Country Codes

ad Andorra
ae United Arab Emirates
af Afghanistan
ag Antigua and Barbuda
ai Anguilla
al Albania
am Armenia
an Netherlands Antilles
ao Angola
aq Antarctica
ar Argentina
arpa Old style Arpanet
as American Samoa
at Austria
au Australia
aw Aruba
az Azerbaidjan
ba Bosnia-Herzegovina
bb Barbados
bd Bangladesh
be Belgium
bf Burkina Faso
bg Bulgaria
bh Bahrain
bi Burundi
bj Benin
bm Bermuda
bn Brunei Darussalam
bo Bolivia
br Brazil
bs Bahamas
bt Bhutan
bv Bouvet Island
bw Botswana
by Belarus
bz Belize
ca Canada
cc Cocos (Keeling) Islands
cf Central African Republic
cg Congo
ch Switzerland
ci Ivory Coast (Cote D'Ivoire)
ck Cook Islands
cl Chile
cm Cameroon
cn China
co Colombia
com Commercial
cr Costa Rica
cs Former Czechoslovakia
cu Cuba
cv Cape Verde
cx Christmas Island
cy Cyprus
cz Czech Republic
de Germany
dj Djibouti
dk Denmark
dm Dominica
do Dominican Republic
dz Algeria
ec Ecuador
edu Educational
ee Estonia
eg Egypt
eh Western Sahara
es Spain
et Ethiopia
fi Finland
fj Fiji
fk Falkland Islands
fm Micronesia
fo Faroe Islands
fr France
fx France (European Territory)
ga Gabon
gb Great Britain
gd Grenada
ge Georgia
gf French Guyana
gh Ghana
gi Gibraltar
gl Greenland
gm Gambia
gn Guinea
gov USA Government
gp Guadeloupe (French)
gq Equatorial Guinea
gr Greece
gs S. Georgia & S. Sandwich Isls.
gt Guatemala
gu Guam (USA)
gw Guinea Bissau
gy Guyana
hk Hong Kong
hm Heard and McDonald Islands
hn Honduras
hr Croatia
ht Haiti
hu Hungary
id Indonesia
ie Ireland
il Israel
in India
int International
io British Indian Ocean Territory
iq Iraq
ir Iran
is Iceland
it Italy
jm Jamaica
jo Jordan
jp Japan
ke Kenya
kg Kyrgyzstan
kh Cambodia
ki Kiribati
km Comoros
kn Saint Kitts & Nevis Anguilla
kp North Korea
kr South Korea
kw Kuwait
ky Cayman Islands
kz Kazakhstan
la Laos
lb Lebanon
lc Saint Lucia
li Liechtenstein
lk Sri Lanka
lr Liberia
ls Lesotho
lt Lithuania
lu Luxembourg
lv Latvia
ly Libya
ma Morocco
mc Monaco
md Moldavia
mg Madagascar
mh Marshall Islands
mil USA Military
mk Macedonia
ml Mali
mm Myanmar
mn Mongolia
mo Macau
mp Northern Mariana Islands
mq Martinique (French)
mr Mauritania
ms Montserrat
mt Malta
mu Mauritius
mv Maldives
mw Malawi
mx Mexico
my Malaysia
mz Mozambique
na Namibia
nato NATO (purged in '96-see
nc New Caledonia (French)
ne Niger
net Network
nf Norfolk Island
ng Nigeria
ni Nicaragua
nl Netherlands
no Norway
np Nepal
nr Nauru
nt Neutral Zone
nu Niue
nz New Zealand
om Oman
org Non-Profit Organisations
pa Panama
pe Peru
pf Polynesia (French)
pg Papua New Guinea
ph Philippines
pk Pakistan
pl Poland
pm Saint Pierre and Miquelon
pn Pitcairn Island
pr Puerto Rico
pt Portugal
pw Palau
py Paraguay
qa Qatar
re Reunion (French)
ro Romania
ru Russian Federation
rw Rwanda
sa Saudi Arabia
sb Solomon Islands
sc Seychelles
sd Sudan
se Sweden
sg Singapore
sh Saint Helena
si Slovenia
sj Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands
sk Slovak Republic
sl Sierra Leone
sm San Marino
sn Senegal
so Somalia
sr Suriname
st Saint Tome (Sao Tome) and Principe
su Former USSR
sv El Salvador
sy Syria
sz Swaziland
tc Turks and Caicos Islands
td Chad
tf French Southern Territories
tg Togo
th Thailand
tj Tadjikistan
tk Tokelau
tm Turkmenistan
tn Tunisia
to Tonga
tp East Timor
tr Turkey
tt Trinidad and Tobago
tv Tuvalu
tw Taiwan
tz Tanzania
ua Ukraine
ug Uganda
uk United Kingdom
um USA Minor Outlying Islands
us United States
uy Uruguay
uz Uzbekistan
va Vatican City State
vc Saint Vincent & Grenadines
ve Venezuela
vg Virgin Islands (British)
vi Virgin Islands (USA)
vn Vietnam
vu Vanuatu
wf Wallis and Futuna Islands
ws Samoa
ye Yemen
yt Mayotte
yu Yugoslavia
za South Africa
zm Zambia
zr Zaire
zw Zimbabwe

