Qsr Nrwn

Website

Classical Cryptography Course by Lanaki |
^{th} 1997
## References## Annotated Cryptographic Resources And References |

Notes:

- Some cipher families are referenced as a group (ex.
^{[TRAN]}for Transposition Ciphers: Columnar, Incomplete Columnar, Tramp, Skipping Tramp, etc.) - The Cryptogram, is the bimonthly publication of the American Cryptogram Association. These references are both scholarly and cipher specific. I have updated them through 1996. They are available through the ACA Treasurer at the address in the front of this book or Volume I of my course.
- Cryptographic resources presented explore all phases of involvement with cryptography: cryptanalysis, history, legal, social, classical, modern, NSA, mathematical techniques, recreational, intelligence, tactical, strategic, nuclear, National Defense, INFOSEC: Offensive and Defensive, Hardware, and Software. Enjoy.
- Public-Key Cryptography references have additional annotations and may have some overlap with reference
^{[NIST90]}, Lecture 19 on Law and Lectures 20 -25 on modern issues surrounding cryptography. These references represent state-of the-art 1990-1993. - About 100 web links to cryptographic sources have been added under the section Web Sources. A wealth of information on all levels is available.
- Pertinent cases involving cryptographic issues are cited by primary court.
- Senate and House bills are referenced by year and number, if appropriate.

