WRITEKIT VER. #2
Version 2 includes the vector grammars of space and sentence pairs.
Some changes in the space grammar words are noted. The leading slashes
and numbers that are part of the shoebox database have been stripped,
making searches easier. A few vocabulary items have been changed.
The complete Ogden set has been included in csv.To search it exclusively
enclose the word in quotes: "word". At its end is a list of suffixes.
This entire file is about 165k; less than the cookies I find on my hard
drive after a little web surfing.

It has occured to me that there may be people who would like to write
or translate NGL but cannot do so because the resources are scattered
so widely about the internet, and because win95 programs are a
prerequisite. Below is a very rough file I use to compose in NGl, I do
not pretend it is complete or fair to the various dialects.  Jack and
Stephen in particular are invited to add to it whatever they want of
their systems, mine is not completely represented by any means either.
Much of Stephens is embedded in the vocabulary. To use this file, read
it in below your composition. Then use whatever search function you
have on your editor to locate the desired word or other information.
This is a pure ascii file.
Example: <I want to write.>
1. Search for the pronoun by searching in the category <&pronouns>.
Get <mi> for nilenga. If you want tokcir, search <&tokcirpronouns>.
Usually just the ampersand and the first few letters of the category
are sufficient for the search, such as <&pro>.

2. Search for "want" as a modal if you recognize it or otherwise you
can go directly to the vocabulary, searching with the standard form
<def want>. In this case it doesn't come up because the first word after
<def> in the database is <desire>. Then just search for <want>. There will
be several hits. Searching this way will also give all the options as to
modality and dialect. After you find the entry you want can return to the
composition by searching for <&&>. Etc. I use the vi editor that is
part of every unix system, it's not the best but it's ubiquitous,
free, and well tested.

If you are translating from nula to english, you can use the <itm>
prefix to narrow the search to the lexicon. Ex:
<itm yevza> moves the cursor to the entry for <want>. Again if all
occurances are wanted, plain <yevza> should be searched for.

Special thanks to Stephen De Grace for compiling the lexicon, without
which this writekit would not exist, and to all the founders of NGl.
---------------------------------------------------------------------
SEARCH CATEGORIES:
&&

&vocabulary
&ogdens
&grammar
&space
&tensesummary
&tensepairsentences
&combinors
&infinitives
&participles
&pronouns
&anaphora
&it
&reflexives
&modals
&subjunctive
&nilengawords
&voice
&cheatsheet
&tokcirpronouns
&carlospage
&jackpage

&end
>From [email protected] Thu May 27 20:30:15 1999
ICQ #: 27990700

&vocabulary
&space
 

                      Speakable Vector Spatial Tense

The original post of the spatial vector system was more of an outline
than a working system. Since its publication NGL has acquired an
alphabet and a vocabulary making possible this first assignment of
words to concepts such that speech is possible using Vector Space
Tense.
                 SPACE VECTOR WORDS SUMMARY
 
Type of Coordinate System      Vector Types          Other

ANTHROPOMORPHIC:  wokub        DISPLACEMENT: dis       DEXTRO: de
MATH:             makub        PATH:         pas       LEVO:   vo
PHYSICS:          pikub        VELOCITY      ves [@] SET AN ORIGIN: os
                             ACCELERATION    ses [#] SET DESTINATION: fis
                                                       FUZZY: fuz

BASIS VECTOR AXES:
i: il  -i: inil |  right, left; if ANTHROPOMORPHIC (wokub)
j: ju  -j: inju |  front, back; if ANTHROPOMORPHIC
k: ko  -k: inko |     up, down; if ANTHROPOMORPHIC
---------------------

 
       DISplacement       PAth        VElocity       AcSEleration

            DIS              PAS          VES              SES
           static          dynamic      change of v_   rate of change
         displacement v_.  path v_.  velocity v_.     Acceleration v_.
          all locations    motions   how fast?        change of speed;
   of "objects"    on a path  what direction?  change of direction
                               Adverb or N.    Adverb or Number.
          modifier.        modifier.
-------------------   -----   ------------            ---------
VECTORS, WOKUB, person centered type of origin.
 
                 Column I translates column II.
 pasil means "is going rightward." pas +il; path+right
 disil means "is displaced (located) rightward." dis +il; displaced+right
 
                         I             II
  DIS      DIS         PAS            PAS      VES          SES
 i il      right    going rightward   pasil    vesil       sesil
-i inil    left     going leftward    pasinil  vesinil     sesinil
 j ju      front    going forward     pasju    vesju       sesju
-j inju    back     going backward    pasinju  vesinju     sesinju
 k ko      above    going upward      pasko    vesko       sesko
-k inko    below    going downward    pasinko  vesinko     sesinko
-----------------------------------------------------------------
SPATIAL RELATIONS ADVERBS
disnir means "is located within"
disrur means "is surrounding"
etc.
  nir     within         going into     pasnir   vesnir      sesnir
  rur     surrounding    is revolving   pasrur   vesrur      sesrur
  pir     penetrated     is penetrating paspir   vespir      sespir
  jas     next to        is passing     pasjas   vesjas      sesjas
  tor     towards        is arriving    pastor   vestor      sestor
  liv     away from      is departing   pasliv   vesliv      sesliv
  xos     inward         is approaching pasxos   vesxos      sesxos
  tos     outward        is receding    pastos   vestos      sestos
  zoz     re xos se tos  is oscillating paszoz   veszoz      seszoz
  tan     tangential  moving on tangent pastan   vestan      sestan
  kon     coincident  moving>coincide   paskon   veskon      seskon
  dej     edge (of)      (need preps)
  par     alongside   moving parallel   paspar   vespar      seskar
  ton     on (surface)    moving on     pason    veson       seson
  yug     random stir.  [see lexicon for full definition]

  A note on the internal [s+consonant] in the dis, pas, ves, ses
  compounds: I have noticed that spoken Spanish has evolved to delete
  the "s" from all such words. Thus "pasnir" if it were spoken
  (American) Spanish would be pronounced "panir". Therefore all these
  words may be spelled and pronounced in the same manner. I have here
  given the "Castilian" version of the space words to clarify their
  definition and origins.  In case of any ambiguities or phonology
  exceptions, the full "s" version should be used.

A few examples: (more to follow)
sesyug::- random stir, faster and faster.

The midline was to my left.
ku :midline: pa disinil.

The static vectors are all locatives.
speaker is default origin of wokub (anthropomorphic) system.
Anthropomorphic system is default.

he was to the right of the midline.
ha pa disil os :midline:.
he past locate right of origin midline. ha pa contracts to hap.

They were driving on the right of the midline.
Su am :drive: pasju os:midline.
Su am :drive: os: midlline pasju.

They [past progressive] drive [on a trajectory] to the right of an origin
defined as the midline. Su am contracts to sam.

