|Oromo and Nafthenya|
|When The OLF Political sky Gets Darker. Response to Dr. Ghelawedos Araia.
By Getachew Reda
September 18, 2003
The following commentary was given by Dr.Gelawdewos Araya regarding OLF in his interview with Deki Alula website.
“The UEDF and the future leaders of Ethiopia must seriously consider an inclusive political agenda and include excluded movements such as the Oromo Liberation Front (OLF) and/or the ousted TPLF leadership. Many Ethiopian commentators have shown misgivings and resentment to the OLF, but despite its political program the organization is part of the Ethiopian experience and as such must be part of the forthcoming political activity in Ethiopia. The ousted TPLF dissidents are equally important for their role in the defence of Ethiopia’s interest during the Ethio-Eritrean war and for opposing the Algiers Technical Arrangement “ I have a great respect to Dr.Gelwadewos regarding other issues, but not on this particular issue, based on his comments, I am deeply amazed what he wants to send a message when he said “, despite its political program the organization is part of the Ethiopian experience”. My dear Dr.Gelawdewos seem to forget that its political program that is disturbing us the most. Therefore it is crucial to examine OLF’s program before any experience, before despite anything. Its experience showed us, a destructive, dangerous and terrorist and anti Ethiopia who is a replica of EPLF (menas#1 and #2). This is the distinguishing and experience we have so far seen from OLF. I am not even going to comment on his comment of the dissidents, not because I agree with his comment on them but it is a waste of space, to put it in a simple word a mimic (does anyone hear or read any “proclamation” of “apology” from the so called dissidents? Please tell me). But I will like to focus and comment on his view of OLF and the rest of the Ethiopian opposition party.
The following most quotations that readers will read in my post are excerpted from Dr.Aleme Eshete’s paper and research. Prof.Aleme is a dignified and highly educated historian and political scientist. I might also add if I may, he is the only Ethiopian historian that I known who convinced me in most of his works. He is bold, very clear in his stands. He is articulate straight forward. In all his papers, he calls the new name given by the new generation of OLF leaders and none OLF members “Oromo” Gala!
Some call the name Gala as derogatory. But it is unfortunate such believers failed to convince us why the name gala is derogatory. Every ancient historical books and records show the name Gala not Oromo. If there is Oromo in any ancient book-that is fine, But why calling the people who called them Gala considered racist is beyond me. That is another issue. But I just want to tell you if they want me to call the Gala as Oromo that is fine I will call them Oromo. But if you see a word Gala in Dr.Aleme’s paper that is the way he believe as historian and researcher telling us the right name recorded and read in history. Therefore no one is here to talk about what name should be given to the Oromo but what political stand should OLF take to get out of its own deception.
Now, let us examine the stand of OLF, TPLF, and EPLF regarding the Oromo people from Dr Aleme Eshete’s paper. I will also like to remind you there some positions that I disagree with his stand against some political opposition party, but, though I disagree with his stand as such, I have to quote him, as it is to show my honesty to his research and his paper, if I want to use his knowledge when debating others.
Take a look at Prof.Aleme Eshete’s paper, how the self represented “ highway bandits” use and identify the Oromo people. “--- Following the long-standing political differences with the OLF. TPLF (Woyane) had formed its own puppet Galla political organization out of the Galla prisoners of war which it had captured from the Derg's army – a new Galla liberation front called the Oromo Peoples Democratic Organisation (OPDO) at the end of April 1990. OPDO had naturally immediately joined the artificial Woyane "Ethiopian" organization, which had nothing Ethiopian in it except the name known as Ethiopian Peoples Revolutionary Democratic Front (EPRDF) where Woyane-CIA will pack up their creation marionettes. The OLF took the creation of OPDO, which it described as a puppet of TPLF; a Woyane political interference in the internal affairs of the Galla who it claimed is "capable of liberating themselves alone."