Bandwidth - Your upload and download capacity. On a 56k Modem this is generally about 4 KBps Upload and 7 KBps Download.
FTP - File Transfer Protocol - A location on the internet with the purpose of storing files.

HTTP - Hyper Text Transfer Protocol - A location on the internet that store web pages like this.

IP - 32 bit binary number identifying the position of a computer on the Internet - similar to the URL. The URL is usually easier to remember as it is alpha based rather than numerical.

IP Range - usually referred to when talking about scanning a particular range of ip addresses. They can be broken down into A, B, and C ranges - Usually an entire B range will be scanned at a time.

KBps - Kilobytes per second - This is what most transfer speed are referring to. One Byte is comprised of 8 Bits.

Kbps - Kilobits per second - This is what most modem speeds are referring to. Why? Probably to make them look faster. Divide by 8 to get KBps.

Filler - Refers to a person who uploads stuff to pub for others to download.

FXP - File eXchange Protocol - This refers to server to server transfer. You can transfer files from one pub to another using very little of your own bandwidth. This is by far the best means for distributing large files, only problem is that a very limited number of FXP capable pubs exist.

NT - Windows NT/2k - An operating system geared towards businesses, most pubs are on NT systems.

Proxy - Generally used to speed up internet connections by storing frequently accessed images/html locally. Used in the FXP community to hide your identity by using anonymous proxies to connect to a ftp. Usually SOCKS4 or SOCKS5 are used for FTP transfers and are located on port 1080.

Pub - This is a public ftp that anyone can connect to with anonymous access. They are usually used for transferring large files to many people because of their high speeds.

Scanner - A person who scans for empty pubs to be used by a FXP group.

Sysop - The people that run these wonderful pubs, also the people who usually lock you out or delete your stuff.

Tag - This generally refers to the tagging of a pub. A FXP group uses a directory structure to claim it as their own. A general rule is that if a tag is 2 weeks old and not in use it has been abandoned.

Unix - An operating system similar to DOS but much more powerful, most of the FXPable pubs are found on Unix systems.

Warez - Slang for stolen computer programs on the internet available for free download.

Wingate - Similar to a proxy in that they are used to hide your identity, except all information actually passes through the Wingate, if you have a slow Wingate you get slow download/upload speeds. Wingates are also used to force FXP transfer on pubs that do not normally accept FXP, again all data passes through the Wingate so you need one that is fast for it to be useful.

A box hooked up to the net. Usually has one or more processors.

Ethernet Card
A piece of hardware that is usually in a computer which knows how to talk the ethernet protocol on a wire. This is a kind of network interface.

A fuzzy term, usually meant as a synonym for either 'computer' or 'IP address', which often doesn't matter as there is typically one IP address per computer.

A name which can be resolved (using a name server) into an IP Address.

IP Address
A set of four numbers (each between 0 and 255, with some restrictions), seperated by periods that uniquely identifies an address on a network.

A piece of hardware that allows the computer to talk over a phone line. A modem is often used as a network interface.

Name server
A machine on the network that allows you to resolve hostnames into IP addresses.

Network Interface
A thing inside a computer that knows how to send information over a wire (or fiber, or whatever). Usually, one per computer.

