Vienna Depot
Description and Historical Significance
 Vienna, Virginia

Prepared for the nomination of the Vienna Depot to the
National Register of Historic Places

May 3, 2002
Rebekah K. Wood

Copyright 2002
All rights reserved.
No part of this document may be reproduced
or transmitted in any form without prior
     written permission of the author.

               Contents
               Description
                                        This section describes the physical condition of the building
                                        today and offers evidence of past building configurations.
               Statement of Significance
                                        This section decribes the criterion of the
                                        National Register of Historic Places that this building meets.
               Historical Background and Significance
                                        This section provides the history of the building including
               Notes
               Bibliography
               Current Interior Depot Drawing
               Current Exterior Depot Drawing
 
 

    DESCRIPTION
(Floor Plan and Elevations available in Appendix, Sheets A & B)

                    The Vienna Depot stands on its original site adjacent to the former railroad right-of-way and is
                    located at the modern-day intersection of Dominion and Ayr Hill Roads in Vienna, Virginia, 12.9
                    miles west of Washington, D.C.  After its construction in 1859, the depot remained in continuous
                    operation as a railroad station until the abandonment of rail service in 1968.1   Originally
                    constructed by the Alexandria, Loudoun & Hampshire Railroad, subsequent railroad owners
                    modified the structure over the years.  In the 1970s, the Town of Vienna used the structure for
                    storage until it was remodeled in 1977 as a meeting place for the Northern Virginia Model
                    Railroaders, Inc. as well as a showcase for their model trains and railroad memorabilia.2   In
                    addition to continuing the model railroad displays, plans for the future include a Washington &
                    Old Dominion Railroad Museum to be incorporated in the waiting room.  Although the Northern
                    Virginia Regional Park Authority (NVRPA) now owns the building, the Town of Vienna and the
                    Model Railroaders share responsibilities for keeping it well maintained and perpetuating its
                    unmistakable identity as a railroad station beside the Washington & Old Dominion Railroad
                    Regional Park Trail (known as the “W&OD Trail”, also owned and maintained by NVRPA.)3

Exterior Appearance

                   The depot originally measured sixty feet long and was part of a complex, complete with
                    woodsheds and a water tank for replenishment of the steam trains.4   The water tank and
                    woodsheds no longer exist, but the one-story, gable-roofed, wood-framed depot as it
                    appears today measures twenty-two feet, three inches wide by seventy-six feet, ten inches
                    long.  The exterior vertical board-and-batten siding is painted in a color scheme of yellow
                    and green, with the doors and plain-milled door- and window-trim painted white.  Patched
                    areas of the board-and-batten siding reveal locations of former door and window openings.
                    The windows are four-over-four double-hung sash windows protected from vandalism by
                    wire mesh, except for one opaque single-light window protected by wire mesh on the south
                    side of the building.  The south freight door at platform height and the double sliding doors at
                    grade level on the north side of the building retain their original exterior appearances but are
                    fixed into place and are no longer operable.  The north freight door retains its original exterior
                    appearance above grade at a small wood platform, but is modified to conceal a fire-exit door.
                    The roof is finished with modern asphalt    shingles, but an older brick chimney and wood-framed
                    louvered “cupola” project from the ridge line.  Modern brick pavers extend between the north/front
                    façade of the building and the W&OD Trail, and a water fountain located at the east end of the
                    building services trail users.  The south/back façade of the building is separated from Dominion Road
                    only by a guard rail and narrow drainage ditch.  The most notable features of this otherwise
                    simple structure, however, are the decorative Victorian style wood brackets supporting the five-foot
                    deep overhanging eaves, the rectilinear bay window projecting from the station agent’s office,
                    and the semaphore extending above the roofline.

East-End Waiting Room

                    The east-end waiting room was a 1904 addition to the building and was constructed at the same
                    time as the bay window, as evidenced by a distinctive triple-beaded wood paneling that finishes
                    the interior wall surfaces of the bay window projection, the interior wall and ceiling surfaces of
                    the waiting room addition, and the soffits of the overhanging eaves of the addition.  The interior
                    of the room measures twenty-one feet, three inches by sixteen feet, with a twelve feet, seven inch
                    ceiling height.  The walls and ceiling are painted cream color.  Evidence remains of the partition
                    that subdivided the room into two rooms during the years 1935 to 1939.  Two ticket windows
                    still penetrate the west wall into the station agent’s office.  The north and south entry doors remain
                    functional and are topped by glazed transoms.  The east end door has been fixed shut, with the
                    transom boarded up and a window-size air conditioner unit installed in the transom panel.  The
                    door and window trim, consisting primarily of one width of the triple-beaded paneling, are painted
                    brown.  The south door opens onto a platform, measuring four feet by eight feet with an eight inch
                    riser, inside the room.  Although the natural-finished wood flooring in the waiting room appears to
                    be old, it is not clear whether it is the original flooring.  Incandescent light fixtures and a ceiling fan
                    are suspended from the ceiling.