The principal issues of contention between the OLF and the TPLF have been a question of definition - but a very important one at that. Basically the OLF wants to be left alone to define what the "Galla Question" is. The EPLF and the TPLF - which has produced a 66-page pamphlet entitled "The Oromo Question and the Ethiopian Revolution" - define differently the "Galla Question" and want the OLF to accept their definition. It is not clear which definition the CIA their patron, accepts. The TPLF-OLF conflicting definitions revolve around the words "colonial" (or colonized) and "national" (oppressed nation or nationality). Both EPLF (which reserved the "colonial" question only to itself) and TPLF define the "Galla Question" as a "national" question, for which, although the right of self determination up to secession, is accepted as an alternative, unity remained a possible and, in fact, a preferable solution in a new context of democracy and respect of human rights. Thus TPLF accepted to hold its "referendum" to determine the future of the Galla (which it has already identified and circumscribed inside its arbitrary "Oromia"). Needless to say we do not know what in the present Ethiopian context who or what a Galla is, leave alone the problem of identification of a Galla tribal land in Ethiopia, Oromia or
We may indeed also ask who or what the legendary Amhara represent to day in such a dynamic context as that of Ethiopia where different ethnic groups have been continuously intermingling for millennia, interacting culturally, linguistically, and through marriage and dissolving ethnic borders throughout the millenniums we have crossed in history. Or have we been proven, as I said elsewhere, by the ku klux klan of the whites of the West to be static never-changing Niggers. Those who speak one version or another of Galla are not necessarily Galla and many socalled "Amhara" may in actual fact be proven to contain a good dose of Galla blood, etc. Hence the farce of CIA sponsored "tribal" "referendum" (as the "referendum" in Eritrea) which the EPLF, TPLF , EPRP, MEISON, and OLF promise to all and sundry to break up and keep on Ethiopia bleeding. Referendum or no referendum OLF continues to reject the tag of "National Question" but that of a "Colonial Question " or "Colonized People" for the Galla, as EPLF claimed for Eritrea. In other words, OLF claims that the Galla 1uestion is a question that could not be solved other than by secession, independence and the declaration of the Republic of Oromia, and bye and bye, the dissolution of Ethiopia.”
OLF is to this day more honest and direct. How is OLF more honest and direct? Here is Dr.Aleme Eshete
“OLF is to this day more honest and direct. It tells us in the face that it is not Ethiopian and wants to carve out half or three fourth of Ethiopia, declare the Republic of Oromiya, and finish off with Ethiopia all together. To the OLF, Loyal to the lessons it has received from the EPLF and TPLF, the EPRP and MEISON, - to the OLF, Ethiopia is a an rtificial imperial, colonial creation of the "Amhara" -whoever they may be - only a hundred years old (that is since Menelik), that does not merit to survive..
Under these circumstances and in such a context it has become a fashion, certainly to the taste of superpower imperialism, to talk about "all party conference" including even the OLF, the Ogaden Peoples Liberation Front and all the rest and even the fundamentalist Saudi financed Oromo Islamic Front. Etc. in preparation for the succession of Woyane. We ask ourselves: Will the next Ethiopian government be required to be "Ethiopian"?
This the base question of my commentary against Dr.Gelawdewos Araya’s view on OLF. The “general binding factor” beyond their differences in their outlook for the opposition parties if wants to succeed and work together as one is only if they all have a common binding factor “ ETHIOPIAWINET!! ”. If the next Ethiopian government were required to be Ethiopian, we also must “ask” is OLF Ethiopian in its programme and struggle? If the Ethiopian opposition party’s goal is not in preparation for the succession of Woyane (including the dissidents whom Alemseged GebreAmlak called the Diaspora political opposition parties strength referring it as THE RESERUCTION OF TIMKIHIT HAYLOCH-Neftegna! during his tour to USA) and distraction of the nation, then there is no business for the opposition parties to invite a destructive group like OLF to destroy Ethiopia as long as it did not denounce its agenda of destroying Ethiopia in particular the Amhara and Tigrians officially.
OLF not only wants to carve the three fourth of the Ethiopian land and call it Oromiya Republic “but also” to work hard the left over (Amhara and Tigray territory) remain to be the “unviable” state. How can such barbaric mentality bear in its future agenda be invited to cooperate with the opposition without abandoned its cruel wish to the poor Amhara and poor Tigrian farmers, children elder and mothers? It is been tried many calls to the OLF abandoned its barbaric, terrorist destructive agenda and work humanly and intelligently with others, but failed to correct its program since 1974 till the present time. This is a very enough long period of time for one party to examine its dull and deceptive method.