^{[3627]}- H. R. 3627, "A Bill to Amend the Export Administration Act of 1979 with respect to the control of computer and related equipment", 1993.
^{[ABRA]}- Abrams, F., 1993, Big Brother's Here and-Alas-We Embrace Him, New York Times Magazine, March 21, 1993, pp. 36-37.
^{[ABA]}- American Bankers Association, 1979, Management and Use of Personal Identification Numbers, ABA Bank Card Statement, ABA, Catalog No. 207213, 1979.
^{[ACA]}- ACA and You, "Handbook For Members of the American Cryptogram Association", ACA publications, 1995.
^{[ACA1]}- Anonymous, "The ACA and You-Handbook For Secure Communications", American Cryptogram Association, 1994.
^{[ACME]}- "ACME Complete Seven Figure Code", Acme Code Co., 507 West 33 rd St., NYC, NY. No 6015, 1 January 1934.
^{[ACLU]}- Statement of the American Civil Liberties Union in "Cryptographic Issue Statements Submitted to the Computer System Security and Privacy Advisory Board", by NIST, 27 May 1993, pp. 195-199.
^{[ACM]}- Association For Computing Machinery, "Codes, Keys and Conflicts: Issues in U. S. Crypto Policy", Report of a Special Panel of ACM U. S. Public Policy Committee (USACM), June 1994.
^{[AD79]}- L. Adleman, "A subexponential algorithm for the discrete logarithm problem with applications to Cryptography", in 20th Annual Symposium on Foundations of Computer Science, San Juan, Puerto Rico, October 29-31, 1979, pp. 55-60. Silver Spring, MD: IEEE Computer Society Press, 1979.
^{[AD82]}- L. M. Adleman, "On breaking the iterated Merkle-Hellman public-key cryptosystems", in D. Chaum, R. L. Rivest, and A. T. Sherman, Eds., Advances in Cryptology: proceedings of CRYPTO 82, a Workshop on the Theory and Application of Cryptographic Techniques, Santa Barbara, CA, August 23-25, 1982, pp. 303-308. New York: Plenum Press, 1983.
^{[AD86]}- L. M. Adleman and K. S. McCurley, "Open problems in number theoretic complexity", in D. S. Johnson, T. Nishizeki, A. Nozaki, and H. S. Wilf, Eds., Discrete Algorithms and Complexity, proceedings of the Japan-US Joint Seminar, Kyoto, Japan, June 4-6, 1986, pp. 237-262. Orlando, FL: Academic Press, 1987.
^{[AD83]}- L. M. Adleman, C. Pomerance, and R. S. Rumely, "On distinguishing prime numbers from composite numbers", Annals of Mathematics, Vol. 117, 1983, pp. 173-206.
^{[ADFG]}- ASTROLABE, "ADFGVX Cipher-The German Field Cipher of 1918", AS53, The Cryptogram, American Cryptogram Association, 1953.
^{[AFM]}- -100-80, Traffic Analysis, Department of the Air Force, 1946.
^{[AK83]}- S. G. Akl, "Digital signatures: a tutorial survey", Computer, Vol. 16, No. 2, February 1983, pp. 15-24.
^{[AK84]}- S. G. Akl and H. Meijer, "A fast pseudo random permutation generator with applications to cryptology", in G. R. Blakley and D. Chaum, Eds., Lecture Notes in Computer Science Vol. 196: Advances in Cryptology: Proceedings of CRYPTO 84, a Workshop on the Theory and Application of Cryptographic Techniques, Santa Barbara, CA, August 19-22, 1984, pp. 269-275. Berlin/New York: Springer-Verlag, 1985.
^{[ALAN]}- Turing, Alan, "The Enigma", by A. Hodges. Simon and Schuster, 1983.
^{[ALBA]}- Alberti, "Treatise De Cifris", Meister Papstlichen, Princeton University Press, Princeton, N. J., 1963.
^{[ALEX]}- Alexander, D. A., "Secret codes and Decoding", Padell Book Co., New York, 1945.
^{[ALGE]}- MINIMAX, "Introduction To Algebraic Cryptography", FM51, The Cryptogram, American Cryptogram Association, 1951.
^{[ALKA]}- al-Kadi, Ibrahim A., Origins of Cryptology: The Arab Contributions, Cryptologia, Vol XVI, No. 2, April 1992, pp. 97-127.
^{[ALP1]}- PICCOLA, "Lining Up the Alphabets", AM37, The Cryptogram, American Cryptogram Association, 1937.
^{[ALP2]}- PICCOLA, "Recovering a Primary Number Alphabet", JJ37, The Cryptogram, American Cryptogram Association, 1937.
^{[ALP3]}- CLEAR SKIES, "Method For Recovering Alphabets", AM46, The Cryptogram, American Cryptogram Association, 1946.
^{[ALP4]}- PICCOLA, "Lining Up the Alphabets", AM37, The Cryptogram, American Cryptogram Association, 1937.
^{[ALP5]}- MACHIAVELLI, "Recovery of Incomplete Cipher Alphabets", SO78, The Cryptogram, American Cryptogram Association, 1978.
^{[ALP6]}- BOZO, "Recovery of Primary Alphabets I", JJ35, The Cryptogram, American Cryptogram Association, 1935.
^{[ALP7]}- BOZO, "Recovery of Primary Alphabets II", AS35, The Cryptogram, American Cryptogram Association, 1935.
^{[ALP8]}- ZYZZ, "Sinkov-Frequency-Matching", JA93, The Cryptogram, American Cryptogram Association, 1993.
^{[AMS1]}- RED E RASER, "AMSCO", ON51, The Cryptogram, American Cryptogram Association, 1951.
^{[AMS2]}- PHOENIX, "Computer Column: Amsco Encipherment", SO84, The Cryptogram, American Cryptogram Association, 1984.
^{[AMS3]}- PHOENIX, "Computer Column: Amsco Decipherment", MA85, The Cryptogram, American Cryptogram Association, 1985.
^{[AMS4]}- PHOENIX, "Computer Column: Amsco Decipherment", MJ85, The Cryptogram, American Cryptogram Association, 1985.
^{[AMS5]}- PHOENIX, "Computer Column: Amsco Decipherment", JA85, The Cryptogram, American Cryptogram Association, 1985.
^{[AMS6]}- GUNG HO, "Solving the Amsco", MJ92, The Cryptogram, American Cryptogram Association, 1992.
^{[AN85]}- American National Standard X9. 17-1985, Financial Institution Key Management (Wholesale), American Bankers Association, Washington, DC, 1985.
^{[AN87]}- M. Annaratone, E. Arnould, T. Gross, H. T. Kung, M. Lam, O. Menzilcioglu, and J. A. Webb, "The Warp computer: architecture, implementation and performance", IEEE Transactions on Computers, Vol. C-36, No. 12, December 1987, pp. 1523-1538.
^{[ANDE]}- D. Andelman, J. Reeds, On the cryptanalysis of rotor and substitution-permutation networks. IEEE Trans. on Inform. Theory, 28(4), 578-584, 1982.
^{[ANDR]}- Andrew, Christopher, "For The President's Eyes Only", Harper Collins, New York, 1995.
^{[ANGL]}- D. Angluin, D. Lichtenstein, Provable Security in Crypto-systems: a survey. Yale University, Department of Computer Science, #288, 1983.
^{[AND1]}- Andree, Josephine, "Chips from the Math Log", Mu Alpha Theta, 1966.
^{[AND2]}- Andree, Josephine, "More Chips from the Math Log", Mu Alpha Theta, 1970.
^{[AND3]}- Andree, Josephine, "Lines from the O. U. Mathematics Letter", Vols. I,II,III, Mu Alpha Theta, 1971, 1971, 1971.
^{[AND4]}- Andree, Josephine and Richard V., "RAJA Books: a Puzzle Potpourri", RAJA, 1976.
^{[AND5]}- Andree, Josephine and Richard V., "Preliminary Instructors Manual for Solving Ciphers", Project CRYPTO, Univ of Oklahoma, Norman, OK, 1977.
^{[AND6]}- Andree, Josephine and Richard V., "Teachers Handbook For Problem Solving and Logical Thinking", Project CRYPTO, Univ of Oklahoma, Norman, OK, 1979.
^{[AND7]}- Andree, Josephine and Richard V., "Preliminary Instructors Manual for Cryptarithms", Project CRYPTO, Univ of Oklahoma, Norman, OK, 1976.
^{[AND8]}- Andree, Josephine and Richard V., "Sophisticated Ciphers: Problem Solving and Logical Thinking", Project CRYPTO, Univ of Oklahoma, Norman, OK, 1978.
^{[AND9]}- Andree, Josephine and Richard V., "Logic Unlocs Puzzles", Project CRYPTO, Univ of Oklahoma, Norman, OK, 1979.
^{[ANDR]}- Andrew, Christopher, "Secret Service", Heinemann, London 1985.
^{[ANFI]}- "American National Standard for Financial Institution Key Management (Wholesale)", ANSI X9.17, Washington Publishing Company, P. O. Box 203, Chardon, OH 44024-0203, telephone (800) 334-4912.
^{[ANK1]}- Andreassen, Karl, "Cryptology and the Personal Computer, with Programming in Basic", Aegean Park Press, 1986.
^{[ANK2]}- Andreassen, Karl, "Computer Cryptology, Beyond Decoder Rings", Prentice-Hall 1988.
^{[ANNA]}- Anonymous., "The History of the International Code"., Proceedings of the United States Naval Institute, 1934.
^{[ANN1]}- Anonymous., "Speech and Facsimile Scrambling and Decoding", Aegean Park Press, Laguna Hills, CA, 1981.
^{[AO93]}- Administrative Office of the United States Courts, 1993, Report on Applications for Orders Authorizing or Approving the Interception of Wire, Oral, or Electronic Communications (Wiretap Report) 1993.
^{[ARI1]}- OZ, "The Construction of Medium-Difficulty Aristocrats", MA92, The Cryptogram, American Cryptogram Association, 1992.
^{[ARI2]}- HELCRYPT, "Use of Consonant Sequences for Aristocrats", ON51, The Cryptogram, American Cryptogram Association, 1951.
^{[ARI3]}- HELCRYPT, "Use of Tri-Vowel Sequences for Aristocrats", JJ52, The Cryptogram, American Cryptogram Association, 1952.
^{[ARI4]}- AB STRUSE, "Equifrequency Crypts", JF74, The Cryptogram, American Cryptogram Association, 1974.
^{[ARI5]}- HOMO SAPIENS, "End-letter Count for Aristocrats", FM45, The Cryptogram, American Cryptogram Association, 1945.
^{[ARI6]}- S-Tuck, "Aristocrat Affixes", ON45, The Cryptogram, American Cryptogram Association, 1945.
^{[ARNE]}- Arnell, A. (1990). "Handbook of Effective Disaster Recovery Planning: A Seminar Workshop Approach". McGraw-Hill (New York). ISBN 0-07-002394-8. xxix + 333. Index.
^{[ASA]}- "The Origin and Development of the Army Security Agency 1917-1947", Aegean Park Press, 1978. Collections 190/37/7/1, Box 799, F: 2292, pp 468.
^{[ASA1]}- Army Security Agency (1948) Historical and Cryptologic Summary of Cryptosystems; ASAG 23; Vol 1.
^{[ASSA]}- Army Signal Security Agency (1946) History Of Converter M-134-C (Sigaba) Vol I, II And III: available from the US National Archives and Records Administration (NARA); NSA Historical
^{[ASHT]}- Ashton, Christina, "Codes and Ciphers: Hundreds of Unusual and Secret Ways to Send Messages", Betterway Books, 1988.
^{[ASIR]}- Anonymous, Enigma and Other Machines, Air Scientific Institute Report, 1976.
^{[ATKI]}- Atkins, Derek, et. al., "Internet Security: Professional Reference", New Riders, Indianapolis, 1996.
^{[AUG1]}- D. A. August, "Cryptography and Exploitation of Chinese Manual Cryptosystems-Part I:The Encoding Problem", Cryptologia, Vol XIII, No. 4, October 1989.
^{[AUG2]}- D. A. August, "Cryptography and Exploitation of Chinese Manual Cryptosystems-Part II:The Encrypting Problem", Cryptologia, Vol XIV, No. 1, August 1990.
^{[AUT1]}- PICCOLA, "Autokey Encipherment", DJ36, The Cryptogram, American Cryptogram Association, 1936.
^{[AUT2]}- PICCOLA, "More about Autokeys", FM37, The Cryptogram, American Cryptogram Association, 1937.
^{[AUT3]}- ISKANDER, "Converting an Autokey to a Periodic", JJ50, The Cryptogram, American Cryptogram Association, 1950.
^{[AUT4]}- UBET, "Auto-Transposition Cipher", SO62, The Cryptogram, American Cryptogram Association, 1962.
^{[AUT5]}- BARGE, "Decrypting the Auto-Transposition Cipher", ND63, The Cryptogram, American Cryptogram Association, 1963.
^{[Ban]}- Banisar, D., 1993, "Statistical Analysis of Electronic Surveillance", presentation at the National Institute of Standards and Technology, Computer System Security and Privacy Advisory Board, June 3, 1993.
^{[BA82]}- S. K. Banerjee, "High speed implementation of DES", Computers & Security, Vol. 1, No. 3, November 1982, pp. 261-267.
^{[BA63]}- T. C. Bartee and D. I. Schneider, "Computation with Finite Fields", Information and Control, Vol. 6, 1963, pp. 79-98.
^{[BA80]}- K. E. Batcher, "Design of a massively parallel processor", IEEE Transactions on Computers, Vol. C-29, No. 9, September 1980, pp. 836-840.
^{[BAC1]}- SHMOO, "Quicker Baconian Solutions", ND80, The Cryptogram, American Cryptogram Association, 1980.
^{[BAC2]}- XERXES, "Sir Francis Bacon Cipher", AS36, The Cryptogram, American Cryptogram Association, 1936.
^{[BAC3]}- AB STRUSE, "Solving a Baconian", JJ48, The Cryptogram, American Cryptogram Association, 1948.
^{[BAC4]}- B. NATURAL, "Tri-Bac Cipher", JA69, The Cryptogram, American Cryptogram Association, 1969.
^{[BAC5]}- Anonymous, "Numerical Baconian", JF62, The Cryptogram, American Cryptogram Association, 1962.
^{[BAC6]}- FIDDLE, "Extended Baconian", SO69, The Cryptogram, American Cryptogram Association, 1969.
^{[BADE]}- Badeau, J. S. et. al., The Genius of Arab Civilization: Source of Renaissance. Second Edition. Cambridge: MIT Press. 1983.
^{[BAMF]}- Bamford, James, "The Puzzle Palace: A Report on America's Most Secret Agency", Boston, Houghton Mifflin, 1982.
^{[BANI]}- Banisar, Dave. CPSR Alert. 13 Jan. 1994: n. p. USENET: comp. society. privacy.
^{[BARL]}- Barlow, John Perry. "Bill O' Rights". Mondo 2000. January, 1994:17-19.
^{[BARB]}- Barber, F. J. W., "Archaeological Decipherment: A Handbook", Princeton University Press, 1974.
^{[B201]}- Barker, Wayne G., "Cryptanalysis of The Simple Substitution Cipher with Word Divisions", Course #201, Aegean Park Press, Laguna Hills, CA. 1982.
^{[BALL]}- Ball, W. W. R., Mathematical Recreations and Essays, London, 1928.
^{[BAR1]}- Barker, Wayne G., "Course No 201, Cryptanalysis of The Simple Substitution Cipher with Word Divisions", Aegean Park Press, Laguna Hills, CA. 1975.
^{[BAR2]}- Barker, W., ed., History of Codes and Ciphers in the U. S. During the Period between World Wars, Part II, 1930-1939., Aegean Park Press, 1990.
^{[BAR3]}- Barker, Wayne G., "Cryptanalysis of the Hagelin Cryptograph", Aegean Park Press, 1977.
^{[BAR4]}- Barker, Wayne G., "Cryptanalysis of the Enciphered Code Problem-Where Additive Method of Encipherment Has Been Used", Aegean Park Press, 1979.
^{[BAR5]}- Barker, W., ed., "History of Codes and Ciphers in the U. S. Prior To World War I", Aegean Park Press, 1978.
^{[BAR6]}- Barker, W., "Cryptanalysis of Shift-Register Generated Stream Cipher Systems", Aegean Park Press, 1984.
^{[BAR7]}- Barker, W., ed., "History of Codes and Ciphers in the U. S. During the Period between World Wars", Part I, 1919-1929, Aegean Park Press, 1979.
^{[BAR8]}- Barker, W., ed., "History of Codes and Ciphers in the U. S. During World War "I, Aegean Park Press, 1979.
^{[BARK]}- Barker, Wayne G., "Cryptanalysis of The Simple Substitution Cipher with Word Divisions", Aegean Park Press, Laguna Hills, CA. 1973.
^{[BARK2]}- Barker, Wayne G., "Cryptanalysis of The Double Transposition Cipher", Aegean Park Press, Laguna Hills, CA. 1995.
^{[BARR]}- Barron, John, '"KGB: The Secret Work Of Soviet Agents", Bantom Books, New York, 1981.
^{[BATE]}- Bates, R. J., Jr (1992). "Disaster Recovery Planning: Networks, Telecommunications, and Data Communications". McGraw-Hill (New York). ISBN 0-07-004128-8. 156 + xv. Index, glossary.
^{[BAT1]}- Bates, R. J., Jr (1994). "Disaster Recovery for LANs: A Planning and Action Guide". McGraw-Hill (New York). ISBN 0-07-004194-6. x + 254. Index.
^{[BAUD]}- Baudouin, Captain Roger, "Elements de Cryptographie", Paris, 1939.
^{[BAZE]}- Bazeries, M. le Capitaine, "Cryptograph a 20 rondelles-alphabets", Compte rendu de la 20e session de l' Association Francaise pour l'Advancement des Scienses, Paris: Au secretariat de l' Association, 1892.
^{[BAZ1]}- Bazeries, "les chiffrees secrets devoiles", Paris, 1901.
^{[BAZ1]}- OZ, "Bazeries Cipher", MA59, The Cryptogram, American Cryptogram Association, 1959.
^{[BAZ2]}- ALII KIONA, "Bazeries Cipher", F35, The Cryptogram, American Cryptogram Association, 1935.
^{[BAZ3]}- ZANAC, "A Poker Player's Method to Solve Bazeries Ciphers", JF82, The Cryptogram, American Cryptogram Association, 1982.
^{[BAZ4]}- HI-FI, "Bazeries Ciphers Revisited", SO64, The Cryptogram, American Cryptogram Association, 1964.
^{[BAZ5]}- MACHIAVELLI, "Bazeries Cipher-Dutch", ND71, The Cryptogram, American Cryptogram Association, 1971.
^{[BAZ6]}- MACHIAVELLI, "Bazeries Cipher-English", JF71, The Cryptogram, American Cryptogram Association, 1971.
^{[BAZ7]}- MACHIAVELLI, "Bazeries Cipher-French", JF71, The Cryptogram, American Cryptogram Association, 1971.
^{[BAZ8]}- MACHIAVELLI, "Bazeries Cipher-German", MA71, The Cryptogram, American Cryptogram Association, 1971.
^{[BAZ9]}- MACHIAVELLI, "Bazeries Cipher-Italian", JA71, The Cryptogram, American Cryptogram Association, 1971.
^{[BAZA]}- MACHIAVELLI, "Bazeries Cipher-Portuguese", SO71, The Cryptogram, American Cryptogram Association, 1971.
^{[BAZB]}- MACHIAVELLI, "Bazeries Cipher-Spanish", MJ71, The Cryptogram, American Cryptogram Association, 1971.
^{[BAZC]}- MACHIAVELLI, "Bazeries Cipher-Unknown Language", MJ72, The Cryptogram, American Cryptogram Association, 1972.
^{[BAZD]}- HANO, "Bazeries Cipher-Swedish", JA81, The Cryptogram, American Cryptogram Association, 1981.
^{[BAZE]}- D. STRASSE, "Bazeries Cipher-Esperanto", SO74, The Cryptogram, American Cryptogram Association, 1974.
^{[BAZ5]}- MACHIAVELLI, "Equivalents of 'e' in the Bazeries Cipher", SO72, The Cryptogram, American Cryptogram Association, 1972.
^{[BDKM]}- Brickell, E., Denning, D., Kent, S., Maher, D. and Tuchman, W., "1993, SKIPJACK Review: Interim Report, The SKIPJACK Algorithm", July 28, 1993, available electronically from cpsr. org.
^{[BEA1]}- S-TUCK, "Beaufort Auto-key", JJ46, The Cryptogram, American Cryptogram Association, 1946.
^{[BEA2]}- PICCOLA, "Beaufort Ciphers", JJ36, The Cryptogram, American Cryptogram Association, 1936.
^{[BEA3]}- LEDGE, "Beaufort Fundamentals (Novice Notes)", ND71, The Cryptogram, American Cryptogram Association, 1971.
^{[BEA4]}- SI SI, "Comparative Analysis of the Vigenere, Beaufort and Variant Ciphers", JA80, The Cryptogram, American Cryptogram Association, 1980.
^{[BEA5]}- O'PSHAW, "Porta, A special Case of Beaufort", MA91, The Cryptogram, American Cryptogram Association, 1991.
^{[BECK]}- Becket, Henry, S. A., "The Dictionary of Espionage: Spookspeak into English", Stein and Day, 1986.
^{[BEKE]}- H. Beker, F. Piper, "Cipher Systems". Wiley, 1982.
^{[BEES]}- Beesley, P., "Very Special Intelligence", Doubleday, New York, 1977.
^{[BELL]}- Bell, E. T., "Men of Mathematics", New York: Simon and Shuster, 1937.
^{[BENN]}- Bennett, William, R. Jr., "Introduction to Computer Applications for Non-Science Students", Prentice-Hall, 1976. (Interesting section on monkeys and historical cryptography)
^{[BEN1]}- John Bennett, "Analysis of the Encryption Algorithm Used in the WordPerfect Word Processing Program". Cryptologia 11(4), 206-210, 1987.
^{[BERG]}- H. A. Bergen and W. J. Caelli, "File Security in WordPerfect 5. 0". Cryptologia 15(1), 57-66, January 1991.
^{[BERN]}- Bernstein, T., A. B. Bhimani, E. Schultz, & C. A. Siegel (1996). "Internet Security for Business". John Wiley & Sons (New York). ISBN 0-471-13752-9. xii + 452. Index.
^{[BERN]}- Berners-Lee, T. "Hypertext Markup Language (HTML)", draft-ieft-iiir-html-01, June 1993. (expired working draft)
^{[BERY]}- BERYL, "The Turning Grille", ND92, The Cryptogram, American Cryptogram Association, 1992.
^{[BER1]}- BERYL, "The Diagrafid Cipher-Part II", ND93, The Cryptogram, American Cryptogram Association, 1993.
^{[BETH]}- T. Beth, "Algorithm engineering for public key algorithms". IEEE Selected Areas of Communication, 1(4), 458-466, 1990.
^{[BFS]}- Beth, T., Frisch, M. and Simmons, G. (Eds. ), 1992, "Public Key Cryptography: State of the Art and Future Directions", Lecture Notes in Computer Science, No. 578, Springer-Verlag, 1992.
^{[BIF1]}- ESP, "4-Square Method for C. M. Bifid", SO92, The Cryptogram, American Cryptogram Association, 1992.
^{[BIF2]}- GALUPOLY, "6X6 Bifid", JA62, The Cryptogram, American Cryptogram Association, 1962.
^{[BIF3]}- DR. CRYPTOGRAM, "Bifid and Trifid Cryptography", MJ59, The Cryptogram, American Cryptogram Association, 1959.
^{[BIF4]}- TONTO, "Bifid Cipher", JJ45, The Cryptogram, American Cryptogram Association, 1945.
^{[BIF5]}- GOTKY, "Bifid Cipher with Literal Indices Only", FM47, AM47, The Cryptogram, American Cryptogram Association, 1947.
^{[BIF6]}- SAI CHESS, "Bifid-ian Timesaver", ON48, The Cryptogram, American Cryptogram Association, 1948.
^{[BIF7]}- LABRONICUS, "Bifid Period by Pattern", ND89, The Cryptogram, American Cryptogram Association, 1989.
^{[BIF8]}- TONTO, "Bifid recoveries", ON50, The Cryptogram, American Cryptogram Association, 1950.
^{[BIF9]}- GIZMO, "Bifid Period Determination Using a Digraphic Index of Coincidence", JF79, The Cryptogram, American Cryptogram Association, 1979.
^{[BIFA]}- GALUPOLY, "Bifid with Conjugated Matrices", JF60, The Cryptogram, American Cryptogram Association, 1960.
^{[BIFB]}- XAMAN EK, "Bifid Workshop, Part 1-Encoding a Bifid", MA93, The Cryptogram, American Cryptogram Association, 1993.
^{[BIFC]}- XAMAN EK, "Bifid Workshop, Part 2-Problem Setup", MJ93, The Cryptogram, American Cryptogram Association, 1993.
^{[BIFD]}- XAMAN EK, "Bifid Workshop, Part 3-Tip Placement", JA93, The Cryptogram, American Cryptogram Association, 1993.
^{[BIFE]}- XAMAN EK, "Bifid Workshop, Part 4-Solving a Bifid", SO93, The Cryptogram, American Cryptogram Association, 1993.
^{[BIFF]}- DUBIOUS and GALUPOLY, "Chi-Square Test for Bifids", JA60, The Cryptogram, American Cryptogram Association, 1960.
^{[BIFG]}- FIDDLE, "C. M. Bifid, Simplified Solution", MJ73, The Cryptogram, American Cryptogram Association, 1973.
^{[BIFH]}- ZYZZ, "Conjugated Matrix Bifid, Modified Solving Technique", SO92, The Cryptogram, American Cryptogram Association, 1992.
^{[BIFI]}- X. GOTKY, "Delastelle Bifid Cipher", AS45, The Cryptogram, American Cryptogram Association, 1945.