Station Agent’s Office

                    The interior of the station agent’s office measures eight feet, six inches by twenty-five feet, with a
                    twelve feet, five and one-half inch ceiling height.  The ceiling, as well as east and south walls, are
                    finished in the original single-beaded wood paneling.  A distinctive triple-beaded wood paneling
                    finishes the west wall and the interior of the bay window projection, as well as conceals the brick
                    chimney flue projecting into the room.  The walls and ceiling are painted cream color.  The door
                    and window trim, consisting primarily of one width of the triple-beaded paneling, are painted brown.
                   The two ticket windows, one for servicing “coloreds” and the other for “whites,” remain in the east
                    wall.  Circuit- and alarm-panels are wall-mounted next to the “coloreds” ticket window at the south
                    end of the room.  The Model Railroaders’ central control panel for their model railroad takes up a
                    significant portion of the west wall.  Behind this panel, seams in the triple-beaded wood paneling
                    indicate the prior existence of a former doorway and ticket window in the wall.  A modern door,
                    with plain-milled trim painted brown, penetrates the west wall at the south end of the room to access
                    a restroom installed in the freight room as part of the 1977 renovation. The original station agent’s
                    built-in desk remains in the bay window, as do the levers for operating the semaphore.  Near the
                    desk, a door accesses the freight room through the west wall.  A framed opening, from which the
                    door has been removed, accesses the waiting room through the east wall.  Although the natural-finished
                    wood flooring in the station agent’s office appears to be old, it is not clear whether it is the original
                    flooring.  A fluorescent light fixture is suspended from the ceiling.

Freight Room

                    The interior of the freight room, as it exists today, measures approximately fifty feet, six inches by
                    twenty-one feet, five inches and is significantly altered from its original appearance.  Photographs
                    taken by the Model Railroaders during the 1977 renovation reveal that the inside faces of the exterior
                    walls consisted of exposed wood framing and the unpainted backside of the exterior board-and-batten
                    siding.  Heavy wooden floor joists, bearing on a brick foundation at the western-most third of the
                    freight room, once supported a raised wood-plank floor at platform height.  The railroad station’s
                    raised freight room floor and exterior platform facilitated easier loading and unloading of freight and
                    baggage to and from wagons and railroad cars.  The remaining two-thirds of the freight room has a
                    foundation consisting of three courses of crude concrete masonry blocks, which are still visible along
                    the exterior walls underneath the staging for the railroad model.5   The existing concrete floor was poured
                    atgrade-level during renovations in the 1970s.6   The walls, which are finished with a combination of
                    drywall and faux-wood paneling, conceal the interior faces of the original south freight door, the north
                    double sliding doors, and half of the north freight door.  As noted previously, this north freight door
                    was modified to incorporate a fire-exit door.  The interior wall finishes also conceal three of the four
                    windows in the north wall. A black acoustical tile ceiling, with fluorescent light panels, and two ceiling
                    fans are suspended above the railroad model that literally fills the room.  A raised wood-framed
                    platform, from which to view the model, measures approximately three feet wide and extends along
                    the north wall for nearly the entire length of the room. Underneath the staging for the model,
                    archaeological evidence remains of the partition that was part of the 1935 reconfiguration of the
                    freight room to accommodate the installation of three transformers inside the building.

Current Setting

                    The Vienna Depot’s current setting consists of a mix of one- to two-story masonry commercial
                    structures, street parking, a restored caboose, the Washington & Old Dominion Regional Regional
                    Park Trail, and a few nearby historic structures.  (See Appendix, Sheets F & G)  A large mural on the
                    back of the concrete and brick masonry office building across the trail from the depot colorfully
                    recalls the era of the steam railroad.  Although the Vienna Depot will never function again as a
                    freight and passenger station, conscientious maintenance plus the thematic use of the building
                    by the Model Railroaders perpetuate its character as a railroad station from the early days of
                    rail transportation in America.
 
