Paper 7: The Genotype
The Genotype
Here, this question is propounded that in chimera two components are different in the genotype of the formational cell, that is similar to can be observed in lichen. It means that the genotype of alga cells (Phycobiont) is different from the genotype of fungus cells (Mycobiont). But about plants we observed that the genotype of cells is nearly similar in its different tissues and can produce other tissues of the plant from the culture of one type of tissue. How can be explained this matter?
We image a formational fungus (Mycobiont) of lichen. This fungus produces the spores and spreads them in around environment. It is obvious that this spore grows and will produce the fungus. But it requires to continue the life to its symbiotic alga (Phycobiont) and must found it in its around environment and forms a lichen, unless it won't able to continue the growth.
Alga needs to this fungus for continuing the life, too and looks for its symbiotic fungus in around environment. May be, the both of them find each other soon and initiate the common life, or spend to find each other very long time. This is a principle problem for both of them. It means that the problem is finding each other to initiate the symbiotic life. The asexual reproduction is more simple. When the piece of the lichen is separated and initiate the independence life, there are some of the both existent, either some segments of the fungus mycelium and some of the alga cells. In this condition, the problem of each other finding is removed. But, in the sexual proliferation that is companion with spore production and spread them, the problem of finding each other is presented. This fungus much loves while it spread its spores in the environment, attaches one alga cell to them and sends companion with them, until the spores don't wait for finding of alga and always the ready alga cell is available until the spores can grow rapidly and can initiate the symbiotic life.
If we put one spore of the fungus and one alga cell beside each other and put them into case with cover, the lichen seed is formed and while we bring up it in suitable condition, will be produced lichen and there isn't need for the impact (stumble) of fungus spore and suitable alga cell. There is the better way than this, we merge its (two cell), content in one cell. This cell grow in suitable condition and will produce the lichen. The fungus and the alga are apart from each other, just we put, the cell of both beside each other until they don't have the losing problem of each other and beside each other always and don't lose each other. In this condition, we have primary cell that either has the genes of fungus spore and the genes of alga cell, it means that two cells are in one cell. When this cell is situated in suitable condition, first, the fungus spore initiates to grow in to it . After the fungus grows a little and makes the suitable environment for the growth of alga, the alga initiates to grow and makes new alga cells. In this condition, the lichen have been made only from the growth of one cell. This lichen exactly is similar to the lichens that is made separately from the spores and alga cell, before. We will observe either fungus hyphe and alga cells in this lichen, but there is difference that the genotype of one cell of this lichen has both of the fungus genes and alga genes. It means that there are either the plan of alga production and the plan of fungus production in one cell. This is for that they never don't lose each other. Each existent also is companion with the plan production of its symbiotic existent. This is useful for it and never won't wait for its symbiotic existent, be cause it has the plan of its. This cell carries two class of genes, one class of fungus gene, and the class of alga genes, these two class of genes are settled into the nucleus of the cell separately and aren't mixed. When the cell wants to make the fungus, uses the genes of the fungus and when it wont's to make the alga, uses the genes of the alga. In the early of cell proliferation the condition isn't suitable for alga, only the fungus genes are active and the tissue of the fungus is produced. After the fungus acquires the water and mineral material from the soil and prepares the condition for the growth of alga, the alga genes are activated and makes the alga cell and chlorophyllous tissue is presented.
This history exactly is similar to that we in excellent plants. The excellent plants are productive of symbiosis of fungi and moss that have put the representatives (Genes) into one cell, a representative from parasitic fungus, a representative from the soil-lived fungus and a representative from moss have gathered together and have made one cell. This cell has three class of genes. When we plant this seed in the soil (put it in wet and dark site), the condition for the growth of the soil-lived fungus is provided. Therefore, the genes of this fungus are activated into cell and is made the soil-lived fungus. It is for that the reserve of albumen of seed is formed from the materials that prepare the requirements of the fungus. There are the necessary organic materials into the seed for the soil-lived fungus and parasitic fungus that grow without chlorophyll cells. These fungi grow by using the saved organic materials into seed and come themselves to surface of the soil. After adequate light is made for growth of the moss cells, there, the genes of this existent are activated and make the moss cells. These moss cells initiate to produce the organic material by chlorophyll and light. In this time, competition (symbiosis) is initiated between these three existent. The soil-lived fungus acquires the water and mineral material from the soil and gives to the parasitic fungus. The parasitic fungus consumes some of them and gives to moss remainder. The moss changes the mineral material to the organic material by sunlight. The moss consumes some of these organic material itself and gives to the parasitic fungus remainder (or the parasitic fungus extorts them). Some of the organic material is reached to the soil-lived fungus finally. Always, the growth is performed in the end of stalk by progressing of the parasitic fungus. When the parasitic fungus progresses a little, the conditions of the growth is prepared for moss and the moss cells grow there and produce the leaves. The leaves are tissues that is formed by the moss but the ribs are the same of the Hyphae of the parasitic fungus that have penetrated in this tissue and penetrates more much in it by growing the leaf. Instead, it remits the water and mineral material to this tissue. The cells proliferation in the terminal meristem. These cells have the genetically information of three existent and can make the cell of moss and the parasitic fungus and the soil-lived fungus. The cells of the soil-lived fungus can't be made in the end of the stalk because there is light. Hence, the condition is provided to be active the gene of the parasitic fungus and maternal cell is changed to a cell of the formation cells of the parasitic fungus. So, fungus cells require to organic material that must be produced by the moss cell. There fore, there also should be the moss cells beside the fungus cells. The fungus cells secret the materials for the maternal cells that causes to activate the genes of moss production. Consequently, the maternal cell is changed to moss cell and produces the necessary organic material. We have called these secretors materials as Hormone, and call the conversional stages of the meristem cell (maternal cell) to the parenchymal cell or vessel as differentiation. Actually, the hormones are the materials that these symbiotic existents secrete for each other and differentiation is the growth of this existent or that existent. There fore, the hormones of the plants are similar to the secretors material of the free (not symbiotic) parasitic fungus. Since the same of the parasitic fungus lives into the plant, no other thing.
We see that it is enough that  we change to make the new molecule its atoms and it is enough that we change the kind of symbiotic moss or fungus to make the new lichens. We see in the excellent plants that we can change the site of these components with together by chimera method and make the new plants. But there is also simple way about plants. Instead that we separate the formational components and change the site of them, we can separate their representatives in the cell and change the site of them. This is more simple and more practical. It means that we remove the genes of one type of parasitic fungus from the cell and put the genes of another type of parasitic fungus instead it. So, the new plant will be made after the growth of cell. This is that now the genetic engineer do it. The nature uses this way to make the new species about million years. The nature has been able to make the diverse species and man kind can do it and make the plants with interested properties because this way is simple.
Paper 8
Name: Ramin Amirmardfar
Email: [email protected]