1. Now, therefore, we will declare the acts productive of merit which form part of the customs of daily life, as they have been settled by the agreement (of those who know the law).
2. The authority (for these duties) is the agreement of those who know the law,
3. And (the authorities for the latter are) the Vedas alone.
4. (There are) four castes--Brâhmanas, Kshatriyas, Vaisyas, and Sûdras.
5. Amongst these, each preceding (caste) is superior by birth to the one following.
6. (For all these), excepting Sûdras and those who have committed bad actions, (are ordained) the initiation, the study of the Veda, and the kindling of
[1. 1. Samaya, 'agreement, decision,' is threefold. It includes injunction, restriction, and prohibition.
Dharma, 'acts productive of merit, I usually translated by 'duty or law,' is more accurately explained as an act which produces the quality of the soul called apûrva, the cause of heavenly bliss and of final liberation.
2. Manu II, 6, 12 Yâgñ. I, 7; Gautama I, 1.
6. Manu II, 35.]
the sacred fire; and (their) works are productive of rewards (in this world and the next).
7. To serve the other (three) castes (is ordained) for the Sûdra.
8. The higher the caste (which he serves) the orreater is the merit.
9. The initiation is the consecration in accordance with the texts of the Veda, of a male who is desirous of (and can make use of) sacred knowledge.
10. A Brâhmana declares that the Gâyatrî is learnt for the sake of all the (three) Vedas.
11. (Coming) out of darkness, he indeed enters darkness, whom a man unlearned in the Vedas, initiates, and (so does he) who, without being learned in the Vedas, (performs the rite of initiation.) That has been declared in a Brâhmana.
12. As performer of this rite of initiation he shall seek to obtain a man in whose family sacred learning is hereditary, who himself- possesses it, and who is devout (in following the law).
13. And under him the sacred science must be
[7. Manu 1, 91, VIII, 410; and IX, 334; Yâgñ, I, 120.
9. The use of the masculine in the text excludes women. For though women may have occasion to use such texts as 'O fire, of the dwelling' &c. at the Agnihotra, still it is specially ordained that they shall be taught this and similar verses only just before tbe rite is to be performed.
10. The object of the Sûtra is to remove a doubt whether the ceremony of initiation ought to be repeated for each Veda, in case a man desires to study more than one Veda. This repetition is declared to be unnecessary, except, as the commentator adds, in the case of the Atharva-veda, for which, according to a passage of a Brâhmana, a fresh initiation is necessary. The latter rule is given in the Vaitâna-sûtra I, 1, 5.
13. Haradatta: 'But this (latter rule regarding the taking of another teacher) does not hold good for those who have begun to study, solemnly, binding themselves, to their teacher. How so? As he (the pupil) shall consider a person who initiates and instructs him his Âkarya, and a pupil who has been once initiated cannot be initiated again, how can another man instruct him? For this reason it must be understood that the study begun with one teacher may not be completed with another, if the frst die.' Compare also Haradatta On I, 2, 7, 26, and the rule given I, 1, 4, 26. In our times also pupils, who have bound themselves to a teacher by paying their respects to him and presenting a cocoa-nut, in order to learn from him a particular branch of science, must not study the same branch of science under any other teacher.]
studied until the end, provided (the teacher) does not fall off from the ordinances of the law.
14. He from whom (the pupil) gathers (âkinoti) (the knowledge of) his religious duties (dharmân) (is called) the Âkârya (teacher).
15. Him he should never offend.
16. For he causes him (the pupil) to be born (a second time) by (imparting to him) sacred learning.
17. This (second) birth is the best.
18. The father and the mother produce the body only.
19. Let him initiate a Brâhmana in spring, a Kshatriya in summer, a Vaisya in autumn, a Brâhmana in the eighth year after conception, a Kshatriya in the eleventh year after conception, (and) a Vaisya in the twelfth after conception.
20. Now (follows the enumeration of the years
[14. Manu II, 69; Yâgñ. I, 15.
15. Manu II, 144.
16. Manu II, 146-148.
17. 'Because it procures heavenly bliss and final liberation.'--Haradatta.
18. Manu II, 147.
19. Yâgñ. I, 14; Manu II, 36; Âsvakâyana Gri. Sû. I, 19, 1, 4: Weber, Ind. Stud. X, 20 seq.]
to be chosen) for the fulfilment of some (particular) wish,
21. (Let him initiate) a person desirous of excellence in sacred learning in his seventh year,
22. A person desirous of long life in his eighth year,
2-. A person desirous of manly vigour in his ninth year,
24. A person desirous of food in his tenth year,
25. A person desirous of strength in his eleventh year,
26. A person desirous of cattle in his twelfth year.
27. There is no dereliction (of duty, if the initiation takes place), in the case of a Brâhmana before the completion of the sixteenth year, in the case of a Kshatriya before the completion of the twenty-second year, in the case of a Vaisya before the completion of the twenty-fourth year. (Let him be initiated at such an age) that he may be able to perform the duties, which we shall declare below.
28. If the proper time for-the initiation has passed, he shall observe for the space of two months
[21. Manu II, 37.
22-26. Âsv. Gri. Sû. I, 19, 5, 7; Weber, Ind. Stud. X, 21.
27. The meaning of the Sûtra is, that the initiation shall be performed as soon as the child is able to begin the study of the Veda. If it is so far developed at eight years, the ceremony must then be performed; and if it be then neglected, or, if it be neglected at any time when the capacity for learning exists, expiation prescribed in the following Sûtras must be performed. The age of sixteen in the case of Brâhmanas is the latest term up to which the ceremony may be deferred, in case of incapacity for study only. After the lapse of the sixteenth year, the expiation becomes also necessary. Manu II, 38; Yâgñ. I, 37.
28. The meaning is, he shall keep all the restrictions imposed upon a student, as chastity, &c, but that he shall not perform the fire-worship or service to a teacher, nor study. Manu II, 39; XI. 192, Yâgñ. I, 38; Weber, Ind. Stud. X, 101.]
the duties of a student, as observed by those who are studying the three Vedas.
29. After that he may be initiated.
30. After that he shall bathe (daily) for one year.
31. After that he may be instructed.
32. He, whose father and grandfather have not been initiated, (and his two ancestors) are called 'slayers of the Brahman.'
33. Intercourse, eating, and intermarriage with them should be avoided.
34. If they wish it (they may perform the following) expiation;
35. In the same manner as for the first neglect (of the initiation, a penance of) two months (was) prescribed, so (they shall do penance for) one year.
36. Afterwards they may be initiated, and then they must bathe (daily),
[30. 'If he is strong, he shall bathe three times a day--morning, midday, and evening.'--Haradatta.
32. Brahman, apparently, here means 'Veda,' and those who neglect its study may be called metaphorically 'slayers of the Veda.'
33. Manu II, 40; Âsv. Gri. Sû. I, 19, 8, 9; Weber, Ind. Stud. X, 21.
35. Compare above, I, 1, 1, 28.]


1. For as many years as there are uninitiated persons, reckoning (one year) for each ancestor (and the person to be initiated himself),
2. (They should bathe daily reciting) the seven
[2. 2. The seven Pâvanânîs are seven verses which occur Rig veda IX, 67, 21-27. Yagushpavitra=Taitt. Samh. I, 2, 1, 1. The Sâmapavitra is found Sâma-veda I, 2, 2, 3, 5.Ângirasapavitra=Rig-veda IV, 40, 5.]
Pâvamânis, beginning with 'If near or far,' the Yagushpavitra, ('May the waters, the mothers purify us,' &c.) the Sâmapavitra, ('With what help assists,' &c.), and the Angirasapavitra ('A swan, dwelling in purity'),
3. Or also reciting the Vyâhritis (om, bhûh, bhuvah, suvah).
4. After that (such a person) may be taught (the Veda).
5. But those whose great-grandfather's (grandfather's and father's) initiation is not remembered, are called 'burial-grounds.'
6. Intercourse, dining, and intermarriage with them should be avoided. For them, if they like, the (following) penance (is prescribed). (Such a man) shall keep for twelve years the rules prescribed for a student who is studying the three Vedas. Afterwards he may be initiated. Then he shall bathe, reciting the Pâvamânis and the other (texts mentioned above, I, 1, 2, 2).
7. Then he may be instructed in the duties of a householder.
8. He shall not be taught (the whole Veda), but only the sacred formulas required for the domestic ceremonies.
9. When he has finished this (study of the Grihvamantras), he may be initiated (after having performed the penance prescribed) for the first neglect (I, 1, 1, 28).
10. Afterwards (everything is performed) as in the case of a regular initiation.
[10. The commentatcr observes that for those whose great-great-grandfather or remoter ancestors were not initiated, no penance is prescribed, and that it must be fixed by those who know the law.]
He who has been initiated shall dwell as a religious student in the house of his teacher,
12. For forty-eight years (if he learns all the four Vedas),
13. (Or) a quarter less (i.e. for thirty-six years),
14. (Or) less by half (i.e. for twenty-four years),
15. (Or) three quarters less (i.e. for twelve years),
16. Twelve years (should be) the shortest time (for his residence with his teacher).
17. A student who studies the sacred science shall not dwell with anybody else (than his teacher).
18. Now (follow) the rules for the studentship.
19. He shall obey his teacher, except (when ordered to commit) crimes which cause loss of caste.
20. He shall do what is serviceable to his teacher, he shall not contradict him.
21. He shall always occupy a couch or seat lower (than that of his teacher).
[11. Manu II, 164.
12. Manu III, 1, and Yâgñ. I, 36; Weber, Ind. Stud. X, 125.
16. The commentator declares that in Manu III, 1, the expression until he has learnt it,' must be understood in this sense, that the pupil may leave his teacher, if he has learnt the Veda, after twelve years' study, never before. But compare also Âsv. Gri. Sû. I, 22, 3.
17. The commentator states that this rule refers only to a temporary, not to a professed student (Daishihika). He also gives an entirely different explanation to the Sûtra, which, according to some, means, 'A student who learns the sacred science shall not fast in order to obtain heaven.' This Tendering also is admissible, as the word para may mean either a 'stranger' or 'heaven' and upavasa, 'dwelling' or 'fasting.'
19. Regarding the crimes which cause loss of caste (patanîya), see below, I, 7, 21, 7.
20. Manu II, 108, and Yâgñ. I, 27.
21. Manu II, 108, 198; Weber, Ind. Stud. X, 123 and 124.]
22. He shall not eat food offered (at a sacrifice to the gods or the Manes),
23. Nor pungent condiments, salt, honey, or meat.
24. He shall not sleep in the day-time.
25. He shall not use perfumes.
26. He shall preserve chastity.
27. He shall not embellish himself (by using ointments and the like).
28. He shall not wash his body (with hot water for pleasure).
29. But, if it is soiled by unclean things, he shall clean it (with earth or water), in a place where he is not seen by a Guru.
30. Let him not sport in the water whilst bathing; let him swim (motionless) like a stick.
31. He shall wear all his hair tied in one braid.
32. Or let him make a braid of the lock on the crown of the head, and shave the rest of the hair.
[23. Regarding the meaning of kshâra, 'pungent condiments,' see Haradatta on II, 6, 15, 15. Other commentators explain the term differently.--Manu II, 177; Yâgñ. I, 33; and Weber, Ind. Stud. X, 123. Âsv. Gri. Sû. I, 22, 2.
25. Manu II, 177; Yâgñ. I, 33.
26. Manu II, 180.
27. Manu II, 178; Yâgñ. I, 33.
29. 'Here, in the section on the teacher, the word guru designates the father and the rest also.'--Haradatta.
30. Another version of the first portion of this Sûtra, proposed by Haradatta, is, 'Let him not, whilst bathing, clean himself (with bathing powder or the like).' Another commentator takes Sûtra 28 as a prohibition of the daily bath or washing generally ordained for Brâhmanas, and refers Sûtra 29. to the naimittika snâna or 'bathing on certain occasions,' and takes Sûtra 30 as a restriction of the latter.
31. Manu II, 2 19.]
33. The girdle of a Brâhmana shall be made of Muñga grass, and consist of three strings; if possible, (the strings) should be twisted to the right.
34. A bowstring (should be the girdle) of a Kshatriya,
35. Or a string of Muñga grass in which pieces of iron have been tied.
36. A wool thread (shall be the girdle) of a Vaisya,
37. Or a rope used for yoking the oxen to the plough, or a stringy made of Tamala-bark.
38. The staff worn by a Brâhmana should be made of Palâsa wood, that of a Kshatriya of a branch of the Banian tree, which grows downwards, that of a Vaisya of Bâdara or Udumbara wood. Some declare, without any reference to caste, that the staff of a student should be made of the wood of a tree (that is fit to be used at the sacrifice).
39. (He shall wear) a cloth (to cover his nakedness).
40. (It shall be made) of hemp for a Brâhmana, of flax (for a Kshatriya), of the skin of a (clean) animal (for a Vaisya).
4L Some declare that the (upper) garment (of a Brâhmana) should be dyed with red Lodh,
[33. Manu II, 42-44; Yâgñ. I, 29; Âsv. Gri. Sû. I, 19, 12; Weber, Ind. Stud. X, 23.
38. Manu II, 45; Yâgñ. I, 29; Âsv. Gri. Sû. I, 19, 13; 20, 1; Weber, Ind. Stud. X, 23.
Haradatta gives no commentary on this Sûtra, but refers back to the Grihya-sûtra, II, 16-17, where the same words occur.
39. The word forms a Sûtra by itself, in order to show that every one must wear this cloth.
40. Manu II, 41. 'Clean' means here and everywhere else, if applied to animals or things,' fit to be used at the sacrifice.'
41. Âsv. Gri. Sû. I, 19, 11; Weber, Ind. Stud X, 22.]


1. And that of a Kshatriya dyed with madder,
2. And that of a Vaisya dyed with turmeric.
3. (The skin),worn by a Brâhmana shall be that of a common deer or of a black doe.
4. If he wears a black skin, let him not spread.it (on the ground) to sit or lie upon it.
5. (The skin worn) by a Kshatriya shall be that of a spotted deer.
6. (The skin worn) by a Vaisya shall be that of a he-goat.
7. The skin of a sheep is fit to be worn by all castes,
8. And a blanket made of wool.
9. He who wishes the increase of Brâhmana power shall wear skins only; he who wishes the increase of Kshatriya power shall wear cloth only; he who wishes the increase of both shall wear both (skin and cloth). Thus says a Brâhmana.
10. But (I, Âpastamba, say), let him wear a skin only as his upper garment.
11. Let him not look at dancing.
12. Let him not go to assemblies (for gambling, &c.), nor to crowds (assembled at festivals).
[3. 3. Manu II, 41; Yâgñ. I, 29; Âsv. Gri. Sû. I, 19, 10.
9. See also Gopatha-brâhmana I, 2, 4.
10. According to I, 1, 2, 39-I, 1, 3, 10, the rule of dress for students is the following:--According to Âpastamba, a student shall wear a piece of cloth to cover his nakedness (langoti), and a skin as upper garment. Other teachers allow, besides, an upper dress of cloth, coloured differently for the different castes, with or without the addhion of a deer-skin.
11. Manu II, 178.
12-13. Manu III, 179; Yâgñ. I, 33.]
13. Let him not be addicted to gossiping.
14. Let him be discreet.
15. Let him not do anything for his own pleasure in places which his teacher frequents.
16. Let him talk with women so rnuch (only) as his purpose requires.
17. (Let him be) forgiving.
18. Let him restrain his organs from seeking illicit objects.
19. Let him be untired in fulfilling his duties;
20. Modest;
21. Possessed of self-command
22. Energetic;
23. Free from anger;
24. (And) free from envy.
25. Bringing all he obtains to his teacher, he shall go begging with a vessel in the morning and in the evening, (and he may) beg (from everybody) except low-caste people unfit for association (with Aryas) and Abhisastas.
[15. 'Anything for his own pleasure,' i.e. keeping conversations with friends, making his toilet, &c.
19.The explanations of the last two terms, sânta (Sûtra 18) and dânta (Sûtra 19), are different from those given usually. Sama is usually explained as 'the exclusive direction of the mind towards God,' and dama as 'the restraining of the senses..'
23, Manu II, 178.
25. Regarding the explanation of the term Abhisasta, see below, I, 7, 21, 17. Haradatta: 'Apapâtras are called those born from a high-caste mother and a low-caste father, such as washermen. For their cooking vessels &c. are unfit for the use of the four castes.
Since Âpastamba says, In the evening and in the morning, food obtained in the evening must not be used for the morning meal, nor food obtained in the morning for the eveni ng meal."' Manu II, 182, 183, 185; Âsv. Gri. Sû. I, 22, 4. See also Gopatha-brâhmana I, 2, 6.]
26. A Brâhmana declares: Since a devout student takes away from women, who refuse (to give him alms, the merit gained) by (Srauta)-sacrifices, by gifts, (and) by burnt-offerings (offered in the domestic fire), as well as their offspring, their cattle, the sacred learning (of their families), therefore, indeed, (a woman) should not refuse (alms) to the crowd of students; for amonst those (who come to beg), there might be one of that (devout) kind, one who thus (conscientiously) keeps his vow.
2 7 . Alms (shall) not (be considered) leavings (and be rejected) by inference from their appearance), but on the strength of ocular or oral testimony (only).
28. A Brâhmana shall beg, prefacing (his request) by the word 'Lady';
29. A Kshatriya (inserting the word) 'Lady' in the middle (between the words 'give alms');
30. A Vaisya, adding the word 'Lady' (at the end of the formula).
31. (The pupil) having taken those (alms) shall place them before his teacher and offer them to him.
32. He may eat (the food) after having been ordered to do so by his teacher.
[27. To eat the residue of the meal of any person except that left by the teacher and other Gurus, is not permitted to a student; see also below, I, 1, 4, 1 seq.; Manu II, 56; Yâgñ. I, 33.
28. The formula to be used by a Brâhmana is, 'Lady, give alms;' that to be used by a Kshatriya, 'Give, lady, alms;' and that used by a Vaisya, 'Give alms, lady.' Manu II, 49; Yâgñ. I, 30; Âsv. Gri. Sû. I, 22, 8.
31. The words with which be announces the alms are, Idam ittham âhritam, 'this much have I received.' Manu II, 51; Yâgñ. I, 2, 7; Âsv. Gri. Sû. I, 2 2, 10.
32. The answer of the teacher is, Saumya tvameva bhunkshva, friend, eat thou.']
33. If the teacher is absent, the pupil (shall offer the food) to (a member of) the teacher's farnily.
34. If the (family of the teacher) is (also) absent, the pupil (may offer the food) to other learned Brâhmanas (Srotriyas) also (and receive from them the permission to eat).
5. He shall not beg for his own sake (alone).
36. After he has eaten, he himself shall clean his dish.
37. And he shall leave no residue (in his dish).
38. If he cannot (eat all that he has taken in his dish), he shall bury (the remainder) in the grou nd;
39. Or he may throw it into the water;
40. Or he may place (all that remains in a pot), and put it down near an (uninitiated) Ârya;
41. Or (he may put it down) near a Sûdra slave (belonging to his teacher).
42. If (the pupil) is on a journey, he shall throw
[34. Regarding the term Srotriya, see below, II, 3, 6. 4.
35. 'The meaning of this Sûtra is, that the rule given, Sûtra 42 (below), for a pupil who is on a journey, shall hold food also for a pupil who is at home, if (in the absence of his teacher) no Srotriyas are to be found (from whom he can receive the permission to eat).'--Haradatta.
36. 'He commits no sin, if he has the alms-pot cleaned by somebody else. Some say that the Sûtra refers to both vessels (the alms-pot and his own dish).'
40. An Ârya is a person belonging to one of the first three castes (see below). The Ârya must be a boy who is not initiated, because children are kârnabhakshâh, i.e. allowed to eat what they like, even leavings.
42. This rule holds good if no Srotriyas are near. If Srotriyas are to be found, Sûtra 34 applies. Agni, the god of fire, is considered to be of the Brahminical caste, and hence he takes the place of the teacher or of the Srotriyas. See also Manu II, 247, 248, and the passages collected from the Brâhmanas, by Prof. Weber, Ind. Stud. IX, 39.]
a part of the alms into the fire and eat (the remainder).
43. Alms are declared to be sacrificial food. In regard to them the teacher (holds the position which) a deity (holds in regard to food offered at a sacrifice).
44. And (the teacher holds also the place which) the Âhavanîya fire occupies (at a sacrifice, because a portion of the alms is offered in the fire of his stomach).
45. To him (the teacher) the (student) shall offer (a portion of the alms),
[44. Manu II, 231.]


1. And (having done so) eat what is left.
2. For this (remnant of food) is certainly a remnant of sacrificial food.
If he obtains other things (besides food, such as cattle or fuel, and gives them to his teacher) as he obtains them, then those (things hold the place of) rewards (given to priests for the performance of a sacrifice).
4. This is the sacrifice to be performed daily bya religious student.
5. And (the teacher) shall not give him anything that is forbidden by the revealed texts, (not even as) leavings,
6. Such as pungent condiments, salt, honey, or meat (and the like).
[4. 6. See above, I, 1, 2, 23.]
7. By this (last Sûtra it is) explained (that) the other restrictions (imposed upon a student, such as abstinence from perfumes, ointments, &c., are likewise not to be broken).
8. For (explicit) revealed texts have greater force than custom from which (the existence of a permissive passage of the revelation) may be inferred.
9. Besides (in this particular case) a (worldly) motive for the practice is apparent.
[7. See above, I, 1, 2, 24 seq.:-According to Haradatta, teachers were in the habit of giving ointments and the like forbidden substances to their pupils, and Âpastamba gives this rule in order to show his dissent from the practice.
8. Ânumânika means "proper to be inferred from." For the existence of a text of the revelation or tradition (Smriti) is inferred from custom. A visible text of the revelation is (however) of greater weight than a custom from which the existence of a text may be inferred. It is impossible to infer (the existence of a text) which is opposed to such (a visible text), on account of the maxim "an inference (can be made only, if it is) not opposed (by ocular proof)." (Âpastamba), by speaking thus, ("For revealed texts," &c.,) shows that the rule forbidding a student to eat pungent condiments, salt &c. is based on the existing text of a Brâhmana.' --Haradatta.
9. 'Though the text forbidding the use of pungent condiments salt, and the like refers to such substances if they are not leavings, still it is improper to assert, on the ground of the custom from which a permissive text may be inferred, that it (the existing text), which is general, must be restricted (to those cases only) where the forbidden substances are not leavings given by the teacher. (If an opponent should answer that) certainly there are also texts which contradict each other, such as "he takes" and "he does not take," and that therefore there is no reason why a text restricted (to the case in which forbidden substances are leavings of the teacher) should not be inferred. In order to answer (that plea), he (Âpastamba) says (Sûtra 9), "True, that would be right if no motive whatever could be discovered for that custom (to eat forbidden food which is given by the teacher). But a reason for this course of action exists."'--Haradatta.]
10. For pleasure is obtained (by eating or using the forbidden substances).
11. A residue of food left by a father and an elder brother, may be eaten.
12. If they act contrary to the law, he must not eat (their leavings).
13. In the evening and in the morning he shall fetch water in a vessel (for the use of his teacher).
14. Daily he shall fetch fuel from the forest, and place it on the floor (in his teacher's house).
15. He shall not go to fetch firewood after sunset.
16. After having kindled the fire, and having swept the ground around (the altar), he shall place
[10. 'What is that (reason)? [Sûtra 10] For to eat pungent condiments, salt, &c. gives pleasure to the eater, and therefore according to the maxim, I, 4, 12, 11, "That in case a custom has pleasure for its motive, there is no text of the holy law to authorise it," no text restricting (the prohibition of forbidden substances to the case in which a Brahmakârin does not receive them as leavin-s from his teacher) can be inferred (from the practice of eating such leavings).'-Haradatta.
12. Another explanation of this Sûtra is given by Haradatta: 'If by eating their leavings he should commit a sin (because the food contains salt &c.), he shall not do it.'
13. Manu II, 182.
14. The reason for placing the fuel on the ground is, according to Haradatta, the fear lest, if placed on some shelf or the like, it should tumble down and injure the teacher's children. Others however, are of opinion that. the wood which the pupil fetches daily, is not to be used by the teacher for cooking, but for the performance of the pupil's daily fire-offering. The reason for this interpretation is, that in the Grihya-sûtra, II, 24, the daily offering of fuel is enjoined with the same words. See Weber, Ind. Stud. X, 123; Manu II, 186.
16. Some explain, instead of 'after having swept the ground around the altar,' &c., 'after having raked the scattered brands into a heap.'--Haradatta.]
the sacred fuel on the fire every morning and evening, according to the prescription (of the Grihya-sûtra).
17. Some say that the fire is only to be worshipped in the evening.
18. He shall sweep the place around the fire after it has been made to burn (by the addition of'fuel), with his hand, and not with the broom (of Kusa grass).
19. But, before (adding the fuel, he is free to use the broom) at his pleasure
20. He shall not perform non-religious acts with the residue of the water employed for the fire-worship, nor sip it.
21. He shall not sip water which has been stirred with the hand, nor such as has been received into one hand only.
22. And he shall avoid sleep (whilst his teacher is awake).
23. Then (after having risen) he shall assist his teacher daily by acts tending to the acquisition of spiritual merit and of wealth.
24. Having served (his teacher during the day in this manner, he shall say when going to bed): I have protected the protector of the law (my teacher).
[18. Âp. Gri. Sû. II, 22.
20. During the fire-worship water is wanted for sprinkling the altar in various Ways.
23. Acts tending to the acquisition of merit are here-collecting sacred fuel, Kusa grass, and flowers for sacrifices. Acts tending to the acquisition of wealth are-gathering fuel for cooking, &c. Manu II, 182; Weber, Ind. Stud. X, 123 and 124.
24. Another explanation of the words spoken by the student is, O law, I have protected him; protect thou me.' See also Gopatha-brâhmana, 1, 2, 4.]
25. If the teacher transgresses the law through carelessness or knowingly, he shall point it out to him privately.
26. If (the teacher) does not cease (to transgress), he himself shall perform the religious acts (which ought to be performed by the former);
27. Or he may return home.
28. Now of him who rises before (his teacher) and goes to rest after (him), they say that he does not sleep.
29. The student who thus entirely fixes his mind there (in the teacher's family), has thereby performed all acts which yield rewards (such as the Gyotishtoma), and also those which must be performed by a householder.
[26. Compare above, I, 1, 1, 13.
29. The Sûtra refers to a naishthika brahmakârin or professed student, who never leaves his teacher's family, and never enters any other order; and it declares his merit to be equal to that of one who becomes a householder. Manu II, 243, 244; Yâgñ. I, 49, 50.]


1. The word 'austerity' (must be understood to apply) to (the observance of) the rules (of studentship).
2. If they are transgressed, study drives out the knowledge of the Veda acquired already, from the (offender) and from his children.
[5. 1. Manu II, 164.
2. The meaning of the phrase, 'Study drives out the Veda, which has already been learnt from him who studies transgressing the rules prescribed for the student,' is, 'The Veda recited at the Brahmayagña (daily study), -and other religious rites, produces no effect, i.e. gains no merit for the reciter.' Manu II, 97. Haradatta gives also the following three explanations of this Sûtra, adopted by other commentators:-
a. If these (rules) are transgressed, he loses his capacity for learning, because the Brahman forsakes him, &c.
b. If these rules are transgressed, the capacity for learning and the Brahman leave him, &c.
c. From him who studies whilst transgressing these rules, the Brahman goes out, &c.]
3. Besides he will go to hell, and his life will be shortened.
4. On account of that (transgression of the rules of studentship) no Rishis are born amongst the men of later ages.
5. But some in their new birth, on account of a residue of the merit acquired by their actions (in former lives), become (similar to) Rishis by their knowledge (of the Veda),
6. Like Svetaketu.
And whatever else besides the Veda, (a student) who obeys the rules learns from his teacher, that brings the same reward as the Veda.
8. Also, if desirous to accomplish something (be
[4. 'Amongst the avaras means "amongst the men of modern times, those who live in the Kaliyuga." No Rishis are born means "there are none who see (receive the revelation of) Mantras, Vedic texts."'--Haradatta.
5. 'How is it then that men in our days, though they transgress the rules prescribed for students, learn the four Vedas with little trouble? (The answer is), By virtue of a residue of the reward (due) for the proper observance of those rules (of studentship) in a former Yuga. Therefore Âpastamba says, Sûtra 6 "But some," &c. New existence means "new birth (life)."'--Haradatta.
6. An example of this (follows, Sûtra 6): 'Like Svetaketu. For Svetaketu learned the four Vedas in a short time; as we read in the Khândogya Upanishad (Prapâthaka VI, 1).'--Haradatta.]
7. 'Whatever else besides the Veda, such as poison-charms and the like,'--Haradatta.]
it good or evil), he thinks it in his mind, or pronounces it in words, or looks upon it with his eye, even so it will be; thus teach (those who know the law).
9. (The duties of a student consist in acts to please the spiritual teacher, the observance (of rules) conducive to his own welfare, and industry in studying.
10. Acts other than these need not be performed by a student.
11. A religious student who retains what he has learned, who finds pleasure in the fulfilment of the law, who keeps the rules of studentship, who is upright and forgiving, attains perfection.
12. Every day he shall rise in the last watch of the night, and standing near his teacher, salute him with (this) salutation: I, N. N., ho! (salute thee.)
13. And (he shall salute) before the morning meal also other very aged (learned Brâhmanas) who may live in the same village.
14. If he has been on a journey, (he shall salute
[9. 'Acts to please the teacher are--washing his feet and the like; observance (of rules) conducive to welfare are--obedience to the prohibition to cross a river swirnming, to eat pungept condiments, and obedience to the injunction to beg.'--Haradatta.
10. 'Acts other than these, such as pilgrimages and the like.'--Haradatta.
11. 'What this "perfection" is has been declared in Sûtras 7, 8.'--Haradatta.
12. Manu II, 122 and 124.
14. This salutation is to be performed only when the occasion requires it. The formerly-mentioned salutation (Sûtras 12, 13) is to be performed daily. In the next Sûtra follows that by which the fulfilment of a wish may be obtained.-Haradatta. Manu II, 121; Yâgñ I, 26]
the persons mentioned) when he meets them on his, return.
15. (He may also salute the persons mentioned at other times), if he is desirous of heaven and long life.
16. A Brâhmana. shall salute stretching forward his right arm on a level with his ear, a Kshatriya holding it on a level with the breast, a Vaisya holding it on a level with the waist, a Sûdra holding it low, (and) stretching forward the joined hands.
17. And when returning the salute of (a man belonging) to the first (three) castes, the (last syllable of the) name (of the person addressed) is produced to the length of three moras.
18. But when lie meets his teacher after sunrise (Coming for his lesson), he shall embrace (his feet).
19. On all other occasions he shall salute (him in the manner described above).
20. But some declare that he ought to embrace the (feet of his) teacher (at every occasion instead of saluting him).
21. Having stroked the teacher's right foot with his right hand below and above, he takes hold of it and of the ankle.
22. Some say, that he must press both feet, each with both hands, and embrace them.
23. He shall be very attentive the whole day
[16. 'A Vaisya shall salute stretching forth his arm on a level with his middle, i.e. the stomach; others say, on a level with his thigh; the Sûdra stretching it forth low, i.e. on a level with his feet.'--Haradatta.
17. See also Mann II, 225.
18. Manu II, 71.
22. Mann II, 72
23. Manu II, 191.]
long, never allowing his mind to wander froin the lesson during the (time devoted to) studying.
24. And (at other times he shall be attentive) to the business of his teacher.
25. And during the time for rest (he shall give) his mind (to doubtful passages of the lesson learnt).
26. And he shall study after having been called by the teacher (and not request the teacher to begin the lesson).
[26. Yâgñ. I, 27; Manu II, 191.]