She was talking while passing the other car at 95
Xa am tok kom lon 95 vesliv ku :other car:
she [past progressive] talk [while, time-intersection] the action of
at 95 velocity leave
[liv, move away from] the other car.

and going up the hill.
et fuz vesko ton :hill:.
and [fuzzy claim] her velocity is up (ko) on the surface of a hill;
ie the fuzzy verifies that the motion is not necessarily straight up,
(ko), nor constant.

Jill had gone up the hill.  Jill paj pako q :hill.  Jill [past perfect]
moved on an upward [ko] path [pas-->pa] on the hill.  The path or
motion vector contains within itself the idea of motion. A verb of
motion is not necessary.

Gerald Koenig
&tensepairsentences
                     SENTENCE PAIR TENSE

The mathematical possibilites of tense combinations mount rapidly with
the introduction of a pair of predicates.  A pair of predications can
relate temporally in exactly 8 ways on the timeline.  They are:

1.Simultaneous
2.Sequenced
3 Adjacent
5.Intersecting. (overlapping)
6. Contained, simultaneous start.
7. Contained, simltaneous end.
8. Contained, proper subset.

For purposes of illustration only, the timeline is split into parallel
identical lines. P is any predicate, Q is any simultaneous or subsequent
predicate. The letters are conventionally so used in logic.

I.                  P
BB----*[email protected]===*2=====>----------*3-------------->
                    Q
BB----*[email protected]===*2=====>----------*3-------------->

[In this presentation, numbered stars represent sequential positions of
the mu, the now.]

This represents two simultaneous predications.

ni Pack si ni Quarrel.
We pack, simultaneously, we quarrel.
Si is the tense word for simultaneous.(Relativity is taken up later.)

Any tense that applies to one, applies equally to the other, in any of
the positions of the mu. Thus
"ni fu Pack si ni Quarrel"  (#1*) applies the fu to Quarrel as well
as Pack. Likewise, "ni pa Pack si Quarrel" (#3), gives both P and Q the
same past tense, when the SImultaneous relation is invoked.

II. Sequenced Predication Pairs, SE.

                   P         se          Q
BB----*[email protected]===*2=====>---*[email protected]===*4====>---*5-------------->

SEquenced predication pairs are separated by at least one time atom.

ni Pack se Quarrel.
we pack and later quarrel.

The default is present tense for the first predicate, Pack. We will now
follow the mu through the predicate pairs:

#1 mu position: fu P se Q.
ni fu Pack se Quarrel.
we will pack, break, and then we will quarrel.

#2 ni em Pack se Quarrel: em P se Q. (em from tE + Member, denotes
present progressive tense.)
we are now packing, later after a break, we will Quarrel.

#3 ni pa Pack se Quarrel: pa P se Q.
OR ni Pack se fu Quarrel: P se fu Q.
Either defines the diagram uniquely.
we packed, later we will quarrel.

#4 ni Pack se em Quarrel: P se em Q.
we packed, we waited, we are now quarreling.

#5 ni Pack se pa Quarrel. P se pa Q.
we packed, later after a pause, we quarreled.

These are mu tenses. Pam and fum can position the predicate pairs in the
past or future:
mi am Pack se Quarrel & R.  am P se Q ; se pa R.

I was packing prior to the pause, the event of quarreling, and the
event of the phone ringing. SE can string any mumber of predicates
together in sequence. Recall that am is the positioner word for the
previous mu within a past predicate: pAm + mEmber. It is the past
progressive. The possibilites are there for Q as well as the space
between the P and the Q to be tensed with particles. This tense doesn't
translate one for one into english, so the above version is just an
approximation.

I haven't introduced the further complexities of perfect and imperfect
tense into these illustrations, but I see no problems with them.

III  AdJAcent Predicates

                    P           Q
BB----*[email protected]===*2=====>@===*3====>---*4-------------->

JA means the Q or second verb executes immediatly after the first,
relative to the time units in use.
ni Pack JA Quarrel.
ni ogipak ja dik.  [Jack's basic morphemes]
we pack and then immediatly quarrel.

The abstract possibilities for the JA pair are:
1 fu P ja Q.
2 em P ja Q.
3 P ja em Q.
4 P ja pa Q.

JA finds a lot of use as "next" in narrative.

IV Intersection Predicates. (Overlapped) KOMmon.

                  P
BB----*[email protected]===*2========>------------------------>
      Q
[email protected]==*3====*4==>---*5-------------->
 

1. fu P KOM Q.
2 em P KOM Q.
3 em P KOM em Q.
4 P KOM em Q
5 P KOM pa Q

1' su fu Pack kom Quarrel.
they will pack and later begin to quarrel, then stop packing and keep on
quarreling.
2' za em Pack kom Quarrel.
she is packing, while she is she will start and continue quarreling, and stop
packing.
3' wo em Pack em Quarrel.
he/she starts packing, segues to packing and quarreling, desists
packing, continues quarreling, and then stops.
4' vu Pack kom em Quarrel.
you  packed, began quarreling while you were, finished packing,
and now still are quarreling.
5' su pack kom pa quarrel.
they began packing, turned to quarreling while packing, stopped packing
to quarrel, and now have stopped quarreling.
 

V The first of the containing tenses, where P contains Q, is the
SImultaneous BEginning tense, SIBE:

                  P
BB----*[email protected]===*2=====*3====>----------*4-------------->
                 Q
BB----*[email protected]===*2==>--*3----------------*4-------------->

1 fu P sibe Q.
2 em P sibe em Q.
3 em P sibe pa Q.
4 pa P sibe Q
 
1' wo fu pack sibe quarrel.
he/she will begin to pack and quarrel at the same time, then wo will
stop quarreling and continue packing.
2'su em pack sibe em quarrel.
they are now packing and quarreling, they'll quit quarreling and
continue packing.
3' yu em pack sibe pa quarrel.
"Y" started packing and quarreling at the same time, now he
still is packing  and has stopped quarreling.
4' ha pa pack sibe quarrel.
he began packing and quarreling together, finished quarreling first,
now he's finished packing also.

VI
The second contained tense is sipo, simultaneous ending, different
beginnings.

                  P
BB----*[email protected]===*2=======*3========>----------*4-------------->
                               Q
BB----*1---------*[email protected]==*3========>----------*4-------------->

1 fu P sipo  Q.
2 em P sipo fu Q.
3 em P sipo em Q.
4 pa P sipo Q. or P sipo pa Q

1' vu fu pack sipo quarrel.
you will pack and then quarrel, and quit both at the same time.
2' ha em pack sipo fu quarrel.
he is packing and will begin quarreling, he'll quit them together.
3' su em pack sipo em quarrel.
they are now packing and quarreling, they started packing first and
will end it together.
4' ku pa pack sipo quarrel.
youall packed, then quarreled, and stopped both together.

VII
Here P KOntains Q between P's endpoints.
 

