruva, Priyavrata and my 
grandfather Anga, as well as by many other great personalities and ordinary 
living entities, exemplified by Maharaja Prahlada and Bali, all of whom are 
theists, believing in the existence of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, who 
carries a club.

Although abominable persons like my father, Vena, the grandson of death 
personified, are bewildered on the path of religion, all the great personalities 
like those mentioned agree that in this world the only bestower of the 
benedictions of religion, economic development, sense gratification, liberation 
or elevation to the heavenly planets is the Supreme Personality of Godhead.

By the inclination to serve the lotus feet of the Supreme Personality of 
Godhead, suffering humanity can immediately cleanse the dirt which has 
accumulated in their minds during innumerable births. Like the Ganges water, 
which emanates from the toes of the lotus feet of the Lord, such a process 
immediately cleanses the mind, and thus spiritual or Krishna consciousness 
gradually increases.

When a devotee takes shelter at the lotus feet of the Supreme Personality of 
Godhead, he is completely cleansed of all misunderstanding or mental 
speculation, and he manifests renunciation. This is possible only when one is 
strengthened by practicing bhakti-yoga. Once having taken shelter at the root of 
the lotus feet of the Lord, a devotee never comes back to this material 
existence, which is full of the threefold miseries.

Prthu Maharaja advised his citizens: Engaging your minds, your words, your 
bodies and the results of your occupational duties, and being always open-
minded, you should all render devotional service to the Lord. According to your 
abilities and the occupations in which you are situated, you should engage your 
service at the lotus feet of the Supreme Personality of Godhead with full 
confidence and without reservation. Then you will surely be successful in 
achieving the final objective in your lives.

The Supreme Personality of Godhead is transcendental and not contaminated by 
this material world. But although He is concentrated spirit soul without 
material variety, for the benefit of the conditioned soul He nevertheless 
accepts different types of sacrifice performed with various material elements, 
rituals and mantras and offered to the demigods under different names according 
to the interests and purposes of the performers.

The Supreme Personality of Godhead is all-pervading, but He is also manifested 
in different types of bodies which arise from a combination of material nature, 
time, desires and occupational duties. Thus different types of consciousness 
develop, just as fire, which is always basically the same, blazes in different 
ways according to the shape and dimension of firewood.

The Supreme Personality of Godhead is the master and enjoyer of the results of 
all sacrifices, and He is the supreme spiritual master as well. All of you 
citizens on the surface of the globe who have a relationship with me and are 
worshiping Him by dint of your occupational duties are bestowing your mercy upon 
me. Therefore, O my citizens, I thank you.

The brahmanas and Vaisnavas are personally glorified by their characteristic 
powers of tolerance, penance, knowledge and education. By dint of all these 
spiritual assets, Vaisnavas are more powerful than royalty. It is therefore 
advised that the princely order not exhibit its material prowess before these 
two communities and should avoid offending them.

The Supreme Personality of Godhead, the ancient, eternal Godhead, who is 
foremost amongst all great personalities, obtained the opulence of His staunch 
reputation, which purifies the entire universe, by worshiping the lotus feet of 
those brahmanas and Vaisnavas.

The Supreme Personality of Godhead, who is everlastingly independent and who 
exists in everyone's heart, is very pleased with those who follow in His 
footsteps and engage without reservation in the service of the descendants of 
brahmanas and Vaisnavas, for He is always dear to brahmanas and Vaisnavas and 
they are always dear to Him.

By regular service to the brahmanas and Vaisnavas, one can clear the dirt from 
his heart and thus enjoy supreme peace and liberation from material attachment 
and be satisfied. In this world there is no fruitive activity superior to 
serving the brahmana class, for this can bring pleasure to the demigods, for 
whom the many sacrifices are recommended.

Although the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Ananta, eats through the fire 
sacrifices offered in the names of the different demigods, He does not take as 
much pleasure in eating through fire as He does in accepting offerings through 
the mouths of learned sages and devotees, for then He does not leave the 
association of devotees.

In brahminical culture a brahmana's transcendental position is eternally 
maintained because the injunctions of the Vedas are accepted with faith, 
austerity, scriptural conclusions, full sense and mind control, and meditation. 
In this way the real goal of life is illuminated, just as one's face is fully 
reflected in a clear mirror.

O respectable personalities present here, I beg the blessings of all of you that 
I may perpetually carry on my crown the dust of the lotus feet of such brahmanas 
and Vaisnavas until the end of my life. He who can carry such dust on his head 
is very soon relieved of all the reactions which arise from sinful life, and 
eventually he develops all good and desirable qualities.

Whoever acquires the brahminical qualifications--whose only wealth is good 
behavior, who is grateful and who takes shelter of experienced persons--gets all 
the opulence of the world. I therefore wish that the Supreme Personality of 
Godhead and His associates be pleased with the brahmana class, with the cows and 
with me.

The great sage Maitreya said: After hearing King Prthu speak so nicely, all the 
demigods, the denizens of Pitrloka, the brahmanas and the saintly persons 
present at the meeting congratulated him by expressing their good will.

They all declared that the Vedic conclusion that one can conquer the heavenly 
planets by the action of a putra, or son, was fulfilled, for the most sinful 
Vena, who had been killed by the curse of the brahmanas, was now delivered from 
the darkest region of hellish life by his son, Maharaja Prthu.

Similarly, Hiranyakasipu, who by dint of his sinful activities always defied the 
supremacy of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, entered into the darkest region 
of hellish life; but by the grace of his great son, Prahlada Maharaja, he also 
was delivered and went back home, back to Godhead.

All the saintly brahmanas thus addressed Prthu Maharaja: O best of the warriors, 
O father of this globe, may you be blessed with a long life, for you have great 
devotion to the infallible Supreme Personality of Godhead, who is the master of 
all the universe.

The audience continued: Dear King Prthu, your reputation is the purest of all, 
for you are preaching the glories of the most glorified of all, the Supreme 
Personality of Godhead, the Lord of the brahmanas. Since, due to our great 
fortune, we have you as our master, we think that we are living directly under 
the agency of the Lord.

Our dear lord, it is your occupational duty to rule over your citizens. That is 
not a very wonderful task for a personality like you, who are so affectionate in 
seeing to the interests of the citizens, because you are full of mercy. That is 
the greatness of your character.

The citizens continued: Today you have opened our eyes and revealed how to cross 
to the other side of the ocean of darkness. By our past deeds and by the 
arrangement of superior authority, we are entangled in a network of fruitive 
activities and have lost sight of the destination of life; thus we have been 
wandering within the universe.

Dear lord, you are situated in your pure existential position of goodness; 
therefore you are the perfect representative of the Supreme Lord. You are 
glorified by your own prowess, and thus you are maintaining the entire world by 
introducing brahminical culture and protecting everyone in your line of duty as 
a ksatriya.

Chapter Twenty-two :Prthu Maharaja's Meeting with the Four Kumaras

The great sage Maitreya said: While the citizens were thus praying to the most 
powerful King Prthu, the four Kumaras, who were as bright as the sun, arrived on 
the spot.

Seeing the glowing effulgence of the four Kumaras, the masters of all mystic 
Power, the King and his associates could recognize them as they descended from 
the sky.

Seeing the four Kumaras, Prthu Maharaja was greatly anxious to receive them. 
Therefore the King, with all his officers, very hastily got up, as anxiously as 
a conditioned soul whose senses are immediately attracted by the modes of 
material nature.

When the great sages accepted their reception, according to the instructions of 
the sastras, and finally took their seats offered by the King, the King, 
influenced by the glories of the sages, immediately bowed down. Thus he 
worshiped the four Kumaras.

After this, the King took the water which had washed the lotus feet of the 
Kumaras and sprinkled it over his hair. By such respectful actions, the King, as 
an exemplary personality, showed how to receive a spiritually advanced 

The four great sages were elder to Lord Shiva, and when they were seated on the 
golden throne, they appeared just like fire blazing on an altar. Maharaja Prthu, 
out of his great gentleness and respect for them, began to speak with great 
restraint as follows.

King Prthu spoke: My dear great sages, auspiciousness personified, it is very 
difficult for even the mystic yogis to see you. Indeed, you are very rarely 
seen. I do not know what kind of pious activity I performed for you to grace me 
by appearing before me without difficulty.

Any person upon whom the brahmanas and Vaisnavas are pleased can achieve 
anything which is very rare to obtain in this world as well as after death. Not 
only that, but one also receives the favor of the auspicious Lord Shiva and Lord 
Vishnu, who accompany the brahmanas and Vaisnavas.

Prthu Maharaja continued: Although you are traveling in all planetary systems, 
people cannot know you, just as they cannot know the Supersoul, although He is 
within everyone's heart as the witness of everything. Even Lord Brahma and Lord 
Shiva cannot understand the Supersoul.

A person who is not very rich and is attached to family life becomes highly 
glorified when saintly persons are present in his home. The master and servants 
who are engaged in offering the exalted visitors water, a sitting place and 
paraphernalia for reception are glorified, and the home itself is also 

On the contrary, even though full of all opulence and material prosperity, any 
householder's house where the devotees of the Lord are never allowed to come in, 
and where there is no water for washing their feet, is to be considered a tree 
in which all venomous serpents live.

Maharaja Prthu offered his welcome to the four Kumaras, addressing them as the 
best of the brahmanas. He welcomed them, saying: From the beginning of your 
birth you strictly observed the vows of celibacy, and although you are 
experienced in the path of liberation, you are keeping yourselves just like 
small children.

Prthu Maharaja inquired from the sages about persons entangled in this dangerous 
material existence because of their previous actions; could such persons, whose 
only aim is sense gratification, be blessed with any good fortune?

Prthu Maharaja continued: My dear sirs, there is no need to ask about your good 
and bad fortune because you are always absorbed in spiritual bliss. The mental 
concoction of the auspicious and inauspicious does not exist in you.

I am completely assured that personalities like you are the only friends for 
persons who are blazing in the fire of material existence. I therefore ask you 
how in this material world we can very soon achieve the ultimate goal of life.

The Supreme Personality of Godhead is always anxious to elevate the living 
entities, who are His parts and parcels, and for their special benefit, the Lord 
travels all over the world in the form of self-realized persons like you.

The great sage Maitreya continued: Thus Sanat-kumara, the best of the celibates, 
after hearing the speech of Prthu Maharaja, which was meaningful, appropriate, 
full of precise words and very sweet to hear, smiled with full satisfaction and 
began to speak as follows.

Sanat-kumara said: My dear King Prthu, I am very nicely questioned by you. Such 
questions are beneficial for all living entities, especially because they are 
raised by you, who are always thinking of the good of others. Although you know 
everything, you ask such questions because that is the behavior of saintly 
persons. Such intelligence is befitting your position.

When there is a congregation of devotees, their discussions, questions and 
answers become conclusive to both the speaker and the audience. Thus such a 
meeting is beneficial for everyone's real happiness.

Sanat-kumara continued: My dear King, you already have an inclination to glorify 
the lotus feet of the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Such attachment is very 
difficult to achieve, but when one has attained such unflinching faith in the 
Lord, it automatically cleanses lusty desires from the core of the heart.

It has been conclusively decided in the scriptures, after due consideration, 
that the ultimate goal for the welfare of human society is detachment from the 
bodily concept of life and increased and steadfast attachment for the Supreme 
Lord, who is transcendental, beyond the modes of material nature.

Attachment for the Supreme can be increased by practicing devotional service, 
inquiring about the Supreme Personality of Godhead, applying bhakti-yoga in 
life, worshiping the Yogesvara, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, and by 
hearing and chanting about the glories of the Supreme Personality of Godhead. 
These actions are pious in themselves.

One has to make progress in spiritual life by not associating with persons who 
are simply interested in sense gratification and making money. Not only such 
persons, but one who associates with such persons should be avoided. One should 
mold his life in such a way that he cannot live in peace without drinking the 
nectar of the glorification of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Hari. One can 
be thus elevated by being disgusted with the taste for sense enjoyment.

A candidate for spiritual advancement must be nonviolent, must follow in the 
footsteps of great acaryas, must always remember the nectar of the pastimes of 
the Supreme Personality of Godhead, must follow the regulative principles 
without material desire and, while following the regulative principles, should 
not blaspheme others. A devotee should lead a very simple life and not be 
disturbed by the duality of opposing elements. He should learn to tolerate them.

The devotee should gradually increase the culture of devotional service by 
constant hearing of the transcendental qualities of the Supreme Personality of 
Godhead. These pastimes are like ornamental decorations on the ears of devotees. 
By rendering devotional service and transcending the material qualities, one can 
easily be fixed in transcendence in the Supreme Personality of Godhead.

Upon becoming fixed in his attachment to the Supreme Personality of Godhead by 
the grace of the spiritual master and by awakening knowledge and detachment, the 
living entity, situated within the heart of the body and covered by the five 
elements, burns up his material surroundings exactly as fire, arising from wood, 
burns the wood itself.

When a person becomes devoid of all material desires and liberated from all 
material qualities, he transcends distinctions between actions executed 
externally and internally. At that time the difference between the soul and the 
Supersoul, which was existing before self-realization, is annihilated. When a 
dream is over, there is no longer a distinction between the dream and the 

When the soul exists for sense gratification, he creates different desires, and 
for that reason he becomes subjected to designations. But when one is in the 
transcendental position, he is no longer interested in anything except 
fulfilling the desires of the Lord.

Only because of different causes does a person see a difference between himself 
and others, just as one sees the reflection of a body appearing differently 
manifested on water, on oil or in a mirror.

When one's mind and senses are attracted to sense objects for enjoyment, the 
mind becomes agitated. As a result of continually thinking of sense objects, 
one's real consciousness almost becomes lost, like the water in a lake that is 
gradually sucked up by the big grass straws on its bank.

When one deviates from his original consciousness, he loses the capacity to 
remember his previous position or recognize his present one. When remembrance is 
lost, all knowledge acquired is based on a false foundation. When this occurs, 
learned scholars consider that the soul is lost.

There is no stronger obstruction to one's self-interest than thinking other 
subject matters to be more pleasing than one's self-realization.

For human society, constantly thinking of how to earn money and apply it for 
sense gratification brings about the destruction of everyone's interests. When 
one becomes devoid of knowledge and devotional service, he enters into species 
of life like those of trees and stones.

Those who strongly desire to cross the ocean of nescience must not associate 
with the modes of ignorance, for hedonistic activities are the greatest 
obstructions to realization of religious principles, economic development, 
regulated sense gratification and, at last, liberation.

Out of the four principles--namely religion, economic development, sense 
gratification and liberation--liberation has to be taken very seriously. The 
other three are subject to destruction by the stringent law of nature--death.

We accept as blessings different states of higher life, distinguishing them from 
lower states of life, but we should know that such distinctions exist only in 
relation to the interchange of the modes of material nature. Actually these 
states of life have no permanent existence, for all of them will be destroyed by 
the supreme controller.

Sanat-kumara advised the King: Therefore, my dear King Prthu, try to understand 
the Supreme Personality of Godhead, who is living within everyone's heart along 
with the individual soul, in each and every body, either moving or not moving. 
The individual souls are fully covered by the gross material body and subtle 
body made of the life air and intelligence.

The Supreme Personality of Godhead manifests Himself as one with the cause and 
effect within this body, but one who has transcended the illusory energy by 
deliberate consideration, which clears the misconception of a snake for a rope, 
can understand that the Paramatma is eternally transcendental to the material 
creation and situated in pure internal energy. Thus the Lord is transcendental 
to all material contamination. Unto Him only must one surrender.

The devotees, who are always engaged in the service of the toes of the lotus 
feet of the Lord, can very easily overcome hard-knotted desires for fruitive 
activities. Because this is very difficult, the nondevotees--the jnanis and 
yogis--although trying to stop the waves of sense gratification, cannot do so. 
Therefore you are advised to engage in the devotional service of Krishna, the 
son of Vasudeva.

The ocean of nescience is very difficult to cross because it is infested with 
many dangerous sharks. Although those who are nondevotees undergo severe 
austerities and penances to cross that ocean, we recommend that you simply take 
shelter of the lotus feet of the Lord, which are like boats for crossing the 
ocean. Although the ocean is difficult to cross, by taking shelter of His lotus 
feet you will overcome all dangers.

The great sage Maitreya continued: Being thus enlightened in complete spiritual 
knowledge by the son of Brahma--one of the Kumaras, who was complete in 
spiritual knowledge--the King worshiped them in the following words.