 

STATEMENT OF SIGNIFICANCE

                    The Vienna Depot meets National Register Criterion A in two categories.  Under the category
                    of Transportation, the depot represents how the arrival of the railroad directly influenced the
                    development of Vienna between 1859, the date of its construction, and 1939, the date marking
                    a significant decline in passenger traffic and the beginning of the rapidly waning days of rail service
                    on the line.  The depot also relates to the historic context of American Black Heritage, as major
                    alterations to the structure during its years of significance took into consideration compliance with
                    Virginia’s “jim crow” laws.  In addition, the Vienna Depot has historic Architectural significance
                    under Criterion C.  The necessity of sheltering freight, baggage, and passengers gave rise to a new
                    architectural form for which there was no precedent in America.  During its period of significance,
                    the Vienna Depot evolved into the form of the classic southern American railroad station as
                    modifications to the building upgraded its functionality.

HISTORICAL BACKGROUND AND SIGNIFICANCE

                    Vienna’s roots in northern Virginia go back to the mid 1700s, when the first county sheriff
                    settled in this area just south of the first Fairfax County Courthouse built in 1742.7   As the
                    rural village first began to take shape, it was called Ayr Hill after a homestead built by a
                    Scottish immigrant in 1767.8   “[F]or almost a century after Ayr Hill was built, there were
                    scarcely more than eight houses in the ‘village’ of Ayr Hill.”9   During these early years, as
                    in all of Fairfax County, the over-cultivation of tobacco and poor farming practices depleted
                    the soil and devalued the land.  Attracted by cheap land prices and milder climate, northerners
                    began settling into Fairfax County, including the Ayr Hill/Vienna area, between 1840 and
                    1860.  Through means of deep plowing, fertilization, and crop rotation, these northern farmers
                    rejuvenated the soil and prospered in the production of corn, wheat, and other grains to
                    supply market demands.10   In 1858, it was one of these northern immigrants who changed the
                    name of the village from Ayr Hill to Vienna.11

                    Upon the arrival of rail transportation and construction of the depot 1859, the railroad began
                    contributing to Vienna’s growth and development and dramatically changing the character of
                    this small agricultural community.12   Throughout America, railroadtransportation revolutionized
                    the shipping of agricultural products.  Not only could farmers get produce to market faster and
                    cheaper, but also supplies, dry goods, and manufactured items could be easily shipped to rural
                    communities from the cities.  The Alexandria, Loudoun & Hampshire (AL&H) Railroad constructed
                    a rail line arcing northwestward from Alexandria to Leesburg, with the lofty intentions of extending
                    into coal country beyond the Blue Ridge Mountains.  Capitalizing upon the efficiency of shipping
                    products and supplies along this new rail line, stores and businesses began to spring up in Vienna.13
                    However, the momentum of the early success of the AL&H Railroad was halted by the outbreak
                    of the Civil War.  Due to Confederate destruction of rails and bridges west of Vienna, the Vienna
                    Depot functioned as the western terminus of the line for the duration of the war.  The rail line between
                    Vienna and Alexandria was “kept open to serve the various military camps scattered around
                    Washington’s southern environs and to bring food and wood to the capital.”14   As a matter of fact,
                    it was the United States Army that took the earliest known photograph of the Vienna Depot in 1864.15
                    (See Appendix, Sheet C)

                    Reconstruction after the Civil War ushered in a resurgence of growth in the Vienna area.  After the
                    AL&H Railroad restored commercial rail service through Vienna in 1866, the railroad resumed its
                    influence upon the development of the community.16  Many northerners who had passed through
                    Fairfax County during the war, returned to settle in the Vienna area.17   A number of freed blacks
                    also settled in the Vienna area, as the northerners not only tolerated their presence, but also made
                    the purchase of land available to them on easy terms.18   As before the war, these incoming farmers and
                    businessmen depended upon the rail service for shipments of produce and supplies.  Throughout the
                    1870s and 1880s, increased agricultural productivity, combined with the economy and efficiency of
                    shipping by rail, prompted many of Vienna’s farmers to expand into the profitable dairy industry to
                    meet the increasing market demands for fresh milk and dairy products in Washington, D.C. and
                    Alexandria.19

                   It was during this same time frame that a trend of establishing residences in rural communities and
                    utilizing available rail transportation to commute to jobs in the cities became popular in America.20
                    As early as 1884, realtors began advertising the benefits of living in Vienna in close proximity to
                    Washington, D.C. and Alexandria, with all the conveniences of the local depot and available rail
                    service spelled out prominently in their maps and brochures.21   Initially, just one eastbound and
                    westbound “‘accommodation’” train ran per day, but by 1893, four weekday trains ran eastbound
                    and westbound, with three of the trains running on commuter schedules.  By 1904, five weekday
                    trains ran eastbound and westbound on commuter schedules, not including the trains bearing travelers
                    escaping the heat and pollution of the city to visit country resorts along the line.22