                        P
BB----*[email protected]=*2======*3=============*4====>------------*5-------------->
                        Q
BB----*1----*[email protected]==*3========>----*4-----------------*5-------------->

1 fu P KO Q
2 em P KO fu Q
3 em P KO em Q
4 em P KO fu Q
5 pa P KO pa Q

1' vu fu pack KO fu quarrel.
you will pack, some of the time while you are, you will quarrel.
2' su em P KO fu Q.
they are packing, they will pack and quarrel for a while, then
stop quarreling but continue packing, and finish  packing.
3' ku em pack KO em quarrel.
youall are now packing and quarreling, you were just packing, you will
quit quarreling and continue packing, and finish packing.
4' mi am packing KO fu quarreling.
I was first packing, then packing and quarreling, now I am just packing.
5' ha pa pack KO pa quarrel.
He is finished with the act of packing with some quarreling during the
packing.
&combinors

Here is an excerpt from part of the Vector Tense system.
To use the system, a pronoun is
combined with any tense particle or modal. Modals can also be combined.
Some examples are below.

------------------------------
The below grammatical objects are designed to be combined pairwise into
contractions. Thus mi + pa = mip (I'd); pa + ro= par,(was possible)
etc. Grouping is according to sense. I believe the contractions are
unambiguous, but there may be some ambiguities left to redefine.
                        Combining Forms
   I                    II                          II

PRONOUNS (11)|  TENSE PARTICLES AND LOGOS (27)|  PRIMARY MODALS (7)
 
Mi      Ni              Pa     past                    Ro  possible
        Gu              Te     present(ly)             Xa  should
Wo      Su              Fu     future                  Ka  can
Za      Zas             Mu *   the right now           Bi  believe
Ha      Has             Lu -*  previous now            Di  want
                        Nu +*  future (now)
                        Vo <   before (now)
                        De >   after (now)
                        Me @   during
                        Ja |   about to, has just
                        Ga =   equals
                        Li ^   linked
                        Em *@  during now
                        Am -*@ during past now
                        Um +*@ during future now
   Ad     did gcremote past imp/perf
   Ed     did gcdid just imp/perf
   Ud     will have imp/perf
          Am     was during
   Em     now during
   Um     will be during
   Av     was gonna
   Ev     is gonna
   Uv     will be gonna
   Ju     had (pluperfect)
   Ko     has (perfect)
   La     will have (fut. perfect)
 

Combining System:

c1v1+c2v2=c1v1c2
mi  +fu  =mif
I   future = I'll

ni +fu + ro +de=
nif rod=
we'll probably want.
--------------------
New Nilenga Pronoun Set
 
I       mi  |     we+addressee     ni
            |     we-addressee     gu
you     vu  |     you(p)           ku
he/she  wo  |     they             su
she     za  |     she(s)           zas
he      ha  |     he(s)            has
x,y, names; use letters of NGL alphabet.
gol it1, guadu it2, guapo it3..
--------------------------------------------
Source languages of pronouns:
gu basque we
ha amerind he
ku hausa you(s)
za      conlanged by GLK.
ni bulgarian, welsh we; chinese malayanam, german,greek thou;swedish
 you
su egyptian you; hausa they
vu french "vous", you
wo chinese I
------------------------------
&tensesummary
 
 

>From jlk Fri Dec 11 23:42:24 1998
To: [email protected], [email protected]
Subject: NGL: Vector Tense #12
 
 

              TRANSLATION GUIDE FOR ENGLISH TO VTT

This post is intended as an aid to composition with Vector Time Tense,
VTT.  To use it select the name of the desired English tense and search
for the number or associated Capital-initial pronoun. Opposite the
numbers are the preferred forms. Or consult the SUMMARY below. Other
equivalent forms supplied may be used as a matter of style.  The names
of the tenses translated are:

01 PRESENT TENSE:                         mi talk.
2 IMPERFECT OR PAST TENSE:                vu talked.
3 FUTURE TENSE:                           wo will talk.

4 PRESENT PERFECT TENSE:                  za has talked.
5 PAST PERFECT (PLUPERFECT) TENSE:        ha had talked.
6 FUTURE PERFECT TENSE:                   ni will have talked.

7 PRESENT PROGRESSIVE TENSE:              gu is talking.
8 IMPERFECT PROGRESSIVE TENSE:            su were talking
9 FUTURE PROGRESSIVE TENSE:               zas will be talking.

10 PROGRESSIVE PAST PERFECT TENSE:        gol has been raining.
11 PROGRESSIVE PLUPERFECT TENSE:          zas had been talking.
12 PROGRESSIVE FUTURE TENSE:              zas will have been talking.

13 GONNA IN PRESENT                  has are going to talk.
                                     has are before talking happens.
14 GONNA IN PAST                     ku were going to talk.
                                     ku were before talking happens.
15 GONNA IN FUTURE                   mi will be going to talk.
                                     mi will be before talking happens.
16 DEGONNA IN PRESENT                vu are after having talked.
17 DEGONNA IN PAST                   wo were after having talked.
18 DEGONNA IN FUTURE                 za will be after having talked.
====================================================================
    ABBREVIATED SUMMARY OF TENSE FORMS
"#" indicates pronoun-tense contractions are possible. See the
full exposition for unlisted forms of tense and contractions..

01 PRESENT:                  I talk.               mi <em> tok.#
2 IMPERFECT OR PAST :        You talked.           vu <pa> tok.#
3 FUTURE:                    He/she will talk.     wo <fu> tok.#

4 PRESENT PERFECT:           She has talked.       za <ko> tok.#
5 PAST PERFECT (PLUPERFECT): He had talked.        ha <ju> tok.#
6 FUTURE PERFECT:            We+ will have talked. ni <la> tok.#

7 PRESENT PROGRESSIVE:       We- are talking.      gu <em> tok.#
8 IMPERFECT PROGRESSIVE:     They were talking     su <am> tok.#
9 FUTURE PROGRESSIVE:      They-f will be talking. zas <um> tok.

10 PROGRESSIVE PAST PERFECT:  It has been raining.      gol <pem> pu.
11 PROGRESSIVE PLUPERFECT:    It had been raining.      gol <pam> pu.
12PROGRESIV FUTURE PERF: They-f will have been talking. zas <pum> tok.

13 GONNA IN PRESENT:   They-m are  going to talk.       has <ev> tok.
                        <ev> is before talking happens.
14 GONNA IN PAST:       They-m/f were going to talk.    ku <av> tok.#
                      <av> is before talking happened.
15 GONNA IN FUTURE:         I will be going to talk.    mi <uv> tok.#
                    <uv> will be before talking will happen.

16 DEGONNA IN PRESENT:     vu are after having talked.  vu <ed> tok.#
17 DEGONNA IN PAST:       wo were after having talked.  wo <ad> tok.#
18 DEGONNA IN FUTURE:  za will be after having talked.  za <ud> tok.#
===============================================================
 
 
 

EXAMPLES:

PRESENT TENSE:
  I talk.  @===[*]===>
                                          zu

                mi tok.        Also means "I am talking"
     The stem is a default
     present tense.

  mi mu me tok.
                                        This is the explicit or
     descriptive form which can
     always be used when you cannot
     remember anything else. Just
     describe the position of the mu,
     ie, it is a member of the vector
     for talk.

               mi te tok  Using present tense marker.
        mit tok.   Contracted form.

 
        mi em tok.               Progressive forms which have
01             *mem tok.            the same vector representation.
     It is the most common English
     present tense usage; "I'm talking."