^{[BIFJ]}- D. MORGAN, "Finding the Period in a Bifid", JJ46, The Cryptogram, American Cryptogram Association, 1946.
^{[BIFK]}- S-TUCK, "Finding the Period in a Bifid", AM46, The Cryptogram, American Cryptogram Association, 1946.
^{[BIFL]}- S-TUCK, "Finding the Period in Bifids", ON44, The Cryptogram, American Cryptogram Association, 1944.
^{[BIFM]}- ROGUE, "General Probabilities of Part Naturals in Bifid, Trifid", JA70, The Cryptogram, American Cryptogram Association, 1970.
^{[BIFN]}- B. NATURAL, "In Line Bifid Method", MA62, The Cryptogram, American Cryptogram Association, 1962.
^{[BIFO]}- ABC, "Short Cut in a Bifid", SO61, The Cryptogram, American Cryptogram Association, 1961.
^{[BIFP]}- ROGUE, "Specific Probabilities of Part Naturals in Bifid, Trifid", SO70, The Cryptogram, American Cryptogram Association, 1970.
^{[BIFQ]}- ROGUE, "Split Half Method For Finding A Period of Bifid", MA71, The Cryptogram, American Cryptogram Association, 1971.
^{[BIFR]}- ABC, "Twin Bifids-A Probable Word Method", JA62, The Cryptogram, American Cryptogram Association, 1962.
^{[BIFS]}- GALUPOLY, "Twin Bifids", MJ60, JA60, The Cryptogram, American Cryptogram Association, 1960.
^{[BIGR]}- PICCOLA, "Use of Bigram Tests", AS38, The Cryptogram, American Cryptogram Association, 1938.
^{[BIGE]}- Bigelow, Robert P., "Legal Issues in Computer Security 1995", by Robert P. Bigelow.
^{[BIHS]}- E. Biham and A. Shamir, "Differential cryptanalysis of DES-like cryptosystems". Journal of Cryptology, vol. 4, #1, 3-72, 1991.
^{[BiSh]}- Biham, E. and Shamir, A., 1993, "Differential Cryptanalysis of the Data Encryption Standard", Springer-Verlag 1993.
^{[BISH]}- E. Biham, A. Shamir, "Differential cryptanalysis of Snefru, Khafre, REDOC-II, LOKI and LUCIFER". In Proceedings of CRYPTO '91, ed. by J. Feigenbaum, 156-171, 1992.
^{[BL84]}- I. F. Blake, R. Fuji-Hara, R. C. Mullin, and S. A. Vanstone, "Computing logarithms in finite fields of characteristic two", SIAM Journal on Algebraic and Discrete Methods, Vol. 5, No. 2, June 1984, pp. 276-285.
^{[B84b]}- I. F. Blake, R. C. Mullin, and S. A. Vanstone, "Computing logarithms in GF(2n)", in G. R. Blakley and D. Chaum, Eds., Lecture Notes in Computer Science Vol. 196: Advances in Cryptology: Proceedings of CRYPTO 84, a Workshop on the Theory and Application of Cryptographic Techniques, Santa Barbara, CA, August 19-22, 1984, pp. 73-82. Berlin/New York: Springer-Verlag, 1985.
^{[BLAZ]}- Blaze, Matt. "Notes on key escrow meeting with NSA". 2Feb. 1994. USENET: alt. privacy. clipper.
^{[BL83]}- G. R. Blakley, "A computer algorithm for calculating the product AB modulo M", IEEE Transactions on Computers, Vol. C-32, No. 5, May 1983, pp. 497-500.
^{[Blaz]}- Blaze, M., 1994, "Protocol Failure in the Escrowed Encryption Standard", May 31, 1994.
^{[Blum]}- Blum, H., 1993, "Gangland: How the FBI Broke the Mob", Simon & Schuster, New York 1993.
^{[BL84]}- M. Blum and S. Micali, "How to generate cryptographically strong sequences of pseudo-random bits", SIAM Journal on Computing, Vol. 13, No. 4, November 1984, pp. 850-864.
^{[BLK]}- Blackstock, Paul W. and Frank L Schaf, Jr., "Intelligence, Espionage, Counterespionage and Covert Operations", Gale Research Co., Detroit, MI., 1978.
^{[BLOC]}- Bloch, Gilbert and Ralph Erskine, "Exploit the Double Encipherment Flaw in Enigma", Cryptologia, vol 10, #3, July 1986, p134 ff. (29)
^{[BLUE]}- Bearden, Bill, "The Bluejacket's Manual", 20th ed., Annapolis: U. S. Naval Institute, 1978.
^{[BODY]}- Brown, Anthony-Cave, "Bodyguard of Lies", Harper and Row, New York, 1975.
^{[BOLI]}- Bolinger, D. and Sears, D., "Aspects of Language", 3rd ed., Harcourt Brace Jovanovich,Inc., New York, 1981.
^{[BOLO]}- Bologna, J. (1993). "Handbook on Corporate Fraud: Prevention, Detection, Investigation". Butterworth-Heinemann (Boston). ISBN 0-7506-9243-X. xii + 308. Index.
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^{[CHE2]}- X. GOTSKY, "On the Checkerboard", AS44,The Cryptogram, American Cryptogram Association, 1944.
^{[CHE3]}- QUARTERNION, "Straddling Checkerboard", MA76, The Cryptogram, American Cryptogram Association, 1976.
^{[CHE4]}- PICCOLA, "The Checkerboard Alphabet", DJ34, The Cryptogram, American Cryptogram Association, 1934.
^{[CHE5]}- SI SI, "The Hocheck Cipher Examined", JA90, The Cryptogram, American Cryptogram Association, 1990.
^{[CHE5]}- SI SI, "The Checkerway Cipher Examined", MJ90, The Cryptogram, American Cryptogram Association, 1990.
^{[CHE6]}- GEMINATOR, "The Homophonic Checkerboard", MA90, The Cryptogram, American Cryptogram Association, 1990.
^{[CHE6]}- GEMINATOR, "The Checkerway Cipher", JF90, The Cryptogram, American Cryptogram Association, 1990.
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^{[COLL]}- Collins Gem Dictionary, "Latin", Collins Clear Type Press, 1980.
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^{[DEL1]}- Delastelle, F., "Cryptographie nouvelle assurant l'inviolabilite' absolue des correspondances chiffrees", Maire of Saint-Malo, P. Dubreuil, Paris, 1893.
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^{[DEVR]}- HOMO SAPIENS, "De Vries Cipher", SO60, The Cryptogram, The American Cryptogram Association, 1960.
^{[DIG1]}- DENDAI, "Digrafid, A Footnote to Tip Placement", SO84, The Cryptogram, The American Cryptogram Association, 1984.
^{[DIG2]}- B. NATURAL, "Digrafid, Cipher solution", MJ61, The Cryptogram, The American Cryptogram Association, 1961.
^{[DIG3]}- KNUTE, "Digrafid Cipher", SO60, The Cryptogram, The American Cryptogram Association, 1960.
^{[DIG4]}- THE RAT, "The Buzzsaw, an Enhanced Digrafid", JA83, The Cryptogram, The American Cryptogram Association, 1983.
^{[DIG5]}- BERYL, "Digrafid, Cipher", SO93, The Cryptogram, The American Cryptogram Association, 1993.
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^{[D76b]}- W. Diffie and M. E. Hellman, "New directions in cryptography", IEEE Transactions on Information Theory, Vol. IT-22, No. 6, November 1976, pp. 644-654.
^{[DF87]}- W. Diffie, B. O'Higgins, L. Strawczynski, and D. Steer, "An ISDN secure telephone unit", Proceedings of the National Communications Forum, Vol. 41, No. 1, 1987, pp. 473-477.
^{[DI79]}- W. Diffie, M. Hellman, "Privacy and Authentication: An introduction to cryptography". IEEE proceedings, 67(3), 397-427, 1979.
^{[Di78]}- Diffie, W., 1978, "Data Security for EFT and Automated Business", New Problems-New Solutions, San Jose, California, SBS Publishing, 1978.
^{[Di82]}- Diffie, W., 1982, "Cryptographic Technology: Fifteen Year Forecast", in Gustavus J. Simmons, Secure Communications and Asymmetric Cryptosystems, AAAS Selected Symposium No. 69, Westview Press, 1982.
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^{[DOA2]}- Department of the Army (1946) "Crypto-Operating Instructions for Converter M-134-C", (short title: SIGQZF-3)
^{[DOA3]}- Department of the Army (1949) "ASAM 1/1 Crypto-Operating Instructions for ASAM 1". Note the new designation of ASAM 1 for the ECM Mark II after the war.
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^{[DONI]}- Donitz, Karl, "Memoirs: Ten Years and Twenty Days", London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1959.
^{[DOUB]}- TIBEX, "A Short Study in doubles ( Word beginning or ending in double letters)", FM43, The Cryptogram, published by the American Cryptogram Association, 1943.
^{[DO81]}- J. D. Dixon, "Asymptotically fast factorization of integers", Mathematics of Computation, Vol. 36, No. 153, January 1981, pp. 255-260.
^{[DO81]}- D. Dolev and A. C. Yao, "On the security of public key protocols", in 22nd Annual Symposium on Foundations of Computer Science, Nashville, TN, October 28-30, 1981, pp. 350-357. Silver Spring, MD: IEEE Computer Society Press, 1981.
^{[DOW]}- Dow, Don. L., "Crypto-Mania, Version 3. 0", Box 1111, Nashua, NH. 03061-1111, (603) 880-6472, Cost $15 for registered version and available as shareware under CRYPTM. zip on CIS or zipnet.
^{[DOW1]}- Diffie, W., van Oorschot, P. and Wiener, M., 1992, "Authentication and Authenticated Key Exchanges", in , Designs, Codes, and Cryptography, Volume 2, Number 2, 1992, pp. 107-125.
^{[DPSW]}- Digital Privacy and Security Working Group, white paper on key escrow encryption technology, 30 September 1993.
^{[DU90]}- S. R. Dusse and B. S. Kaliski, Jr., "A cryptographic library for the Motorola DSP 56000", presented at EUROCRYPT '90, Aarhuis, DEnmark, May 21-24, 1990.
^{[EDUC]}- OZ, "Educational Cryptography", MA89, The Cryptogram, The American Cryptogram Association, 1989.
^{[EELL]}- Eells, Richard, and P. Nehemkis, "Corporate Intellegence and Espionage", Macmillian, London, 1984.
^{[EFF]}- Electronic Frontier Foundation. "EFF Announces Its Official Policy onCryptography and Privacy". N. p. : EFF, 8 Dec. 1993. ftp. eff. org file.
^{[EFF1]}- Electronic Frontier Foundation. "General Information About the Electronic Frontier Foundation". N. p. : EFF, ftp. eff. org file.
^{[EFF2]}- Electronic Frontier Foundation. "EFF Wants You (to add your voice tothe crypto fight!)". N. p. : EFF, 7 Feb. 1994, USENET:alt. privacy. clipper.
^{[ERMA]}- Erman, M. David, et al. "Computers, Ethics, and Society". Oxford University Press, 1990.
^{[EH78]}- W. F. Ehrsam, S. M. Matyas, C. H. Meyer, and W. L. Tuchman, "A cryptographic key management scheme for implementing the Data Encryption Standard", IBM Systems Journal, Vol. 17, No. 2, 1978, pp. 106-125.
^{[EIIC]}- Ei'ichi Hirose, "Finland ni okeru tsushin joho", in Showa gunji hiwa: Dodai kurabu koenshu, Vol 1, Dodai kurabu koenshu henshu iinkai, ed., (Toyko: Dodai keizai konwakai, 1987), pp 59-60.
^{[ELCY]}- Gaines, Helen Fouche, "Cryptanalysis", Dover, New York, 1956.
- [A text that every serious player should have!]
^{[ELLI]}- Carl M. Ellison, "A Solution of the Hebern Messages". Cryptologia, vol. XII, #3, 144-158, Jul 1988.
^{[EL85]}- T. ElGamal, "A public key cryptosystem and a signature scheme based on discrete logarithms", IEEE Transactions on Information Theory, Vol. IT-31, No. 4, July 1985, pp. 469-472.
^{[E85b]}- T. ElGamal, "On computing logarithms over finite fields", in H. C. Williams, Ed., Lecture Notes in Computer Science Vol. 218: Advances in Cryptology-CRYPTO '85, proceedings of a Conference on the Theory and Applications of Cryptographic Techniques, Santa Barbara, CA, August 18-22, 1985, pp. 396-402. Berlin/New York: Springer-Verlag, 1986.
^{[ENIG]}- Tyner, Clarence E. Jr., and Randall K. Nichols, "ENIGMA95-A Simulation of Enhanced Enigma Cipher Machine on A Standard Personal Computer", for publication, November, 1995.
^{[EPST]}- Epstein, Sam and Beryl, "The First Book of Codes and Ciphers", Ambassador Books, Toronto, Canada, 1956.
^{[EQUI]}- THE OAK, "An Equi-Frequency Cipher System", JA55, The Cryptogram, The American Cryptogram Association, 1955.
^{[ERSK]}- Erskine, Ralph, "Naval Enigma: The Breaking of Heimisch and Triton", Intelligence and National Security 3, Jan. 1988.
^{[EVEN]}- S. Even, O. Goldreich, "DES-like functions can generate the alternating group". IEEE Trans. on Inform. Theory, vol. 29, #6, 863-865, 19 83.
^{[EVES]}- Eve's H, "Introduction to the History of Mathematics", 4th ed., New York: holt, rinehart and winston, 1964.
^{[EYRA]}- Eyraud, Charles, "Precis de Cryptographie Moderne", Paris, 1953.
^{[FARR]}- Farrow, R. (1991). "UNIX Systems Security: How to Protect Your Data and Prevent Intruders". Addison-Wesley (Reading, MA). ISBN 0-201-57030-0. vii + 278. Index.
^{[F186]}- FIPS 186, "Digital Signature Standard (DSS)", specifies a Digital Signature Algorithm appropriate for applications requiring a digital rather than a written signature.
^{[F185]}- FIPS 185, "Escrowed Encryption Standard (EES)", specifies a voluntary technology available for protecting telephone communications (e. g., voice, fax, modem).
^{[F180]}- FIPS 180, "Secure Hash Standard (SHS)", specifies a Secure Hash Algorithm (SHA) for use with the Digital Signature Standard. Additionally, for applications not requiring a digital signature, the SHA is to be used whenever a secure hash algorithm is required for federal applications.
^{[F462]}- FIPS 46-2, "Data Encryption Standard (DES)", provides the technical specifications for the DES.
^{[F113]}- FIPS 113, "Computer Data Authentication", specifies a Data Authentication Algorithm, based upon the DES, which may be used to detect unauthorized modifications to data, both intentional and accidental. The Message Authentication Code as specified in ANSI X9. 9 is computed in the same manner as the Data Authentication Code as specified in this standard.
^{[F140]}- FIPS 140-1, "Security Requirements for Cryptographic Modules", establishes the physical and logical security requirements for the design and manufacture of modules implementing NIST-approved cryptographic algorithms.
^{[F171]}- FIPS 171, "Key Management Using ANSI X9. 17", adopts ANSI X9. 17 and specifies a particular selection of options for the automated distribution of keying material by the federal government using the protocols of ANSI X9. 17.
^{[FE87]}- U. Feige, A. Fiat, and A. Shamir, "Zero knowledge proofs of identity", in Proceedings of the Nineteenth Annual ACM Symposium on Theory of Computing, New York, NY, May 25-27, 1987, pp. 210-217. New York: ACM, 1987.
^{[FEI1]}- H. Feistel, "Cryptography and Computer Privacy". Scientific American, 228(5), 15-23, 1973.
^{[FEI2]}- H. Feistel, H, W. Notz, J. Lynn Smith. "Some cryptographic techniques for machine-to-machine data communications", IEEE proceedings, 63(11), 1545-1554, 1975.
^{[FISA]}- Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act, 50 U. S. C. Sec. 1801 , et seq.
^{[FI86]}- A. Fiat and A. Shamir, "How to prove yourself: practical solutions to identification and signature problems", in A. M. Odlyzko, Ed., Lecture Notes in Computer Science Vol. 263: Advances in Cryptology-CRYPTO '86, proceedings of a Conference on the Theory and Applications of Cryptographic Techniques, Santa Barbara, CA, August 11-15, 1986, pp. 186-194. Berlin/New York: Springer-Verlag, 1987.
^{[FIBO]}- LOGONE BASETEN, "Use of Fibonacci Numbers in Cryptography", JF69, The Cryptogram, published by the American Cryptogram Association, 1969.
^{[FIDD]}- FIDDLE, (Frederick D. Lynch, Col. ) "An Approach to Cryptarithms", ACA Publications, 1964.
^{[FID1]}- FIDDLE, "The International Chess Cable Code", MJ55, The Cryptogram, American Cryptogram Association, 1955.
^{[FING]}- HELCRYPT, "Cryptography in Fingerprinting", FM51, The Cryptogram, published by the American Cryptogram Association, 1951.
^{[FIRE]}- FIRE-O, "A Tool for Mathematicians: Multiplicative Structures", The Cryptogram, Vol. XXXVI, No 5, 1977.
^{[FISH]}- Fisher, R. P. (1984). "Information Systems Security". Prentice-Hall (Englewood Cliffs, NJ). ISBN 0-13-464727-0. viii + 240. Index.
^{[FL78]}- R. Flynn and A. S. Campasano, "Data dependent keys for a selective encryption terminal", in S. P. Ghosh and L. Y. Liu, Eds., AFIPS Conference Proceedings Vol. 47: National Computer Conference, Anaheim, CA, June 5-8, 1978, pp. 1127-1129. Montvale, NJ: AFIPS Press, 1978.
^{[FL]}- Anonymous, "The Friedman Legacy: A Tribute to William and Elizabeth Friedman", National Security Agency, Central Security Service, Center for Cryptological History,1995.
^{[FLI1]}- Flicke, W. F., "War Secrets in the Ether-Volume I", Aegean Park Press, Laguna Hills, CA, 1977.
^{[FLIC]}- Flicke, W. F., "War Secrets in the Ether-Volume II", Aegean Park Press, Laguna Hills, CA, 1977.
^{[FLIC]}- Flicke, W. F., "War Secrets in the Ether", Aegean Park Press, Laguna Hills, CA, 1994.
^{[FM34]}- Field Manual 34-40-2 "Basic Cryptanalysis", Department of Army, GPO 1990-729/952, 13 September, 1990. (Authored by ACA member Walt Howe)
^{[FOOT]}- George FOOT, "An Introduction to Modern Cryptography", SO96, The Cryptogram, American Cryptogram Association, 1996.
^{[FORE]}- DELAC, "Solving a Foreign Periodic by Lining Up the Alphabets", JJ46, The Cryptogram, published by the American Cryptogram Association, 1946.
^{[FOR1]}- VULPUS, "Four-Square Cipher", JA63, The Cryptogram, The American Cryptogram Association, 1963.
^{[FOR2]}- FIDDLE, "Further Comments on Solution of Four-Square Ciphers by Probable Word Method", FM50, The Cryptogram, The American Cryptogram Association, 1950.
^{[FOR3]}- GALUPOLY, "Numerical Four-Square Cipher", MA62, MJ62, The Cryptogram, The American Cryptogram Association, 1962.
^{[FOR4]}- SAI CHESS, "Sharpshooting the Four-Square Cipher", AM49,JJ49, The Cryptogram, The American Cryptogram Association, 1949.
^{[FOR5]}- B. NATURAL, "Solution of Type II-X Four-Square Cipher", MJ62, The Cryptogram, The American Cryptogram Association, 1962.
^{[FOR6]}- FIDDLE, "Solution of Four-Square Ciphers by Probable Word Method", DJ49, The Cryptogram, The American Cryptogram Association, 1949.
^{[FORS]}- Forester, T. & P. Morrison (1990). "Computer Ethics: Cautionary Tales and Ethical Dilemmas in Computing". MIT Press (Cambridge, MA). ISBN 0-262-06131-7. vi + 193. Index.
^{[FORT]}- Forester, T., ed. (1991). "Computers in the Human Context: Information Technology, Productivity and People". MIT Press (Cambridge, MA). ISBN 0-262-56050-X. xii + 548. Index.
^{[FOWL]}- Fowler, Mark and Radhi Parekh, "Codes and Ciphers,-Advanced Level", EDC Publishing, Tulsa OK, 1994. (clever and work)
^{[FRAA]}- Friedman, William F., "American Army Field Codes in The American Expeditionary Forces During the First World War", USA 1939.
^{[FRAB]}- Friedman, W. F., "Field Codes used by the German Army During World War". 1919.
^{[FRAN]}- Franks, Peter, "Calculator Ciphers", Information Associates, Champaign, Il. 1980.
^{[FRA1]}- SI SI, "Analysis and Optimization of the Fractionated Morse Cipher", ND81, The Cryptogram, The American Cryptogram Association, 1981.
^{[FRA2]}- B. NATURAL, "Elementary Study of the Fractionated Morse Cipher", AS51, The Cryptogram, The American Cryptogram Association, 1951.
^{[FRA3]}- X. GOTKY, "Fractionated Morse Cipher", AM50, The Cryptogram, The American Cryptogram Association, 1950.
^{[FRA4]}- CROTALUS, "Fractionated Morse Frequencies Reissued", MA93, The Cryptogram, The American Cryptogram Association, 1993.
^{[FRA5]}- RIG R. MORTIS, "Fractionated Morse Keyword Recovery", MA60, The Cryptogram, The American Cryptogram Association, 1960.
^{[FRA6]}- LAMONT CRANSTON, "Fractionated Morse Made Easy", JA92, The Cryptogram, The American Cryptogram Association, 1992.
^{[FRA7]}- MOOJUB, "General Break For Fractionated Morse", AS51, The Cryptogram, The American Cryptogram Association, 1951.
^{[FRA8]}- FIDDLE, "Periodic Fractionated Morse", AS54, The Cryptogram, The American Cryptogram Association, 1954.
^{[FRAK]}- Franklin, Charles E. H., "Business Guide to Privacy and Data Protection Legislation", ICC Publishing, Kluwer Law International, The Hague, 1996.
^{[FRE]}- Friedman, William F., "Elements of Cryptanalysis", Aegean Park Press, Laguna Hills, CA, 1976.
^{[FREA]}- Friedman, William F., "Advanced Military Cryptography", Aegean Park Press, Laguna Hills, CA, 1976.
^{[FREB]}- Friedman, William F., "Elementary Military Cryptography", Aegean Park Press, Laguna Hills, CA, 1976.
^{[FREC]}- Friedman, William F., "Cryptology", The Encyclopedia Britannica, all editions since 1929. A classic article by the greatest cryptanalyst.
^{[FRSG]}- Friedman, William F., "Solving German Codes in World War I", Aegean Park Press, Laguna Hills, CA, 1977.
^{[FR1]}- Friedman, William F. and Callimahos, Lambros D., "Military Cryptanalytics Part I"-Volume 1, Aegean Park Press, Laguna Hills, CA, 1985.
^{[FR2]}- Friedman, William F. and Callimahos, Lambros D., "Military Cryptanalytics Part I"-Volume 2, Aegean Park Press, Laguna Hills, CA, 1985.
^{[FR3]}- Friedman, William F. and Callimahos, Lambros D., "Military Cryptanalytics Part III", Aegean Park Press, Laguna Hills, CA, 1995.
^{[FR4]}- Friedman, William F. and Callimahos, Lambros D., "Military Cryptanalytics Part IV", Aegean Park Press, Laguna Hills, CA, 1995.
^{[FR5]}- Friedman, William F. "Military Cryptanalysis-Part I", Aegean Park Press, Laguna Hills, CA, 1980.
^{[FR6]}- Friedman, William F. "Military Cryptanalysis-Part II", Aegean Park Press, Laguna Hills, CA, 1980.
^{[FR7]}- Friedman, William F. and Callimahos, Lambros D., "Military Cryptanalytics Part II-Volume 1", Aegean Park Press, Laguna Hills, CA, 1985.
^{[FR8]}- Friedman, William F. and Callimahos, Lambros D., "Military Cryptanalytics Part II-Volume 2", Aegean Park Press, Laguna Hills, CA, 1985.
^{[FR22]}- Friedman, William F., "The Index of Coincidence and Its Applications In Cryptography", Publication 22, The Riverbank Publications, Aegean Park Press, Laguna Hills, CA, 1979.
^{[FRS6]}- Friedman, W. F., "Six Lectures On Cryptology", National Archives, SRH-004.
^{[FR8]}- Friedman, W. F., "Cryptography and Cryptanalysis Articles", Aegean Park Press, Laguna Hills, CA, 1976.