I understand there was a mention from one of the leaders of the Ethiopian opposition political parties saying OLF have agreed or will agree to work with the opposition at least in a minimal program. But what is that minimal program is not clear to me or to others so far if there is any agreement. In my personal view there is no and should not be any minimal program other than one binding factor, to assert OLF in its agenda as Ethiopiawinet. Even if it re-claim its Ethiopiawinet, that alone may not be enough to qualify OLF as part of the opposition.
What is the political agenda of the OLF? How did OLF devalue and trash Ethiopian culture worst than foreigners and racists? Is OLF foreign agent? Let us examine from the same scholar mentioned above.
“1. The Galla are not Ethiopians, OLF therefore, rejects Ethiopian culture, language and Geez alphabet, replaced to-day under TPLF by Latin 2. OLF asserts that the Galla are ancient people inhabiting since time immemorial three -fourth of present day Ethiopian territory. Ancient Galla tribal highland in Ethiopia has been colonized by the Ethiopians, - more precisely by the "Neftegna" Amhara under Emperor Menelik. By the same token Millenniums of Ethiopian history have been cancelled. According to the OLF, EPLF and TPLF Ethiopian history has been reduced to a hundred years – that is since the reign of Menelik.
3. Hence, the OLF political objective is liberation from Ethiopia and establishment of the Republic of Oromiya. - Term -invented in the 19th century by the imperialist German protestant missionaries - mainly Krapf, then in the service of imperial Britain and promoted by the same German protestant missionaries to this day- this time in the service of the CIA and American imperialism. Addis Ababa will disappear and the "Republic of Oromiya" will have Finfine as its capital. The establishment of the so called "Republic of Oromiya" signifies, no need to say, the tomb of the millenary nation state of Ethiopia We now know, that such a political programme was of course not limited to the OLF but to all so called "tribes" of Ethiopia artificially created by the CIA since the 1960's, and propagated
by its mercenary agents created by it - the EPLF and the TPLF, without forgetting the primordial role plays to this day by the EPRP and MEISON in uplifting the so called dogma of "The Right of Nations and Nationalities of Ethiopia to self-determination including secession and in particular shouldering OLF folly of secession and "Republic of Oromiya".. (See my article the "Ethiopian Opposition and the Concept of the Right of Self Determination up to Secession" - attached) Our position on the issue is that although originally the Gallas were not Ethiopians, since the invasion and conquest by Galla nomadic pastor lists from the deserted lowlands of the Kenyan borderlands in the 16th century or earlier, over three-fourth of Ethiopian territory, intermingling, intermarrying and fusing with the peoples of Ethiopia, the Galla have become and are Ethiopians as any other people of the land. Secondly because every meter of Ethiopian land was entirely inhabited by ancient peoples at the time of the Galla invasion of the 16th or earlier century, there is no Galla tribal land in the Ethiopian highlands or lowlands. Whatever land they had conquered has been reconquered and restored to Ethiopia by Ethiopian kings and Emperors, particularly Shoan kings, especially Menelik. (see my article on "The Question of Galla Tribal Land in Ethiopia" .) There is therefore no Galla tribal land in Ethiopia. Hence it is folly for the OLF and the likes of it to believe that with the support of American, British, German and Dutch imperialism, and their local mercenaries in Ethiopia -the EPLF and the TPLF - it could claim to represent the non-existent Galla and carve out once again three-fourth of Ethiopian territory- once again killing and massacring so called "feudal neftegna Amhara Orthodox Christians" . Mainly landless peasants and priests, to form, its "Republic of Oromiya". There are no Galla to day in Ethiopia but Gallas transformed into Ethiopians physically and culturally. In that sense we are all Gallas.”
Take a good look at the bottom, extracted from its official program
OROMO LIBERATION FRONT ADDA BILISUMMAA OROMOO
POLITICAL PROGRAMME OF THE STRUGGLE
The fundamental objective of the struggle is the realization of national self-determination for the Oromo people and their liberation. This can only be realized by the establishment of the People's Democratic Republic of Oromiya
(Then follows the Economic Programme among which we read 3. To resettle all forcibly evicted farmers and enable them to recommence the exploitation of their land with the assistance and guidance of the (Oromo) state. 8. To oppose firmly the massive resettlement programme to Oromia by others while the Oromo people are suffocated due to lack of sufficient land.In the same way as early as 1974 or 1976, the OLF Educational Programme envisaged
4. To adopt the Latin alphabet for the Oromo language
And adds under the Cultural Programme:-
1.To eliminate the reactionary, feudal, colonial imperialist culture and replace it by the national, scientific mass-culture of the new democracy on the basis of the popular elements in the Oromo culture. 4. To develop the Oromo language and bring it out of the neglect that colonialism has imposed on it.