                    Commuter traffic increased to the point that it was profitable for the Washington, Arlington, &
                    Falls Church electric trolley to extend service through Vienna in 1904.  To the convenience of
                    commuters, the trolley ran cleaner, faster, and cheaper on a more frequent schedule than steam rail
                    service.  Since the trolley station was located only a block away from the Vienna Depot, the competition
                    for passenger traffic between the two facilities was stiff.23   The unwillingness to lose passenger revenues
                    may have been what prompted the 1904 up-grades to the Vienna Depot.  To begin with, the addition
                    of the east-end waiting room provided additional space and comfort for passengers.24   Also, the addition
                    of the bay window to the station agent’s office improved safety and functionality by allowing the
                    agent to better observe the increased train traffic.25   Another possible motivation for the addition
                    may have been compliance with Virginia’s “jim crow” laws, as the waiting room addition was
                    designated for use by “whites,” and the west waiting room for “coloreds.”  It was thus that the
                    Vienna Depot evolved into the floor plan of two “separate but equal” waiting rooms separated
                    by the station agent’s office, with a freight room at one end of the building.  This configuration was
                    typical to other depots located along the same line.26   (See Appendix, Sheets A & D)

                    With promises of also being cleaner, faster, and more efficient on a more frequent schedule, the
                    new railroad management electrified the line in 1912.  By 1913, fourteen westbound and fifteen eastbound
                    electric trains ran through Vienna Station competing for commuter patronage.27   With both trolley
                    and electric rail service available, Vienna commuters benefited tremendously.  A 1924 survey
                    concluded that “‘the numerous Government clerks and other employees of Washington who largely
                    compose the 800 or more of Vienna’s population, find convenient [rail] transportation to their
                    places of business.’  The town had become ‘primarily a residential community.’”28

                    Electrification of the line not only benefited Vienna’s commuters, but also had physical impacts
                    upon the depot as well.  Although permanent electrical substations were constructed at four other
                    stations along the line, portable electric substations mounted on rail cars were used as needed to
                    supplement power.  One such portable substation was “mostly based at Vienna” until three
                    transformers were permanently installed inside the depot in 1935.29   Since the installation of the
                    transformers required a large amount of space, the “coloreds” waiting room was removed and
                    the freight room reconfigured to accommodate a space approximately thirty-five feet long.
                    Associated alterations included installation of a shed-roofed dormer to protect the electrical
                    insulators projecting above the roofline, a wood-framed louvered “cupola” at the ridge to ventilate
                    the transformer room, and double sliding doors in the north façade for moving the transformers
                    into the building.30   (See Appendix, Sheet B, North Elevation)

                    Although functional requirements dictated the 1935 alterations that eliminated one of the two
                    waiting rooms, apparently the “jim crow” laws still had to be considered.  Therefore, the east-end
                    waiting room was subdivided by a partition into two separate “whites” and “coloreds” waiting rooms.
                    Although Vienna was known for its tolerance of blacks, this new arrangement was anything but equal,
                    as the resulting “coloreds” waiting room was much smaller (eight feet, six inches by sixteen feet) than
                    the “whites” (twelve by sixteen feet) and had no access to the chimney flue for heat.  (See Appendix,
                    Sheet A)  However, Donald Leith, a railroad employee from 1935 to 1969, does not recall seeing many
                    blacks in the Vienna Depot, a factor that may have contributed to the removal of the partition in 1939.31

                    Although the train schedule dropped off to nine eastbound and westbound trains by 1913 and then to six
                    trains in each direction by 1918, Vienna continued to flourish as a commuting suburb of Washington, D.C.
                    (See Appendix, Sheet E for appearance of the depot at this time.)  The six-train schedule remained stable
                    through the mid-1930s.  However, only four eastbound and westbound trains ran in 1939, and by 1940 the
                    schedule dropped off to two.32   By 1941, passenger service was discontinued, due to the fact that the
                    railroad was no longer able to compete with automobiles, buses, and improved highways for commuter
                    traffic.  Wartime gas and tire rationing prompted a short-lived return of passenger service in 1943, but
                    by 1951, passenger service was permanently abandoned.  Freight service continued until 1968, and in
                    1969 the line was abandoned altogether.33  Since Vienna’s commuters were no longer reliant upon the
                    railroad for transportation by then, the suburban community was unaffected by the railroad leaving town.