1. Every day he shall put his teacher to bed after having washed his (teacher's) feet and after having rubbed him.
2. He shall retire to rest after having received (the teacher's permission).
3. And he shall not stretch out his feet towards him.
4. Some say, that it is not (sinful) to stretch out the feet (towards the teacher), if he be lying on a bed.
5. And he shall not address (the teacher), whilst he himself is in a reclining position.
6. But he may answer (the teacher) sitting (if the teacher himself is sitting or lying down).
7. And if (the teacher) stands, (he shall answer him,) after having risen also.
[6. 1. Manu II, 209.
2. Manu II, 194.
4. 'But, in Âpastamba's opinion, it is sinful even in this case.'--Haradatta.
5. Manu II, 195.
6. Manu II, 196.]
8. He shall walk after him, if he walks.
9. He shall run after him, if he runs.
10. He shall not approach (his teacher) with shoes on his feet, or his head covered, or holding (implements) in his hand.
11. But on a journey or occupied in work, he may approach him (with shoes on, with his head covered, or with implements in his hand),
12. Provided he does not sit down quite near (to his teacher).
13. He shall approach his teacher with the same reverence as a deity, without telling idle stories, attentive and listening eagerly to his words.
14. (He shall not sit near him). with his legs crossed.
15. If (on sitting down) the wind blows from the pupil towards the master, he shall change his place.
16. (He shall sit) without supporting himself with his hands (on the ground),
17. Without leaning against something (as a wall or the like).
18. If the pupil weats two garments, he shall wear the upper one after the fashion of the sacred thread at the sacrifices.
19.But, if he wears a (lower) garment only, he shall wrap it around the lower part of his body.
20. He shall turn his face towards his teacher though the latter does not turn his towards him.
21. He shall sit neither too near to, nor too far (from the teacher),
[15. Manu II, 203.
18. At sacrifices the sacred thread passes over the left shoulder and under the right arm. Manu II, 63, and Taitt-Âr. II, 1, 3.
20. Manu II, 197.]
22. (But) at such a distance, that (the teacher) may be able to reach hir with his arms (without rising).
23. (He shall not sit in such a position) that the wind blows from the teacher, towards himself.
24. (If there is) only one pupil, he shall sit at the right hand (of the teacher).
25. (If there are) many, (they may sit) as it may be convenient.
26. If the master (is not honoured with a seat and) stands, the (pupil) shall not sit down.
27. (If the master is not honoured with a couch) and sits, the (pupil) shall not lie down on a couch.
28. And if the teacher tries (to do something), then (the pupil) shall offer to do it for him, if it is in his power.
29. And, if his teacher is near, he shall not embrace (the feet of) another Guru who is inferior (in dignity),
30. Nor shall he praise (such a person in the teacher's presence) by (pronouncing the name of) his family.
31. Nor, shall he rise to meet such an (inferior Guru) or rise after him,
32. Even if he be a Guru of his teacher.
33. But he shall leave his place and his seat, (in order to show him honour.)
[23. See Sûtra 15 and Manu quoted there.
29. The term Guru includes a father, maternal uncle, &c. (see above), and these are inferior to the,teacher. Manu II, 205.
31-32. 'The pupil is not to show the mentioned marks of respect to any of his own inferior Guxus, even if the person is the Guru, e.g. the maternal uncle, of his teacher.'--Haradatta.]
34. Some say, that (he may address) a pupil of his teacher by (pronouncing) his name, if he is also one of his (the pupil's) own Gurus.
35. But towards such a person who is generally revered for some other reason than being the teacher (e.g. for his learning), the (student) should behave as towards his teacher, though he be inferior in dignity to the latter.
36. After having eaten in his (teacher's) presence, he shall not give away the remainder of the food without rising.
37. Nor shall he sip water (after having eaten in the presence of his teacher without rising).
38. (He shall rise) addressing him (with these words), 'What shall I do?'
[34. 'But Âpastamba's own opinion is that he ought not to address by name a (maternal uncle or other) Guru (who visits his teacher).'--Haradatta.
36. According to I, 1, 3, 40 seq., a student shall give what he is unable to eat to a child, or to a slave. If he has eaten in the presence of his teacher, he shall not give the food away without rising for the purpose.]


1. Or he may rise silently.
2. Nor shall he (in going away) move around his teacher with his left hand turned towards him; he shall go away after having walked around him with his right side turned towards him.
3. He shall not look at a naked woman.
4. He shall not cut the (leaves or flowers) of herbs or trees, in order to smell at them.
[7. 3. Manu IV, 5 3: Yâgñ. I, 13 5.
4. Gopatha-brâhmana I, 2, 2.]
5. He shall avoid (the use of) shoes, of an umbrella a chariot, and the like (luxuries).
6. He shall not smile.
7. If he smiles, he shall smile covering (the mouth with his hand); thus says a Brâhmana.
8. He shall not touch a woman with his face, in order to inhale the fragrance of her body.
9. Nor shall he desire her in his heart.
10. Nor shall he touch (a woman at all) without a particular reason.
11. A Brâhmana declares, 'He shall be dusty, be shall have dirty teeth, and speak the truth.'
12. Those teachers, who instructed his teacher in that science which he (the pupil) studies with him, (are to be considered as) spiritual teachers (by the pupil).
13. But if (a teacher), before the eyes of his (pupil), embraces the feet of any other persons, then he (the pupil also) must embrace their feet, (as long as he remains) in that (state of studentship).
[5. Manu II, 178.
10. Manu II, 179.
11. Though both (these first two precepts) have been given in Sûtra I, 1, 2, 27, still they are repeated, in order to show that a Srauta penance for the breach of them, is enjoined by a revealed text.'--Haradatta.
12. The term vamsya, 'ancestor,' for the teacher's teacher is explained by the circumstance, that Hindus consider a 'school,' consisting of a succession of teachers and pupils, as a spiritual family, and call it a vidyâvamsa, vidyâparamparâ. Manu II, 205.
13. 'Another (commentator) says, "He, the pupil, must embrace their feet (at every meeting) from that time (when he first saw his teacher do it)." Because the word "but" is used in the Sûtra, he must do so even after he has returned home (on completion of his studies).'--Haradatta.]
14. If (a pupil) has more than one teacher, the alms (collected by him) are at the disposal of him to whom he is (just then) bound.
15. When (a student) has returned home (from his teacher), he shall give (whatever he may obtain by begging or otherwise) to his mother.
16. The mother shall give it to her husband;
17. (And) the husband to the (student's) teacher.
18. Or he may use it for religious ceremonies.
19. After having studied as many (branches of) sacred learning as he can, he shall procure in a righteous manner the fee for (the teaching of) the Veda (to be given to his teacher), according to his power.
20. But, if the teacher has fallen into distress, he may take (the fee) from an Ugra or from a Sûdra.
21. But some declare, that it is lawful at any time to take the money for the teacher from an Ugra or from a Sûdra.
[14. 'More than one teacher,' i.e. several, who have taught him the several Vedas. Each Brahman generally knowing one Veda only.
This passage shows, that the young Brahmans in olden time, just as now, went from one teacher to the other, learning from each what he knew. The rules, which seemingly enjoin a pupil to stay with one and the same teacher, refer only to the principle, that the pupil must stay with his teacher, until he has learnt the subject which he began with him.
18. 'Religious, ceremonies, i.e. the wedding and the like. For them he may use it optionally. He, i.e. on failure of the teacher; the father, on failure of the father; the mother, on failure of all (the pupil) himself.'--Haradatta.
19.Manu II, 245 and 246; Yâgñ. I, 51; Weber, Ind. Stud, X, 125.
20. 'The word Ugra denotes either the offspring of a Vaisya, and of a Sûdra woman, or a twice-born man, who perpetrates dreadful deeds.'--Haradatta.]
22. And having paid (the fee), he shall not boast of having done so.
23. And he shall not remember what he may have done (for his teacher).
24. He shall avoid self-praise, blaming others, and the like.
25. If he is ordered (by his teacher to do something), he shall do just that.
26. On account of the incompetence of his teacher, (he may go) to another (and) study (there).
27. He shall behave towards his teacher's wife as towards the teacher himself, but he shall not embrace her feet, nor eat the residue of her food.
28. So also (shall he behave) towards him who teaches him at (the teacher's) command,
29. And also to a fellow-student who is superior (in learning and years).
30. He shall behave to his teacher's son (who is superior to himself in learning or years) as to his teacher, but not eat the residue of his food.
31. Though he may have returned home, the
[24. Manu II, 119.
26. See above, I, 1, 1, 13, and note. Here also Haradatta states that the permission to. leave the teacher is to be restricted to those who have not solemnly bound themselves to their teacher by allowing him to perform the ceremony of initiation.
27. Manu II, 208-212.
28. 'The use of the present "adhyâpayati," shows that this rule holds good only for the time during which he is taught by such a man.'--Haradatta.
29. 'Because (an older fellow-student) is of use to him, according to the verse: One-fourth (of his learning) a pupil receives from his teacher, one-fourth he acquires by his own intelligence, one-fourth from his fellow students, one-fourth he is taught by time.'-- Haradatta.
30. Manu II, 2, 207-209.]
behaviour towards his (teacher and the rest) which is prescribed by the rule of conduct settled by the agreement (of those who know the law, must be observed by him to the end),


1. just as by a student (actually living with his teacher).
2. He may wear garlands, anoint his face (with sandal), oil his hair and moustaches, smear his eyelids (with collyrium), and (his body) with oil, wear a turban, a cloth round his loins, a coat, sandals, and wooden shoes.
3. Within the sight of his (teacher or teacher's relations) he shall do none of those (actions, as putting on a garland), nor cause them to be done.
4. Nor (shall he wear garlands &c. whilst performing) acts for his pleasure,
5. As, for instance, cleaning his teeth, shampooing, combing the hair, and the like.
6. And the teacher shall not speak of the goods of the (pupil) with the intention to obtain them.
7. But some declare, that, if a pupil who has bathed (after completing his studies) is called by his teacher or has gone to see him, he shall not take off
[8. 1. Haradatta does not connect this Sûtra with the preceding one. He explains it by itself: '(We will now declare) how a student (who has left his teacher, but is not married) ought to behave.'
6. 'If the teacher comes to the house of his (former) pupil (who has become a householder), he shall, for instance, not say, "Oh, what a beautiful dish!" in such a manner, that his desire to obtain it becomes apparent.'--Haradatta.
7. This opinion is contrary to Âpastamba's view given in Sûtras 2 and 3 above.]
that (garland or other ornaments) which he wears according to the law at the time (of that ceremony).
8. He shall not sit on a seat higher (than that of his teacher),
9. Nor on a seat that has more legs (than that of his teacher),
10. Nor on a seat that stands more firmly fixed (on the ground than that of his teacher),
11. Nor shall he sit or lie on a couch or seat which is used (by his teacher).
12. If he is ordered (by his teacher), he shall on journey ascend a carriage after him.
13. (At his teacher's command) he shall also enter an assembly, ascend a roller (which his teacher drags along), sit on a mat of fragrant grass or a couch of straw (together with his teacher).
14. If not addressed by a Guru, he shall not speak to him, except (in order to announce) good news.
15. He shall avoid to touch a Guru (with his finger), to whisper (into his ear), to laugh (into his face), to call out to him, to pronounce his name or to give him orders and the like (acts)
[10. 'When he gives to his teacher a wooden seat (with legs), he shall not sit on a cane-seat (without legs), for the latter touches the ground on all sides.'--Haradatta.
11. Mann II, 119.
12. This rule is an exception to I, 2, 7, 5. Manu II, 204.
13. 'The roller is an implement used by husbandmen, with which the ploughed land is made even. If one person ascends it and another drags it along, the ground becomes even. If that is dragged by the teacher, the pupil shall ascend it at his command. He shall not disobey from fear of the unseemliness of the action.'--Haradatta.
15. Manu II, 199; regarding the term Guru, see above, I, 2, 6, 29.]
16. In time of need he may attract attention (by any of these acts).
17. If (a pupil) resides (in the same village) with (his teacher after the completion of his studies), he shall go to see him every morning and evening, without being called.
18. And if he returns from a journey, he shall (go to) see him on the same day.
19. If his teacher and his teacher's teacher meet, he shall embrace the feet of his teacher's teacher, and then show his desire to do the same to his teacher.
20. The other (the teacher) shall (then) forbid it.
21. And (other marks of) respect (due to the teacher) are omitted in the presence of the (teacher's teacher).
22. And (if he does not live in the same village), he shall go frequently to his teacher's residence, in order to see him, and bring him some (present) with his own hand, be it even only a stick for cleaning the teeth. Thus (the duties of a student have been explained).
23. (Now) the conduct of a teacher towards his pupil (will be explained).
24. Loving him like his own son, and full of attention, he shall teach him the sacred science, without hiding anything in the whole law.
25. And he shall not use. him for his own purposes to the detriment of his studies except in times of distress.
[17. This and the following Sûtras refer to a person who has finished his studentship, while the preceding ones, from Sûtra 8, apply to the time of studentship also.
24. Weber, Ind. Stud. X, 126.]
26. That pupil who, attending to two (teachers), accuses his (principal and first) teacher of ignorance, remains no (longer) a pupil.
27. A teacher also, who neglects the instruction (of his pupil), does no (longer) remain a teacher.
28. If the (pupil) commits faults, (the teacher) shall always reprove him.
29. Frightening, fasting, bathing in (cold) water, and banishment from the teacher's presence are the punishments (which are to be employed), according to the greatness (of the fault), until (the pupil) leaves off (sinning).
30. He shall dismiss (the pupil), after he has performed the ceremony of the Samâvartana and has finished his studentship, with these words, 'Apply thyself henceforth to other duties.'
[26. 'Another commentator says, "That pupil who offends his teacher in word, thought, or deed, and directs his mind improperly, i.e. does not properly obey, does not (any longer) remain a pupil."'--Haradatta.
29. But see also Manu. VIII, 299, where corporal punishment is permitted.]


1. After having performed the Upâkarma for studying the Veda on the full moon of the month' Srâvana (July-August), he shall for one month not study in the evening.
[9. 1. The Upâkarma is the ceremony which is performed every year at the beginning of the course of study. It is in fact the solemn opening of the Brahmanic term. 'Because Âpastamba uses the word evening (i.e. first part of the night) it is not sinful to study later in the night.'--Haradatta. Manu IV, 95; Yâgñ. I, 142, 143; Weber, Ind. Stud. X. 130 and 134.]
2. On the full moon of the month of Pausha (December-January), or under the constellation Rohini, he shall leave off reading the Veda.
3. Some declare, (that he shall study) for four months and a half.
4. He shall avoid to Study the Veda on a high-road.
5: Or he may study it (on a high-road), after having smeared (a space) with cowdung.
6. He shall never study in a burial-ground nor anywhere near it within the throw of a Samyâ.
7. If a village has been built over (a burial ground) or its surface has been cultivated as a field, the recitation of the Veda (in such a place) is not prohibited.
8. But if that place is known to have been a burial-ground he shall not study (there).
[2. The term lasts therefore for five months; (i.e. latter half of, Srâvana, Bhârapada, Âsvina, Kârttika, Mârgasîrsha, and the first half of Pausha.) The Rohinî-day of Pausha is meant.
3. 'According to this latter opinion the Upâkarma should be performed on the full moon of Bhâdrapada, as has been taught in another work (Manu IV, 95); the (time of the) Utsargana, (the solemn closing of the term) should be advanced; and after the Utsargana has been performed, one may study the Veda during the light nights of each month until the full moon of Srâvana, in order to fix in one's mind the part learned already; and in the dark fortnight of each month one may study the Vedângas, i.e. grammar and the rest (Manu IV, 98). On the full moon of Srâvana the Upâkarma should be performed once more, and that part of the Veda should be studied which has not yet been learned.'--Haradatta.
4. Nigarnâh, 'high-roads,' are squares and the like.--Haradatta.
6. The Samyâ is either the pin in the bullock's yoke or the round stick, about a foot and a half in length, which is used for the preparation of the Vedi. Manu IV, 116; Yâgñ. I, 148.
8. 'Nor anywhere near it within the throw of a Samyi.' This must be understood from. Sûtra 6.]
9. A Sûdra and an outcast are (included by the term) burial-ground, (and the rule given, Sûtra 6, applies to them).
10. Some declare, that (one ought to avoid only, to study) in the same house (where they dwell).
11. But if (a student and) a Sûdra woman merely look at each other, the recitation of the Veda must be interrupted,
12. Likewise, if (a student and) a woman, who has had connexion with a man of a lower caste, (look at each other).
13. If he, who is about to study the Veda, wishes to talk to a woman during her courses, he shall first speak to a Brâhmana and then to her, then again speak to a Brâhmana, and afterwards study. Thereby the children (of that woman) will be blessed.
14. (He shall not study in a village) in which a corpse lies;
15. Nor in such a one where Kândâlas live.
16. He shall not study whilst corpses are being carried to the boundary of the village,
17. Nor in a forest, if (a corpse or Kândâla) is within sight.
18. And if outcasts have entered the village, he shall not study on that day,
[9. Yâgñ. I, 148.
13. The last part of the Sûtra may also be interpreted: 'Thus she will be blessed with children.'--Haradatta.
14. Manu IV, 108; Yâgñ, I, 148.
18. Haradatta explains Bâhya, 'outcasts,' by 'robbers, such as Ugras and Nishâdas.' But, I think, it means simply such outcasts as live in the forest or outside the village in the Vâdî, like the Dhers, Mahârs, Mângs of the present day. Most of these tribes however, are or were given to thieving. See Kullûka on Manu X, 2 9, and the Petersburg Dict. s. v.]
19. Nor if good men (have come).
20. If it thunders in the evening, (he shall not study) during the night.
21. If lightning is seen (in the evening, he shall not study during that night), until he has slept.
22. If lightning is seen about the break of dawn, or at the time when he may distinguish at the distance of a Samyâ-throw, whether (a cow) is black or red, be shall not study during that day, nor in the following evening.
24. If it thunders in the second part of the third watch of the night, (he shall not study during the following day or evening).
24. Some (declare, that this rule holds good, if it thunders), after the first half of the night has passed.
25. (Nor shall he study) whilst the cows are prevented from leaving (the village on account of thieves and the like),
26. Nor (on the imprisonment of criminals) whilst they are being executed.
27. He shall not study whilst he rides on beasts (of burden).
28. At the new moon, (he shall not study) for two days and two nights.
[19. Yâgñ. I, 150.
20. Manu IV, 106; Yâgñ. I, 145. This rule refers to the rainy season. (For thunder) at other (seasons) he orders below a longer (cessation).'--Haradatta.
27. Manu IV, 120; Yâgñ. I, 151.
28. '"For two days," i.e. on the day of the new moon and the preceding one, the fourteenth of the half month.'--Haradatta. Manu IV, 113; Yâgñ. I, 146.]


1. (Nor shall he study) on the days of the full moons of those months in- which the Kâturmasya-sacrifice may be performed (nor on the days preceding them).
2. At the time of the Vedotsarga, on the death of Gurus, at the Ashlakâ-Srâddha, and at the time of the Upâkarma, (he shall not study) for three days;
3. Likewise if near relations have died.
4. (He shall not study) for twelve days, if his mother, father, or teacher have died.
5. If these (have died), he must (also) bathe for the same number of days.
6. Persons who are younger (than the relation deceased), must shave (their hair and beard),
[10. 1. The three full-moon days are Phâlgunî (February-March), Âshâdhî (June-July), Kârttikî (October-November).
2. The construction is very irregular, the first noun standing in the nominative and the rest in the locative. A similar irregularity occurs below, I, 3, 11, 3 1. The Vedotsarga is the ceremony. which is performed at the end of the Brahmanic term, in January. 'In the case of the death of a Guru, the vacation begins with the day on which the death occurs. On the other occasions mentioned he shall not study on the day preceding (the ceremony), on the day (of the ceremony), nor on the day following it.'--Haradatta. Manu IV, 119; Yâgñ. I, 144. 'The Gurus' intended here, are fathers-in-law, uncles, &c.
3. 'This rule applies to a student only. It is known from another work that those who have been infected by impurity (on the death of a relation), must not study whilst the impurity lasts. 'Haradatta. Yâgñ I, 144.
6. The word anubhâvinah, interpreted by Haradatta as 'persons who are younger than the deceased,' is explained in different ways by others; firstly, as 'the mourners,' and secondly, as 'Samânodakas or gentiles beyond the sixth degree.' In the latter case the Sûtra ought to be-translated thus: 'On the death of gentiles beyond the sixth degree, (the head) ought to be shaved.']
7. Some declare, that students who have returned home on completion of their studentship, shall never shave, except if engaged in the initiation to a Srautas-sacrifice.
8. Now a Brâmana also declares, 'Verily, an empty, uncovered (pot) is he, whose hair is shaved off entirely; the top-lock is his covering.'
9. But at sacrificial sessions the top-lock must be shaved off, because it is so enjoined in the Veda.
10. Some declare, that, upon the death of the teacher, (the reading should be interrupted) for three days and three nights.
11. If (he hears of) the death of a learned Brâhmana (Srotriya) before a full year (since the death) has elapsed, (he shall interrupt his reading) for one night (and day).
12. Some declare, (that the deceased Srotriya must have been) a fellow-student.
13-14. If a learned Brâhmana (Srotriya) has arrived and he is desirous of studying or is actually studying, (or if he is desirous of teaching or is teaching,)
[7. Regarding the Dikshâ initiation,' see Aitareya-brâhmana I, 1, and Max Müller's History of Ancient Sanskrit Literature, p. 309 seq.
8. Hence it follows that the top-lock should not be shaved off, except in the case mentioned in the following Sûtra.
9. Sattras, 'sacrificial sessions,' are sacrifices which last longer than twelve days.
10. 'But in his opinion it should be twelve days, as declared above, Sûtra 4.'--Haradatta. It appears, therefore, that this Sûtra is to be connected with Sûtra 4.
11. 'Because the word "death "is used here, death only is the reason (for stopping, the reading), in the case of Gurus and the rest (i.e. the word "died" must be understood in Sûtra 2 and the following ones).' --Haradatta.]
he may study or teach after having received permission (to do so from the Srotriya).
15-16. He may likewise study or teach in the presence of his teacher, if (the latter) has addressed him (saying), 'Ho, study! (or, Ho, teach!)'
17. When a student desires to study or has finished his lesson, he shall at both occasions embrace the feet of his teacher.
18. Or if, whilst they study, another person comes in, he shall continue his recitation, after those words, ('Ho, study!') have been pronounced (by the newcomer).
19. The barking of (many) dogs, the braying of (many) asses, the cry of a wolf or of a solitary jackal or of an owl, all sounds of musical instruments, of weeping, and of the Sâman melodies (are reasons for discontinuing the study of the Veda).
20. If another branch of the Veda (is being recited in the neighbourhood), the Sâman melodies shall not be studied.
21. And whilst other noises (are being heard, the recitation of the Veda shall be discontinued), if they mix (with the voice of the person studying).
[15-16. Manu II, 73.
17. Manu II, 73.
18. Haradatta states rightly, that the plural ('they study') is useless. According to him, the use of the verb in the singular may be excused thereby, that the advice is addressed to each of the persons engaged in study. Manu IV, 122.
19. The ekasrika, 'solitary jackal,' is now called Bâlu or Pheough, and is considered,to be the constant companion of a tiger or panther. Its unharmonious cry is, in the present day also, considered to be an evil omen. Yâgñ. I, 148; Manu IV, 108, 115 and 123.
21. Manu IV, 121.]
22. After having vomited (he shall not study) until he has slept.
23. Or (he may study) having eaten clarified butter (after the attack of vomiting).
24. A foul smell (is a reason for the discontinuance of study).
25. Food turned sour (by fermentation), which he has in his stomach, (is a reason for the discontinuance of the recitation, until the sour rising ceases).
26. (Nor shall he study) after having eaten in the evening,
27, Nor as long as his hands are wet.
28. (And he shall discontinue studying) for, a day and an evening, after having eaten food prepared in honour of a dead person (for whom the Sapindîkarana has not yet been performed),
29. Or until the food (eaten on that occasion) is digested.
30. But he shall (always) eat in addition (to the meal given in honour of a dead person), food which has not been given at a sacrifice to the Manes.
[22. Manu IV, 121.
24. Manu IV, 107; Yâgñ. I, 150.
25. Manu IV, 121.
26. 'Therefore he shall sup, after having finished his study.'--Haradatta.
27. Manu IV, 121; Yâgñ. I, 149.
28. Manu IV, 112; Yâgñ. I, 146.
29. If that food has not been digested by the end of that time (i.e. in the evening), he shall not study until it has been digested.'--Haradatta.
30. 'Because in this Sûtra the expression "food not given at a Srâddha" occurs, some think that the preceding Sûtra refers to "food eaten at a Srâddha."'--Haradatta. This explanation is not at all improbable.]


1. (The recitation of the Veda shall be interrupted for a day and evening if he has eaten), on beginning a fresh Kânda (of his Veda), food given by a motherless person,
2. And also if he has eaten, on the day of the completion of a Kânda, food given by a fatherless person.
Some declare, that (the recitation shall be interrupted for the same space of time), if he has eaten at a sacrifice offered in honour of gods who were formerly men.
4. Nor is the recitation interrupted, if he has,eaten rice received the day before, or raw meat (though these things may have been offered in honour of the dead),
5. Nor (if he has eaten at a funeral dinner) roots or fruits of herbs and trees.
6. When he performs the ceremony for beginning of a Kânda, or when he studies the index of the Anuvâkas
[1. The Black Vagur-veda, to which Âpastamba belongs, is divided throughout into books called Kândas.
3. Haradatta names as such gods, Nandîsvara and Kubera. Other commentators, however, explain Manushyaprakriti by Manushyamukha, 'possessing human faces.' A similar rule occurs Gautama XVI, 34, Where a Manushyayagña is mentioned as a cause for discontinuing the recitation of the Veda. In his Commentary on Gautama, also, Haradatta is in doubt. He first refers the term to the sacraments like the Sîmantonnayana, and then adds, that some explain it to mean 'a sacrifice to gods who formerly were men.'
A. This Sûtra is an exception to I, 3, 10, 28.
6. Haradatta's commentary on this Sûtra is very meagre, and he leaves the word anuvâkyam unexplained. I am not ccrtain that my explanation is correct. But it is countenanced by the statements of the Grihya-sutras regarding the order of studying. Weber, Ind. Stud. X, 132.]
of a (Kânda), he shall not study that (Kânda) on that day (nor in that night).
7. And if he performs the ceremonies prescribed on beginning or ending the recitation of one entire Veda, he shall not study that Veda (during that day).
8. If the wind roars, or if it whirls up the grass on the ground, or if it drives the rain-drops forward during a rain-shower, (then the recitation shall be interrupted for so long a time as the storm lasts).
9. (Nor shall he study) on the boundary between a village and forest,
10. Nor on a highway.
11. If (some of his) fellow-students are on a journey, he shall not study during that day, (the passage) which they learn together.
12. And whilst performing acts for his pleasure,
13. Such as washing his feet, shampooing or anointing himself,
14. He shall neither study nor teach, as long as he is thus occupied.
[7. Yâgñ. I, 145. This Sûtra is a Gñâpaka or 'such a one which indicates the existence of a rule not expressly mentioned! Above (I, 3, 9, 1) the yearly -performance of the Upâkarma and Utsarga ceremonies for the beginning and end of the Brahmanic term has been prescribed. In this Sûtra the performance of the Upakarma and Utsarga at the beginning and completion of the Pârâyana or the vow to go through a whole Veda is incidentally mentioned. Thence it may be inferred that these ceremonies must. be likewise performed on the latter occasions, though no absolute rule to this effect has been given. Such Gñâpakas are of frequent occurrence in all Sûtras, and constitute one of the chief difficulties of their interpretation.
8. Yâgñ I, 149; Manu IV, 102, 122.
11. Others explain the Sûtra thus: 'If he meets fellow-students, after they have come home from a journey, he shall not study with them on that day.']
15. (He shall not study or teach) in the twilight,
16. Nor whilst sitting on a tree,
17. Nor whilst immersed in water,
18. Nor at night with open doors,
19. Nor in the day-time with shut doors.
20. During the spring festival and the festival (of Indra), in the month of Âshâdha (June-July), the study of an Anuvâka is forbidden.
21. (The recitation) of the daily portion of the Veda (at the Brahmayagña is likewise forbidden if done) in a manner differing from the rule (of the Veda).
22. (Now follows) the rule (for the daily recitation) of that (Brahmayagña).
23. Before taking his morning-meal, he shall go to the water-side, and having purified himself, he shall rerite aloud (a portion of the Veda) in a pure
[15. Yâgñ. I, 145; Manu IV, 113.
16. Yâgñ. I, 51; Manu IV, 120.
20. According to Haradatta, Âpastamba uses the word Anuvâka in order to indicate that smaller portions of the Veda may be studied. Others think, that by Anuvâka, the Samhitâ and the Brâhmana are meant, and that the study of the Angas is permitted. The Vasantotsava, or spring festival, which, according to the Dramas, was, in olden times, kept all over India, falls, according to Haradatta, on the thirteenth of the first half of Kaitra, about the beginning of April.
21. 'Hence, if one has forgotten it and eaten one's breakfast, a penance, not the Brahmayagña, must be performed'--Haradatta.
23. See Taittirîya Âranyaka II, 11, 1 and 11; Âsv. Gri. Sû. III, 2, 1-2. In our days this rule is usually not observed. Brâhmanas mostly recite at the daily Brahmayagña, 'Veda-offering,' one particular formula, which symbolically comprises the whole Veda. A few learned Brâhmana friends, however, have assured me, that they still recite the whole of their Sâkhâ every year according to this rule of Âpastamba.]
place, leaving out according to (the order of the) texts (what he has read the day before).
24. If a stoppage of study is enjoined (for the day, he shall recite the daily portion) mentally.
25. If lightning flashes without interruption, or, thunder rolls continually, if a man has neglected to purify himself, if he has partaken of a meal in honour of a dead person, or if hoarfrost lies on the ground, (in these cases) they forbid the mental recitation (of the daily portion of the Veda).
26. Some forbid it only in case one has eaten a funeral dinner.
27. Where lightning, thunder, and rain happen together out of season, the recitation shall be interrupted for three days.
28. Some (declare, that the recitation shall stop) until the ground is dry.
29. If one or two (of the phenomena mentioned in Sûtra 27 appear, the recitation shall be interrupted) from that hour until the same hour next day.
30. In the case of an eclipse of the sun or of the moon, of an earthquake, of a whirlwind, of the fall of a meteor, or of a fire (in the village), at whatever time these events happen, the recitation of all the sacred sciences (Vedas and Angas) must be interrupted from that hour until the same hour next day.
31. If a cloud appears out of season, if the sun or the moon is surrounded by a halo, if a rainbow, a parhelion or a comet appears, if a (high) wind (blows),
[25. Yâgñ I, 149; Manu IV, 106, 120, 127; Taitt. Âr. II, 15, 1.
26. Manu IV, 109, 116.
27. Manu IV, 103 and 104.
30. Yâgñ. I, 145; Manu IV, 105, 118.
31. Manu IV, 104, and see above.]
a foul smell (is observed), or hoarfrost (lies on the ground, at all these occasions (the recitation of all the sacred sciences must be interrupted) during the duration (of these phenomena).
32. After the wind has ceased, (the interruption of the recitation continues) for one muhûrta.
33. If (the howl of) a wolf or of a solitary jackal (has been heard, he shall stop the reading) until he has slept.
34. At night (he shall not study) in a wood, where there is no fire nor gold.
35. Out of term he shall not study any part of the Veda which he has not learnt before.
36. Nor (shall he study during term some new part of the Veda) in the evening.
37. That which has been studied before, must never be studied (during the vacation or in the evening).
38. Further particulars (regarding the interruption
[32. One muhûrta = 48 minutes.
36. Other commentators interpret the Sûtra in a different sense. They take it to mean: 'And (luring the night (from the twelfth to the thirteenth of each half of the month, he shall not study at all, be it in or out of term).'
37. 'What has been studied before, must not be studied (again) at any time in the vacation nor in the evening.'-- Haradatta.
38. Haradatta thinks that by 'Parishad,' Manu's and other Dharnia-sâtras are meant. This explanation is, however, not exact. Parishad, 'assemblage,' means, in the language of the Sâstras, either a Pañk, an assemblage of learned Brahmans called together to decide some knotty point of law, or a Brahminical school, which studies a particular redaction of the Veda (see the Petersburg Dict. s. v.) The latter meaning is that applicable to this Sûtra. By 'Parishadah' are here intended the Vedic schools, and their writings and teaching. Gautama also says, XVI, 40. Prâtividyam yân smaranti smaranti, '(he shall observe the stoppages of the Veda-study) which they teach in (the writings belonging to) each of the Vedas.']
of the Veda-study may be learnt) from the (teaching and works of other) Vedic schools.