The King said: O brahmana, O powerful one, formerly Lord Vishnu showed me His 
causeless mercy, indicating that you would come to my house, and to confirm that 
blessing, you have all come.

My dear brahmana, you have carried out the order thoroughly because you are also 
as compassionate as the Lord. It is my duty, therefore, to offer you something, 
but all I possess are but remnants of food taken by great saintly persons. What 
shall I give?

The King continued: Therefore, my dear brahmanas, my life, wife, children, home, 
furniture and household paraphernalia, my kingdom, strength, land and especially 
my treasury are all offered unto you.

Since only a person who is completely educated according to the principles of 
Vedic knowledge deserves to be commander-in-chief, ruler of the state, the first 
to chastise and the proprietor of the whole planet, Prthu Maharaja offered 
everything to the Kumaras.

The ksatriyas, vaisyas and sudras eat their food by virtue of the brahmanas' 
mercy. It is the brahmanas who enjoy their own property, clothe themselves with 
their own property and give charity with their own property.

Prthu Maharaja continued: How can such persons, who have rendered unlimited 
service by explaining the path of self-realization in relation to the Supreme 
Personality of Godhead, and whose explanations are given for our enlightenment 
with complete conviction and Vedic evidence, be repaid except by folded palms 
containing water for their satisfaction? Such great personalities can be 
satisfied only by their own activities, which are distributed amongst human 
society out of their unlimited mercy.

The great sage Maitreya continued: Being thus worshiped by Maharaja Prthu, the 
four Kumaras, who were masters of devotional service, became very pleased. 
Indeed, they appeared in the sky and praised the character of the King, and 
everyone observed them.

Amongst great personalities, Maharaja Prthu was the chief by virtue of his fixed 
position in relation to spiritual enlightenment. He remained satisfied as one 
who has achieved all success in spiritual understanding.

Being self-satisfied, Maharaja Prthu executed his duties as perfectly as 
possible according to the time and his situation, strength and financial 
position. His only aim in all his activities was to satisfy the Absolute Truth. 
In this way, he duly acted.

Maharaja Prthu completely dedicated himself to be an eternal servant of the 
Supreme Personality of Godhead, transcendental to material nature. Consequently 
all the fruits of his activities were dedicated to the Lord, and he always 
thought of himself as the servant of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, who is 
the proprietor of everything.

Maharaja Prthu, who was very opulent due to the prosperity of his entire empire, 
remained at home as a householder. Since he was never inclined to utilize his 
opulences for the gratification of his senses, he remained unattached, exactly 
like the sun, which is unaffected in all circumstances.

Being situated in the liberated position of devotional service, Prthu Maharaja 
not only performed all fruitive activities but also begot five sons by his wife, 
Arci. Indeed, all his sons were begotten according to his own desire.

After begetting five sons, named Vijitasva, Dhumrakesa, Haryaksa, Dravina and 
Vrka, Prthu Maharaja continued to rule the planet. He accepted all the qualities 
of the deities who governed all other planets.

Since Maharaja Prthu was a perfect devotee of the Supreme Personality of 
Godhead, he wanted to protect the Lord's creation by pleasing the various 
citizens according to their various desires. Therefore Prthu Maharaja used to 
please them in all respects by his words, mentality, works and gentle behavior.

Maharaja Prthu became as celebrated a king as Soma-raja, the king of the moon. 
He was also powerful and exacting, just like the sun-god, who distributes heat 
and light and at the same time exacts all the planetary waters.

Maharaja Prthu was so strong and powerful that no one could disobey his orders 
any more than one could conquer fire itself. He was so strong that he was 
compared to Indra, the King of heaven, whose power is insuperable. On the other 
hand, Maharaja Prthu was also as tolerant as the earth, and in fulfilling 
various desires of human society, he was like heaven itself.

Just as rainfall satisfies everyone's desires, Maharaja Prthu used to satisfy 
everyone. He was like the sea in that no one could understand his depths, and he 
was like Meru, the king of hills, in the fixity of his purpose.

Maharaja Prthu's intelligence and education were exactly like that of Yamaraja, 
the superintendent of death. His opulence was comparable to the Himalaya 
Mountains, where all valuable jewels and metals are stocked. He possessed great 
riches like Kuvera, the treasurer of the heavenly planets, and no one could 
reveal his secrets, for they were like the demigod Varuna's.

In his bodily strength and in the strength of his senses, Maharaja Prthu was as 
strong as the wind, which can go anywhere and everywhere. As far as his 
intolerance was concerned, he was just like the all-powerful Rudra expansion of 
Lord Shiva, or Sadasiva.

In his bodily beauty he was just like Cupid, and in his thoughtfulness he was 
like a lion. In his affection he was just like Svayambhuva Manu, and in his 
ability to control he was like Lord Brahma.

In his personal behavior, Prthu Maharaja exhibited all good qualities, and in 
spiritual knowledge he was exactly like Brhaspati. In self-control he was like 
the Supreme Personality of Godhead Himself. As far as his devotional service was 
concerned, he was a great follower of devotees who were attached to cow 
protection and the rendering of all service to the spiritual master and the 
brahmanas. He was perfect in his shyness and in his gentle behavior, and when he 
engaged in some philanthropic activity, he worked as if he were working for his 
own personal self.

Throughout the whole universe--in the higher, lower and middle planetary 
systems--Prthu Maharaja's reputation was loudly declared, and all ladies and 
saintly persons heard his glories, which were as sweet as the glories of Lord 

Chapter Twenty-three : Maharaja Prthu's Going Back Home

At the last stage of his life, when Maharaja Prthu saw himself getting old, that 
great soul, who was king of the world, divided whatever opulence he had 
accumulated amongst all kinds of living entities, moving and nonmoving. He 
arranged pensions for everyone according to religious principles, and after 
executing the orders of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, in complete 
coordination with Him, he dedicated his sons unto the earth, which was 
considered to be his daughter. Then Maharaja Prthu left the presence of his 
citizens, who were almost lamenting and crying from feeling separation from the 
King, and went to the forest alone with his wife to perform austerities.

After retiring from family life, Maharaja Prthu strictly followed the 
regulations of retired life and underwent severe austerities in the forest. He 
engaged in these activities as seriously as he had formerly engaged in leading 
the government and conquering everyone.

In the tapo-vana, Maharaja Prthu sometimes ate the trunks and roots of trees, 
and sometimes he ate fruit and dried leaves, and for some weeks he drank only 
water. Finally he lived simply by breathing air.

Following the principles of forest living and the footsteps of the great sages 
and munis, Prthu Maharaja accepted five kinds of heating processes during the 
summer season, exposed himself to torrents of rain in the rainy season and, in 
the winter, stood in water up to his neck. He also used to simply lie down on 
the floor to sleep.

Maharaja Prthu underwent all these severe austerities in order to control his 
words and his senses, to refrain from discharging his semen and to control the 
life air within his body. All this he did for the satisfaction of Krishna. He 
had no other purpose.

By thus practicing severe austerities, Maharaja Prthu gradually became steadfast 
in spiritual life and completely free of all desires for fruitive activities. He 
also practiced breathing exercises to control his mind and senses, and by such 
control he became completely free from all desires for fruitive activity.

Thus the best amongst human beings, Maharaja Prthu, followed that path of 
spiritual advancement which was advised by Sanat-kumara. That is to say, he 
worshiped the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Krishna.

Maharaja Prthu thus engaged completely in devotional service, executing the 
rules and regulations strictly according to principles, twenty-four hours daily. 
Thus his love and devotion unto the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Krishna, 
developed and became unflinching and fixed.

By regularly discharging devotional service, Prthu Maharaja became 
transcendental in mind and could therefore constantly think of the lotus feet of 
the Lord. Because of this, he became completely detached and attained perfect 
knowledge by which he could transcend all doubt. Thus he was freed from the 
clutches of false ego and the material conception of life.

When he became completely free from the conception of bodily life, Maharaja 
Prthu realized Lord Krishna sitting in everyone's heart as the Paramatma. Being 
thus able to get all instructions from Him, he gave up all other practices of 
yoga and jnana. He was not even interested in the perfection of the yoga and 
jnana systems, for he thoroughly realized that devotional service to Krishna is 
the ultimate goal of life and that unless the yogis and jnanis become attracted 
to krsna-katha [narrations about Krishna], their illusions concerning existence 
can never be dispelled.

In due course of time, when Prthu Maharaja was to give up his body, he fixed his 
mind firmly upon the lotus feet of Krishna, and thus, completely situated on the 
brahma-bhuta platform, he gave up the material body.

When Maharaja Prthu practiced a particular yogic sitting posture, he blocked the 
doors of his anus with his ankles, pressed his right and left calves and 
gradually raised his life air upward, passing it on to the circle of his navel, 
up to his heart and throat, and finally pushed it upward to the central position 
between his two eyebrows.

In this way, Prthu Maharaja gradually raised his air of life up to the hole in 
his skull, whereupon he lost all desire for material existence. Gradually he 
merged his air of life with the totality of air, his body with the totality of 
earth, and the fire within his body with the totality of fire.

In this way, according to the different positions of the various parts of the 
body, Prthu Maharaja merged the holes of his senses with the sky; his bodily 
liquids, such as blood and various secretions, with the totality of water; and 
he merged earth with water, then water with fire, fire with air, air with sky, 
and so on.

He amalgamated the mind with the senses and the senses with the sense objects, 
according to their respective positions, and he also amalgamated the material 
ego with the total material energy, mahat-tattva.

Prthu Maharaja then offered the total designation of the living entity unto the 
supreme controller of illusory energy. Being released from all the designations 
by which the living entity became entrapped, he became free by knowledge and 
renunciation and by the spiritual force of his devotional service. In this way, 
being situated in his original constitutional position of Krishna consciousness, 
he gave up this body as a prabhu, or controller of the senses.

The Queen, the wife of Prthu Maharaja, whose name was Arci, followed her husband 
into the forest. Since she was a queen, her body was very delicate. Although she 
did not deserve to live in the forest, she voluntarily touched her lotus feet to 
the ground.

Although she was not accustomed to such difficulties, Queen Arci followed her 
husband in the regulative principles of living in the forest like great sages. 
She lay down on the ground and ate only fruits, flowers and leaves, and because 
she was not fit for these activities, she became frail and thin. Yet because of 
the pleasure she derived in serving her husband, she did not feel any 

When Queen Arci saw that her husband, who had been so merciful to her and the 
earth, no longer showed symptoms of life, she lamented for a little while and 
then built a fiery pyre on top of a hill and placed the body of her husband on 

After this, the Queen executed the necessary funerary functions and offered 
oblations of water. After bathing in the river, she offered obeisances to 
various demigods situated in the sky in the different planetary systems. She 
then circumambulated the fire and, while thinking of the lotus feet of her 
husband, entered its flames.

After observing this brave act performed by the chaste wife Arci, the wife of 
the great King Prthu, many thousands of the wives of the demigods, along with 
their husbands, offered prayers to the Queen, for they were very much satisfied.

At that time the demigods were situated on the top of Mandara Hill, and all 
their wives began to shower flowers on the funeral pyre and began to talk 
amongst themselves as follows.

The wives of the demigods said: All glories to Queen Arci! We can see that this 
queen of the great King Prthu, the emperor of all the kings of the world, has 
served her husband with mind, speech and body exactly as the goddess of fortune 
serves the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Yajnesa, or Vishnu.

The wives of the demigods continued: Just see how this chaste lady, Arci, by 
dint of her inconceivable pious activities, is still following her husband 
upward, as far as we can see.

In this material world, every human being has a short span of life, but those 
who are engaged in devotional service go back home, back to Godhead, for they 
are actually on the path of liberation. For such persons, there is nothing which 
is not available.

Any person who engages himself within this material world in performing 
activities that necessitate great struggle, and who, after obtaining a human 
form of life--which is a chance to attain liberation from miseries--undertakes 
the difficult tasks of fruitive activities, must be considered to be cheated and 
envious of his own self.

The great sage Maitreya continued speaking: My dear Vidura, when the wives of 
the denizens of heaven were thus talking amongst themselves, Queen Arci reached 
the planet which her husband, Maharaja Prthu, the topmost self-realized soul, 
had attained.

Maitreya continued: The greatest of all devotees, Maharaja Prthu, was very 
powerful, and his character was liberal, magnificent and magnanimous. Thus I 
have described him to you as far as possible.

Any person who describes the great characteristics of King Prthu with faith and 
determination--whether he reads or hears of them himself or helps others to hear 
of them--is certain to attain the very planet which Maharaja Prthu attained. In 
other words, such a person also returns home to the Vaikuntha planets, back to 

If one hears of the characteristics of Prthu Maharaja and is a brahmana, he 
becomes perfectly qualified with brahminical powers; if he is a ksatriya, he 
becomes a king of the world; if he is a vaisya, he becomes a master of other 
vaisyas and many animals; and if he is a sudra, he becomes the topmost devotee.

It does not matter whether one is a man or woman. Anyone who, with great 
respect, hears this narration of Maharaja Prthu will become the father of many 
children if he is without children and will become the richest of men if he is 
without money.

Also, one who hears this narration three times will become very reputable if he 
is not recognized in society, and he will become a great scholar if he is 
illiterate. In other words, hearing of the narrations of Prthu Maharaja is so 
auspicious that it drives away all bad luck.

By hearing the narration of Prthu Maharaja, one can become great, increase his 
duration of life, gain promotion to the heavenly planets and counteract the 
contaminations of this age of Kali. In addition, one can promote the causes of 
religion, economic development, sense gratification and liberation. Therefore 
from all sides it is advisable for a materialistic person who is interested in 
such things to read and hear the narrations of the life and character of Prthu 

If a king, who is desirous of attaining victory and ruling power, chants the 
narration of Prthu Maharaja three times before going forth on his chariot, all 
subordinate kings will automatically render all kinds of taxes unto him--as they 
rendered them unto Maharaja Prthu--simply upon his order.

A pure devotee who is executing the different processes of devotional service 
may be situated in the transcendental position, being completely absorbed in 
Krishna consciousness, but even he, while discharging devotional service, must 
hear, read and induce others to hear about the character and life of Prthu 

The great sage Maitreya continued: My dear Vidura, I have as far as possible 
spoken the narrations about Prthu Maharaja, which enrich one's devotional 
attitude. Whoever takes advantage of these benefits also goes back home, back to 
Godhead, like Maharaja Prthu.

Whoever, with great reverence and adoration, regularly reads, chants and 
describes the history of Maharaja Prthu's activities will certainly increase 
unflinching faith and attraction for the lotus feet of the Lord. The Lord's 
lotus feet are the boat by which one can cross the ocean of nescience.

Chapter Twenty-four : Chanting the Song Sung by Lord Shiva

The great sage Maitreya continued: Vijitasva, the eldest son of Maharaja Prthu, 
who had a reputation like his father's, became emperor and gave his younger 
brothers different directions of the world to govern, for he was very 
affectionate toward his brothers.

Maharaja Vijitasva offered the eastern part of the world to his brother 
Haryaksa, the southern part to Dhumrakesa, the western part to Vrka and the 
northern part to Dravina.

Formerly, Maharaja Vijitasva pleased the King of heaven, Indra, and from him 
received the title Antardhana. His wife's name was Sikhandini, and by her he 
begot three good sons.

The three sons of Maharaja Antardhana were named Pavaka, Pavamana and Suci. 
Formerly these three personalities were the demigods of fire, but due to the 
curse of the great sage Vasistha, they became the sons of Maharaja Antardhana. 
As such, they were as powerful as the fire-gods, and they attained the 
destination of mystic yoga power, being again situated as the demigods of fire.

Maharaja Antardhana had another wife, named Nabhasvati, and by her he was happy 
to beget another son, named Havirdhana. Since Maharaja Antardhana was very 
liberal, he did not kill Indra while the demigod was stealing his father's horse 
at the sacrifice.

Whenever Antardhana, the supreme royal power, had to exact taxes, punish his 
citizens or fine them severely, he was not willing to do so. Consequently he 
retired from the execution of such duties and engaged himself in the performance 
of different sacrifices.

