SURNAMES OF MUDIRAJA / MUTHURAJA COMMUNITY IN SOUTH INDIA


01. SURNAMES LIST - TELUGU MUDIRAJA <-- Click here for more details
02. SURNAMES ANALYSYS - TELUGU MUDIRAJ <-- Click here for more details
03. SURNAMES LIST - TAMIL MUTHURAJA <-- Click here for more details
04. SURNAMES ANALYSIS - TAMIL MUTHURAJ <-- Click here for more details
99. HOME PAGE <-- Click here to go near HomePage button



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01. LIST OF TELUGU MUDIRAJ SURNAMES - ANDHRA PRADESH :

The following are some of the surnames of Telugu Mudiraj people with (gotram) within brackets- These names are collected through internet search and personal inquiry made by Mr. Kokolu Anka Rao, the webmaster of this website.

Surnames with Star (*) indicate that the surname is analysed to find its origins and people of the surnames. For the details of analysis, readers may refer to item-04 on surname analysis in this page itself.

The contribution made by Mrs. Vijaya Laxmi Manne from Australia in enhancing the list of Telugu Mudiraj surnames by collecting them from Bharatmatimony is gratefully acknowledged.


Aadhi
Adapa * Adapa
Addakula * Addakula
Adi ( Pandava )
Adoni ( Pitlavari)* Adoni
Aerwala (Aerwala)
Ajmira * Ajmira
Akkera ( Valmiki )
Akula (palakaya)
Akula (Pasinati)
Akulla
Akyam
Aligundla
Alla ( Pasupunola )
allada ( guntagola )
Allagari
Alugu * Alugu
Alwal
Ambati (Palakaya)
Anantha (Pandavula)
Anaparthi
Andhe
Andol
Andugulu (Pandava )
Angam
Ankarla
Ankini
Ankolla
Annaveni ( Palakaya )
Anneboina
Anour
Anpur
Aratikayala
Aravelli
Arige ( Pandava)
Arjja
Arukala
Arutla (Arutala)
Athiracha
Athirecha ( Pasupunundla )
Athirajula
Athukuri
Atigadda
Atkuri
Atmakuri
Atthina
Atthuru
Atturu
Avula
Bachala
Bachali
Bachhu
Bachu
Baddigam * Baddigam
Bairi * Bairi
Bakki
Balaram
Ballari
Ballem ( Shiva )
Ballepu (Sunkula)
Bally
Balu ( shankupala )
Banala
Bandari ( pandavula )* Bandari
Bandaru (Kasapusha )
Bandi (Pandavula)
Bandi ( Palakaya )
Bandikanti
Bannaala
Bapana
Barala
Barige
Barla ( Atreya )
Basavaboyina
Basaveni
Basaboina ( Shiva)
Basundi
Bathini
Bathula
Battala
battapalli ( pagidipala )
Batthala (Vasantha )
Batti
Battina
Battula
Bavupeta
Bayya
Belgum
Bejjarapu (Palakaya)
Bethi ( Recharla )
Bhairmoni
Bhanu ( Shiva )
Bhavani ( Gatta)
Bhimari (Pandavula)
Bhimera
Bhoomi (Inkula )
Biramoni
Bobbili (GauthamaRishi)
Bobbilla
Boddu
Bodi
Bodigiri
Bohini ( Bharatwaja )
Boina
Boine
Boini ( Palakaya )
Boiene
Bojja ( Pasupunela )
Bojja ( Pandavula )
Bolla
Bollam ( vikshvakula )
Bolli
Bollywar
Bommakanti
Bommana
Bommeravana
Bonam * Bonam
Boosa
Boosi
Boyina
Boyini
Brungi
Bugga
Bukka ( Allaboilu )
Bukya
Bulleddhula
Bussihari
Butta
Byramani
Byyenidi
Casula
Chada ( Pandava )
Chankravarty (Jagannadha )
Chanda
Chandagari
Chandra (jamadagni )
Chapala (Pamidipala)
Chapala ( Palavalli )
Chappidi
Cheerala
Chekkala
Chelimella
Chenabatni
Chenagala
Chenna
Chennabathini
Chennabatni
Chennaboina ( Akshantala )
Chennaboyana
Chennarapu ( Kancherla )
Chennarapu ( Kancheral )
Chennavarapu
Chepuri
Chevuru
Chiguru
Chikkala
Chikoti
Chilla ( Palakaya )
Chilukapally
Channaboina
Chinta (Shiva )
Chintala ( Pasupula )
Chintala ( Pandavula )
Chintamadaka Pendyala
Chinthala
Chirumani ( Chirumani )
Chitrala
Chittaboyina
Chitteti
Chittimaneni
Chitty
Chodiboina
Chokkala
Choppara
Choppari ( koundenya )
Choppavarapu
Chowti *
Cinasi
Damera
Danagiri ( sabari )
Dandu
Danineni (Manga )
Darji (Woluri)
Das ( Mekala )
Dasam ( Atreya)
Dasam ( Pamidipalla )
Dasari (Pandavula)
Deekshitulu
Deepan
Dega (Dega)
Devarakonda
Deyyala
Dharma ( Jinna )
Diddi
Domakonda
Donthala
Donthula
Dontulwar
Dooba
Doppa
Dorepalli
Dronadula *
Dubba
Dudyala
Dugyala ( pagadashila )
Duggyala ( Pagadashila )
Dumpala
Dundigalla
Durumutla
Durumutula
Dutta
Dyanam
Eaga
Earla
Edunooru
Eerapalli
Elugu * Elugu
Eluru
Eraboina
Eravena ( Palakaya )
Erraboina
Erramsetty
Etta
Gaddam ( Kashyapa )
Gaddameedi
Gadeela
Gadiganti
Ganapavarapu
Ganapurama ( Kausika )
Gandhsiri
Gandi
Gandla
Gandlapalli
Gangapuram ( Bharatwaja )
Gangi *
Gangireddy
Ganjanaboyina ( Gandharva )
Ganji * Ganji
Ganjiboina
Ganjinaboina
Ganjipally
Ganna
Ganta
Garala ( Shiva )
Gary
Geedula
Geesa
Gella
Gengiti
Ginka
Gitta (Pasupuleti )
Godamedi
Godavari
Goddani
Godugu
Goga
Gokam
Gokana (Pamidipalla)
Golkonda
Gollapalli
Gonda ( Palakaya )
Gonela
Gonepalli
Gontela
Gopanaboina
Gopanpalli
Gorrenka
Gotikhe
Gottimukkula
Gouni ( Marjalaboina )
Gudala (Vishnuvardhana)
Guddimala ( Pandavula )
Gujjala
Gujjeti
Gujjula
Gujjuru (Vajralu)
Gulla ( Gulla )
Gummadla
Gummidi
Gundae
Gundamgari
Gundla
Gundra
Gundraju
Gunti
Gurrala
Gurram
Gurukula
Guvva
Hanu ( Sampangi )
Ilaveni
Inakula
Indanuri
Indla ( Achuta )
Irkam
Jakkula
Jala
Jalla
Jana
Jangala
Jangali (Pandavula )
Jangam
Javaji ( pandava )
javangula
Jeedi
Jinkala
Jitta
Jula
Kadimella
Kadiri
Kadu *
Kaithalapuram
kakasani
Kaka
Kaki
Kalashi
Kalaveena
Kalavena (palakaya)
Kali (Kashyapa) Kali
Kali (Kurma) Kali
Kalimili ( kanakkaya )
Kalivilla
Kalla
Kalyanam
Kanakam
Kande
Kandla
Kandula
Kangala
Kanna
Kanthapu
Kanthi (Shabari)
Kantiri
Kanukunta (Suka )
Kanukuntla (Palakaya)
Kapi
Karam
Karanam ( Bogolla )
Karani
Karanveni
Kare (Pandava)
Karingula
Karla
Karna
Karre ( Shiva )
Karunala
Kasaboina
Kasani
Kasha
kasham
Katamoni ( kammalla )
Katta