1. A Brâhmana declares, 'The daily recitation (of the Veda) is austerity.'
2. In the same (sacred text) it is also declared, Whether he recites the daily portion of the Veda standing, or sitting, or lying down, he performs austerity thereby; for the daily recitation is austerity.'
3. Now the Vâgasaneyi-brâhmana declares also, 'The daily recitation is a sacrifice at which the Veda is offered. When it thunders, when lightning flashes or thunderbolts fall, and when the wind blows violently, these sounds take the place of the exclamations Vashat (Vaushat and Svâhâ). Therefore he shall recite the Veda whilst it thunders, whilst lightning flashes and thunderbolts fall, and whilst the wind blows violently, lest the Vashat (should be heard) in vain.
[12. 1. 'It procures as much reward as penance.'--Haradatta. Manu II, 166; Weber, Ind. Stud. X, 113. The phrase occurs frequently in the Brâhmanas, e.g. Taitt. Âr. II, 14, 3.
2. Regarding the proper position at the 'Veda-offering,' or daily recitation, see above, I, 3, 11, 2 3, and Taitt. Âr. II, 11, 3. Passages similar to the first part of the sentence quoted in this Sûtra occur Taitt. Âr II, 12, 3, and 15, 3. It ouught to be observed that the Taitt. Âr. in both places has the word 'vragan,' which is also read in the P. and P. U. MSS. The second part is taken apparently from the same work, II, 14, 2.
3. See Satapatha-brâhmana XI, 5, 6, 8, where a passage very similar to that quoted by Âpastamba occurs. Vashat and the other exclamations, which are pronounced by the Hotri-priest, serve as signals for the Adhvaryu to throw the oblations into the fire.]
4. The conclusion of the passage from that (Vâgasaneyi-brâhmana is found) in another Sâkhâ (of the Veda).
5. 'Now, if the wind blows, or if it thunders, or if lightning flashes, or thunderbolts fall, then he shall recite one Rik-verse (in case he studies the Rig-Veda), or one Yagus (in case he studies the Yagur-veda), or one Sâman (in case he studies the Sâma-veda), or (without having a regard to his particular Veda, the following Yagus), "Bhûh Bhuvah, Suvah, in faith I offer true devotion." Then, indeed, his daily recitation is accomplished thereby for that day.'
6. If that is done, (if the passage of the Vâgasaneyi-brâhmana is combined with that quoted in Sûtra 5, the former stands) not in contradiction with the decision of the Âryas.
7. For they (who know the law) teach both the continuance and the interruption (of the daily recitation of the Veda). That would be meaningless, if one paid attention to the (passage of the) Vâgasaneyi-brâhmana (alone).
8. For no (worldly) motive for the decision of those Âryas is perceptible; (and hence it must have a religious motive and be founded on a passage of the Veda).
9. (The proper interpretation therefore is, that) the prohibition to study (given above and by the
[5. 1 Some suppose that the words Bhûh Bhuvah and Suvah &c. (are to be used only) if one studies the Brahmana portion of the Veda, not every where.'-- Haradatta.
6. Haradatta explains Âryas by visishtâh, 'excellent ones,' i.e. persons who know the law, and he gives Manu as an instance.
8. See above, I, 1, 4, 9 and 10. and notes.]
Âryas generally) refers only to the repetition of the sacred texts in order to learn them, not to their application at sacrifices.
10. (But if you ask, why the decision of the Âryas presupposes the existence of a Vedic passage, then I answer): All precepts were (originally) tauglit in the Brâhmanas, (but) these texts have been lost. Their (former existence) may, however, be inferred from usage.
11. But it is not (permissible to infer the former existence of) a (Vedic) passage in cases where pleasure is obtained (by following a rule of the Smriti or a custom).
12. He who follows such (usages) becomes fit for hell.
13. Now follow (some rites and) rules that have been declared in the Brâhmanas.
14. By way of laudation they are called 'great sacrifices ' or 'great sacrificial sessions.'
15. (These rites include): The daily Bali-offering
[10. How then is their existence known? 'They are inferred from usage.' '"Usage" means the teaching of the law-books and the practice. From that it is inferred that Manu and other (authors of law-books) knew such texts of the Brâhmanas. For how could otherwise (Rishis like Manu) teach in their works or practise (such customs) for which no authority is now found? And certainly they were intimately connected with the revealed texts (i.e. saw them).'-- Haradatta.
11. Compare above, I, 1, 4, 8-10.
13. The consequence of the introduction of these rules into a Smriti work is, that their omission must be expiated by a Smârta penance and not by a Srauta one.
14. The commentator observes, that, as these rites are called 'great sacrifices,' by way of laudation only, the particular laws binding on performers of real Soma-sacrifices cannot be transferred to the performers of these ceremonies. Regarding the term 'great sacri rices,' see also Taitt. Âr. II, 11, 10, 1 seq., and Satapatha-brâhmana XI, 59 61 1.]
to the (seven classes of) beings; the (daily) gift of (food) to men according to one's power;


1. The oblation to the gods accompanied by the exclamation Svâhâ, which may consist even of a piece of wood only; the offering to the Manes accompanied by the exclamation Svadhâ, which may consist even of a vessel with water only; the daily recitation.
2. Respect must be shown to those who are superior by caste,
3. And also to (persons of the same caste who are) venerable (on account of learning, virtue, and the like).
4. A man elated (with success) becomes proud, a proud man transgresses the law, but through the transgression of the law hell indeed (becomes his portion).
5. It has not been declared, that orders (may be addressed by the teacher) to a pupil who has returned home.
6. The syllable 'Om' is the door of heaven.
[13. 1. Taitt. Âr. II, 10, 2 and 3, and Satapatha-br. loc. cit. 2. Haradatta observes, that some consider the Devayagña, mentioned in the Sûtra, to be different from the Vaisvadeva, but that he holds it to be the same. Further he mentions, that some prescribe this Vaisvadeva to be performed even if one has nothing to eat.
2. 'Namely, by allowing them to walk in front on the road and by giving them perfumed garlands and the like at festive occasions.'--Haradatta.
5. Haradatta gives as an example the order to fetch water, and adds that a voluntary act on a former pupil's part ought not to be forbidden.
6. Compare also Taitt. Âr. I, 2, 4, and Manu II, 74.]
Therefore he who is about to study the Veda, shall begin (his lesson) by (prouncing) it.
7. If he has spoken anything else (than what refers to the lesson, he shall resume his reading by repeating the word 'Om'). Thus the Veda is separated from profane speech.
8. And at sacrifices the orders (given to the priests) are headed by this word.
9. And in common life, at the occasion of ceremonies performed for the sake of welfare, the sentences shall be headed by this word, as, for instance, '(Om) an auspicious day,' '(Om) welfare,' '(Om) prosperity.'
10. Without a vow of obedience (a pupil) shall not study (nor a teacher teach) a difficult (new book) with the exception of (the texts called) Trihsrâvana and Trihsahavakana.
11. Hârita declares, that the (whole) Veda must be studied under a vow of obedience until there is no doubt (regarding it in the mind of the pupil).
[9. The example given in the Sûtra is that of the Punyihavâkana,.vhich precedes every Grihya ceremony, and at which the sacrificer requests a number of invited Brâhmanas to wish him success. The complete sentences are, The sacrificer: Om karmanah punyâham bhavanto bruvantviti, 'Om, wish that the day may be auspicious for the performance of the ceremony.' The Brâhmanas: Om punyâham karmana itî, 'Om, may the day be auspicious for the ceremony.' In the same manner the Brâhmanas afterwards wish 'welfare,' svasti, 'prosperity,' vriddhi, to the sacrificer.
10. Manu II, 112.
11. The meaning of Hârita is, that the vow of obedience is required for the Trihsrâvana and Trihsahavakana, which Âpastamba exempted in the preceding Sûtra. It follows from this rule that the Angas or works explanatory of the Veda need not be studied under a vow of obedience.]
12. No obedience is due (to the teacher for teaching) works which do not belong to the Veda.
13. (A student) shall embrace the feet of a person, who teaches him at the request of his (regular teacher), as long as the instruction lasts.
14. Some (declare, that he shall also) always, (if the substitute is) a worthy person.
15. But obedience (as towards the teacher) is not required (to be shown towards such a person).
16. And (pupils) older (than their teacher need not show him obedience).
17. If (two persons) teach each other mutually (different redactions of) the Veda, obedience (towards each other) is not ordained for them.
18. (For) the (wise) say, 'The Veda-knowledge (of either of them) grows.'
19. Svetaketu declares, 'He who desires to study more, after having settled (as a householder), shall dwell two months every year, with collected mind, in the house of his teacher,'
20. (And he adds), 'For by this means I studied a larger part of the Veda than before, (during my studentship.)'
21. That is forbidden by the Sâstras.
22. For after the student has settled as a householder, he is ordered by the Veda, to perform the daily rites,
[13. This rule is a Supplement to I, 2, 7, 29.
14. '"A worthy person," i.e. on account of his learning, or character.'-- Haradatta.
16. 'According to some, this rule refers only to the time after instruction has been completed; according to others, to the time of studentship.'--Haradatta. But see Manu II, 151 seq.]


1. (That is to say) the Agnihotra, hospitality,
2. And what else of this kind (is ordained).
3. He whom (a student) asks for instruction, shall certainly not refuse it;
4. Provided he does not see in him a fault, (which disqualifies him from being taught).
5. If by chance (through the pupil's stupidity the teaching) is not completed, obedience towards the (teacher is the pupil's only refuge).
6. Towards a mother (grandmother and great-grandmother) and a father (grandfather and great-grandfather) the same obedience must be shown as towards a teacher.
7. The feet of all Gurus must be embraced (every day) by a student who has returned home;
8. And also on meeting them, after returning from a journey.
9. The feet of (elder) brothers and sisters must be embraced, according to the order of their seniority.
10. And respect (must) always (be shown to one's elders and betters), according to the injunction
[14. 1. The Agnihotra, i.e. certain daily oblations of clarified butter.
3. Manu II, 109-115.
5. Manu II, 218.
6. Manu II, 228, 215.
7. The word Gurus, 'venerable persons,' includes besides the teacher and persons mentioned in the preceding Sûtra, an elder brother, a maternal uncle, and all others who are one's betters or elders. See above, I, 2, 6, 29-35.
8. 'That is to say, whether he himself or "the venerable persons" undertook the journey.'--Haradatta.
9. Manu II, 133.
10. See above, I, 4, 13, 2.]
(given above and according to the order of their seniority).
11. He shall salute an officiating priest, a father-in-law, a father's brother, and a mother's. brother, (though they may be) younger than he himself, and (when saluting) rise to meet them.
12. Or he may silently embrace their feet.
13. A friendship kept for ten years with fellow citizens (is a reason for giving a salutation, and so is) a friendship, contracted at school, which has lasted for five years. But a learned Brâhmana (known) for less than three years, must be saluted.
14. If the age (of several persons whom one meets) is exactly known, one must salute the eldest (first).
15. He need not salute a person, who is not a Guru, and who stands in a lower or higher place than he himself.
16. Or he may descend or ascend (to the place where such a person stands) and salute him.
17. But every one (Gurus and others) he shall salute, after having risen (from his seat).
18. If he is impure, he shall not salute (anybody);
19. (Nor shall he salute) a person who is impure.
[11. Manu II, 130.
12. The commentator adds that the mode of salutation must depend on their learning and virtue,
13. Manu II, 134.
16. This Sûtra, like the preceding, refers to those who are not Gurus.'
17. Manu II, 120.
18. 'Impure,' i.e. unfit for associating with others on account of the death of relations or through other causes, see below, I, 5, 15, 7 seq.]
20. Nor shall he, being impure, return a salutation.
21. Married women (must be saluted) according to the (respective) ages of their husbands.
22. He shall not salute with his shoes on, or his head wrapped up, or his hands full.
23. In saluting women, a Kshatriya or a Vaisya he shall use a pronoun, not his name.
24. Some (declare, that he shall salute in this manner even) his mother and the wife of his teacher.
25. Know that a Brâhmana of ten years and a Kshatriya of a hundred years stand to each other in the relation of father and son. But between those two the Brâhmana is the father.
26. A younger person or one of equal age he shall ask, about his well-being (employing the word kusala).
27. (He shall ask under the same conditions) a Kshatriya, about his health (employing the word anâmaya);
28. A Vaisya if he has lost anything (employing the word anashta).
[23. He shall say, 'I salute,' not 'I, N. N., salute.' Manu II, 123.
24. Âpastamba, of course, holds the contrary opinion. Maun II, 216.
25. This verse, which is found with slight variations in most Smrîtis contains, according to Haradatta, an instruction given by a teacher to his pupil. Manu II, 135.
26. Of course. in case the person addressed is a Brahman. Manu II, 127. Kullûka quotes under this verse the above and the following Sûtras. But his quotation has only a faint resemblance to our text.
28. That is to say in these terms I hope you have not lost any cattle or other property!'--Haradatta.]
29. A Sûdra, about his health (employing the word ârogya).
30. He shall not pass a learned Brâhmana without addressing him;
31. Nor an (unprotected) woman in a forest (or any other lonely place).
[31. He shall address a woman in order to re-assure her, and do it in these terms: 'Mother, or sister, what can I do for you? Don't be afraid!' &c.--Haradatta.]


1. When he shows his respect to Gurus or aged persons or guests, when he offers a burnt-oblation (or other sacrifice), when he murmurs prayers at dinner, when sipping water and during the (daily) recitation of the Veda, his garment (or his sacrificial thread) shall pass over his left shoulder and under his right arm.
2. By sipping (pure) water, that has been collected on the ground, he becomes pure.
3. Or he, whom a pure person causes to sip water, (becomes also pure).
[15. 1. Taitt. Âr. II, 1, 2 seq.; Manu IV, 58.
2. Pure water is that which a cow will drink. Yâgñ. I, 192; Manu V, 128.
3. The ceremony of 'sipping water' may be performed in two ways; either the 'person sipping' may take the water out of a river, pond, &c., or he may get the water poured into his hand by another person. But, according to Âpastamba, he must not take a pot or gourd in his left hand and pour the water into his right, as some Smritis allow. The reason for this rule is, that Âpastamba considers it essential that both hands should be used in conveying the water to the mouth; see also above, I, 1, 4, 21. This agrees with the custom now followed, which is to bend the right hand into the form of a cow's ear, and to touch the right wrist with the left hand while drinking.]
4. He shall not sip rain-drops.
5. (He shall not sip water) from a (natural) cleft in the ground.
6. He shall not sip water heated (at the fire) except for a particular reason (as sickness).
7. He who raises his empty hands (in order to scare) birds, (becomes impure and) shall wash (his hands).
8. If he can (find water to sip) he shall not remain impure (even) for a muhûrta.
9. Nor (shall he remain) naked (for a muhûrta if he can help it).
10. Purification (by sipping water) shall not take place whilst he is (standing) in the water.
11. Also, when he has crossed a river, he shall purify himself by sipping water.
12. He shall not place fuel on the fire, without having sprinkled it (with water).
[4. 'Some think, that this Sûtra is intended to forbid also the drinking of rain-water. Other commentators declare that, according to this Sûtra, it is allowed to ust for "sipping" drops of water which fall from a vessel suspended by ropes [because the Sûtra emphatically excludes "rain-drops only].'--Haradatta.
6. Manu II, 61. 'Because the term "heated by fire" is used, there is no objection to water heated by the rays of the sun. In the same manner the use of, "hot" water only is usually forbidden in the Smritis.'-- Haradatta.
7. 'Because the phrase "with empty hands" is used, he commits no fault if he raises his hand, holding a stick or a clod. Some declare, that the term "touching water" (rendered by "washing means "sipping water."'--Haradatta.
11. The translation given above is based on the interpretation of Haradatta, who considers that Âpastaniba holds 'crossing a river' to cause impurity. The natural and probably the right interpretation, however, is that rejected by Haradatta, 'But he shall sip water after having come out (of the river or tank).'
12. '"On the fire used for Vedic or Smârta sacrifices or for household purposes.". . . Some declare, that (the fuel need not be sprinkled with water) if used for the kitchen fire.'--Haradatta.]
13. (If he is seated in companywith) other unclean persons on a seat consisting of a confused heap of straw, and does not touch them, he may consider himself pure.
14. (The same rule applies, if he is seated) on grass or wood fixed in the ground.
15. He shall put on a dress, (even if it is clean,) only after having sprinkled it with water.
16. If he has been touched by a dog, he shall bathe, with his clothes on;
17. Or he becomes pure, after having washed that part (of his body) and having touched it with fire and again washed it, as well as his feet, and having sipped wa ter.
18. Unpurified, he shall not approach fire, (so near that he can feel the heat).
19. Some declare, that (he shall not approach nearer) than the length of an arrow.
20. Nor shall he blow on fire with his breath.
21. Nor shall he place fire under his bedstead.
[14. Haradatta's commentary is of little use, and I am not quite certain that my translation is correct.
15. Manu V, 118.
17. This second proceeding is adopted in case the dog has touched the hands or the lower parts of the body, as may be learnt by the comparison of a verse of Manu.
18. Manu IV, 142; Yâgñ. I, 155.
20. Manu IV, 53. Haradatta mentions other cxplanations of this Sûtra. Some say, that the Srauta fire may be kindled by blowing, because that is ordained particularly in the Yâgasaneyaka, but that the domestic fire is not to be treated so. Others again consider the rule absolute, and say, that a hollow reed or bellows must be used for kindling the fire, lest drops of saliva should fiall upon it.
21. Manu IV, 54.]
22. It is lawful for a Brâhmana to dwell in a village, where there is plenty of fuel and water, (and) where he may perform the rites of purification by himself.
23. When he has washed away the stains of urine and fæeces after voiding urine or fæces, the stains of food (after dinner), the stains of the food eaten the day before (from his vessels), and the stains of semen, and has also washed his feet and afterwards has sipped water, he becomes pure.
[22. The last condition mentioned in the Sûtra indicates, that the place must have a river or tank, not wells only, as the purification by sipping water cannot be performed without help, with water from wells.
23. Manu V, 138.]


1. He shall not drink water standing or bent forwards.
2. Sitting he shall sip water (for purification) thrice, the water penetrating to his heart.
[16. 1. Haradatta takes âkam here to mean 'to drink water,' and thinks that it is forbidden to do this standing or in a bent position. Others refer the prohibition to 'sipping water for the sake of purification,' and translate, 'He shall not sip water standing or in a bent position (except in case of necessity),' i.e. if the bank of the river is so high that he cannot reach the water sitting down, and in this case he shall enter it up to his thighs or up to his navel.
2. Manu II, 60 and 62; V, 139; and Yâgñ. I, 20 and 27; Weber. Ind. Stud. X, 165. Haradatta observes, that the further particulars regarding purification by sipping water must be supplied frorn other Smritis. The rule quoted by him is as follows: 'The perforiner should be sitting in a pure place, not on a seat, except when sipping water after dinner, and should sip thrice from his hand water which is free from bubbles and foam, and which he has attentively regarded, in such a quantity as would cover a Mâsha-bean. The water sipped by a Brahman should reach his heart, that sipped by a Kshatriya the throat, and that sipped by a Vaisya the palate. A Sûdra sips once as much as to wet his tongue.']
3. He shall wipe his lips three times.
4. Some (declare, that he shall do so) twice.
5. He shall then touch (his lips) once (with the three middle fingers).
6. Some (declare, that he shall do so) twice.
7. Having sprinkled water on his left hand with his right, he shall touch both his feet, and his head and (the following three) organs, the eyes, the nose, and the ears.
8. Then he shall wash (his hands).
9. But if he is going to eat he shall, though pure, twice sip water, twice wipe (his mouth), and once touch (his lips).
10. He shall rub the gums and the inner part of his lips (with his finger or with a piece of wood) and then sip water.
11. He does not become impure by the hair (of his moustaches) getting into his mouth, as long as he does not touch them with his hand.
12. If (in talking), drops (of saliva) are perceived to fall from his mouth, then he shall sip water.
13. Some declare, that if (the saliva falls) on the ground, he need not sip water.
[7. The eyes are to be touched with the thumb and the fourth finger, either at once, or one after the other, the nostrils with the thumb and the second finger, the ears with the thumb and the small finger.
9. Manu V, 138.
11. Haradatta observes that this Sûtra shows, that every other foreign substance brought with the food into the mouth, makes the food 'leavings' and the eater impure. Manu V, 141.
12. Manu V, 141 declares sipping to be unnecessary in this case.]
14. On touching during sleep or in sternutation the effluvia of the nose or of the eyes, on touching blood, hair, fire, kine, a Brâhmana, or a woman, and after having walked on the high road, and after having touched an (thing orman), and after having put on his lower garment, he shall either bathe or sip or merely touch water (untlil he considers himself clean).
15. (Or he may touch) moist cowdung, wet herbs, or moist earth.
16. He shall not eat meat which lias been cut with a sword (or knife) used for killing.
17. He shall not bite off with his teeth (pieces from) cakes (roots or fruits).
18. He shall not eat in the house of a (relation within six degrees) where a person has died, before the ten days (of impurity) have elapsed.
19. (Nor shall he eat in a house) where a lying-in woman has not (yet) come out (of the lying-in chamber),
20. (Nor in a house) where a corpse lies.
[14. Manu V, 145.
18. The term "ten days" is used in order to indicate the time of impurity generally. In some cases, as that of a Kshatriya, this lasts longer. In other cases, where the impurity lasts thirty-six hours only, (the abstention from dining in such houses is shorter.)'--Haradatta. Manu IV, 217.
19. A lying-in woman is impure, and must not be touched during the first ten days after her confinement. During this time, she exclusively occupies the Sikâgriha, or lying-in chamber. Manu IV, 217.
20. Haradatta remarks that in the case of the death of a person who is not a relation, it is customary to place at the distance of 'one hundred bows' a lamp and water-vessel, and to eat (beyond that distance).]
21. Food touched by a (Brâhmana or other high-caste person) who is impure, becomes impure, but not unfit for eating.
22. But what has been brought (be it touched or not) by an impure Sûdra, must not be eaten,
23. Nor that food in which there is a hair,
24. Or any other unclean substance.
25. (Nor must that food be eaten) which has been touched with an unclean substance (such as garlic),
26. Nor (that in which) an insect living on impure substances (is found),
27. Nor (that in which) excrements or limbs of a mouse (are found),
28. Nor that which has been touched by the foot (even of a pure person),
29. Nor what has been (touched) with the hem of a garment,
30. Nor that which has been looked at by a dog or an Apapâtra,
[21. 'Food which is simply impure, may be purified by putting it on the fire, sprinkling it with water, touching it with ashes or earth, and praising it.'--Haradatta.
22. Others say, that the food becomes unfit for eating, only, if in bringing it, the Sûdra has touched it.--Haradatta.
23. Manu IV, 207; Yâgñ. I, 167. 'But this rule holds good only if the hair had been cooked with the food. If a hair falls into it at dinner, then it is to be purified by an addition of clarified butter, and may be eaten.'--Haradatta.
24. Haradatta quotes a passage from Baudhâyana, which enumerates as 'unclean things' here intended, 'hair, worms or beetles, nail-parings, excrements of rats.' The rule must be understood as the preceding, i.e. in case these things have been cooked with the food.
26. Manu IV, 207: Yâgñ. I, 167, 168. This Sûtra must be read with Sûtra 23 above.
30. Manu IV, 208; Yâgñ. I, 167. Apapâtras are persons whom one must not allow to eat from one's dishes, e.g. Kandâlas, Patitas, a woman in her courses or during the ten days of impurity after confinement. See also above, I, 1, 3, 25.]
31. Nor what has been brought in the hem of a garment, (even though the garment may be clean),
32. Nor what has been brought at night by a female slave.
33. If during his meal,
[32. Haradatta thinks, that as the Sûtra has the feminine gender, dâsî, it does not matter if a male slave brings the food. But others forbid also this.]


1. A Sûdra touches him, (then he shall leave off eating).
2. Nor shall he eat sitting in the same row with unworthy people.
3. Nor shall he eat (sitting in the same row with persons) amongst whom one, whilst they eat, rises and gives his leavings to his pupils or sips water;
4. Nor (shall he eat) where they give him food, reviling him.
[17. 1. 'Some say, that this Sûtra indicates that the touch of a Sûdra does not defile at any other time but at dinner, whilst others hold that a Sûdra's touch defiles always, and that the Sûtra is intended to indicate an excess of impurity, if it happens at dinnertime.'--Haradatta.
2. 'Unworthy people are those who are neither of good family, nor possess learning and virtue.'--Haradatta.
3. According to Haradatta a person who misbehaves thus, is called 'a dinner-thorn.' This point of etiquette is strictly observed in our days also. Manu IV, 2 12.
4. Manu IV, 212; Yâgñ. I, 167]
5. Nor (shall he eat) what has been smelt at by men or other (beings, as cats).
6. He shall not eat in a ship,
7. Nor on a wooden platform.
8. He may eat sitting on ground which has been purified (by the application of cowdung and the like).
9. (If he eats) out of an earthen vessel, he shall eat out of one that has not been used (for cooking).
10. (If he can get) a used vessel (only, he shall eat from it), after having heated it thoroughly.
11. A vessel made of metal becomes pure by being scoured with ashes and the like.
12. A wooden vessel becomes pure by being scraped.
13. At a sacrifice (the vessels must be cleaned) according to the precepts of the Veda.
14. He shall not eat food which has been bought or obtained ready-prepared in the market.
15. Nor (shall he eat) flavoured food (bought in the market) excepting raw meat, honey, and salt.
16. Oil and clarified butter (bought in the market) he may use, after having sprinkled them with water.
17. Prepared food which has stood for a night, must neither be caten nor drunk.
[5. 'As the text has avaghâta, "smelt at," it does not matter if they smell the food from a distance.'--Haradatta.
11. 'It must be understood from other Smritis, that brass is to be cleaned with ashes, copper with acids, silver with cowdung, and gold with water.'--Haradatta. Manu V, I 14.
12. Manu V, 115.
16. 'Having sprinkled them with water and purified them by boiling; or, according to others, mixing them with so much water as will not spoil them.'--Haradatta.
17. The Sanskrit has two terms for 'eating;' the first 'khâd' applies to hard substances, the second 'ad' to soft suubstances. Manu I, V, 211; Yâgñ. I, 16 7.]
18. Nor (should prepared food) that has turned sour (be used in any way).
19. (The preceding two rules do) not (hold good in regard to) the juice of sugar-cane, roasted rice-grains, porridge prepared with whey, roasted yava, gruel, vegetables, meat, flour, milk and preparations from it, roots and fruits of herbs and trees.
20. (Substances which have turned) sour without being mixed with anything else (are to be avoided).
21. All intoxicating drinks are forbidden.
22. Likewise sheep's milk,
23. Likewise the milk of camels, of does, of animals that give milk while big with young, of those that bear twins, and of (one-hoofed animals),
24. Likewise the milk of a cow (buffalo-cow or she-goat) during the (first) ten days (after their giving birth to young ones),
25. Likewise (food mixed) with herbs which serve for preparing intoxicating liquors,
26. (Likewise) red garlic, onions, and leeks,
[18. Manu IV, 211; V, 9; Yâgñ. I, 167.
19. Manu V, 10, 24 and 25.
20. According to Haradatta, Âpastamba returns once more to the question about sour food, in order to teach that dishes prepared with curds and other sour substances may be eaten.
22. Manu V, 8; Yâgñ. I, 170.
23. Manu V, 8, 9; Yâgñ. I 170. 'Sandhinî, translated by "females that give milk while big with young," means, according to others, "female animals that give milk once a day."--Haradatta.
24. Manu V, 8.
26. Manu V, 5; Yâgñ. I, 176.]
27. Likewise anything else which (those who are learned in the law) forbid.
28. Mushrooms ought not to be eaten; that has been declared in a Brâhmana;
29. (Nor the meat) of one-hoofed animals, of camels, of the Gayal, of village pigs, of Sarabhas, and of cattle.
30. (But the meat) of milch-cows and oxen may be eaten.
31. The Vâgasaneyaka declares 'bull's flesh is fit for offerings.'
32. Amongst birds that scratch with their feet for, food, the (tame) cock (must not be eaten).
33. Amongst birds that feed thrusting forward their beak, the (heron, called) Plava (or Sakalabila, must not be eaten).
34. Carnivorous (birds are forbidden),
35. Likewise the swan, the Bhâsa, the Brâhman duck, and the falcon.
36. Common cranes and Sâras-cranes (are not to
[27. Haradatta observes that Âpastamba, finding the list of forbidden vegetables too long, refers his pupils to the advice of the Sishtas. The force of this Sûtra is exactly the same as that of I, 3, 11, 38.
28. Yâgñ. I, 171.
29. The camel, Gayal, and Sarabha are mentioned as 'forbidden animals,' Satapatha-br. I, 2, 1, 8; Aitareya-br. II, 1, 8; see also Weber, Ind. Stud. X, 62; Manu V, 11, 18; Yâgñ. I, 172, 176.
32. Yâgñ. I, 176.
33. Manu V, 12. Yâgñ I, 172.
34. Manu V, 11; Yâgñ I, 172.
35. Yâgñ I, 172.
36. Manu V, 12; Yâgñ I, 172. Other commentators take the whole Sûtra as one compound, and explain it as an exception to Sûtra 34. In that case the translation runs thus: ('Carnivorous birds are forbidden) except the Kruñka, Krauñka, Vârdhrânasa, and Lakshmana.'--Haradatta. This translation is objectionable, because both the Kruñka, now called Kulam or Kûñk, and the Krauñka, the red-crested crane, now called Sâras (Cyrus), feed on grain. Kruñkakrauñka is a Vedic dual and stands for kruñkakrauñkâ or kruñkakrauñkau.]
be eaten) with the exception of the leather-nosed Lakshmana.
37. Five-toed animals (ought not to be eaten) with the exception of the iguana, the tortoise, the porcupine, the hedgehog, the rhinoceros, the hare, and the Pûtikhasha.
38. Amongst fishes, the Keta ought not to be eaten,
39. Nor the snake-headed fish, nor the alligator, nor those which live on flesh only, nor those which are misshaped (like) mermen.
[37. Manu V, 18; Yâgñ. I, 77. Pûtikhasha is, according to Haradatta, an animal resembling a hare, and found in the Himâlayas.
39. Haradatta closes this chapter on flesh-eating by quoting Manu V, 56, which declares flesh-eating, drinking spirituous liquor, and promiscuous intercourse to be allowable, but the abstinence therefrom of greater merit. He states that the whole chapter must be understood in this sense.]