Because these verbalizations all describe the same vector diagram, they
are semanticly equivalent. I expect them to be chosen as a matter of
style, emphasis, and speech rhythm, and by emphasizing different
aspects, they have a modal connotation. Many of the uses of the English
present tense are covered by modals in VTT, which are explained in the
modal and subjunctive posts.

---------------------------------------------------------------------------
IMPERFECT OR PAST TENSE

 You talked.  @=======>  [*]
     zu
2 *Vu <pa> tok.  Uses general past tense particle, PA

 Vup tok.  Contracted form.
 Vu mu de zu tok. Explicit form.

 Vu mu de po tok.        Explicit long form. Mu is DExtro, right
    of, the end of the event.

-------------------------------------------------------------------------
FUTURE TENSE
 He/she will talk. [*]   @=====>
                       zu
3 wo    *Wo <fu> tok.
 

        Wof tok.  Contracted form.
 Wo mu vo tok.   Explicit descriptive form.

------------------------------------------------------------------------
PRESENT PERFECT TENSE
                                                > ">" and "ko" coincide.
Rom-perfect:   She <has talked>,  @=======*
about it,but now she will not.          ko
 

4       *Za <ko> tok.           Ko encodes the full expression, mu ga ko.

        Zak tok.                Contraction.
       Za mu ga ko tok.      Descriptive form. GA means equals.
               Ko is a fixed constant that definitely? ends
        the action. It substitutes for "has"

       >
Inro-perfect:  She <has talked>  @========*
   for 5 minutes;                  zu
    that's half her time.
 
    Za zem tok.      Zem is a contraction of zu and em, it
                             encodes zu em
    Za mu ga zu tok.  Descriptive form.
4    *Zam gaz tok.      Contraction.
                                                     >
Bifurcated-perfect: She <has talked> ..    @=========*
                                                     po

4                 Za mup tok.

                  Za mu ga po tok.  Descriptive.
    Zam gap tok.      Contracted.

The bifurcated form calques the English form.

------------------------------------------------------------------------

PAST PERFECT (PLUPERFECT) TENSE:
Romi-perfect (Is what you think it is: finished, perfected):
rom is a modal. It means that the external  object matches its internal
image.
 
 He <had talked>for five                           >
 minutes before he was gavelled.          @=======[-*]      *
                                                   ju
        Ha ju tok ...
5 *Haj tok...
 Ha lu ga ju tok...
 Hal gaj tok.

Inroi-perfect:(is a logical impossibility to be finished and continuing)
inro is a modal for impossible. The i makes it an adjective.

       He <had talked> for five minutes
       before he was given an extension.                   >
      @========[-*]      *
                                                           zu
       Ha lu ga zu tok ...
5      Ha zam tok.
 

bifurcated perfect: (po means either variable or  constant)

                                                           >
       He <had talked> for five minutes.         @========[-*]      *
                                                           po
       Ha lu ga po tok..   Descriptive.
5      *Hal gap tok..      Contracted.

       Ha pam tok.

The tense diagrams for this bifurcated tense, the Pluperfect, and the
Progressive Pluperfect (11) are identical. That is, "It had rained for
an hour, so we bought an umbrella" and "It had been raining for an
hour, so we bought an umbrella" mean the same thing, where we assume it
continued to rain in both cases. I have given them identical forms:pam.
Please let me know if you have a different opinion.

---------------------------------------------------------------------------
FUTURE PERFECT TENSE:
rom-form:
 
                 We <will have talked>for five                     >
 hours by the time we get to Phoenix.      *      @=======[+*]
                 la
         *Ni la tok...      [inclusive we]
  Nil tok.                            Contraction.
  Ni nu ga la tok..                   Descriptive.

inro-form:                                                          nu
      We <will have talked>                *      @========[+*]
           zu
          for a long time if we keep going.

             Ni nu ga zu tok...             Descriptive
             Nin gaz tok...
calque-form:
              We <will have talked>...            *      @========[+*]
           po
             Ni nu ga po tok...            Descriptive.
6          * Nin gap tok..                 Contracted.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------
----------------------------------------------------------------------
PRESENT PROGRESSIVE TENSE:
      We <are talking>.        @====*====>
7     *Gu <am> tok.                        po
 
     We are talking. [exclusive we]
     Gu tok.
     Gu te tok.
     Gu mu me tok.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
IMPERFECT PROGRESSIVE TENSE:
            They <were talking>.           @======[-*]====>   *
8    *Su am tok.                             lu     po  mu

--------------------------------------------------------------------
FUTURE PROGRESSIVE TENSE:
   They <will be talking>.      *    @=====[+*]====>
9   *Zas um tok.                 mu          nu     po
   Wos nu me tok.

[zas = they m/f]
 ----------------------------------------------------------------
PROGRESSIVE PAST PERFECT TENSE:

Rom-perfect: It <has been raining> but stopped.  @======*
                                                        ko

         * Gol <kem> pu, newiy gol pa yas. Contraction from ko + em.
           Gol mu ga ko pu...           Descriptive.
       [pu==rain]

Inro-perfect: It <has been raining> and won't stop. @=======*
           zu

        *  Gol <zem> pu, et natu gol fu yas. Contraction from zu + em
             [natu= "it is not the case that P."]

Calque Tense: It <has been raining>.  @=======*
                        po

10             *Gol <pem> pu.  Contraction of po + em.
              Gol mu ga po pu.   Descriptive.
       Gol mug po pu.
 

-----------------------------------------------------------
PROGRESSIVE PLUPERFECT TENSE:
                                                       lu    mu
cut tense:   They (f) <had been talking>      @=======[-*]    *
             until midnight.                        ju/ke

        Zas <jam>  tok. Contraction of am + ju.
              *Zas <kam> tok.  Contraction of am + ke.
               Zas lu ga ju tok.  Descriptive.

stretched tense: They (f) <had been talking>
                  for hours.
                                                     lu
                               @======[-*]      *
                  zu

             * Zas <zam> tok. Contraction of am + zu.

forked tense: They (f) had been talking.
                                             @=======[-*]     *
                                                      po

11            *Zas <pam> tok. Contraction of am + po.

------------------------------------------------------------------------
PROGRESSIVE FUTURE TENSE:

They-f <will have been talking> an hour by the end of the hearing.

                                *     @========[+*]
Cut Form:                                      la/ke

 Zas um la tok. Descriptive; Zas la um tok also ok.
 Zas lum tok.   Redundant form using future perfect la.
12 Zas <kum> tok. General form, carries the meaning.