Kattela
Kattu
Katikala (visnu )
Kaukuntala
Kaveli
Kaveti ( Andugula )
Kayitha
Kesari ( Kesari )
Keshava ( Shiva )
Kodemala *
kodhandarama (sripala )
Kodimela *
Koduri
Koduru (Kanakabala)
Kokolu * (palavelli) Kokolu
Kola *
Kolakaleti
Kolapur
Koli ( Keshap ) *
Kolimarla
Kolipaka * Kolipaka
Kolipara
Kolluru
Koltham
Kolumula
Komati
Komma
Kommanaboina
Kommu
Kompelli ( Shiva )
Konam
Konda
Kondaboina
kondapally
Koneti
Konga *
Kongara ( Kunchilala )
Kongitala
Kongithala
Konkala ( Gujjeti )
Kontham
Koppera
Korata
Korimi
Korvi
Kotakonda
Kotamala
Kothapalli (Bharadwaj )
Kotha
Kotla
Kranthi
Kudikilla
Kukunoor (Meenaga )
Kummaripally
Kunda
Kundela (Koyyala )
Kunta
Kura
Kurnamoni
Lakka (Palakaya )
Lalanolla
Lella
Lethavadla
Lingala ( Surya )
Lingala ( yetegiri )
Lingala ( yategiri )
Lingampally
Lingamsetty
Linganaboina
Lingoti
Loksetty
Machamoni ( Pandavula )
Machcha *
Machchaa *
Machukuri
Madaboina
Madakam
Madanaboina
Madathala
Maddham
Maddhi
Maddhu
Maddi
Maddula
Maddur
Madupu
Maggidi
Makanaboina
Makani ( Palavalli )
Makthala
Malkud ( Valmiki )
Malkudkar (Valmiki )
Malla
Mallam
Mallapu
Mallapur
Mallaram
Mallem
Mamalla
Mamella
Mamidi ( pasupunila )
Mamidi ( Palakaya )
Mamilla (Mamilla)
Mamindla
Manamalla
Manapati (vadisala)
Manda
Mandana
Mandula
Manik (Pallakula )
Manimela
Manivelu
Manne (markandeya )
Manne (Kashyapa)* Manne
Mannem * Mannem
Mannemala * Mannemala
Manney
Manthree
Marikanti
Markanti
Marmam
Marreboina
Marri
Maruku
Marupaka
Mathale (Kasi )
Matkam
Matooru
Maturi ( Pandavula )
Medaboina
Medaveni
Medduri
Meesaala
Meka
Mekala * Mekala
meninla ( vishnu )
Merugu ( Pasupunula )
Metla
Mettu
Midde
Mididoddi (Kausikasa )
Midiyam
Milkidkar (Valmiki )
Mittapalley
Mogarala ( Palavalli )
Mogulothu
Molagara
Mooraboina
Mora (Morala)
Mothakani
Mothe
Moutam
Muccherla
Mucchu
Mudiraj ( Pagedepala )
Mukunda
Mummidi *
Munipally
Musku
Muthyala
Muttiraju
Mutyala
Nadigepu
Nadipi
Nagasani
Nagankeri
Naidu
Naidu ( Pagadalapala )
Nakka (Sreepala )
Nakkanaboina
Nallakatta
Namundia
Namundla
Nandakuduti
Nandhieshwara
Nandikula
Nandimalla (Bondalla )
Narasam
Narendra ( Paidipallai )
Narla
Narmet
Narra
Narregugem
Naruboina ( Sripala )
Natti
Navada *
Nawada *
Nayakwadi * Nayakwadi
Neelam ( Pandavula )
Neeradu
Neerati
Neetha ( vishnu )
Nelly
Nelluri ( pippalla )
Nelluri ( peppalla )
Nethala
Niella
Nimmala
Nirudi
Nirudu
Nulaka
Nuthula
Ongala
Opittu
oruganti *
Osuru
Padiga *
Paka
Palla
Palle
Palliboina
Palnati
Pamala
Pamballa
Pandena
Panditi (Pasupulati )
Pandla
Pandu ( Mutyala )
Panduga
Panduga (Pandavula )
Pandugala ( theegala )
Pandula
Panja (Shiva)
Panja ( Kashichitrala )
Panthulu
Panuganti ( Maraganti )
Parishe
Parasa ( Paidipalli )
Parsha
Pasla
Pasula
Pasupuleti (Pandava )
Pasupulati (Recharla )
Patel ( Mekala )
Pathi
Pathuri
Patlola
Patnam
Pattem ( Thotakura )
Payam
Peddaboina
Peddagoni
Peddakonda
Peddamul
Pendlimarri (Kasi )
Penna
Peraboina
Peruboina
Perupally
Perumalla ( Paidipalla )
Perumanlla
Pesarla
Pesaru
Pettala
Pilli
Pillimittla
Pitla ( Yayathi )
Pitta
Pittala ( Pasupunilla )
Pitti
Pittu
Podili
Pokala
Polimani
Pollu
Pondugala
Ponnaboina (pandavula )
Ponnaboina ( Pasunagattla )
Ponneboina
Poola
Porla
Potala
Potanaboina
Pothanaboina ( vellanki )
Pothireddy ( Pothireddy )
Pothuraju
Pottiboyina
Prabhu ( Peddapuli )
Pralaya Kaveri (Palavelli)
Priya ( Palavalli )
Pula
Puli
Puliboina
Puliventla
Pulla
Pulusu
Putala
Putta ( Ramanuja )
Putta ( Chamakoora )
Putti ( Vandavala )
Rachapalli
Rachuri
Ragam
Raghu ( Deshamanya )
Ragula
Rai
Raj ( Markendeya )
Raj ( Paidipalla )
Raj ( Madhikhaya ) Rajaboina
Rajavainulu
Raju ( Geedipala )
Ramanboiena
Raavi ( Tummedala )
Ravi
Ravula ( Palakaya )
Rayini ( Pandava )
Regula
Repalle
Repaka ( Pandavula )
Rolla
Royini(Pandava)
Royyala ( Miriala )
Ryakala
Sadala
Sadhu ( Pandavula )
Sadula
Sala ( Valmiki )
Salla
Salluri
Samakura ( Pandavula )
Samala
Samineni
Sampangula ( Bharadwaj )
Samudrala
Sanda
Sangam
Sangani
Sangem (Pagidipala)
Sara (Valmiki)
Sarakonda
Sarla
Sathamedu (Dhavanam )
Savalam
Seelam ( Palakaya )
Seetarampalli
Settinaboina (Munagalla )
Setty
Shaganti (Vishnu)
Shamakura
Shatham
Shilam
Shivamani (Kota )
Shivarama ( Karna )
Shravanapeta ( Markandeya )
Sidda
Siddam
Siddamsetty
Sigurupati
Singanamala * (aryakatta)
Singari
Sitaram (Pasupula )
Sivasari / Sivasaari
Soma
Soppari
Sreelam (Paidepala)
Sreenudantala
Sukka
Sukra
Sukradveya
Sunkari
Sunkireddy
Sunnam
Sunnap
Suraram
Surya (Nadhella )
Talari ( Nakkeerthalla )
Talari ( Talari ) * Talari
Tekula (Tekula)
Telangu ( Peterlallu )
Telu
Tanagala
Tandaboina
Tanduri ( Devarla)
Tenugu
Teppa
Thangella (Palakaya )
Thati (Akshinthalu)
Thatikonda
Thege
Thigulla
Thikkala
Thokala
Thota
Thouti
Thripuram
Thudukurty
Thummala
Thyagarajula ( Chamanti )
Tipperaboina
Tiremandyam (Vajrala )
Tumu
Tunganati
Tunikala ( Palavelli )
Tupakula ( Balaram )
Uduvala
Uka
Uke
Vakiti
Valapanaboina
Valiboyina
Vallabhaneni
Vallaboina
Vallepalli
Varla
Varma
Vattipalli
Veegala ( Shivalla )
Vellore
Velugu
Veluru
Vemareddy (Pagadala)
Vemgala
Vemula
Vengala ( Achyutha )
Vengala ( Palakaya )
vengala ( shivalla )
Vetturi
Vuppari
Vuri
Yada
Yalampati
Yama
Yamareddy
Yata
Yedla
Yemsetty
Yennaboina
yerla ( Yerla )
Yerrabhaneni (paidipalla)
Yerraboina (Pamidipalla)
Yerramenti (Nelaveni )
Yerriboina
Yeshamoni ( Yeshamoni )