Finally, the OLF's "Marxist" political programme includes in its "International Relations
5. It supports the Arab peoples struggle against Zionist aggression and the struggle of the Palestinian people to recover their homeland.
Oromo Liberation Front Political Programme
MAP OF OROMIYA - MORE THAN HALF OF ETHIOPIAN TERRITORY EXTENDING TO ABAI IN THE NORTH AND HARAR IN THE EAST.
OLF's 1987 political programme repeats more or less the points stressed in the 1974, 1976 programme. If examine what it means Quote 1 and 4 below----
“ 1.To eliminate the reactionary, feudal, colonial imperialist culture and replace it by the national, scientific mass-culture of the new democracy on the basis of the popular elements in the Oromo culture. 4. To develop the Oromo language and bring it out of the neglect that colonialism has imposed on it.”
It clearly indicates OLF is a foreign agent sent to destroy the ancient language of Africa and replaced it with Latin alphabet. OLF calls Geez Feudal, Colonial Imperialist culture. And OLF calls Latin alphabet a domestic, African and scientific-culture. Amazing!!!!!!!
Take a look also very closely and judge yourself what mentality and humanity OLF have to the Ethiopian people in particular to the Amhara, Tigaru and to the Gambella people.
The following is extracted from Dr.Aleme Eshete’s paper.
” THE ASSOSA (Welega) SHAABIA-OLF MASSACRE: OF PEASANT SETTLERS: 1990
In January 1990 EPLF or Shaabia), then a close military ally of Woyane ) had in collaboration with the OLF and the Sudanese army invaded Assosa in Western Ethiopia. Ny that date Shaabia was all-powerful since its victory of Afabet in 1988 and the destruction of the famous Nadew division. Following its victory of Shire in February 1989, the TPLF had on its part liberated the whole of Tigrai in 1989 without any resistance from Sergeant Legesse Asfaw who took the road to Addis Ababa.. We were in the last days of the Cold War under the Glasnost of Gorbaciov. While the U.S imperialism multiplied its support to theShaabia-Woyane, the collapsing Soviet Union of Gorbaciov had abandoned Menghistu..The EPLF and TPLF were now full of arms and confidence counting the days when they will occupy Asmara and Addis Ababa respectively.
It was in that context that the EPLF had marched accompanied by the army and tanks of another former ally -the Sudan- as well as a few members of the Oromo Liberation Front (OLF) to occupy Assosa, capital of the Beni Shangul Awraja, and inhabited by the Nilotic Berta, a largely Arabic speaking largely Muslim group, (but also by the Sese, the Mao etc), whom the LF, as former Welega Galla aristocracy, considered an inferior race whom they called "black Galla!" claimed as Galla territory.1 We remember the claim of the Jote brothers who were among the Galla princes descendants of the Galla monarchies established at the end of the Galla invasion (1520's to 1855) taking the place of the Gada system: The primitive Galla communal Gada system of the pastoralist nomadic Borana had given place to a settled society with a hereditary aristocracy following the introduction of private land property and a ruling class, exploiting not only peasant gebaro labor but also gold mines of the region and controlling the Sudan-Ethiopia caravan trade including a lucrative gold and slave trade. Upon Fascist occupation of Ethiopia (1936), the Jote brothers were among the rival Galla princes who subdivided and governed the Leqemt-Gore region paying tribute to Addis Ababa since the recon quest of the region by Menelik. There were as yet no clear-cut provinces of Welega and Ilubabor. Assosa was being governed since the days of Menelik as an autonomous region by its local ruler, Sheikh Hojele, paying tribute to Addis Ababa, which warded off the
Upon Fascist occupation, the Jote brothers will exploit the occasion to claim anew the rich caravan trade link of Assosa and subsequently end Assosa autonomy with a brutal military invasion forcing Berta native chief Sheik Hojele into exile. (See Amharic letter of the Jote brothers to the Fascist Italian governor -Italian State Archives )
The objective of January 1990 EPLF-OLF march and invasion of Assosa was therefore, other than the robbery of banks and other infrastructure installations in the area, was to chase out the highland "Amhara " peasant victims of famine or otherwise poor peasants who had following the millenary south-north, north south movement of peoples and the contact between Gojam, Gondar and the countries south of the Abbai, pre- and post-Galla, mainly Welega, crossing the Abbai to try their fortune in trade and agriculture. The official resettlement programme of famine stricken highland peasants to the sparsely populated hot western lowlands had started under Haile Selassie's government and amplified, as we know, under the military Derg. At the end of the 1980's. There were said to be fifty settlement villages in Assosa, largely Derg improvised and imposed collectivized villegized settlements, counting some 80,000 settlers.