Although Maharaja Antardhana was engaged in performing sacrifices, because he 
was a self-realized soul he very intelligently rendered devotional service to 
the Lord, who eradicates all the fears of His devotees. By thus worshiping the 
Supreme Lord, Maharaja Antardhana, rapt in ecstasy, attained His planet very 

Havirdhana, the son of Maharaja Antardhana, had a wife named Havirdhani, who 
gave birth to six sons, named Barhisat, Gaya, Sukla, Krishna, Satya and 

The great sage Maitreya continued: My dear Vidura, Havirdhana's very powerful 
son named Barhisat was very expert in performing various kinds of fruitive 
sacrifices, and he was also expert in the practice of mystic yoga. By his great 
qualifications, he became known as Prajapati.

Maharaja Barhisat executed many sacrifices all over the world. He scattered kusa 
grasses and kept the tops of the grasses pointed eastward.

Maharaja Barhisat--henceforward known as Pracinabarhi--was ordered by the 
supreme demigod Lord Brahma to marry the daughter of the ocean named Satadruti. 
Her bodily features were completely beautiful, and she was very young. She was 
decorated with the proper garments, and when she came into the marriage arena 
and began circumambulating it, the fire-god Agni became so attracted to her that 
he desired her company, exactly as he had formerly desired to enjoy Suki.

While Satadruti was thus being married, the demons, the denizens of 
Gandharvaloka, the great sages, and the denizens of Siddhaloka, the earthly 
planets and Nagaloka, although highly exalted, were all captivated by the 
tinkling of her ankle bells.

King Pracinabarhi begot ten children in the womb of Satadruti. All of them were 
equally endowed with religiosity, and all of them were known as the Pracetas.

When all these Pracetas were ordered by their father to marry and beget 
children, they all entered the ocean and practiced austerities and penances for 
ten thousand years. Thus they worshiped the master of all austerity, the Supreme 
Personality of Godhead.

When all the sons of Pracinabarhi left home to execute austerities, they met 
Lord Shiva, who, out of great mercy, instructed them about the Absolute Truth. 
All the sons of Pracinabarhi meditated upon the instructions, chanting and 
worshiping them with great care and attention.

Vidura asked Maitreya: My dear brahmana, why did the Pracetas meet Lord Shiva on 
the way? Please tell me how the meeting happened, how Lord Shiva became very 
pleased with them and how he instructed them. Certainly such talks are 
important, and I wish that you please be merciful upon me and describe them.

The great sage Vidura continued: O best of the brahmanas, it is very difficult 
for living entities encaged within this material body to have personal contact 
with Lord Shiva. Even great sages who have no material attachments do not 
contact him, despite their always being absorbed in meditation to attain his 
personal contact.

Lord Shiva, the most powerful demigod, second only to Lord Vishnu, is self-
sufficient. Although he has nothing to aspire for in the material world, for the 
benefit of those in the material world he is always busily engaged everywhere 
and is accompanied by his dangerous energies like goddess Kali and goddess 

The great sage Maitreya continued: My dear Vidura, because of their pious 
nature, all the sons of Pracinabarhi very seriously accepted the words of their 
father with heart and soul, and with these words on their heads, they went 
toward the west to execute their father's order.

While traveling, the Pracetas happened to see a great reservoir of water which 
seemed almost as big as the ocean. The water of this lake was so calm and quiet 
that it seemed like the mind of a great soul, and its inhabitants, the aquatics, 
appeared very peaceful and happy to be under the protection of such a watery 

In that great lake there were different types of lotus flowers. Some of them 
were bluish, and some of them were red. Some of them grew at night, some in the 
day and some, like the indivara lotus flower, in the evening. Combined together, 
the lotus flowers filled the lake so full that the lake appeared to be a great 
mine of such flowers. Consequently, on the shores there were swans and cranes, 
cakravaka, karandava and other beautiful water birds standing about.

There were various trees and creepers on all sides of the lake, and there were 
mad bumblebees humming all about them. The trees appeared to be very jolly due 
to the sweet humming of the bumblebees, and the saffron, which was contained in 
the lotus flowers, was being thrown into the air. These all created such an 
atmosphere that it appeared as though a festival were taking place there.

The sons of the King became very much amazed when they heard vibrations from 
various drums and kettledrums along with other orderly musical sounds pleasing 
to the ear.

The Pracetas were fortunate to see Lord Shiva, the chief of the demigods, 
emerging from the water with his associates. His bodily luster was just like 
molten gold, his throat was bluish, and he had three eyes, which looked very 
mercifully upon his devotees. He was accompanied by many musicians, who were 
glorifying him. As soon as the Pracetas saw Lord Shiva, they immediately offered 
their obeisances in great amazement and fell down at the lotus feet of the lord.

Lord Shiva became very pleased with the Pracetas because generally Lord Shiva is 
the protector of pious persons and persons of gentle behavior. Being very much 
pleased with the princes, he began to speak as follows.

Lord Shiva said: You are all the sons of King Pracinabarhi, and I wish all good 
fortune to you. I also know what you are going to do, and therefore I am visible 
to you just to show my mercy upon you.

Lord Shiva continued: Any person who is surrendered to the Supreme Personality 
of Godhead, Krishna, the controller of everything--material nature as well as 
the living entity--is actually very dear to me.

A person who executes his occupational duty properly for one hundred births 
becomes qualified to occupy the post of Brahma, and if he becomes more 
qualified, he can approach Lord Shiva. A person who is directly surrendered to 
Lord Krishna, or Vishnu, in unalloyed devotional service is immediately promoted 
to the spiritual planets. Lord Shiva and other demigods attain these planets 
after the destruction of this material world.

You are all devotees of the Lord, and as such I appreciate that you are as 
respectable as the Supreme Personality of Godhead Himself. I know in this way 
that the devotees also respect me and that I am dear to them. Thus no one can be 
as dear to the devotees as I am.

Now I shall chant one mantra which is not only transcendental, pure and 
auspicious, but is the best prayer for anyone who is aspiring to attain the 
ultimate goal of life. When I chant this mantra, please hear it carefully and 

The great sage Maitreya continued: Out of his causeless mercy, the exalted 
personality Lord Shiva, a great devotee of Lord Narayana, continued to speak to 
the King's sons, who were standing with folded hands.

Lord Shiva addressed the Supreme Personality of Godhead with the following 
prayer: O Supreme Personality of Godhead, all glories unto You. You are the most 
exalted of all self-realized souls. Since You are always auspicious for the 
self-realized, I wish that You be auspicious for me. You are worshipable by 
virtue of the all-perfect instructions You give. You are the Supersoul; 
therefore I offer my obeisances unto You as the supreme living being.

My Lord, You are the origin of the creation by virtue of the lotus flower which 
sprouts from Your navel. You are the supreme controller of the senses and the 
sense objects, and You are also the all-pervading Vasudeva. You are most 
peaceful, and because of Your self-illuminated existence, You are not disturbed 
by the six kinds of transformations.

My dear Lord, You are the origin of the subtle material ingredients, the master 
of all integration as well as the master of all disintegration, the 
predominating Deity named Sankarsana, and the master of all intelligence, known 
as the predominating Deity Pradyumna. Therefore, I offer my respectful 
obeisances unto You.

My Lord, as the supreme directing Deity known as Aniruddha, You are the master 
of the senses and the mind. I therefore offer my obeisances unto You again and 
again. You are known as Ananta as well as Sankarsana because of Your ability to 
destroy the whole creation by the blazing fire from Your mouth.

My Lord, O Aniruddha, You are the authority by which the doors of the higher 
planetary systems and liberation are opened. You are always within the pure 
heart of the living entity. Therefore I offer my obeisances unto You. You are 
the possessor of semen which is like gold, and thus, in the form of fire, You 
help the Vedic sacrifices, beginning with catur-hotra. Therefore I offer my 
obeisances unto You.

My Lord, You are the provider of the Pitrlokas as well as all the demigods. You 
are the predominating deity of the moon and the master of all three Vedas. I 
offer my respectful obeisances unto You because You are the original source of 
satisfaction for all living entities.

My dear Lord, You are the gigantic universal form which contains all the 
individual bodies of the living entities. You are the maintainer of the three 
worlds, and as such You maintain the mind, senses, body, and air of life within 
them. I therefore offer my respectful obeisances unto You.

My dear Lord, by expanding Your transcendental vibrations, You reveal the actual 
meaning of everything. You are the all-pervading sky within and without, and You 
are the ultimate goal of pious activities executed both within this material 
world and beyond it. I therefore offer my respectful obeisances again and again 
unto You.

My dear Lord, You are the viewer of the results of pious activities. You are 
inclination, disinclination and their resultant activities. You are the cause of 
the miserable conditions of life caused by irreligion, and therefore You are 
death. I offer You my respectful obeisances.

My dear Lord, You are the topmost of all bestowers of all benediction, the 
oldest and supreme enjoyer amongst all enjoyers. You are the master of all the 
worlds' metaphysical philosophy, for You are the supreme cause of all causes, 
Lord Krishna. You are the greatest of all religious principles, the supreme 
mind, and You have a brain which is never checked by any condition. Therefore I 
repeatedly offer my obeisances unto You.

My dear Lord, You are the supreme controller of the worker, sense activities and 
results of sense activities [karma]. Therefore You are the controller of the 
body, mind and senses. You are also the supreme controller of egotism, known as 
Rudra. You are the source of knowledge and the activities of the Vedic 

My dear Lord, I wish to see You exactly in the form that Your very dear devotees 
worship. You have many other forms, but I wish to see Your form that is 
especially liked by the devotees. Please be merciful upon me and show me that 
form, for only that form worshiped by the devotees can perfectly satisfy all the 
demands of the senses.

The Lord's beauty resembles a dark cloud during the rainy season. As the 
rainfall glistens, His bodily features also glisten. Indeed, He is the sum total 
of all beauty. The Lord has four arms and an exquisitely beautiful face with 
eyes like lotus petals, a beautiful highly raised nose, a mind-attracting smile, 
a beautiful forehead and equally beautiful and fully decorated ears.

The Lord is superexcellently beautiful on account of His open and merciful smile 
and Mis sidelong glance upon His devotees. His black hair is curly, and His 
garments, waving in the wind, appear like flying saffron pollen from lotus 
flowers. His glittering earrings, shining helmet, bangles, garland, ankle bells, 
waist belt and various other bodily ornaments combine with conchshell, disc, 
club and lotus flower to increase the natural beauty of the Kaustubha pearl on 
His chest.

The Lord has shoulders just like a lion's. Upon these shoulders are garlands, 
necklaces and epaulets, and all of these are always glittering. Besides these, 
there is the beauty of the Kaustubha-mani pearl, and on the dark chest of the 
Lord there are streaks named Srivatsa, which are signs of the goddess of 
fortune. The glittering of these streaks excels the beauty of the golden streaks 
on a gold-testing stone. Indeed, such beauty defeats a gold-testing stone.

The Lord's abdomen is beautiful due to three ripples in the flesh. Being so 
round, His abdomen resembles the leaf of a banyan tree, and when He exhales and 
inhales, the movement of the ripples appears very, very beautiful. The coils 
within the navel of the Lord are so deep that it appears that the entire 
universe sprouted out of it and yet again wishes to go back.

The lower part of the Lord's waist is dark and covered with yellow garments and 
a belt bedecked with golden embroidery work. His symmetrical lotus feet and the 
calves, thighs and joints of His legs are extraordinarily beautiful. Indeed, the 
Lord's entire body appears to be well built.

My dear Lord, Your two lotus feet are so beautiful that they appear like two 
blossoming petals of the lotus flower which grows during the autumn season. 
Indeed, the nails of Your lotus feet emanate such a great effulgence that they 
immediately dissipate all the darkness in the heart of a conditioned soul. My 
dear Lord, kindly show me that form of Yours which always dissipates all kinds 
of darkness in the heart of a devotee. My dear Lord, You are the supreme 
spiritual master of everyone; therefore all conditioned souls covered with the 
darkness of ignorance can be enlightened by You as the spiritual master.

My dear Lord, those who desire to purify their existence must always engage in 
meditation upon Your lotus feet, as described above. Those who are serious about 
executing their occupational duties and who want freedom from fear must take to 
this process of bhakti-yoga.

My dear Lord, the king in charge of the heavenly kingdom is also desirous of 
obtaining the ultimate goal of life--devotional service. Similarly, You are the 
ultimate destination of those who identify themselves with You [aham brahmasmi]. 
However, it is very difficult for them to attain You, whereas a devotee can very 
easily attain Your Lordship.

My dear Lord, pure devotional service is even difficult for liberated persons to 
discharge, but devotional service alone can satisfy You. Who will take to other 
processes of self-realization if he is actually serious about the perfection of 

Simply by expansion of His eyebrows, invincible time personified can immediately 
vanquish the entire universe. However, formidable time does not approach the 
devotee who has taken complete shelter at Your lotus feet.

If one by chance associates with a devotee, even for a fraction of a moment, he 
no longer is subject to attraction by the results of karma or jnana. What 
interest then can he have in the benedictions of the demigods, who are subject 
to the laws of birth and death?

My dear Lord, Your lotus feet are the cause of all auspicious things and the 
destroyer of all the contamination of sin. I therefore beg Your Lordship to 
bless me by the association of Your devotees, who are completely purified by 
worshiping Your lotus feet and who are so merciful upon the conditioned souls. I 
think that Your real benediction will be to allow me to associate with such 

The devotee whose heart has been completely cleansed by the process of 
devotional service and who is favored by Bhaktidevi does not become bewildered 
by the external energy, which is just like a dark well. Being completely 
cleansed of all material contamination in this way, a devotee is able to 
understand very happily Your name, fame, form, activities, etc.

My dear Lord, the impersonal Brahman spreads everywhere, like the sunshine or 
the sky. And that impersonal Brahman, which spreads throughout the universe and 
in which the entire universe is manifested, is You.

My dear Lord, You have manifold energies, and these energies are manifested in 
manifold forms. With such energies You have also created this cosmic 
manifestation, and although You maintain it as if it were permanent, You 
ultimately annihilate it. Although You are never disturbed by such changes and 
alterations, the living entities are disturbed by them, and therefore they find 
the cosmic manifestation to be different or separated from You. My Lord, You are 
always independent, and I can clearly see this fact.

My dear Lord, Your universal form consists of all five elements, the senses, 
mind, intelligence, false ego (which is material) and the Paramatma, Your 
partial expansion, who is the director of everything. Yogis other than the 
devotees--namely the karma-yogi and jnana-yogi--worship You by their respective 
actions in their respective positions. It is stated both in the Vedas and in the 
sastras that are corollaries of the Vedas, and indeed everywhere, that it is 
only You who are to be worshiped. That is the expert version of all the Vedas.

My dear Lord, You are the only Supreme Person, the cause of all causes. Before 
the creation of this material world, Your material energy remains in a dormant 
condition. When Your material energy is agitated, the three qualities--namely 
goodness, passion and ignorance--act, and as a result the total material energy-
-egotism, ether, air, fire, water, earth and all the various demigods and 
saintly persons--becomes manifest. Thus the material world is created.

My dear Lord, after creating by Your own potencies, You enter within the 
creation in four kinds of forms. Being within the hearts of the living entities, 
You know them and know how they are enjoying their senses. The so-called 
happiness of this material creation is exactly like the bees' enjoyment of honey 
after it has been collected in the honeycomb.

My dear Lord, Your absolute authority cannot be directly experienced, but one 
can guess by seeing the activities of the world that everything is being 
destroyed in due course of time. The force of time is very strong, and 
everything is being destroyed by something else--just as one animal is being 
eaten by another animal. Time scatters everything, exactly as the wind scatters 
clouds in the sky.

My dear Lord, all living entities within this material world are mad after 
planning for things, and they are always busy with a desire to do this or that. 
This is due to uncontrollable greed. The greed for material enjoyment is always 
existing in the living entity, but Your Lordship is always alert, and in due 
course of time You strike him, just as a snake seizes a mouse and very easily 
swallows him.

My dear Lord, any learned person knows that unless he worships You, his entire 
life is spoiled. Knowing this, how could he give up worshiping Your lotus feet? 
Even our father and spiritual master, Lord Brahma, unhesitatingly worshiped You, 
and the fourteen Manus followed in his footsteps.

My dear Lord, all actually learned persons know You as the Supreme Brahman and 
the Supersoul. Although the entire universe is afraid of Lord Rudra, who 
ultimately annihilates everything, for the learned devotees You are the fearless 
destination of all.

My dear sons of the King, just execute your occupational duty as kings with a 
pure heart. Just chant this prayer fixing your mind on the lotus feet of the 
Lord. That will bring you all good fortune, for the Lord will be very much 
pleased with you.