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02. ANALYSYS OF TELUGU MUDIRAJ SURNAMES

Some of the surnames of Telugu Mudirajas indicate their deep rooted Koya/ Vanara culture of identifying people by their totem names. It is believed that Janbavan / Jambavanth was not a bear (animal) but a Tribal Dravidian warrior who belonged to people having Totem - BEAR. There are also surnames that indicate roya lineage of mudiraj people.


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KALI:
Kali is one of the surnames of Telugu Mudiraj. This Kali could have originated from Kalabhras who were also termed by brahmins as Kali Arasar which means evil kings.

There follows a period of twilight, when it would appear that the Colas, Ceras and the Pandyas were all defeated and their territories overrun by some tribe or tribes, alien to the Tamils, who called them in detestation 'Kali arasar' or 'evil kings', and that it was on the ruins of the kingdom of these tribes of 'Kalabhras' that the Pandyas revived their power in the south and the Pallavas established their kingdom to the north of the Kaveri towards the close of the 6th century A.D.

Senthalai inscriptions talk of a Kali in Nemam - worshipped by Mutharayas. The Velvikkuti plates provide us with direct allusions to the period of the Kalabhras as equal to that of the Kali. The Kalis of South India mostly represent the Mutharayars who are the descendants of Kalabhras.

Kalis and Kalabhras
Kalabhras by invading the Tamil country disturbed the prevailing order. The Velvikudi inscriptions of the third regnal year of Pandya king Nedunjadaiyan (c.765 - c. 815 C.E.) say that Pandya king Mudukudumi Peruvaludi gave the village of Velvikudi as brahmadeya (gift to a Brahmins). It was enjoyed for long. Then a Kali king named Kalabhran took possession of the extensive earth, driving away numberless great kings.

Kali King = King of Black race

The Kalabras were Hindu. "The most remarkable thing about the coins is the popularisation by the Kalabras of the cults of the Hindu pantheon like that of Subramanya and Vinayaka. The Kalabras appear to have been Vaishnava. Scholar F.E. Hardy traced the palace ceremony to a Vishnu or Mayon temple to the rule of the Kalabras. Scholar Alice Justina Thinakaran writes that perhaps they were Saiva, Jain or Buddhist.

In the Brahmanical literature, the Kalabhras are "roundly as evil kings (kali-arasar) who uprooted many and abrogated brahmadeya rights". However, the modern researches have shown that the Kalabhras were neither nor enemies of civilization but were a very civilized people and in fact their reign saw the creation of excellent Tamil mixture. The primary reason as to why they were ignored or by the brahmins was because they were Buddhists.

Kali = Black
Arasar = King
Kali Arasar = Black king = Evil king

Two of the cave temples near Madurai, one at Anaimalai and another at Thirupparankunam, were excavated in his reign. In both the temples the Kali ( Kalabhra) era is mentioned. In the Thirupparnkunram record both the Kali and his regnal years are mentioned helping us in precisely ascertaining the date of his crowning. He came to the throne in 768 A.D. The Anamali cave was excavated around 770 and the Thirupparankunram in 773 A.D. Nedunjadaiyan's records under the title Maran jadaiyan or Varaguna are found in a number of places and are helpful in understanding the numismatic history of the country.

Kales and Kalabhras
Kale in marathi means 'black'. The Kalavars and Kalabhras, the names of clans and families quite in resemblance to Kalewar, Kalawad or Kalawade and Kalbhor, Bhor, Kalmegh and even Kale in Maharashtra are not without their historical roots. The Kalabhras mentioned by the author belonged to Chola country and are the Buddhist, but later on converted to brahminism.

Kalis are black people of dravidian origin
Kale which literally means 'blacks', is a title used by some Rommany groups and also the Gitanos of Spain and Portugal. The Kale who are predominantly in Spain are the group responsible for giving the world flamenco. Some of the world's greatest guitarists are of Kalo decent.

It has previously been argued that the Kale split from the main bulk of Roms and travelled via North Africa, yet to me it seems more feasible that they broke away from the other Rommany people whilst travelling through Europe. The only Rommany people that are present in North Africa today seem to have come via Europe and at a much later date.

Many of the Kale in Spain are Catholic and have their own Saint known as 'Sara-e-Kali' (Black Sara). It has often been noted that Sara-e-Kali is identified with the Indian goddess Kali. It has been said that the ceremonies performed in France at the shrine of Sainte Sara can be compared with those to Kali in India. Statues of the Indian goddess Durga, also named Kali, are immersed into water. Durga, the consort of Shiva, usually represented with a black face, is the goddess of creation, sickness and death. In France 24th May is the official day of her pilgrimage to the country. On this day her statue is carried down to the sea as a reenact of her arrival.

Kalo / Kali / Kale – Black (male / female / Plural). Like Punjabi -Kala / Kali / Kale, Spanish Romma call themselves 'Kala'.

Goddess Kali
Kalabhras were the worshippers of mother Goddess. The Matsyapurana states Kali was first a tribal Goddess of the high mountain region of Mount Kalanjara, which is in north-central India and east of the Indus Valley. It is widely believed that she represents a survival of a Dravidian goddess, which makes her the great creatrix of the ancient Indian pantheon. Her dark skin evidences the fact that she predated the lighter-skinned Aryan invasion of the darker-skinned inhabitants of the Indian sub-continent. This conflict became the subject of many myths handed down about Kali's fierce passion in defending her people against the invaders. Kali's fierceness is due both to her ties to the pre-Aryan Great Mother Goddess, as well as her place at Shiva's side as his consort, which gives her the power of the Shakti, or female energy.

The Aryan introduced patriarchal gods in India, but various matriarchal tribes, such as the Shabara of Orissa , continues worshipping Kali. She was probably an aboriginal deity of vegetation and agriculture; but evidence that animal and human sacrifices were offered to her suggests that Kali lately became a fertility deity. Animal sacrifices are still made to her in temples such as the one at Kalighat, Calcutta, where a goat is immolated in her honor every day. On her feast, held yearly in fall, goats and buffalos are sacrificed to Kali. Although human sacrifices have been banned, there are occasional reports of alleged sacrifices to authorities from remote areas.

Webmaster
Kokolu Ankarao
Date : 26/08/2008
Nagpur, Maharastra, India


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TALARI:
Talari is one of the surnames Telugu Mudiraja. Talari surname is also in existence among balija kapus. Tala means head and Talari means village headman. Talwar was the name of one doing work of village watchman or revenue work.

In Telugu and Kannada the word Talari or Talavara clearly meant a village head-man, and even now such post exists in the village panchayats.

Talari. The Village Scout.
The Talari is the Scout of the village as per Karnataka Revenue manual. He traces the robbers and thieves, watches the movement of suspicious strangers and is, in fact, the Police Peon of the Magistrate Potel. He is remunerated by rent free or `Jodi' lands. In villages where there are no talaris, these duties are performed by the Thotis.