^{[FR9]}- Friedman, W. F., "History of the Use of Codes", Aegean Park Press, Laguna Hills, CA, 1977.
^{[FRZM]}- Friedman, William F.,and Charles J. Mendelsohn, "The Zimmerman Telegram of January 16, 1917 and its Cryptographic Background", Aegean Park Press, Laguna Hills, CA, 1976.
^{[Freh]}- Freeh, L., 1994, Written Statement before the Subcommittee on Technology and the Law of the Committee of the Judiciary, United States Senate and the Subcommittee on Civil and Constitutional Rights of the Committee on the Judiciary, House of Representatives, March 18, 1994, Washington, DC.
^{[FROM]}- Fromkin, V and Rodman, R., "Introduction to Language", 4th ed.,Holt Reinhart & Winston, New York, 1988.
^{[FRS]}- Friedman, William F. and Elizabeth S., "The Shakespearean Ciphers Examined", Cambridge University Press, London, 1957.
^{[FUMI]}- Fumio Nakamura, "Rikugun ni okeru COMINT no hoga to hatten", The Journal of National Defense, 16-1 (June 1988) pp85-87.
^{[GA79]}- M. R. Garey and D. S. Johnson, "Computers and Intractability". New York: W. H. Freeman, 1979.
^{[GALL]}- Gallery, S. M., ed. (1987). "Computer Security: Readings from 'Security Management' Magazine". Butterworths (Boston). ISBN 0-409-90084-2. xvi + 301. Index.
^{[GAJ]}- Gaj, Krzysztof, "Szyfr Enigmy: Metody zlamania", Warsaw Wydawnictwa Komunikacji i Lacznosci, 1989.
^{[GAR1]}- Gardner, Martin, "536 Puzzles and Curious Problems", Scribners, 1967.
^{[GAR2]}- Gardner, Martin, "Mathematics, Magic, and Mystery ", Dover, 1956.
^{[GAR3]}- Gardner, Martin, "New Mathematical Diversions from Scientific American", Simon and Schuster, 1966.
^{[GAR4]}- Gardner, Martin, "Sixth Book of Mathematical Games from Scientific American", Simon and Schuster, 1971.
^{[GARL]}- Garlinski, Jozef, "The Swiss Corridor", Dent, London 1981.
^{[GAR1]}- Garlinski, Jozef, "Hitler's Last Weapons", Methuen, London 1978.
^{[GAR2]}- Garlinski, Jozef, "The Enigma War", New York, Scribner, 1979.
^{[GARF]}- Garfinkel, S. & G. Spafford (1991). "Practical UNIX Security". O'Reilly & Assoc (Sebastopol, CA). ISBN 0-937175-72-2. xxvii + 481. Index. Available from the NCSA.
^{[GARO]}- G. Garon, R. Outerbridge, "DES watch: an examination of the sufficiency of the Data Encryption Standard for financial institutions in the 1990's". Cryptologia, vol. XV, #3, 177-193, 1991.
^{[GASS]}- Gasser, M. (1988). "Building a Secure Computer System". Van Nostrand Reinhold (New York). ISBN 0-442-23022-2.
^{[GE]}- "Security", General Electric, Reference manual Rev. B., 3503. 01, Mark III Service, 1977.
^{[GERH]}- Gerhard, William D., "Attack on the U. S., Liberty", SRH-256, Aegean Park Press, 1981.
^{[GERM]}- "German Dictionary", Hippocrene Books, Inc., New York, 1983.
^{[GI77]}- J. Gill, "Computational complexity of probabilistic Turing machines", SIAM Journal on Computing, Vol. 6, No. 4, December 1977, pp. 675-695.
^{[GILE]}- Giles, Herbert A., "Chinese Self-Taught", Padell Book Co., New York, 1936?
^{[GIVI]}- Givierge, General Marcel, "Course In Cryptography", Aegean Park Press, Laguna Hills, CA, 1978. Also, M. Givierge, "Cours de Cryptographie", Berger-Levrault, Paris, 1925.
^{[GLEN]}- Gleason, Norma, "Fun With Codes and Ciphers Workbook", Dover, New York, 1988.
^{[GLE1]}- Gleason, Norma, "Cryptograms and Spygrams", Dover, New York, 1981.
^{[GLEA]}- Gleason, A. M., "Elementary Course in Probability for the Cryptanalyst", Aegean Park Press, Laguna Hills, CA, 1985.
^{[GLOV]}- Glover, D. Beaird, "Secret Ciphers of the 1876 Presidential Election", Aegean Park Press, Laguna Hills, CA, 1991.
^{[GODD]}- Goddard, Eldridge and Thelma, "Cryptodyct", Marion, Iowa, 1976
^{[GOOD]}- I. J. Good, "Good Thinking: the foundations of probability and its applications". University of Minnesota Press, 1983.
^{[GOOE]}- Goodell, J. (1996). "The Cyberthief and the Samurai: The True Story of Kevin Mitnick-and the Man Who Hunted Him Down". Dell (New York). ISBN 0-440-22205-2. xix + 328.
^{[GO84]}- S. Goldwasser and S. Micali, "Probabilistic encryption", Journal of Computer and System Sciences, Vol. 28, No. 2, April 1984, pp. 270-299.
^{[GO89]}- S. Goldwasser, S. Micali, and C. Rackoff, "The knowledge complexity of interactive proof systems", SIAM Journal on Computing, Vol. 18, No. 1, February 1989, pp. 186-208.
^{[GO88]}- S. Goldwasser, S. Micali, and R. L. Rivest, "A digital signature scheme secure against adaptive chosen-message attacks", SIAM Journal on Computing, Vol. 17, No. 2, April 1988, pp. 281-308.
^{[G84b]}- J. Gordon, "Strong RSA keys", Electronics Letters, Vol. 20, No. 12, June 7, 1984, pp. 514-516.
^{[GO84]}- J. A. Gordon, "Strong primes are easy to find", in T. Beth, N. Cot, and I. Ingemarsson, Eds., Lecture Notes in Computer Science Vol. 209: Advances in Cryptology: Proceedings of EUROCRYPT 84, a Workshop on the Theory and Application of Cryptographic Techniques, Paris, France, April 9-11, 1984, pp. 216-223. Berlin/New York: Springer-Verlag, 1985.
^{[GR88]}- J. Grollman and A. L. Selman, "Complexity measures for public-key cryptosystems", SIAM Journal on Computing, Vol. 17, No. 2, April 1988, pp. 309-335.
^{[GORD]}- Gordon, Cyrus H., "Forgotten Scripts: Their Ongoing Discovery and Decipherment", Basic Books, New York, 1982.
^{[GORE]}- Gore, Al. Interview. By Lawrence J. Magid. Microtimes 8 Feb. 1994:26-31.
^{[GOR1]}- Gore, Al. Remarks (as prepared). Royce Hall. University of CaliforniaLos Angeles. 11 Jan. 1994. ftp. eff. org file.
^{[GOR2]}- Gore, Al. Statement of the Vice President. White House: Office of the Vice President. 4, Feb. 1994. ftp. eff. org file .
^{[Gold]}- Goldman V. United States, 316 U. S. 129, 1942.
^{[GRA1]}- Grandpre: "Grandpre, A. de—Cryptologist. Part 1 'Cryptographie Pratique"-The Origin of the Grandpre', ISHCABIBEL, The Cryptogram, SO60, American Cryptogram Association, 1960.
^{[GRA2]}- Grandpre: "Grandpre Ciphers", ROGUE, The Cryptogram, SO63, American Cryptogram Association, 1963.
^{[GRA3]}- Grandpre: "Grandpre", Novice Notes, LEDGE, The Cryptogram, MJ75, American Cryptogram Association,1975
^{[GRAH]}- Graham, L. A., "Ingenious Mathematical Problems and Methods", Dover, 1959.
^{[GRAN]}- Grant, E. A., "Kids Book of Secret Codes, Signals and Ciphers", Running Press, 1989.
^{[GRAP]}- DR. CRYPTOGRAM, "The Graphic Position Chart (On Aristocrats)", JF59, The Cryptogram, American Cryptogram Association, 1959.
^{[GREU]}- Greulich, Helmut, "Spion in der Streichholzschachtel: Raffinierte Methoden der Abhortechnik", Gutersloh: Bertelsmann, 1969.
^{[GRI1]}- ASAP, "An Aid For Grille Ciphers", SO93, The Cryptogram, American Cryptogram Association, 1993.
^{[GRI2]}- DUN SCOTUS, "Binary Number Grille", JA60, The Cryptogram, American Cryptogram Association, 1960.
^{[GRI3]}- S-TUCK, "Grille Solved By the Tableaux Method", DJ42, The Cryptogram, American Cryptogram Association, 1942.
^{[GRI4]}- The SQUIRE, "More About Grilles", ON40,DJ40, The Cryptogram, American Cryptogram Association, 1940, 1940.
^{[GRI5]}- OMAR, "Rotating Grille Cipher", FM41, The Cryptogram, American Cryptogram Association, 1941.
^{[GRI6]}- S-TUCK, "Solving The Grille. A New Tableaux Method", FM44, The Cryptogram, American Cryptogram Association, 1944.
^{[GRI7]}- LABRONICUS, "Solving The Turning Grille", JF88, The Cryptogram, American Cryptogram Association, 1988.
^{[GRI8]}- BERYL, "The Turning Grille", ND92, The Cryptogram, American Cryptogram Association, 1992.
^{[GRI9]}- SHERLAC and S-TUCKP, "Triangular Grilles", ON45, The Cryptogram, American Cryptogram Association, 1945.
^{[GRIA]}- SHERLAC, "Turning Grille", ON49, The Cryptogram, American Cryptogram Association, 1949.
^{[GRIB]}- DUN SCOTUS, "Turning (by the numbers)", SO61, The Cryptogram, American Cryptogram Association, 1961.
^{[GRIC]}- LEDGE, "Turning Grille (Novice Notes)", JA77, The Cryptogram, American Cryptogram Association, 1977.
^{[GRO1]}- DENDAI, DICK, "Analysis of Gromark Special", ND74, The Cryptogram, American Cryptogram Association, 1974.
^{[GRO2]}- BERYL, "BERYL'S Pearls: Gromark Primers by hand calculator", ND91, The Cryptogram, American Cryptogram Association, 1991.
^{[GRO3]}- MARSHEN, "Checking the Numerical Key", JF70, The Cryptogram, American Cryptogram Association, 1970.
^{[GRO4]}- PHOENIX, "Computer Column: Gronsfeld -> Gromark", MJ90, The Cryptogram, American Cryptogram Association, 1990.
^{[GRO5]}- PHOENIX, "Computer Column: Perodic Gromark", MJ90 The Cryptogram, American Cryptogram Association, 1990.
^{[GRO6]}- ROGUE, "Cycles for Gromark Running Key", JF75, The Cryptogram, American Cryptogram Association, 1975.
^{[GRO7]}- DUMBO, "Gromark Cipher", MA69, JA69, The Cryptogram, American Cryptogram Association, 1969.
^{[GRO8]}- DAN SURR, "Gromark Club Solution", MA75, The Cryptogram, American Cryptogram Association, 1975.
^{[GRO9]}- B. NATURAL, "Keyword Recovery in Periodic Gromark", SO73, The Cryptogram, American Cryptogram Association, 1973.
^{[GROA]}- D. STRASSE, "Method For Determining Term of Key", MA75, The Cryptogram, American Cryptogram Association, 1975.
^{[GROB]}- CRUX, "More On Gromark Keys", ND87, The Cryptogram, American Cryptogram Association, 1987.
^{[GROC]}- DUMBO, "Periodic Gromark ", MA73, The Cryptogram, American Cryptogram Association, 1973.
^{[GROD]}- ROGUE, "Periodic Gromark ", SO73, The Cryptogram, American Cryptogram Association, 1973.
^{[GROE]}- ROGUE, "Theoretical Frequencies in the Gromark", MA74, The Cryptogram, American Cryptogram Association, 1974.
^{[GRON]}- R. L. H., "Condensed Analysis of a Gronsfeld", AM38, ON38,The Cryptogram, American Cryptogram Association, 1938,1938.
^{[GRON]}- Groner, J., "When it Comes to Software, U. S. Sees Military Hardware; Concern over Spread of Encryption Codes Hurts Exports", The Connecticut Law Tribune, 21 December 1992, p. 12.
^{[GROU]}- Groueff, Stephane, "Manhattan Project: The Untold Story of the Making of the Atom Bomb", Little, Brown and Company,1967.
^{[GRN1]}- CHARMER, "Gronsfeld", AS44, The Cryptogram, American Cryptogram Association, 1944.
^{[GRN2]}- PICCOLA, "Gronsfeld Cipher", ON35, The Cryptogram, American Cryptogram Association, 1935.
^{[GRN3]}- S-TUCK, "Gronsfeld Cipher", AS44, The Cryptogram, American Cryptogram Association, 1944.
^{[GSA]}- General Services Administration, 1992, Offices of Congressional Affairs, Memo of May 5, 1992, in , The Third CPSR Cryptography and Privacy Conference Source Book, June 7, 1993, Washington, DC.
^{[GUNG]}- GUNG HO, (Courville, J. B. ), "Manual for Cryptanalysis of the Columnar Double Transposition Cipher", South Gate, CA, 1986.
^{[GUST]}- Gustave, B., "Enigma: Ou, la plus grande 'enigme' de la guerre 1939-1945". Paris:Plon, 1973.
^{[GYLD]}- Gylden, Yves, "The Contribution of the Cryptographic Bureaus in the World War", Aegean Park Press, 1978.
^{[GYL1]}- Gylden, Yves, "Chiffrebyraernas insatser i varldskriget till lands", Stockholm, 1931.
^{[HA88]}- J. Hastad, "Solving simultaneous modular equations of low degree", SIAM Journal on Computing, Vol. 17, No. 2, April 1988, pp. 336-341.
^{[HA87]}- S. Hawkinson, "The FPS T Series: a parallel vector supercomputer", in W. J. Karplus, Ed., Multiprocessors and Array Processors, pp. 147-155. San Diego: Simulation Councils Inc., 1987.
^{[HA86]}- J. P. Hayes, T. Mudge, Q. F. Stout, S. Colley, and J. Palmer, "A microprocessor-based hypercube supercomputer", IEEE Micro, Vol. 6, No. 5, October 1986, pp. 6-17.
^{[HA88]}- M. E. Haykin and R. B. J. Warnar, "Smart card technology: new methods for computer access control", NIST Special Publication 500-157, September 1988.
^{[HA]}- Hahn, Karl, "Frequency of Letters", English Letter Usage Statistics using as a sample, "A Tale of Two Cities", by Charles Dickens, Usenet SCI.Crypt, 4 Aug 1994.
^{[HAFT]}- Haftner, Katie and John Markoff, "Cyberpunk", Touchstine, 1991.
^{[HAFN]}- Hafner, K. & J. Markoff (1991). "Cyberpunk: Outlaws and Hackers on the Computer Frontier". Touchstone Books, Simon & Schuster (New York). ISBN 0-671-77879-X. 368. Index.
^{[HAGA]}- Hagamen,W. D. et. al., "Encoding Verbal Information as Unique Numbers", IBM Systems Journal, Vol 11, No. 4, 1972.
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^{[HAWA]}- Hitchcock, H. R., "Hawaiian", Charles E. Tuttle, Co., Toyko, 1968.
^{[HAWC]}- Hawcock, David and MacAllister, Patrick, "Puzzle Power! Multidimensional Codes, Illusions, Numbers, and Brainteasers", Little, Brown and Co., New York, 1994.
^{[HE81]}- P. S. Henry, "Fast decryption algorithm for the knapsack cryptographic system", Bell System Technical Journal, Vol. 60, No. 5, May-June 1981, pp. 767-773.
^{[HE64]}- I. N. Herstein, "Topics in Algebra". Waltham: Blaisdell, 1964.
^{[HEBR]}- COMET, "First Hebrew Book (of Cryptology)", JF72, The Cryptogram, published by the American Cryptogram Association, 1972.
^{[HELD]}- Gilbert, "Top Secret Data Encryption Techniques", Prentice Hall, 1993. (great title. . limited use)
^{[HELL]}- M. Hellman, "The mathematics of public key cryptography". Scientific American, 130-139, 1979.
^{[HEMP]}- Hempfner, Philip and Tania, "Pattern Word List For Divided and Undivided Cryptograms", unpublished manuscript, 1984.
^{[HEPP]}- Hepp, Leo, "Die Chiffriermaschine 'ENIGMA'", F-Flagge, 1978.
^{[HEW]}- HEW Advisory Committee on Automated Personnel Data Systems, Records, Computers and the Rights of Citizens, 1973, Washington, DC.
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^{[HIN2]}- Hinsley, F. H. and Alan Strip in "Codebreakers-Story of Bletchley Park", Oxford University Press, 1994.
^{[HIN3]}- Hinsley, F. H., et. al., "British Intelligence in The Second World War: Its Influence on Strategy and Operations", London, HMSO vol I, 1979, vol II 1981, vol III, 1984 and 1988.
^{[HISA]}- Hisashi Takahashi, "Military Friction, Diplomatic Suasion in China, 1937-1938", The Journal of International Studies, Sophia Univ, Vol 19, July, 1987.
^{[HIS1]}- Barker, Wayne G., "History of Codes and Ciphers in the U. S. Prior to World War I", Aegean Park Press, Laguna Hills, CA, 1978.
^{[HITT]}- Hitt, Parker, Col. "Manual for the Solution of Military Ciphers", Aegean Park Press, Laguna Hills, CA, 1976.
^{[HO81]}- R. W. Hockney and C. R. Jesshope, "Parallel Computers: Architecture, Programming and Algorithms". Bristol: Adam Hilger, 1981.
^{[HO78]}- E. Horowitz and S. Sahni, "Fundamentals of Computer Algorithms". Rockville: Computer Science Press, 1978.
^{[HODG]}- Hodges, Andrew, "Alan Turing: The Enigma", New York, Simon and Schuster, 1983.
^{[HOFF]}- Hoffman, Lance J., editor, "Building In Big Brother: The Cryptographic Policy Debate", Springer-Verlag, N. Y. C., 1995. ( A useful and well balanced book of cryptographic resource materials. )
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^{[HOM1]}- Homophonic: "A Multiple Substitution Number Cipher", S-TUCK, The Cryptogram, DJ45, American Cryptogram Association, 1945.
^{[HOM2]}- Homophonic: "Bilinear Substitution Cipher, Straddling", ISHCABIBEL, The Cryptogram, AS48, American Cryptogram Association, 1948.
^{[HOM3]}- Homophonic: "Computer Column: 'Homophonic Solving'", PHOENIX, The Cryptogram, MA84, American Cryptogram Association, 1984.
^{[HOM4]}- Homophonic: "Hocheck Cipher", SI SI, The Cryptogram, JA90, American Cryptogram Association, 1990.
^{[HOM5]}- Homophonic: "Homophonic Checkerboard", GEMINATOR, The Cryptogram, MA90, American Cryptogram Association, 1990.
^{[HOM6]}- Homophonic: "Homophonic Number Cipher", (Novice Notes) LEDGE, The Cryptogram, SO71, American Cryptogram Association, 1971.
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^{[HYDE]}- H. Montgomery Hyde, "Room 3603, The Story of British Intelligence Center in New York During World War II", New York, Farrar, Straus, 1963.
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^{[IC1]}- GIZMO, "Bifid Period Determination Using a Digraphic Index of Coincidence", JF79, The Cryptogram, American Cryptogram Association, 1979.
^{[IC2]}- PHOENIX, "Computer Column: Applications of the Index of Coincidence", JA90, The Cryptogram, American Cryptogram Association, 1990.
^{[IC3]}- PHOENIX, "Computer Column: Digraphic Index of Coincidence", ND90, The Cryptogram, American Cryptogram Association, 1990.
^{[IC4]}- PHOENIX, "Computer Column: Index of Coincidence (IC)", JA82, The Cryptogram, American Cryptogram Association, 1982.
^{[IC5]}- PHOENIX, "Computer Column: Index of Coincidence", (correction) MA83, The Cryptogram, American Cryptogram Association, 1983.
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^{[ITAL]}- Italian-English Dictionary, compiled by Vittore E. Bocchetta, Fawcett Premier, New York, 1965.
^{[ITAR]}- International Traffic in Arms Regulation (ITAR), 22 CFR 120-130.
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^{[KAH3]}- Kahn, David, "Seizing The Enigma: The Race to Break the German U-Boat Codes 1939-1943 ", Houghton Mifflin, New York, 1991.
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^{[KEY0]}- S-TUCK, "5X5 Key Squares and How to Solve Them", AS44, The Cryptogram, American Cryptogram Association, 1944.
^{[KEY1]}- S-TUCK, "Mixed Squares. . . Columnar Takeout From Keyword Block", DJ46, The Cryptogram, American Cryptogram Association, 1946.
^{[KEY2]}- S-TUCK, "Recovery of a 5X5 Keyword Square", ON46, The Cryptogram, American Cryptogram Association, 1946.
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^{[KEY4]}- ARACHNE, "Square Dealing: The Polybius Square, Part II-Tri Square Application", MA93, The Cryptogram, American Cryptogram Association, 1993.
^{[KEY5]}- ARACHNE, "Square Dealing: The Polybius Square, Part III-Bifid Application", MJ93, The Cryptogram, American Cryptogram Association, 1993.
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^{[KP1]}- PICCOLA, "The Key Phrase Cipher", ON37, The Cryptogram, American Cryptogram Association, 1937.
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^{[KP3]}- LEDGE, "The Key Phrase Cipher", JF75, The Cryptogram, American Cryptogram Association, 1975.
- [Novice Notes]
^{[KP4]}- TRIODE, "Thought on the The Key Phrase Cipher", JF69, The Cryptogram, American Cryptogram Association, 1969.
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^{[KOZA]}- Kozaczuk, Wladyslaw, "ENIGMA, How the German Machine Cipher was Broken, and How It was Read by the Allies in World War Two", Ksiazka i Wiedza, Warsaw, 1984.
^{[KU82]}- H. T. Kung, "Why systolic architectures", Computer, Vol. 15, No. 1, January 1982, pp. 37-46.
^{[KU78]}- H. T. Kung and C. Leiserson, "Systolic arrays (for VLSI)", in I. S. Duff and G. W. Stewart, Eds., Sparse Matrix Proceedings, pp. 245-282. Philadelphia: SIAM, 1978.
^{[KU82b]}- S. Y. Kung, K. S. Arun, R. J. Gal-Ezer, and D. V. B. Rao, "Wavefront array processor: language, architecture, and applications", IEEE Transactions on Computers, Vol. C-31, No. 11, November 1982, pp. 1054-1066.
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^{[Ladn]}- LADNER System, 1984, "Operation and Maintenance Manual, Part No. ON332500", Prepared for Maryland Procurement Office, Ft. George G. Meade, MD, December 1, 1984.
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^{[LAI]}- Lai, X. "On the Design and Security of Block Ciphers", ETH Series in Information Processing, v. 1, Konstanz: Hartung-Gorre Verlag, 1992. (Article defines the IDEA Cipher)
^{[LAIM]}- Lai, Xuejia, and James L. Massey, "A Proposal for a New Block Encryption Standard", Advances in Cryptology-Eurocrypt 90 Proceedings, 1992, pp. 55-70.
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^{[LEV3]}- Levine, J. 1963. "Analysis of the Case n =3 in Algebraic Cryptography With Involuntary Key Matrix With Known Alphabet". Journal fuer die Reine und Angewante Mathematik. 213:1-30.
^{[LINA]}- Anonomous, "Decrypment of Minoan Linear A", MJ64, The Cryptogram, American Cryptogram Association, 1964.
^{[LI89]}- J. Linn and S. T. Kent, "Privacy for DARPA-Internet mail", in Proceedings of the 12th National Computer Security Conference, Baltimore, MD, October 10-13, 1989, pp. 215-229.
^{[Link]}- M/A-COM LINKABIT Corporation, 1983, , LC76 DES Data Encryption/Decryption Unit: Product Brochure, August, 1983.
^{[LINN]}- Linn J. "Privacy Enhancement for Internet Electronic Mail: Part I: Message Encryption and Authentication Procedures", RFC1421, Feb 1993.
^{[LISI]}- Lisicki, Tadeusz, "Dzialania Enigmy", Orzet Biaty, London July-August, 1975; 'Enigma i Lacida', Przeglad lacznosci, London 1974-4; 'Pogromcy Enigmy we Francji', Orzet Biaty, London, Sept. 1975. '
^{[LION]}- LIONEL, "A Tool for Patristocrat Tip Placement ", JA95 3, The Cryptogram, American Cryptogram Association, 1995.
^{[LITT]}- Littman, J. (1996). "The Fugitive Game: Online with Kevin Mitnick-The Inside Story of the Great Cyberchase". Little, Brown and Company (Boston). ISBN 0-316-5258-7. x + 383.
^{[LUBY]}- C. Rackoff, M. Luby, "How to construct psuedorandom permutations from psuedorandom functions". SIAM Journal of Computing, vol. 17, #2, 373-386, 1988.