Stretched Form: They <will have been talking> for an hour when we arrive.

                                *     @========[+*]
             zu
   Zas um zu tok. Descriptive, nu equals zu. Zas nu ga zu tok. ok too.
12   Zas <zum> tok. Preferred form.

Forked Form: They <will have been talking> for a while.
                                                 nu
                                *     @========={+*]
    mu               po

           Zas um po tok.  um means future-mu (nu) is a member (me)
      of the vector  time-atoms.
      Po is from POint of the
      vector. Again, it can be variable and
      stretch, or constant and cut off the action
      of the verb. This is the form that mimics
      English most closely.

12         Zas <pum> tok... Contracted form of um po. English.

-------------------------------------------------------------------
                          GONNA TENSE
GONNA IN PRESENT:
         Ellos are going to talk.

                    <--------te-------->

        *  @========>
        ev
13         Has <ev> tok.

  In the now time-frame, the mu is to the left
  of the vector.
----------------------------------------------------------------------
GONNNA IN PAST:

             You-all were going to talk.

                    lu
                   [-*]      @====>    [*]
      av                 mu
14    Ku <av> tok.

------------------------------------------------------------------
GONNA IN FUTURE:
                    I will be going to talk to you-all.

                              nu
                      [*]    [+*]   @=====>
        mu      uv    be

15       Mi <uv> tok iku.  Iku is the ACC pronoun.
         Muv tok ik.  Contracted forms.
       Mi nu vo be tok iku. Be is VA|KA.
-------------------------------------------------------------

DEGONNA IN PRESENT

     You  are in the aftermath of having loved her.

     <------------TE--------------->
         gape
       @=======>     ed    [*]
      ke/zu

16      Vu <ed> gape iza.
 Vad gape iz.      Contracted form.
 
------------------------------------------------------

DEGONNA IN PAST:
Person was in the aftermath of having given himself to him.

         <-----------PA------------>
            @=======>     ad      [*]
                  ju/ke

17    Wo <ad> sieh deur uha.   Uha is the DAT indirect object pronoun.
      Wad sieh deur uh.      Contracted forms. Sieh equates the
                             subject and the direct object,
                             which would be iwo. Read it "x-self"
        Without tense the sentence reads; Person
        itself gives to him. Sieh may also be put
        after the verb.
--------------------------------------------------------------------
DEGONNA IN FUTURE:
 
18 After she will have loved, then (she) will rest.
 

                  love                 rest
      [*]       @=======>   ud     @=========>
                        po

Za ud gape se hapcu.

             Se means a time sequenced predicate, after.
 

++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++

Vector tense is not a relex of English or Latin tense, it translates
any language; some constructions are easier than others. I intend to
translate 50+ Spanish tenses, or anyone else could try. I hope speakers
of other languages will translate their tense structures into VTT. It
is best after learning to translate, to start using VTT on its own
without reference to a native language. A rewrite of native VTT is in
the future. Native VTT lends itself to logographic representation.
Other than Stephen and Jack who are authors of competing systems,
no one has commented on VTT. Your comments would be most welcome.

100 GLOSSARY

Vector tense describes the position of the "now" or mu on the timeline
relative to event-vectors to express tense.
 

ZU::-
a variable used to terminate the action of an imperfect tense. An
imperfect tense "does not denote the termination of an action at any
specific time".

JU, KO, LA, KE::-

are the letters  j, k, l, in the NGL alphabet and they denote constants
used to terminate the action of a truly perfect tense; that is, at a
definite time. KO terminates a MU event, JU terminates a LU event, LA
terminates a NU event. These constants are the VTT equivalent of a form
of "have" plus stem-ed/en, named prog. Ke is the tenseless general
constant used to end any predication with, described in the Vtense post
Vector tense #2 under VECTOR ANATOMY.

MU::- A moving time cursor representing the instantaneous now.
LU::- A previous position of the MU on the time-line.
NU::- A future postion of the MU on the time-line.

PO::- the terminus of a vector, which can be ZU (variable) or one of
{JU, KO, LA, KE} (constants).  It is the bivalent terminator used to
represent ambiguous forms of the English perfect tenses. A "perfect"
tense in English need not be over, it can be a continuing action. VTT
does not distinguish between stative and active verbs.

ME::- Asserts that the MU, LU, or NU is a MEmber of the vector
time-atoms; another way of saying that the action is currently taking
place and is progressive. Me is the VTT equivalent of the progressive
tense paradigm of a form of "be" plus stem-ing, named prog.

DE::- Right-of, DExtro, after, the event represented by the vector.
VO::-Left-of, LeVO, before, the event represented by the vector.
GA::- equals.

PA::- Bivalent (constant|variable end) Past tense marker; also, the
past.
TE::- Bivalent (constant|variable end) Present tense marker;
also, the non-instantaneous present time frame which includes a current
vector with the mu inside.

FU::- Bivalent (constant|variable) Future tense marker, also the future.

AV::- Levo, left-of, before, a pAst vector. From pA Vo.
AM::- Member of, within or during a pAst vector. From pA Me.
AD::- Dextro, right -of, after, a pAst vector. From pA De.
 

EV::- Left of, before, a tE prEsent vector. From tE Vo
EM::- Member of, within or during a tE prEsent vector. From tE Me.
ED::- Dextro, right-of, after, a tE prEsent vector. From tE De

UV::- Left of, before, a fU or fUture vector. From fU Vo.
UM::- Member of, within or during a fU or fUture vector. From fU Me.
UD::- Dextro, right-of, after a fU or fUture vector. From fU De.

The XV forms are used for the future and displaced future
       constructions, "be + going + infinitive"
The XM forms are used for progressives.
The XD forms refer to a time in the aftermath of the associated vector.
Technicly speaking "ed" refers to any time whatsoever after the
present time; by definition here the time is restricted to a vague
region near the current vector, and etc. for the other aftermath
forms.  Conversely, the XV (gonna) forms refer to a time near the
inception of the vector they tense. They are a very broad "about to".

Gerald Koenig
--------------------------------------
Advocate for NGL. Written in the hope that VTT may make NGL
a better language.
 
 
 

>From jlk Tue Jan 19 21:34:46 1999
To: [email protected]
Subject: nglinf2

&infinitives
-----------------------------------------------------------------------

  SUMMARY OF INFINITIVES AND PARTICIPLES
INFINITIVE INFIXES:
 <kIRon>, To know. (from stem <kon->). The infinitive form is obtained
 by insertion of "ir" before the first vowel of any verb. Optionally the
 infix may be back accented on the first vowel, or one or both letters
 may be capitalized. The same is true for the infixed participles below.
 The accent is not interpreted as changing the pronunciation of the word,
 the usual rules apply.