9.5 million hosts on the Internet in January 1996, up from
4.9 million in 1995,
2.2 million in 1994, and
1.3 million in 1993,
by the first definition above.
1.7 million hosts on the Internet in January 1996, up from
1.0 million in 1995,
0.6 million in 1994, and
less than 0.4 million in 1993,

Preferred server name Associated institution
--------------------------------------------------------------------- Alabanza, Inc C=US CompuServe Interactive Services, Inc C=US interQ Inc. C=JP Name.Space C=US TierraNet, Inc. C=US NetNation Communications Inc. C=CA EasySpace Ltd. C=GB eNom, Inc. C=US CenterGate Research Group, LLC C=US IBM C=US Melbourne IT C=AU A+Net Registrar C=US Maaznet Directory Service Inc. C=US Network Solutions, Inc. C=US Pacific Bell C=US Forman Interactive Corp C=US Internet Domain Registrars C=US Sunquest Information Systems C=US University of California at Berkeley C=US State University of New York at Binghamton C=US California Institute of Technology C=US California State University - Fresno C=US California State University - Hayward C=US California State University - Sacramento C=US Case Western Reserve University C=US Florida State University C=US Georgia Institute of Technology C=US Gettysburg College C=US George Mason University C=US Dana-Farber Cancer Institute C=US Harvey Mudd College C=US Indiana University C=US US Domain Registry C=US .INT Whois Service C=US Messiah College C=US University of Miami, Rosentiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Sciences C=US Massachusetts Institute of Technology C=US Mississippi State University C=US Minnesota State University - Winona C=US Northern Arizona University C=US North Carolina State University C=US University of Notre Dame C=US New Jersey Institute of Technology C=US North Dakota State University C=US Ohio Northern University C=US Oregon State University C=US Ohio State University C=US Occidental College C=US Pennsylvania State University C=US University of Rochester C=US Rutgers University C=US San Diego State University C=US Stanford University C=US Stanford University C=US St. John's University C=US State University of New York, Stony Brook C=US Baylor College of Medicine C=US University of Baltimore C=US University of California at Davis C=US University of Chicago C=US University of California at San Diego C=US University of California at San Diego, Division of Social Sciences C=US University of California at San Francisco, School of Pharmacy C=US University of Houston C=US University of Massachusetts at Amherst C=US University of Maryland C=US University of Minnesota C=US University of Nebraska at Lincoln C=US University of Pennsylvania C=US University of Texas at Austin C=US na-net (linear algebra on computers) C=US University of Virginia C=US Wake Forest University C=US University of Wisconsin C=US Worcester Polytechnic Institute C=US Washington University C=US U.S. Department of Energy Headquarters C=US U.S. Department of Energy C=US Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory C=US NASA Ames Research Center C=US NASA Goddard Space Flight Center C=US NASA Headquarters C=US NASA Software Independent Verification & Validation Facility C=US NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory C=US NASA Johnson Space Center C=US NASA Langley Research Center C=US NASA Langley Research Center C=US NASA Marshall Space Flight Center C=US NASA Stennis Space Center C=US NASA White Sands Test Facility C=US National Aeronautics and Space Administration C=US National Energy Research Supercomputer Center C=US Center for Email Technology C=US Sandia National Laboratories C=US DoD Network Information Center C=US Naval Research Laboratory C=US 6bone Registry C=US Network Abuse Clearinghouse C=US Austrian Academic Computer Network C=AT Asia Pacific Network Information Center C=SC American Registry for Internet Numbers C=US The .AU Registry C=AU All West Communications C=US CARYNET & HK eDNS Whois server C=HK CORE Internet Council of Registrars C=CH Network Solutions, Inc. for Shared Registration System C=US Cable & Wireless USA C=US Energy Sciences Network C=US Chunghwa Telecom C=TW Network Solutions, Inc. (non-MILNET/non-POC) C=US Network Solutions, Inc. C=US JANET C=GB Korea Network Information Center C=KR Latin America & Caribbean Whois Server C=EC RFC 2345 TLD-WHOIS demonstration server C=US nameIT C=US NetNames (.AF, .BT, .PW, .TM) C=GB NomiNation (.GB.COM, .GB.NET, .UK.COM, .UK.NET) C=GB Network Solutions, Inc. C=US OLEANE SA C=FR Open Shared Registration System C=US Pacific Communications Development Corp. C=TW The Routing Arbiter Project C=US Reseaux IP Europeens C=NL Russian Institute for Public Networks C=RU Thailand Network Information Center C=TH Taiwan Network Information Center C=TW Domain