^{[LUCK]}- Michael Lucks, "A Constraint Satisfaction Algorithm for the Automated Decryption of Simple Substitution Ciphers". In CRYPTO '88. 598-605, 1979.
^{[LYNC]}- Lynch, Frederick D., "Pattern Word List, Vol 1"., Aegean Park Press, Laguna Hills, CA, 1977.
^{[LYN1]}- Lynch, Frederick D., "An Approach To Cryptarithms", ACA, 1976.
^{[LYND]}- Lynch, D. C. & M. T. Rose (1993). "Internet System Handbook". Addison-Wesley Publishing Co. (Reading, MA). ISBN 0-201-56741-5. xxxii + 790. Index.
^{[LYSI]}- Lysing, Henry, aka John Leonard Nanovic, "Secret Writing", David Kemp Co., NY 1936.
^{[MA81]}- D. MacMillan, "Single chip encrypts data at 14 Mb/s", Electronics, Vol. 54, No. 12, June 16, 1981, pp. 161-165.
^{[MA88]}- J. L. Massey, "An introduction to contemporary cryptology", Proceedings of the IEEE, Vol. 76, No. 5, May 1988, pp. 533-549.
^{[MA78]}- S. M. Matyas and C. H. Meyer, "Generation, distribution, and installation of cryptographic keys", IBM Systems Journal, Vol. 17, No. 2, 1978, pp. 126-137.
^{[MACB]}- Macbeth, J. C. H., "The Marconi International Code", 1920.-"Secret Ciphering for the Marconi International Code", 1920.
^{[MACF]}- MacFarlane, A. Lectures on Ten British Mathematicians of the Nineteen Century, Math. Mono. No 17, New York: John Wiley, 1916.
^{[MACI]}- Macintyre, D., "The Battle of the Atlantic", New York, Macmillan, 1961.
^{[MADA]}- Madachy, J. S., "Mathematics on Vacation", Scribners, 1972.
^{[MAGN]}- Magne, Emile, "Le plaisant Abbe de Boisrobert", Paris, Mecure de France, 1909.
^{[MANN]}- Mann, B., "Cryptography with Matrices", The Pentagon, Vol 21, Fall 1961.
^{[MANS]}- Mansfield, Louis C. S., "The Solution of Codes and Ciphers", Alexander Maclehose & Co., London, 1936.
^{[MAN1]}- Mansfield, L. C. S, "One Hundred Problems in Cipher". London, 1936.
^{[MARO]}- Marotta, Michael, E. "The Code Book-All About Unbreakable Codes and How To Use Them", Loompanics Unlimited, 1979. [This is a terrible book. Badly written, without proper authority, unprofessional, and prejudicial to boot. And, it has one of the better illustrations of the Soviet one-time pad with example, with three errors in cipher text, that I have corrected for the author.]
^{[MARS]}- Marshall, Alan, "Intelligence and Espionage in the Reign of Charles II", 1660-1665, Cambridge University, New York, N. Y., 1994.
^{[MASS]}- J. Massey, "An introduction to contemporary cryptology", IEEE proceedings, 76(5), 533-549, 1988.
^{[MART]}- Martin, James, "Security, Accuracy and Privacy in Computer Systems", Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N. J., 1973.
^{[MAST]}- Lewis, Frank W., "Solving Cipher Problems-Cryptanalysis, Probabilities and Diagnostics", Aegean Park Press, Laguna Hills, CA, 1992.
^{[MATS]}- Matsui, M., 1993, "Linear Cryptanalysis of DES Cipher", in Proceedings Eurocrypt 1993.
^{[MATT]}- Matthews, T., "Shadows Dancing: Japanese Espionage Against the West, 1939-1945", St. Martins, Press, New York, 1993.
^{[MAU]}- Mau, Ernest E., "Word Puzzles With Your Microcomputer", Hayden Books, 1990.
^{[MAVE]}- Mavenel, Denis L., Lettres, "Instructions Diplomatiques et Papiers d' Etat du Cardinal Richelieu, Historie Politique", Paris 1853-1877 Collection.
^{[MAYA]}- Coe, M. D., "Breaking The Maya Code", Thames and Hudson, New York, 1992.
^{[MYSZ]}- Myszkowski, E., "Cryptographie Indechiffrable", Paris, 1902.
^{[MAZU]}- Mazur, Barry, "Questions On Decidability and Undecidability in Number Theory", Journal of Symbolic Logic, Volume 54, Number 9, June, 1994.
^{[MC89]}- K. S. McCurley, "The discrete logarithm problem", preprint.
^{[MC78]}- R. J. McEliece, "A public-key cryptosystem based on algebraic coding theory", DSN Progress Report 42-44, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 1978, pp. 114-116.
^{[ME78]}- R. C. Merkle, "Secure communications over insecure channels", Communications of the ACM, Vol. 21, No. 4, April 1978, pp. 294-299.
^{[ME82]}- R. C. Merkle, "Secrecy, Authentication, and Public Key Systems". Ann Arbor: UMI Research Press, 1982.
^{[ME82b]}- R. C. Merkle, "Protocols for public key cryptosystems", in G. J. Simmons, Ed., Secure Communications and Asymmetric Cryptosystems, pp. 73-104. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1982.
^{[ME89]}- R. C. Merkle, "One way hash functions and DES", preprint.
^{[M78b]}- R. C. Merkle and M. E. Hellman, "Hiding information and signatures in trapdoor knapsacks", IEEE Transactions on Information Theory, Vol. 24, No. 5, September 1978, pp. 525-530.
^{[MELL]}- Mellen G. 1981. "Graphic Solution of a Linear Transformation Cipher". Cryptologia. 5:1-19.
^{[MEND]}- Mendelsohn, Capt. C. J., "Studies in German Diplomatic Codes Employed During World War", GPO, 1937.
^{[MERK]}- Merkle, Ralph, "Secrecy, Authentication and Public Key Systems", Ann Arbor, UMI Research Press, 1982.
^{[MER1]}- Merkle, Ralph, "Secure Communications Over Insecure Channels", Communications of the ACM 21, 1978, pp. 294-99.
^{[MER2]}- Merkle, Ralph and Martin E. Hellman, "On the Security of Multiple Encryption ", Communications of the ACM 24, 1981, pp. 465-67.
^{[MER3]}- Merkle, Ralph and Martin E. Hellman, "Hiding Information and Signatures in Trap Door Knapsacks", IEEE Transactions on Information Theory 24, 1978, pp. 525-30.
^{[MER4]}- R. Merkle, "Fast software encryption functions". In Proceedings of CRYPTO '90, Menezes and Vanstone ed., 476-501, 1991.
^{[MESC]}- Meschkowski, H., "Ways of Thought of Great Mathematicians", tr by John Dyer-Bennet. San Francisco: Holden-Day 1948.
^{[MEYE]}- C. Meyer and S. Matyas, "Cryptography: A new dimension in computer security". Wiley, 1982.
^{[MEYR]}- C. Meyer, "Ciphertext/plaintext and ciphertext/key dependence vs. number of rounds for the Data Encryption Standard". AFIPS Conference proceedings, 47, 1119-1126, 1978.
^{[MI76]}- G. L. Miller, "Riemann's hypothesis and tests for primality", Journal of Computer and System Sciences, Vol. 13, No. 3, December 1976, pp. 300-317.
^{[MI88]}- V. M. Milutinovic, "Computer Architecture: Concepts and Systems". New York: North-Holland, 1988.
^{[MICR]}- MICROPOD, "The Solution of a Two Square", JA95, The Cryptogram, American Cryptogram Association, 1995.
^{[MICA]}- Micali, S., "Fair Cryptosystems", Report MIT/LCS/TR-579. b, MIT Laboratory for Computer Science, Cambridge, Mass, November 1993.
^{[MILL]}- Millikin, Donald, "Elementary Cryptography ", NYU Bookstore, NY, 1943.
^{[MIL0]}- Miller, C. (1993). "Information Technology Security Handbook". PW/GSC, catalog #P35-73/1993. ISBN 0-662-59922-5.
^{[MIL1]}- Miller, C. (1993). "Microcomputer and LAN Security". PW/GSC, catalog #P35-72/1993. ISBN 0-662-59921-7.
^{[MILE]}- Miller, S. E. (1996). "Civilizing Cyberspace: Policy, Power and the Information Superhighway". ACM Press by Addison-Wesley (Reading, MA). ISBN 0-201-84760-4. xvii + 413. Index.
^{[Mint]}- Mintz, J., 1992, "Intelligence Community in Breach with Business", Washington Post, April 30, 1992, Sec. A.
^{[MINT]}- Mintz J., and J. Schwartz, "Encryption Program Draws Fresh Attacks", The Washington Post, 18 September 1993, p. C1.
^{[MO85]}- P. L. Montgomery, "Modular multiplication without trial division", Mathematics of Computation, Vol. 44, No. 170, April 1985, pp. 519-521.
^{[MO88]}- J. H. Moore, "Protocol failures in cryptosystems", Proceedings of the IEEE, Vol. 76, No. 5, May 1988, pp. 594-602.
^{[MO75]}- M. A. Morrison and J. Brillhart, "A method of factoring and the factorization of F7", Mathematics of Computation, Vol. 29, No. 129, January 1975, pp. 183-205.
^{[MODE]}- Modelski, Tadeusz, "The Polish Contribution to the Ultimate Allied Victory in the Second World War", Worthing (Sussex) 1986.
^{[MOOR]}- Moore, D. T., and M. Waller, "Cloak and Cipher", Bobbs-Merrill, New York, 1962.
^{[MORB]}- EUREKA, "A Bit More To the Morbit Cipher", MJ64, The Cryptogram, American Cryptogram Association, 1964.
^{[MORB]}- EUREKA, "A Bit More To the Morbit Cipher", MJ64, The Cryptogram, American Cryptogram Association, 1964.
^{[MOR1]}- THE BRUIN, "A Pollux/Morbit Hybrid Cipher", MA88, The Cryptogram, American Cryptogram Association, 1988.
^{[MOR2]}- NIP N. BUD, "Comments on Breaking the Morbit Cipher", MA64, The Cryptogram, American Cryptogram Association, 1964.
^{[MOR3]}- CROATULUS, "Entering the Morbit with Plaintext H", SO68, The Cryptogram, American Cryptogram Association, 1968.
^{[MOR4]}- EUREKA, "Morbit Cipher", JF64, The Cryptogram, American Cryptogram Association, 1964.
^{[MOR5]}- CRUX, "Morbit Diagraph Analysis", MA90, The Cryptogram, American Cryptogram Association, 1990.
^{[MOR6]}- LEDGE, "Morbit Cipher", SO75, The Cryptogram, American Cryptogram Association, 1975.
^{[MOR7]}- MARSHEN, "On Morbit Variants", ND64, The Cryptogram, American Cryptogram Association, 1964.
^{[MOR8]}- THE DOC, "Pollux/Morbit Challenge Solved", SO88, The Cryptogram, American Cryptogram Association, 1988.
^{[MORS]}- FIDDLE, "Morse Code in Three Languages, International", DJ53, The Cryptogram, American Cryptogram Association, 1953.
^{[MOR1]}- LAMONT CRANSTON, "Fractionated Morse", JA92, The Cryptogram, American Cryptogram Association, 1992.
^{[MRAY]}- Mrayati, Mohammad, Yahya Meer Alam and Hassan al-Tayyan., "Ilm at-Ta'miyah wa Istikhraj al-Mu,amma Ind al-Arab". Vol 1. Damascus: The Arab Academy of Damascus., 1987.
^{[MULL]}- Mulligan, Timothy, "The German Navy Examines its Cryptographic Security", Oct. 1941, Military affairs, vol 49, no 2, April 1985.
^{[Myer]}- Myers, F., 1979, "A Data Link Encryption System", National Telecommunications Conference, Washington, D. C. November 27-29, 1979, pp. 43. 5. 1-43. 5. 8.
^{[MYER]}- Myer, Albert, "Manual of Signals", Washington, D. C., USGPO, 1879.
^{[MYSK]}- PHOENIX, "Myszkowski Deciphering Program", JA87, The Cryptogram, American Cryptogram Association, 1987.
^{[MYS1]}- PHOENIX, "Myszkowski Deciphering Program-Conclusion", ND87, The Cryptogram, American Cryptogram Association, 1987.
^{[MYS2]}- QUINCE, "Redefence al la Myszkowski", JF92, The Cryptogram, American Cryptogram Association, 1992.
^{[MYS3]}- DELAC, "Myszkowski Transposition", AS46, The Cryptogram, American Cryptogram Association, 1946.
^{[MYS4]}- S-TUCK, "Myszkowski Transposition", AM52, The Cryptogram, American Cryptogram Association, 1952.
^{[MYS5]}- B. NATURAL, "Simplifing the Myszkowski", JF59, The Cryptogram, American Cryptogram Association, 1959.
^{[MYS6]}- AB STRUSE, "Solving the Myszkowski", AM48, The Cryptogram, American Cryptogram Association, 1948.
^{[MYS7]}- CROTALUS, "Railfence and Redefence as Special Cases of the Myszkowski", JA80, The Cryptogram, American Cryptogram Association, 1980.
^{[MYSZ]}- Myszkowski, Emile V. T., "Cryptographie indechiffrable basee sur de nouvelles combinaisons rationelles"., Paris 1902. 69 pg 8 vol.,NN, DLC, Boston Public Library, John Crerar Library, Great Britian War Office Library, Belgium War Library, BN.
^{[NA77]}- National Bureau of Standards, Federal Information Processing Standards Publication 46: Data Encryption Standard, January 15, 1977.
^{[NA80]}- National Bureau of Standards, Federal Information Processing Standards Publication 81: DES Modes of Operation, December 2, 1980.
^{[NA81]}- National Bureau of Standards, Federal Information Processing Standards Publication 74: Guidelines for Implementing and Using the NBS Data Encryption Standard, April 1, 1981.
^{[NBS]}- National Bureau of Standards, "Data Encryption Standard", FIPS PUB 46-1, 1987.
^{[NBS]}- National Bureau of Standards, 1977, Data Encryption Standard, Federal Information Processing Standard 46, January 1977, Washington, DC.
^{[NCSS]}- National Computer Security Center (1983-). "Rainbow Series", (so-called). Monographs on many aspects of information systems security. For an excellent summary of the series and its topics, see Appendix E of Russell & Gangemi (below), p. 359 ff.
^{[NE78]}- R. M. Needham and M. D. Schroeder, "Using encryption for authentication in large networks of computers", Communications of the ACM, Vol. 21, No. 12, December 1978, pp. 993-999.
^{[Neu]}- Neumann, P., 1994 , Computer-Related Risks, ACM Press (Addison-Wesley), 1994.
^{[NIXX]}- National Institute of Standards and Technology, 1991, Publication XX: Announcement and Specifications for a Digital Signature Standard (DSS), August 19, 1991, Washington, DC.
^{[N185]}- National Institute of Standards and Technology, 1994, Federal Information Processing Standards Publication 185, Escrowed Encryption Standard}, February 9, 1994, Washington, DC.
^{[N186]}- National Institute of Standards and Technology, 1994, Federal Information Processing Standards Publication 186: Digital Signature Standard (DSS), May 19, 1994, Washington, DC.
^{[NI94]}- National Institute of Standards and Technology, 1994, Approval of Federal Information Processing Standards Publication 185, Escrowed Encryption Standard, Federal Register, Vol. 59, No. 27, February 9, 1994, Washington, DC.
^{[NISA]}- National Institute of Standards and Technology and National Security Agency, 1989, Memorandum of Understanding between the Director of the National Institute of Standards and Technology and the Director of the National Security Agency concerning the Implementation of Public Law 100-235, March 24, 1989, Washington, DC.
^{[NIBL]}- Niblack, A. P., "Proposed Day, Night and Fog Signals for the Navy with Brief Description of the Ardois Hight System", In Proceedings of the United States Naval Institute, Annapolis: U. S. Naval Institute, 1891.
^{[NICO]}- PHOENIX, "Nicodemus", ND88, The Cryptogram, American Cryptogram Association, 1988.
^{[NICa]}- BERYL, "How to Finish Deciphering a Nicodemus", SO92, The Cryptogram, American Cryptogram Association, 1992.
^{[NICb]}- S-TUCK, "Decrypting the Nicodemus", AM52, The Cryptogram, American Cryptogram Association, 1952.
^{[NICc]}- FIDDLE, "Method for Solving the Nicodemus", JF60, The Cryptogram, American Cryptogram Association, 1960.
^{[NICd]}- DELEC, "Nicodemus Cipher", AS49, The Cryptogram, American Cryptogram Association, 1949.
^{[NICe]}- LEDGE, "Nicodemus Cipher", SO72, The Cryptogram, American Cryptogram Association, 1972.
^{[NICH]}- Nichols, Randall K., "Classical Cryptography Course, Volume I", Aegean Park Press (C-74), ISBN: 0-89412-263-0, Softbound, 8. 38 x 10. 75 in, xii + 301 pp. Mr. Nichols (aka LANAKI) is the outgoing President of the American Cryptogram Association (ACA). In his truly great book, he covers the following: Volume I covers such diverse topics as Aristocrats (the king of puzzles found in the daily paper), Patristocrat (single language Aristocrats without word divisions), Xenocrypts (language ciphers other than English), Transposition ciphers, Military Ciphers, Cryptarithms, Polyalphabetics, Cipher Machines such as the ENIGMA (with simulation disk available) and special ciphers used in history, as well as their modern day equivalents. Ciphers and cryptanalytic techniques for solution are presented.
^{[NIC1]}- Nichols, Randall K., "Xeno Data on 10 Different Languages", ACA-L, August 18, 1995.
^{[NIC2]}- Nichols, Randall K., "Chinese Cryptography Parts 1-3", ACA-L, August 24, 1995.
^{[NIC3]}- Nichols, Randall K., "German Reduction Ciphers Parts 1-4", ACA-L, September 15, 1995.
^{[NIC4]}- Nichols, Randall K., "Russian Cryptography Parts 1-3", ACA-L, September 05, 1995.
^{[NIC5]}- Nichols, Randall K., "A Tribute to William F. Friedman", NCSA FORUM, August 20, 1995.
^{[NIC6]}- Nichols, Randall K., "Wallis and Rossignol", NCSA FORUM, September 25, 1995.
^{[NIC7]}- Nichols, Randall K., "Arabic Contributions to Cryptography", , in The Cryptogram, ND95, ACA, 1995.
^{[NIC8]}- Nichols, Randall K., "U. S. Coast Guard Shuts Down Morse Code System", The Cryptogram, SO95, ACA Publications, 1995.
^{[NIC9]}- Nichols, Randall K., "PCP Cipher", NCSA FORUM, March 10, 1995.
^{[NICX]}- Nichols, R. K., Keynote Speech to A. C. A. Convention, "Breaking Ciphers in Other Languages"., New Orleans, La., 1993.
^{[NICK]}- Nickels, Hamilton, "Codemaster: Secrets of Making and Breaking Codes", Paladin Press, Boulder, CO., 1990.
^{[NIHL]}- PHOENIX, "Computer Column: Nihilist Substitution", MA88, The Cryptogram, American Cryptogram Association, 1988.
^{[NIH1]}- PHOENIX, "Computer Column: Nihilist Substitution", MJ88, The Cryptogram, American Cryptogram Association, 1988.
^{[NIH2]}- PHOENIX, "Computer Column: Nihilist Substitution", JA88, The Cryptogram, American Cryptogram Association, 1988.
^{[NIH3]}- PHOENIX, "Computer Column: Nihilist Substitution", JA89, The Cryptogram, American Cryptogram Association, 1989.
^{[NIH4]}- FIDDLE and CLEAR SKYS, "FIDDLE'S slide for Nihilist Number Substitution", ON48, The Cryptogram, American Cryptogram Association, 1948.
^{[NIH5]}- RIG R. MORTIS, "Mixed Square Nihilist", JA60, The Cryptogram, American Cryptogram Association, 1960.
^{[NIH6]}- PICCOLA, "Nihilist Number Cipher", AS37, The Cryptogram, American Cryptogram Association, 1937.
^{[NIH7]}- PICCOLA, "Nihilist Transposition", DJ38, The Cryptogram, American Cryptogram Association, 1938.
^{[NIST90]}- "PUBLIC-KEY CRYPTOGRAPHY", James Nechvatal Security Technology Group National Computer Systems Laboratory National Institute of Standards and Technology Gaithersburg, MD 20899
^{[NORM]}- Norman, Bruce, "Secret Warfare", David & Charles, Newton Abbot (Devon) 1973.
^{[NORW]}- Marm, Ingvald and Sommerfelt, Alf, "Norwegian", Teach Yourself Books, Hodder and Stoughton, London, 1967.
^{[NRC]}- National Research Council (1991). "Computers at Risk: Safe Computing in the Information Age". National Academy Press (Washington, DC). ISBN 0-309-04388-3. xv + 302. Available from the NCSA.
^{[NSA]}- "NSA's Friedman Legacy-A Tribute to William and Elizabeth Friedman", NSA Center for Cryptological
^{[NSA1]}- "Masked Dispatches: Cryptograms and Cryptology in American History", 1775-1900. Series 1, Pre World War I Volume I, National Security Agency, Central Security Service, NSA Center for Cryptological History, 1993.
^{[NULL]}- PICCOLA, "Null Cipher", ON34, The Cryptogram, American Cryptogram Association, 1934.
^{[NUL1]}- ISHCABIBEL, "Null Cipher", JJ45, The Cryptogram, American Cryptogram Association, 1945.
^{[NUL2]}- HELLCRYPT, "Nullifing the Null Cipher", ON49, The Cryptogram, American Cryptogram Association, 1945.
^{[NUL3]}- BUNYIP, "NULLX: The Patristocrat Null Cipher", SO91, The Cryptogram, American Cryptogram Association, 1991.
^{[NWCS]}- National Commission for the Review of Federal and State Laws relating to Wiretapping and Electronic Surveillance, 1976, Commission Studies, Washington, 1976, Washington, DC.
^{[OD84]}- A. M. Odlyzko, "Cryptanalytic attacks on the multiplicative knapsack cryptosystem and on Shamir's fast signature scheme", IEEE Transactions on Information Theory, Vol. IT-30, No. 4, July 1984, pp. 594-601.
^{[OD8b]}- A. M. Odlyzko, "Discrete logarithms in finite fields and their cryptographic significance", in T. Beth, N. Cot, and I. Ingemarsson, Eds., Lecture Notes in Computer Science Vol. 209: Advances in Cryptology: Proceedings of EUROCRYPT 84, a Workshop on the Theory and Application of Cryptographic Techniques, Paris, France, April 9-11, 1984, pp. 224-314. Berlin/New York: Springer-Verlag, 1985.
^{[OHAV]}- OHAVER, M. E., "Solving Cipher Secrets", Aegean Park Press, 1989.
^{[OHA1]}- OHAVER, M. E., "Cryptogram Solving", Etcetera Press, 1973.
^{[OKLA]}- Andre, Josephine and Richard V. Andree, "Cryptarithms", Unit One, Problem Solving and Logical Thinking, University of Oklahoma, Norman, Ok. Copy No: 486, 1976.
^{[OKLI]}- Andre, Josephine and Richard V. Andree, "Instructors Manual For Cryptarithms", Unit One, Problem Solving and Logical Thinking, University of Oklahoma, Norman, Ok. Copy No: 486, 1976.
^{[Olm]}- Olmstead v. United States, 277 U. S. 438, 1928.
^{[OPS]}- Office of the Press Secretary, The White House, 1993, statement on the Clipper Chip Initiative, April 16, 1993, Washington, DC.
^{[OP20]}- "Course in Cryptanalysis", OP-20-G', Navy Department, Office of Chief of Naval Operations, Washington, 1941.
^{[OPSH]}- O'PSHAW, "Bifid Statistical Period Determination Using a Contingency Table Chi-Square", JA95, The Cryptogram, American Cryptogram Association, 1995.
^{[OR86]}- G. A. Orton, M. P. Roy, P. A. Scott, L. E. Peppard, and S. E. Tavares, "VLSI implementation of public-key encryption algorithms", in A. M. Odlyzko, Ed., Lecture Notes in Computer Science Vol. 263: Advances in Cryptology-CRYPTO '86, proceedings of a Conference on the Theory and Applications of Cryptographic Techniques, Santa Barbara, CA, August 11-15, 1986, pp. 277-301. Berlin/New York: Springer-Verlag, 1987.
^{[ORAN]}- The "Orange Book", is DOD 520 0.28-STD, published December 1985 as part of the "rainbow book" series. Write to Department of Defense, National Security Agency, ATTN: S332, 9800 Savage Road, Fort Meade, MD 20755-6000, and ask for the Trusted Computer System Evaluation Criteria. Or call 301-766-8729. The "Orange Book" will eventually be replaced by the U. S. Federal Criteria for Information Technology Security (FC) online at the NIST site [FTPNS], which also contains information on other various proposed and active federal standards.