Therefore, O sons of the King, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Hari, is 
situated in everyone's heart. He is also within your hearts. Therefore chant the 
glories of the Lord and always meditate upon Him continuously.

My dear princes, in the form of a prayer I have delineated the yoga system of 
chanting the holy name. All of you should take this important stotra within your 
minds and promise to keep it in order to become great sages. By acting silently 
like a great sage and by giving attention and reverence, you should practice 
this method.

This prayer was first spoken to us by Lord Brahma, the master of all creators. 
The creators, headed by Bhrgu, were instructed in these prayers because they 
wanted to create.

When all the Prajapatis were ordered to create by Lord Brahma, we chanted these 
prayers in praise of the Supreme Personality of Godhead and became completely 
free from all ignorance. Thus we were able to create different types of living 

A devotee of Lord Krishna whose mind is always absorbed in Him, who with great 
attention and reverence chants this stotra [prayer], will achieve the greatest 
perfection of life without delay.

In this material world there are different types of achievement, but of all of 
them the achievement of knowledge is considered to be the highest because one 
can cross the ocean of nescience only on the boat of knowledge. Otherwise the 
ocean is impassable.

Although rendering devotional service to the Supreme Personality of Godhead and 
worshiping Him are very difficult, if one vibrates or simply reads this stotra 
[prayer] composed and sung by me, he will very easily be able to invoke the 
mercy of the Supreme Personality of Godhead.

The Supreme Personality of Godhead is the dearmost objective of all auspicious 
benedictions. A human being who sings this song sung by me can please the 
Supreme Personality of Godhead. Such a devotee, being fixed in the Lord's 
devotional service, can acquire whatever he wants from the Supreme Lord.

A devotee who rises early in the morning and with folded hands chants these 
prayers sung by Lord Shiva and gives facility to others to hear them certainly 
becomes free from all bondage to fruitive activities.

My dear sons of the King, the prayers I have recited to you are meant for 
pleasing the Supreme Personality of Godhead, the Supersoul. I advise you to 
recite these prayers, which are as effective as great austerities. In this way, 
when you are mature, your life will be successful, and you will certainly 
achieve all your desired objectives without fail.

Chapter Twenty-five : The Descriptions of the Characteristics

The great sage Maitreya continued speaking to Vidura: My dear Vidura, in this 
way Lord Shiva instructed the sons of King Barhisat. The sons of the King also 
worshiped Lord Shiva with great devotion and respect. Finally, Lord Shiva became 
invisible to the princes.

All the Praceta princes simply stood in the water for ten thousand years and 
recited the prayers given to them by Lord Shiva.

While the princes were undergoing severe austerities in the water, their father 
was performing different types of fruitive activities. At this time the great 
saint Narada, master and teacher of all spiritual life, became very 
compassionate upon the King and decided to instruct him about spiritual life.

Narada Muni asked King Pracinabarhisat: My dear King, what do you desire to 
achieve by performing these fruitive activities? The chief aim of life is to get 
rid of all miseries and enjoy happiness, but these two things cannot be realized 
by fruitive activity.

The King replied: O great soul, Narada, my intelligence is entangled in fruitive 
activities; therefore I do not know the ultimate goal of life. Kindly instruct 
me in pure knowledge so that I can get out of the entanglement of fruitive 

Those who are interested only in a so-called beautiful life--namely remaining as 
a householder entangled by sons and a wife and searching after wealth--think 
that such things are life's ultimate goal. Such people simply wander in 
different types of bodies throughout this material existence without finding out 
the ultimate goal of life.

The great saint Narada said: O ruler of the citizens, my dear King, please see 
in the sky those animals which you have sacrificed without compassion and 
without mercy in the sacrificial arena.

All these animals are awaiting your death so that they can avenge the injuries 
you have inflicted upon them. After you die, they will angrily pierce your body 
with iron horns.

In this connection I wish to narrate an old history connected with the character 
of a king called Puranjana. Please try to hear me with great attention.

My dear King, once in the past lived a king named Puranjana, who was celebrated 
for his great activities. He had a friend named Avijnata ["the unknown one"]. No 
one could understand the activities of Avijnata.

King Puranjana began to search for a suitable place to live, and thus he 
traveled all over the world. Even after a great deal of traveling, he could not 
find a place just to his liking. Finally he became morose and disappointed.

King Puranjana had unlimited desires for sense enjoyment; consequently he 
traveled all over the world to find a place where all his desires could be 
fulfilled. Unfortunately he found a feeling of insufficiency everywhere.

Once, while wandering in this way, he saw on the southern side of the Himalayas, 
in a place named Bharata-varsa [India], a city that had nine gates all about and 
was characterized by all auspicious facilities.

That city was surrounded by walls and parks, and within it were towers, canals, 
windows and outlets. The houses there were decorated with domes made of gold, 
silver and iron.

The floors of the houses in that city were made of sapphire, crystal, diamonds, 
pearls, emeralds and rubies. Because of the luster of the houses in the capital, 
the city was compared to the celestial town named Bhogavati.

In that city there were many assembly houses, street crossings, streets, 
restaurants, gambling houses, markets, resting places, flags, festoons and 
beautiful parks. All these surrounded the city.

On the outskirts of that city were many beautiful trees and creepers encircling 
a nice lake. Also surrounding that lake were many groups of birds and bees that 
were always chanting and humming.

The branches of the trees standing on the bank of the lake received particles of 
water carried by the spring air from the falls coming down from the icy 

In such an atmosphere even the animals of the forest became nonviolent and 
nonenvious like great sages. Consequently, the animals did not attack anyone. 
Over and above everything was the cooing of the cuckoos. Any passenger passing 
along that path was invited by that atmosphere to take rest in that nice garden.

While wandering here and there in that wonderful garden, King Puranjana suddenly 
came in contact with a very beautiful woman who was walking there without any 
engagement. She had ten servants with her, and each servant had hundreds of 
wives accompanying him.

The woman was protected on all sides by a five-hooded snake. She was very 
beautiful and young, and she appeared very anxious to find a suitable husband.

The woman's nose, teeth and forehead were all very beautiful. Her ears were 
equally very beautiful and were bedecked with dazzling earrings.

The waist and hips of the woman were very beautiful. She was dressed in a yellow 
sari with a golden belt. While she walked, her ankle bells rang. She appeared 
exactly like a denizen of the heavens.

With the end of her sari the woman was trying to cover her breasts, which were 
equally round and well placed side by side. She again and again tried to cover 
them out of shyness while she walked exactly like a great elephant.

Puranjana, the hero, became attracted by the eyebrows and smiling face of the 
very beautiful girl and was immediately pierced by the arrows of her lusty 
desires. When she smiled shyly, she looked very beautiful to Puranjana, who, 
although a hero, could not refrain from addressing her.

My dear lotus-eyed, kindly explain to me where you are coming from, who you are, 
and whose daughter you are. You appear very chaste. What is the purpose of your 
coming here? What are you trying to do? Please explain all these things to me.

My dear lotus-eyed, who are those eleven strong bodyguards with you, and who are 
those ten specific servants? Who are those women following the ten servants, and 
who is the snake that is preceding you?

My dear beautiful girl, you are exactly like the goddess of fortune or the wife 
of Lord Shiva or the goddess of learning, the wife of Lord Brahma. Although you 
must be one of them, I see that you are loitering in this forest. Indeed, you 
are as silent as the great sages. Is it that you are searching after your own 
husband? Whoever your husband may be, simply by understanding that you are so 
faithful to him, he will come to possess all opulences. I think you must be the 
goddess of fortune, but I do not see the lotus flower in your hand. Therefore I 
am asking you where you have thrown that lotus.

O greatly fortunate one, it appears that you are none of the women I have 
mentioned because I see that your feet are touching the ground. But if you are 
some woman of this planet, you can, like the goddess of fortune, who, 
accompanied by Lord Vishnu, increases the beauty of the Vaikuntha planets, also 
increase the beauty of this city by associating with me. You should understand 
that I am a great hero and a very powerful king on this planet.

Certainly your glancing upon me today has very much agitated my mind. Your 
smile, which is full of shyness but at the same time lusty, is agitating the 
most powerful cupid within me. Therefore, O most beautiful, I ask you to be 
merciful upon me.

My dear girl, your face is so beautiful with your nice eyebrows and eyes and 
with your bluish hair scattered about. In addition, very sweet sounds are coming 
from your mouth. Nonetheless, you are so covered with shyness that you do not 
see me face to face. I therefore request you, my dear girl, to smile and kindly 
raise your head to see me.

Narada continued: My dear King, when Puranjana became so attracted and impatient 
to touch the girl and enjoy her, the girl also became attracted by his words and 
accepted his request by smiling. By this time she was certainly attracted by the 

The girl said: O best of human beings, I do not know who has begotten me. I 
cannot speak to you perfectly about this. Nor do I know the names or the origin 
of the associates with me.

O great hero, we only know that we are existing in this place. We do not know 
what will come after. Indeed, we are so foolish that we do not care to 
understand who has created this beautiful place for our residence.

My dear gentleman, all these men and women with me are known as my friends, and 
the snake, who always remains awake, protects this city even during my sleeping 
hours. So much I know. I do not know anything beyond this.

O killer of the enemy, you have somehow or other come here. This is certainly 
great fortune for me. I wish all auspicious things for you. You have a great 
desire to satisfy your senses, and all my friends and I shall try our best in 
all respects to fulfill your desires.

My dear lord, I have just arranged this city of nine gates for you so that you 
can have all kinds of sense gratification. You may live here for one hundred 
years, and everything for your sense gratification will be supplied.

Mow can I expect to unite with others, who are neither conversant about sex nor 
capable of knowing how to enjoy life while living or after death? Such foolish 
persons are like animals because they do not know the process of sense enjoyment 
in this life and after death.

The woman continued: In this material world, a householder's life brings all 
kinds of happiness in religion, economic development, sense gratification and 
the begetting of children, sons and grandsons. After that, one may desire 
liberation as well as material reputation. The householder can appreciate the 
results of sacrifices, which enable him to gain promotion to superior planetary 
systems. All this material happiness is practically unknown to the 
transcendentalists. They cannot even imagine such happiness.

The woman continued: According to authorities, the householder life is pleasing 
not only to oneself but to all the forefathers, demigods, great sages, saintly 
persons and everyone else. A householder life is thus beneficial.

O my dear hero, who in this world will not accept a husband like you? You are so 
famous, so magnanimous, so beautiful and so easily gotten.

O mighty-armed, who in this world will not be attracted by your arms, which are 
just like the bodies of serpents? Actually you relieve the distress of 
husbandless women like us by your attractive smile and your aggressive mercy. We 
think that you are traveling on the surface of the earth just to benefit us 

The great sage Narada continued: My dear King, those two--the man and the woman-
-supporting one another through mutual understanding, entered that city and 
enjoyed life for one hundred years.

Many professional singers used to sing about the glories of King Puranjana and 
his glorious activities. When it was too hot in the summer, he used to enter a 
reservoir of water. He would surround himself with many women and enjoy their 

Of the nine gates in that city, seven were on the surface, and two were 
subterranean. A total of nine doors were constructed, and these led to different 
places. All the gates were used by the city's governor.

My dear King, of the nine doors, five led toward the eastern side, one led 
toward the northern side, one led toward the southern side, and two led toward 
the western side. I shall try to give the names of these different doors.

The two gates named Khadyota and Avirmukhi were situated facing the eastern 
side, but they were constructed in one place. Through those two gates the King 
used to go to the city of Vibhrajita accompanied by a friend whose name was 

Similarly in the east there were two sets of gates named Nalini and Nalini, and 
these were also constructed in one place. Through these gates the King, 
accompanied by a friend named Avadhuta, used to go to the city of Saurabha.

The fifth gate situated on the eastern side was named Mukhya, or the chief. 
Through this gate, accompanied by his friends named Rasajna and Vipana, he used 
to visit two places named Bahudana and Apana.

The southern gate of the city was known as Pitrhu, and through that gate King 
Puranjana used to visit the city named Daksina-pancala, accompanied by his 
friend Srutadhara.

On the northern side was the gate named Devahu. Through that gate, King 
Puranjana used to go with his friend Srutadhara to the place known as Uttara-

On the western side was a gate named Asuri. Through that gate King Puranjana 
used to go to the city of Gramaka, accompanied by his friend Durmada.

Another gate on the western side was known as Nirrti. Puranjana used to go 
through this gate to the place known as Vaisasa, accompanied by his friend 

Of the many inhabitants of this city, there are two persons named Nirvak and 
Pesaskrt. Although King Puranjana was the ruler of citizens who possessed eyes, 
he unfortunately used to associate with these blind men. Accompanied by them, he 
used to go here and there and perform various activities.

Sometimes he used to go to his private home with one of his chief servants [the 
mind], who was named Visucina. At that time, illusion, satisfaction and 
happiness used to be produced from his wife and children.

Being thus entangled in different types of mental concoction and engaged in 
fruitive activities, King Puranjana came completely under the control of 
material intelligence and was thus cheated. Indeed, he used to fulfill all the 
desires of his wife, the Queen.

When the Queen drank liquor, King Puranjana also engaged in drinking. When the 
Queen dined, he used to dine with her, and when she chewed, King Puranjana used 
to chew along with her. When the Queen sang, he also sang. Similarly, when the 
Queen cried, he also cried, and when the Queen laughed, he also laughed. When 
the Queen talked loosely, he also talked loosely, and when the Queen walked, the 
King walked behind her. When the Queen would stand still, the King would also 
stand still, and when the Queen would lie down in bed, he would also follow and 
lie down with her. When the Queen sat, he would also sit, and when the Queen 
heard something, he would follow her to hear the same thing. When the Queen saw 
something, the King would also look at it, and when the Queen smelled something, 
the King would follow her to smell the same thing. When the Queen touched 
something, the King would also touch it, and when the dear Queen was lamenting, 
the poor King also had to follow her in lamentation. In the same way, when the 
Queen felt enjoyment, he also enjoyed, and when the Queen was satisfied, the 
King also felt satisfaction.

In this way, King Puranjana was captivated by his nice wife and was thus 
cheated. Indeed, he became cheated in his whole existence in the material world. 
Even against that poor foolish King's desire, he remained under the control of 
his wife, just like a pet animal that dances according to the order of its 

Chapter Twenty-six : King Puranjana Goes to the Forest to Hunt,

The great sage Narada continued: My dear King, once upon a time King Puranjana 
took up his great bow, and equipped with golden armor and a quiver of unlimited 
arrows and accompanied by eleven commanders, he sat on his chariot driven by 
five swift horses and went to the forest named Panca-prastha. He took with him 
in that chariot two explosive arrows. The chariot itself was situated on two 
wheels and one revolving axle. On the chariot were three flags, one rein, one 
chariot driver, one sitting place, two poles to which the harness was fixed, 
five weapons and seven coverings. The chariot moved in five different styles, 
and five obstacles lay before it. All the decorations of the chariot were made 
of gold.

It was almost impossible for King Puranjana to give up the company of his Queen 
even for a moment. Nonetheless, on that day, being very much inspired by the 
desire to hunt, he took up his bow and arrow with great pride and went to the 
forest, not caring for his wife.

At that time King Puranjana was very much influenced by demoniac propensities. 
Because of this, his heart became very hard and merciless, and with sharp arrows 
he killed many innocent animals in the forest, taking no consideration.

If a king is too attracted to eating flesh, he may, according to the directions 
of the revealed scriptures on sacrificial performances, go to the forest and 
kill some animals that are recommended for killing. One is not allowed to kill 
animals unnecessarily or without restrictions. The Vedas regulate animal-killing 
to stop the extravagance of foolish men influenced by the modes of passion and 

Narada Muni continued to speak to King Pracinabarhisat: My dear King, any person 
who works according to the directions of the Vedic scriptures does not become 
involved in fruitive activities.

Otherwise, a person who acts whimsically falls down due to false prestige. Thus 
he becomes involved in the laws of nature, which are composed of the three 
qualities [goodness, passion and ignorance]. In this way a living entity becomes 
devoid of his real intelligence and becomes perpetually lost in the cycle of 
birth and death. Thus he goes up and down from a microbe in stool to a high 
position in the Brahmaloka planet.

When King Puranjana was hunting in this way, many animals within the forest lost 
their lives with great pain, being pierced by the sharp arrowheads. Upon seeing 
these devastating, ghastly activities performed by the King, all the people who 
were merciful by nature became very unhappy. Such merciful persons could not 
tolerate seeing all this killing.