1. Honey, uncooked (grain), venison, land, roots, fruits, (a promse of) safety, a pasture for cattle, a house, and fodder for a draught-ox may be accepted (even) from an Ugra.
2. Hârita declares, that even these (presents) are to be accepted only if they have been obtained by a pupil.
[18. 1. Manu IV, 247. 'Ugra denotes either a bad twice-born man. or the offspring of a Vaisya and of a Sûdra-woman. Other persons of a similar character must be understood to be included by the term.'--Haradatta.]
3. Or they (Brâhmana householders) may accept (from an Ugra) uncooked or (a little) unflavoured boiled food.
4. (Of such food) they shall not take a great quantity (but only so much as suffices to support life).
5. If (in times of distress) he is unable to keep himself, he may eat (food obtained from anybody),
6. After having touched it (once) with gold,
7. Or (having touched it with) fire.
8. He shall not be too eager after (such a way of living). He shall leave it when he has obtained a (lawful) livelihood.
9. (A student of the Brahmanic caste) who has returned home shall not eat (in the house) of people belonging to the three tribes, beginning with ihe Kshatriya (i. e. of Kshatriyas, Vaisyas, and Sûdras).
10. He may (usually) eat (the food) of a Brâhmana on account of (the giver's) character (as a Brâhmana). It must be avoided for particular reasons only.
[4. Also this rule seems to belong to Hârita, on account of its close connection with the preceding two.
8. Haradatta quotes, in support of the last Satras, a passage of the Khândogya Upanishad, I, 10, 1, and one from the Rig-veda, IV, 18, 13, according to which it would be lawful to eat even impure food, as a dog's entrails, under such circumstances. Other commentators explain this and the preceding thrce Sûtras differentiv. According to them the translaticn would run thus: 'If he himself does not find any livelihood (in times of distress, he may dwell even with low-caste people who give him something to eat, and) he may eat (food given by them) paying for it with (some small gift in) gold or with animals.' This second explanation is perhaps preferable.
9. Manu IV, 219, and 223.]
11. He shall not eat in a house where (the host) performs a rite which is not a rite of penance, whilst he ought to perform a penance.
12. But when the penance has been performed, he may eat (in that house).
13. According to some (food offered by people) of any caste, who follow the laws prescribed for them, except that of Sûdras, may be eaten.
14. (In times of distress) even the food of a Sûdra, who lives under one's protection for the sake of spiritual merit, (may be eaten).
15. He may eat it, after having touched it (once) with gold or with fire. He shall not be too eager after (such a way of living). He shall leave it when he obtains a (lawful) livelihood.
16. Food received from a multitude of givers must not be eaten,
17. Nor food offered by a general invitation (to all comers).
18. Food offered by an artisan must not be eaten,
19. Nor (that of men) who live by the use of arms (with the exception of Kshatriyas),
[11. If a Brâhmana who has been ordered to perform a penance, performs a Vaisvadeva or other rite without heeding the order of his spiritual teacher, then a student who has returned home ought not to eat in his house, until the enjoined penance has been performed.'--Haradatta.
12. 'The use of the part. perf. pass. "performed" indicates that he must not eat there, whilst the penance is being performed.'--Haradatta.
14. Yâgñ. 1, 166.
15. Manu IV, 223
16. Manu IV, 209.
17. Manu IV, 209; Yâgñ. I, 168.
18. Manu IV, 2 10, 215; Yâgñ. I, 162-164.
19. Yâgñ. I, 164.]
20. Nor (that of men) who live by letting lodgings or land.
21. A (professional) physician is a person whose food must not be eaten,
22. (Also) a usurer,
23. (Also) a Brâhmana who has performed the Dîkshanîyeshti (or initiatory ceremony of the Soma-sacrifice) before he has bought the king (Soma).
24. (The food given by a person who has performed the Dîkshanîyeshti may be eaten), when the victim sacred to Agni and Soma has been slain.
25. Or after that the omentum of the victim (sacred to Agni and Soma) has been offered.
26. For a Brâhmana declares, 'Or they may eat of the remainder of the animal, after having set apart a portion for the offering.'
27. A eunuch (is a person whose food must not be eaten),
28. (Likewise) the (professional) messenger employed by a king (or others),
29. (Likewise a Brâhmana) who offers substances that are not fit for a sacrifice,
30. (Likewise) a spy,
[21. Manu IV, 212; Yâgñ. I, 162.
22. Manu IV, 210; Yâgñ. I, 161.
23. 'That is to say, one who has begun, but not finished a Soma-sacrifice.'--Haradatta. Manu IV, 210, and Gopatha-brâhmana III, 19.
25. Aitareya-brâhmana II, 1, 9.
27. Manu I V, 211; Yâgñ. I, 161.
28. The village or town messengers are always men of the lowest castes, such as the Mahârs of Mahârâshthra.
29. 'For example, he who offers human blood in a magic rite.'--Haradatta.
30. Haradatta explains kârî, translated by 'spy,' to mean 'a secret adherent of the Sâkta sect' (gûdhakârî, sâktah). The existence of this sect in early times has not hitherto been proved.]
31. (Also) a person who has become an ascetic without (being authorized thereto by) the rules (of the law),
32. (Also) he who forsakes the sacred fires without performing the sacrifice necessary on that occasion),
33. Likewise a learned Brâhmana who avoids everybody, or eats the food of anybody, or neglects the (daily) recitation of the Veda, (and) he whose (only living) wife is of the Sadra caste.
[31. Haradatta gives the Sâkyas or Bauddhas as an instance. But it i's doubtful, whether Âpastamba meant to refer to them, though it seems probable that heretics are intended.
32. Yâgñ. I, 160.
33. 'Who avoids everybody, i.e. who neither invites nor dines with anybody.'--Haradatta.]


1. A drunkard, a madman, a prisoner, he who learns the Veda from his son, a creditor who sits with his debtor (hindering the fulfilment of his duties), a debtor who thus sits (with his creditor, are persons whose food must not be eaten) as long as they are thus engaged or in that state.
2. Who (then) are those whose food may be eaten?
[19. 1. Manu IV, 207; Yâgñ. I, 161, 162. Another commentator explains anika, translated above 'he who learns the Veda from his son,' by 'a money-lender,' and combines pratyupavishtah with this word, i.e. 'a money-lender who sits with his debtor hindering him from fulfilling his duties.' This manner of forcing a debtor to pay, which is also called Âkarita (see Manu VIII, 49), is, though illegal, resorted to sometimes even now.
2. 'The object of this Sûtra is to introduce the great variety of opinions quoted below.'--Haradatta.]
3. Kanva declares, that it is he who wishes to give.
4. Kautsa declares, that it is he who is holy.
5. Vârshyâyani declares, that it is every giver (of food).
6. For if guilt remains fixed on the man (who committed a crime, then food given by a sinner) may be eaten (because the guilt cannot leave the sinner). But if guilt can leave (the sinner at any time, then food given by the sinner may be eaten because) he becomes pure by the gift (which he makes).
7. Offered food, which is pure, may be eaten, according to Eka, Kunika, Kânva, Kutsa, and Pushkarasâdi.
8. Vârshyâyani's opinion is, that (food) given unasked (may be accepted) from anybody.
9. (Food offered) willingly by a holy man may be eaten.
10. Food given unwillingly by a holy man ought not to be eaten.
11. Food offered unasked by any person whatsoever may be eaten,
12. 'But not if it be given after an express previous announcement;' thus says Hârita.
13. Now they quote also in a Purâna the following two verses:
[4. 'Holy' means not only 'following his lawful occupations,' but particularly 'practising austerities, reciting prayers, and offering burnt-oblations.'--Haradatta.
10. Another commentator explains this Sûtra thus: 'He need not eat the food offered by a righteous man, if he himself does not wish to do so.'--Haradatta.
13. See Manu IV, 248 and 249, where these identical verses occur.]
'The Lord of creatures has declared, that food offered unasked and brought by the giver himself, may be eaten, though (the giver be) a sinner, provided the gift has not been announced beforehand. The Manes of the ancestors of that man who spurns such food, do not eat (his oblations) for fifteen years, nor does the fire carry his offerings (to the gods).'
14. (Another verse from a Purâna declares): 'The food given by a physician, a hunter, a surgeon, a fowler, an unfaithful wife, or a eunuch must not be eaten.'
15. Now (in confirmation of this) they quote (the following verse): 'The murderer of a Brâhmana learned in the Veda heaps his guilt on his guest, an innocent man on his calumniator, a thief set at liberty on the king, and the petitioner on him who makes false promises.'
[14. Manu IV, 211, 212.
15. Regarding the liberation of the thief, see Âpastamba I, 9, 25, 4. A similar verse occurs Manu VIII, 317, which has caused the confusion observable in many MSS., as has been stated in the critical notes to the text.]


1. He shall not fulfil his sacred duties merely in order to acquire these worldly objects (as fame, gain, and honour).
2. For when they ought to bring rewards, (duties thus fulfilled) become fruitless.
3. (Worldly benefits) are produced as accessories (to the fulfilment of the law), just as in the case of a mango tree, which is planted in order to obtain fruit, shade and fragrance (are accessory advantages).
4. But if (worldly advantages) are not produced, (then at least) the sacred duties have been fulfilled.
5. Let him not become irritated at, nor be deceived by the speeches of hypocrites, of rogues, of infidels, and of fools.
6. For Virtue and Sin do not go about and say, Here we are;' nor do gods, Gandharvas, or Manes say (to men), 'This is virtue, that is sin.'
7. But that is virtue, the practice of which wise men of the three twice-born castes praise; what they blame, is sin.
8. He shall regulate his course of action according to the conduct which in all countries is unanimously approved by men of the three twice-born castes, who have been properly obedient (to their teachers), who are aged, of subdued senses, neither given to avalrice, nor hypocrites.
9. Acting thus he will gain both worlds.
10. Trade is not lawful for a Brâhmana.
11. In times of distress he may trade in lawful merchandise, avoiding the following (kinds), that are forbidden
12. (Particularly) men, condiments and liquids, colours, perfumes, food, skins, heifers, substances
[20. 7. The Sûtra is intended to show how the law should be ascertained in difficult cases. Haradatta quotes here the passage of Yâgñ. I, 9, on Parishads, and states that the plural âryâh shows that three or four must be employed to arrive at a decision. See also Manu XII, 108 seq.
8. Manu I, 6.
11. This Sûtra, which specifies only one part of a Vaisya's occupations as permissible for Brâhmanas in distress, implies, according to Haradatta, that his other occupations also, as well as those of a Kshatriya, are permissible. Manu IV, 6; X, 82; Yâgñ. III, 35.
12. Manu X, 86-89; Yâgñ. III, 36-39.]
used for glueing (such as lac), water, young cornstalks, substances from which spirituous liquor may be extracted, red and black pepper, corn, flesh, arms, and the hope of rewards for meritorious deeds.
13. Among (the various kinds of) grain he shall especially not sell sesamum or rice (except he have grown them himself).
14. The exchange of the one of these (abovementioned goods) for the other is likewise unlawful.
15. But food (may be exchaned) for food, and slaves for slaves, and condiments for condiments, and perfumes for perfumes, and learning for learning.
16. Let him traffic with lawful merchandise which he has not bought,
[13. The exception stated above, is given by Haradatta on the authority of Manu X, 90; Yâgñ. III, 39.
15. From the permission to exchange learning for learning, it may be known that it is not lawful to sell it.'--Haradatta. Manu X, 94.]


1. With Muñga-grass, Balbaga-grass (and articles made of them), roots, and fruits,
2. And with (other kinds of) grass and wood which have not been worked up (into objects of use).
3. He shall not be too eager (after such a livelihood).
4. If he obtains (another lawful) livelihood, he shall leave off (trading).
[21. 2. 'Since it is known that Muñga and Balbaga are kinds of grass, it may be inferred from their being especially mentioned (in Sûtra 1) that objects made of them (may be also sold).'--Haradatta.
4. Yâgñ. III, 35.]
5. Intercourse with fallen men is not ordained,
6. Nor with Apapâtras.
7. Now (follows the enumeration of) the actions which cause loss of caste (Patanîya).
8. (These are) stealing (gold), crimes whereby one becomes an Abhisasta, homicide, neglect of the Vedas, causing abortion, incestuous connection with relations born from the same womb as one's mother or father, and with the offspring of such persons, drinking spirituous liquor, and intercourse with persons the intercourse with whom is forbidden.
9. That man falls who has connection with a female friend of a female Guru, or with a female friend of a male Guru, or with any married woman.
10. Some (teachers declare), that he does not fall by having connection with any other married female except his teacher's wife.
11. Constant commission of (other) sins (besides those enumerated above) also causes a man to lose his caste.
12. Now follows (the enumeration of) the acts which make men impure (Asukikara).
13. (These are) the cohabitation of Aryan women with Sûdras,
14. Eating the flesh of forbidden (creatures),
[5. Manu XI, 180.
6. Regarding the definition of the word Apapâtra, see above, I, 5, 16, 29.
8. The crimes by which a person becomes Abhisasta are enumerated below, I, 9, 24, 6 seq., where an explanation of the term will be given.
9. Regarding the 'male Gurus' see above. By 'female Gurus' their wives are meant.
10. I.e. he need not perform so heavy a penance.]
15. As of a dog, a man, village cocks or pigs, carnivorous animals,
16. Eating the excrements of men,
17. Eating what is left by a Sûdra, the cohabitation of Aryans with Apapâtra women.
18. Some declare, that these acts also cause a man to lose his caste.
19. Other acts besides those (enumerated) are causes of impurity.
20. He who learns (that a man has) committed a sin, shall not be the first to make it known to others; but he shall avoid the (sinner), when performing religious ceremonies.
[20. 'That is to say, he is not to invite the sinner to dinners, given at the occasion of religious ceremonies.'--Haradatta.]


1. He shall employ the means which tend to the acquisition of (the knowledge of) the Âtman, which are attended by the consequent (destruction of the passions, and) which prevent the wandering (of the mind from its object, and fix it on the contemplation of the Âtman).
2. There is no higher (object) than the attainment of (the knowledge of the) Âtman.
3. We shall quote the verses (from the Veda)
[22. 1. The knowledge of the Vedânta and the means which prepare men for the knowledge of the Âtman, the 'Self, the universal soul,' are placed in this Patala at the head of the penances, because they are most efficacious for the removal of all sin. The means are absence of anger &c., which are enumerated I, 8, 23, 6.
2. Haradatta gives in his commentary a lengthy discussion on the Âtman, which corresponds nearly to Sahkara's Introduction to and Commentary on the first Sûtra of Bâdarâyana.
3. According to Haradatta, the following verses are taken from an Upanishad.]
which refer to the attainment of (the knowledge of) the Âtman.
4. All living creatures are the dwelling of him who lies enveloped in matter, who is immortal and who is spotless. Those become immortal who worship him who is immovable and lives in a movable dwelling.
5. Despising all that which in this world is called an object (of the senses) a wise man shall strive after the (knowledge of the) Âtman.
6. O pupil, I, who had not recognised in my own self the great self-luminous, universal, (absolutely) free Âtman, which must be obtained without the mediation of anything else, desired (to find) it in others (the senses). (But now as I have obtained the pure knowledge, I do so no more.) Therefore follow thou also this good road that leads to welfare (salvation), and not the one that leads into misfortune (new births).
7. It is he who is the eternal part in all creatures, whose essence is wisdom, who is immortal, unchangeable, destitute of limbs, of voice, of the (subtle) body,
[4. The spotless one &c. is the Paramâtman. The spots are merit and demerit which, residing in the Manas, the internal organ of perception, are only falsely attributed to the Âtman, 'the soul.' To become immortal means 'to obtain final liberation.'
5. It seems to me that Haradatta's explanation of the words 'idam idi ha idi ha' is wrong. They ought to be divided thus, 'idamid, iha id, iha loke.' The general sense remains the same, and there is no necessity to assume very curious and otherwise unknown Vedic forms.
6. The verse is addressed by a teacher to his pupil. My translation strictly follows Haradatta's gloss. But his interpretation is open to many doubts. However, I am unable to suggest anything better.
7. The Sutra contains a further description of the Paramâtman.]
(even) of touch, exceedingly pure; he is the universe, he is the highest goal; (he dwells in the middle of the body as) the Vishuvat day is (the middle of a Sattra-sacrifice); he, indeed, is (accessible to all) like a town intersected by many streets.
8. He who meditates on him, and everywhere and always lives according to his (commandments), and who, full of devotion, sees him who is difficult to be seen and subtle, will rejoice in (his) heaven.
[8. Haradatta explains the word vishtap, 'heaven,' by 'pain-freed greatness,' apparently misled by a bad etymology. The heaven of the Âtman is, of course, liberation, that state where the individual soul becomes merged in the Brahman or Paramâtman, which is pure essence, intelligence and joy.]


1. That Brâhmana, who is wise and recognises all creatures to be in the Âtman, who pondering (thereon) does not become bewildered, and who recognises the Âtman in every (created) thing, shines, indeed, in heaven.
2. He, who is intelligence itself and subtler than the thread of the lotus-fibre, pervades the universe, and who, unchangeable and larger than the earth, contains the universe; he, who is different from the knowledge of this world, obtained by the senses and identical with its objects, possesses the highest (form consisting of absolute knowledge). From him, who divides himself, spring all (created) bodies. He is the primary cause, he is eternal, he is unchangeable.
[23. 2. This Sûtra again contains a description of the Paramâtman. The translation strictly follows the commentary, though the explanation, given in the latter, is open to objections,]
But the eradication of the faults is brought about in this life by the means (called Yoga). A wise man who has eradicated the (faults) which destroy the creatures, obtains salvation.
4. Now we will enumerate the faults which tend to destroy the creatures.
5. (These are) anger, exultation, grumbling, covetousness, perplexity, doing injury, hypocrisy, lying, gluttony, calumny, envy, lust, secret hatred, neglect to keep the senses in subjection, neglect to concentrate the mind. The eradication of these (faults) takes place through the means of (salvation called) Yoga.
6. Freedom from anger, from exultation, from grumbling, from covetousness, from perplexity, from hypocrisy (and) hurtfulness; truthfulness, moderation in eating, silencing a slander, freedom from envy, self-denying liberality, avoiding to accept gifts, uprightness, affability, extinction of the passions, subjection of the senses, peace with all created beings, concentration (of the mind on the contemplation of the Âtman), regulation of one's conduct according to that of the Âryas, peacefulness and contentedness;--these (good qualities) have been settled by the agreement (of the wise) for all (the four) orders; he who, according to the precepts of the sacred law, practises these, enters the universal soul.


1. He who has killed a Kshatriya shall give a thousand cows (to Brâhmanas) for the expiation of his sin.
[24. 1. Manu XI, 128; Yâgñ. III, 266. Others explain the phrase vairayâtanârtham, 'for the expiation of his sin,' thus: 'He, who is slain by anybody, becomes, in dying, an enemy of his slayer (and thinks), "O that I might slay him in another life," for the removal of this enmity!'--Haradatta. I am strongly inclined to agree with the other commentator, and to translate vairayâtanârtham, 'in order to remove the enmity.' I recognise in this fine a remnant of the law permitting compositions for murder which was in force in ancient Greece and among the Teutonic nations. With the explanation adopted by Haradatta, it is impossible to find a reasonable interpretation for prâyaskittirthah, Sûtra 4. Haradatta, seduced by the parallel passage of Manu, takes it to be identical with vairayâtanârtham. I propose to translate our Sûtra thus: 'He who has killed a Kshatriya shall give a thousand cows (to the relations of the murdered man) in order to remove the enmity.' According to Baudhâyana I, 10. 19. 1 (compare Zeitschr. d. D. Morg. Ges., vol. 41, pp. 672-76; Festgruss an Roth, pp. 44-52), the cows are to be given to the king.]
2. (He shall give) a hundred cows for a Vaisya,
3. Ten for a Sûdra,
4. And in every one (of these cases) one bull (must be given) in excess (of the number of cows) for the sake of expiation.
5. And if women of the (three castes mentioned have been slain) the same (composition must be paid).
6. He who has slain a man belonging to the two (first-mentioned castes) who has studied the Veda, or had been initiated for the performance of a Soma-sacrifice, becomes an Abhisasta.
7. And (he is called an Abhisasta) who has slain a man belonging merely to the Brâhmana caste (though he has not studied the Veda or been initiated for a Soma-sacrifice),
[2. Manu XI, 130. Yâgñ. III, 267.
3. Mauu XI, 131. Yâgñ. III, 267.
6. Manu XI, 87. Abhisasta means literally 'accused, accursed,' and corresponds in Âpastamba's terminology to the mahâpâtakin of Manu and Yâgñavalkya, instead of which latter word Manu uses it occasionally, e.g. II, 185.]
8. Likewise he who has destroyed an embryo of a (Brâhmana, even though its sex be) undistinguishable,
9. Or a woman (of the Brâhmana caste) during her courses.
10. (Now follows) the penance for him (who is an Abhisasta).
11. He (himself) shall erect a hut in the forest, restrain his speech, carry (on his stick) the skull (of the person slain) like a flag, and cover the space from his navel to his knees with a quarter of a piece of hempen cloth.
12. The path for him when he goes to a village, is the space between the tracks (of the wheels).
13. And if he sees another (Ârya), he shall step out of the road (to the distance of two yards).
14. He shall go to the village, carrying a broken tray of metal of an inferior quality.
15. He may go to seven houses only, (crying,) 'Who will give alms to an Abhisasta?'
16. That is (the way in which he must gain) his livelihood.
17. If he does not obtain anything (at the seven houses), he must fast.
18. And (whilst performing this penance) he must tend cows.
19. When they leave and enter the village, that is the second occasion (on which he may enter) the village.
[9. 'Others interpret âtreyî, "during her courses," by "belonging to the race of Atri."'--Haradatta.
11. Others say that he may carry the skull of any corpse. This Sûtra is to be construed with Sûtra 114, Sûtras 12 and 13 being inserted parenthetically.-- Haradatta. Manu XI, 72-78; Yâgñ. III, 243.]
20. After having performed (this penance) for twelve years, he must perform) the ceremony known (by custom), through which he is re-admitted into the society of the good.
21. Or (after having performed the twelve years' penance), he may build a hut on the path of robbers, and live there, trying to take from them the cows of Brâhmanas. He is free (from his sin), when thrice he has been defeated by them, or when he has vanquished them.
22. Or he is freed (from his sin), if (after the twelve years' penance) he bathes (with the priests) at the end of a horse-sacrifice.
23. This very same (penance is ordained) for him who, when his duty and love of gain come into conflict, chooses the gain.
24. If he has slain a Guru or a Brâhmana, who has studied the Veda and finished the ceremonies of a Soma-sacrifice, he shall live according to this very same rule until his last breath.
25. He cannot be purified in this life. But his sin is removed (after death).
[20. 'I.e. after having performed the penance, he shall take grass and offer it to a cow. If the cow approaches and confidingly eats, then one should know that he has performed the penance properly not otherwise.'--Haradatta. Manu XI, 195 and 196.
21. Manu XI, 81.--Thus Haradatta, better, 'when-thrice he has fought with them,' see the Pet. Dict. s. v. râdh.
22. Manu XI, 83; Weber, Ind. Stud. X, 67.
23. 'Or the Sûtra may have reference to unrighteous gain acquired by false testimony and the like.'--Haradatta.
24. 'Guru means "the father and the rest."--Haradatta.
25. 'His sin is removed after death. Hence the meaning is that his sons or other (relations) may perform the funeral ceremonies and the like. But others think that the first part of the Sûtra forbids this, and that the meaning of pratvâpattih (can be purified) is "connection by being received as a son or other relation."--Haradatta.]


1. He who has had connection with a Guru's wife shall cut off his organ together with the testicles, take them into his joined hands and walk towards the south without stopping, until he falls down dead.
2. Or he may die embracing a heated metal image of a woman.
3. A drinker of spirituous liquor shall drink exceedirgly hot liquor so that he dies.
4. A thief shall go to the king with flying hair, carrying a club on his shoulder, and tell him his deed. He (the king) shall give him a blow with that (club). If the thief dies, his sin is expiated.
5. If he is forgiven (by the king), the guilt falls upon him who forgives him,
6. Or he may throw himself into the fire, or perform repeatedly severe austerities,
7. Or he may kill himself by diminishing daily his portion of food,
8. Or he may perform Krikkhra penances (uninterruptedly) for one year.
[25. 1. Haradatta's explanation of a 'Guru's wife' by 'mother' rests on a comparison of similar passages from other Smritis, where a different 'penance' is prescribed for incestuous intercourse with other near relations. Manu XI, 105; Yâgñ. III, 259.
2. Manu XI, 104; Yâgñ. III, 259.
3. Manu XI, 91, 92; Yâgñ. III, 253.
4. I.e. who has stolen the gold of a Brâhmana. Manu VIII, 314, 316; XI, 99-101; Yâgñ. III, 257.
5. Manu VIII, 317.
6. Manu XI, 102.
8. According to Haradatta this Sûtra refers to all kinds of sins and it must be understood that the Krikkhra penances must be heavy for great crimes, and lighter for smaller faults; see also below, I, 9, 27, 7 and 8.]
9. Now they quote also (the following verse):
10. Those who have committed a theft (of gold), drunk spirituous liquor, or had connection with a Guru's wife, but not those who have slain a Brâhmana, shall eat every fourth meal-time a little food, bathe at the times of the three libations (morning, noon, and evening), passing the day standing and the night sitting. After the lapse of three years they throw off their guilt.
11. (A man of any caste) excepting the first, who has slain a man of the first caste, shall go on a battle-field and place himself (between the two hostile armies). There they shall kill him (and thereby he becomes pure).
12. Or such a sinner may tear from his body and make the priest offer as a burnt-offering his hair, skin, flesh, and the rest, and then throw himself into the fire.
13. If a crow, a chameleon, a peacock, a Brâhmanî duck, a swan, the vulture called Bhâsa, a frog, an ichneumon, a musk-rat, or a dog has been killed, then the same penance as for a Sûdra must be performed.
[9. Haradatta states that the verse is taken from a Purâna.
11. Manu XI, 74; Yâgñ. III, 248.
12. The Mantras given in the commentary, and a parallel passage of Vasishtha XX, 25-26, show that this terrible penance is not altogether a mere theory of Âpastamba. Yâgñ. III, 247.
13. 'According to some, the penance must be performed if all these animals together have been slain; according to others, if only one of them has been killed.'--Haradatta. Manu XI, 132, 136 Yâgñ. III, 270-272.]


1. (The same penance must be performed), if a milch-cow or a full-grown ox (has been slain), without a reason.
2. And for other animals (which have no bones), if an ox-load of them has been killed.
3. He who abuses a person who (on account of his venerability) ought not to be abused, or speaks an untruth (regarding any small matter) must abstain for three days from milk, pungent condiments, and salt.
4. (If the same sins have been committed) by a Sûdra, he must fast for seven days.
5. And the same (penances must also be performed) by women, (but not those which follow).
6. He who cuts off a limb of a person for whose murder he would become an Abhisasta (must perform the penance prescribed for killing a Sûdra), if the life (of the person injured) has not been endangered.
[26. 1. 'A reason' for hurting a cow is, according to Haradatta, anger, or the desire to obtain meat.
2. Manu XI, 141;Yâgñ. III, 269. That 'animals without bones,' i.e. insects or mollusks, are intended in the Sûtra is an inference, drawn by Haradatta from the parallel passages of Gautama, Manu, and Yâgñavalkya.
3. 'A person who ought not to be abused, i. e. a father, a teacher, and the like.'--Haradatta.
5. The same penances, i. e. those prescribed I, 9, 24-I, 9, 26, 4. According to Haradatta this Sûtra is intended to teach that women shall not perform the penances which follow. Others, however, are of opinion that it is given in order to indicate that the preceding Sûtras apply to women by an atidesa, and that, according to a Smârta principle, applicable to such cases, it may be inferred, that women are to perform one-half only of the penances prescribed for men.]
7. He who has been guilty of conduct unworthy of an Aryan, of calumniating others, of actions contrary to the rule of conduct, of eating or drinking things forbidden, of connection with a woman of the Sûdra caste, of an unnatural crime, of performing; magic rites with intent (to harm his enemies) or (of hurting others) unintentionally, shall bathe and sprinkle himself with water, reciting the (seven) verses addressed to the Waters, or the verses addressed to Varuna, or (other verses chosen frorn the Anuvâka, called) Pavitra, in proportion to the frequency with which the crime has been committed.
8. A (student) who has broken the vow of chastity, shall offer to Nirriti an ass, according to the manner of the Pâkayañga-rites.
9. A Sûdra shall eat (the remainder) of that (offering).
10. (Now follows) the penance for him who transgresses the rules of studentship.
11. He shall for a year serve his teacher silently, emitting speech only during the daily study (of the Veda, in announcing necessary business to) his teacher or his teacher's wife, and whilst collecting alms.
12. The following penances) which we are going to proclaim, may be performed for the same sin, and
[7. The Anuvâka intended is Taitt. Samh. II, 5, 12.
8. Taitt. Âr. II, 18, and Weber, Ind. Stud. X, 102; Manu XI, 199 seq.; and Yâgñ. III, 280. Regarding the Pâkayagña-rites, see Âsv. Gri. Sû. I, 1, 2, and Max Müller's History of Ancient Sanskrit Literature, P. 203.
12. Regarding the Patanîya-crimes which cause loss of caste, see above, I, 7, 21, 7 seq.]
also for other sinful acts, which do not cause loss of caste.
13. He may either offer oblations to Kâma and Manyu (with the following two Mantras), 'Kâma (passion) has done it; Manyu (anger) has done it.' Or he may mutter (these Mantras).
14. Or, after having eaten sesamum or fasted on the days of the full and new moon he may, on the following day bathe, and stopping his breath, repeat the Gâyatrî one thousand times, or he may do so without stopping his breath.
[13. Weber, Ind. Stud. X, 102. According to the greatness of the crime the number of the burnt-oblations must be increased and the prayers be repeated.]