                    In the declining days of the railroad, maintenance of structures and facilities was neglected, and by the
                    late 1950s the Vienna Depot had fallen into a state of disrepair.34   After abandonment by the railroad,
                    Virginia Electric Power Company (VEPCO) purchased a significant portion of the right-of-way for
                    the installation of their overhead power lines.35   In the 1970s, the Town of Vienna began leasing the
                    depot from VEPCO, making modest repairs to the building to maintain it as a storage facility.  In 1976,
                    The Town of Vienna subleased the depot to the Northern Virginia Model Railroaders, Inc., who had
                    plans “to renovate the building and turn it into a railroad museum.”  In 1977, the group restored the
                    east-end waiting room, made minor modifications to the station agent’s office, removed the shed-roof
                    dormer, and altered the freight room to accommodate a large model railroad.  In February 1978, the
                    Model Railroaders began opening the depot to the public on select weekends to display their model
                    railroad and railroad memorabilia.36

                    In June 1978, the Northern Virginia Regional Park Authority (NVRPA) purchased the Vienna Depot,
                    but to this day  continues to sublease the building to the Model Railroaders.  The NVRPA’s goals for
                    the building are to “raise money to renovate the building [further] and open a museum in the waiting area.
                    The Railroaders would still have their trains and the town would help keep the building open for viewing.”37
                    Not only is the on-going preservation of the Vienna Depot motivated by a desire to preserve a novelty,
                    but also by a need to preserve a unique architectural form.  The advent of rail transportation gave rise to
                    the need for sheltering freight, baggage, and passengers, requiring a building form for which there was no
                    architectural precedent in America.  Although large terminal stations were built in grand architectural styles,
                    for the most part depots were simple, economically built wood-framed structures designed and built by the
                    railroad company’s in-house engineer and construction crews.38   Such was the case for the Vienna Depot,
                    designed by Richard Randolph, First Division Engineer for the AL&H Railroad.39   Although the Vienna Depot
                    started out as a simple rectangular structure, through modifications it evolved into a typical example of a
                    southern American railroad station, with two “separate but equal” waiting rooms divided by a station agent’s
                    office, a projecting bay window, a freight room at one end, vertical board-and-batten siding, and wide
                    overhanging eaves.40

                    Although it will never function again as a freight and passenger station, the well-maintained Vienna Depot
                    retains its character as a railroad station from the early days of rail transportation in America.  It is a tangible
                    reminder of how the railroad shaped the community of Vienna, Virginia into a commuting suburb of
                    Washington, D.C.  The archaeological evidence of “separate but equal” waiting rooms bears witness to a
                    passing era in American Black Heritage.  Furthermore, these two areas of significance combine to give
                    the depot the distinction of being a surviving example of mid-nineteenth century/early twentieth century
                    railroad architecture in the American South for which there was no precedent and there is no counterpart today.