In this way King Puranjana killed many animals, including rabbits, boars, 
buffalo, bison, black deer, porcupines and other game animals. After killing and 
killing, the King became very tired.

After this, the King, very much fatigued, hungry and thirsty, returned to his 
royal palace. After returning, he took a bath and had an appropriate dinner. 
Then he took rest and thus became freed from all restlessness.

After this, King Puranjana decorated his body with suitable ornaments. He also 
smeared scented sandalwood pulp over his body and put on flower garlands. In 
this way he became completely refreshed. After this, he began to search out his 

After taking his dinner and having his thirst and hunger satisfied, King 
Puranjana felt some joy within his heart. Instead of being elevated to a higher 
consciousness, he became captivated by Cupid, and was moved by a desire to find 
his wife, who kept him satisfied in his household life.

At that time King Puranjana was a little anxious, and he inquired from the 
household women: My dear beautiful women, are you and your mistress all very 
happy like before, or not?

King Puranjana said: I do not understand why my household paraphernalia does not 
attract me as before. I think that if there is neither a mother nor devoted wife 
at home, the home is like a chariot without wheels. Where is the fool who will 
sit down on such an unworkable chariot?

Kindly let me know the whereabouts of that beautiful woman who always saves me 
when I am drowning in the ocean of danger. By giving me good intelligence at 
every step, she always saves me.

All the women addressed the King: O master of the citizens, we do not know why 
your dear wife has taken on this sort of existence. O killer of enemies, kindly 
look! She is lying on the ground without bedding. We cannot understand why she 
is acting this way.

The great sage Narada continued: My dear King Pracinabarhi, as soon as King 
Puranjana saw his Queen lying on the ground, appearing like a mendicant, he 
immediately became bewildered.

The King, with aggrieved mind, began to speak to his wife with very pleasing 
words. Although he was filled with regret and tried to pacify her, he could not 
see any symptom of anger caused by love within the heart of his beloved wife.

Because the King was very expert in flattery, he began to pacify his Queen very 
slowly. First he touched her two feet, then embraced her nicely, seating her on 
his lap, and began to speak as follows.

King Puranjana said: My dear beautiful wife, when a master accepts a servant as 
his own man, but does not punish him for his offenses, the servant must be 
considered unfortunate.

My dear slender maiden, when a master chastises his servant, the servant should 
accept this as great mercy. One who becomes angry must be very foolish not to 
know that such is the duty of his friend.

My dear wife, your teeth are very beautifully set, and your attractive features 
make you appear very thoughtful. Kindly give up your anger, be merciful upon me, 
and please smile upon me with loving attachment. When I see a smile on your 
beautiful face, and when I see your hair, which is as beautiful as the color 
blue, and see your raised nose and hear your sweet talk, you will become more 
beautiful to me and thus attract me and oblige me. You are my most respected 

O hero's wife, kindly tell me if someone has offended you. I am prepared to give 
such a person punishment as long as he does not belong to the brahmana caste. 
But for the servant of Muraripu [Krishna], I excuse no one within or beyond 
these three worlds. No one can freely move after offending you, for I am 
prepared to punish him.

My dear wife, until this day I have never seen your face without tilaka 
decorations, nor have I seen you so morose and without luster or affection. Nor 
have I seen your two nice breasts wet with tears from your eyes. Nor have I ever 
before seen your lips, which are ordinarily as red as the bimba fruit, without 
their reddish hue.

My dear Queen, due to my sinful desires I went to the forest to hunt without 
asking you. Therefore I must admit that I have offended you. Nonetheless, 
thinking of me as your most intimate subordinate, you should still be very much 
pleased with me. Factually I am very much bereaved, but being pierced by the 
arrow of Cupid, I am feeling lusty. But where is the beautiful woman who would 
give up her lusty husband and refuse to unite with him?

Chapter Twenty-seven : Attack by Candavega on the City of King Puranjana;

The great sage Narada continued: My dear King, after bewildering her husband in 
different ways and bringing him under her control, the wife of King Puranjana 
gave him all satisfaction and enjoyed sex life with him.

The Queen took her bath and dressed herself nicely with all auspicious garments 
and ornaments. After taking food and becoming completely satisfied, she returned 
to the King. Upon seeing her beautifully decorated attractive face, the King 
welcomed her with all devotion.

Queen Puranjani embraced the King, and the King also responded by embracing her 
shoulders. In this way, in a solitary place, they enjoyed joking words. Thus 
King Puranjana became very much captivated by his beautiful wife and deviated 
from his good sense. He forgot that the passing of days and nights meant that 
his span of life was being reduced without profit.

In this way, increasingly overwhelmed by illusion, King Puranjana, although 
advanced in consciousness, remained always lying down with his head on the 
pillow of his wife's arms. In this way he considered woman to be his ultimate 
life and soul. Becoming thus overwhelmed by the mode of ignorance, he could not 
understand the meaning of self-realization, of his self or of the Supreme 
Personality of Godhead.

My dear King Pracinabarhisat, in this way King Puranjana, with his heart full of 
lust and sinful reactions, began to enjoy sex with his wife, and in this way his 
new life and youth expired in half a moment.

The great sage Narada then addressed King Pracinabarhisat: O one whose life-span 
is great [virat], in this way King Puranjana begot 1,100 sons within the womb of 
his wife, Puranjani. However, in this business he passed away half of his life-

O Prajapati, King Pracinabarhisat, in this way King Puranjana also begot 110 
daughters. All of these were equally glorified like the father and mother. Their 
behavior was gentle, and they possessed magnanimity and other good qualities.

After this, King Puranjana, King of the Pancala country, in order to increase 
the descendants of his paternal family, married his sons with qualified wives 
and married his daughters with qualified husbands.

Of these many sons, each produced hundreds and hundreds of grandsons. In this 
way the whole city of Pancala became overcrowded by these sons and grandsons of 
King Puranjana.

These sons and grandsons were virtually plunderers of King Puranjana's riches, 
including his home, treasury, servants, secretaries and all other paraphernalia. 
Puranjana's attachment for these things was very deep-rooted.

The great sage Narada continued: My dear King Pracinabarhisat, like you King 
Puranjana also became implicated in so many desires. Thus he worshiped demigods, 
forefathers and social leaders with various sacrifices which were all very 
ghastly because they were inspired by the desire to kill animals.

Thus King Puranjana, being attached to fruitive activities [karma-kandiya] as 
well as kith and kin, and being obsessed with polluted consciousness, eventually 
arrived at that point not very much liked by those who are overly attached to 
material things.

O King! In Gandharvaloka there is a king named Candavega. Under him there are 
360 very powerful Gandharva soldiers.

Along with Candavega were as many female Gandharvis as there were soldiers, and 
all of them repetitively plundered all the paraphernalia for sense enjoyment.

When King Gandharva-raja [Candavega] and his followers began to plunder the city 
of Puranjana, a snake with five hoods began to defend the city.

The five-hooded serpent, the superintendent and protector of the city of King 
Puranjana, fought with the Gandharvas for one hundred years. He fought alone, 
with all of them, although they numbered 720.

Because he had to fight alone with so many soldiers, all of whom were great 
warriors, the serpent with five hoods became very weak. Seeing that his most 
intimate friend was weakening, King Puranjana and his friends and citizens 
living within the city all became very anxious.

King Puranjana collected taxes in the city known as Pancala and thus was able to 
engage in sexual indulgence. Being completely under the control of women, he 
could not understand that his life was passing away and that he was reaching the 
point of death.

My dear King Pracinabarhisat, at this time the daughter of formidable Time was 
seeking her husband throughout the three worlds. Although no one agreed to 
accept her, she came.

The daughter of Time [Jara] was very unfortunate. Consequently she was known as 
Durbhaga ["ill-fated"]. However, she was once pleased with a great king, and 
because the king accepted her, she granted him a great benediction.

When I once came to this earth from Brahmaloka, the highest planetary system, 
the daughter of Time, wandering over the universe, met me. Knowing me to be an 
avowed brahmacari, she became lusty and proposed that I accept her.

The great sage Narada continued: When I refused to accept her request, she 
became very angry at me and cursed me severely. Because I refused her request, 
she said that I would not be able to stay in one place for a long time.

After she was thus disappointed by me, with my permission she approached the 
King of the Yavanas, whose name was Bhaya, or Fear, and she accepted him as her 

Approaching the King of the Yavanas, Kalakanya addressed him as a great hero, 
saying: My dear sir, you are the best of the untouchables. I am in love with 
you, and I want you as my husband. I know that no one is baffled if he makes 
friends with you.

One who does not give charity according to the customs or injunctions of the 
scriptures and one who does not accept charity in that way are considered to be 
in the mode of ignorance. Such persons follow the path of the foolish. Surely 
they must lament at the end.

Kalakanya continued: O gentle one, I am now present before you to serve you. 
Please accept me and thus show me mercy. It is a gentleman's greatest duty to be 
compassionate upon a person who is distressed.

After hearing the statement of Kalakanya, daughter of Time, the King of the 
Yavanas began to smile and devise a means for executing his confidential duty on 
behalf of providence. He then addressed Kalakanya as follows.

The King of the Yavanas replied: After much consideration, I have arrived at a 
husband for you. Actually, as far as everyone is concerned, you are inauspicious 
and mischievous. Since no one likes you, how can anyone accept you as his wife?

This world is a product of fruitive activities. Therefore you may imperceptibly 
attack people in general. Helped by my soldiers, you can kill them without 

The King of the Yavanas continued: Here is my brother Prajvara. I now accept you 
as my sister. I shall employ both of you, as well as my dangerous soldiers, to 
act imperceptibly within this world.

Chapter Twenty-eight : Puranjana Becomes a Woman in the Next Life

The great sage Narada continued: My dear King Pracinabarhisat, afterward, the 
King of the Yavanas, whose name is fear itself, as well as Prajvara, Kalakanya, 
and his soldiers, began to travel all over the world.

Once the dangerous soldiers attacked the city of Puranjana with great force. 
Although the city was full of paraphernalia for sense gratification, it was 
being protected by the old serpent.

Gradually Kalakanya, with the help of dangerous soldiers, attacked all the 
inhabitants of Puranjana's city and thus rendered them useless for all purposes.

When Kalakanya, daughter of Time, attacked the body, the dangerous soldiers of 
the King of the Yavanas entered the city through different gates. They then 
began to give severe trouble to all the citizens.

When the city was thus endangered by the soldiers and Kalakanya, King Puranjana, 
being overly absorbed in affection for his family, was placed in difficulty by 
the attack of Yavana-raja and Kalakanya.

When King Puranjana was embraced by Kalakanya, he gradually lost all his beauty. 
Having been too much addicted to sex, he became very poor in intelligence and 
lost all his opulence. Being bereft of all possessions, he was conquered 
forcibly by the Gandharvas and the Yavanas.

King Puranjana then saw that everything in his town was scattered and that his 
sons, grandsons, servants and ministers were all gradually opposing him. He also 
noted that his wife was becoming cold and indifferent.

When King Puranjana saw that all his family members, relatives, followers, 
servants, secretaries and everyone else had turned against him, he certainly 
became very anxious. But he could not counteract the situation because he was 
thoroughly overwhelmed by Kalakanya.

The objects of enjoyment became stale by the influence of Kalakanya. Due to the 
continuance of his lusty desires, King Puranjana became very poor in everything. 
Thus he did not understand the aim of life. He was still very affectionate 
toward his wife and children, and he worried about maintaining them.

The city of King Puranjana was overcome by the Gandharva and Yavana soldiers, 
and although the King had no desire to leave the city, he was circumstantially 
forced to do so, for it was smashed by Kalakanya.

Under the circumstances, the elder brother of Yavana-raja, known as Prajvara, 
set fire to the city to please his younger brother, whose other name is fear 

When the city was set ablaze, all the citizens and servants of the King, as well 
as all family members, sons, grandsons, wives and other relatives, were within 
the fire. King Puranjana thus became very unhappy.

The city's superintendent of police, the serpent, saw that the citizens were 
being attacked by Kalakanya, and he became very aggrieved to see his own 
residence set ablaze after being attacked by the Yavanas.

As a serpent living within the cavity of a tree wishes to leave when there is a 
forest fire, so the city's police superintendent, the snake, wished to leave the 
city due to the fire's severe heat.

The limbs of the serpent's body were slackened by the Gandharvas and Yavana 
soldiers, who had thoroughly defeated his bodily strength. When he attempted to 
leave the body, he was checked by his enemies. Being thus baffled in his 
attempt, he began to cry loudly.

King Puranjana then began to think of his daughters, sons, grandsons, daughters-
in-law, sons-in-law, servants and other associates as well as his house, his 
household paraphernalia and his little accumulation of wealth.

King Puranjana was overly attached to his family and conceptions of "I" and 
"mine." Because he was overly attracted to his wife, he was already quite 
poverty-stricken. At the time of separation, he became very sorry.

King Puranjana was anxiously thinking, "Alas, my wife is encumbered by so many 
children. When I pass from this body, how will she be able to maintain all these 
family members? Alas, she will be greatly harassed by thoughts of family 

King Puranjana then began to think of his past dealings with his wife. He 
recalled that his wife would not take her dinner until he had finished his, that 
she would not take her bath until he had finished his, and that she was always 
very much attached to him, so much so that if he would sometimes become angry 
and chastise her, she would simply remain silent and tolerate his misbehavior.

King Puranjana continued thinking how, when he was in a state of bewilderment, 
his wife would give him good counsel and how she would become aggrieved when he 
was away from home. Although she was the mother of so many sons and heroes, the 
King still feared that she would not be able to maintain the responsibility of 
household affairs.

King Puranjana continued worrying: "After I pass from this world, how will my 
sons and daughters, who are now fully dependent on me, live and continue their 
lives? Their position will be similar to that of passengers aboard a ship 
wrecked in the midst of the ocean."

Although King Puranjana should not have lamented over the fate of his wife and 
children, he nonetheless did so due to his miserly intelligence. In the 
meantime, Yavana-raja, whose name was fear itself, immediately drew near to 
arrest him.

When the Yavanas were taking King Puranjana away to their place, binding him 
like an animal, the King's followers became greatly aggrieved. While they 
lamented, they were forced to go along with him.

The serpent, who had already been arrested by the soldiers of Yavana-raja and 
was out of the city, began to follow his master along with the others. As soon 
as they all left the city, it was immediately dismantled and smashed to dust.

When King Puranjana was being dragged with great force by the powerful Yavana, 
out of his gross ignorance he still could not remember his friend and well-
wisher, the Supersoul.

That most unkind king, Puranjana, had killed many animals in various sacrifices. 
Now, taking advantage of this opportunity, all these animals began to pierce him 
with their horns. It was as though he were being cut to pieces by axes.

Due to his contaminated association with women, a living entity like King 
Puranjana eternally suffers all the pangs of material existence and remains in 
the dark region of material life, bereft of all remembrance for many, many 

King Puranjana gave up his body while remembering his wife, and consequently in 
his next life he became a very beautiful and well-situated woman. He took his 
next birth as the daughter of King Vidarbha in the very house of the King.

It was fixed that Vaidarbhi, daughter of King Vidarbha, was to be married to a 
very powerful man, Malayadhvaja, an inhabitant of the Pandu country. After 
conquering other princes, he married the daughter of King Vidarbha.

King Malayadhvaja fathered one daughter, who had very black eyes. He also had 
seven sons, who later became rulers of that tract of land known as Dravida. Thus 
there were seven kings in that land.

My dear King Pracinabarhisat, the sons of Malayadhvaja gave birth to many 
thousands and thousands of sons, and all of these have been protecting the 
entire world up to the end of one Manu's life-span and even afterward.

The great sage named Agastya married the first-born daughter of Malayadhvaja, 
the avowed devotee of Lord Krishna. From her one son was born, whose name was 
Drdhacyuta, and from him another son was born, whose name was Idhmavaha.

After this, the great saintly King Malayadhvaja divided his entire kingdom among 
his sons. Then, in order to worship Lord Krishna with full attention, he went to 
a solitary place known as Kulacala.