Talari, Watchman of the village.
The Talari was the Police Officer or kotwal of the inferior villages as per Karnataka revenue manual. Besides the nijayam and ardhayam, and the manyams allowed for their maintenance to encourage them to due performance of their duties, the ryots privately brided them with ragi, vegetables and conks(?) ion the harvest time, to contiliate their favour an protect themselves from certain inconveniences, such as being forcibly delivered over to travellers to carry burdens to the next state, & c. The appropriate duty of the Talari also was to watch over the safety of the village, and to be ready to provide forage and convinces for those employed by the Sarkar. He was responsible for all things stolen within the enclosure of his village; what-ever was lost or stolen on the highways, or without the precincts of the town, was to be recovered or accounted for by the Kavalgars.

In Chitradurg only boyars / valmikis were appointed as Talaris
People of all castes were employed in this station, except in the chitaldroog country, where only the Boyis or Bedars acted in this capacity.

Talari is a boyar caste title
Talwar-Boya / Talari Boya / Taliari Boya are some of the boyar caste titles in use. Talari is also a surname among Boyar / Valmiki Nayakas who are a subsect of Mudiraja community of South India. Goddess Ankalamma or Ankamma is a popular diety of Cholas, Mudiraj, Erukalas, Valmiki Nayakas, etc.

Talaris worship Goddess Ankalamma
SOUTH INDIAN INSCRIPTIONS-VOLUME XVI - TELUGU INSCRIPTIONS OF THE VIJAYANAGARA DYNASTY - No. 99. - (A. R. No. 744 of 1922.) - Paspinayakanahalli, Hospet Taluk, Bellary District. - On a pillar in the mandapa of the Ankalamma temple. - Achyuta, 1532 A.D. - This is dated Saka 1454, Nandana, Sravana ba. 30, Thursday, corresponding to 1532 A.D., August 1, '14.Seems to refer to a sale deed pertaining to a land at Nidugula alias Apinayakanapuram, a sarvamanya-agrahara for the amritapadi services of the goddess Arugondala Ankalamma by the sons of Talari Timmi-nayaka.

Role of Talaris in Bonalu festival in Hyderabad
The Talari (a traditional post of the village administration, retained even today in some Telangana villages) goes around the village along with a dandora (flat disk-type drum) performer. The drum-sound is the invitation to bring the Bonams (the set of two or three pots each filled with cooked rice offerings).

Kammas were also appointed as Talaris
After the decline of major kingdoms, Kammas controlled large fertile areas in Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu, as a legacy of their martial past. The British recognized their prominence and made them village heads(Talari) also known as Chowdary to collect taxes.

"Talavara" is a Telugu word in "mahatalavara". "Talari" or "talavara" means "gramadhikari" (head of the village or town). In Tamil, "talaivar" means "pedda adhipati" (big boss). This Telugu word was combined with a Sanskrit word "maha'". In Telugu and Kannada the word Talari or Talavara clearly meant a village head-man, and even now such post exists in the village panchayats. Mahatalavara is an equivalent to Mutharacha or Mudiraja.

Thala = Tala = Head
Maha = Mudi = Great
Talari = Talavara = headman = chief = Racha = Raja
Mahatalavara = Mudiraja

Boya, Nayak, Naidu, Boya Talwar, Talari in Telugu country are Warriors / Hunters. Boya, Boyan, Boyar, Boya Naidu, Nayakar, Nayaka, Boya Palegar, Palaiyakkarar, Palegara, Talwar-Boya, Talari Boya, Taliari Boya are various boyar caste titles, which are in use. Boya Palaiyakkarar (Polygar) - who was to administrate their Palaiyams (territories) from their fortified centers. Their chief function was to collect taxes, maintain law and order, run the local judiciary, and maintain a battalion of troops for the Kingdom.

Bhoyar / Bhoir - having titles such as 'Mahajan' and 'Patel' is a cultivating caste residing principally in the Betul and Chhindwara Districts of central India. The Bhoyar population are not found outside Central Provinces. They claim to be the descendants of a band of 'Panwar Rajputs', who were defending the town of Dharanagri or Dhar in Central India when it was besieged by Aurangzeb. Their post was on the western part of the wall, but they gave way and fled into the town as the sun was rising, and it shone on their faces. Hence they were called Bhoyar from a word "bhor" meaning morning, because they were seen running away in the morning. They were put out of caste by the other Rajputs, and fled to the Central Provinces. The name may also be a variant of that of the 'Bhagore Rajputs'. And another derivation is from "bhora", a simple or timid person. Their claim to be immigrants from Central India is borne out by the fact that they still speak a corrupt form of the Malwi dialect of Rajputana, which is called after them 'Bhoyari', and their Bhats or genealogists come from Malwa. But they have now entirely lost their position as Rajputs.

The Chitradurga Paleyagar family was of the Beda or Boya caste and belonged to one of the hill tribes family who subsisted by hunting and tending cattle. The Chitradurga Fort, defined by walls of huge granite blocks, rises above the town. A series of three gates leads into the irregular inner zone, strewn with striking granite boulders. There are several small temples here, as well as a number of ceremonial gateways erected by the Bedas. The platforms and pavilions within the compound of the Sampige Siddheshvara Temple mark the spot where the Bedas were crowned. The remains of rubble and mudbuilt granaries and residences, and a large circular well can be seen nearby.

The Bedas are the Bedars and the Bedars are Vedars. While Vedars are a subcaste of Tamil Muthuraja community, the same people who are known as Valmikis are a subcaste of Telugu Mudiraj community today.

Vetans = Vedars = the people of Kannappa Kula.
Beda = Bedar = Vedar = Valmiki = Nayaka

It is well known fact that the Mudiraj people worship Goddess Ankamma. There is one Ankali mutt near Chitradurga. Nestling amongst a group of rugged hills, west of Chitradurga, this mutt is known for its subterranean chambers. Near the Panchalinga cave (Wonder cave) entrance, is an inscription dated 1286 A.D. executed in the reign of the Hoysala King Narasimha III. This stronly proves that these Valmiki Nayakas and Mudiraj are one and the same. This region of Tirupati and Srikalahasti is known to be the home land of Kalabhras ( the ancestors of Muthurajas ) who inveded Chola, Chera, and Pandya kingdoms. These valmikis could be the descendants of kalabhras who are in turn are known as branch of Kalachuris of Central India.

In Karnataka, the Valmiki community is also called as Nayaka, ,Beda,Talavara. All these sections belong to VALMIKI community only. The Valmiki people in Karnataka are in ST category. From history of Karnataka, it can be seen that the Valmiki people were rulers of some places such as Chitradurga, Surpur, Keladi, etc. Chitradurga Nayaka kingdom and Keladi Nayaka kingdom were well known in Deccan India.

The Valmiki community is also called as NAYAKA in Karnataka. There are two sub-castes of Nayaka :

1). Ura Nayaka : The valmiki people living in cities are called as Ura Nayaka in Chitradurg dist.
2). Myasa Nayaka : The valmiki people living in villages and forests are called as Myasa Nayaka.
The term Nayaka means leader. The Nayaka community has three sub-castes namely Valmiki, Beda and Talavara. Valmiki claim direct descent from Valmiki, the author of Ramayana. Bedas practice hunting. Talavars function as messengers as well as village watchmen.NAIKADA, NAYAKA Popularly known as Palegar, Beda, Valmiki, Ramoshi Parivara etc., they are concentrated in the Chitradurga, Shimoga, Bellary and Tumkur.

Ganga were Muttarasas. Some of them used Talavara & Nayaka titles. Savanadurga and Magadi were ruled by the representative (Viceroy) of the Penukonda kings. The last viceroy was Samji Raya, who died without any successor. After his death, Talavara Ganga Nayaka of Gudemaranahalli took over the forts of Savanadurga and Magadi. At the request of the Penukonda Emperor, Kempe Gowda II conquered Savanadurga and Magadi and added them to the territories of Bengalooru. Ganga Naik / Gangawaru - was the title given for Nayaks of Ganga Dynasty.