NOTES

                            1.Herbert H. Harwood, Jr.  Rails to the Blue Ridge: The Washington and Old Dominion
                    Railroad, 1847-1968  (Fairfax Station, Virginia:  Northern Virginia Regional Park Authority,
                    April 2000),  105;  Richard Randolph,  “Reports of Engineers: First Division,”  Seventh Annual
                   Report of the Board of Directors of the Alexandria, Loudoun, & Hampshire Railroad Company
                    (Alexandria, Virginia:  Alexandria Gazette Steam Job Rooms,  15 November 1859),  12.
                           2.“Facelifting Set For Old Depot,”  The Globe,  11 April 1974,  2  (Located in the “Vienna
                    Railroad Station” clippings file in the Virginia Room of the Fairfax Regional Library);  Carl Hilinski,
                    “Ghosts of Past Clatter Along the Tracks,”  Northern Virginia Sun,  09 December 1975,  5
                    (Located in the “Vienna Railroad Station” clippings file in the Virginia Room of the Fairfax Regional
                    Library);  Carol Stevens,  “Model Railroaders Restore Full-Size Station,”  Northern Virginia Sun,
                    29 November 1977,  3  (Located in the “Vienna Railroad Station” clippings file in the Virginia Room
                    of the Fairfax Regional Library).
                            3.Paul McCray, Manager of the W&OD Trail,  Conversations with the author,  Spring 2002.
                            4.Richard Randolph,  “Engineer’s Report – First Division,”  Alexandria, Loudoun and Hampshire
                    Rail Road [sic] Company: Proceedings of Stockholders,  Alexandria, Virginia,  30 October 1860,
                    (page 391 of “Doc. No. 17” on file at the Library of Virginia, Richmond, Virginia).
                            5.Photographs of Renovations to the Vienna Depot,  Vienna, Virginia,  Irving Bialick, photographer,
                    1977,  various interior and exterior views,  Photographs have been digitized and stored on compact disc
                    on file with the Washington & Old Dominion Trail Office in Ashburn, Virginia;  Not knowing what the profile
                    of these blocks are, it is difficult to determine their age, but it is interesting to note that “concrete masonry
                    units were first made in the mid-1800s as better quality cements were developed,” from Robert G. Drysdale,
                    Amad A. Hamid, and Lawrie R. Baker,  “History of Masonry Materials,” Masonry Structures, Behavior
                    and Design, Second Edition  (Boulder, Colorado:  The Masonry Society,  1993),  5.
                             6.Irving Bialick, member of the Northern Virginia Model Railroaders, Inc.,  Conversation with the
                    author, 02 April 2002;  “Facelifting Set For Old Depot.”
                             7.Elizabeth Burke and Catherine Onesty,  Vienna Remembered (1610 – 1900)  (Vienna, Virginia:
                    Historic Vienna, Inc., 1980),  4 – 5; Nan Netherton,  Donald Sweig,  Janice Artemel,  Patricia Hickin,  and
                    Patrick Reed,  Fairfax County, Virginia:A History  (Fairfax County, Virginia:  Fairfax County board of
                    Supervisors,  1978/1991),  10 – 11, 690;  Connie and Mayo Stuntz,  This Was Vienna, Virginia:  Facts
                    and Photos  (Vienna, Virginia:  By the authors,  1987),  3 – 5, 8.
                             8.Burke and Onesty,  6 – 8;  Stuntz,  20 – 25.
                             9.Burke and Onesty,  14.
                           10.Netherton, et al,  177 – 178, 251 – 260;  Stuntz,  94 – 96.
                           11.Burke and Onesty,  20;  Netherton,  432;  Stuntz,  102 – 103.
                           12.Harwood,  Rails to the Blue Ridge,  15;  Randolph, 1859 Engineer’s Report.
                           13.Netherton, et al,  266;  Stuntz,  95 – 98.
                           14.Harwood,  Rails to the Blue Ridge,  16.
                           15.Photograph of the Vienna Depot,  Vienna, Virginia,  U.S. Military History Institute,  1864,
                    Northeast view,  Photograph #177 on file with the Washington & Old Dominion Trail Office in Ashburn,
                    Virginia.
                           16.Harwood,  Rails to the Blue Ridge,  19.
                           17.Burke and Onesty,  26 – 30;  Netherton, et al,  395.
                           18.Burke and Onesty,  30 – 31;  Andrew Ting and Mark Brzezinski, Black Settlement in Forestville,
                    Vienna, and LewinsvilleAfter the Civil War  (Fairfax County, Virginia:  Langley High School,  May 1982),
                    3 – 5.
                           19.Netherton, et al,  407 – 418.
                           20.Kenneth T. Jackson,  Crabgrass Frontier: The Suburbanization of the United States  (New York:
                    Oxford University Press, 1985),  63 – 66.
                           21.Richard W. Stephenson,  The Cartography of Northern Virginia: Facsimile Reproductions of Maps
                    Dating From 1608 to 1915  (Fairfax County, Virginia:  History and Archaeology Section of the Office of
                    Comprehensive Planning,  March 1983), 103;  Stuntz,  184 – 186, 231, 235.
                           22.Herbert Harwood,  W&OD Train Service at Vienna:  Selected Years, 1869 – 1944,  Typed up
                    and mailed to author,  16 April 2002  (Hereinafter labeled “Harwood schedules”).
                           23.Harwood,  Rails to the Blue Ridge,  31, 33;  Netherton, et al,  487 – 489;  Stuntz,  245 – 254.
                           24.Archaeological evidence supports that the east-end waiting room was added at the same time as
                    the bay window, as seen in the distinctive triple-beaded wood paneling finishing the interior wall surfaces
                    of the bay window projection, the interior wall and ceiling surfaces of the east-end waiting room, and the
                    soffits of the exterior overhanging eaves of the addition.
                           25.August Henning,  “As Heard and Seen,”  Fairfax Herald,  05 February 1904,  2.
                           26.Guide to the Herndon Depot Museum,  Historical Society of Herndon,  February 2001;  August
                    Henning,  “As Heard and Seen,”  Fairfax Herald,  18 January 1907; Donald Leith,  employee of the
                    railroad from 1935 – 1969,  Telephone interview with the author, 23 April 2002; Postings of railroad plans
                    and plats on the Internet, http://www.geocities.com/pem20165/PlatRoundHill8.html ,
                    http://www.geocities.com/pem20165/PurcellvilleStationDrawingssmall.html,
                    http://www.geocities.com/pem20165PlatClarkesGap22.html,  Web addresses provided by Paul McCray,
                    Manager of the W&OD Trail,  accessed 22 April 2002.
                           27.Harwood,  Rails to the Blue Ridge,  46;  Harwood schedules;  August Henning,  “As Heard
                    and Seen,”  Fairfax Herald,  01 November 1912,  2.
                           28.Netherton, et al,  488.
                           29.Roxanne Bilyeu,  “Vienna Depot Plays a Part in History,” The Globe,  18 March 1976  (On
                    file in the “Vienna Railroad Station” clippings file in the Virginia Room of the Fairfax Regional Library);
                    Harwood,  48 – 49;  Herbert Harwood,  E-mail to author,  09 April 2002.
                           30.David Guillaudeu,  E-mail to author,  13 April 2002;  Herbert Harwood,  E-mail with attachment
                    to author,  21 April 2002; Roy King,  E-mail to author,  18 April 2002.
                           31.Donald Leith interview;  Mike Steely,  “Former Vienna Station Master Remembers When…,”
                 Fairfax County Sentinel,  06 November 1969,  2.
                           32.Harwood schedules.
                           33.Harwood,  Rails to the Blue Ridge,  83 – 95, 101 – 106.
                           34.Harwood,  Rails to the Blue Ridge,  105;  Photograph of the Vienna Depot,  Vienna, Virginia,
                    David Marcham, photographer,  1959,  View of station agent’s bay window and diesel engine on the
                    tracks,  Photograph #024 on file with the Washington & Old Dominion Trail Office in Ashburn, Virginia;
                    Photograph of the Vienna Depot,  Vienna, Virginia,  Dr. James Chapman, photographer,  1966,  Northwest
                    view,  Photograph #229 on file with the Washington & Old Dominion Trail Office in Ashburn, Virginia.
                           35.Harwood,  Rails to the Blue Ridge,  106.
                          36.Guillaudeu;   “News Release,”   Town of Vienna, Virginia:  Office of Public Information,
                    30 January 1978  (On file in the “Vienna Railroad Station” clippings file in the Virginia Room of the
                    Fairfax Regional Library);  Photographs of Renovations to the Vienna Depot;  Carol Stevens,  “Model
                    Railroaders Restore Full-Size Station,”  Northern Virginia Sun,  29 November 1977,  3.
                           37.Paul McCray,  E-mail to author,  06 March 2002.
                           38.Janet Greenstein Potter,  Great American Railroad Stations  (New York:  John Wiley & Sons, Inc.,
                    1996),  11 – 12.
                           39.Randolph,  1860 Engineer’s Report.
                          40.H. Roger Grant and Charles W. Bohi,  The Country Railroad Station in America  (Boulder,
                    Colorado:  Pruett Publishing Company,  1978),  62 – 62.