The other EPLF-OLF objective was to chase out the 42000 thousands of Sudanese refugees the border town of Assosa who were being cared for by the United Nations High Commission for Refugees. The Khartoum government accused these refugees of serving as the source of military recruitment for the SPLA. And hence the collaboration of the Khartoum government in the invasion of Ethiopian territory.
So upon arrival in Assosa the EPLF and OLF fighters had divided the population of Assosa by ethnic and linguistic identity. The Tigrigna speaking settlers were separated from the rest to be taken back to Tigrai, which, in retrospect, makes one strongly suspect the presence among the armed invaders of the Tigrai Peoples Liberation Front (TPLF) – another offspring of the EPLF strategy for the tribal dismemberment of Ethiopia,
which EPLF armed and organised since TPLF inception in 1975 The Amharic speaking peasants of "Gojam Sefer" were separated and told to leave the country in five days These poor peasants included some who have settled there for generations. They were told that they had come to liberate Assosa as a Galla territory. The peasants had naturally responded this was their country where they have lived some for decades, where they have toiled to earn what ever they have earned as farmers or as small traders, and that they had nowhere to go. They had particularly targeted the Amharic speakers of "Gojam sefer" ("Gojam town") the area inhabited mainly by the Gojamese who were treated as "neftegna" armed colonizers.
Following this, early on Tuesday (15 Tir or January 1990) the EPLF/OLF armed men had called on every tucul in Gojam Sefer inviting all - men, women and children, to an urgent assembly. When the people arrived, they took them to a school building and divided them into two classrooms. here were among the invited peasants pregnant women, mothers with newly born babies, as well as children and men and women in ad vanced ages. Then
the EPLF/OLF and certainly also TPLF forces ordered the doors of the class rooms closed and those inside were brutally massacred by hand bombs and launchers, following which the school building was put on fire. Thos who managed to run away were searched and gunned down. Among the estimated 300 dead were men, women children, and newly born babies. Many others had survived with heavy wounds and mutilations. It was the tale as told by these videotaped survivors that the world has come to know about the Assosa
The other victims of the EPLF-OLF invasion were the southern Sudanese refugees in Ethiopia who were gunned and terrorized to flight in the direction of the Sudan where they were received by the Khartoum government's armed killers. The UNHCR was well aware of all that happened in Assosa. And yet in the UN in the West complete silence.
The EPLF itself had confirmed its Assosa massacre through no other but its leader Issayas Afework:
"Within the framework of our co-operation with the Oromo Liberation Front The situation created by the destruction of communication installations, State mines Surveying installations, witnesses a political and military development that cannot be underestimated."
See also Radio Broadcast reports, Africa ME/0733 B/2, Voice of the Broad Masses of Eritrea in Amharic 1630 GMT 3 April 1990)
"The offensive of Assosa was launched by the OLF and EPLF units. This is not the first time we have operated in the area. Our relations and co-operation with the OLF and various other forces are known to everyone. Due to the joint offensive launched, it was possible to bring the area under the control of the OLF."3
The OLF gave further details on the Assosa massacre. In its communiqué of January 10, 1990 the OLF said that their forces for the liberation of "western Oromia" (mark the total exclusion of Berta and other Nilo-Saharan Ethiopian inhabitants of Beni Shangul) had won victory over the government forces of the Derg in the Assosa region between January 3 and 7 killing 500 soldiers. OLF claimed to have taken complete control of Assosa,
through a report of January 11.