In Andhra region, it is observed that Talavar or Talari used to issue coins. It was only in the Andhra region that coins came to be issued by high officials of the ruling dynasty, such as Senapathi, Talavara, Maharathi and Mahagramika, which raises an important question whether the authority to issue coins was decentralized or delegated in those times.

Talwar / Taliari / Talari - was name of Soldiers , Guards and Revenue collectors. For village policing, carrying the land revenue to treasury headquarters, the workers had to bear arms, so called 'Talwar' meaning sword.

Boya "Throughout the hills," Buchanan writes, "northward from Capaladurga, are many cultivated spots, in which, during Tippoo's government, were settled many Baydaru or hunters, who received twelve pagodas a year, and served as irregular troops whenever required. Being accustomed to pursue tigers and deer in the woods, they were excellent marksmen with their match-locks, and indefatigable in following their prey; which, in the time of war, was the life and property of every helpless creature that came in their way. During the wars of Hyder and his son, these men were chief instruments in the terrible depredations committed in the lower Carnatic. They were also frequently employed with success against the Poligars (feudal chiefs), whose followers were of a similar description.

In the Madras Census Report, 1901, it is stated that the two main divisions of Boyas are called also Pedda (big) and Chainna (small) respectively, and, according to another account, the caste has four endogamous sections, Pedda, Chinna, and Myasa. Sadaru is the name of a subdivision of Lingayats, found mainly in the Bellary and Anantapur districts, where they are largely engaged in cultivation. Some Bedars who live amidst those Lingayats call themselves Sadaru. According to the Manual of the North Arcot district, the Boyas are a "Telugu hunting caste, chiefly found above the ghats. Many of the Poligars of that part of the country used to belong to the caste, and proved themselves so lawless that they were dispossessed. Now they are usually cultivators. They have several divisions, the chief of which are the Mulki Boyas and the Pala Boyas, who cannot intermarry.
,br> " According to the Mysore Census Reports, 1891 and 1901, "the Bedas have two distinct divisions, the Kannada and Telugu, and own some twenty sub-divisions, of which the following are the chief: Halu, Machi or Myasa, Nayaka, Pallegar, Barika, Kannaiyyanajati, and Kirataka. The Machi or Myasa Bedas comprise a distinct sub-division, also called the Chunchus. They live mostly in hills, and outside inhabited places in temporary huts.

Rayadurg and Kalyandurg are the two important forts which were ruled by Boya Palegars. The name Kalyandurg came from Boya Kalyanappa, who was a Polygar in the 16th Century. Rayadurg was originally a stronghold of Boyar palegar who were very turbulent during the Vijayanagar rule. Kalyandurg was under the rule of Sri Krishnadevaraya and was a part of Vijayanagara Empire.

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Kokolu Anka Rao
Date : 08/08/08
Nagpur, Maharastra, India


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KOLIPAKA:
Kolipaka is one of the surnames of Telugu Mudiraj. Kolipaka seems to be modification of the name Kollipaka. The Mudiraj people Kolipaka seems to be the natives of this historical capital town of Western Chalukyas. The ancestors of these Mudiraj people could be either chiefs / administrative heads in Chalukya kingdom. Muttarasa kings of Western Ganga dynasty were Jains and supported Jainism. Chalukyas also supported Jainism. Mudirajas who opted for Jainism and later Buddhism discareded Hindu Sacred thread Jhenevu.

Kollipaka ( Kolanupaka ) was the second capital town of Kalyani Chalukyas during 11th century and as a religious center of Jains. Kolanupaka came into prominence when it was made the capital of the Kalyani Chalukyas. Several historic monument, temples and sculptures from 10th and 11th century exist here.

Kollipaka => Kolipaka = Kolipak
Kollipaka =>Kolanupaka => Kolanupak

Kolanupaka was the first royal city of the Western Chalukya Dynasty, which ruled Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Maharashtra and parts of Gujarat from 980 through 1190 AD. King Someshvara III was the last of the Western Chalukyan kings, but he wrote one of the greatest works in Sanskrit literature, Royal Life in Manasollasa. This work detailed the life of the king, from the wars in which he solidified his kingdom to the pleasures he took with his many wives, to the food he ate.

Kolanupaka is an enlivening fusion of history and religion. Kolanupaka has a number of temples and shrines, prominent among them being one of the oldest Jain temples, over 2000 years old with a 5-ft jade idol of Mahavira. The Sri Veeranarayana Temple and the Someswara Temple. It developed into a great centre of Shaivism and Jainism and is today considered to be a major pilgrim centre for the Jains. Sri Veeranarayana Temple, an ancient temple built around 1104 AD, is a highly revered temple located at Kolanupaka in Warangal District. Kolanupaka is called as dakshin kasi since the famous someswara alayam is housed here. It is well connected by rail and national highway. One shrine encloses Shri Veeranarayana, an incarnation of Lord. One of the brone bells of 12 century A.D found in kolanupaka bear an inscription which refers to the gift of bells to God Somesvara of Kolanupaka by a certain Kanuappa Nayaka.

Further, Kolanupaka is the place where the Nizam Revolution Fight was concentrated, and most of the people from Kolanupaka participated in the Telangana Sayudha Poratam and lost their lives during the fight to get freedom for Telangana from the Nizams.

Rajendra Chola set fire to Kollipaka fort
Rajadhiraja Chola I (1042 – 1052 C.E.), the son and successor of Rajendra Chola I, in his eagerness to restore the Chola hegemony over Vengi to its former absolute state, led an expedition into the Vengi country in 1044 – 1045 C.E. He fought a battle at Dhannada and compelled the Western Chalukyan army along with Vijayaditya VII to retreat in disorder. He then entered into the Western Chalukyan dominions and set fire to the Kollipaka fort on the frontier between the Kalyani and Vengi territories.

Kalyani chalukyas from northern karnataka expanded into telangana via medak then nalgonda. Their important towns in these areas were patancheru bhuvanagiri and kollipaka (kolanupak). Very large number of inscriptions dot the area. Most chalukyan inscriptions are in kannada, some in telugu.

Kolanupaka was olden Kollipaka
Kadireddi Miniraddi inscription Mulug dated 8th september 1065 details the appointment of a Reddi as in charge of a place in the western chalukya area of Mulug, now in Medak district Andhra Pradesh some 60 km north of today's Hyderabad.

Mulug is roughly halfway between Patancheru (pottelakere) and Kolanupaka (Kollipaka) which were important centres of the Kalyani chalukyas. The kalyani chalukyas supplanted the Rashtrakutas. The kalyani chalukyas were earlier associated as feudatories under the powerful Rashtrakutas. As this inscription illustrates, the kalyani chalukyas often appointed Raddis ( rashtrakuta soldiers) as headmen of strategic villages in their dominions.

Paricchedi kings made Kollipaka their capital
The Paricchedi Kings were ancestors of the Pusapati royal family who built Bezawada (Modern Vijayawada) off the river Krishna by 626 AD and another capital in Kollipaka establishing themselves for nine centuries there.

Kollipaka is Jain Kshetra
This remote village of Kalanupaka about 80 km north-west of Hyderabad became an important centre for Jainism and Veera Saivism in the 11th century. It was patronized by the Western Chalukyas who ruled over northern Karnataka and this adjacent Andhra region.

During this period the village was the center of the Jains as well as the Saivites. According to literary evidece, it is the birth place of 'Renukacharya', the great 'Veera Saiva' saint, believed to be born from the 'Svayambaghu Linga' at this village and absorbed into it after preaching Veera Saivam. The place lost its glory after it changed hands from Chalukyas to Cholas and later to Kakatiyas.