INFINITIVE AFFIXES:
 Noun      <stem>in  KonIN iza je filIN iza.
 Adjective <stem>im  Ha ju je hais reyla feIM.
 Adverb    <stem>if             Ha fu vup fil(i)IF iha.
                                He will try to love him.
&participles
                     PARTICIPLES, GERUNDS, VERBALS.
GENERAL FORM OF THE PARTICIPLE:

 <STEM->(s){u|i|o}{em|ad|ek}
 (| means or.)
 (s)  is interposed between 1st and 2nd triplicate vowels: vsvv.

SUFFIX ELEMENTS FOR COMBINING AS V1+VC:
V1:
 u::- declares a noun function of the participle. AKA a gerund.
 i::- declares an adjective function of the participle.
 o::- declares an adverbial function of the participle.
VC:
 em::- declares a Present Participle, -ing, -ando,-iendo..[add your language]
 ad::- declares a Past Participle, -ed, en, ..-ado..-ido,.[add your language]
 ek::- declares a Perfect Participle, having <verb>-ed...

EX: tokiem teja; talking head;

NOUN ROLE u  u+em=uem
1 <Running> is work.
  <koriSUEM> je *julyase. [note the s breaking up the triple vowel run]
  <Talking> is fun.
  <tokUEM> je 'uh.

ADJECTIVE ROLE i  i+em=iem
2  <Running> water is clean.
   <koriSIEM> vod je *likla.

ADVERB ROLE o o+em=oem
3 They are going <running>.
  su em tibe <koriSOEM>.
  <Piscando> tempus triuit. [Thanks very much to Ray Brown for his post]
  He spends his time [in] <fishing>.
  ha *nasir has cik <pecaSOEM>.
 

SHORT INFIX FORMS OF THE PARTICIPLE:
 IM::- infix which changes a stem to a Present Participle, -ing.
 ID::- infix which changes a stem to a Past Paticiple, -ed,-en,-n,etc.
 EK::- infix which changes a stem to a Perfect Participle, "having -ed".
 The infixes are again inserted before the first vowel of the verb.
 EX: tIMok, talking; tIdok, talked; t`ekok, having talked.

PRESENT PARTICIPLE SUFFIXES: -ing-->em
 NOUN ROLE        u  u+em=uem        <stem-uem>    <tokuem>
 ADJECTIVE ROLE   i  i+em=iem        <stem-(s)iem> <filisiem>
 ADVERB ROLE      o  o+em=oem        <stem-oem>    <tokoem>
 GENERAL PRESENT PARTICIPLE INFIX FORM:  IM  (= -ing.) <timok>
 Whether noun, adjective, or adverb in role, the infix form is the same.
 The M derives from Membership of the mux inside the vector, past,
 present or future.

PAST PARTICIPLE SUFFIXES:  -ed-->-ad
 NOUN      u  u+ad=uad             <stem-uad>    <tokuad>
 ADJECTIVE i  i+ad=iad             <stem-iad>    <tokiad>
 ADVERB    o  o+ad=oad             <stem-(s)oad> <filisoad>
 GENERAL PAST PARTICIPLE INFIX FORM: ID  (= -ed) <tidok>.
 The D derives from the mux located Dextro the vector.

PERFECT PARTICIPLE SUFFIXES: EK. having verb-ed. ed-->ek
 NOUN, NOUN PHRASE, NP. u. u+ek=uek
 ADJECTIVE              i. i+ek=iek
 ADVERB                 o. o+ek=oek
 GENERAL PERFECT PARTICIPLE INFIX FORM: EK  (= having -ed)
 The K suggests Ko, the past perfective.
 
--------------------------------------------
&pronouns

SUBJECT/NOMINATIVE PRONOUNS: He-NOM hit.

Mi I        Ni we+addressee inclusive we. we-all.
            Gu we-addressee exclusive we
Vu you      Ku you(p) you-all
Wo he/she/one   Su  they/ones    they (f|m|(m+f) sex)
Za she      Zas ellas she(p) they (f sex only)
Ha he       Has ellos he(p)  they (m sex only)

DIRECT OBJECT/ACCUSATIVE PRONOUNS: He hit her-ACC.  <|> means <or>
imi |im  me           ini |in  us + addressee us-all.
                      igu |ig  us - addressee
ivu |iv  you          iku |ik  you  plural
iwo |  her/him/one  isu |is  them (f|m|(m+f))
iza |iz  her        izas|    them (f sex only)
iha |ih  him       ihas|    them (m sex only)

INDIRECT OBJECT/DATIVE: (to (pronoun)). He gave them to us-DAT.
umi |            uni |un
                 ugu |ug
uvu |uv    uku |uk
uwo |    usu |us
uza |uz     uzas|
uha |uh          uhas|

POSSESSIVE ADJECTIVE/GENITIVE/DETERMINER: This is my-GEN book.
mis my  nis ours+you
   gus ours-you
vus your  kus your(p)
wos his/hers/one's sus     their, ones'
zais hers  zazes   their(f,p)
hais his  hases   their(m,p)

POSSESSIVE PRONOUN: This is mine-PP.
omi|om  mine            oni|on   ours+yours
                        ogu|og   ours-yours
ovu|ov  yours (sing)    oku|ok   yours (plural you)
owo|ow  his/hers/one's  osu|os   theirs (m|f(m|f))
oza|oz  hers            ozas|    theirs (f only).
oha|oh  his             ohas|    theirs (m only).
 

Cases for pronouns are not mandatory in Nilenga except to disambiguate.
<ha sug ha> He hit himself is grammatical. So is <za ha pa deur za.>
for <za sieh pa deur uha.>
The fixed SDVO/SDiOV order has to be followed for this to work.

&anaphora
&it

ANAPHORA:
it#1 gol
it#2 guadu
it#3 guapo
GUA:  Assigns the first pronomial "it1", gol, to a full proposition,
a sentence; or a topic when topic-comment form is used:

He/she is beautiful and he/she knows it.
wo je sugor gua: wo bin gol.
He/she has beauty (gua assigns it1, gol, to "he/she has beauty" ): he/she
knows it1; ie that he/she has beauty.

It is the children who demand my first attention. 13s
Gol ron je q *zuen manke (su) xad mis yuf serotoni. 15s
Gol je q *zuen manke xad mis yuf serotoni. 12s

It necessarily be the children that (they) demand my first
consciousness.  Ron implies an always tense, similar to the "is"
present tense in the English which implies more than the present.
Untensed je is present tense by default in VTT.

 [it, ron necessarily modal, duin-oto ka(that) (they) xad demand modal, mis
 my-GEN, yuf (consciousness) seroton(first)]
Ku *zuen: su xad mis yuf serotoni. 11s. A better way to say it?

&reflexives
REFLEXIVES:

Use "sieh" with the NOM pronouns:

Sieh identifies the subject with the object, making the <NOM-self> form
unnecessary.

mi sieh ucah.
I myself control
vu sieh ucah.
You control yourself
ha  sieh tok.
He  talks to himself.
su am sieh tok.
su sieh am tok.
They were talking to themselves.

zas sieh pa tul.
They (female) read to themselves.