^{[ORE]}- Ore, Oystein, Number Theory and Its History, New York: McGraw-Hill, 1948.
^{[OCNO]}- Office of Chief of Naval Operations (1943) Memorandum Communication Improvement Item. available from the NARA, Pacific Sierra Regional Archive, RG 181-58-3224, 12th ND Commandants Office General Correspondence, A6-2(1) Complaints-Discrepencies, Security-etc.
^{[OTA]}- "Defending Secrets, Sharing Data: New Locks and Keys for Electronic Information", Office of Technology Assessment, 1988.
^{[OTA1]}- OTA (1993). "Protecting Privacy in Computerized Medical Information". U. S. Congress Office of Technology Assessment. U. S. Government Printing Office #OTA-TCT-576 (Washington, DC). ISBN 0-16-042074-1. viii + 157. Index.
^{[OZK]}- OZ, "Variation in Letter Frequency with Cipher Length or Where Did All Those K's Come From? ", SO59, The Cryptogram, American Cryptogram Association, 1959.
^{[P235]}- Computer Security Act of 1987, Public Law 100-235 (H. R. 145), 101 Stat. 1724-1730.
^{[PA87]}- W. Patterson, "Mathematical Cryptology for Computer Scientists and Mathematicians". Totowa, NJ: Rowman & Littlefield, 1987.
^{[Park]}- Parker, D., 1983, "Fighting Computer Crime, Charles Scribner's", New York, 1983.
^{[PATR]}- PICCOLA, "Patristocrat: A method for Finding Repeated Sequences", JF92, The Cryptogram, American Cryptogram Association, 1992.
^{[PAT1]}- PICCOLA, "Patristocrat: Vowel Spotting and Digraphs ", ND91, The Cryptogram, American Cryptogram Association, 1991.
^{[PAT2]}- PICCOLA, "Patristocrat: Finding Repeated Sequences", AM34, The Cryptogram, American Cryptogram Association, 1934.
^{[PAT3]}- PICCOLA, "Patristocrat: Vowel Spotting and Digraphs ", FM34, The Cryptogram, American Cryptogram Association, 1934.
^{[PAT4]}- FLEETFOOT, "Patristocrat: Column Insight", SO90, The Cryptogram, American Cryptogram Association, 1990.
^{[PAT5]}- AECUS, "Patristocrat Tip Placement", SO90, The Cryptogram, American Cryptogram Association, 1990.
^{[PAT6]}- LAMONT CRANSTON, "Patristocrat: Rookie Guide To Solving", JA91, The Cryptogram, American Cryptogram Association, 1991.
^{[PAT7]}- MICROPOD, "Solution of a K2 Patristocrat", MJ91, The Cryptogram, American Cryptogram Association, 1991.
^{[PAT8]}- FAUSTUS, "Patristocrat: Solution of Straight Substitution Crypts ", ON32, SO91, The Cryptogram, American Cryptogram Association, 1932,1991.
^{[PATT]}- Wayne Patterson, "Mathematical Cryptology for Computer Scientists and Mathematicians". Rowman & Littlefield, 1987.
^{[PCSG]}- Public Cryptography Study Group, 1981, "Report of the Public Cryptography Study Group", American Council on Education, February 1981.
^{[PE86]}- R. C. Peralta, "A simple and fast probabilistic algorithm for computing square roots modulo a prime number", IEEE Transactions on Information Theory, Vol. 32, No. 6, November 1986, pp. 846-847.
^{[PEAR]}- "Pearl Harbor Revisited", U. S. Navy Communications Intelligence, 1924-1941, U. S. Cryptological History Series, Series IV, World War II, Volume 6, NSA CSS , CH-E32-94-01, 1994.
^{[PECK]}- Peck, Lyman C., "Secret Codes, Remainder Arithmetic, and Matrices", National Counsil of Teachers of Mathematics, Washington, D. C. 1971.
^{[PELE]}- S. Peleg and A. Rosenfeld, "Breaking Substitution Ciphers Using a Relaxation Algorithm". CACM 22(11).
^{[PERI]}- Y. KNOTT, "Aid For Solving Periodic Ciphers", JJ42, The Cryptogram, American Cryptogram Association, 1942.
^{[PER1]}- S-TUCK, "Finding the Period in Periodic Ciphers", AS44, The Cryptogram, American Cryptogram Association, 1944
^{[PER2]}- SCHMOO, "Refinement for Simple Periodic Ciphers", MJ80, The Cryptogram, American Cryptogram Association, 1980.
^{[PER3]}- LEANDER and PICCOLA, "Some Odds and Ends On Periodic Ciphers", AM40, The Cryptogram, American Cryptogram Association, 1940.
^{[PER4]}- R. E. GILMAN, "To Find the Period in Any Periodic Ciphers", JJ43, The Cryptogram, American Cryptogram Association, 1943.
^{[PERR]}- Perrault, Charles, "Tallement des Reaux, Les Historiettes", Bibliotheque del La Pleiade, Paris 1960, pp 256-258.
^{[PETE]}- Peterson, I., "Encrypting Controversy", Science News, 19 June 1993, 394-396.
^{[PFLE]}- Pfleeger, C. P. (1989). "Security in Computing". Prentice-Hall (Englewood Cliffs, NJ). ISBN 0-13-798943-1. xxi + 538. Index.
^{[PGP]}- Garfinkel, Simson, "PGP: Pretty Good Privacy", O'Reilly and Associates, Inc. Sebastopol, CA. 1995.
^{[PHL]}- PHIL, "System Identification by General Frequencies", AM48, The Cryptogram, American Cryptogram Association, 1948.
^{[PHIL]}- K. SEA, "Comments On The Phillips Cipher", AM51, The Cryptogram, American Cryptogram Association, 1951.
^{[PHI1]}- PHOENIX, "Phillips Crib Dragging", JA91, The Cryptogram, American Cryptogram Association, 1991.
^{[PHI2]}- O'PSHAW "Mechanization of the Phillips Cipher", ND90, The Cryptogram, American Cryptogram Association, 1990.
^{[PHI3]}- LEDGE, "More on the Phillips Cipher", JA72, The Cryptogram, American Cryptogram Association, 1972.
^{[PHI4]}- CALIMAR, "Phillips Cipher", MA84, The Cryptogram, American Cryptogram Association, 1984.
^{[PHI5]}- GLENDALE, "The Phillips Cipher", ON47, The Cryptogram, American Cryptogram Association, 1947.
^{[PHI6]}- O. G. WIZ, "Phillips System", AS32, The Cryptogram, American Cryptogram Association, 1932.
^{[PHI7]}- B. NATURAL, "Phillips Cipher with Mixed square", AM50, The Cryptogram, American Cryptogram Association, 1950.
^{[PHI8]}- LEDGE, "Phillips", MJ72, The Cryptogram, American Cryptogram Association, 1972.
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^{[PHOT]}- PHOTON, "Headline Puzzles by Paul Derthick", for publication, 1 September, 1996. (With permission of NSA and Mr. Derthick's estate))
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^{[PLAY]}- ZEMBIE, "Playfair Cipher: Anyone For", JF68, The Cryptogram, American Cryptogram Association, 1968.
^{[PLA1]}- SCHMOO, "Asymetrical Playfair Cipher", MJ88, The Cryptogram, American Cryptogram Association, 1988.
^{[PLA2]}- PHOENIX, "Playfair Square", MJ84, The Cryptogram, American Cryptogram Association, 1984.
^{[PLA3]}- PHOENIX, "Playfair Square Reconstruction", JA84, The Cryptogram, American Cryptogram Association, 1984.
^{[PLA4]}- PHOENIX, "Seriated Playfair ", SO88, The Cryptogram, American Cryptogram Association, 1988.
^{[PLA5]}- S-TUCK, "First Principles of Playfair Cipher", JJ49, The Cryptogram, American Cryptogram Association, 1949.
^{[PLA6]}- MI TAI TAI, "FracFair Cipher", JA66, The Cryptogram, American Cryptogram Association, 1966.
^{[PLA7]}- SCRYER, "Key Reconstruction for Asymetric Playfair Cipher", JA89, The Cryptogram, American Cryptogram Association, 1989.
^{[PLA8]}- THE SQUIRE, "Mixed Sequence Playfairs", DJ41, The Cryptogram, American Cryptogram Association, 1941.
^{[PLA9]}- MARSHEN, "More On George Ashton's Playfair Cipher ", JA68, The Cryptogram, American Cryptogram Association, 1968.
^{[PLAa]}- S-TUCK, "New Layout for the Playfair Cipher", JJ42, The Cryptogram, American Cryptogram Association, 1942.
^{[PLAb]}- THE RAT, "Octafair Cipher-Version of Playfair Cipher ", MA91, The Cryptogram, American Cryptogram Association, 1991.
^{[PLAc]}- PICCOLA, "Playfair Cipher", ON38, The Cryptogram, American Cryptogram Association, 1938.
^{[PLAd]}- LEDGE, "Playfair Cipher", SO74, The Cryptogram, American Cryptogram Association, 1974.
^{[PLAe]}- AB STRUSSE, "Playfair Symposium", SO84, The Cryptogram, American Cryptogram Association, 1984.
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^{[PO86]}- C. Pomerance, "Fast, rigorous factorization and discrete logarithm algorithms", in D. S. Johnson, T. Nishizeki, A. Nozaki, and H. S. Wilf, Eds., Discrete Algorithms and Complexity, proceedings of the Japan-US Joint Seminar, Kyoto, Japan, June 4-6, 1986, pp. 119-143. Orlando, FL: Academic Press, 1987.
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^{[PO79]}- G. L. Popek and C. S. Kline, "Encryption and secure computer networks", ACM Computing Surveys, Vol. 11, No. 4, December 1979, pp. 331-356.
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^{[POLb]}- B. NATURAL, "Pollux Cipher", SO74, The Cryptogram, American Cryptogram Association, 1974.
^{[POLc]}- DUN SCOTUS, "Pollux Cipher", JF68, The Cryptogram, American Cryptogram Association, 1968.
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^{[PORX]}- RED E. RASER, "Portax Cipher", JJ53, The Cryptogram, American Cryptogram Association, 1953.
^{[POX1]}- LEDGE, "Portax Cipher", JF73, The Cryptogram, American Cryptogram Association, 1973.
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^{[PT10]}- Annonomous, "PT109 Cipher Message (President Kennedy)", SO62, The Cryptogram, American Cryptogram Association, 1962.
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^{[QUAG]}- QUINCE, "Quagmire Cipher: A Personal Attack", JA92, The Cryptogram, American Cryptogram Association, 1992.
^{[QUA1]}- MACHIAVELLI, "Alphabet Recovery in K4 Quagmire Ciphers", SO59, The Cryptogram, American Cryptogram Association, 1959.
^{[QUA2]}- DUBIOUS, "Cipher text Alphabets of Quagmire Ciphers ", JASO59, The Cryptogram, American Cryptogram Association, 1959.
^{[QUA3]}- CALIMER, "Double Quagmire Cipher", JF81, The Cryptogram, American Cryptogram Association, 1981.
^{[QUA4]}- B. NATURAL, "Filling in the Quagmire Block with the Least Amount of Values and Yet Finding the Keywords(s)", SO58, The Cryptogram, American Cryptogram Association, 1958.
^{[QUA5]}- O'PSHAW, "Double Quagmire Recovery of Non Consecutive Key Alphabet", MJ88, The Cryptogram, American Cryptogram Association, 1988.
^{[QUA6]}- BARGE, "Five by Five Quagmires", JF70, The Cryptogram, American Cryptogram Association, 1970.
^{[QUA7]}- RED E. RASER, "Impressions on Quagmire III Cipher", ON47, The Cryptogram, American Cryptogram Association, 1947.
^{[QUA8]}- MACHIAVELLI, "Keyword IV: Its Use and Recovery in Quagmires", MA69, The Cryptogram, American Cryptogram Association, 1969.
^{[QUA9]}- DUBIOUS, "Mechanical Substitution for Quagmire Ratios", JA58, The Cryptogram, American Cryptogram Association, 1958.
^{[QUAa]}- TONTO, "More about Theory of Substitutions in Quagmire Ciphers", FM49, The Cryptogram, American Cryptogram Association, 1949.
^{[QUAb]}- PHOENIX, "Quagmire Alphabet Merging and Ratios ", ND87, The Cryptogram, American Cryptogram Association, 1987.
^{[QUAc]}- LEDGE, "Quagmire I and II Ciphers", SO73, The Cryptogram, American Cryptogram Association, 1973.
^{[QUAd]}- LEDGE, "Quagmire III Ciphers", ND73, The Cryptogram, American Cryptogram Association, 1973.
^{[QUAe]}- LEDGE, "Quagmire IV Ciphers", JF74, The Cryptogram, American Cryptogram Association, 1974.
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^{[QUAg]}- THE DOC, "Solution of Quagmire I without Tip", JA92, The Cryptogram, American Cryptogram Association, 1992.
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^{[RA79]}- M. O. Rabin, "Digitalized signatures and public-key functions as intractable as factorization", MIT Laboratory for Computer Science, Technical Report LCS/TR-212, January 1979.
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^{[RAG3]}- LEDGE, "Ragbaby ", ND72, The Cryptogram, American Cryptogram Association, 1972.
^{[RAG4]}- TEX TREMUS, "Ragbaby Redundancy", MJ92, The Cryptogram, American Cryptogram Association, 1992.
^{[RAG5]}- FRINKUS, "Ragbaby Shaking Out", ND61, The Cryptogram, American Cryptogram Association, 1961.
^{[RAG6]}- B. NATURAL, "Ragbaby-Without a Known Starting Point", ND60, The Cryptogram, American Cryptogram Association, 1960.
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^{[VIGa]}- TRYIT, "Solving Vigeneres by Trigram Method", JJ43, The Cryptogram, American Cryptogram Association, 1943.
^{[VIGb]}- KOHOP, "Procedure for Solving Vigenere Type of Periodic in an Unknown Language with Non-Roman Alphabet", MA55, The Cryptogram, American Cryptogram Association, 1955.
^{[VIGc]}- PICCOLA, "Vigenere Cipher", FM35, The Cryptogram, American Cryptogram Association, 1935.
^{[VIGd]}- LEDGE, "Vigenere Family ", JF72, The Cryptogram, American Cryptogram Association, 1972.
^{[VIGe]}- TONTO, "Vigenere Family ", JJ54, The Cryptogram, American Cryptogram Association, 1954.
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^{[WDO]}- War Department Office of The Chief Signal Officer (1941) Operating Instructions for Converter M-134-C (short title: SIGBWJ)
^{[WDO1]}- War Department Office of The Chief Signal Officer (1941) Operating Instructions for Converter M-134-C (short title: SIGLVC) Department of the Army (1941) Crypto-Operating Instructions for Converter M-134-C (short title: SIGQZF)
^{[WDM1]}- War Department (1942) Maintenance Instructions for Converter M-134-C (short title: SIGKKK)
^{[WDM2]}- War Department (1945) Maintenance Instructions for Converter M-134-C (short title: SIGKKK-2) SIGQZF, SIGBWJ, SIGLVC, SIGKKK, SIGKKK-2 are available from NARA; NSA Historical Collections 190/37/7/1, NR 2292 CBLL36 10622A 19410300.
^{[WDG1]}- War Department (1945) General Instructions For Converter M-134-C (short title: SIGBRE-1) available from NARA; NSA Historical Collections 190/37/7/1, NR 4588 ZEMA35 13909A 19450600
^{[WAL0]}- "Arithimetica Infinitorium", and "Opera mathematica", (Oxoniae, 1699), III 674,687,688,693 and 695 give solutions to nomenclators based on pre-calculus theory. Wallis' "Letter-Book" gives some of his important papers (Smith op cit, p32, p499)
^{[WALL]}- Walling, V. C., Jr., D. B. Parker, and C. C. Wood, "Impacts of Federal Policy Options for Nonmilitary Cryptography", SRI International Research Report 32, April 1981, Menlo Park, CA.
^{[WALL]}- Wallis, John, "A Collection of Letters and other Papers in Cipher", Oxford University, Bodleian Library, 1653.
^{[WAL1]}- Wallace, Robert W. "Pattern Words: Ten Letters and Eleven Letters in Length", Aegean Park Press, Laguna Hills, CA 92654, 1993.
^{[WAL2]}- Wallace, Robert W. "Pattern Words: Twelve Letters and Greater in Length", Aegean Park Press, Laguna Hills, CA 92654, 1993.
^{[Walk]}- Walker, S., 1993, Testimony for Subcommitte on Economic Policy, Trade and Environment, Committee on Foreign Affairs, U. S. House of Representatives, October 12, 1993, Washington, DC.
^{[WARN]}- "Warner Amendment" systems (10 U. S. C. 2315 and 44 U. S. C. 3502
- [2]
- ) applies to digital signatures.
^{[WATS]}- Watson, R. W. Seton-, ed, "The Abbot Trithemius", in Tudor Studies, Longmans and Green, London, 1924.
^{[WAY]}- Way, Peter, "Codes and Ciphers", Crecent Books, 1976.
^{[WAYN]}- Wayner, P, Statement in "Cryptographic Issue Statements Submitted to the Computer System Security and Privacy Advisory Board", by NIST, 27 May 1993, pp. 13-17.
^{[WEBE]}- Weber, Ralph Edward, "United States Diplomatic Codes and Ciphers, 1175-1938", Chicago, Precedent Publishing, 1979.
^{[WEIS]}- Weissman, C., "A national debate on encryption exportability", Communications of the ACM vol. 34, no. 10 (October, 1991): 162.
^{[WELH]}- D. Welsh, "Codes and Cryptography". Claredon Press, 1988.
^{[WELS]}- Welsh, Dominic, "Codes and Cryptography", Oxford Science Publications, New York, 1993.
^{[WELC]}- Welchman, Gordon, "The Hut Six Story", McGraw-Hill, New York 1982.
^{[WELS]}- Welsh, Dominic, "Codes and Cryptography", Oxford Science Publications, New York, 1993.
^{[WHIT]}- Whiteside, T. (1978). "Computer Capers: Tales of Electronic Thievery, Embezzlement and Fraud". Mentor Executive Library published by The New American Library (New York). ISBN 0-145-62080-1.
^{[WHOR]}- Whorf, B. L., "A Linguistic Consideration of Thinking In Primitive Communities", In Language, Thought, and Reality: Selected Writings of Benjamin Lee Whorf, ed. J. B. Carroll, Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, pp. 65-86., 1956.
^{[Wie]}- Wiener, M., 1993, "Efficient DES Key Search", presentation at Rump Session of Crypto (August, 1993), Santa Barbara, CA. Available as TR-244, School of Computer Science, Carleton University, Ottawa, Canada, May 1994.
^{[WI68]}- M. V. Wilkes, "Time-Sharing Computer Systems". New York: Elsevier, 1968.
^{[WI80]}- H. C. Williams, "A modification of the RSA public-key encryption procedure", IEEE Transactions on Information Theory, Vol. IT-26, No. 6, November 1980, pp. 726-729.
^{[WI87]}- H. C. Williams and M. C. Wunderlich, "On the parallel generation of the residues for the continued fraction factoring algorithm", Mathematics of Computation, Vol. 48, No. 177, January 1987, pp. 405-423.
^{[WIGG]}- Wiggins, R. W. (1995). "The Internet for everyone: A guide for users and providers". J. Ranade Workstation Series (McGraw-Hill, New York). ISBN 0-07-067019-6. xvi + 655. Index.
^{[WILL]}- Williams, Eugenia, "An Invitation to Cryptograms", Simon and Schuster, 1959.
^{[WIL1]}- Williams, P., "OSISEC Introduction and Overview", University College, London, 15 April 1993.
^{[WILD]}- Wildman, Ted, "The Expendables", Clearwater Pub., 1983
^{[WINJ]}- Winton, J., "Ultra at Sea: How Breaking the Nazi Code Affected Allied Naval Strategy During WWII", New York, William Morror, 1988.
^{[WINK]}- Winkle, Rip Van, "Hungarian: The Cryptogram", , March-April 1956.
^{[WINF]}- Winterbotham, F. W., "The Ultra Secret", Weidenfeld and Nicolson, London 1974.
^{[WINR]}- Winter, Jack, "Solving Cryptarithms", ACA, 1984.
^{[WOLE]}- Wolfe, Ramond W., "Secret Writing", McGraw Hill Books, NY, 1970.
^{[WOLF]}- Wolfe, Jack M., "A First Course in Cryptanalysis", Brooklin College Press, NY, 1943.
^{[WOOD]}- Wood, C. C. (1994). "Information Security Policies Made Easy: A Comprehensive Set of Information Security Policies". Version 4. BASELINE Software (Sausalito, CA). ISBN 1-881585-01-8. 109 pp. Diskette available.
^{[WRIX]}- Wrixon, Fred B. "Codes, Ciphers and Secret Languages", Crown Publishers, New York, 1990.
^{[WROB]}- Wrobel, L. A. (1990). "Disaster Recovery Planning for Telecommunications". Artech House (Boston, MA). ISBN 0-89006-460-1. xi + 112.
^{[WROE]}- Wrobel, L. A. (1993). "Writing Disaster Recovery Plans for Telecommunications Networks and LANs". Artech House (Boston, MA). ISBN 0-89006-694-7. xiii + 138. Index.
^{[WU83]}- M. C. Wunderlich, "Factoring numbers on the Massively Parallel computer", in D. Chaum, Ed., Advances in Cryptology-proceedings of CRYPTO 83, a Workshop on the Theory and Applications of Cryptographic Techniques, Santa Barbara, CA, August 22-24, 1983, pp. 87-102. New York: Plenum Press, 1984.
^{[WU85]}- M. C. Wunderlich, "Implementing the continued fraction factoring algorithm on parallel machines", Mathematics of Computation, Vol. 44, No. 169, January 1985, pp. 251-260.
^{[XAMA]}- XAMAN EK, "Bifid Workshop", ND93, The Cryptogram, American Cryptogram Association, 1993.
^{[XAM1]}- XAMAN EK, "Bifid Workshop-Part II", MJ93, The Cryptogram, American Cryptogram Association, 1993.
^{[XEN1]}- PHOENIX, "Xenocrypt Handbook", American Cryptogram Association, 1 Pidgeon Dr., Wilbraham, MA., 01095-2603, for publication March, 1996.
^{[YA82]}- A. C. Yao, "Theory and applications of trapdoor functions", in 23rd Annual Symposium on Foundations of Computer Science, Chicago, IL, November 3-5, 1982, pp. 80-91. IEEE Computer Society Press, 1982.
^{[YAOA]}- A. Yao, "Computational Information Theory". In Complexity in Information Theory, ed. by Abu-Mostafa, 1988.
^{[YARD]}- Yardley, Herbert, O., "The American Black Chamber", Bobbs-Merrill, NY, 1931.
^{[YAR1]}- Yardley, H. O., "The Chinese Black Chamber", Houghton Mifflin, Boston, 1983.
^{[YAR2]}- Yardley, H. O., "Yardleygrams", Bobbs Merrill, 1932.
^{[YAR3]}- Yardley, H. O., "The Education of a Poker Player", Simon and Schuster, 1957.
^{[YOKO]}- Yukio Yokoyama, "Tokushu joho kaisoka", unpublished handwritten manuscript.
^{[YOUS]}- Youshkevitch, A. P., "Geschichte der Mathematik im Mittelatter", Liepzig, Germany: Teubner, 1964.
^{[YUKI]}- Yukio Nishihara, "Kantogan tai-So Sakusenshi", Vol 17., unpublished manuscript, National Institute for Defense Studies Military Archives, Tokyo.,(hereafter NIDS Archives)
^{[ZIM]}- Zim, Herbert S., "Codes and Secret Writing". William Morrow Co., New York, 1948.
^{[ZEND]}- Callimahos, L. D., "Traffic Analysis and the Zendian Problem", Agean Park Press, 1984. (also available through NSA Center for Cryptologic History)
^{[ZERZ]}- Zerzan, J. & A. Carnes, eds. (1988). "Questioning Technology: A Critical Anthology". Freedom Press (London). ISBN 0-900-384-44-1. 222. Index.
^{[ZYZZ]}- ZYZZ, "Sinkov's Frequency Matching", JA93, The Cryptogram, American Cryptogram Association, 1993.
^{[ZYZ1]}- ZYZZ, "Nihilist Substitution", ND94, The Cryptogram, American Cryptogram Association, 1994.
^{[ZYZ2]}- ZYZZ, "Solving Twin Bifids", JA94, The Cryptogram, American Cryptogram Association, 1994
^{[ZYZ3]}- ZYZZ, "Bring Home the Baconian!", MA94, The Cryptogram, American Cryptogram Association, 1994.
^{[ZYZ4]}- ZYZZ, "Xenocrypt Solving for Neophytes", JF96, The Cryptogram, American Cryptogram Association, 1996.