Just as the moonshine follows the moon at night, immediately after King 
Malayadhvaja departed for Kulacala, his devoted wife, whose eyes were very 
enchanting, followed him, giving up all homely happiness, despite family and 

In the province of Kulacala, there were rivers named Candravasa, Tamraparni and 
Vatodaka. King Malayadhvaja used to go to those pious rivers regularly and take 
his bath there. Thus he purified himself externally and internally. He took his 
bath and ate bulbs, seeds, leaves, flowers, roots, fruits and grasses and drank 
water. In this way he underwent severe austerities. Eventually he became very 

Through austerity, King Malayadhvaja in body and mind gradually became equal to 
the dualities of cold and heat, happiness and distress, wind and rain, hunger 
and thirst, the pleasant and the unpleasant. In this way he conquered all 

By worshiping, executing austerities and following the regulative principles, 
King Malayadhvaja conquered his senses, his life and his consciousness. Thus he 
fixed everything on the central point of the Supreme Brahman [Krishna].

In this way he stayed immovable in one place for one hundred years by the 
calculations of the demigods. After this time, he developed pure devotional 
attraction for Krishna, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, and remained fixed 
in that position.

King Malayadhvaja attained perfect knowledge by being able to distinguish the 
Supersoul from the individual soul. The individual soul is localized, whereas 
the Supersoul is all-pervasive. He became perfect in knowledge that the material 
body is not the soul but that the soul is the witness of the material body.

In this way King Malayadhvaja attained perfect knowledge because in his pure 
state he was directly instructed by the Supreme Personality of Godhead. By means 
of such enlightening transcendental knowledge, he could understand everything 
from all angles of vision.

King Malayadhvaja could thus observe that the Supersoul was sitting by his side, 
and that he, as the individual soul, was sitting by the side of the Supersoul. 
Since both were together, there was no need for separate interests; thus he 
ceased from such activities.

The daughter of King Vidarbha accepted her husband all in all as the Supreme. 
She gave up all sensual enjoyment and in complete renunciation followed the 
principles of her husband, who was so advanced. Thus she remained engaged in his 

The daughter of King Vidarbha wore old garments, and she was lean and thin 
because of her vows of austerity. Since she did not arrange her hair, it became 
entangled and twisted in locks. Although she remained always near her husband, 
she was as silent and unagitated as the flame of an undisturbed fire.

The daughter of King Vidarbha continued as usual to serve her husband, who was 
seated in a steady posture, until she could ascertain that he had passed away 
from the body.

While she was serving her husband by massaging his legs, she could feel that his 
feet were no longer warm and could thus understand that he had already passed 
from the body. She felt great anxiety upon being left alone. Bereft of her 
husband's company, she felt exactly as the deer feels upon being separated from 
its mate.

Being now alone and a widow in that forest, the daughter of Vidarbha began to 
lament, incessantly shedding tears, which soaked her breasts, and crying very 

O best of kings, please get up! Get up! Just see this world surrounded by water 
and infested with rogues and so-called kings. This world is very much afraid, 
and it is your duty to protect her.

That most obedient wife thus fell down at the feet of her dead husband and began 
to cry pitifully in that solitary forest. Thus the tears rolled down from her 

She then prepared a blazing fire with firewood and placed the dead body of her 
husband upon it. When this was finished, she lamented severely and prepared 
herself to perish in the fire with her husband.

My dear King, one brahmana, who was an old friend of King Puranjana, came to 
that place and began to pacify the Queen with sweet words.

The brahmana inquired as follows: Who are you? Whose wife or daughter are you? 
Who is the man lying here? It appears you are lamenting for this dead body. 
Don't you recognize Me? I am your eternal friend. You may remember that many 
times in the past you have consulted Me.

The brahmana continued: My dear friend, even though you cannot immediately 
recognize Me, can't you remember that in the past you had a very intimate 
friend? Unfortunately, you gave up My company and accepted a position as enjoyer 
of this material world.

My dear gentle friend, both you and I are exactly like two swans. We live 
together in the same heart, which is just like the Manasa Lake. Although we have 
been living together for many thousands of years, we are still far away from our 
original home.

My dear friend, you are now My very same friend. Since you left Me, you have 
become more and more materialistic, and not seeing Me, you have been traveling 
in different forms throughout this material world, which was created by some 

In that city [the material body] there are five gardens, nine gates, one 
protector, three apartments, six families, five stores, five material elements, 
and one woman who is lord of the house.

My dear friend, the five gardens are the five objects of sense enjoyment, and 
the protector is the life air, which passes through the nine gates. The three 
apartments are the chief ingredients--fire, water and earth. The six families 
are the aggregate total of the mind and five senses.

The five stores are the five working sensory organs. They transact their 
business through the combined forces of the five elements, which are eternal. 
Behind all this activity is the soul. The soul is a person and an enjoyer in 
reality. However, because he is now hidden within the city of the body, he is 
devoid of knowledge.

My dear friend, when you enter such a body along with the woman of material 
desires, you become overly absorbed in sense enjoyment. Because of this, you 
have forgotten your spiritual life. Due to your material conceptions, you are 
placed in various miserable conditions.

Actually, you are not the daughter of Vidarbha, nor is this man, Malayadhvaja, 
your well-wishing husband. Nor were you the actual husband of Puranjani. You 
were simply captivated in this body of nine gates.

Sometimes you think yourself a man, sometimes a chaste woman and sometimes a 
neutral eunuch. This is all because of the body, which is created by the 
illusory energy. This illusory energy is My potency, and actually both of us--
you and I--are pure spiritual identities. Now just try to understand this. I am 
trying to explain our factual position.

My dear friend, I, the Supersoul, and you, the individual soul, are not 
different in quality, for we are both spiritual. In fact, My dear friend, you 
are qualitatively not different from Me in your constitutional position. Just 
try to consider this subject. Those who are actually advanced scholars, who are 
in knowledge, do not find any qualitative difference between you and Me.

As a person sees the reflection of his body in a mirror to be one with himself 
and not different, whereas others actually see two bodies, so in our material 
condition, in which the living being is affected and yet not affected, there is 
a difference between God and the living entity.

In this way both swans live together in the heart. When the one swan is 
instructed by the other, he is situated in his constitutional position. This 
means he regains his original Krishna consciousness, which was lost because of 
his material attraction.

My dear King Pracinabarhi, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, the cause of all 
causes, is celebrated to be known indirectly. Thus I have described the story of 
Puranjana to you. Actually it is an instruction for self-realization.

Chapter Twenty-nine : Talks Between Narada and King Pracinabarhi

King Pracinabarhi replied: My dear lord, we could not appreciate completely the 
purport of your allegorical story of King Puranjana. Actually, those who are 
perfect in spiritual knowledge can understand, but for us, who are overly 
attached to fruitive activities, to realize the purpose of your story is very 

The great sage Narada Muni continued: You must understand that Puranjana, the 
living entity, transmigrates according to his own work into different types of 
bodies, which may be one-legged, two-legged, three-legged, four-legged, many-
legged or simply legless. Transmigrating into these various types of bodies, the 
living entity, as the so-called enjoyer, is known as Puranjana.

The person I have described as unknown is the Supreme Personality of Godhead, 
the master and eternal friend of the living entity. Since the living entities 
cannot realize the Supreme Personality of Godhead by material names, activities 
or qualities, He remains everlastingly unknown to the conditioned soul.

When the living entity wants to enjoy the modes of material nature in their 
totality, he prefers, out of many bodily forms, to accept that body which has 
nine gates, two hands and two legs. Thus he prefers to become a human being or a 

The great sage Narada continued: The word pramada mentioned in this regard 
refers to material intelligence, or ignorance. It is to be understood as such. 
When one takes shelter of this kind of intelligence, he identifies himself with 
the material body. Influenced by the material consciousness of "I" and "mine," 
he begins to enjoy and suffer through his senses. Thus the living entity is 

The five working senses and the five senses that acquire knowledge are all male 
friends of Puranjani. The living entity is assisted by these senses in acquiring 
knowledge and engaging in activity. The engagements of the senses are known as 
girl friends, and the serpent, which was described as having five heads, is the 
life air acting within the five circulatory processes.

The eleventh attendant, who is the commander of the others, is known as the 
mind. He is the leader of the senses both in the acquisition of knowledge and in 
the performance of work. The Pancala kingdom is that atmosphere in which the 
five sense objects are enjoyed. Within that Pancala kingdom is the city of the 
body, which has nine gates.

The eyes, nostrils and ears are pairs of gates situated in one place. The mouth, 
genital and rectum are also different gates. Being placed into a body having 
these nine gates, the living entity acts externally in the material world and 
enjoys sense objects like form and taste.

Two eyes, two nostrils and a mouth--all together five--are situated in the 
front. The right ear is accepted as the southern gate, and the left ear is the 
northern gate. The two holes, or gates, situated in the west are known as the 
rectum and genital.

The two gates named Khadyota and Avirmukhi, which have been spoken of, are the 
two eyes side by side in one place. The town named Vibhrajita should be 
understood as form. In this way the two eyes are always engaged in seeing 
different kinds of forms.

The two doors named Nalini and Nalini should be known as the two nostrils, and 
the city named Saurabha represents aroma. The companion spoken of as Avadhuta is 
the sense of smell. The door called Mukhya is the mouth, and Vipana is the 
faculty of speech. Rasajna is the sense of taste.

The city called Apana represents engagement of the tongue in speech, and 
Bahudana is the variety of foodstuffs. The right ear is called the gate of 
Pitrhu, and the left ear is called the gate of Devahu.

Narada Muni continued: The city spoken of as Daksina-pancala represents the 
scriptures meant for directing pravrtti, the process of sense enjoyment in 
fruitive activities. The other city, named Uttara-pancala, represents the 
scriptures meant for decreasing fruitive activities and increasing knowledge. 
The living entity receives different kinds of knowledge by means of two ears, 
and some living entities are promoted to Pitrloka and some to Devaloka. All this 
is made possible by the two ears.

The city called Gramaka, which is approached through the lower gate of Asuri 
[the genital], is meant for sex, which is very pleasing to common men who are 
simply fools and rascals. The faculty of procreation is called Durmada, and the 
rectum is called Nirrti.

When it is said that Puranjana goes to Vaisasa, it is meant that he goes to 
hell. He is accompanied by Lubdhaka, which is the working sense in the rectum. 
Formerly I have also spoken of two blind associates. These associates should be 
understood to be the hands and legs. Being helped by the hands and legs, the 
living entity performs all kinds of work and moves hither and thither.

The word antah-pura refers to the heart. The word visucina, meaning "going 
everywhere," indicates the mind. Within the mind the living entity enjoys the 
effects of the modes of material nature. These effects sometimes cause illusion, 
sometimes satisfaction and sometimes jubilation.

Formerly it was explained that the Queen is one's intelligence. While one is 
awake or asleep, that intelligence creates different situations. Being 
influenced by contaminated intelligence, the living entity envisions something 
and simply imitates the actions and reactions of his intelligence.

Narada Muni continued: What I referred to as the chariot was in actuality the 
body. The senses are the horses that pull that chariot. As time passes, year 
after year, these horses run without obstruction, but in fact they make no 
progress. Pious and impious activities are the two wheels of the chariot. The 
three modes of material nature are the chariot's flags. The five types of life 
air constitute the living entity's bondage, and the mind is considered to be the 
rope. Intelligence is the chariot driver. The heart is the sitting place in the 
chariot, and the dualities of life, such as pleasure and pain, are the knotting 
place. The seven elements are the coverings of the chariot, and the working 
senses are the five external processes. The eleven senses are the soldiers. 
Being engrossed in sense enjoyment, the living entity, seated on the chariot, 
hankers after fulfillment of his false desires and runs after sense enjoyment 
life after life.

What was previously explained as Candavega, powerful time, is covered by days 
and nights, named Gandharvas and Gandharvis. The body's life-span is gradually 
reduced by the passage of days and nights, which number 360.

What was described as Kalakanya should be understood as old age. No one wants to 
accept old age, but Yavanesvara [Yavana-raja], who is death, accepts Jara [old 
age] as his sister.

The followers of Yavanesvara [Yamaraja] are called the soldiers of death, and 
they are known as the various types of disturbances that pertain to the body and 
mind. Prajvara represents the two types of fever: extreme heat and extreme cold-
-typhoid and pneumonia. The living entity lying down within the body is 
disturbed by many tribulations pertaining to providence, to other living 
entities and to his own body and mind. Despite all kinds of tribulations, the 
living entity, subjected to the necessities of the body, mind and senses and 
suffering from various types of disease, is carried away by many plans due to 
his lust to enjoy the world. Although transcendental to this material existence, 
the living entity, out of ignorance, accepts all these material miseries under 
the pretext of false egoism ("I" and "mine"). In this way he lives for a hundred 
years within this body.

The living entity by nature has minute independence to choose his own good or 
bad fortune, but when he forgets his supreme master, the Personality of Godhead, 
he gives himself up unto the modes of material nature. Being influenced by the 
modes of material nature, he identifies himself with the body and, for the 
interest of the body, becomes attached to various activities. Sometimes he is 
under the influence of the mode of ignorance, sometimes the mode of passion and 
sometimes the mode of goodness. The living entity thus gets different types of 
bodies under the modes of material nature.

Those who are situated in the mode of goodness act piously according to Vedic 
injunctions. Thus they are elevated to the higher planetary systems where the 
demigods live. Those who are influenced by the mode of passion engage in various 
types of productive activities in the planetary systems where human beings live. 
Similarly, those influenced by the mode of darkness are subjected to various 
types of misery and live in the animal kingdom.

Covered by the mode of ignorance in material nature, the living entity is 
sometimes a male, sometimes a female, sometimes a eunuch, sometimes a human 
being, sometimes a demigod, sometimes a bird, an animal, and so on. In this way 
he is wandering within the material world. His acceptance of different types of 
bodies is brought about by his activities under the influence of the modes of 

The living entity is exactly like a dog, who, overcome with hunger, goes from 
door to door for some food. According to his destiny, he sometimes receives 
punishment and is driven out and at other times receives a little food to eat. 
Similarly, the living entity, being influenced by so many desires, wanders in 
different species of life according to destiny. Sometimes he is high, and 
sometimes he is low. Sometimes he goes to the heavenly planets, sometimes to 
hell, sometimes to the middle planets, and so on.

The living entities are trying to counteract different miserable conditions 
pertaining to providence, other living entities or the body and mind. Still, 
they must remain conditioned by the laws of nature, despite all attempts to 
counter these laws.

A man may carry a burden on his head, and when he feels it to be too heavy, he 
sometimes gives relief to his head by putting the burden on his shoulder. In 
this way he tries to relieve himself of the burden. However, whatever process he 
devises to counteract the burden does nothing more than Put the same burden from 
one place to another.

Narada continued: O you who are free from all sinful activity! No one can 
counteract the effects of fruitive activity simply by manufacturing a different 
activity devoid of Krishna consciousness. All such activity is due to our 
ignorance. When we have a troublesome dream, we cannot relieve it with a 
troublesome hallucination. One can counteract a dream only by awaking. 
Similarly, our material existence is due to our ignorance and illusion. Unless 
we awaken to Krishna consciousness, we cannot be relieved of such dreams. For 
the ultimate solution to all problems, we must awaken to Krishna consciousness.

Sometimes we suffer because we see a tiger in a dream or a snake in a vision, 
but actually there is neither a tiger nor a snake. Thus we create some situation 
in a subtle form and suffer the consequences. These sufferings cannot be 
mitigated unless we are awakened from our dream.

The real interest of the living entity is to get out of the nescience that 
causes him to endure repeated birth and death. The only remedy is to surrender 
unto the Supreme Personality of Godhead through His representative. Unless one 
renders devotional service unto the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Vasudeva, 
one cannot possibly become completely detached from this material world, nor can 
he possibly manifest real knowledge.

O best of kings, one who is faithful, who is always hearing the glories of the 
Supreme Personality of Godhead, who is always engaged in the culture of Krishna 
consciousness and in hearing of the Lord's activities, very soon becomes 
eligible to see the Supreme Personality of Godhead face to face.

My dear King, in the place where pure devotees live, following the rules and 
regulations and thus purely conscious and engaged with great eagerness in 
hearing and chanting the glories of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, in that 
place if one gets a chance to hear their constant flow of nectar, which is 
exactly like the waves of a river, one will forget the necessities of life--
namely hunger and thirst--and become immune to all kinds of fear, lamentation 
and illusion.

Because the conditioned soul is always disturbed by the bodily necessities such 
as hunger and thirst, he has very little time to cultivate attachment to hearing 
the nectarean words of the Supreme Personality of Godhead.