Bibliography

                    Bialick, Irving, member of the Northern Virginia Model Railroaders, Inc.  Conversation with the
                    author.  02 April 2002.

                    Bialick, Irving.  Photographs of Renovation to the Vienna Depot.  Vienna, Virginia.  1977.
                    Photographs have been digitized and stored on compact disc on file with the Washington & Old
                    Dominion Trail Office in Ashburn, Virginia.

                    Bilyeu, Roxanne.  “Vienna Depot Plays a Part in History.”  The Globe.  18 March 1976.
                    Located in the “Vienna Railroad Station” clippings file in the Virginia Room of the Fairfax Regional
                    Library.

                    Burke, Elizabeth  and Catherine Onesty.  Vienna Remembered (1610 – 1900).  Vienna, Virginia:
                    Historic Vienna, Inc.  1980.

                    Drysdale, Robert G.,  Ahmad A. Hamid,  and Lawrie R. Baker.  “History of Masonry Materials.”
                 Masonry Structures, Behavior and Design, Second Edition.  Boulder, Colorado: The Masonry
                    Society.  1993.

                    “Facelifting Set For Old Depot.”  The Globe.  11 April 1974.  Located in the “Vienna Railroad
                    Station” clippings file in the Virginia Room of the Fairfax Regional Library.

                    Grant, H. Roger and Charles W. Bohi.  The Country Railroad Station in America.  Boulder, Colorado:
                    Pruett Publishing Company.  1978.

                 Guide to the Herndon Depot Museum.  Historical Society of Herndon.  February 2001.

                    Guillaudeu, David.  E-mail to author.  13 April 2002.

                    Harwood, Herbert H.  E-mail to author.  09 April 2002.

                    Harwood, Herbert H.  E-mail with attachment to author.  21 April 2002.