- http://www-pcd.stanford.edu/gifs/button.key.gif
- http://www.ecst.csuchico.edu/~rodmur/docs/USConstitution.html
- http://draco.centerline.com:8080/~franl/privacy/
- http://www.house.gov/Constitution/Constitution.html
- http://draco.centerline.com:8080/~franl/clipper/about-clipper.html

- http://www-leland.stanford.edu/~phillin/
- http://rescomp.stanford.edu/~pweston/ptw.html
- http://www.eff.org/

- [email protected]
- http://draco.centerline.com:8080/~franl/pgp/pgp-2.6.2-doc1.html
- http://draco.centerline.com:8080/~franl/pgp/

- http://www.cs.berkeley.edu/~daw/netscape-randomness.html
- http://www.clark.net/pub/cme/html/ranno.html
- http://www.cis.ohio-state.edu/htbin/rfc/rfc1750.html
- http://www.ddj.com/ddj/1994/1994.11/index.htm

- http://www.ama.caltech.edu/resources.html
- ftp://ftp.mcs.com/mcsnet.users/eh.crypto
- ftp://csua.berekely.edu/pub/cypherpunks/ciphers
- ftp://ftp.datashopper.dk/pub/users/pethern/file/curve_encrypt_22.sea.hqx
- ftp://ftp.dsi.unimi.it/pub/security/crypt/code/curve_encrypt_22.sea.hqx