The most powerful Lord Brahma, the father of all progenitors; Lord Shiva; Manu, 
Daksa and the other rulers of humankind; the four saintly first-class 
brahmacaris headed by Sanaka and Sanatana; the great sages Marici, Atri, Angira, 
Pulastya, Pulaha, Kratu, Bhrgu and Vasistha; and my humble self [Narada] are all 
stalwart brahmanas who can speak authoritatively on Vedic literature. We are 
very powerful because of austerities, meditation and education. Nonetheless, 
even after inquiring about the Supreme Personality of Godhead, whom we always 
see, we do not know perfectly about Him.

Despite the cultivation of Vedic knowledge, which is unlimited, and the worship 
of different demigods by the symptoms of Vedic mantras, demigod worship does not 
help one to understand the supreme powerful Personality of Godhead.

When a person is fully engaged in devotional service, he is favored by the Lord, 
who bestows His causeless mercy. At such a time, the awakened devotee gives up 
all material activities and ritualistic performances mentioned in the Vedas.

My dear King Barhisman, you should never out of ignorance take to the Vedic 
rituals or to fruitive activity, which may be pleasing to hear about or which 
may appear to be the goal of self-interest. You should never take these to be 
the ultimate goal of life.

Those who are less intelligent accept the Vedic ritualistic ceremonies as all in 
all. They do not know that the purpose of the Vedas is to understand one's own 
home, where the Supreme Personality of Godhead lives. Not being interested in 
their real home, they are illusioned and search after other homes.

My dear King, the entire world is covered with the sharp points of kusa grass, 
and on the strength of this you have become proud because you have killed 
various types of animals in sacrifices. Because of your foolishness, you do not 
know that devotional service is the only way one can please the Supreme 
Personality of Godhead. You cannot understand this fact. Your only activities 
should be those that can please the Personality of Godhead. Our education should 
be such that we can become elevated to Krishna consciousness.

Sri Hari, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, is the Supersoul and guide of all 
living entities who have accepted material bodies within this world. He is the 
supreme controller of all material activities in material nature. He is also our 
best friend, and everyone should take shelter at His lotus feet. In doing so, 
one's life will be auspicious.

One who is engaged in devotional service has not the least fear in material 
existence. This is because the Supreme Personality of Godhead is the Supersoul 
and friend of everyone. One who knows this secret is actually educated, and one 
thus educated can become the spiritual master of the world. One who is an 
actually bona fide spiritual master, representative of Krishna, is not different 
from Krishna.

The great saint Narada continued: O great personality, I have replied properly 
about all that you have asked me. Now hear another narration that is accepted by 
saintly persons and is very confidential.

My dear King, please search out that deer who is engaged in eating grass in a 
very nice flower garden along with his wife. That deer is very much attached to 
his business, and he is enjoying the sweet singing of the bumblebees in his 
garden. Just try to understand his position. He is unaware that before him is a 
tiger, which is accustomed to living at the cost of another's flesh. Behind the 
deer is a hunter, who is threatening to pierce him with sharp arrows. Thus the 
deer's death is imminent.

My dear King, woman, who is very attractive in the beginning but in the end very 
disturbing, is exactly like the flower, which is attractive in the beginning and 
detestable at the end. With woman, the living entity is entangled with lusty 
desires, and he enjoys sex, just as one enjoys the aroma of a flower. He thus 
enjoys a life of sense gratification--from his tongue to his genitals--and in 
this way the living entity considers himself very happy in family life. United 
with his wife, he always remains absorbed in such thoughts. He feels great 
pleasure in hearing the talks of his wife and children, which are like the sweet 
humming of bumblebees that collect honey from flower to flower. He forgets that 
before him is time, which is taking away his life-span with the passing of day 
and night. He does not see the gradual diminishing of his life, nor does he care 
about the superintendent of death, who is trying to kill him from behind. Just 
try to understand this. You are in a precarious position and are threatened from 
all sides.

My dear King, just try to understand the allegorical position of the deer. Be 
fully conscious of yourself, and give up the pleasure of hearing about promotion 
to heavenly planets by fruitive activity. Give up household life, which is full 
of sex, as well as stories about such things, and take shelter of the Supreme 
Personality of Godhead through the mercy of the liberated souls. In this way, 
please give up your attraction for material existence.

The King replied: My dear brahmana, whatever you have said I have heard with 
great attention and, considering all of it, have come to the conclusion that the 
acaryas [teachers] who engaged me in fruitive activity did not know this 
confidential knowledge. If they were aware of it, why did they not explain it to 

My dear brahmana, there are contradictions between your instructions and those 
of my spiritual teachers who engaged me in fruitive activities. I now can 
understand the distinction between devotional service, knowledge and 
renunciation. I had some doubts about them, but you have now very kindly 
dissipated all these doubts. I can now understand how even the great sages are 
bewildered by the real purpose of life. Of course, there is no question of sense 

The results of whatever a living entity does in this life are enjoyed in the 
next life.

The expert knowers of the Vedic conclusions say that one enjoys or suffers the 
results of his past activities. But practically it is seen that the body that 
performed the work in the last birth is already lost. So how is it possible to 
enjoy or suffer the reactions of that work in a different body?

The great sage Narada continued: The living entity acts in a gross body in this 
life. This body is forced to act by the subtle body, composed of mind, 
intelligence and ego. After the gross body is lost, the subtle body is still 
there to enjoy or suffer. Thus there is no change.

The living entity, while dreaming, gives up the actual living body. Through the 
activities of his mind and intelligence, he acts in another body, either as a 
god or a dog. After giving up this gross body, the living entity enters either 
an animal body or a demigod's body on this planet or on another planet. He thus 
enjoys the results of the actions of his past life.

The living entity labors under the bodily conception of "I am this, I am that. 
My duty is this, and therefore I shall do it." These are all mental impressions, 
and all these activities are temporary; nonetheless, by the grace of the Supreme 
Personality of Godhead, the living entity gets a chance to execute all his 
mental concoctions. Thus he gets another body.

One can understand the mental or conscious position of a living entity by the 
activities of two kinds of senses--the knowledge-acquiring senses and the 
executive senses. Similarly, by the mental condition or consciousness of a 
person, one can understand his position in the previous life.

Sometimes we suddenly experience something that was never experienced in the 
present body by sight or hearing. Sometimes we see such things suddenly in 

Therefore, my dear King, the living entity, who has a subtle mental covering, 
develops all kinds of thoughts and images because of his previous body. Take 
this from me as certain. There is no possibility of concocting anything mentally 
without having perceived it in the previous body.

O King, all good fortune unto you! The mind is the cause of the living entity's 
attaining a certain type of body in accordance with his association with 
material nature. According to one's mental composition, one can understand what 
the living entity was in his past life as well as what kind of body he will have 
in the future. Thus the mind indicates the past and future bodies.

Sometimes in a dream we see something never experienced or heard of in this 
life, but all these incidents have been experienced at different times, in 
different places and in different conditions.

The mind of the living entity continues to exist in various gross bodies, and 
according to one's desires for sense gratification, the mind records different 
thoughts. In the mind these appear together in different combinations; therefore 
these images sometimes appear as things never seen or never heard before.

Krishna consciousness means constantly associating with the Supreme Personality 
of Godhead in such a mental state that the devotee can observe the cosmic 
manifestation exactly as the Supreme Personality of Godhead does. Such 
observation is not always possible, but it becomes manifest exactly like the 
dark planet known as Rahu, which is observed in the presence of the full moon.

As long as there exists the subtle material body composed of intelligence, mind, 
senses, sense objects, and the reactions of the material qualities, the 
consciousness of false identification and its relative objective, the gross 
body, exist as well.

When the living entity is in deep sleep, when he faints, when there is some 
great shock on account of severe loss, at the time of death, or when the body 
temperature is very high, the movement of the life air is arrested. At that time 
the living entity loses knowledge of identifying the body with the self.

When one is a youth, all the ten senses and the mind are completely visible. 
However, in the mother's womb or in the boyhood state, the sense organs and the 
mind remain covered, just as the full moon is covered by the darkness of the 
dark-moon night.

When the living entity dreams, the sense objects are not actually present. 
However, because one has associated with the sense objects, they become 
manifest. Similarly, the living entity with undeveloped senses does not cease to 
exist materially, even though he may not be exactly in contact with the sense 

The five sense objects, the five sense organs, the five knowledge-acquiring 
senses and the mind are the sixteen material expansions. These combine with the 
living entity and are influenced by the three modes of material nature. Thus the 
existence of the conditioned soul is understood.

By virtue of the processes of the subtle body, the living entity develops and 
gives up gross bodies. This is known as the transmigration of the soul. Thus the 
soul becomes subjected to different types of so-called enjoyment, lamentation, 
fear, happiness and unhappiness.

The caterpillar transports itself from one leaf to another by capturing one leaf 
before giving up the other. Similarly, according to his previous work, the 
living entity must capture another body before giving up the one he has. This is 
because the mind is the reservoir of all kinds of desires.

As long as we desire to enjoy sense gratification, we create material 
activities. When the living entity acts in the material field, he enjoys the 
senses, and while enjoying the senses, he creates another series of material 
activities. In this way the living entity becomes entrapped as a conditioned 

You should always know that this cosmic manifestation is created, maintained and 
annihilated by the will of the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Consequently, 
everything within this cosmic manifestation is under the control of the Lord. To 
be enlightened by this perfect knowledge, one should always engage himself in 
the devotional service of the Lord.

The great sage Maitreya continued: The supreme devotee, the great saint Narada, 
thus explained to King Pracinabarhi the constitutional position of the Supreme 
Personality of Godhead and the living entity. After giving an invitation to the 
King, Narada Muni left to return to Siddhaloka.

In the presence of his ministers, the saintly King Pracinabarhi left orders for 
his sons to protect the citizens. He then left home and went off to undergo 
austerities in a holy place known as Kapilasrama.

Having undergone austerities and penances at Kapilasrama, King Pracinabarhi 
attained full liberation from all material designations. He constantly engaged 
in the transcendental loving service of the Lord and attained a spiritual 
position qualitatively equal to that of the Supreme Personality of Godhead.

My dear Vidura, one who hears this narration concerning the understanding of the 
living entity's spiritual existence, as described by the great sage Narada, or 
who relates it to others, will be liberated from the bodily conception of life.

This narration spoken by the great sage Narada is full of the transcendental 
fame of the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Consequently this narration, when 
described, certainly sanctifies this material world. It purifies the heart of 
the living entity and helps him attain his spiritual identity. One who relates 
this transcendental narration will be liberated from all material bondage and 
will no longer have to wander within this material world.

The allegory of King Puranjana, described herein according to authority, was 
heard by me from my spiritual master, and it is full of spiritual knowledge. If 
one can understand the purpose of this allegory, he will certainly be relieved 
from the bodily conception and will clearly understand life after death. 
Although one may not understand what transmigration of the soul actually is, one 
can fully understand it by studying this narration.

A desire to maintain body, wife and children is also observed in animal society. 
The animals have full intelligence to manage such affairs. If a human being is 
simply advanced in this respect, what is the difference between him and an 
animal? One should be very careful to understand that this human life is 
attained after many, many births in the evolutionary process. A learned man who 
gives up the bodily conception of life, both gross and subtle, will, by the 
enlightenment of spiritual knowledge, become a prominent individual spirit soul, 
as the Supreme Lord is also.

If a living entity is developed in Krishna consciousness and is merciful to 
others, and if his spiritual knowledge of self-realization is perfect, he will 
immediately attain liberation from the bondage of material existence.

Everything happening within time, which consists of past, present and future, is 
merely a dream. That is the secret understanding in all Vedic literature.

Chapter Thirty :The Activities of the Pracetas

Vidura inquired from Maitreya: O brahmana, you formerly spoke about the sons of 
Pracinabarhi and informed me that they satisfied the Supreme Personality of 
Godhead by chanting a song composed by Lord Shiva. What did they achieve in this 

My dear Barhaspatya, what did the sons of King Barhisat, known as the Pracetas, 
obtain after meeting Lord Shiva, who is very dear to the Supreme Personality of 
Godhead, the bestower of liberation? Certainly they were transferred to the 
spiritual world, but apart from that, what did they obtain within this material 
world, either in this life or in other lives?

The great sage Maitreya said: The sons of King Pracinabarhi, known as the 
Pracetas, underwent severe austerities within the seawater to carry out the 
order of their father. By chanting and repeating the mantras given by Lord 
Shiva, they were able to satisfy Lord Vishnu, the Supreme Personality of 

At the end of ten thousand years of severe austerities performed by the 
Pracetas, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, to reward their austerities, 
appeared before them in His very pleasing form. This appealed to the Pracetas 
and satisfied the labor of their austerities.

The Personality of Godhead, appearing on the shoulder of Garuda, seemed like a 
cloud resting on the summit of the mountain known as Meru. The transcendental 
body of the Personality of Godhead was covered by attractive yellow garments, 
and His neck was decorated with the jewel known as Kaustubha-mani. The bodily 
effulgence of the Lord dissipated all the darkness of the universe.

The Lord's face was very beautiful, and His head was decorated with a shining 
helmet and golden ornaments. The helmet was dazzling and was very beautifully 
situated on His head. The Lord had eight arms, which each held a particular 
weapon. The Lord was surrounded by demigods, great sages and other associates. 
These were all engaged in His service. Garuda, the carrier of the Lord, 
glorified the Lord with Vedic hymns by flapping his wings. Garuda appeared to be 
an inhabitant of the planet known as Kinnaraloka.

Around the neck of the Personality of Godhead hung a flower garland that reached 
to His knees. His eight stout and elongated arms were decorated with that 
garland, which challenged the beauty of the goddess of fortune. With a merciful 
glance and a voice like thunder, the Lord addressed the sons of King 
Pracinabarhisat, who were very much surrendered unto Him.

The Supreme Personality of Godhead said: My dear sons of the King, I am very 
much pleased by the friendly relationships among you. All of you are engaged in 
one occupation--devotional service. I am so pleased with your mutual friendship 
that I wish you all good fortune. Now you may ask a benediction of Me.

The Lord continued: Those who remember you every evening of every day will 
become friendly with their brothers and with all other living entities.

Those who will offer Me the prayers composed by Lord Shiva, both in the morning 
and in the evening, will be given benedictions by Me. In this way they can both 
fulfill their desires and attain good intelligence.

Because you have with pleasure accepted within your hearts the orders of your 
father and have executed those orders very faithfully, your attractive qualities 
will be celebrated all over the world.

You will have a nice son, who will be in no way inferior to Lord Brahma. 
Consequently, he will be very famous all over the universe, and the sons and 
grandsons generated by him will fill the three worlds.

O sons of King Pracinabarhisat, the heavenly society girl named Pramloca kept 
the lotus-eyed daughter of Kandu in the care of the forest trees.Then she went 
back to the heavenly planet. This daughter was born by the coupling of the 
Apsara named Pramloca with the sage Kandu.

Thereafter the child, who was left to the care of the trees, began to cry in 
hunger. At that time the king of the forest, namely the king of the moon planet, 
out of compassion placed his finger, which poured forth nectar, within the 
child's mouth. Thus the child was raised by the mercy of the king of the moon.

Since all of you are very much obedient to My orders, I ask you to immediately 
marry that girl, who is so well qualified with beauty and good qualities. 
According to the order of your father, create progeny through her.

You brothers are all of the same nature, being devotees and obedient sons of 
your father. Similarly, that girl is also of the same type and is dedicated to 
all of you. Thus both the girl and you, the sons of Pracinabarhisat, are on the 
same platform, being united on a common principle.

The Lord then blessed all the Pracetas, saying: My dear princes, by My mercy, 
you can enjoy all the facilities of this world as well as the heavenly world. 
Indeed, you can enjoy all of them without hindrance and with full strength for 
one million celestial years.

Thereafter you will develop unadulterated devotional service unto Me and be 
freed from all material contamination. At that time, being completely unattached 
to material enjoyment in the so-called heavenly planets as well as in hellish 
planets, you will return home, back to Godhead.

Those who are engaged in auspicious activities in devotional service certainly 
understand that the ultimate enjoyer or beneficiary of all activities is the 
Supreme Personality of Godhead. Thus when one acts, he offers the results to the 
Supreme Personality of Godhead and passes life always engaged in the topics of 
the Lord. Even though such a person may be participating in family life, he is 
not affected by the results of his actions.