Kollipaka in Nalgonda district is jaina kshetra and Penugonda in Anantapur district is one of the Jaina Chaturdasa mahavidya sthnams. Jaina temple was built by Kumara Tailapa at koliipaka. The Purnaghata on the door jambs of stone, mana stambhas, carvings of Adinatha, Padmavati and the high stone torana are fine specimens. While Saivism became popular during Kaltiya kings, Vaishnavism became popular during Vijayanagara kings. Spread of these religions led to the decline of the Jaina faith. Bur Jainas have their piligrim even now.

Kolanupak is an important Jain pilgrimage site. About 75 kms away from Warangal is Kolanupak, famous for its 2000 years - old Jain Mahavir Temple. There is also a five feet jade idol of Lord Mahavira inside the temple complex. The Jain temple has been beautifully decorated, architecturally brilliant and is endowed with beautifully carved statues of Jain Tirthankaras. The state Archaeological Department runs a museum in the Someswara temple complex which exhibits objects relating to temple architecture of south India.

Jain Shrine. Situated 100 Kms from Hyderabad. A Jain Shrine which has statues of Jain Tirthankaras, all seated in yogic postures. The statue of Mahavira, in blue green jade, is especially beautiful. Located between Hyderabad and Warangal, Kolanupaka is famous for the 2000 year old Jain Mahavir Mandir, with its 1.5 meters high image of Mahavira.

Andhra Pradesh is not really known for having been a stronghold of the Jain religion. Hence it comes as a total surprise to learn that one of the oldest spots upon which a Jain temple has been present for over two thousand years is Kolanupaka, near Aler town, on the way to Warrangal city. This spot is about 80 kms from the capital city of Hyderabad and is only now emerging from obscurity. Nevertheless it remains a strange, incongruous place, a Jain temple in the middle of a predominantly Vaishnava countryside.

The Asia's famous Jain temple is at Kolanupaka. The Jain Shrine at Kolanupaka village in Nalgonda district is more than 2000 years old and is renovated very recently by employing more than 150 artisans from Rajasthan and Gujarat. This temple near Alair, three holy idols of Lord Adinath, Lord Neminath and Lord Mahaveer and 21 other "Theerthankars". The Kolanupaka temple has a great history. It is believed that the original idol of Lord Adinath, known locally as Manikya Deva has made Kolanupaka its abode. Kolanupaka Temple which is in its present form itself is more 800 years old. It is belived that Jainism was prevalent in Andhra Pradesh before 4 th Century and Kolanupaka was one of the prominent centres of Jainism.

There is one polished, granite image of Mahavira at the centre of the temple courtyard. Kolanupaka is an ancient Jain centre, being associated with the first tirthankara, Adinatha. The principal Jain shrine in the village has recently been renovated in a nagara style by artisans from Rajasthan and Gujarat.

This temple at Kolanupaka was constructed by the Kalyani Chalukya emperor Someswara III. Typical Chalukya architecture decorate the structure and the sculpture is a real splendour.

The state Archaeological Department runs a museum in the Someswara temple complex with a wide range of exhibits relating to temple architecture.. Artefacts from both the Chalukyan and Kakatiyan styles are displayed in the museum. The museum has more than 100 images collected around Kolanupaka.

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Kokolu Anka Rao
Date : 24/07/2008
Nagpur, Maharastra, India


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GANGI:
The people having surname GANGI mong Mudiraj seems be descended from professional fishermen background. They could be the people who are some times known as Gangi Makkalu. They seems to be the people descended from Western Gangas who assumed the title of Muttarasa. Some of them still claim to be Mudiraju, to be more specific, they call themselves as Gangi Makkalu Mudiraju. The people having surname Gangireddy could also the people of Western Ganga race.

N.N. Basu, who has translated the inscriptions of the imperial Gangas has mentioned that the first Ganga king Ananta-varman and his descendants, who ruled over Gangabada or Gangabadi were also called Rudhi Ganga. 19 It may be mentioned here that the word radhi or rudhi was applied to the Kaivarttas who inhabited the entire east coast region stretching from the mouth of river Ganges to the river Godavari in the South. It has been mentioned earlier that apart from the Ganga dynasty another dynasty called Ganga Vamsa has been living at different places of India. They are identified as kaivarttas, Keutas and Dhivaras.

Trying to identify them, E.Thurston has said, the Jallaries are Telugu Fishermen, Palanquin bearers and cultivators. 'Jallaries' is derived from Jala, a net. Some are fresh water fishermen, while other fish with a cast-net (Visuru Valalu) from the sea shore or on the open sea. They bear the name Ganga Vamsamu, or people of Ganga, in the same way that a division of the Kabbera fishing caste is called Gangimakkalu. In caste Organisation and ceremonials, the Jalaries coincide with the Milas. They are called Noliyas by the Oriyas of Ganjam. Speaking about the Kabberas mentioned above, Thurston has said elsewhere: Gangimakkalu or Gangaputra meaning children or sons of the Ganga, the Goddess of water is the name a subdivision of Kabbera . The allied Gangavamsamu or people of Ganga is a name for Jalaris. The Kabberas are a caste of Canarees fishermen and cultivators. The Keutas worship especially Dasaraja and Gangadevi.

Kalabhras => Kalabras => Kalbaras => Kalberas => Kabberas
Kabberas=> Kabbelas =Kabbeligas => Kabbaligas

It is widely believed that Mudirajas are the descendants of Kalabhras. It is a well known fact that huge population of Mudirajas are kolis spread into South India. Kabbaligas are also known as kolis in Karnataka. Today Kabbaligas demanding Scheduled Tribe status in Karnataka. Saint Purandara das who migrated from Maharastra to Karnataka during Vijayanagar rule once told that he was a Kabbaliga (Koli Nayak). Kabberas seem to be either Kalabhras or related to Kalabhras, who invaded to South India uprooting the well establish kingdoms of Chola, Chera and Pandyan.

In Karnool district, various persons actually belonging to communities such as Maddi (dying ofcloths) , Bestha (fishing), Sunnapollu (lime manufacturing), Gangi Makkalu Mudiraju (agri), Kabbera, which are Telugu Caste group are to be known as "Bariki" are having marital relationships with all other non-Scheduled Caste Communities of various "Telugollu" Caste groups. Tenugus are a subcaste of Mudiraj in Telangana.

They were given Barika Inam lands for their services rendering menial services to the officials visiting the villages and in due course they came to be known as Barikas.The Maddi, Kabboar, Gangi Makkalu, Telugu and similar communities also have to be known as Barikas They are neither un-touchables nor do they suffer from discrimination in regard to access to public places. The Barikas are not SCs and entirely different from the Community denoted by the term Bariki included in the list of Scs.

Further, it is reported that the Bariki is the name of the profession in olden days in Southern Ganjam only; whose duty was to guide the travellers, and that the applicant and his caste people styled as 'Bariki Case' were never subjected to in the past to any kind of social discrinination based on pollution purity and never suffered from the stigma of untouchability. The Social Customs and culture of the said people are different from that of the normal SC people in general, and also reported that some people of this area are styling themselves as "Bariki" caste people just to get the benefits extended to the SC Community though actually they belong to 'Bestha' Community. The special Team further reported that the applicant actually belongs to "Bestha" Community. They are also engaged in priest hood and temple cleaning, they are also called as Kabberas, Meddi, Bestam, Telugu, Mudiraju, Gangaputra, Gaurimakkalu Sunnapollu and other such similar other Community names.

Gangaputras : Gangaputra means sons of Ganga. Dev Vrat (Bhisma) of Mahabharata was known as Gangaputra. Some sections of Boya, Gangaputra, Agnikula Kshatriya castes consider themselves as part of Mudiraj community in some regions of Andhra Pradesh.Gangimakkalu are the same as Gangaputras. Gangaputras are either besta or a subsect of Besta fishing community in Andhra Pradesh. Gangaputras of Gangetic belt are a privileged clan. Gangaputras of Benaras are also a race of cremation attendants. They were known as Gangaputras and Gangadasis, men and women who cremated the dead ones on the banks of Ganga. Any river was the Ganga to them, in reverence to the great river. Gangaputra is a member of an exclusive club of purohits licensed to offer puja on water. They are required there to minister rites to the dead. There are 90-odd Gangaputras in Prayag enjoying copyright over the holy Sangam. The entry, strictly by lineage, is barred to an outsider.