Host Services C=AU Morris Automated Information Network C=US C=AC AM Network Information Centre C=AM ASNIC C=AS Technische Universitat Wien C=AT Research Institute for Symbolic Computation, University of Linz C=AT Wirtschaftsuniversitaet Wien C=AT Australian Academic and Research Network C=AU Pty Ltd C=AU University of Adelaide C=AU Monash University C=AU University of Western Australia C=AU University College, Australian Defense Force Academy C=AU Katholieke Universiteit Leuven C=BE Belgian National Research Network C=BE C=BR Camosun College, Victoria, B.C. C=CA Bell Canada Internet Transit Service C=CA CDNnet C=CA Queen's University, Kingston, Canada C=CA Nova Scotia Agricultural College C=CA University of New Brunswick C=CA University of Ottawa C=CA University of Saskatchewan, Engineering C=CA University of Saskatchewan C=CA University of Victoria, Physics & Astronomy C=CA University of Western Ontario C=CA NIC.CC Registration Services C=CC SWITCH Swiss Academic and Research Network C=CH Cook Islands Network Information Centre C=CK U. de Chile (NIC Chile) C=CL Computer Network Center, Chinese Academy of Sciences C=CN University of Costa Rica Computer Center C=CR Charles University, Prague C=CZ Charles University, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics C=CZ Faculty of Civil Engineering, Technical University of Brno C=CZ Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Technical University of Brno C=CZ Faculty of Elec. Eng. and Computer Sci., Technical Univ. of Brno C=CZ Technical University of Brno C=CZ Fachhochschule Koeln C=DE Forschungszentrum Informatik C=DE HTW Zittau/Goerlitz Elektrotechnik/Informatik C=DE DEutsches Network Information Center C=DE Darmstadt University of Technology C=DE Technische Universitaet Chemnitz C=DE Universitaet Regensburg C=DE Danish Computing Centre for Research and Education C=DK University of Tartu C=EE EUnet, Goya, Spain C=ES Tech. Univ. Madrid, Telecommunications Highschool C=ES Helsinki University of Technology C=FI Oulu University C=FI Technical Research Centre of Finland C=FI Association Francaise pour le Nommage Internet en Cooperation C=FR NordNet C=FR University of Sciences and Technologies of Lille - France C=FR HKNIC C=HK HM Domain Registry C=HM Indian Institute of Science C=IN National Centre for Software Technology C=IN Association of Research Networks in Iceland C=IS Internet a Islandi C=IS Nigerian TLD Registration Service C=NG GARR-NIS c/o CNR-CNUCE C=IT Italian Network Information Center C=IT Network Information Center - Mexico C=MX Nara Institute of Science and Technology C=JP Chiba University C=JP Hiroshima University C=JP Science and Technology Computing Center, Keio University C=JP Keio University C=JP University of Electro-Communications C=JP Yamanashi University C=JP Japan Network Information Center C=JP Osaka Regional Information and Open Network Systems C=JP Kyrgyzstan TLD C=KZ Korea Advanced Institute of Science & Technology C=KR Korea Network Information Center C=KR Kazahstan Domain Name Registry C=KZ SWITCH Swiss Academic and Research Network C=LI Sri Lanka Domain Registry C=LK RESTENA C=LU MM-NIC C=MM NIC-Mexico C=MX Univ. Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, D.G. de Servicios de Computo Academico C=MX Stichting Internet Domeinregistratie Nederland C=NL UNINETT FAS (NORID) C=NO .NU Domain Ltd C=NU University of Canterbury C=NZ Victoria University, Wellington C=NZ Waikato University C=NZ PATHOGEN C=NZ Domainz -- The New Zealand Internet Registry Ltd C=NZ Red Cientifica Peruana C=PE Interdyscyplinarne Centrum Modelowania Matematycznego i Komputero C=PL Faculty of Electronic Engineering, Warsaw University of Technology C=PL Institute of Automatic Control, Warsaw University of Technology C=PL Fundacao para a Computacao Cientifica Nacional C=PT Fundacao para a Computacao Cientifica Nacional C=PT Chalmers University of Technology C=SE Royal Institute of Technology C=SE Network Information Centre Sweden C=SE Swedish Institute of Computer Science C=SE Singapore Network Information Centre C=SG NIC.SH Domain Registry C=SH SANET (WAN of Slovak academic institutions) C=SK Domain Council of Sao Tome and Principe C=ST AdamsNames (.GS, .MS, .TC, .TF, .VG) C=TC TJ-NIC C=TJ Tonic Domain Name Registry C=TO Middle East Technical University C=TR Seednet C=TW Institution for Information Industry C=TW Imperial College C=GB Loughborough University C=GB Nominet UK (.UK Domain Registrar) C=GB Sheffield Hallam University C=GB Department of Administrative Services, State of Connecticut C=US Corporation for National Research Initiatives, Knowbot interface C=US National Research Foundation C=ZA University of Natal (Durban) C=ZA Foundation for Research Development C=ZA


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