&modals

---------------------
MODAL DEFINITIONS 9/23/98
All nilenga modals are second order logic claims about propositions,
implicit or explicit, but they can be used in a usual way; thus Ka can
be used as "can".
RO type of modals. [ was PO] [potentials]
ro::-possibly       x says possibly "p" is true.
ron::-necessarily   x says necessarily "p" is true.
rob#::-probably     x says "p" has probability #=[0-1] of being  true. (1)
                    # may be omitted.
rohi::-may, probability 0-33%
rohe::-might, probability 33-66%
roho::-should, probability 66%-100%.
rohol::-certain, probability 1.0. Means same as "p"

roz#::-fuzzily      x says "p" has fuzzy #=[0-1] membership in
                    '"P" is true.' (2)
rozi::-may   membership  0-33%
roze::-might membership  33-66%
rozo::-should membership 66-100%  [fuzzy modal predictions]
rozol::-certain, fuzzy value 1.0. Means same as "p".

&subjunctive

Subjunctive Declarative Modals:(3).

 Irrealis: "A modality that connotes that the proposition with
 which it is associated is nonactual or non-factual."

 
ror::-irrealis        x says suppose that "p" is imagined only, in-mind
                      only, and irrealis; ie "p" is nonactual or nonfactual.
                      Some contrary to fact conditions.[patent granted].

inro::-impossible     x says suppose that p is impossible.Some contrary
                      to fact conditions.
                      [Patent denied: Lightspeed exceeded; 2+2=7]

roir::-in-mind,       x says suppose that "p" is imagined and possibly
mabe also factual.    also real,ie, In-mind and possibly out-mind.
        Type I subjunctive. [Patent applied for][butler
        example]
 

XA type of modals.   [jussives]
xa::-must,legal shall. x says y must make "p" true. No choice. x may be y.
xam::-may           x says that y may make "p" true.
xap::-permits       x permits that y  make "p" true.
xad::-demands       x demands that y make "P" true.
xas::-please        x politely asks that y  make "p" true.
xal::-should (ought to)   x ought to make "p" true, he has a choice.
 Default y is subject of "p".
KA type of modals.
ka::-can            x is able to make "p" be true.
kaz::-causes        x causes "p" to be true.
kaf::-facilitates   x facilitates y to make "p" true. x may equal y.
kat::-obstructs     x obstructs y to make "P" true.

BI type of modals.  was NO
bi::-believes       x believes that "p" is true.
bih::- hopes        x hopes that "p" is true.
bin::-knows         x knows that "P" is true.
big::-imagines      x imagines that "p" is true.
bim::-sets up a virtual world of predicates. x declares that a set of
statements, a "modal set" are given a value of true for a world. It can
be an imaginary world, such as the world of the Tekken.

DI type of modals.
di::-wants         x wants "p" to be true.
dib::-begs         x begs y to make "p" true.
dis::-please       x politely asks y to make "p" true.
dim::-IMHO         x declares that in his humble opinion, "p" is true.
dit::-predicts     x predicts that "p" will become true.
dif::-if;conditional  x claims "q" will become true subsequent to "p" being
                   true. Def p se q. First p then q. This is a tensed
                   implication. It does not apply to untensed universal
     laws.(ron,necesarily true). Zuko/sein for those.

ZO type of modals.
zo::-witness, first person  x witnesses "p" becoming true.
zos::-says                  x asserts verbally that "p" is true.
zot::-writes                x asserts in writing that "P" is true.

Agentive modals...
---------------------
MODAL DEFINITIONS 9/23/98
All nilenga modals are second order logic claims about propositions,
implicit or explicit, but they can be used in a usual way; thus Ka can
be used as "can".
RO type of modals. [ was PO] [potentials]
ro::-possibly       x says possibly "p" is true.
ron::-necessarily   x says necessarily "p" is true.
rob#::-probably     x says "p" has probability #=[0-1] of being  true. (1)
                    # may be omitted.
rohi::-may, probability 0-33%
rohe::-might, probability 33-66%
roho::-should, probability 66%-100%.
rohol::-certain, probability 1.0. Means same as "p"

roz#::-fuzzily      x says "p" has fuzzy #=[0-1] membership in
                    '"P" is true.' (2)
rozi::-may   membership  0-33%
roze::-might membership  33-66%
rozo::-should membership 66-100%  [fuzzy modal predictions]
rozol::-certain, fuzzy value 1.0. Means same as "p".

Subjunctive Declarative Modals:(3).

 Irrealis: "A modality that connotes that the proposition with
 which it is associated is nonactual or non-factual."

 
ror::-irrealis        x says suppose that "p" is imagined only, in-mind
                      only, and irrealis; ie "p" is nonactual or nonfactual.
                      Some contrary to fact conditions.[patent granted].

inro::-impossible     x says suppose that p is impossible.Some contrary
                      to fact conditions.
                      [Patent denied: Lightspeed exceeded; 2+2=7]

roir::-in-mind,       x says suppose that "p" is imagined and possibly
mabe also factual.    also real,ie, In-mind and possibly out-mind.
        Type I subjunctive. [Patent applied for][butler
        example]
 

XA type of modals.   [jussives]
xa::-must,legal shall. x says y must make "p" true. No choice. x may be y.
xam::-may           x says that y may make "p" true.
xap::-permits       x permits that y  make "p" true.
xad::-demands       x demands that y make "P" true.
xas::-please        x politely asks that y  make "p" true.
xal::-should (ought to)   x ought to make "p" true, he has a choice.
 Default y is subject of "p".
KA type of modals.
ka::-can            x is able to make "p" be true.
kaz::-causes        x causes "p" to be true.
kaf::-facilitates   x facilitates y to make "p" true. x may equal y.

BI type of modals.  was NO
bi::-believes       x believes that "p" is true.
bih::- hopes        x hopes that "p" is true.
bin::-knows         x knows that "P" is true.
big::-imagines      x imagines that "p" is true.
bim::-sets up a virtual world of predicates. x declares that a set of
statements, a "modal set" are given a value of true for a world. It can
be an imaginary world, such as the world of the Tekken.

DI type of modals.
di::-wants         x wants "p" to be true.
dib::-begs         x begs y to make "p" true.
dis::-please       x politely asks y to make "p" true.
dim::-IMHO         x declares that in his humble opinion, "p" is true.
dit::-predicts     x predicts that "p" will become true.
dif::-if;conditional  x claims "q" will become true subsequent to "p" being
                   true. Def p se q. First p then q. This is a tensed
                   implication. It does not apply to untensed universal
     laws.(ron,necesarily true). Zuko/sein for those.

??---------------------------------------??
ZO type of modals.
zo::-witness, first person  x witnesses "p" becoming true.
zos::-says                  x asserts verbally that "p" is true.
zot::-writes                x asserts in writing that "P" is true.
 

X-URL: http://www.geocities.com/Paris/Rue/9028/NGL/inhapxuom_VTT.html
Carlos' page.
 