Eventually Assosa was reconquered (26 tir, February 3 1990) by the Derg and the EPLF-OLF forces had taken to flight.”
Let me quote some basic declaration of OLF extracted from its media finance by EPLF and I will finalize my comments shortly. The OLF says
" However democratic it is, no alien will give independence to the Oromo people. It is
foolishness to hope for that”
If we heard this from its radio broadcast, why do some people believe OLF will abandon its agenda and trust the opposition groups? It clearly is telling us quoted above “how democratic it is no alien will give independence to the Oromo people..” Is not the Ethiopian Opposition groups considered alien by OLF? It also have arrogant, silly and unchangeable agenda which describe its own agenda in a clear way through the EPLF financed Radio of Oromo broadcast telling us from its past broadcast and present broadcast as the following “One can only liberate oneself. Like all other peoples, only the Oromos will liberate themselves and establish their own system of rule". Now, I ask Dr.Gelawdewos Araya to explain us how OLF can work together with Ethiopians with such a stand? Let me also bring some remaining issue about the OLF stand and some tribal parties included in the opposition parties and elsewhere in the Ethiopian struggle with Dr.Aleme Eshete’s view on tribal parties and other issue and I will conclude saying hope I am not violating my Dear teacher, leader prof.Aleme Eshete’s copy Wright. I only did this to educate and debate. Please read the following how OLF, TPLF, EPLF and other tribal parties definition of oppressed tribe and the oppressive tribe in Ethiopian politics.
“OLF POLITICAL PROGRAMME TO-DAY: 2002 THE ALL PARTY CONFERENCE AND "THE MNIMUM AGENDA"
Whatever OLF propaganda may present with the backing of CIA fantastic ability at fabulous tales and lies to hoodwink facile listeners and readers, OLF objective remains the same: Liquidation of Ethiopia to be replaced by the "Republic of Oromiya": endless genocide and ethnic cleansing of innocent Ethiopians accused of colonizing "Oromia." And in spite of the sweet words coated with sugar and honey, the talk of peace, collaboration and free union of peoples, the OLF has not changed a comma in its political programme. Its drive for alliances is to precipitate the total break up of Ethiopia which it still describes as a prison of oppressed peoples: "
"Ethiopia is still to-day a prison house of oppressed nationalities clamped together by brute force. Weyane regime is guarding this prison house of oppressed nations by gun."
. (August 29, 2002)
The OLF has therefore launched its new strategy to oust the Woyane in alliance with the oppressed peoples who want to break away from Ethiopia been. In the same text (August 29) entitled Statement of the OLF Executive Council, it stressed:
"The OLF believes that lack of co-operation among different organizations and forces is one of the reasons that enabled the Weyane regime to prolong its political life. The OLF believes that formation of a broad alliance of opposition forces is key to ending the life of the Weyane regime. The Executive Council of the OLF calls upon all organizations and
forces in Ethiopia to come together for the good of all of our peoples and form an alliance of purpose to overthrow the regime of Meles Zenawi (which has jumped on the anti-terrorism band-wagon in order to survive). We should work towards ending the destructive conflicts of the empire and thereby finding permanent and enduring solutions. Therefore we call upon organizations representing oppressed peoples."