1. After having eaten sesamum or having fasted on the full moon day of the month Srâvana July-August), he may on the following day bathe in the water of a great river and offer (a burnt-oblation of) one thousand pieces of sacred fuel, whilst. reciting the Gâyatrî, or he may mutter (the Gâyatrî) as many times.
2. Or he may perform Ishtis and Soma-sacrifices for the sake of purifying himself (from his sins),
3. After having eaten forbidden food, he must fast, until his entrails are empty.
4. That is (generally) attained after seven days.
5. Or he may during winter and during the dewy
[27. 1. 'The oblations of sacred fuel (samidh) are not to be accompanied by the exclamation Svâhâ'--Haradatta.
2. Ishtis are the simplest forms of the Srauta-sacrifices, i.e. of those for which three fires are necessary.
3. For some particular kinds of forbidden food the same penance is prescribed, Manu XI, 153-154.]
season (November-March) bathe in cold water both morning and evening.
6. Or he may perform a Krikkhra penance, which lasts twelve days.
7. The rule for the Krikkhra penance of twelve days (is the following): For three days he must not eat in the evening, and then for three days not in the morning; for three days he must live on food which has been given unasked, and three days he must not eat anything.
8. If he repeats this for a year, that is called a Krikkhra penance, which lasts for a year.
9. Now follows another penance. He who has committed even a great many sins which do not cause him to fall, becomes free from guilt, if, fasting, he recites the entire Sâkhâ of his Veda three times consecutively.
10. He who cohabits with a non-Aryan woman, he who lends money at interest, he who drinks (other) spirituous liquors (than Surâ), he who praises everybody in a manner unworthy of a Brâhmana, shall sit on grass, allowing his back to be scorched (by the sun).
11. A Brâhmana removes the sin which he committed by serving one day and night (a man of) the black race, if he bathes for three years, eating at every fourth meal-time.
[7. The same penance is described, under the name Prâgâpatya krikkhra, the Krihkhra invented by Pragâpati, Manu XI, 212, and Yâgñ. III, 320.
9. Manu XI, 259.
11. The expression krishna varna, 'the black race,' is truly Vedic. In the Rig-veda it usually denotes the aboriginal races, and sometimes the demons. Others explain the Sûtra thus: A Brâmana removes the sin, which be committed by cohabiting for one night with a female of the Sûdra caste, &c.--Haradatta. The latter explanation has been adopted by Kullûka on Manu XI. 179.]


1. He who, under any conditions whatsoever, covets (and takes) another man's possessions is a thief; thus (teach) Katitsa and Hârita as well as Kanva and Pushkarasâdi.
2. Vârshyâyani declares, that there are exceptions to this law, in regard to some possessions.
3. (E.g.) seeds ripening in the pod, food for a draught-ox; (if these are taken), the owners (ought) not (to) forbid it.
4. To take even these things in too great a quantity is sinful.
5. Hârita declares, that in every case the permission (of the owner must be obtained) first.
6. He shall not go to visit a fallen teacher or blood relation.
7. Nor shall he accept the (means for procuring) enjoyments from such a person.
8. If he meets them accidentally he shall silently embrace (their feet) and pass on.
9. A mother does very many acts for her son, therefore he must constantly serve her, though she be fallen.
10. But (there shall be) no communion (with a fallen mother) in acts performed for the acquisition of spiritual merit.
[28. 3. The same rule. Manu emphatically ascribes to himself, Manu VIII, 339, But see also VIII, 331.
7. Haradatta remarks, that this Sûtra implicitly forbids to accept the heritage of an outcast.]
11. Enjoyments taken unrighteously he shall give up; he shall say, 'I and sin (do not dwell together).' Clothing himself with a garment reaching from the navel down to the knee, bathing daily, morn, noon, and evening, eating food which contains neither milk nor pungent condiments, nor salt, he shall not enter a house for twelve years.
12. After that he (may be) purified.
13. Then he may have intercourse with Aryans.
14. This penance may also be employed in the case of the other crimes which cause loss of caste (for which no penance has been ordained above).
15. But the violator of a Guru's bed shall enter a hollow iron image and, hhving caused a fire to be lit on both sides, he shall burn himself.
16. According to Hârita, this (last-mentioned penance must) not (be performed).
17, For he who takes his own or another's life becomes an Abhisasta.
18. He (the violator of a Guru's bed) shall perform to his last breath (the penance) prescribed by that rule (Sûtra 11). He cannot be purified in this world. But (after death) his sin is taken away.
19. He who has unjustly forsaken his wife shall put on an ass's skin, with the hair turned outside, and beg in seven houses, saying, 'Give alms to him who forsook his wife.' That shall be his livelihood for six months.
20. But if a wife forsakes her husband, she shall
[11. A similar but easier penance is prescribed, Manu XI, 19 4.
15. 1 (This penance, which had been prescribed above, I, 9, 25, 1), is enjoined (once more), in order to show that it is not optional (as might be expected according to Sûtra 14).'-Haradatta.]
perform the twelve-night Krikkhra penance for as long a time.
21. He who has killed a Bhrûna (a man learned in the Vedas and Vedângas and skilled in the performance of the rites) shall put on the skin of a dog or of an ass, with the hair turned outside, and take a human skull for his drinking-vessel,


1. And he shall take the foot of a bed instead of a staff and, proclaiming the name of his deed, he shall uo about (saying), 'Who (gives) alms to the murderer of a Bhrûna?' Obtaining thus his livelihood in the village, he shall dwell in an empty house or under a tree, (knowing that) he is not allowed to have intercourse with Aryans. According to this rule he shall act until his last breath. He cannot be purified in this world. But (after death) his sin is taken away.
2. He even who slays unintentionally, reaps nevertheless the result of his sin.
3. (His guilt is) greater, (if he slays) intentionally.
4. The same (principle applies) also to other sinful actions,
5. And also to good works.
6. A Brâhmana shall not take a weapon into his hand, though he be only desirous of examining it.
7. In a Purâna (it has been declared), that he who
[29. 5. Haradatta gives, as an example, the case where a warrior saves the property of a traveller from thieves. If the traveller turns out to be a Brâhmana, and the warrior did not know his caste before rescuing his property, his merit will be less than if he had rescued knowingly the property of a Brâmana.]
slays an assailant does not sin, for (in that case) wrath meets wrath.
8. But Abhisastas shall live together in dwellings (outside the village); considering this their lawful (mode of life), they shall sacrifice for each other, teach each other, and marry amongst each other.
9. If they have begot sons, let them. say to them: 'Go out from amongst us, for thus the Âryas, (throwing the guilt) upon us, will receive you (amongst their number).'
10. For the organs do not become impure together with the man.
11. (The truth of) that may be learned from this (parallel case); a man deficient in limbs begets a son who possesses the full number of limbs.
12. Hârita declares that this is wrong.
13. A wife is similar to the vessel which contains the curds (for the sacrifice).
14. For if one makes impure milk curdle (by mixing it with whey and water) in a milk-vessel and stirs it, no sacrificial rite can be performed with (the curds produced from) that. Just so no intercourse
[9. It is impossible to agree with Haradatta's explanation of the words to be addressed by Abhisastas to their children. No Vedic license can excuse the use of the second person plural instead of the third. I propose the following: 'Go out from among us; for thus (leaving the guilt) to us, you will be received (as) Âryas.' it is, however, not improbable that our text is disfigured by several very old corruptions, compare Baudhâyana II, 1, 2, 18.
11. 'In like manner a man who has lost.his rights, (can) beget a son, who possesses the rights (of his caste). For the wife is also a cause (of the birth of the son), and she is guiltless.'--Haradatta.
13. The statements now following are those with which Âpastamba agrees. Those contained in Sûtras 8-11 are merely the pûrvapaksha.]
can be allowed with the impure seed which comes (from an Abhisasta).
15. Sorcery and curses (employed against a Brâhmana) cause a man to become impure, but not loss of caste.
16. Hârita declares that they cause loss of caste.
17. But crimes causing impurity must be expiated, (when no particular penance is prescribed,) by performing the penance enjoined for crimes causing loss of caste during twelve months, or twelve half months, or twelve twelve-nights, or twelve se'nnights, or twelve times three days, or twelve days, or seven days, or three days, or one day.
18. Thus acts causing impurity must be expiated according to the manner in which the (sinful) act has been committed (whether intentionally or unintentionally).


1. Some declare, that a student shall bathe after (having acquired) the knowledge of the Veda, (however long or short the time of his studentship may have been).
2. (He may) also (bathe) after having kept the student's vow for forty-eight, (thirty-six or twenty-four) years, (though he may not have mastered the Veda).
Some declare, that the student (shall bathe) after (having acquired) the knowledge of the Veda and after (the expiration of) his vow.
[30. 1. The bath is taken at the end of the studentship, and forms part of the Samâvartana-ceremony. From this rite a student who has completed his course of study derives the name Snâtaka, 'one who has bathed.' See also Weber, Ind. Stud. X, 125.]
4. To all those persons who have bathed (In accordance with any of the above rules must be shown) the honour clue to a Snâtaka.
5. The reverence (shown to a Snâtaka) brings, however, different rewards according to the degree of devotion or of learning (possessed by the person honoured).
6. Now follow the observances (chiefly to be kept) by a Snâtaka.
7. He shall usually enter the village and leave it by the eastern or the northern gate.
8. During the morning and evening twilights, he shall sit outside the village, and not speak anything (referring to worldly matters).
9. (But an Agnihotri, who is occupied at home by oblations in the morning and evening, must not go out; for) in the case of a conflict (of duties), that enjoined by the Veda is the more important.
10. He shall avoid all dyed dresses,
11. And all naturally black cloth.
12. He shall wear a dress that is neither shining,
13. Nor despicable, if he is able (to afford it).
14. And in the day-time he shall avoid to wrap up his head, except when voiding excrements.
15. But when voiding excrements, he shall envelop his head and place some (grass or the like) on the ground.
16. He shall not void excrements in the shade (of a tree, where travellers rest).
[10. The rule to wear white garments is given Yâgñ. I, 131; Manu IV, 35. 33.
13. Manu IV, 34.
15. Manu IV, 49.]
17. But he may discharge urine on his own shadow.
18. He shall not void excrements with his shoes on, nor on a ploughed field, nor on a path, nor in water.
19. He shall also avoid to spit into, or to have connection with a woman in water.
20. He shall not void excrements facing the fire, the sun, water, a Brâhmana, cows, or (images of) the gods.
21. He shall avoid to clean his body from excrements with a stone, a clod of earth, or with (boughs of) herbs or trees which he has broken off, whilst they were on the tree and full of sap.
22. If possible, he shall not stretch out his feet towards a fire, water, a Brâhmana, a cow, (iniages of) the gods, a door, or against the wind.
23. Now they quote also (the following verse):
[18. Manu IV, 45, 46; Yâgñ. I, 137.
19. Manu IV, 56.
20. Manu IV, 48, 52; Yâgñ. I, 134.
22. The prohibition to stretch the feet towards a fire occurs also Manu IV, 53; Yâgñ. I, 137.]


1. He shall eat facing the east, void fæces facing, the south, discharge urine facing the north, and wash his feet turned towards the west.
2. He shall void excrements far from his house, having gone towards the south or south-west.
3. But after sunset he must not void excrements outside the village or far from his house.
4. And as long as he is impure he (shall avoid) to pronounce the names of the gods.
[31. 2. Manu IV, 151; Yâgñ. I, 16.]
5. And he shall not speak evil of the gods or of the king.
6. He shall not touch with his foot a Brâhmana, a cow, nor any other (venerable beings).
7. (Nor shall he touch them) with his hand, except for particular reasons.
8. He shall not mention the blemishes of a cow, of sacrificial presents, or of a girl.
9. And he shall not announce it (to the owner) if a cow does damage (by eating corn or grass in a field).
10. (Nor shall he call attention to it) if a cow is together with her calf, except for a particular reason.
11. And of a cow which is not a milch-cow he shall not say, 'She is not a milch-cow.' He must say, 'This is a cow which will become a milch-cow.'
12. He shall not call 'lucky' that which is lucky. He shall call it 'a mercy, a blessing.'
13. He shall not step over a rope to which a calf (or cow) is tied.
14. He shall not pass between the posts from which a swing is suspended.
15. (In company) he shall not say, 'This person
[5. Manu IV, 163.
8. 'In the section on transcendental knowledge (1, 8, 23, 5), "speaking evil" has been forbidden, in connection with the means of salvation. And below (Sûtra 25) the (author) will declare that the sins which destroy the creatures are to be avoided. But this precept (is given in order to indicate that) in the case of cows and the rest an extra penance must be performed.'--Haradatta.
12. Manu IV, 139.
13. Manu IV, 38.
14. 'Or according to others, " He shall not pass between pillars supporting an arch."'--Haradatta.]
is my enemy.' If he says, 'This person is my enemy,' he will raise for himself an enemy, who will show his hatred.
16. If he sees a rainbow, he must not say to others, 'Here is Indra's bow.'
17. He shall not count (a flock of) birds.
18. He shall avoid to look at the sun when he rises or sets.
19. During the day the sun protects the creatures, during the night the moon. Therefore let him eagerly strive to protect himself on the night of the new moon by purity, continence, and rites adapted for the season.
20. For during that nicht the sun and the moon dwell together.
21. He shall not enter the village by a by path. If he enters it thus, he shall mutter this Rik-verse, 'Praise be to Rudra, the lord of the dwelling,' or some other (verse) addressed to Rudra.
22. he shall not (ordinarily) give the residue of his food to a person who is not a Brâhmana. When he gives it (to such a one), he shall clean his teeth and give (the food) after having placed in it (the dirt from his teeth).
[16. Manu IV, 59.
17. Others explain (the Sûtra thus): He shall not announce it to others, if he sees (the souls of) good men falling from heaven on account of the expenditure of their merit, (i.e.) he shall not call attention to shooting-stars.'--Haradatta.
18. Manu IV, 37. 19. Manu IV, 153.
21. Manu IV, 73; Yâgñ. I, 140.
22. Manu IV, 80. 'This prohibition (given in the first part of the Sûtra) refers to Sûdras who are not dependents; to dependents the following (exception applies).'--Haradatta.]
23. And let him avoid the faults that destroy the creatures, such as anger and the like.
[23. See above, I, 6, 23, 4 and 5, and Manu IV, 163.]


1. Let him who teaches, avoid connubial intercourse during the rainy season and in autumn.
2. And if he has had connection (with his wife), he shall not lie with her during the whole night
3. He shall not teach whilst he is lying on a bed.
4. Nor shall he teach (sitting) on that couch on which he lies (at night with his wife).
5. He shall not show himself adorned with a garland, or anointed with ointments. '
6. At night he shall always adorn himself for his wife.
7. Let him not submerge his head together with his body (in bathing),
8. And (let him avoid) to bathe after sunset.
9. Let him avoid to use a seat, clogs, sticks for cleaning the teeth, (and other utensils) made of Palâsa-wood.
10. Let him avoid to praise (himself) before his teacher, saying, 'I have properly bathed or the like.'
11. Let him be awake from midnight.
12. Let him not study (or teach) in the middle of the night; but (he may point out) their duties to his pupils.
13. Or (he may) by himself mentally (repeat the sacred texts).
14. After midnight he may teach.
[32. 1. Weber, Ind. Stud. X, 42.
2. Manu IV, 40.
5. Manu IV, 72.]
15. When he has risen (at midnight, and taught) during the third watch of the night, let him not lie down again (saying), 'Studying is forbidden.'
16. At his pleasure he may (sleep) leaning (against a post or the like).
17. Or he may mentally repeat (the sacred texts).
18. Let him not visit inferior men (such as Nishâdas), nor countries which are inhabited by them,
19. Nor assemblies and crowds.
20. If he has entered a crowd, he shall leave it, turning his right hand towards the crowd.
21. Nor shall he enter towns frequently.
22. Let him not answer directly a question (that is difficult to decide).
23. Now they quote also (the following verse):
24. (The foolish decision) of a person who decides wrongly destroys his ancestors and his future happiness, it harms his children, cattle, and house. 'Oh Dharmaprahrâda, (this deed belongs) not to Kumâlana!' thus decided Death, weeping, the question (addressed to him by the Rishi).
[15. I.e. if the following day is a forbidden day, e.g. an Ashtami. See also Manu IV, 99.
18. Manu IV, 60 and 61.
24. Haradatta tells the story to which the second half of the verse alludes, in the following manner: 'A certain Rishi had two pupils, called Dharmaprahrâda and Kumâlana. Once they brought from the forest two great bundles of firewood and threw them negligently into their teacher's house, without looking. One of the bundles struck the teacher's little son so that he died. Then the teacher asked his two pupils, "Which of you two has killed him?" Both answered, "Not I, not I." Hereupon the teacher, being unable to (come to a decision in order to) send away, the sinner and to keep the innocent one, called Death, and asked him, "Which of the two has killed the boy?" Then Death, finding himself involved in a difficult law-questioh, began to weep, and giving his decision, said, "Oh Dharmaprahrâda, not to Kumâlana (the dative has the sense of the genitive), this sin is none of Kumâlana's!" Instead of declaring, "Dharmaprahrida, thou hast done this,' he said, "The other did not do it." Still from the circumstances of the case it appeared that the meaning of the answer was, "The other has done it." "This was the decision which he gave crying."'--The reading of the text rendered in the translation is, dharmaprahrâda na kumâlanâya.]
25. Let him not ascend a carriage yoked with asses; and let him avoid to ascend or to descend from vehicles in difficult places.
26. And (let him avoid) to cross a river swimming.
27. And (let him avoid) ships of doubtful (solidity).
28. He shall avoid cutting grass, crushing clods of earth, and spitting, without a particular reason,
29. And whatever else they forbid.
[26. Manu IV, 77.
28, Manu IV, 70 and 71.]


1. After marriage the rites prescribed for a householder and his wife (must be performed).
2. He shall eat at the two (appointed) times, (morning and evening)
[1. 1. According to Haradatta, this rule is intended to refute the opinion of those who hold that the sacred household-fire may be kept, and the prescribed offerings therein may be performed, either from the time of the marriage, or after the division of the family estate. He also states that the use of the dual grihamedhinoh indicates that husband and wife must perform the rites conjointly. Manu III, 67.
2. Haradatta thinks that this Sûtra is intended to prevent householders from having more than two meals a day, and to keep them from gluttony. Others are of opinion that its object is to keep householders from excessive fasting, and to make them perform the Prânâgnihotra at either meal. At the Prânâgnihotra the sacrificer eats five mouthfuls invoking successively, whilst he eats, the five vital airs. At the first mouthful he says, 'To Prâna svâhâ;' at the second, 'To Apâna svâha,' &c.]
3. And he shall not eat to repletion.
4. And both (the householder and his wife) shall fast on (the days of) the new, and full moon,
5. To eat once (on those days in the morning) that also is called fasting.
6. And they may eat (at that meal) until they are quite satisfied.
7. And on (the anniversary of) that (wedding)-day they may eat that food of which they are fond.
8. And (on the night of that day) they shall sleep on the ground (on a raised heap of earth).
9. And they shall avoid connubial intercourse.
10. And on the day after (that day) a Sthâlîpâka must be offered.
11. The manner in which that offering must be
[5. Âsv. Gri. Sû. I, 10, 2.
7. Haradatta holds that the words 'on that day' do not refer to the days of the new and full moon, the Parvan-days, mentioned in Sûtra 4. His reasons are, first, that the permission to eat food, of which the householder may be particularly fond, has already been given in Sûtra 6, by the term tripith, 'satisfaction'; and, secondly, that the singular 'on this day' does not agree with the plural 'on the Parvan-days.' Hence he comes to the conclusion that the words 'on that day' must refer to the wedding-day, mentioned in Sûtra 1, as well as to its anniversary. Haradatta is, probably, right in his explanation, though the reasons adduced here are very weak. A stronger reason for detaching this Sûtra from Sûtra 4 will be brought forward below, under Sûtra 11. Mahâdeva, the commentator of the Hiranyakesidharma, adopts the view rejected by Haradatta.
8. Âsv. Gri. Sû. I, 3, 10.
10. A Sthâlipâka is an offering at which rice cooked in a pot, sthâlî, is offered in the fire. A full description of this kind of sacrifice occurs, Âsv. Gri. Sû. I, 10, 1 seq.
11. The Pârvana Sthâlâpâka has been described by Apastamba in the Grihya-sûtra, III, 7. Again, Haradatta returns to the question whether the words on that day (Sûtra 7) refer to the Parvan-days, or the marriage-day and its anniversaries. He now adds, in favour of the latter view, that the word Pârvanena, 'by the rite to be performed on Parvan-days,' by which the Sthâlîpâka on Parvan-days is intended, clearly proves the impossibility to refer he preceding rules to the Parvan-days. He adds that some, nevertheless, adopt the explanation rejected by himself.]
performed has been declared by (the description of the Sthâlîpâka) to be performed on the days of the new and full moon (the Pâvana).
12. And they declare (that this rite which is known) amongst the people (must be performed) every (year).
13. At every (burnt-offering), when he wishes to place the fire on the altar (called Sthandila), let him draw on that (altar) three lines from west to east and three lines from south to north, and sprinkle (the altar) with water, turning the palm of the hand downwards, and let him then make the fire burn brightly by adding (fuel).
14. He shall pour out (the remainder of) this water used for sprinkling, to the north or to the east (of the altar), and take other (water into the vessel).
15. The water-vessels in the house shall never be empty; that is the duty to be observed by the householder and his wife.
[12. They, i.e. the Sishtas, those learned in the law.'Another commentator says, the rite which will be taught (in the following Sûtra), and which is known from the usage of the learned, is constant, i.e. must be performed in every case. That it is what the "learned" declare.'--Haradatta. The latter explanation of the Sûtra is adopted by Mahâdeva.
13. Âsv. Gri. Sû. I, 3, 1-3.
15. Haradatta states that the object of the repetition of the words 'the householder and his wife' is to show that they themselves must fill the water-vessels, and not employ others for this purpose. He adds that, according to another commentator, the object of the repetition is to show that Sûtras 13 and 14 apply not only to householders, but also to students, and that hence students, when they offer the daily oblations of sacred fuel (above, I, 1, 4, 14 seq.), should also periorm the rites taught in the preceding Sûtras.]
16. Let him not have connubial intercourse (with his wife) in the day-time.
17. But let him have connection with his wife at the proper time, according to the rules (of the law).
18. Let him have connubial intercourse in the interval also, if his wife (desires it, observing the restrictions imposed by the law).
19. (The duty of) connubial intercourse (follows from) the passage of a Brâhmana, ('Let us dwell together until a son be born.')
20. But during intercourse he shall be dressed in a particular dress kept for this purpose.
21. And during intercourse only they shall lie together,
22. Afterwards separate.
23. Then they both shall bathe;
[17. See Manu III, 46-48; Yâgñ. I, 79, 80.
19. Manu III, 45; Yâgñ. I, 81.
19. See Taittirîya Samhitâ II, 5, 1, 5.]


1. Or they shall remove the stains with earth or water, sip water, and sprinkle the body with water.
2. Men of all castes, if they fulfil their (assigned) duties, enjoy (in heaven) the highest, imperishable bliss.
3. Afterwards when (a man who has fulfilled his duties) returns to this world, he obtains, by virtue of a remainder of merit, birth in a distinguished family, beauty of form, beauty of complexion, strength, aptitude for learning, wisdom, wealth, and the gift of fulfilling the laws of his (caste and order). Therefore in both worlds he dwells in happiness, (rolling) like a wheel (from the gne to the other).
4. As the seed of herbs (and) trees, (sown) in good and well-cultivated soil, gives manifold returns of fruit (even so it is with men who have received the various sacraments).
5. The increase of the results of sins has been explained hereby.
6. Thus after having undergone a long punishment in the next world, a person who has stolen (the gold of a Brâhmana) or killed a (Brâhmana) is born again, in case he was a Brâhmana as a Kândâla, in case he was a Kshatriya as a Paulkasa, in case he was a. Vaisya as a Vaina.
7. In the same manner other (sinners) who have become outcasts in consequence of their sinful actions are born again, on accountof (these) sins, losing their caste, in the wombs (of various animals).
8. As it is sinful to touch a Kândâla, (so it is also sinful) to speak to him or to look at him. The penance for these (offences will be declared).
9. (The penance) for touching him is to bathe, submerging the whole body; for speaking to him to speak to a Brâhmana; for looking at him to look at the lights (of heaven).
[2. 6. Manu XII, 55; Yâgñ. III, 206, 207. A Paulkasa is said to be the offspring of a Nishâda and a Kshatriya woman. See the Pet. Dict. s.v. A Vaina is a rope-dancer, or equilibrist.
7. Manu XII, 52.]


1. Pure men of the first three castes shall prepare the food (of a householder which is used) at the Vaisvadeva ceremony.
2. The (cook) shall not speak, nor cough, nor sneeze, while his face is turned towards the food.
3. He shall purify himself by touching water if he has touched his hair, his limbs, or his garment.
4. Or Sûdras may prepare the food, under the superintendence of men of the first three castes.
5. For them is prescribed the same rule of sipping water (as for their masters).
6. Besides, the (Sûdra cooks) daily shall cause to be cut the hair of their heads, their beards, the hair on their bodies, and their nails.
7. And they shall bathe, keeping their clothes on.
8. Or they may trim (their hair and nails) on the eighth day (of each half-month), or on the days of the full and. new moon.
9. He (the householder himself) shall place on the fire that food which has been prepared (by Sûdras) without supervision, and shall sprinkle it with water. Such food also they state to be fit for the gods.
10. When the food is ready, (the cook) shall place
[3. 1. 'The food which is used at the Vaisvadeva, i. e. the food prepared for the meals of the householder and of his wife.'--Haradatta.
5. This Sûtra is a Gñâpaka, as it indicates that Âpastamba also recognises the different rules which are usually prescribed in the Smritis for Brâhmanas, Kshatriyas,Vaisyas, and Sûdras. See above, I, 5, 16, 2.
7. Usually in bathing both Âryas and Sûdras wear no dress except the langotî.]
himself before his master and announce it to him (saying), 'It is ready.'
11. The answer (of the master) shall be, 'That well-prepared food is the means to obtain splendour; may it never fail!'
12. The burnt-oblations and Bali-offerings made with the food which the husband and his wife are to eat, bring (as their reward) prosperity, (and the enjoyment of) heaven.
13. Whilst learning the sacred formulas (to be recited during the performance) of those (burnt oblations and Bali-offerings, a householder) shall sleep on the ground, abstain from connubial intercourse and from eating pungent condiments and salt, during welve days.
14. (When he studies the Mantras) for the last (Bali offered to the goblins), he shall fast for one (day and) night.
15. For each Bali-offering the ground must be prepared separately. (The performer) sweeps (the ground) with his (right) hand, sprinkles it with water, turning, the palm downwards, throws down (the offering), and afterwards sprinkles water around it.
[11. Manu II, 54.
12. Balis are portions of food which are thrown before the door, or on the floor of the house. See below, Sûtra 16 seq.
13. Others explain this Sûtra thus: 'After having used for the first time these sacred formulas (which are to be recited in offering the burnt-oblation and the Balis, the householder and his wife) shall sleep,' &c.
14. Regarding the use of ekarâtra in the sense of 'a (day and a) night,' see above. The 'last' Bali-offering is that described below, II ,2, 4, 5.
15. 'They say that the word "afterwards" is used in order to indicate that perfumes, garlands, and other (Upakâras) must be, offered between (the last two acts).'- Haradatta.]
16. (At the Vaisvadeva sacrifice) he shall offer the oblations with his hand, (throwing them) into the kitchen-fire or into the sacred (Grihya)-fire, and reciting (each time one of) the first six Mantras (prescribed in the Nârâyanî Upanishad).
17. He shall sprinkle water all around both times (before and after the oblations), as (has been declared) above.
18. In like manner water is sprinkled around once only after the performance of those Bali-offerings that are performed in one place.
19. (If a seasoning) has been prepared, (the Bali-offering should consist of rice) mixed with that seasoning.
20. With the seventh and eighth Mantras (Balis
[16. It is a disputed point with the commentators whether every Brâhmana may offer the Vaisvadeva in the common kitchen-fire, or those persons only who do not keep a sacred domestic fire. The six Mantras, which are given Taitt. Âr. X, 67, 1, are: 1. Agnaye svâhâ, 'to Agni svâhâ'; 2. Somaya svâhâ, 'to Soma svâhâ'; 3. Visvebhyo devebhyah svâhâ, 'to all the gods svâhâ'; 4. Dhruvâya bhûmaya svâhâ, 'to Dhruva Bhûma svâhâ'; 5. Dhruvakshitaye svâhâ, 'to Dhruvakshiti svâhâ'; 6. Akyutakshitaye svâhâ, 'to Akyutakshiti svâhâ.' Haradatta adds that some add a seventh formula, addressed to Agni svishtakrit, 'to the fire which causes the proper performance of the sacrifice,' while others leave out the second Mantra and give that addressed to Agni svishtakrit the sixth place. This latter is the order given in the Calcutta edition of the Taittirây Âkranyaka.
17. 'Above, i.e. Grihya-sûtra, I, 2, 3, 8.'--Haradatta. The Mantras recited are: 1. at the first sprinkling, Adite 'numanyasva, 'Aditi permit'; Anumate 'numanyasva, 'Anumati permit'; Sarasvaty anumanyasva, 'Sarasvatî permit'; Deva Savitah prasuva, 'Divine Savitri permit'; 2. at the second sprinkling, the same as above, anvamamsthâh and prâsâvîh, 'thou hast permitted,' being substituted for anumanyasva and prasuva.
18. This Sûtra is a restriction of Sûtra 15.
20, The first six offerings constitute the Devayagña or Vaisvadeva, which is offered in the fire. Now follow the Bali-offerings, which are merely placed on the ground. 'Behind the fire' means to the east of the fire'; for the sacrificer must face the east.]
must be offered to Dharma and Adharma) behind the fire, and must be placed the one to the north of the other.
21. With the ninth (Mantra a Bali offered to the waters must be placed) near the water-vessel (in which the water for domestic purposes is kept).
22. With the tenth and eleventh (Mantras, Balis, offered to the herbs and trees and to Rakshodevagana, must be placed) in the centre of the house, and the one to the east of the other.
23. With the following four (Mantras, Balis must be placed) in the north-eastern part of the house (and the one to the east of the other).
[21. The Mantra is, Adbbyah svâhâ, 'to the Waters svâhâ.'
22. The Mantras are, Osbadhivanaspatibbyah svâhâ, 'to the herbs and trees svâhâ'; Raksbodevaganebhyah svâhâ, 'to the Rakshasas and the servants of the gods svâhâ.'
23. These four Balis are sacred to the Grihâs, to the Avasânas, to the Avasânapatis, and to all creatures.]