Always engaging in the activities of devotional service, devotees feel ever-
increasingly fresh and new in all their activities. The all-knower, the 
Supersoul within the heart of the devotee, makes everything increasingly fresh. 
This is known as the Brahman position by the advocates of the Absolute Truth. In 
such a liberated stage [brahma-bhuta], one is never bewildered. Nor does one 
lament or become unnecessarily jubilant. This is due to the brahma-bhuta 

The great sage Maitreya said: After the Personality of Godhead spoke thus, the 
Pracetas began to offer Him prayers. The Lord is the bestower of all success in 
life and is the supreme benefactor. He is also the supreme friend who takes away 
all miserable conditions experienced by a devotee. In a faltering voice, due to 
ecstasy, the Pracetas began to offer prayers. They were purified by the presence 
of the Lord, who was before them face to face.

The Pracetas spoke as follows: Dear Lord, You relieve all kinds of material 
distress. Your magnanimous transcendental qualities and holy name are all-
auspicious. This conclusion is already settled. You can go faster than the speed 
of mind and words. You cannot be perceived by material senses. We therefore 
offer You respectful obeisances again and again.

Dear Lord, we beg to offer our obeisances unto You. When the mind is fixed upon 
You, the world of duality, although a place for material enjoyment, appears 
meaningless. Your transcendental form is full of transcendental bliss. We 
therefore offer our respects unto You. Your appearances as Lord Brahma, Lord 
Vishnu and Lord Shiva are meant for the purpose of creating, maintaining and 
annihilating this cosmic manifestation.

Dear Lord, we offer our respectful obeisances unto You because Your existence is 
completely independent of all material influences. Your Lordship always takes 
away the devotee's miserable conditions, for Your brain plans how to do so. You 
live everywhere as Paramatma; therefore You are known as Vasudeva. You also 
accept Vasudeva as Your father, and You are celebrated by the name Krishna. You 
are so kind that You always increase the influence of all kinds of devotees.

Dear Lord, we offer our respectful obeisances unto You because from Your abdomen 
sprouts the lotus flower, the origin of all living entities. You are always 
decorated with a lotus garland, and Your feet resemble the lotus flower with all 
its fragrance. Your eyes are also like the petals of a lotus flower. Therefore 
we always offer our respectful obeisances unto You.

Dear Lord, the garment You have put on is yellowish in color, like the saffron 
of a lotus flower, but it is not made of anything material. Since You live in 
everyone's heart, You are the direct witness of all the activities of all living 
entities. We offer our respectful obeisances unto You again and again.

Dear Lord, we conditioned souls are always covered by ignorance in the bodily 
conception of life. We therefore always prefer the miserable conditions of 
material existence. To deliver us from these miserable conditions, You have 
advented Yourself in this transcendental form. This is evidence of Your 
unlimited causeless mercy upon those of us who are suffering in this way. What, 
then, to speak of the devotees to whom You are always so favorably disposed?

Dear Lord, You are the killer of all inauspicious things. You are compassionate 
upon Your poor devotees through the expansion of Your arca-vigraha. You should 
certainly think of us as Your eternal servants.

When the Lord, out of His natural compassion, thinks of His devotee, by that 
process only are all desires of the neophyte devotee fulfilled. The Lord is 
situated in every living entity's heart, although the living entity may be very 
insignificant. The Lord knows everything about the living entity, including all 
his desires. Although we are very insignificant, why should the Lord not know 
our desires?

O Lord of the universe, You are the actual teacher of the science of devotional 
service. We are satisfied that Your Lordship is the ultimate goal of our lives, 
and we pray that You will be satisfied with us. That is our benediction. We do 
not desire anything other than Your full satisfaction.

Dear Lord, we shall therefore pray for Your benediction because You are the 
Supreme, beyond all transcendence, and because there is no end to Your 
opulences. Consequently, You are celebrated by the name Ananta.

Dear Lord, when the bee approaches the celestial tree called the parijata, it 
certainly does not leave the tree, because there is no need for such action. 
Similarly, when we have approached Your lotus feet and taken shelter of them, 
what further benediction may we ask of You?

Dear Lord, as long as we have to remain within this material world due to our 
material contamination and wander from one type of body to another and from one 
planet to another, we pray that we may associate with those who are engaged in 
discussing Your pastimes. We pray for this benediction life after life, in 
different bodily forms and on different planets.

Even a moment's association with a pure devotee cannot be compared to being 
transferred to heavenly planets or even merging into the Brahman effulgence in 
complete liberation. For living entities who are destined to give up the body 
and die, association with pure devotees is the highest benediction.

Whenever pure topics of the transcendental world are discussed, the members of 
the audience forget all kinds of material hankerings, at least for the time 
being. Not only that, but they are no longer envious of one another, nor do they 
suffer from anxiety or fear.

The Supreme Lord, Narayana, is present among devotees who are engaged in hearing 
and chanting the holy name of the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Lord Narayana 
is the ultimate goal of sannyasis, those in the renounced order of life, and 
Narayana is worshiped through this sankirtana movement by those who are 
liberated from material contamination. Indeed, they recite the holy name again 
and again.

Dear Lord, Your personal associates, devotees, wander all over the world to 
purify even the holy places of pilgrimage. Is not such activity pleasing to 
those who are actually afraid of material existence?

Dear Lord, by virtue of a moment's association with Lord Shiva, who is very dear 
to You and who is Your most intimate friend, we were fortunate to attain You. 
You are the most expert physician, capable of treating the incurable disease of 
material existence. On account of our great fortune, we have been able to take 
shelter at Your lotus feet.

Dear Lord, we have studied the Vedas, accepted a spiritual master and offered 
respect to brahmanas, advanced devotees and aged personalities who are 
spiritually very advanced. We have offered our respects to them, and we have not 
been envious of any brother, friends or anyone else. We have also undergone 
severe austerities within the water and have not taken food for a long time. All 
these spiritual assets of ours are simply offered for Your satisfaction. We pray 
for this benediction only, and nothing more.

Dear Lord, even great yogis and mystics who are very much advanced by virtue of 
austerities and knowledge and who have completely situated themselves in pure 
existence, as well as great personalities like Manu, Lord Brahma and Lord Shiva, 
cannot fully understand Your glories and potencies. Nonetheless they have 
offered their prayers according to their own capacities. In the same way, we, 
although much lower than these personalities, also offer our prayers according 
to our own capability.

Dear Lord, You have no enemies or friends. Therefore You are equal to everyone. 
You cannot be contaminated by sinful activities, and Your transcendental form is 
always beyond the material creation. You are the Supreme Personality of Godhead 
because You remain everywhere within all existence. You are consequently known 
as Vasudeva. We offer You our respectful obeisances.

The great sage Maitreya continued: My dear Vidura, the Supreme Personality of 
Godhead, who is the protector of surrendered souls, being thus addressed by the 
Pracetas and worshiped by them, replied, "May whatever you have prayed for be 
fulfilled." After saying this, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, whose prowess 
is never defeated, left. The Pracetas were unwilling to be separated from Him 
because they had not seen Him to their full satisfaction.

Thereafter all the Pracetas emerged from the waters of the sea. They then saw 
that all the trees on land had grown very tall, as if to obstruct the path to 
the heavenly planets. These trees had covered the entire surface of the world. 
At this time the Pracetas became very angry.

My dear King, at the time of devastation, Lord Shiva emits fire and air from his 
mouth out of anger. To make the surface of the earth completely treeless, the 
Pracetas also emitted fire and air from their mouths.

After seeing that all the trees on the surface of the earth were being turned to 
ashes, Lord Brahma immediately came to the sons of King Barhisman and pacified 
them with words of logic.

The remaining trees, being very much afraid of the Pracetas, immediately 
delivered their daughter at the advice of Lord Brahma.

Following the order of Lord Brahma, all the Pracetas accepted the girl as their 
wife. From the womb of this girl, the son of Lord Brahma named Daksa took birth. 
Daksa had to take birth from the womb of Marisa due to his disobeying and 
disrespecting Lord Mahadeva [Shiva]. Consequently he had to give up his body 

His previous body had been destroyed, but he, the same Daksa, inspired by the 
supreme will, created all the desired living entities in the Caksusa manvantara.

After being born, Daksa, by the superexcellence of his bodily luster, covered 
all others' bodily opulence. Because he was very expert in performing fruitive 
activity, he was called by the name Daksa, meaning "the very expert." Lord 
Brahma therefore engaged Daksa in the work of generating living entities and 
maintaining them. In due course of time, Daksa also engaged other Prajapatis 
[progenitors] in the process of generation and maintenance.

Chapter Thirty-one : Narada Instructs the Pracetas

The great saint Maitreya continued: After that, the Pracetas lived at home for 
thousands of years and developed perfect knowledge in spiritual consciousness. 
At last they remembered the blessings of the Supreme Personality of Godhead and 
left home, putting their wife in charge of a perfect son.

The Pracetas went to the seashore in the west where the great liberated sage 
Jajali was residing. After perfecting the spiritual knowledge by which one 
becomes equal toward all living entities, the Pracetas became perfect in Krishna 

After practicing the yogasana for mystic yoga, the Pracetas managed to control 
their life air, mind, words and external vision. Thus by the pranayama process 
they were completely relieved of material attachment. By remaining 
perpendicular, they could concentrate their minds on the uppermost Brahman. 
While they were practicing this pranayama, the great sage Narada, who is 
worshiped both by demons and by demigods, came to see them.

As soon as the Pracetas saw that the great sage Narada had appeared, they 
immediately got up even from their asanas. As required, they immediately offered 
obeisances and worshiped him, and when they saw that Narada Muni was properly 
seated, they began to ask him questions.

All the Pracetas began to address the great sage Narada: O great sage, O 
brahmana, we hope you met with no disturbances while coming here. It is due to 
our great fortune that we are now able to see you. By the traveling of the sun, 
people are relieved from the fear of the darkness of night--a fear brought about 
by thieves and rogues. Similarly, your traveling is like the sun's, for you 
drive away all kinds of fear.

O master, may we inform you that because of our being overly attached to family 
affairs, we almost forgot the instructions we received from Lord Shiva and Lord 

Dear master, kindly enlighten us in transcendental knowledge, which may act as a 
torchlight by which we may cross the dark nescience of material existence.

The great sage Maitreya continued: My dear Vidura, being thus petitioned by the 
Pracetas, the supreme devotee Narada, who is always absorbed in thoughts of the 
Supreme Personality of Godhead, began to reply.

The great sage Narada said: When a living entity is born to engage in the 
devotional service of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, who is the supreme 
controller, his birth, all his fruitive activities, his life-span, his mind and 
his words are all factually perfect.

A civilized human being has three kinds of births. The first birth is by a pure 
father and mother, and this birth is called birth by semen. The next birth takes 
place when one is initiated by the spiritual master, and this birth is called 
savitra. The third birth, called yajnika, takes place when one is given the 
opportunity to worship Lord Vishnu. Despite the opportunities for attaining such 
births, even if one gets the life-span of a demigod, if one does not actually 
engage in the service of the Lord, everything is useless. Similarly, one's 
activities may be mundane or spiritual, but they are useless if they are not 
meant for satisfying the Lord.

Without devotional service, what is the meaning of severe austerities, the 
process of hearing, the power of speech, the power of mental speculation, 
elevated intelligence, strength, and the power of the senses?

Transcendental practices that do not ultimately help one realize the Supreme 
Personality of Godhead are useless, be they mystic yoga practices, the 
analytical study of matter, severe austerity, the acceptance of sannyasa, or the 
study of Vedic literature. All these may be very important aspects of spiritual 
advancement, but unless one understands the Supreme Personality of Godhead, 
Hari, all these processes are useless.

Factually the Supreme Personality of Godhead is the original source of all self-
realization. Consequently, the goal of all auspicious activities--karma, jnana, 
yoga and bhakti--is the Supreme Personality of Godhead.

As pouring water on the root of a tree energizes the trunk, branches, twigs and 
everything else, and as supplying food to the stomach enlivens the senses and 
limbs of the body, simply worshiping the Supreme Personality of Godhead through 
devotional service automatically satisfies the demigods, who are parts of that 
Supreme Personality.

During the rainy season, water is generated from the sun, and in due course of 
time, during the summer season, the very same water is again absorbed by the 
sun. Similarly, all living entities, moving and inert, are generated from the 
earth, and again, after some time, they all return to the earth as dust. 
Similarly, everything emanates from the Supreme Personality of Godhead, and in 
due course of time everything enters into Him again.

Just as the sunshine is nondifferent from the sun, the cosmic manifestation is 
also nondifferent from the Supreme Personality of Godhead. The Supreme 
Personality is therefore all-pervasive within this material creation. When the 
senses are active, they appear to be part and parcel of the body, but when the 
body is asleep, their activities are unmanifest. Similarly, the whole cosmic 
creation appears different and yet nondifferent from the Supreme Person.

My dear Kings, sometimes in the sky there are clouds, sometimes there is 
darkness, and sometimes there is illumination. The appearance of all these takes 
place consecutively. Similarly, in the Supreme Absolute, the modes of passion, 
darkness and goodness appear as consecutive energies. Sometimes they appear, and 
sometimes they disappear.

Because the Supreme Lord is the cause of all causes, He is the Supersoul of all 
individual living entities, and He exists as both the remote and immediate 
cause. Since He is aloof from the material emanations, He is free from their 
interactions and is Lord of material nature. You should therefore engage in His 
devotional service, thinking yourself qualitatively one with Him.

By showing mercy to all living entities, being satisfied somehow or other and 
controlling the senses from sense enjoyment, one can very quickly satisfy the 
Supreme Personality of Godhead, Janardana.

Being completely cleansed of all material desires, the devotees are freed from 
all mental contamination. Thus they can always think of the Lord constantly and 
address Him very feelingly. The Supreme Personality of Godhead, knowing Himself 
to be controlled by His devotees, does not leave them for a second, just as the 
sky overhead never becomes invisible.

The Supreme Personality of Godhead becomes very dear to those devotees who have 
no material possessions but are fully happy in possessing the devotional service 
of the Lord. Indeed, the Lord relishes the devotional activities of such 
devotees. Those who are puffed up with material education, wealth, aristocracy 
and fruitive activity are very proud of possessing material things, and they 
often deride the devotees. Even if such people offer the Lord worship, the Lord 
never accepts them.

Although the Supreme Personality of Godhead is self-sufficient, He becomes 
dependent on His devotees. He does not care for the goddess of fortune, nor for 
the kings and demigods who are after the favors of the goddess of fortune. Where 
is that person who is actually grateful and will not worship the Personality of 

The great sage Maitreya continued: My dear King Vidura, Sri Narada Muni, the son 
of Lord Brahma, thus described all these relationships with the Supreme 
Personality of Godhead to the Pracetas. Afterward, he returned to Brahmaloka.

Hearing from Narada's mouth the glories of the Lord, which vanquish all the ill 
fortune of the world, the Pracetas also became attached to the Supreme 
Personality of Godhead. Meditating on His lotus feet, they advanced to the 
ultimate destination.

My dear Vidura, I have told you everything you wanted to know about the 
conversation between Narada and the Pracetas, the conversation describing the 
glories of the Lord. I have related this as far as possible.

Sukadeva Gosvami continued: O best of kings [King Pariksit], I have now finished 
telling about the descendants of the first son of Svayambhuva Manu, Uttanapada. 
I shall now try to relate the activities of the descendants of Priyavrata, the 
second son of Svayambhuva Manu. Please hear them attentively.

Although Maharaja Priyavrata received instructions from the great sage Narada, 
he still engaged in ruling the earth. After fully enjoying material possessions, 
he divided his property among his sons. He then attained a position by which he 
could return home, back to Godhead.

My dear King, in this way, after hearing the transcendental messages of the 
Supreme Personality of Godhead and His devotees from the great sage Maitreya, 
Vidura was overwhelmed with ecstasy. With tears in his eyes, he immediately fell 
down at the lotus feet of his guru, his spiritual master. He then fixed the 
Supreme Personality of Godhead within the core of his heart.

Sri Vidura said: O great mystic, O greatest of all devotees, by your causeless 
mercy I have been shown the path of liberation from this world of darkness. By 
following this path, a person liberated from the material world can return home, 
back to Godhead.

Sukadeva Gosvami continued: Vidura thus offered obeisances unto the great sage 
Maitreya and, taking his permission, started for the city of Hastinapura to see 
his own kinsmen, although he had no material desires.

O King, those who hear these topics about kings who are completely surrendered 
to the Supreme Personality of Godhead obtain without difficulty a long life, 
wealth, good reputation, good fortune and, ultimately, the opportunity to return 
home, back to Godhead.

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