                    Harwood, Herbert H.  Rails to the Blue Ridge: The Washington and Old Dominion Railroad,
                    1847 – 1968.  Fairfax Station, Virginia: Northern Virginia Regional Park Authority.  April 2000.

                    Harwood, Herbert H.  W&OD Train Service at Vienna:  Selected Years, 1869 – 1944.  16 April 2002.

                    Henning, August.  “As Heard and Seen.”  Fairfax Herald.  05 February 1904.

                    Henning, August.  “As Heard and Seen.”  Fairfax Herald.  18 January 1907.

                    Henning, August.  “As Heard and Seen.”  Fairfax Herald.  01 November 1912.

                    Hilinski, Carl.  “Ghosts of the Past Clatter Along the Tracks.” Northern Virginia Sun.
                    09 December 1975.  Located in the “Vienna Railroad Station” clippings file in the Virginia Room
                    of the Fairfax Regional Library.

                    Jackson, Kenneth T.  Crabgrass Frontier: The Suburbanization of the United States.
                    New York: Oxford University Press.  1985.

                    King, Jr., Roy.  E-mail to author.  18 April 2002.

                    Leith, Donald, employee of the railroad from 1935 – 1969.  Telephone interview with the author.
                    23 April 2002.

                    McCray, Paul, Manager of the W&OD Trail.  Conversations with the author.  Spring 2002.

                    McCray, Paul, Manager of the W&OD Trail.  E-mail to the author.  06 March 2002.

                    Netherton, Nan,  Donald Sweig,  Janice Artemel,  Patricia Hickin,  and Patrick Reed.  Fairfax County,
                    Virginia: A History.  Fairfax County, Virginia: Fairfax County Board of Supervisors.  1978/1991.

                    “News Release.”  Town of Vienna, Virginia: Office of Public Information.  30 January 1978.  Located
                    in the “Vienna Railroad Station” clippings file in the Virginia Room of the Fairfax Regional Library.

                    Photograph of the Vienna Depot.  Vienna, Virginia:  Dr. James Chapman, photographer.  1955.
                    Photograph #229 on file with the Washington & Old Dominion Trail Office in Ashburn, Virginia.

                    Photograph of the Vienna Depot.  Vienna, Virginia:  David Marcham, photographer.  1959.
                    Photograph #024 on file with the Washington & Old Dominion Trail Office in Ashburn, Virginia.

                    Photograph of the Vienna Depot.  Vienna, Virginia:  United States Army.  1864.  Photograph #177
                    on file with the Washington & Old Dominion Trail Office in Ashburn, Virginia.

                    Postings of railroad plans and plats on the Internet.  Accessed 22 April 2002.  Online.  Available from
                    http://www.geocities.com/pem20165/PlatRoundHill8.html,
                    http://www.geocities.com/pem20165/PurcellvilleStationDrawingssmall.html,
                    http://www.geocities.com/pem20165PlatClarkesGap22.html.

                    Potter, Janet Greenstein.  Great American Railroad Stations.  New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.  1996.

                    Randolph, Richard.  “Engineer’s Report – First Division.”  Alexandria, Loudoun and Hampshire Rail
                    Road [sic] Company: Proceedings of Stockholders.  Alexandria, Virginia.  30 October 1860.

                    Randolph, Richard.  “Reports of Engineers: First Division.” Seventh Annual Report of the Board of
                    Directors of the Alexandria, Loudoun, & Hampshire Railroad Company.  Alexandria, Virginia:
                    Alexandria Gazette Steam Job Rooms.  15 November 1859.

                    Steely, Mike.  “Former Vienna Station Master Remembers When…” Fairfax County Sentinel.
                    06 November 1969.

                    Stevens, Carol.  “Model Railroaders Restore Full-Size Station.” Northern Virginia Sun.
                    29 November 1977.  Located in the “Vienna Railroad Station” clippings file in the Virginia Room
                    of the Fairfax Regional Library.

                    Stevenson, Richard W.   The Cartography of Northern Virginia: Facsimile Reproductions of
                    Maps Dating From 1608 to 1915.  Fairfax County, Virginia: History and Archaeology Section
                    of the Office of Comprehensive Planning.  March 1983.

                    Stuntz, Connie and Mayo.  This Was Vienna, Virginia: Facts and Photos.  Vienna, Virginia:
                    By the authors.  1987.

                    Ting, Andrew and Mark Brzezinski.  Black Settlement in Forestville, Vienna, and Lewinsville
                    After the Civil War.  Fairfax County, Virginia: Langley High School.  May 1982.
 

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