1. Near the bed (a Bali must be offered) with (a Mantra) addressed to Kâma (Cupid).
2. On the door-sill (a Bali must be placed) with (a Mantra) addressed to Antariksha (the air).
With (the Mantra) that follows (in the Upanishad, he offers a Bali) near the door.
[4. 2. 'Others explain dehalî', "the door-sill," to mean "the door-case."'--Haradatta.
3. 'Others explain apidhâna, "the panels of the door;" to mean "the bolt of the door."'--Haradatta. The offering is made to Nâma, 'the name, or essence of things.']
4. With the following (ten Mantras, addressed to Earth, Air, Heaven, Sun, Moon, the Constellations, Indra, Brihaspati, Pragâpati, and Brahman, he offers ten Balis, each following one to the east of the preceding one), in (the part of the house called) the seat of Brahma.
5. He shall offer to the south (of the Balis offered before, a Bali) with a Mantra addressed to the Manes; his sacrificial cord shall be suspended over the right shoulder, and the (palm of his right hand shall be turned upwards and) inclined to the right.
6. To the north (of the Bali given to the Manes, a Bali shall be offered) to Rudra, in the same manner as to the (other) gods.
7. The sprinkling with water (which precedes and follows the oblation) of these two (Balis, takes place) separately, on account of the difference of the rule (for each case).
[4. Haradatta gives two explanations of the word Brahmasadana, 'the seat of Brahman.' According to some, it is an architectural term, designating the centre of the house; according to others, it denotes the place where, at the time of the burnt-oblations, the Brahman or superintending priest is seated, i.e. a spot to the south of the sacred fire.
5. Balis and water for the Manes are placed or poured into the palm of the hand and thrown out between the thumb and forefinger. That part of the palm is, therefore, sometimes called 'the tirtha sacred to the Manes.' See Manu II, 39.
6. 'That is to say, the sacrificial cord shall not be suspended over the right shoulder, nor shall the Bali be thrown out between the thumb and forefinger.'--Haradatta
7. In sprinkling around an offering to the gods, the saqincer turns his right hand towards the oblation and pours out the water, beginning in the south and ending in the east. In sprinkling around an offering to the Manes, exactly the opposite order is to be followed.]
8. At night only he shall offer (the Bali to the Goblins), throwing it in he air and reciting the last (Mantra).
9. He who devoutly offers those (above-described), to the rules, (obtains) Balis and Homas), according eternal bliss in heaven and prosperity.
10. And (after the Balis have been performed, a portion of the food) must first be given as alms.
11. He shall give food to his guests first,
12. And to infants, old or sick people, female (relations, and) pregnant women.
13. The master (of the house) and his wife shall not refuse a man who asks for food at the time (when the Vaisvadeva offering has been performed).
14. If there is no food, earth, water, grass, and a kind word, indeed, never fall in the house of a good man. Thus (say those who know the law).
[8. At night, i. e. before the evening meal. The Mantra is, 'To those beings which, being servants of Vituda, roam about day and night, desiring a Bali-offering, I offer this Bali, desirous of prosperity. May the Lord of prosperity grant me prosperity, svâhâ. Haradatta adds, that according to another commentator, no other Bali but this is to be offered in the evening, and that some modify the Mantra for each occasion, offering the Bali in the morning to the Bhûtas that roam about during the day,' and in the evening 'to the night-walkers.' Compare for the whole section Manu III, 90-92; Yâgñ. I, 102-104.
10. Manu III, 94 seq.
11. Manu III, 115; Yâgñ. I, 105.
12. Manu III, 114; Yâgñ. I, 105.
14. Manu III, 101 Yâgñ, I, 107. As read in the text, the first line of the verse has one syllable in excess. This irregularity would disappear if trinâ, the Vedic form of the nom. ace. plural, were read for trinâni, and it seems to me not improbable that trânini is a correction made by a Pandit who valued grammatical correctness higher than correctness of metre.]
15. Endless worlds are the portion (of those householders and wives) who act thus.
16. To a Brâhmana who has not studied the Veda, a seat, water, and food must be given. But (the giver) shall not rise (to do him honour).
17. But if (such a man) is worthy of a salutation (for other reasons), he shall rise to salute him.
18. Nor (shall a Brâhmana rise to receive) a Kshatriya or Vaisya (though they may be learned).
19. If a Sûdra comes as a guest (to a Brâhmana), he shall give him some work to do. He may feed him, after (that has been performed).
20. Or the slaves (of the Brâhmana householder) shall fetch (rice) from the royal stores, and honour the Sûdra as a guest.
21. (A householder) must always wear his garment over (his left shoulder and under his right arm).
22. Or he may use a cord only, slung over his left shoulder and passed under his right arm, instead of the garment.
23. He shall sweep together (the crumbs) on the place where he has eaten, and take them away. He shall sprinkle water on that place, turning the palm downwards, and remove the stains (of food from the cooking-vessels with a stick), wash them with water, and take their contents to a clean place to the north (of the house, offering them) to Rudra. In this manner his house will become prosperous.
[16. Manu III, 99.
18. Manu III, 110-112; Yâgñ. I, 107.
19. Manu loc. cit.
20. 'Hence it is known that the king ought to keep stores of rice and the like in every village, in order to show hospitality to Sûdra guests.'--Haradatta.]
24. It is declared in the Smritis that a Brâhmana alone should be chosen as teacher (or spiritual guide).
25. In times of distress a Brâhmana may study under a Kshatriya or Vaisya.
26. And (during his pupilship) he must walk behind (such a teacher).
27. Afterwards the Brâhmana shall take precedence before (his Kshatriya or Vaisya teacher).
[24. Manu II, 241, 242. From here down to II, 3, 6, 2, Âpastamba again treats of the duties of students and teachers, a subject which appears to have in his eyes a greater importance than any other. The rules given now apply chiefly to householders. It would seem that they have been inserted in this particular place, because the reception of a former teacher is to be described II, 3, 5, 4-11, and that of a 'learned guest' II, 3, 6, 3 seq.]


1. On the day on which, beginning the study of the whole sacred science, the Upanishads (and the rest, he performs the Upâkarma in the morning) he shall not study (at night).
2. And he shall not leave his teacher at once afte having studied (the Veda and having returned home)
[5. 1. This rule refers to the Upâkarma, to be performed yearly by householders. In our days, too, the custom is observed, and the whole Brahminical community change on this occasion their Genvîs or sacrificial cords in the month of Srâvana. The adherents of the various Sâkhâs of the Vedas, however, perform the ceremony on different days. According to Haradatta, the Upanishads are named, in order to show that they are of the highest importance. See also Satapatha-brâhmana X, 3, 5, 12.
2. Others consider that this Sûtra refers to the annual Upâkarma of the householder. In that case the trarslation would be, 'And after having performed the Upâkarma,' &c. Probably Âpastamba,means to give a general rule, applicable both to householders and to students who have returned home.]
3. If he is in a hurry to go, he shall perform the daily recitation of the Veda in the presence of his teacher, and then go at his pleasure. In this manner (rood fortune will attend both of them.
4. If the (former) teacher visits him after he has returned home, he shall go out to meet him, embrace his (feet), and he shall not wash himself (after that act), showing disgust. He then shall let him pass first into the house, fetch (the materials necessary for a hospitable reception), and honour him according tothe rule.
5. If his former teacher is) present, he himself shall use a seat, a bed, food, and garments inferior to, and lower (than those offered to the teacher.
6. Standing (with his body bent), he shall place his left hand (under the water-vessel, and bending with his other hand its mouth downwards), he shall offer to his teacher water for sipping.
7. And (he shall offer water for sipping in this manner) to other guests also who possess all (good qualities) together.
8. He shall imitate (his teacher) in rising, sitting, walking, about, and smiling.
[4. 'Though he may suspect tnat the teacher had been defiled by the touch of a Kândâla or the like, still he shall not show disgust nor wash himself.'--Haradatta. Regarding the rule of receiving guests, see below, II, 4, 8, 6 seq.
6. According to Haradatta, the repetition of the word dkiryam, 'the teacher,' in this Sûtra, indicates that the rule holds good not only when the teacher comes as a guest to his former pupil, but on every occasion when he receives water for sipping.
7. 'He is called samudeta, "possessed of all (good qualities) together," who is endowed with (good) birth, disposition, behaviour, (great) learning, and a (venerable) age.'--Haradatta.
8. The word syât is to be understood from Sûtra 5.]
9. In the presence (of his teacher) he shall not void excrements, discharge wind, speak aloud, laugh, spit, clean his teeth, blow his nose, frown, clap his hands, nor snap his fingers.
10. Nor shall he tenderly embrace or address caressing words to his wife or children.
11. He shall not contradict his teacher,
12. Nor any of his betters.
13. (He shall not) blame or revile any creature.
14. (He shall not revile one branch of) sacred learning by (invidiously comparing it with) another.
15. If he is not well versed in a (branch of) sacred learning (which he studied formerly), he shall again go to the (same) teacher and master it, observing the (same) rules as (during his first studentship).
16. The restrictions (to be kept) by the teacher from the beginning of the course of teaching to its end are, to avoid cutting the hair on the body, partaking of meat or of oblations to the Manes, and connection (with a woman).
17. Or (he may have conjugal intercourse) with his wife at the proper season.
18. He shall be attentive in instructing his pupils in the sacred learning, in such a manner that they
[13. Haradatta states that 'speaking evil' is forbidden here once more in order that it should be particularly avoided.
14. 'For example, he shall not say, "The Rig-veda is sweet to the ear, the other Vedas grate on the ear," or "the Taittirîya-veda is a Sâkhâ consisting of leavings," or "the Brâhmana proclaimed by Yâgñavalkya is of modern origin."'--Haradatta. The second sentence refers to the story that Yâgñavalkya vomited the Black Yagur-veda, and his fiellow-students, becoming partridges, picked it up. Regarding the third sentence, see Vârttika on Pânini IV, 3, 105, and Max Müller's History of Ancient Sanskrit Literature, P. 363.
16. Weber, Ind. Stud. X, 42.]
master it, and in observing the restrictions (imposed upon householders during their teaching . He who acts thus, gains heavenly bliss for himself, his descendants and ancestors.
19. He who entirely avoids with mind, word, nose, eye, and ear the sensual objects (such as are) enjoyed by the touch, the organ, or the stomach, gains immortality.


1. If he has any doubts regarding the caste and conduct of a person who has come to him in order to fulfil his duty (of learning the Veda), he shall kindle a fire (with the ceremonies prescribed for kindling the sacrificial fire) and ask him about his caste and conduct.
2. If he declares himself to be (of) good (family and conduct, the teacher elect) shall say, 'Agni who sees, Vâyu who hears, Âditya who brings to light, vouch for his goodness; may it be well with this person! He is free from sin.' Then he shall begin to teach him.
3. A guest comes to the house resembling a burning fire.
[6. 1. The person desirous to study addresses his teacher elect with the following Mantra: Bhagavan maitrena kakshushâ pasya sivena manasânugrihâna prasîda mâm adhyâpaya, 'venerable Sir, look on me with a friendly eye, receive me with a favourable mind, be kind and teach me.' The teacher elect then asks: Kimgotro 'si saumya, kimâkârah, 'friend, of what family art thou? what is thy rule of conduct?'
3. The object of this Sûtra is to show the absolute necessity of feeding a guest. For, if offended, he might burn the house with the flames of his anger.]
4. He is called a Srotriya who, observing the law (of studentship), has learned one recension of the Veda (which may be current in his family).
5. He is called a guest (who, being a Srotriya), approaches solely for the fulfilment of his religious duties, and with no other object, a householder who lives intent on the fulfilment of his duties.
6. The reward for honouring (such a guest) is immunity from misfortunes, and heavenly bliss.
7. He shall go to meet such (a guest), honour him according to his age (by the formulas of salutation prescribed), and cause a seat to be given to him.
8. Some declare that, if possible, the seat should have many feet.
9. The (householder himself) shall wash the feet of that (guest); according to some, two Sûdras shall do it.
10. One of them shall be employed in pouring water (over the guest, the other in washing his feet).
11. Some declare that the water for the (guest) shall be brought in an earthen vessel.
[4. The object of this Sûtra is to complete the definition of the term 'guest' to be given in the following Sûtra. In my translation I have followed Haradatta's gloss. The literal sense of Âpastamba's words is,. 'He who, observing the law, has studied one recension of each (of the four) Vedas, becomes a Srotriya.' Haradatta says this definition would be contrary to the current acceptation of the term. That argument proves, however, nothing for Âpastamba's times.
5. Manu III, 102, 103; Yâgñ. I, 111.
6. Yâgñ. I, 109; Manu III, 101.
8. Haradatta states that this is also Âpastamba's opinion.
11. According to Haradatta, Âpastamba is of opinion that it should be brought in a pot made of metal.]
12. But (a guest) who has not yet returned home from his teacher shall not be a cause for fetching water.
13. In case a (student comes, the host) shall repeat the Veda (together with him) for a longer time (than with other guests).
14. He shall converse kindly (with his guest), and gladden him with milk or other (drinks), with eatables, or at least with water.
15. He shall offer to his guest a room, a bed, a mattress, a pillow with a cover, and ointment, and what else (may be necessary).
16. (If the dinner has been finished before the arrival of the guest), he shall call his cook and give him rice or yava for (preparing a fresh meal for) the guest.
17. (If dinner is ready at the arrival of the guest), he himself shall portion out the food and look at it, saying (to himself), 'Is this (portion) greater, or this?'
18. He shall say, ' Take out a larger (portion for the guest).'
19. A guest who is at enmity (with his host) shall not eat his food, nor (shall he eat the food of a host) who hates him or accuses him of a crime, or of one who is suspected of a crime.
20. For it is declared in the Veda that he (who eats the food of such a person) eats his guilt.
[12. I.e. it is unnecessary to offer water for washing the feet to a student.
15. 'Ointment, (i.e.) oil or clarified butter for anointing the feet.'--Haradatta. Manu III, 107.
19. Manu III, 108.
19. Manu IV, 213; Yâgñ. I, 162.]


1. This reception of guests is an everlasting (Srauta)-sacrifice offered by the householder to Pragâpati.
2. The fire in the stomach of the guest (represents) the Âhavanîya, (the sacred fire) in the house of the host represents the Gârhapatya, the fire at which the food for the guest is cooked (represents) the fire used for cooking the sacrificial viands (the Dakshinâgni).
3. He who eats before his guest consumes the food, the prosperity, the issue, the cattle, the merit which his family acquired by sacrifices and charitable works.
4. Food (offered to guests) which is mixed with milk procures the reward of an Agnishtoma-sacrifice. Food mixed with clarified butter procures the reward of an Ukthya, food mixed with honey the reward of an Atirâtra, food accompanied by meat the reward of a Dvâdasâha, (food and) water numerous offspring and long life.
5. It is declared in the Veda, 'Both welcome and indifferent guests procure heaven (for their host).'
[7. 1. 'Prâgâpatya may mean either "created by Pragâpati" or sacred to Pragâpati."'--Haradatia.
2. in the first Sûtra the reception of guests had been compared to an everlasting Vedic sacrifice. This analog is traced further in detail in this Sûtra. One of the chief characteristics of a Vedic sacrifice is the vitâna, or the use of three sacred fires. Hence Âpastamba shows that three fires also are used in offering hospitality to guests.
4. Regarding the Agnisivorna and the other sacrifices mentioned, see Aitareya-brâhmana III, 8; IV, 1; IV, 4.]
6. When he gives food in the morning, at noon, and in the evening, (these gifts) are the Savanas (of that sacrifice offered to Pragâpati).
7. When he rises after his guest has risen (to depart), that act represents the Udavasânîyâ ishti (of a Vedic sacrifice).
8. When he addresses (the guest) kindly, that kind address (represents) the Dakshinâ.
9. When he follows (his departing guest, his steps represent) the steps of Vishnu.
10. When he returns (after having accompanied his guest), that (act represents) the Avabhritha, (the final bath performed after the completion of a sacrifice.)
11. Thus (a Brâhmana shall treat) a Brâhmana, (and a Kshatriya and a Vaisya their caste-fellows.)
12. If a guest comes to a king, he shall make (his Purohita) honour him more than himself
13. If a guest comes to an Agnihotrin, he himself
[6. The morning, midday, and evening offerings offered at the great Vedic sacrifices are called Savanas. The object of this Sûtra is to prescribe the hospitable reception of guests at a times of the day, and to further describe the similarity of a guest-offering to a Vedic sacrifice.
7. Regarding the Udavasânîyâ ishti, see Aitareya-brâhmana VIII, 5. It is the 'concluding ishti.'
8. Dakshini is the reward given to priests who officiate at a sacrifice.
9. 'The steps of Vishnu' are three steps which the sacrificer has to make between the Vedi and the Âhavanîya-fire. See Pet. Diet. s. v.
12. 'A guest,' i.e. such a one as described above, II, 3, 6, 4 and 5.
13. An Agnihotrin is a Brâhmana who offers certain daily burnt offerings called Agnihotra. The translation of the last clause renders tarpayantu, the reading of the Atharva-veda.]
shall go to meet him and say to him: 'O faithful fulfiller of thy vows, where didst thou stay (last night)?' (Then he offers water, saying): 'O faithful fulfiller of thy vows, here is water.' (Next he offers milk or the like, saying): 'O faithful fulfiller of thy vows, may (these fluids) refresh (thee).'
14. (If the guest stays at the time of the Agnihotra, he shall make him sit down to the north of the fire and) murmur in a low voice, before offering the oblations: 'O faithful fulfiller of thy vows, may it be as thy heart desires;' 'O faithful fulfiller of thy vows, may it be as thy will is;' 'O faithful fulfiller of thy vows, may it be as thy wish is;' 'O faithful fulfiller of thy vows, may it be as thy desire is.'
15. If a guest comes, after the fires have been placed (on the altar), but before the oblations have been offered, (the host) himself shall approach him and say to him: 'O faithful fulfiller of thy vows give me permission; I wish to sacrifice.' Then he shall sacrifice, after having received permission. A Brâhmana declares that he commits a sin if he sacrifices without permission.
16. He who entertains guests for one night obtains earthly happiness, a second night gains the middle air, a third heavenly bliss, a fourth the world of unsurpassable bliss; many nights procure endless worlds. That has been declared in the Veda.
17. If an unlearned person who pretends to be
[14. According to some, all these sentences must be pronounced; according to Haradatta, one only, which may be selected optionally.
15. Haradatta states that the Brâmana mentioned in the text is the Âharvana-brâhmana. See Atharva-veda. XV, 11-12.]
(worthy of the appellation) 'guest' comes to him, he shall give him a seat, water, and food, (thinking) 'I give it to a learned Brâhmana.' Thus (the merit) of his (gift) becomes (as) great (as if a learned Brâhmana had received it).


1. On the second and following days of the guest's stay, the host shall not rise or descend (from his couch) in order to salute his (guest), if he has been saluted before (on the first day).
2. He shall eat after his guests.
3. He shall not consume all the flavoured liquids in the house, so as to leave nothing for guests.
4. He shall not cause sweetmeats to be prepared for his own sake.
5. (A guest) who can repeat the (whole) Veda (together with the supplementary books) is worthy to receive a cow and the Madhuparka,
6. (And also) the teacher, an officiating priest, a Snâtaka, and a just king (though not learned in the Veda).
7. A cow and the Madhuparka (shall be offered) to the teacher, to an officiating priest, to a father-in-law, and to a king, if they come after a year has elapsed (since their former visit).
[8. 2. Manu III, 117; Yâgñ. I, 105.
3. Flavoured liquids, i.e. milk, whey, &c.
4. Manu III, 106.
5. Manu III, 119 and 120; Yâgñ. I, 110;: Weber, Ind. Stud. X, 125. A guest is also called goghna, 'cow-killer,' because formerly a cow used to be killed on the arrival of a distinguished guest. The rite is described by Âsvalâyana Grihya-sûtra I, 24, 31-33.]
8. The Madhuparka shall consist of curds mixed with honey, or of milk mixed with honey.
9. On failure (of these substances) water (mixed with honey may be used).
10. The Veda has six Angas (auxiliary works).
11. (The six auxiliary works are) the Kalpa (teaching the ritual) of the Veda, the treatises on grammar, astronomy, etymology, phonetics, and metrics.
12. (If any one should contend that) the term Veda (on account of its etymology, implying that which teaches duty or whereby one obtains spiritual merit) applies to the complete collection of (works which contain) rules for rites to be performed on the authority of precepts, (that, consequently, the Kalpa-sûtras form part of the Veda, and that thereby) the number (fixed above) for those (Angas) is proved to be wrong,
13. (Then we answer), All those who are learned in Mimâmsâ are agreed that (the terms Veda, Brâhmana, and the like, which are applied to) the principal (works), do not include the Angas (the Kalpa-sûtras and the rest). he remembers at any time during dinner,
14. If he remembers at any time that he has refused a guest, he shall at once leave off eating and fast on that day,
[8. Âsvalâyana Grihya-sûtra I, 24, 5 and 6.
10. This Sûtra explains the term vedâdhyâya, '(a guest) who can repeat the (whole) Veda,' which occurs above, Sûtra 5--Haradatta. See Max Müller's History of Ancient Sanskrit Literature, P. 111.
12. This Sûtra and the following one are directed against those who consider the Kalpa-sûtras to be a part of the Veda, the revealed texts. See also Max Müller's History of Ancient Sanskrit Literature, p. 95 seq.]


1. And on the following day (he shall search for himl, feast him to his heart's content, and accompany him (on his departure).
2. (If the guest) possesses a carriage, (he shall accompany him) as far as that.
3. Any other (guest he must accompany), until permission to return is given.
4. If (the guest) forgets (to give leave to depart), the (host) may return on reaching the boundary of his village.
5. To all (those who come for food) at (the end of) the Vaisvadeva he shall give a portion, even to dogs and Kandâlas.
6. Some declare that he shall not give anything to unworthy people (such as Kandâlas).
7. A person who has been initiated shall not eat the leavings of women or of an uninitiated person.
8. All gifts are to be preceded by (pouring out) water.
9. (But gifts offered to priests) at sacrifices (are to be given) in the manner prescribed by the Veda.
10. The division of the food must be made in such a manner that those who receive daily portions (slaves) do not suffer by it.
[9. 1. Yâgñ. I, 113.
7. After a long discussion on the object of this Sûtra, Haradatta comes to the conclusion that it is given 'against the improper custom to dine out of the same vessel with one's wife and uninitiated children, which prevails in some countries.'
8. 'Consequently a gift of food also.' The custom is to pour water, usually with the spoon called Darvî (Pallî), into the extended palm of the recipient's right hand.]
11. At his pleasure, he may stint himself, his wife, or his children, but by no means a slave who does his work.
12. And he must not stint himself so much that he becomes unable to perform his duties.
13. Now they quote also (the following two verses):
'Eight mouthfuls are the meal of an ascetic, sixteen that of a hermit living in the woods, thirtytwo that of a householder, and an unlimited quantity that of a student. An Agnihotrin, a. draught-ox, and a student, those three can do their work only if they eat; without eating (much), they cannot do it.'
[13. Manu VI, 28; Yâgñ. III, 55.]


1. The reasons for (which) begging (is permissible are), (the desire to collect the fee for) the teacher, (the celebration of) a wedding, (or of) a Srauta-sacrifice, the desire to keep one's father and mother, and the (impending) interruption of ceremonies performed by a worthy man.
2. (The person asked for alms) must examine the qualities (of the petitioner) and give according to his power.
3. But if persons ask for alms for the sake of sensual gratification, that is improper; he shall not take heed of that.
4. The lawful occupations of a Brâmana are,
[10. 1. Manu IV, 251; XI, 1 seq.; Yâgñ. I, 2 16. By the term arhat, I a worthy person,' a Brâhmana is here designated who has studied the Veda and performs an Agnihotra.
4. Manu I, 88; X, 15; Yâgñ. I, 118.]
studying, teaching, sacrificing for himself, officiating as priest for others, giving alms, receiving alms, inheriting, and gleaning corn in the fields;
5. And (he may live by taking) other things which belong to nobody.
6. (The lawful occupations) of a Kshatriya are the same, with the exception of teaching, officiating as priest, and receiving alms. (But) governing and fighting must be added.
7. (The lawful occupations) of a Vaisya are the same as those of a Kshatriya, with the exception of governing and fighting. (But in his case) agriculture, the tending of cattle, and trade must be added.
8. He (shall) not choose (for the performance of a Srauta-sacrifice) a priest who is unlearned in the Veda, nor one who haggles (about his fee).
9. (A priest) shall not officiate for a person unlearned in the Veda.
10. In war (Kshatriyas) shall act in such a manner as those order, who are learned in that (art of war).
11. The Âryas forbid the slaughter of those who have laid down their arms, of those who (beg for mercy) with flying hair or joined hands, and of fugitives.
12. The spiritual guide shall order those who,
[5. I.e. wild roots and fruits.
6. Manu I, 89; X, 77, 79; Yâgñ. I, 118, 119.
7. Manu I, 90; X, 78, 79; Yâgñ. loc. cit.
11. Manu VII, 91 seq.; Yâgñ. 1, 325.
12. Haradatta explains the words Sâstrair adhigatânâm, 'who whilst participating, according to the sacred law, (in the rights of their caste,)' by 'who have been sanctified according to the law by the sacraments, such as the Garbhâdhâna, and are entitled (to the rights and occupations of their caste).']
(whilst) participating according to sacred law (in the rights of their caste), have gone astray through the weakness of their senses, to perform penances proportionate to (the greatness of) their sins, according to the precepts (of the Smriti).
13. If (such persons) transgress their (Âkârya's) order, he shall take thern before the king.
14. The king shall (send them) to his domestic priest, who should be learned in the law and the science of governing.
15. He shall order (them to perform the proper penances if they are) Brâhmanas.
16. He shall reduce them (to reason) by forcible means, excepting corporal punishment and servitude.
[16. Probably this Sûtra is meant to give a general rule, and to exempt Brâhmanas in every case from corporal punishment and servitude. Manu VIII, 379-380.]


1. In the cases of (men of) other castes, the king, after having examined their actions, may punish them even by death.
2. And the king shall not punish on suspicion.
3. But having carefully investigated (the case) by means of questions (addressed to witnesses) and even of ordeals, the king may proceed to punish.
4. A king who acts thus, gains both (this and the next) world.
5. The road belongs to the king except if he meets a Brâhmana.
[11. 3. See also below, II, 11, 29, 6.
5. Manu II, 139; Yâgn. I, 117. According to Haradatta this Sûtra is given, though the precedence among the various castes has been already settled, in order to show that common Kshatriyas must make way for an anointed king.]
6. But if he meets a Brâhmana, the road belongs to the latter.
7. All must make way for a (laden) vehicle, for a person who carries a burden, for a sick man, for a woman and others (such as old men and infants).
8. And (way must be made), by the other castes, for those men who are superior by caste.
9. For their own welfare all men must make way for fools, outcasts, drunkards, and madmen.
10. In successive births men of the lower castes are born in the next higher one, if they have fulfilled their duties.
11. In successive births men of the higher castes are born in the next lower one, if they neglect their duties.
12. If he has a wife who (is willing and able) to perform (her share of) the religious duties and who bears sons, he shall not take a second.
13. If a wife is deficient in one of these two (qualities), he shall take another, (but) before he kindles the fires (of the Agnihotra).
14. For a wife who assists at the kindling of the fires, becomes connected with those religious rites of which that (fire-kindling) forms a part.
[6. Manu II, 138; Yâgñ. I, 117.
10. Manu X, 64, 65; Yâgñ. 1, 96.
12. Maru IX, 95; Yâgñ. I, 76.
13. Manu IX, 80, 81; Yâgñ. I, 73.
14. A wife who assists at the kindling of the fires for any sacrificial rite, becomes connected with that rite like any priest, and in that rite no other woman can take her place. Hence in the case of an Agnihotra, which lasts during the performer's lifetime, or at least as long as be is a householder, the performer cannot take another principal wife after be once has begun his sacrifice. If the wife of an Agnihotrin dies, he must inarry again, and also kindle his fires afresh. Manu V, 167, 168; Yâgñ. I 80.]
15. He shall not give his daughter to a man belonging to the same family (Gotra),
16. Nor to one related (within six degrees) on the mother's or (the father's) side.
17. At the wedding called Brâhma, he shall give away (his daughter) for bearing children and performing the rites that must be performed together (by a husband and his wife), after having enquired regarding (the bridegroom's) family, character, learning, and health, and after having given (to the bride) ornaments according to his power.
18. At the wedding called Arsha, the bridegroom shall present to the father of the bride a bull and a cow.
19. At the wedding called Daiva, (the father) shall give her to an officiating priest, who is performing a Srauta-sacrifice.
[15. The term Gotra corresponds to the Latin Gens. It may be of two kinds, Vaidika for Brâhmanas and Laukika, 'worldly', for men of other castes. In the first case it denotes 'persons descended from the same Rishi;' in the second, 'persons distinguished by the same family name, or known to be descended from the same ancestor.' In our days Brâhmanas also have Laukika Gotras, which form subdivisions of the very large Vedic Gotras. Regarding the Vaidika Gotras, see Max Müller's History of Ancient Sanskrit Literature, pp. 379-390, and particularly p. 387. Manu III, 5; Yâgñ. I, 33; Weber, Ind. Stud. X, 75 seq.
16. The term yonisambandha, 'related (within six degrees),' corresponds to the more common Sapinda of Manu, Yâgñavalkya, and others; see the definitions given below, II, 6, 15, 2. In Âpastamba's terminology Sapinda has probably a more restricted sense. It seems very doubtful whether Haradatta's explanation of ka, translated by 'or,' is correct, and whether his interpolation of 'the father's' ought to be admitted. Probably Sûtra 15 refers to the father's side, and Sûtra 16 to the mother's side.
17. Manu III, 27; Yâgñ. I, 58.
18. Manu III, 29; Yâgñ. I, 59.
19. Manu III, 28; Yâgñ. I, 59.]
20. If a maiden and a lover unite themselves through love, that is called the Gândharva-rite.
[20. Manu III, 32; Yâgñ. I, 61.]