- http://www.iro.umontreal.ca/labs/theorique/index_en.html
- http://vesta.physics.ucla.edu/~smolin/
- http://eve.physics.ox.ac.uk/QCresearch/cryptoanalysis/qc.html
- http://eve.physics.ox.ac.uk/QChome.html

- http://www.mat.sbg.ac.at/~uhl/wav.html
- ftp://sable.ox.ac.uk/pub/math/README
- ftp://sable.ox.ac.uk/pub/math/cunningham/README

- ftp://sable.ox.ac.uk/pub/math/primesrsa129/
- ftp://furmint.nectar.cs.cmu.edu/security
- http://weber.u.washington.edu/~phantom/cpunk/index.html
- ftp://ftp.funet.fi/pub/crypt/cypherpunks
- ftp://ftp.psy.uq.oz.au/pub/Crypto
- ftp.psy.uq.oz.au/pub/Crypto
- ftp://ftp.wimsey.bc.ca/pub/crypto
- http://clipper.uvic.ca/crypt
- ftp://pgp.rasip.fer.hr
- ftp://ftp.datashopper.dk/pub/users/pethern
- ftp://ftp.funet.fi/pub/crypt
- ftp://garbo.uwasa.fi/pc/security
- http://www.cs.hut.fi/ssh/crypto
- http://www.cnam.fr/Network/Crypto
- ftp://ftp.darmstadt.gmd.de/pub/crypto
- ftp://ftp.informatik.uni-hildesheim.de/pub/security/
- ftp://ftp.uni-stuttgart.de/pub/doc/security/crypto/
- http://www.thur.de/ulf/krypto/index.html
- ftp://ftp.informatik.uni-hamburg.de/pub/pgp
- ftp://ftp.informatik.uni-hamburg.de/pub/crypt
- http://www.cert.dfn.de/eng
- ftp://ftp.kfki.hu/pub/packages/security
- ftp://ftp.dsi.unimi.it/pub/security/crypt
- ftp://utopia.hacktic.nl/pub/replay/pub/disk/
- ftp://ftp.unit.no/pub/unix/security
- ftp://ftp.kiae.su/unix/crypto
- ftp://ftp.sunet.se/pub/security/tools/crypt
- ftp://ftp.ox.ac.uk/pub/crypto
- ftp://FTP.CSN.ORG/mpj/README
- http://www.eff.org/pub/ Net_info/Tools/Crypto/
- ftp://ftp.eff.org/pub/Net_info/Tools/Crypto/

- http://mnementh.cs.adfa.oz.au/htbin/bib_lpb
- http://glimpse.cs.arizona.edu/bib/
- http://glimpse.cs.arizon a.edu/cgi-bin/biblio?query1=cryptography&query2=&query3=&case=on&errors=0&maxfiles=200&maxlines=5000
- http://liinwww.ira.uka.de/bibliograph y/index.html
- ftp://ftp.doc.ic.ac.uk/computing/bibliographies/Karlsruhe/index.html
- http://liinwww.ira.uka.de/bibliography/Theory/crypto.security.html
- ftp://ftp.doc.ic.ac.uk/computing/bibliographies/Karlsruhe/Theory/computational.number.theory.html
- http://theory.lcs.mit.edu/~rivest/homepage.html
- http://theory.lcs.mit.edu/~rivest/crypto.bib
- http://theory.lcs.mit.edu/~rivest/algorithms2.bib

- http://www.cs.waikato.ac.nz/~sirvine
- http://bibd.unl.edu/~stinson/acbib.html
- http://bibd.unl.edu/~stinson/ssbib.html
- http://triode.apana.org.au:8080/~cskinner/cybanim.html
- http://www.isse.gmu.edu/~csis/bibliography/ref_essays.html
- http://www.cs.purdue.edu/coast/archive/data/category_index.html
- ftp://coast.cs.purdue.edu/pub/doc/cryptography/
- http://www.cs.purdue.edu/coast/archive/data/categ12.html
- http://ww w.zblmath.fiz-karlsruhe.de/cgi-bin/LNCS-500-1000
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- http://avalon.ira.uka.de/eiss/EISS-Reports/index.html

- http://avalon.ira.uka.de/eiss/indexe.html
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- http://www.ens.fr/~grecc/index_en.html
- http://www.ul b.ac.be/di/scsi/defscsi.html

- http://www.informatik.uni-hildesheim.de/~sirene/lit/sirene.lit.html
- http://www.informatik.uni-hildesheim.de/~sirene/index.html
- http://www.swcp.com/~iacr/jofc/jofc.html

- http://www.isse.gmu.edu/~csis/jcs.html
- http://www.tis.com/Home/DataSecurityLetter.html
- http://www.byte.com/
- http://www.quad ralay.com/www/Crypt/General/crypto-journals.html
- http://www.itd.nrl.navy.mil/ITD/5540/ieee/cipher/
- http://www.computer.org

- http://www.cl.cam.ac.uk/users/rja14/#SR
- ftp://ftp.cl.cam.ac.uk/users/rja14/
- http://www.rsa.com/rsalabs/cryptobytes
- http://www2.indigo-net.com/Indigo/Indigo.html
- http://www.privacy.org/alert/
- gopher://ns1.infor.com/
- gopher://ns1.infor.com/77/.bin/s_kw?cryptography
- http://www.aegeanpress.com/books/
- http://www.wiley.com/
- http://www.openmarket.com/info/cryptography/applied_cryptography.html
- http://www.crcpress.com/PRODS/8521.HTM
- http://www.crcpress.com/
- http://bibd.unl.edu/~stinson/ssbib.html
- http://bibd.unl.edu/~stinson/acbib.html
- http://www-mitpress.mit.edu/mitp/recent-books/comp/pgp-source.html
- http://www-mitpress.mit.edu/
- http://www.springer-ny.com/

- http://www.bookwire.com/index/publishers.html
- http://julmara.ce.chalmers.se/stefan/WWW/sec_bib_search.html
- http://julmara.ce.chalmers.se/Security/
- http://theory.l cs.mit.edu/~dmjones/hbp/
- http://www.cs.indiana.edu/cstr/search
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- [email protected]
- http://www.cl.cam.ac.uk/users/rja14/ihws.html
- http://www.informatik.uni-hildesheim.de/~sirene/conf/Programme/96051216.Eurocrypt96
- http://www.cl.cam.ac.uk/users/rja14/cp.html
- http://www.cl.cam.ac.uk/users/rja14/fse.html
- http://www.rsa.com/rsa/conf96/brochure.htm
- http://www.cl.cam.ac.uk/users/rja14/ini.html
- ftp://ftp.cl.cam.ac.uk:/users/rja14/queensland.ps.Z
- http://www.isse.gmu.edu/~csis/acsac/acsac96-cfp.html
- http://www.cci.de/its/cfp-ifip96.html
- http://www.itd.nrl.navy.mil/ITD/5540/acm/new-paradigms.html
- http://newark.rutgers.edu/~atluri/atma.html
- http://www.isse.gmu.edu/~csis/acsac/acsac95.html
- http://csrc.ncsl.nist.gov/events/

- http://csrc.ncsl.nist.gov/keyescrow/
- http://www.clark.net/pub/cme/html/in-out.html
- http://www.eskimo.com/~joelm
- http://www.eskimo.com/~joelm/criteria.txt
- http://www.isse.gmu.edu/~pfarrell/nistmeeting.html

- http://cwis.kub.nl/~frw/people/koops/lawsurvy.htm
- http://www.epic.org/cr ypto/legislation/s1587.html
- http://www.vtw.org/
- http://www.epic.org/crypto/legislation/s1587_analysis.html
- http://www.law.miami.edu/~froomkin/personal-use.txt
- ftp://ftp.cygnus.com/pub/export/itar.in.full
- http://www.pls.com:8001/his/usc.html
- http://www.epic.org/crypto/
- http://www.eff.org/pub/Privacy/ITAR_export/
- http://www.qualcomm.com/people/pkarn/export/index.html
- http://ssdc.ucsd.edu/gpo/
- http://www.io.org/~samwise/crypto/Introduction.html
- http://www.us.net/~steptoe/
- http://world.std.com/~franl/crypto.html

- http://www.cis.ohio-state.edu/hypertext/faq/usenet/kerberos-faq/user/faq.html
- ftp://athena-dist.mit.edu/pub/kerberos

- http://www.esat.kuleuven.ac.be
- http://www.kuleuven.ac.be
- http://www.dice.ucl.ac.be/crypto/crypto.html
- http://www.iro.umontreal.ca/labs/theorique/index_en.html
- http://www.ens.fr/~grecc/index_en.html
- http://lix.polytechnique.fr/~morain/Crypto/crypto.english.html
- http://www.polytechnique.fr/edu/DEAP/algo.html
- http://www.inf.ethz.ch/department/TI/um/group.html

- http://ana.arc.nasa.gov/usps/
- http://www.cse.dnd.ca/
- http://www.itd.nrl.navy.mil/ITD/
- http://infosec.nosc.mil/infosec.html
- http://hightop.nrl.navy.mil/rainbow.html
- http://www.users.interport.net/~sagal/ajax.html
- http://www.fbi.gov/

Also see Cryptolog.html on NCSAFORUM Section 6 for many other Crypto links.

The best course on the INTERNET by far is LANAKI's. It is 25 Lectures long covering all phases of classical cryptography. The textbooks are ^{[NICH]} Nichols, Randall K., " Classical Cryptography Course, Volume I," Aegean Park Press (C-74), ISBN: 0-89412-263-0, Softbound, 8.38 x 10.75 in, xii + 301 pp. Professor Nichols (aka LANAKI) is the retiring President of the American Cryptogram Association (ACA) 1994-1996. Classical Cryptography Volume II was released in February, 1997.

Volume I presents the first ten Lectures (of twenty five) from Mr. Nichols' 1995 and 1996 on-going Classical Cryptography Course taught to 461 students at all levels of expertise. Volume I covers such diverse topics as Aristocrats (the king of cipher puzzles found in many daily papers), Patristocrats (Aristocrats without word divisions), Xenocrypts (language ciphers other than English), Transpos-ition Ciphers, Military Ciphers, Cryptarithms, the famous German ENIGMA Cipher Machine (with simulation program disk available), Polyalphabetics, and special historical ciphers. Ciphers and their cryptanalytic techniques for solution are presented. Extensive foreign language data is supplied.

Classical Cryptography Course Volume I represents the best in intellectual stimulation - better than chess, bridge, and couch potatohood combined.

Volume II presents Lectures 11 - 20 (of a total of twenty five) from Mr. Nichols' extremely successful course in Classical Cryptography taught in 1995 and 1996 to 461 students via the Internet and regular mail.

Volume II covers polyalphabetic substitutions ciphers in the Vigenere family (Viggy, Variant, Beaufort, Porta, Gronsfeld, Portax, Gromark), decimation, principles of symmetry, isologs and superimposition solution techniques. Volume II describes the difficult aperiodic cipher systems (Interrupted key, Autoclave, Progressive, Running Key used in cipher machines) and their analysis by isomorphs, and repetitions. Cryptarithm solutions for extended bases are presented. The theory of coincidences and statistical attacks (kappa, chi, phi) that are derived from this important theory are detailed.

Transposition theory and a variety of transposition ciphers are solved (Columnar, Amsco, Myszkowski, Cadenus, Grille, Swagman, Auto-Transposition). Volume II has two chapters on the difficult cipher systems invented by the famous French cryptographer Delastelle: Foursquare, Bifid and Trifid. Volume II ends with a chapter on passwords, law and data protection. Volume II is a potpourri of advanced topics in classical cryptography.

Volume II includes over 1600 Cryptographic Resources and References covering all phases of cryptography: cryptanalysis, history, legal, social, classical, modern, NSA, mathematical techniques, recreational, intelligence, tactical, strategic, national defense, INFOSEC: offensive and defensive, hardware, software, standards, public key cryptography, web sources, and applicable Senate and House bills.

The course is free to ACA members. Two BBS, one netserver, and the Crypto Drop Box are maintained with a wealth of information, lectures and computer programs for the serious student. Professor Nichols shares his 32 years of experience to about 358 students worldwide. Nothing better on the net for the pricetag. Be prepared to work and enjoy yourself.

(and permit me a couple of personal plugs)…

By the honorable Louis Kruh, Editor/Founder CRYPTOLOGIA, October 1996, Volume XX Number 4.

Nichols, president of the American Cryptogram Association, 1994-1996, began a course in classical cryptography in 1995 via the Internet and regular mail. Presently, at its midpoint, the course is an over- whelming success with more than 300 participants and this volume, the first of two, consists of the first ten lectures. Nichols' goals are to teach the basic cryptanalytic tools for solving different types of ciphers while providing some understanding of the historic context and importance of cipher systems to communications.

Volume I covers simple substitution, substitution with variants including complicated types of cipher alphabets, multiliteral substitutions, Xenocrypts (substitution ciphers in languages other than English) cryptarithms, Hill's algebraic cipher, German Enigma machine, and part I of polyalphabetic substitution systems.

In a clearly written style, Nichols describes how to solve each cipher, often with step-by-step examples, using various techniques. These include position and frequency tables, vowel selection method, pattern word attack, consonant-line method, Phi test, Index of Coincidence, probable words, anagraming, frequency distribution data, and common digraphs, trigraphs and tetragraphs for foreign languages, Kasiski method for periodic ciphers, known word method, symmetry principles and other techniques.

A minor criticism is the use of three chapters or 1/3 of the book for Xenocrypts. This is disproportionate by any measure and additional editing and use of an appendix for language data would provide a better balance. Similarly, the Chapter on the German Enigma stands out like plaintext in the middle of an encrypted message. The information is interesting but out of place; it belongs in an appendix.

Another criticism is the decision to have two volumes instead of one, for no apparent reason. This will require a second index and another list of references, which adds to the basic inconvenience of having two volumes when only one is necessary.

Despite these faults, Nichols has produced an out- standing contribution to the literature of cryptology. By way of comparison, in 1939, the American Cryptogram association sponsored publication of Elementary Crypt- analysis by Helen F. Gaines. This was the first comprehensive textbook on the subject published in the United States and, almost 60 years later, it is still in print because no other book has come close to its standard. Now, however, Nichols' book, or at least the first volume, compares favorably and in some ways is even better!

By the Honorable David Kennedy, Director of Research, NCSA.

Classical Cryptography Course, Volume I. By Randall K. Nichols; published by Aegean Park Press, (714) 586-8811 (phone) (714) 586-8269 (fax); (800) 736 - 3587; 301 pages (with index); $34.80 (American Cryptogram Association members receive a 20% discount through ACA or NCSA Members receive a 10% discount if purchased from the NCSA Bookstore)

In Classical Cryptography Course, Volume I, author Randall K. Nichols has created a benchmark for serious students of the science of cryptography. This is a text. It is for learning, and with it one cannot help but learn about the foundations of the science. An outgrowth of Nichols' admitted "labor of love" in the online Cryptography Courses he teaches over the Internet, Volume I creates the foundation for understanding the development of the science.

The ten chapters of this volume lead the student through simple substitutions, substitutions with variants, multiliteral substitutions, xenocrypts (foreign language substitutions), cryptarithms, the Enigma machine (separate Enigma95 program disk available direct from the author) and finally to polyalphabetic substitutions. Seven chapters conclude with problems; solutions and discussions are provided in an appendix. The text is indexed with twenty-four pages of references for further study.

I found Nichols' sense of the history of cryptography particularly noteworthy. The volume is liberally salted with citations from history with applications of the methods developed in the text. From Revolutionary France through the American Civil War, the Tammany Hall scandal, Revolutionary Soviet ciphers and Japanese successes against Chinese codes prior to Pearl Harbor, the text provides touchstones for student to understand and relate to.

Phil Zimmermann observed in the documentation to his Pretty Good Privacy Program to "Beware of Snake Oil". Among his arguments is this anecdote:

I remember a conversation with Brian Snow, a highly placed senior cryptographer with the NSA. He said he would never trust an encryption algorithm designed by someone who had not "earned their bones" by first spending a lot of time cracking codes.

Where Schneier's Applied Cryptography is a crash course in some encryption protocols and algorithms in use today, Nichols' text begins the teaching of Snake Oil detection and prevention.

Learning the fundamentals, developed throughout the text, brings a richer understanding of the science, it's history and insight into it's possibilities and some vulnerabilities lurking for the unwary.

Nichols plans for release Volume II in the series with advanced material on from the online course which includes statistical attacks and transposition in February, 1997.

Reviewer: Dave Kennedy, CISSP, is Director of Research for the National Computer Security Association, Carlisle, PA. He is a retired Army military police officer and member of NCSA, ASIS, ISSA and the Computer Security Institute.

For orders or Information Contact:

Aegean Park Press,P.O. Box 2837,

Laguna Hills, Ca.

92654.

Group discounts available.

Online orders may be made directly to LANAKI at [email protected] or [email protected]. Volume I sells for US $28.50 and Volume II sells for US $38.00. Surface mailing costs are included, as well as, course discounts. Add $8.00 to each book for overseas costs. Orders to LANAKI will be signed by the author.

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