The privileged clan rows their shop to the workplace each morning at 6 sharp. Boats follow one after the other to reach the spot where brackish grey Ganga water merges with greenish blue Yamuna to form the mythological Sangam. They would be anchored there for next 12 hours providing a portable platform to hundreds of pilgrims.

Ganga Vamsa : The people of Ganga vamsha were also identified as Kaivarttas, Keutas and Dhivaras who were living at different places in India. The kings of Ganga dynasty were ruling at Talakhad under the name of Western Gangas and at Kuvalalapuram or Kolalapura calling themselves as pure Gangas. Some members of the same line dispersed and founded the Ganga vamsam in Orissa. The founder of Ganga Vamsham was Vajrahasta who was also known as the Lord of Kolahala. Vajrahasta -I

There is also mention of Ganga Vamsa apart from Ganga dynasty and also Mahisa race. Historical sources are not very clear from sanskrit inscriptions and plates give no continous evidence of any known decent except they are Ganga rulers. Historical records are in sanskrit with mix of southern and northern script , which shows that the western and eastern ganga's are same. The southeast asian sources like indonesia tell about karnataka traders operating from eastern shores. When the primacy of Ganga rule came to end in karnataka came to end around 10th century, they moved north to andhra and Orissa to establish rule. They constructed many famous temples and also increased trade there.

Mr. Hira Lai, BA of Nagpur says " Orissa is the country where the Ganga vamsa originated. King Indra Varman of Kalinga Nagara is spoken as the 'establisher of spotless family of gangas. The earliest genuine ganga prince Satyasraya Dhuruvaraja Indravarman of the Goa grant, according to which he was a viceroy under the Western Ganga Chalukya kings Kirtivarman I, Mangalesa, Pulikesin II, under an appointment running from 591 - 592 A.D. He was an ancestor and probably the grandfather of Rajasimha Indravarman I the first king of the earlier Ganga dynasty of Kalinga.

Cevvirukkai Nadu was the ancestral home of the Arya Chakravarti, Kings of Jaffna. Cevvirukkai Nadu is the name of a place in Rameswaram, the southernmost Indian city which in the old days belonged to the Ganga Dynasty or Ganga Vamsa. The Arya Chakravarti, Kings of Jaffna, belonged to the Ganga Dynasty. They then entered into matrimonial alliances with Brahmins and assumed the title "Arya" as a distinctive honorific. The Kingdom of Jaffna under Arya Chakravarti remained an independent monarchy with its capital in Nallur, Jaffna. Where the fourteenth century built Royal Temple still stands.

According to V.Kanakasabhai - vellalars constitute the ulavar community in the Tolkappiyam -equivalent to Ksatriya-Vaisya varna. baramahal records say that in the mythology - the vellalar was born from the banks of ganga nadi, making them Ganga-vamsa, and on the creation of the vellalars the daivangal (deities) invested him with poonool(sacred thread), to show he is dvija (belongs to vaisya caste) from his birth.

Kaivrattas : These people were of a royal tribe. For whatever reason, the Mahishyas migrated from Ayodhya and entered what is now Midnapore through the Chota Nagpur Plateau. Biharilal Kalye believes that the founder of the Ganga Dynasty of Orissa, Anantavarma belonged to the Mahishya race. The Mahishyas, like the Kaibarttas, were originally fishermen, but today they are engaged in agriculture. There are two sects of Kaibarattas - the Jele Kaibarttas (fishermen) and Hele Kaibarttas (farmers).

In Sanskrit, the word 'kaivartta' means one who depends on water, in other words, the community that earns its livelihood from related occupation. Anthropologically, they belong to the Dravidian origin. According to historical documents, the Kaivarttas were living in Kamrup even before the 9th-10th century AD. They came to Mjauli in mid 17th century tempted by the conditions conductive to their fish earning occupation. The Kaivarttas of Majuli have extended valuable contribution to its political, social, economic and cultural life.

Historians such as Jagabandhu Singh have referenced the Padma Purana and the Brahmavaibarta Purana and have come to the conclusion that Mahishyas and Kaivarttas (Kaibarttas) are the same caste. In general terms, "the child born of a Kshatriya father and Vaisya mother is called a Kaivartta or Mahisya". If one takes the two terms to be synonymous then as Kaivarttas, the people are spread through a geographic location extending from modern-day Maharashtra, Chattisgarh, and Orissa. The Bengali historian Sevananda Bharati is of the opinion that the ancient home of the Mahishya race is near the present day Ratnavati on the bank of the Narmada River, which was then known as Mahishamati.

Mahishyas : Mahishya, often also spelled as Mahisya, is a Hindu caste. Members of this caste are traditionally found in the Indian states of West Bengal and Orissa. Mahishyas are one of the predominant castes in West Bengal especially in the southern districts of Howrah, Paschim Medinipur, Purba Medinipur, Bankura, and South 24 Parganas. Historians such as Jagabandhu Singh have referenced the Padma Purana and the Brahmavaibarta Purana and have come to the conclusion that Mahishyas and Kaivarttas (Kaibarttas) are the same caste. Mahishyas , the weavers of Midnapore in the southern corner of West Bengal are skilled at weaving the most popular mats Madur.

According to the Bengali historian Sevananda Bharati, the primary abode of the Mahisya-race was located in the northern bank of river Narmada, which originated from the foot hills of the Vindhyas. The present day Ratnavati on the bank of river Narmada is perhaps another name of the ancient city Mahishimati. It was the old capital of the Mahishyas. Therefore, it had the name Mahishimati Nagari (the city of Mahishimati). The Mahishyas had migrated from Ayodhya on the bank of river Saraju and entered the province Midnapur through the eastern part of the Vindhyas.

Bestas : Bestas are the professional boatmen, divers, and fishermen of Mysore. Bestas of Chandrapur district are a caste of Telugu fishermen akin to Palewars. The Bestas are a Telugu caste of fishermen. They are also called Bhoi and Machchanaik, and correspond to Dhimars. In Maharastra, they are found only in Chanda district.They were also formerly palanquin-bearers. They are a sturdy and muscular people like the other fishing castes. The Bestas (hunters and fishermen) of North Arcot are divided into Telugu Bestas and Parikiti Bestas, the difference between whom is chiefly one of religious observance, the former being in the habit of getting themselves branded on the shoulders with the vaishnavaite emblems, the chanka and chakra and the later never undergoing this ceremony.

Jalaris :The allied Gangavamsamu or people of Ganga is a name for. Jalaris. Jalaris are found all along the north coastal region of Andhra , particularly in the districts of Visakhapatna and Srikakulam. They depend mainly on marine fishing. The fisherfolk referred to as Noliyas belong to two different castes, namely Jalaris and Vodabalijas. The name Jalaris relates to the word Jala which means net. In Orissa, Jalaris are concentrated in Ganjam district. Some have also migrated to Puri and Cuttack district. Among Jalaris there are two distinct groups, viz. the Edu Ratla group and the Pardrevdu Ratla group who do not intermarry but intcrdine. Otherwise they do not differ much in their habits and customs. Jalaris who live close to Chilka lake possess nets and traps for fishing in the lake. They practise estuarine fishing during the lean seasons in marine fishing. The Jalaris have a caste council which consists of eight members. The head of the council is called Paddhanau. The membership of the caste council is hereditary.