1. If the suitor pays money (for his bride) according to his ability, and marries her (afterwards), that (marriage is called) the Âsura-rite.
2. If the (bridegroom and his friends) take away (the bride), after having overcome (by force) her father (or relations), that is called the Râkshasa-rite.
3. The first three amongst these (marriage-rites are considered) praiseworthy; each preceding one better than the one following.
4. The quality of the offspring is according to the quality of the marriage-rite.
5. He shall not step on a spot which has been touched by the hand of a Brâhmana, without having sprinkled it with water.
6. He shall not pass between a fire and a Brâhmana,
7. Nor between Brâhmanas.
8. Or he may pass between them after having received permission to do so.
9. He shall not carry fire and water at the same time.
[12. 1. Manu III, 31; Yâgñ. I, 61. It must be understood that, at this rite, a regular sale of the bride must take place. If a suitor merely gives presents to the bride, that is not an Âsura-marriage.
2. Manu III, 33; Yâgñ. I, 61. Haradatta points out that the other law-books enumerate two additional marriage-rites, the Prâgâpatya or Kâya and the Paisâka. But Vasishtha I, 29-35, like Âpastamba, gives six rites only.
3. Manu III, 24, 25; Yâgñ. I, 58-60.
4. I.e. from praiseworthy marriages virtuous children are born, and from blamable marriages bad ones. Manu III, 42.]
10. He shall not carry fires (burning in) separate (places) to one (spot).
11. If, whilst he walks, fire is being carried towards him, he shall not walk around it with his right hand turned towards it, except after it has been placed on the ground.
12. He shall not join his hands on his back.
13. If the sun sets whilst he sleeps, he shall sit up, fasting and silent, for that night. On the following morning he shall bathe and then raise his voice (in prayer).
14. If the sun rises whilst he is asleep, he shall stand during that day fasting and silent.
15. Some declare that he shall restrain his breath until he is tired.
16. And (he shall restrain his breath until he is tired) if he has had a bad dream,
17. Or if he desires to accomplish some object,
18. Or if he has transgressed some other rule.
19. (If he is) doubtful (whether) the result (of an action will be good or evil), he shall not do it.
20. (He shall follow) the same principle (if he is in doubt whether he ought) to study or not.
21. He shall not talk of a doubtful matter as if it were clear.
22. In the case of a person who slept at sunset, of
[10. Another commentator says, 'He shall not throw (brands taken from) one fire into another fire.'--Haradatta.
11. The Sûtra implies that under other circumstances he must show this respect to a fire.
13. Manu II, 220.
18. Manu XI, 200.
21. See above, I, 11, 32, 22.
22. These sinners are, enumerated in nearly the same order, Taittirîya-brâhmana III, 2, 8, 11 and 12, and Âp. Srauta-sûtra IX, 12, 11. See also Manu XI, 44-49. Regarding the crimes causing impurity, see above, I, 7, 21, 12-19.]
one who slept at sunrise, of one who has black nails, or black teeth, of one who married a younger sister before the elder one was married, of one who married an elder sister whose younger sister had been married already, (of a younger brother who has kindled the sacred Grihya-fire before his elder brother,) of one whose younger brother has kindled the sacred fire first, (of a younger brother who offers a Soma-sacrifice before his elder brother,) of an elder brother whose younger brother offered a Soma-sacrifice first, of an elder brother who marries or receives his portion of the inheritance after his younger brother, and of a younger brother who takes a wife or receives his portion of the inheritance before his elder brother,-penances ordained for crimes causing impurity, a heavier one for each succeeding case, must be performed.
23. Some declare, that after having performed that penance, he shall remove its cause.
[23. 'Its cause, i.e. the black nails, &c. According to another Smriti, one shall not put away a wife or extinguish a fire, for the taking or kindling of which the penance had to be performed.'--Haradatta. But see Vasishiha XX, 7 seq.]


1. Sons begotten by a man who approaches in the proper season a woman of equal caste, who has
[13. 1. 'Sâstravihitâ (translated by "who has been married to him legally") means either "married according to the rites prescribed ia the Sûtras," or "possessed of the qualities (which have been described) by (the rule of) the Sâtras, He shall not give his daughter to a man of the same Gotra," and in similar (passages).'Haradatta. See also Colebrooke, Digest, Book V, Text cxcix.]
not belonged to another man, and who has been married legally, have a right to (follow) the occupations (of their castes),
2. And to (inherit the) estate,
3. If they do not sin against either (of their parents).
4. If a man approaches a woman who had been married before, or was not legally married to him, or, belongs to a different caste, they both commit a sin.
5. Through their (sin) their son also becomes sinful.
6. A Brâhmana (says), 'The son belongs to the begetter.'
7. Now they quote also (the following Gâthâ from the Veda): '(Having considered myself) formerly a father, I shall not now allow (any longer) my wives (to be approached by other men), since they have declared that a son belongs to the begetter in the world of Yama. The giver of the seed carries off the son after death in Yama's world; therefore they guard
[3. Another (commentator) says, 'Neither of the parents shall pass them over at (the distribution of) the heritage. Both (parents) must leave their property to them.'--Haradatta. The text of the Sûtra admits of either explanation.
6. See also Manu IX, 32 seq., where the same difference of opinion occurs.
7. According to Haradatta this Gâthâ gives the sentiments of a husband who neglected to watch his wives, and who had heard from those learned in the law that the sons or his unfaithful wives would in the next world belong to their natural fathers, and that be would not derive any spiritual benefit from their oblations. He adds that this verse does not refer to or prevent the appointment of a eunuch's wife or of a childless widow to a relation. He also quotes a passage from the Srauta-sûtra 1, 9, 7, in which the dvipiti, 'the son of two fathers,' is mentioned. But Haradatta's view cannot be reconciled with the statements made below, II, 10, 27, 2-7, where the Niyoga, is plainly forbidden. Baudhiyana, who (II, 2, 3, 34) quotes the same Gâthâ, reads in the first line the vocative 'ganaka' instead of the nominative 'ganakah,' and in the fifth line 'pare bîgâni' instead of 'parabîgâni.' The commentator Govindasvâmin adds that the verses are addressed by the Rishi Aupaganghani to king Ganaka of Videha. The translation of the first line must therefore run thus: 'O Ganaka, now I am jealous of my wives, (though I was) not so formerly,' &c. Baudhâyana's readings are probably the older ones, and Govindasvâmin's explanation the right one. See also Colebrooke, Digest, Book V, Text ccli.]
their wives, fearing the seed of strangers. Carefully watch over (the procreation of) your children, lest stranger seed be sown on your soil. In the next world the son belongs to the begetter, an (imprudent) husband makes the (begetting of) children vain (for himself).'
8. Transgression of the law and violence are found amongst the ancient (sages).
9. They committed no sin on account of the greatness of their lustre.
10. A man of later times who seeing their (deeds) follows them, falls.
11. The gift (or acceptance of a child) and the right to sell (or buy) a child are not recognised.
12. It is declared in the Veda that at the time of marriage a gift, for (the fulfilment of) his wishes, should be made (by the bridegroom) to the father
[11. Haradatta thinks that, as most other Smritis enumerate the adopted son, and 'the son bought' in their lists of substitutes for lawful sons of the body, Âpastamba's rule can refer only to the gift or sale of an eldest son, or to the gift or sale of a child effected by a woman. Though it is possible that he mly be right in his interpretation, it remains a remarkable fact that Âpastamba does not mention the 'twelve kinds of sons,' which are known to other Smritis.
12. This Sûtra seems to be directed against Vasishtha I, 36.]
of the bride, in order to fulfil the law. 'Therefore he should give a hundred (cows) besides a chariot; that (gift) he should make bootless (by returning it to the giver).' In reference to those (marriage-rites), the word 'sale' (which occurs in some Smritis is only used as) a metaphorical expression; for the union (of the husband and wife) is effected through the law.
13. After having gladdened the eldest son by some (choice portion of his) wealth,


1. He should, during his lifetime, divide his wealth equally amongst his sons, excepting the eunuch, the mad man, and the outcast.
2. On failure of sons the nearest Sapinda (takes the inheritance).
[14. 1. The last Sûtra of Khanda 13 and the first of Khanda 14 are quoted by Colebrooke, Digest, Book V, Text xlii, and Mitâksharâ, Chap. I, Sect. iii, Par. 6. Colebrooke translates gîvan, 'during his lifetime,' by 'who makes a partition during his lifetime.' I think that this is not quite correct, and that Âpastamba intends to exhort householders to make a division during their lifetime, as later they ought to become ascetics or hermits. Haradatta introduces into his commentary on this Sûtra the whole chapter on the division of a father's estate amongst his sons, supplementing Âpastamba's short rule by the texts of other lawyers. No doubt, Âpastamba means to lay down, in these and the following Sûtras, only the leading principles of the law of inheritance, and he intends that the remaining particulars should be supplied from the law of custom or other Smritis.
2. Haradatta gives in his commentary a full summary of the rules on the succession of remoter relations. One point only deserves special mention. He declares that it is the opinion of Âpastamba, that widows cannot inherit. In this he is probably right, as Âpastamba does not mention thern, and the use of the masculine singular 'sapindah' in the text precludes the possibility of including them under that collective term. It seems to me certain, that Âpastamba, like Baudhâyana, considered women, especially widows, unfit to inherit.]
3. On failure of them the spiritual teacher (inherits); on failure of the spiritual teacher a pupil shall take (the deceased's wealth), and use it for religious works for the (deceased's) benefit, or (he himself may enjoy it);
4. Or the daughter (may take the inheritance).
5. On failure of all (relations) let the king take the inheritance.
6. Some declare, that the eldest son alone inherits.
7. In some countries gold, (or) black cattle, (or) black produce of the earth is the share of the eldest.
8. The chariot and the furniture in the house are the father's (share).
[4. 'Some say "on failure of sons," others that the rule refers to the preceding Sûtra (i.e. that the daughter inherits on failure of pupils only).'--Haradatta. The latter seems to be the correct interpretation.
5. 'Because the word " all " is used, (the king shall take the estate) only on failure of Bandhus and Sagotras, i.e. gentiles within twelve degrees.'--Haradatta.
6. 'The other sons shall live under his protection.'--Haradatta. Colebrooke, Mitâksharâ, Chap. I, Sect. iii, Par. 6.
7. '"Black produce of the earth," i.e. black grain, or according to others black iron.'--Haradatta. Compare for this and the following Sûtras Colebrooke, Mitâksharâ, Chap. I, Sect. iii, Par. 6, and Digest, Book V, Text xlviii.
8. The translation given above agrees with what I now recognise to be Haradatta's explanation, and with Colebrooke, Mitâksharâ, Chap. I, Sect. iii, Par. 6. Both the P. U. and Mr. U. MSS. of the Uggvalâ read rathah pituramso grihe yatparibhândam upakaranam pîthâdi tadapi, 'the chariot (is) the father's share; the furniture which (is) in the house, that also.' To this reading Mahideva's Uggvalâ on the Hiranyakesi Sûtra points likewise, which gives pîtur antah. The N. U. MS. of the Uggvalâ, according to which I made the translation given in the Appendix to West and Biffiler's Digest (ist edition), leaves out the word amsah, and therefore makes it necessary to combine this Sûtra, with the preceding one, and to translate, 'The father's chariot and the furniture in the house (are) also (the share of the eldest).' This latter translation agrees nearly with that given by Colebrooke, Digest, Book V, Text xlviii, where this and the preceding Sûtra have been joined; but the chariot is not mentioned. A further variation in the interpretation of this Sûtra occurs in Colebrooke's Digest, Book V, Text lxxxix, and Mitâksharâ, loc. cit., where the words 'the furniture in the house' are joined with Sûtra 9, and the furniture is declared to be the wife's share. Considering that Sûtra 9 is again quoted in Colebrooke's Digest, Book V, Text cccclxxii, and is not joined with the latter part of Sûtra 8, it is not too much to say that Gagannâtha has not shown any greater accuracy than his brethren usually do.]
9. According to some, the share of the wife consists of her ornaments, and the wealth (which she may have received) from her relations.
10. That (preference of the eldest son) is forbidden by the Sâstras.
11. For it is declared in the Veda, without (marking) a difference (in the treatment of the sons): Manu divided his wealth amongst his sons.
12. Now the Veda declares also in conformity with (the rule in favour of the eldest son) alone: They distinguish the eldest by (a larger share of) the heritage.
[9. The Mitâksharâ, loc. cit., apparently takes the words 'according to some' as referring only, to property received from relations. I follow Haradatta. The former interpretation is, however, admissible, if the Sûtra is split into two.
10. The Sâstras are, according to Haradatta, the Vedas.
11. Taittirîyâ Samhitâ III, 1, 9, 4.
12. 'Athâpi (now also) means "and certainly." They distinguish, they set apart the eldest son by wealth: this has been declared in the Veda in conformity with (the rule regarding) one (heir, Sûtra 6). He denies (Sûtra 13) that a passage also, which agrees with the statement that the eldest son alone inherits, is found in the Veda.'-Haradatta. See Taittirîyâ Samhitâ II, 5, 2, 7.]
13. (But to this plea in favour of the eldest I answer): Now those who are acquainted with the interpretation of the law declare a statement of facts not to be a rule, as for instance (the following): 'Therefore amongst cattle, goats and sheep walk together;' (or the following), 'Therefore the face of a learned Brâhmana (a Snâtaka) is, as it were, resplendent;' (or), 'A Brâhmana who has studied the Vedas (a Srotriya) and a he-goat evince the strongest sexual desires.'
14. Therefore all (sons) who are virtuous inherit.
15. But him who expends money unrighteously, he shall disinherit, though he be the eldest son.
16. No division takes place between husband and wife.
[13. Those who are acquainted with the interpretation of the law are the Mimâmsakas. The translation of the second Vedic passage is by no means certain, as the root ribh, translated by 'to be resplendent,' usually means 'to give a sound.' Haradatta thinks that Âpastamba means to show that the passage 'Manu divided his wealth among his sons' is likewise merely a statement of facts, and cannot be considered a rule. This is probably erroneous, as Sûtras 10 and 11 distinctly state, that the practice to allow the eldest alone to inherit, is forbidden by the abovementioned passage of the Veda.
15. Compare for this Sûtra and the following one Colebrooke's Digest, Book V, Text cccxv. The translation of pratipâdayati, 'expends,' by 'gains,' which is also proposed by Gagannâtha, is against Âpastamba's usage, see II, 5, 11, 17, and below, II, 8, 20, 19.
16. According to Haradatta, this Sûtra gives the reason why, in Sûtra i, no share has been set apart for the wife. Compare Colebrooke's Digest, Book V, Text lxxxix, for this Sûtra and the following two.]
17. For, from the time of marriage, they are united in religious ceremonies,
18. Likewise also as regards the rewards for works by which spiritual merit is acquired,
19. And with respect to the acquisition of property.
20. For they declare that it is not a theft if a wife spends money on occasions (of necessity) during her husband's absence.
[20. See below, II, 11, 29, 3.]


1. By this (discussion) the law of custom, which is observed in (particular) countries or families, has been disposed of.
2. On account of the blood relations of his mother and (on account of those) of his father Within six degrees, or, as far as the relationship is traceable, he shall bathe if they die, excepting children that have not completed their first year.
3. On account of the death of the latter the parents alone bathe,
4. And those who bury them.
5. If a wife or one of the chief Gurus (a father or Âkârya) die, besides, fasting (is ordained from the time at which they die) up to the same time (on the following day).
[15. 1. Customs are to be followed only if they are not opposed to the teaching of the Vedas and Smritis.
2. Manu. V, 60; Yâgñ. I, 53; Manu V, 60; Manu V, 58; Yâgñ. III, 3.
4. Manu V, 69 and 70.
5. Manu V, 80.]
6. (In that case) they shall also show the (following) signs of mourning:
7. Dishevelling their hair and covering themselves with dust (they go outside the village), and, clothed with one garment, their faces turned to the south, stepping into the river they throw up water for the dead once, and then, ascending (the bank), they sit down.
8. This (they repeat) thrice.
9. They pour out water consecrated in such a manner that the dead will know it (to be given to them). Then they return to the village without looking back, and perform those rites for the dead which (pious) women declare to be necessary.
10. Some declare, that these same (observances) shall also be kept in the case (of the death) of other (Sapindas).
11. At all religious ceremonies, he shall feed Brâhmanas who are pure and who have (studied and remember) the Veda.
12. He shall distribute his gifts at the proper places, at the proper times, at the occasion of purificatory rites, and to proper recipients.
13. That food must not be eaten of which (no portion) is offered in the fire, and of which no portion is first given (to guests).
[7-9. Yâgñ. III, 5, 7 seq. The Mantra to be spoken in throwing the water is, 'I give this water to you N. N. of the family of N. N.' The water ought to be mixed with sesamum. According to Haradatta those who know the correct interpretation, declare that the word' women' denotes in this Sûtra 'the Smritis.' But I fear these learned interpreters will find few adherents among those who pay attention to the last Sûtra of this work.
11. Manu III, 128.
12.Manu III, 98.]
14. No food mixed with pungent condiments or salt can be offered as a burnt-offering.
15. Nor (can food) mixed with bad food (be used for a burnt-oblation).
16. If (he is obliged to offer) a burnt-offering of food unfit for that purpose, he shall take hot ashes from the northern part of his fire and offer the food in that. That oblation is no oblation in the fire.
17. A female shall not offer any burnt-oblation,
18. Nor a child, that has not been initiated.
19. Infants do not become impure before they receive the sacrament called Annaprâsana (the first feeding).
20. Some (declare, that they cannot become impure) until they have completed their first year,
21. Or, as long as they cannot distinguish the points of the horizon.
22. The best (opinion is, that they cannot be defiled) until the initiation has been performed.
23. For at that (time a child) according to the rules of the Veda obtains the right (to perform the various religious ceremonies).
[14. 'That (substance) is called kshira, "of pungent or alkaline taste," the eating of which makes the saliva flow.'--Haradatta.
15. Avarânna, 'bad food,' is explained by 'kulittha and the like.' Kulittha, a kind of vetch, is considered low food, and eaten by the lower castes only. The meaning of the Sûtra, therefore, is, 'If anybody has been forced by poverty to mix his rice or Dâl with kulittha or similar bad food, he cannot offer a burnt-oblation at the Vaisvadeva ceremony with that. He must observe the rule, given in the following Sûtra.
17. Manu V, 155; XI, 36.
18. Manu II, 171.]
24. That ceremony is the limit (from which the capacity to fulfil the law begins).
25. And the Smriti (agrees with this opinion).
[25. Haradatta quotes Gautama II, 1-3, on this point, and is apparently of opinion that Âpastamba alludes to the same passage. But he is probably wrong, as all Smritis are agreed on the point mentioned by Âpastamba.]


1. Formerly men and gods lived together in this world. Then the gods in reward of their sacrifices went to heaven, but men were left behind. Those men who perform sacrifices in the same manner as the gods did, dwell (after death) with the gods and Brahman in heaven. Now (seeing men left behind), Manu revealed this ceremony, which is designated by the word Srâddha (a funeral-oblation).
2. And (thus this rite has been revealed) for the salvation of mankind.
3. At that (rite) the Manes (of one's father, grandfather, and great-grand father) are the deities (to whom the sacrifice is offered). But the Brâhmanas, (who are fed,) represent the Ahavantya-fire.
4. That rite must be performed in each month.
[16. 1. 'Intending to give the rules regarding the monthly Sriddha, he premises this explanatory statement in order to praise that sacrifice.'-Haradatta.
2. The reading 'nihsreyasâ ka' apparently has given great trouble to the commentators. Their explanations are, however, grammatically impossible. The right one is to take 'nihsreyasâ as a Vedic instrumental, for nihsreyasena, which may designate the 'reason'. If the dative is read, the sense remains the same.
3. 'The comparison of the Brâhmanas with the Âhavanîya indicates that to feed Brâhmanas is the chief act at a Srâddha.'--Haradatta.
4. Manu III, 122, 123; Yâgñ. I, 217.]
5. The afternoon of (a day of) the latter half is preferable (for it).
6. The last days of the latter half (of the month) likewise are (preferable to the first days).
7. (A funeral-oblation) offered on any day of the latter half of the month gladdens the Manes. But it procures different rewards for the sacrificer according to the time observed.
8. If it be performed on the first day of the half-month, the issue (of the sacrificer) will chiefly consist of females.
9. (Performed on the second day it procures) children who are free from thievish propensities.
10. (If it is performed) on the third day children will be born to him who will fulfil the various vows for studying (portions of the Veda).
11. (The sacrificer who performs it) on the fourth day becomes rich in small domestic animals.
12. (If he performs it) on the fifth day, sons (will be born to him). He will have numerous and distinguished offspring, and he will not die childless.
13. (If he performs it) on the sixth day, he will become a great traveller and gambler.
14. (The reward of a funeral-oblation performed) on the seventh day is success in agriculture.
15. (If he performs it) on the eighth day (its reward is) prosperity
16. (If he performs it) on the ninth day (its reward consists in) one-hoofed animals.
[5. Manu III, 255, 278.
7. Manu III, 277; Yâgñ. I, 264, 265.
12. The translation follows the corrected reading given in the Addenda to the Critical Notes.]
17. (If he performs it) on the tenth day (its reward is) success in trade.
18. (If he performs it) on the eleventh day (its reward is) black iron, tin, and lead.
19. (If he performs a funeral-oblation) on the twelfth day, he will become rich in cattle.
20. (If he performs it) on the thirteenth day, he will have many sons (and) many friends, (and) his offspring will be beautiful. But his (sons) will die young.
21. (If he performs it) on the fourteenth day (its reward is) success in battle.
22. (If he performs it) on the fifteenth day (its reward is) prosperity.
23. The substances (to be offered) at these (sacrifices) are sesamum, mâsha, rice, yava, water, roots, and fruits.
24. But, if food mixed with fat (is offered), the satisfaction of the Manes is greater, and (lasts) a longer time,
25. Likewise, if money, lawfully acquired, is given to worthy (persons).
26. Beef satisfies (the Manes) for a year,
[20. Others read the last part of the Sûtra, ayuvamârmas-tu bhavanti, 'they will not die young'--Haradatta. If the two halves of the Sûtra are joined and Darsanîyâpatyoyuvamârinah is read, the Sandhi may be dissolved in either manner.
21. Manu III, 276, and Yâgñ. I, 263, declare the fourteenth day to be unfit for a Srâddha, and the latter adds that Srâddhas for men killed in battle may be offered on that day. This latter statement explains why Âpastamba declares its reward to be 'success in battle.' The nature of the reward shows that on that day Kshatriyas, not Brâhmanas, should offer their Srâddhas.
23. Manu III, 267; Yâgñ. I, 257.
26. Manu III, 271.]
27. Buffalo's (meat) for a longer (time) than that.
28. By this (permission of the use of buffalo's meat) it has been declared that the meat of (other) tame and wild animals is fit to be offered.


1. (If) rhinoceros' meat (is given to Brâhmanas seated) on (seats covered with) the skin of a rhinoceros, (the Manes are satisfied) for a very long time.
2. (The same effect is obtained) by (offering the) flesh (of the fish called) Satabali,
3. And by (offering the) meat of the (crane called) Vârdhrânasa.
4. Pure, with composed mind and full of ardour, he shall feed Brâhmanas who know the Vedas, and who are not connected with him by marriage, blood relationship, by the relationship of sacrificial priest and sacrificer, or by the relationship of (teacher and) pupil.
5. If strangers are deficient in the (requisite) good qualities, even a full brother who possesses them, may be fed (at a Srâddha).
6. (The admissibility of) pupils (and the rest) has been declared hereby.
7. Now they quote also (in regard to this matter the following verse):
8. The food eaten (at a sacrifice) by persons related to the giver is, indeed, a gift offered to the goblins. It reaches neither the Manes nor the
[17. 1. Manu III, 272; Yâgñ. I, 259.
2. Manu V, 16, where Rohita is explained by Satabali.
4. Manu III, 128-138, and 149, 188; Yâgñ. I, 225.
8. See Manu III, 141, where this Trishtubh has been turned into an Anushtubh.]
gods. Losing its power (to procure heaven), it errs about in this world as a cow that has lost its calf runs into a strange stable.
9. The meaning (of the verse) is, that gifts which are eaten (and offered) mutually by relations, (and thus go) from one house to the other, perish in this world.
10. If the good qualities (of several persons who might be invited) are equal, old men and (amongst these) poor ones, who wish to come, have the preference.
11. On the day before (the ceremony) the (first) invitation (must be issued).
12. On the following day the second invitation takes place.
13. (On the same day also takes place) the third invitation (which consists in the call to dinner).
14. Some declare, that every act at a funeral sacrifice must be repeated three times.
15. As (the acts are performed) the first time, so they must be repeated) the second and the third times.
16. When all (the three oblations) have been
[11. Manu III, 187; Yâgñ. I, 225. According to Haradatta the formula of invitation is, Svah srâddham bhavitâ, tatrâhavanîyârthe bhavadbhih prasâde kartavya iti, 'to-morrow a Srâddha will take place. Do me the favour to take at that the place of the Âhavanîya-fire.'
12. The formula is, Adya srâddham, 'to-day the Srâddha takes place.'
13. The call to dinner is, Siddham âgamyatim, 'the food is ready; come.'
16. Âpastamba Grihya-sûtra VIII, 2 1, 9. 'He shall eat it pronouncing the Mantra, "Prâne nivishtosmritam guhomi."' Taitt. Âr. X, 34, 1.]
offered, he shall take a portion of the food of all (three), and shall eat a small mouthful of the remainder in the manner described (in the Grihyasûtra).
17. But the custom of the Northerners is to pour into the hands of the Brâhmanas, when they are seated on their seats, (water which has been taken from the water-vessel.)
18. (At the time of the burnt-offering which is offered at the beginning of the dinner) he addresses the Brâhmanas with this Mantra: 'Let it be taken out, and let it be offered in the fire.'
19. (They shall give their permission with this Mantra): 'Let it be taken out at thy pleasure, let it be offered in the fire at thy pleasure.' Having received this permission, he shall take out (some of the prepared food) and offer it.
20. They blame it, if dogs and Apapitras are allowed to see the performance of a funeral-sacrifice.
21. The following persons defile the company if they are invited to a funeral-sacrifice, viz. a leper, a bald man, the violator of another man's bed, the son of a Brâhmana who follows the profession of a Kshatriya, and the son of (a Brâhmana who by marrving first a Sûdra wife had himself become) a Sûdra, born from a Brâhmana woman.
[17. The North of India begins to the north of the river Sarâvati. The rule alluded to is given by Yâgñ. I. 226, 229, Manu III, 2 10.
18. Yâgñ. I, 235. 20. Manu III. 239.
21. Manu III, 152-166, and particularly 153 and 154 Yâgñ. I. 222-224. Haradatta's explanation of the word - 'Sûdra' by 'a Brâhmana who has become a Sûdra' is probably not because the son of a real Sûdra and of a Brâhmana female is a Ksadâla and has been disposed of by the preceding Sûtra.]
22. The following persons sanctify the company if they eat at a funeral-sacrifice, viz. one who has studied the three verses of the Veda containing the word 'Madhu,' each three times; one who has studied the part of the Veda containing the word 'Suparna' three times; a Trinâkiketa; one who has studied the Mantras required for the four sacrifices (called Asvamedha, Purushamedha, Sarvamedha, and Pitrimedha); one who keeps five fires; one who knows the Sâman called Gyeshtha; one who fulfils the cluty of daily study; the son of one who has studied and is able to teach the whole Veda with its Angas, and a Srotriya.
23. He shall not perform (any part of) a funeral sacrifice at night.
24. After having begun (a funeral-sacrifice), he shall not eat until he has finished it.
25. (He shall not perform a funeral-sacrifice at
[22. Compare Manu III, 185, 186; Yâgñ. I, 219-221. The three verses to be known by a Trimadhu are, Madhu vâtâ ritâyate, &c., which occur both in the Taitt. Samh. and in the Taitt. Âr. The explanation of Trisuparna is not certain. Haradatta thinks that it may mean either a person who knows the three verses Katuslikapardâ yuvatih supesâ, &c., Taittirîya-brâhmana I, 2, 1, 27, &c., or one who knows the three Anuvâkas from the Taittirîya kranyaka X, 48-50, beginning, Brahmarnetu mim, &c. The word 'Trinâkiketa' has three explanations:-a. A person who knows the Nâkiketa-fire according to the Taittirîyaka, Kathavalli, and the Satapatha, i.e. has studied the portions on the Nikiketa-fire in these three books. b. A person who has thrice kindled the Nikiketa-fire. c. A person who has studied the Anuvâka, called Viragas. Katurmedha may also mean 'one who has performed the four sacrifices' enumerated above.
23. Manu III, 280.
24. 'The Srâddha is stated to begin with the first invitation to the Brahmans.'--Haradatta.
25. 'The Northerners do not generally receive this Sûtra, and therefore former commentators have not explained it.'--Haradatta.]
night), except if an eclipse of the moon takes place.


1. He shall avoid butter, butter-milk, oil-cake, honey, meat.
2. And black grain (Such as kulittha), food given by Sûdras, or by other persons, whose food is not considered fit to be eaten.
3. And food unfit for oblations, speaking an untruth, anger, and (acts or words) by which he might excite anger. He who desires a (good) memory, fame, wisdom, heavenly bliss, and prosperity, shall avoid these twelve (things and acts);
4. Wearing a dress that reaches from the navel to the knees, bathing morning, noon, and evening, living on food that has not been cooked at a fire, never seeking the shade, standing (during the day), and sitting (during the night), he shall keep this vow for one year. They declare, that (its merit) is equal to that of a studentship continued for forty-eight years.
5. (Now follows) the daily funeral-oblation.
6, Outside the village pure (men shall) prepare (the food for that rite) in a pure place.
[18. 1. Sûtras 1-4 contain rules for a vow to be kept for the special objects mentioned in Sûtras 3 and 4 for one year only Haradatta (on Sûtra 4) says that another commentator thinks that Sûtras 1-3 prescribe one vow, and Sûtra 4 another, and that the latter applies both to householders and students. A passage front Baudhâyana is quoted in support of this latter view.
5. Manu III, 82 seq.
6. The term ' pure (men) ' is used in order to indicate that they must be so particularly, because, by II, 2, 3, 11, purity has already been prescribed for cooks.]
7. New vessels are, used for that,
8. In which the food is prepared, and out of which it is eaten.
9. And those (vessels) he shall present to the (Brâhmanas) who have been fed.
10. And he shall feed (Brâhmanas) possessed of all (good qualities).
11. And he shall hot give the residue (of that funeral-dinner) to one who is inferior to them in good qualities.
12. Thus (he shall act every day) during a year.
13. The last of these (funeral-oblations) he shall perform, offering a red goat.
14. And let him cause an altar to be built, concealed (by a covering and outside the village).
15. Let him feed the Brâhmanas on the northern half of that.
16. They declare, that (then) he sees both the Brâhmanas who eat and the Manes sitting on the altar.
17. After that he may offer (a funeral-sacrifice once a month) or stop altogether.
18. For (by appearing on the altar) the Manes signify that they are satisfied by the funeral offering.
19. Under the constellation Tishya he who desires prosperity,
[7. For the unusual meaning of dravya, 'vessel,' compare the term sîtâdravyâni, 'implements of husbandry,'--Manu IX, 293, and the Petersburg Dict. s. v.
13. The red goat is mentioned as particularly fit for a Srâddha, Yâgñ. I, 259, and Manu III, 272.]


