Basic Computer Skills Outline
I. Basic Computer Skills
A. History
  1. Why Computers Were Created
   a. to solve problems
B. The Computer System
  1. Made up of 2 elements that interact with each other
   a. Hardware - physical, touchable equipment
    1) keyboard
    2) monitor
    3) speakers
   b. Software - programs that tell the computer what to do
    1) Microsoft Works
    2) games
    3) desktop publishers
C. Information Processing Cycle (IPOS Cycle)
  1. Definition � the interaction between humans and computers
  2. The 4 parts of the cycle are:
   a. Input - when humans communicate with computers
    1) keyboard, microphone
    2) mouse
    3) touch screen (both input and output)
   b. Processing - when the computer is executing instructions and performing calculations (following the directions/working)
    1)Arithmetic/Logic examples
     a) sorting
     b) calculating
     c) comparing/summarizing (querying)
      1.picking names for honor roll, from all grade point averages
     d) classifying/categorizing
   c. Output - when the computer communicates with us/ gives us the results of processing
    1) 2 Types
     a) Hardcopy - on paper
     b) Softcopy - not on paper
    2) 3 Examples
     a) printer
     b) monitor
     c) touch screen (both input and output)
   d. Storage - when the computer is holding information
    1) Magnetic disks - hard disk and floppy disk
    2) Magnetic tapes - tape cartridge, tape reels
    3) Optical storage - CDs, DVDs
D. Computer Care & Maintenance
  1. Computer Care
   a. Basic Care
    1) keep away from direct sunlight
    2) do not block vents on computer or monitor
    3) keep away from air conditioning ducts
    4) use surge protector
    5) keep magnets away (uses magnetic disks)
   b. Keyboard ... should:
    1) not have food
    2) not have liquids
    3) not have small objects (paper clips, staples, lead, ...)
   c. Mouse
    1) clean mouse ball and rollers regularly
    2) use a mouse pad for better tractions and to reduce lint build up in mouse
   d. Monitor
    1) clean screen regularly when it is turned off
    2) use screen saver and shut down when not in use
   e. Hard drive
    1) install virus protection software - update regularly
    2) backup drives of tapes or disks
  2. Disk/CD Care - Disks and CDs should
   a. don't remove while drive is running (may ruin disk and or drive)
   b. keep away from magnets and liquids
   c. store in proper containers
   d. don't store near heat vents or air conditioning vents
  3. Care of Printers
   a. dust periodically with a soft cloth
   b. make sure it's plugged in all the way
   c. do not shut off while printing
   d.  have manual and technical support phone number available
  4. Computer Maintenance
   a. make sure it's plugged in all the way
   b. keep technical support #s and manuals available for troubleshooting info
   c. make back disks/tapes of all programs and data files
II. Computer Systems
A. The Role of Software
  1. Operating/System Software
   a. Contros the operation of the computer
   b. It is the BOSS of the computer system
   c. Operating System functions
    1) sets the rules for how the computer hardware and application software work together
    2) Manages input and output
    3) Translates program commands into computer language
    4) Controls storage of data
   d. System Software Tasks
    1) Boots the computer
    2) formats disks
    3) creats folders/directories
    4) moves and copies files
    5) and much, much more
   e. Examples of System/Operating Software
    1) Windows
    2) DOS
  2. Application Software
   a. Software designed to meet the users need, performs a specific task
   b. Examples:
    1) Word Processing - used to write letters and reports
    2) Spreadsheet - calculates numbers such as a teacher's gradebook
    3) Database - organizes data such as names and adrresses
    4) Desktop publishing - creates cards, flyers, calendars, and banners
     (a sophisticated word processor)
    5) Paint/Draw - contains drawing and coloring tools
    6) Educational - makes learning fun
    7) Entertainment/Games
    8) Personal Finance - keep checkbook on computer
   c. Business Needs for Application Software
    1) Write letters and memos
    2) keep track of customer names and addresses
    3) payroll
    4) inventory control
    5) sales and customer orders
    6) purchasing
    7) catalogs and advertising
    8) electronic mail
    9) voice mail
   d. Application software needs of a school
    1) Student information
    2) attendance
    3) gradebook
    4) testing
    5) computer instruction
    6) reference materials
    7) payroll
    8) e-mail
III. Ethics and Security
A. Software Usage (copyright law)
  1. Commercial software
   a. copyrighted by an individual or a business
   b. permission needed in order to copy
  2. Shareware
   a. copyright protected
   b. distributed free on a trial basis
   c. payment by the honor system for satisfied users
  3. Freeware
   a. given away free of charge
   b. owner often retains rights
   c. not necessarily free to copy and distribute
  4. Public-Domain
   a. not copyrighted
   b. donated for public use
   c. free to copy and distribute
B. Types of Viruses
  1. Definition �  a program designed to damage computer files
  2. 4 Types
   a. bomb - designed to activate at a specific time
   b. Hoax - a fake
   c. Trojan horse - disguised as a userful piece of software
   d. Worm - bores its way through a computer's files or through a computer's
C. Safe Computing
  1. Make backup copies of all files on a regular basis
  2. don't share disks from other computers -- this increases your chance of catching a
   computer virus
  3. don't boot from a floppy disk - this is how many viruses are installed
  4. write-protect your disks
  5. use an anti-virus program to scan your files on a regular basis
  6. use caution when downloading files from the Internet--many are virus infected
  7. files sharing on a Local Area Network (LAN) may also expose your files to a
D. NC Computer Related Crime Laws
  1. Accessing Computers
   a. Definition - it is unlawful to intentionally access or cause to be accessed any computer for a fraudulent purpose including the use of a virus to do this
   b. Misdemeanor
  2. Damaging Computers, Computer Systems, Computer Networks, and Resources
   a. Definition - It is unlawful to intentionally and without authorization alter, damage, or destroy a computer including the use of a virus to do this
   b. When broken:
    1) Felony - if over $1000 damage
    2) Misdemeanor - if not over $1000 damage
  3. Denial of Computer Services to an Authorized User
   a. Definition - it is unlawful to prevent an autorized user from using their computer  system or services including the use of a virus to do this
   b. Misdemeanor
  4. Extortion
   a. Definition - any person who verbally or by a written or printed communication, maliciously threatens to damage a computer with the intent to extort money or to get someone to do or not do something.
   b. Felony
E. Computer Ethics
  1. Definition - Ethics are a set of moral principles or values
  2. What it means
   a. Ethical questions deal with what is right or wrong
   b. Ethical behavior advances the �common good�
   c. Computer ethics refers to using computer technology for �good� purposes
   d. Unethical acts may also be illegal acts
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