&voice
 

fiuh::- when x1, the first argument of P, is the subject of P and
 the patient in P; P is true.
 Abel fiuh pa kill Cain.
 Abel(the patient) was killed by Cain.

 Abel fiuh pa kill.
      fiup
 Abel(victim) was killed.
 hiah::- when x1, the first argument of P, is the subject of P
 and the agent in P; P is true.
 Cain hiah pa kill Abel.
       hiap
 Cain (agent) killed Abel.

 Cain hiah pa kill.
 Cain (perpetrator) killed.

Hiah is default and is only used explicitly for emphasis or to
disambiguate.

"PATIENT is a 'semantic role' that is usually the surface object of the
Verb in a sentence. [Cain has the semantic role of agent in both aboves.]
A semantic role is the underlying relationship that a participant has
with the main verb in a clause. Semantic role is the actual role a
participant plays in some real or imagined situation, apart from the
linguistic encoding of those situations" [ie subject or object.]
------------------------------

&nilengawords
 

-------------
Proposed morphems:
*lauk::- such that
*lok::-that which P, lo que or lo cual, long scope word, phrase, or
       sentence pronomial.
*lon::-the event or process of P. Event or proposition abstractor pronoun.
*diske::-somewhere, where, endonde, a place unspecified
        as to direction or location. Literally, displaced to or located
 at the end constant [ke] of a space vector.
*di'el::- v. to dwell at/in a place.
*visbiuh::-n. imagination, vis (thought), biuho, (image).
*sitov::- in spite of, even though, however much, in vain,por mas que.
*mostap::- v. to escape, from mos,(cord) and tap (cut).
*kiv'a::- adj. fickle, scornful, contemptuous. Sp. esquiva.
*kin::- coincident, was VST kon.
*natu::- it is false that:, sentence level prenex negator. Has scope over
         entire following proposition. natu from not true.
*nati::-false, adj.
*ti::-true, adj.
*toron::-v. to persist (in), to keep on

-----------------------------------------------------------------
&cheatsheet
---------------------------CUT HERE------------------------------------
                NGL: Grammar Cheat-Sheet

Word Order:            C.ase Marks:     Traditional V.erbs:
Fixed: SDVO/SDiOV       -om Nominative   Form: <generic>i
N-Aj, Aj-Av, V-Av       -ac Accusative   i.nflection=MTA
Semi-fixed:             -ad Dative       M.ood:
Mark case when:         -0 Generic        0- indicitive/
S is not first N                          interogative
D is not before V      #.Number marks:    b- subjunctive
O is not after V        -m Singular       d- optative
When D and O are        -r Paucal         g- desideritive
together mark 1st.      -s Plural         v- imperative
Aj when before N        -0 Generic        l- advisory
Free: Mark all nouns                      m- conditional
for case.             Negatives:          z- potential
                        Place "no"        n- narative
Questions:              before V
1. Place between ¿?                    T.ense:
2. add a tag          P.erson marks:      -u- far past
3. Place no between     -o 1st            -o- past
V and i.                -a 2nd            -a- non-past
NOTE: No SDiOV in       -(e) 3rd          -e- future
Questions.                                -i- far future

Inflecting words:     Quick Derivation:  A.spect:
N/Aj: <root>#C          in`- Not          -0 generic
V: <root>P#(i)          -(i/o)r thing     -p pluperfect
Av: not inflected       or person that    -t perfect
                        -ci essence of    -s imperfect
M.otion V.ector:        -fe to do N       -b durative
*Quick MVc here*        -ig is Av

1.Cheat sheet for Vector tense goes in these three lines
2.xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
3.xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx

S=Subject, D=Dative Object, V=Verb, i=Inflection, O=Object
N=Noun, Aj=Adjective, Av=Adverb, M=Mood, T=Tense, A=Aspect
Vc=Vector, <reserved>
------------------------CUT HERE---------------------------
&tokcirpronouns

Newsgroups: alt.language.artificial.ngl
Date: Wed, 2 Dec 1998 00:25:08 -0800 (PST)
From: Jack Durst <[email protected]>
Subject: Re: NGL: Pronoun songs

> I need to see how your pronouns handle this situation, could you outline
> it? Also, what natlangs have generic and paucal pronouns? Could you post
> your system with some examples of the TVS use of paucal and generic
> pronouns, so that I can see how it could be done with VXT pronouns?

Sure (my complete pronoun set):
number: sg pc pl gen
person     case
1 mom rom som 'om nom
 moc roc soc oc acc
 mod rod sod od dat
2 mam ram sam am nom
 mac rac sac 'ac acc
 mad rad sad 'ad dat
3 mem rem sem em nom
 mec rec sec ec acc
 med red sed ed dat

Any of the four genders can be derived from this set by prefixing the
standard gender derivations (ma- fa- xa-, etc.)

The basic advantage of my system is that it's cobbled together out of
standard parts, it's basicly the (optional) gender mark, followed by the
number mark (m,r,s,0) followed by the person mark (o, a, e) followed by
the consonant of the case mark (m, c, d).  Each of these occurs elsewhere
in the language (case and number marks have been ratified, person marks
are used in both PVS and Traditional verb systems, and also in the kinship
system (which is accepted under the old acceptance system) and gender is
modular and has been seconded.) and so substantially less new learning is
required.  Also, the entire system is rule based, so one rule
({gender}+{number}+person+case_consonant) generates all of them without
having to declare a seperate pronoun for each, which may also have an ease
of learning benefit.  It maintains modularity by keeping the generic the
default state, and allows flexibility in the level of detail marked.

The disadvantage of my system occurs only in VXT, that being that it does
not form contractions.  If VXT supported the person marked generic verb
sturcture (which it must for modularity reasons if it and either of the
other systems is chosen) this would be no disadvantage at all since
nominative pronouns become very rare in such a setting (that is, that form
of the language is pro-drop while the current VXT standard is not)
 

> My first thought on this is that your four grammatical numbers are
> really just a small set of quantifiers. As such they need not be
> grammaticalized as inflections on verbs or pronouns , but can be
> handled with normal quantifiers, as we do with "All" and "Some" the
> usual basic quantifiers. Loglan has a whole set of them, ranging from
> "few" to "many". I am a little worried about excessive proliferation of
> the pronouns, but again, If you want them and can make a good case for
> them, I'll consider putting all or some of them in my proposal.
The simple thing to do would be to eliminate the plural pronouns entirely
and just use the (ratified) standard number marks, with the current
singular as the generic.  Such a form would be more modular, too.

In the current number system, number *is* basicly a grammaticalized
modifier, since, being modular, the generic is the unmarked form.

Sincerely,
 Jack Durst
[email protected]
[this posting written in Net English]
 

&carlospage

http://www.geocities.com/Paris/Rue/9028/NGL/vtt.html
http://www.geocities.com/Paris/Rue/9028/NGL/writekit2.txt

&jackpage

http://personalweb.sierra.net/~spynx/tokcir.html
 

&end
 
 
 

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