1. Shall cause to be prepared powder of white mustard-seeds, cause his hands, feet, ears, and mouth to be rubbed with that, and shall eat (the remainder). If the wind does not blow too violently, he shall eat sitting, silent and his face turned towards the south, on a seat (facing the) same (direction)the first alternative is the skin of a he-goat.
2. But they declare, that the life of the mother of that person who eats at this ceremony, his face turned in that direction, will be shortened.
3. A vessel of brass, the centre of which is gilt, is best (for this occasion).
4. And nobody else shall eat out of that vessel.
5. He shall make a lump of as much (food) as he can swallow (at once).
6. (And he shall) not scatter anything (on the ground).
7. He shall not let go the vessel (with his left hand);
8. Or he may let it go.
[19. 1. The ceremony which is here described, may also be performed daily. If the reading prâsya is adopted, the translation must run thus: 'and he shall scatter (the remainder of the powder). If the wind,' &c.
2. 'Therefore those whose mothers are alive should not perform this ceremony.'--Haradatta.
4. If the masculine bhoktavyah is used instead of bhoktavyam, the participle must be construed with kamasah.
5. The verbum finitum, which according to the Sanskrit text ought to be taken with the participle samnayan, is grasîta, Sûtra 9.
8. 'Why is this second alternative mentioned, as (the first Sûtra) suffices? True. But according to the maxim that "restrictions are made on account of the continuance of an action once begun," the meaning of this second Sûtra is that he shall continue to the end to handle the vessel (in that manner in which) he has handled it when eating for the first time.'--Haradatta.]
9. He shall swallow the whole mouthful at once, introducing it, together with the thumb, (into the mouth.)
10. He shall make no noise with his mouth (whilst eating).
11. And he shall not shake his right hand (whilst eating).
12. After he (has eaten and) sipped water, he shall raise his hands, until the water has run off (and they have become dry).
13. After that he shall touch fire.
14. And (during this ceremony) he shall not eat in the day-time anything but roots and fruit.
15. And let him avoid Sthâlîpâka-offerings, and food offered to the Manes or to the Gods.
16. He shall eat wearing his upper garment over his left shoulder and under his right arm.
17. At the (monthly) Srâddha which must necessardy be performed, he must use (food) mixed with fat.
18. The first (and preferable) alternative (is to employ) clarified butter and meat.
19. On failure (of these), oil of sesamum, vegetables, and (similar materials may be used).
20. And under the asterism Maghâ he shall feed the Brâhmanas more (than at other times) with (food mixed with) clarified butter, according to the rule of the Srâddha.
[16. Haradatta remarks that some allow, according to II, 2, 4, 22, the sacred thread to be substituted, and others think that both the thread and the garment should be worn over the left shoulder and under the right arm.]


1. At,every monthly Srâddha he shall use, in whatever manner he may be able, one drona of sesarnum.
2. And he shall feed Brâhmanas endowed with all (good qualities), and they shall not give the fragments (of the food) to a person who does not possess the same good qualities (as the Brâhmanas).
3. He who desires prosperity shall fast in the half of the year when the sun goes to the north, under the constellation Tishya, in the first half of the month, for (a day and) a night at least, prepare a Sthâlipâka-offering, offer burnt-oblations to Kubera (the god of riches), feed a Brâhmana with that (food prepared for the Sthâlipâka) mixed with clarified butter, and make him wish prosperity with (a Mantra) implying prosperity.
4. This (rite he shall repeat) daily until the next Tishya(-day).
5. On the second (Tishya-day and during the second month he shall feed) two (Brâhmanas).
6. On the third (Tishya-day and during the third month he shall feed) three (Brâhmanas).
7. In this manner (the Tishya-rite is to be performed) for a year, with a (monthly) increase (of the number of Brâhmanas fed).
[20. 1. A drona equals 128 seers or seras. The latter is variously reckoned at 1-3 lbs.
3. The reason why the constellation Tishya has been chosen for this rite seems to be that Tishya has another name, Pushya, i.e. 'prosperous'. This sacrifice is to begin on the Tishya-day of the month called Taisha or Pausba (December-January), and to continue for one year.]
8. (Thus) he obtains great prosperity.
9. But the fasting takes place on the first (Tishya-day) only.
10. He shall avoid to eat those things which have lost their strength (as butter-milk, curds, and whey).
11. He shall avoid to tread on ashes or husks of grain.
12. To wash one foot with the other, or to place one foot on the other,
13. And to swing his feet,
14. And to place one leg crosswise over the knee (of the other),
15. And to make his nails
16. Or to make (his finger-joints) crack without a (good) reason,
17. And all other (acts) which they blame.
18. And let him acquire money in all ways that are lawful.
19. And let him spend money on worthy (persons or objects).
20. And let him not give anything to an unworthy (person), of whom he does not stand in fear.
21. And let him conciliate men (by gifts or kindness).
22. And he may enjoy the pleasures which are not forbidden by the holy law.
23. (Acting) thus he conquers both worlds.
[11. Manu IV, 7 8.
16. 'Good reasons for cracking the joints are fatigue or rheumatism.'--Haradatta.
19. Manu XI, 6, and passim.]


I. There are four orders, viz. the order of householders, the order of students, the order of ascetics, and the order of hermits in the woods.
2. If he lives in all these four according to the rules (of the,law), without allowing himself to be disturbed (by anything), he will obtain salvation.
3. The duty to live in the teacher's house after the initiation is common to all of them.
4. Not to abandon sacred learning (is a duty common) to all.
5. Having learnt the rites (that are to be performed in each order), he may perform what he wishes.
6. Worshipping until death (and living) according to the rule of a (temporary) student, a (professed) student may leave his body in the house of his teacher.
7. Now (follow the rules) regarding the ascetic (Samnyâsin).
8. Only after (having fulfilled) the duties of that (order of students) he shall go forth (as an ascetic), remaining chaste.
[21. 1. 'Though four (orders) are enumerated, he uses the word "four," lest, in the absence of a distinct rule of the venerable teacher, one order only, that of the householder, should be allowed, as has been taught in other Smritis.'--Haradatta. Manu VI, 87.
2. Manu VI, 88.
3. Manu II, 247-249, and above.
8. The meaning of the Sûtra is, that the studentship is a necessary preliminary for the Samnyâsin. If a man considers sufficiently purified by his life in that order, he may become a Samnyâsin immediately after its completion. Otherwise he may first become a householder, or a hermit, and enter the last order, when his passions are entirely extinct. See also Manu VI, 36; Yâgñ. III, 56-57.]
9. For him (the Samnyasin) they prescribe the following rules).
10. He shall live without a fire, without a house, Without pleasures, without protection. Remaining silent and uttering speech only on the occasion of the daily recitation of the Veda, begging so much food only in the village as will sustain his life, he shall wander about neither caring for thisworld nor for heaven.
11. It is ordained that he shall wear clothes thrown away (by others as useless).
12. Some declare that he shall go naked.
13. Abandoning truth and falsehood, pleasure and pain, the Vedas, this world and the next, he shall seek the Âtman.
14. (Some say that) he obtains salvation if he knows (the Âtman).
15. (But) that (opinion) is opposed to the Sâstras.
16. (For) if salvation were obtained by the knowledge of the Âtman alone, then he ought not to feel any pain even in this (world).
17. Thereby that which follows has been declared.
[10. Manu VI, 33, 42-45; Yâgñ. III, 58 seq.
12. 'Another (commentator) says, "Some declare that he is free from all injunctions and prchibitions, i.e. he need neither perform nor avoid any (particular actions),"'--Haradatta.
13. 'He shall seek, i.e. worship, the Âtman or Self, which has been described in the section on transcendental knowledge (I, 8).'--Haradatta.
15. Haradatta apparently takes the word Sâstras to mean 'Dharmasâstras.
17. 'That which follows' are the Yogas, which must be employed in order to cause the annihilation of pain, after the knowledge of the Âtman or Self has been obtained.]
18. Now (follow the rules regarding) the hermit living in the woods.
19. Only after (completing) that (studentship) he shall go forth, remaining chaste.
20. For him they give (the following rules):
21. he shall keep one fire only, have no house, enjoy no pleasures, have no protector, observe silence, uttering speech on the occasion of the daily recitation of the Veda only.
[21. 'But which is that one fire? Certainly not the Grihya-fire, because he must remain chaste. Therefore the meaning intended is, "He shall offer a Samidh morn and evening in the common fire, just as formerly, (during his studentship)." Another commentator says, "Gautama declares that he shall kindle a fire according to the rule of the Srâmanaka Sûtra. The Srâmanaka Sûtra is the Vaikhanasa Sûtra. Having kindled a fire in the manner prescribed there, he shall sacrifice in it every morning and every evening."'--Haradatta. See also Manu VI, 4; Yâgñ. III, 45.]


1. A dress of materials procured in the woods (skins or bark) is ordained for him.
2. Then he shall wander about, sustaining his life by roots, fruits, leaves, and grass.
3. In the end (he shall live on) what has become detached spontaneously.
4. Next he shall live on water, (then) on air, then on ether.
5. Each following one of these modes of subsistence is distinguished by a (greater) reward.
6. Now some (teachers) enjoin for the hermit the
[22. 1. Manu VI, 6.
2. Manu VI, 5, 21; Yâgñ. III, 46.
4. 'Then he shall live on ether, i.e. eat nothing at all.'--Haradatta. Manu VI, 31; Yâgñ. III, 55.]
successive performance (of the acts prescribed for the several orders).
7. After having finished the. study of the Veda, having taken a wife and kindled the sacred fires, he shall begin the rites, which end with the Soma-sacrifices, (performing) as many as are prescribed in the revealed texts.
8. (Afterwards) he shall build a dwelling, and dwell outside the village with his wife, his children, and his fires,
9. Or (he may live) alone.
10. He shall support himself by gleaning corn.
11. And after that he shall not any longer take presents.
12. And he shall sacrifice (only) after having bathed (in the following manner):
13. He shall enter the watter slowly, and bathe without beating it (with his hand), his face turned towards the sun.
14. This rule of bathing is valid for all (castes and orders).
15. Some enjoin (that he shall prepare) two sets of utensils for cooking and eating, (and) of choppers, hatchets, sickles, and mallets.
[6. 'The word atha, "now," introduces a different opinion. Above, it has been declared that the life in the woods (may be begun) after the studentship only. But some teachers enjoin just for that hermit a successive performance of the acts.
8. Manu VI, 3 seq.; Yâgñ. III, 45.
10. Haradatta thinks that this rule refers both to the hermit who lives with his family and to him who lives alone. Others refer it to the latter only.
15. According to Haradatta, the word kâga appears to designate a 'mallet;' in the passage from the Râmâyana quoted in the Petersburg Dict. the commentator explains it by petaka, 'basket.']
16. He shall take one of each pair (of instruments), give the others (to his wife), and (then) go into the forest.
17. After that time (he shall perform) the burnt-oblations, (sustain) his life, (feed) his guests, and (prepare) his clothes with materials produced in the forest.
18. Rice must be used for those sacrifices for which cakes mixed with meat (are employed by the householder).
19. And all (the Mantras), as well as the daily portion of the Veda, (must be recited) inaudibly.
20. He shall not make the inhabitants of the forest hear (his recitation).
21. (He shall have) a house for his fire (only).
22. He himself (shall live) in the open air.
23. His couch and seat, must not be covered (with mats).
24. If he obtains fresh grain, he shall throw away the old (store).
[17. Yâgñ. III, 46.
20. This Sûtra explains the word upâmsu, 'inaudibly.'
24. Manu VI, 15; Yâgñ. III, 47.]


1. If he desires (to perform) very great austerities, he (shall not make a hoard of grain, but) collect food every day only, morning and evening, in his vessel.
2. Afterwards he shall wander about, sustaining his life with roots, fruits, leaves, and grass (which he
[23. 1. The following rules apply to a solitary hermit.
2. These Sûtras are repeated in order to show that, according to, the opinion of those who allow hermits to live with their families, the end should be the same.]
collects). Finally (he shall content himself with) what has become detached spontaneously. Then he shall live on water, then on air, (and finally) upon ether. Each succeeding mode of subsistence procures greater rewards.
3. Now they quote (the following) two verses from a Purâna:
4. Those eighty thousand sages who desired offspring passed to the south by Aryaman's road and obtained burial-grounds.
5. Those eighty thousand sages who desired no offspring passed by Aryaman's road to the north and obtained immortality.
6. Thus are praised those who keep the vow of chastity.
7. Now they accomplish also their wishes merely by conceiving them,
8. For instance, (the desire to procure) rain, to bestow children, second-sight, to move quick as thought, and other (desires) of this description.
9. Therefore on account of (passages) of the revealed texts, and on account of the visible results, some declare these orders (of men keeping the vow of chastity to be) the most excellent.
10. But (to this we answer): It is the firm opinion of those who are well versed in the threefold sacred learning, that the Vedas are the highest authority.
[3. 'The "orders" have been described. Now, giving conflicting opinions, he discusses which of them is the most important.'--Haradatta.
4. This verse and the next are intended to disparage the order of householders. Haradatta explains 'burial-grounds' by 'new births which lead to new deaths;' but see below, Sûtra 10. See also Yâgñ. III, 186-187.]
They consider that the (rites) which are ordered there to be performed with rice, yava, animals, clarified butter, milk, potsherds, (in conjunction) with a wife, (and accompanied) by loud or muttered (Mantras), must be performed, and that (hence) a rule of conduct which is opposed to these (rites) is of no authority.
11. But by the term burial-ground (in the text above given) it is intended to ordain the last rites for those who have performed many sacrifices, (and not to mean that dead householders become demons and haunt burial-grounds.)
12. The revealed texts declare that after (the burial follows) a reward without end, which is designated by the term 'heavenly bliss.'
[11. The Sûtra is intended to remove the blame thrown on the order of householders by the verse quoted. Haradatta seems to have forgotten his former explanation of Smasânâni.]


1. Now the Veda declares also one's offspring to be immortality (in this verse): 'In thy offspring thou art born again, that, mortal, is thy immortality.'
2. Now it can also be perceived by the senses that the (father) has been reproduced separately (in the son); for the likeness (of a father and of a son) is even visible, only (their) bodies are different.
3. 'These (sons) who live, fulfilling the rites taught (in the Veda), increase the fame and heavenly bliss of their departed ancestors.'
4. 'In this manner each succeeding (generation increases the fame and heavenly bliss) of the preceding ones.'
5. 'They (the ancestors) live in heaven until the (next) general destruction of created things.'
6. At the new creation (of, the world) they become the seed. That has been declared in the Bhavishyatpurâna.
7. Now Pragâpati also says,
8. 'Those dwell with us who fulfil the following (duties): the study of the three Vedas, the studentship, the procreation of children, faith, religious austerities, sacrifices, and the giving of gifts. He who praises other (duties), becomes dust and perishes.'
9. Those among these (sons) who commit sin, perish alone, just as the leaf of a tree (which has been attacked by worms falls without injuring its branch or tree). They do not hurt their ancestors.
10. (For) the (ancestor) has no connection with the acts committed (by his descendant) in this world, nor with their results in the next.
11. (The truth of) that may be known by the following (reason):
12. This creation (is the work) of Pragâpati and of the sages.
13. The bodies of those (sages) who stay there (in heaven) on account of their merits appear visibly most excellent and brilliant (as, for instance, the constellation of the seven Rishis).
14. But even though some (ascetic), whilst still
[24. 6 'They become the seed,' i.e. 'The Pragâpatis.'
8. 'Other (duties), i.e. the order of ascetics and the like.'--Haradatta.
13. As the Rishis have not lost heaven through the sins of their sons, the dogma according to which ancestors lose heaven through the sins of their sons, must be false.
14. Âpastamba's own opinion is apparently against pure asceticism.]
in the body, may gain heaven through a portion of (the merit acquired by his former) works or through austerities, and though he may. accomplish (his objects) by his mere wish, still this is no reason to place one order before the other.


1. The general and special duties of all castes have been explained. But we will now declare those of a king in particular.
2. He shall cause to be built a town and a palace, the gates of both of which (must look) towards the south.
3. The palace (shall stand) in the heart of the town.
4. In front of that (there shall be) a hall. That is called the hall of invitation.
5. (At a little distance) from the town to the south, (he shall cause to be built) an assembly-house with doors on the south and on the north sides, so that one can see what passes inside and outside.
6. In all (these three placcs) fires shall burn constantly.
7. And oblations must be offered in these fires daily, just as at the daily sacrifice of a householder.
8. In the hall he shall put up his guests, at least those who are learned in the Vedas.
[25. 3. 'In the heart of the town, i.e. in that town which is surrounded by all the walls.'--Haradatta. Compare Manu VII, 76.
6. According to Haradatta, the fires are to be common, not consecrated ones.
7. Manu VII, 78; Yâgñ. I, 313.
8. Manu VII, 82 seq.]
9. Rooms, a couch, food and drink should be given to them according to their good qualities.
10. Let him not live better than his Gurus or ministers.
11. And in his realm no (Brâhmana) should suffer hunger, sickness, cold, or heat, be it through want, or intentionally.
12. In the midst of the assembly-house, (the superintendent of the house) shall raise a play-table and sprinkle it with water, turning his hand downwards, and place on it dice in even numbers, made of Vibhîtaka (wood), as many as are wanted.
13. Men of the first three castes, who are pure and truthful, may be allowed to play there.
14. Assaults of arms, dancing, singing, music, and the like (performances) shall be held only (in the houses) of the king's servants.
15. That king only takes care of the welfare of his subjects in whose dominions, be it in villages or forests, there is no danger from thieves.
[10. 'The Gurus are the father and other (venerable relations).'--Haradatta.
11. Manu VII, 134. 'Or intentionally; with reference to that the following example may be given. If anybody is to be made to pay his debts or taxes, then he is to be exposed to cold or heat, or to be made to fast (until he pays). The king shall punish (every one) who acts thus.'--Haradatta.
13. Having played there, they shall give a fixed sum to the gambling-house keeper and go away. The latter shall, every day or every month or every year, give that gain to the king. And the king shall punish those who play elsewhere or quarrel in the assembly-house.'--Haradatta.
14. 'At festivals and the like occasions (these performances) take place also elsewhere, that is the custom.'--Haradatta.
15. Manu VII, I 43, and passim; Yâgñ. 1, 335.]


1. A (king) who, without detriment to his servants, gives land and money to Brâhmanas according to their deserts gains endless worlds.
2. They say (that) a king, who is slain in attempting to recover the property of Brâhmanas, (performs) a sacrifice where his body takes the place of the sacrificial post, and at which an unlimited fee is given.
3. Hereby have been declared (the rewards of) other heroes, who fall fighting for a (worthy) cause.
4. He shall appoint men of the first three castes, who are pure and truthful, over villages and towns for the protection of the people.
5. Their servants shall possess the same qualities.
6. They must protect a town from thieves in every direction to the distance of one yogana.
7. (They must protect the country to the distance of) one krosa from each village.
8. They must be made to repay what is stolen within these (boundaries).
[26. 1. Manu VII, 83, 84, 88; Yâgñ. I, 314.
2. According to Haradatta the king's body represents the post (yûpa), his soul the sacrificial animal, the recovered property the reward for the priests or fee.
3. Manu VII, 89; Yâgñ. I, 323, 324.
4. Manu VII, 115-124; Yâgñ. I, 321.
6. Yâgñ. II, 271-272. A yogana is a distance of 4 krosa, kos.
7. A krosa, kos, or gâu, literally 'the lowing of, a cow,' is variously reckoned at 1-4 miles.
8. Yâgñ. I, 272. This law is, with certain modifications, still in force. See Bombay Regulations, XII, 27 par.]
9. The (king) shall make them collect the lawful taxes (sulka).
10. A learned Brâhmana is free from taxes,
11. And the women of all castes,
12. And male children before the marks (of puberty appear),
13. And those who live (with a teacher) in order to study,
14. And those who perform austerities, being intent on fulfilling the sacred law,
15. And a Sûdra who lives by washing the feet,
16. Also blind, dumb, deaf, and diseased persons (as long as their infirmities last),
17. And those to whom the acquisition of property is forbidden (as Sannyâsins).
18. A young man who, decked with ornaments, enters unintentionally (a place where) a married woman or a (marriageable) damsel (sits), must be reprimanded.
[9. According to Haradatta, who quotes Gautama in his commentary, the sulka is the1/20th part of a merchant's gains. On account of the Sûtras immediately following, it is, however, more probable that the term is here used as a synonym of 'kara,' and includes all taxes. 'Lawful' taxes are, of course, those sanctioned by custom and approved of by the Smritis.
10. Manu VII, 133.
11. Haradatta thinks that the rule applies to women of the Anuloma, the pure castes, only.
14. 'Why does be say "intent on fulfilling the holy law?" Those shall not be free from taxes who perform austerities in order to make their magic charms efficacious.'--Haradatta.
18. The ornaments would indicate that he was bent on mischief. Compare above, I, 11, 32, 6.]
19. But he does it intentionally with a bad purpose, he must be fined.
20. If he has actually committed adultery, his organ shall be cut off together with the testicles.
21. But (if he has had intercourse) with a (marriageable) girl, his property shall be confiscated and he shall be banished.
22. Afterwards the king must support (such women and damsels),
23. And protect them from defilement.
24. If they agree to undergo the (prescribed) penance, he shall make them over to their (lawful) guardians.
[19. 'The punishment must be proportionate to his property and the greatness of his offence. The term "with a bad purpose" is added, because he who has been sent by his teacher (to such a place) should not be punished.'--Haradatta. Manu VIII, 354; Yâgñ. II, 284.
24. 'I.e. a married woman to her husband or father-in-law an unmarried damsel to her father or to her brothter.'--Haradatta.]


1. If (adulteresses) have performed (the prescribed penance), they are to be treated as before (their fault). For the connection (of husband and wife) takes place through the law.
2. (A husband) shall not make over his (wife), who occupies the position of a 'gentilis,' to others (than to his 'gentiles'), in order to cause children to be begot for himself.
[27. 2. This Sûtra refers to the begetting of a Kshetraga son, and gives the usual rule, that only the Sagotras in the order of the grade of relationship, a brother-in-law, a Sapinda, &c., shall be employed.for this purpose.]
3. For they declare, that a bride is given to the family (of her husband, and not to the husband alone).
4. That is (at present) forbidden on account of the weakness of (men's) senses.
5. The hand (of a gentilis is considered in law to be) that of a stranger, and so is (that of any other person except the husband).
6. If the (marriage vow) is transgressed, both (husband and wife) certainly go to hell.
7. The reward (in the next world) resulting from obeying the restrictions of the law is preferable to offspring obtained in this manner (by means of Niyoga).
S. A man of one of the first three castes (who commits adultery) with a woman of the Sûdra caste shall be banished.
9. A Sûdra (who commits adultery) with a woman of one of the first three castes shall suffer capital punishment.
10. And he shall emaciate a woman who has committed adultery with a (Sûdra, by making her undergo penances and fasts, in case she had no child).
11. They declare, that (a Brâhmana) who has
[4. 'For now-a-days the senses of men are and therefore the peculiar (law formerly) in force regarding gentiles is no longer, lest husbands should be set aside under the pretended sanction of the Sâstras.'--Haradatta.
9. Manu VIII, 374; Yâgñ. II, 286. According to Haradatta, this refers to a Sûdra servant who seduces a woman committed to his charge. In other cases the punishment prescribed, II, 10, 26,10, is to take effect. The same opinion is expressed by Gautama.
11. This refers to the wife of a Srotriya, as Haradatta states according to Gautama. The penance is three years' chastity.]
once committed adultery with a married woman of equal class, she perform one-fourth of the penance prescribed for an outcast.
12. In like manner for every repetition (of the crime), one-fourth of the penance (must be added).
13. (If the offence be committed) for the fourth time, the whole (penance of twelve years must be performed).
14. The tongue of a Sûdra who speaks evil of a virtuous person, belonging to one of the first three castes, shall be cut out.
15. A Sûdra who assumes a position equal (to that of a member of one of the first three castes), in conversation, on the road, on a couch, in sitting (and on similar occasions), shall be flogged.
16. In case (a Sûdra) commits homicide or theft, appropriates land (or commits similar heinous crimes), his property shall be confiscated and he himself shall suffer capital punishment.
17. But if these (offences be committed) by a Brâhmana, he shall be made blind (by tying a cloth over his eyes).
18. He shall keep in secret confinement him who violates the rules (of his caste or order), or any other sinner, until (he promises) amendment.
19. If he does not amend, he shall be banished.
20. A spiritual teacher, an officiating priest, a
[15. In conversation, i.e. addressing Âryas familiarly, with tvam, thou,' &c.
17. Haradatta states expressly that the eyes of a Brâhmana must not be put out by any sharp instrument. He should be kept blindfold all his life.
20. The intercession is to take effect in this manner: that mutilation is commuted to a fine, a fine to a floging, a flogging to a reprimand.'--Haradatta.]
Snâtaka, and a prince shall be able to protect (a criminal from punishment by their intercession), except in case of a capital offence.


1. If a person who has taken (a lease of) land (for cultivation) does not exert himself, and hence (the land) bears no crop, he shall, if he is rich, be made to pay (to the owner of the land the value of the crop) that ought to have grown.
2. A servant in tillage who abandons his work shall be flogged.
3. The same (punishment shall be awarded) to a herdsman (who leaves his work);
4. And the flock (entrusted) to him shall be taken away (and be given to some other herdsman).
5. If cattle, leaving their stable, eat (the crops of other persons, then the owner of the crops, or the king's servants), may make them lean (by impounding them); (but) he shall not exceed (in such punishment).
[28. 1. This Sûtra shows that the system of leasing land against a certain share of the crops, which now prevails generally in Native States, and is not uncommon in private contracts on British territory, was in force in Âpastamba's times.
2. See Colebrooke, Digest, Book III, Text lxviii, for this Sûtra and the following two. Another commentator, quoted by Haradatta, connects this Sûtra with the preceding, and refers it to a poor lessee of land, who cannot pay the value of the crop which was lost through his negligence. A third explanation refers the Sûtra to a cultivator who neglects to till his land. Gagannâtha's authorities, the Kintâmani and Ratnâkara, agree with Haradatta's first explanation.
5. Manu VIII, 240; Yâgñ. II, 159-161.]
6. If (a herdsman) who has taken cattle under his care, allows them to perish, or loses (them by theft, through his negligence), he shall replace them (or pay their value) to the owners.
7. If (the king's forester) sees cattle that have been sent into the forest through negligence (without a herdsman), he shall lead them back to the village and make them over to the owners.
8. If the same negligence (occur) again, he shall once impound them (and afterwards give them back).
9. (If the same fault be committed again) after that (second time), he shall not take care (of them).
10. He who has taken unintentionally the property of another shall be reprimanded, in case (the property be) fuel, water, roots, flowers, fruits, perfumes, fodder, or vegetables.
11. (If he takes the above-mentioned kinds of property) intentionally, his garment shall be taken away.
12. He who takes intentionally food when he is in danger of his life shall not be punished.
13. If the king does not punish a punishable offence, the guilt falls upon him.
[6. Manu VIII, 232; Yâgñ. II, 164.
13. Manu VIII, 18, 308; Yâgñ. I, 336.]


1. He who instigates to, he who assists in, and he who commits (an act, these three) share its rewards in heaven and its punishments in hell.
2. He amongst these who contributes most to the accomplishment (of the act obtains) a greater share of the result.
3. Both the wife and the husband have power over (their) common property.
4. By their permission, others also may act for their good (in this and the next world, even by spending money).
5. Men of learning and pure descent, who are aged, clever in reasoning, and careful in fulfilling the duties (of their caste and order, shall be the judges) in lawsuits.
6. In doubtful cases (they shall give their decision) after having ascertained (the truth) by inference, ordeals, and the like (means).
7. A person who is possessed of good qualities (may be called as a witness, and) shall answer the questions put to him according to the truth on an auspicious day, in the morning, before a kindled fire, standing near (a jar full of) water, in the presence of the king, and with the consent of all (of both parties and of the assessors), after having been exhorted (by the judge) to be fair to both sides.
8. If (he is found out speaking) an untruth, the king shall punish him.
[29. 3. 'Though this is so, still the wife cannot spend (money) without the permission of her husband, but the husband can do (so without the consent of his wife). That may be known by Sûtra II, 6, 14, 11, "They do not declare it to be a theft if the wife spends money for a good reason during the absence of her husband."'--Haradatta.
4. 'Others, i.e. the sons and the rest.'--Haradatta.
5. Yâgñ. II, 2.
6. 'And the like, i.e. by cross-examination, &c.'--Haradatta.
7. Manu VIII, 87 seq.; Yâgñ. II, 68-75.
8. Manu VIII, 119 seq.]
9. Besides, in that case, after death, hell (will be his punishment).
10. If he speaks the truth, (his reward will be) heaven and the approbation of all created beings.
11. The knowledge which Sûdras and women possess is the completion (of all study).
12. They declare, that (this knowledge) is a supplement of the Atharva-Veda.
13. It is difficult to learn the sacred law from (the letter of) the Vedas (only); but by following the indications it is easily accomplished.
14. The indications for these (doubtful cases are), 'He shall regulate his course of action according to the conduct which is unanimously recognised in all countries by men of the three twice-born castes, who have been properly obedient (to their teachers), who are aged, of subdued senses, neither given to avarice, nor hypocrites. Acting thus he will gain both worlds.'
15. Some declare, that the remaining duties (which have not been taught here) must be learnt from women and men of all castes.
[9. Manu VIII, 89 seq.
10. Manu VIII, 81 seq.
11. Manu II, 223. The meaning of the Sûtra is, that men ought not to study solely or at first such Sâstras as women or Sûdras also learn, but that at first they must study the Veda. See Manu II, 168. The knowledge which women and Sûdras possess is dancing, music, and other branches of the Arthasâstra.
14. See above, I, 7, 20, 8 and 9.]

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