For some time now this OLF stand has been supported by "well-intentioned" and "patriarchal” gurus (with or without hidden agendas) calling for the unity of ETHIOPIAN OPPOSITION PARTIES to topple the Woyane. A rotten apple, plus a rotten apple, plus a rotten apple ---you may continue adding up - will never produce a good healthy apple. I am talking of the so-called "political parties" a good number of which have been co-opted by foreign secret agents CIA or otherwise, to kill and destroy Ethiopia, as we have tried to document elsewhere. But leaving for the moment that issue aside, we have also repeatedly attempted to bring to the attention of our compatriots, that the so called "parties", present themselves not as political bodies but as "tribes" (see the last reduced list with 72 of them, www.ethioembassy.org.uk/political-parties.htm -Galla
liberation front, Somali liberation front, Afar liberation front, Kembata, Selti, Shekecho ,Tembaro, Gamo, Dong, Derashe, Yem, Konso, Kore, Gurage,Dawaro, Welaita, Sidama, hadiya, Basketo, Burgi Agew, Benishangul, Gambella liberation front, Tigrai Worji, Konta, Alaba, Ogaden Liberation front. Political parties have become more and more outdated today, as of the end of the Cold War, the end of the division of the world into two blocks, capitalist and communist. With the end of the Cold War, the end of Soviet Bloc Communism and the rise of American universal globalization and imperialism, that division has ended. Even in so called Western democratic states what we are observing is a silent drift or evolution towards an unconfused one-party state with the left becoming the right and with the right becoming at times extreme right or Fascism - signalling the end of the talk of "democracy", multi-party’s, "liberty" etc. Examples: United States
itself, Great Britain, France, Italy, Germany But even in the old days of political science the making of a political party was intrinsically political. The formation of political parties which traced their distant origin to the 13th century fledgling bourgeoisie of the
commune, burg or cities, signified the beginning of a systemic revolution, what the Marxists call a revolution in mode of production, the birth of Magna Carta marking the beginnings of the liberties and rights we enjoy today. The new system of fledgling capitalism and market economy signified the beginning of the end of feudalism and all the institutions associated with it including feudal and prefeudal tribalism. A tribe (nation, nationality call it what you will) cannot constitute a political party. A Tribe is the antithesis of post-capitalist political party. A tribe is composed of so many elements, which make it impossible to resemble, from near or far, a political party. A political party is by definition a post capitalist post-tribal phenomenon, which signifies urbanism, the end of tribalism and feudalism.
A tribal party Galla, Hadya, Gurage, whatever, is a non-sense. Certainly it is the right of a tribe, if tribe it is, to form a liberation front, and declare that it is not Ethiopian, that it is a colony of the "Ethiopian Empire" as the OLF tells us. However, you can not tell us that
you want to overthrow Woyane and establish a government of national unity by bringing together as BEYENE PETROS of the "Hadya Liberation Front" tells us, the opposition "political parties including the Oromo Liberation Front “ with "the minimum common agenda." (November 22, 2002). . What does Beyene Petros mean by "MINMUM AGENDA". What could be more minimum agenda than requiring participants to reject the Woyane Charter and later Constitution which divides Ethiopia into artificial tribes with the right of self determination up to secession, leading to its apartheid bantustanisation, ethnic cleansing and genocide, and subsequent liquidation of the nation-state altogether. But most if not all of these so called tribal "political parties", including perhaps Beyene Petros, who had sat and voted at the July 1991 conference, (as well as the "multi-linguistic and multi-religious EPRP and MEISON), accept that Charter and that Constitution which they keep on quoting in support of their claim of secession and independence. What could be more minimum than requiring participants claiming to be "Ethiopian political parties", to accept that they are and consider themselves Ethiopians. And yet OLF tells us to nausea that the Galla whom it wants to liberate are not Ethiopians, that the Galla represent an oppressed Ethiopian colony aspiring for liberation. Or is the hidden agenda of the "all party conference" not the formation of a government of "national unity" but of national disunity and break-up (as in the case of Eritrea) , for which we hardly need an alternative to Woyane. I do not want to be affirmative about Beyene Petros' “ true color or hidden agenda, if he has any. But we will oblige him to tell us whatever does he mean by a all-party conference including the OLF with a "minimum agenda", , to determine the future of Ethiopia. He would also include the Sidama Liberation Front which in its joint statement with the OLF, (June 5, 2002) does not attest any particular attachment to Ethiopia. Beyene Petros will also include the ONLF (Ogaden National Liberation Front) which in another joint statement with the OLF is blunt and makes no attempt to hide their anti-Ethiopian struggle and "quest for freedom" to form independent republics or to unite with the Somali Republic. We read:
"The oppressed peoples of Ethiopia, the Somali and Oromo peoples of Ogadenia and Oromia demand the rights of nations to self-determination up to and including independence in accordance with the principles set in the Transitional Charter of 1991. And the 1995 Ethiopian Constitution." I here conclude my comment. All spelling errors are all mine not the entire quoted scholar. I hope, I made my point clear. And I will like to hear from Dr. gelawdewos and the OLF what the OLF have in mind regarding the Ethiopian people. Is OLF’s agenda Ethiopian? As we are witnessing the present political sky of OLF is getting darker and darker.