The fishermen community of Visakhapatnam district consists of mainly of three distinct caste groups namely the Jalaris,the Vadabalijas, and the Pallis. The Jalaris are an endogamous Hindu caste group. The settlements of Jalaris are clustered and small to medium in size. Thurston (1909) which states the Jalaris are Telugu fishermen and the namme is derived from 'jala' 'a net'. They bear the name gangavamsam or people of ganga. The Jalaris claim that they are the traditional fishermen. The Jalaris eat twice a day and the day time food consists chiefly millet gruel, either of ragi (Eleusine corocana) or jonna (Sorghum vulgare). Only during nights they eat cooked rice.

The Bestar derive their name from Mahabharata. The Bestar, a fishing community that has also taken up agriculture, migrated from the border districts of Andhra in search of better living conditions. The Bestar live in Nanded and Aurangabad districts of Maharastra.

In Uttara Kannada mostly Kannada or Konkani speaking fisher-folk are known as Harikantra, Kharvi and Bovi. In the interior Karnataka, they are Kannada speaking fisher-folks known variously as Ganga-mathastha, Besta, Ambiga or Koli. In Kerala fishing community is known as 'Mukkuvan'. In Andhra fishing communities are known as Agnikula-kshatriya, Vadabalija, Suryavamsi, and Pallekaru etc.

The names for Bestha - Ambiga Barki, Besthar Bhoyi, Bunde-Beshtar, Daalji, Daavat, Gabit, Galadakonkani, Gangemakkalu, Holeva, Gangakula, Gangamatha, Gangamathastha, Gangaputra, Gowrirnatha, Bunde Bestha/Gunde Bestha, Harakanthra, Jalagara, Kabbera/Kabber, Kabbaliga, Kabbili, Kahar, Kharvi, Koli, Kolimahadev, Maddar, Meenagar, Mogaveera, Moger, Mukkavan, Parivara, Siviyar, Sunagara, Thoreya .

Webmaster
Kokolu Anka Rao
Date : 11/07/2008
Nagpur, Maharastra, India


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MUMMIDI :
Mummidi is one of the surnames Mudiraj community of Andhra Pradesh. Mummidi is also a surname of Kapus ( balija / Telaga ) of Andhra Pradesh. Balijas are the descendants of banjara trading community of North India and they once formed part of sections of "Mudiraju bantlu" during medieval times. While Telagas are a subcaste of kapus in Andhra region, the same people who are known as Tenugus are a subcaste of Mudiraj in Telangana region. Some Telugu chettiyars of bangalore and Chennai today, belonging to Balajiga ( Balija ) and Sadhu chettiyar subcastes claim their gotra as Mummudi. In Telugu, Moodu means Three.

The titles Mummadi, Mummudi and Mummidi seems to be related to each other and it appears that Mummudi title was initially used by chola king Rajaraja and later by Recharla Nayakas (Mudiraj, Velama & Kamma)of Kakatiya kingdom. As per Chola -Mutharaya research center, Tanjore, the cholas and Mutharayars are one and the same people with different dynasty names. They are also matrimonially aligned to prove that they are one and the same royal clans.

Rajaraja assumed the title Mummudi Chola : The original title of Arunmozhivarman (Rajaraja Cholan) was Rajakesari Varman or Mummudi-Sola-Deva. He was the second son of the Parantaka Cholan II alias Sundara Cholan and Vanavan Mahadevi. Only one son and three daughters of the King are known namely; Rajendra Cholan I, Kundavai, who married the Eastern Chalukya King Vimaladitya, Mahadevadigal and another whose name is not traceable. Rajarajan had a number of queens. Lokamahadevi was probably the chief queen, who built the shrine of Sri Lokamahadesvarar, called Uttara Kailas in the Sri Panchanadisvara temple at Thiruvaiyaru.

In the war against the Pandyas, Rajaraja seized the Pandya king Amarabhujanga and the Chola general captured the port of Virinam. To commomorate these THREE conquests Rajaraja assumed the title Mummudi-Chola, (the Chola king who wears three crowns - the Chera, Chola and Pandya). The Mummudi title was also used by many subordinates of Rajaraja to express their identity as loyal followers of Mummudi Chola Rajarajan.

Moodu = Mudu = Three
Mudu + Mudu = Mummudu = Three Times
Mummudi
Mummudi => Mummadi => Mummidi

To eliminate the remaining actor in the triumvirate, Rajaraja invaded Sri Lanka in 993 C.E. The copper-plate inscription mention that Rajaraja's powerful army crossed the ocean by ships and burnt up the kingdom of Lanka. Chola armies occupied the northern half of Lanka and named the dominion 'Mummudi Chola Mandalam'.

While Kulothunga was busy in Lanka, the Vengi kingdom was raided by Yakshakanaradeva, the ruler of Tripura. Vijayaditya, the Vengi king soon repulsed these intruders. Kulothunga left the administration of Vengi with Vijayaditya. After Vijayaditya died, Kulotunga took over the administration of Vengi under direct Chola rule and appointed his son Rajaraja Mummudi Chola viceroy of the province in 1076 C.E. He however did not enjoy the rigours of the viceroyalty and relinquished his position the next year. His younger brother, Vira Choda, was then chosen as Viceroy until 1084 C.E. Mummadi Rajarajanarendra Choda was the founder of Rajamhundry, the cultural capital of medieval Andhra.

Mummudi Chola Brahmarayan : Experts who have done extensive studies of these inscriptions say the damaged inscriptions on the pillars in the thiruchutru maaligai refer to orders issued by Raja Raja Chola to his chief commander Krishna Raman alias Mummudi Chola Brahmarayan.

Mummudi Chola Velan : Rare sculptures and inscriptions found during the renovation of a dilapidated Siva temple at Thottakudi in the Kodavasal taluk of Tiruvarur district have thrown new light on the Siva and Jain temples. Kudavayil Balasubramaniyan, researcher, Saraswathi Mahal Library, who examined the sculptures and inscriptions, said three pillars were excavated at the village. The first contained information about the award of land to Mummudi Chola Velan during the 17th regal year of Rajaraja Chola I (1002 A.D.). The village was mentioned as Thorrakudi. Now the village, on the Manakkal-Ayyampettai - Thiruvanjiyam road, is called Thottakudi. Mummudi Chola Velan must be Mummudi Cholan, a chieftain of Rajaraja Chola, who hailed from Kurukadi in the Thanjavur area, said Dr. Balasubramanian.

Velan , Vetar, Vedar, Bedar and Berad are sections of people from Andhra Pradesh, Tamilnadu, Karnataka and Maharastra who are basically part and parcel of Mudiraja - Muthuraja community during medieval times.

We also come across one Mummudi Ramachandhra Nayakan of Sendhamangalam in around 1600 A.D.

Mummudi Chola Nalloor : According to research, in 1003 AD, King Raja Raja Chola celebrated his birthday there at Thirunandhikarai. . He conquered Muttom, and named Mummudi Chola Nalloor as stated in the stone carvings available in the temple. An ascetic named Veeranandi came from Thirunarunkondai Melappalli and stayed there and preached Jainism it seems. This took place in the eighth century AD and carved this a rock cut cave temple. That is why, the river is called the Nandhi aaru, and the place of the temple is Thirunandhikarai. Many of the sculptures in these temples are extinct and the remains bear witness to this. Now this temple is under the care of Archaeological Survey of India.

The conical vimanam of the temple reflect the Kerala art and Architechitecture. There is also a temple of Vishnu facing Siva. In the northern side of this Sivalayam, there stands an a rock cut cave temple and this one is an ancient one, and probably, upto the ninth century AD, it belonged to the Jains. In the tenth century AD, during the reign of Raja Raja Chozha, they kept a Siva lingam there.

Mummidi Reddi : Korukond and its neighbour koti appear once to have been some political importance. It is said that Koti and 101 Shiva temples were founded by king Rajaraja of Eastern Chalukya line, who reigned from 1022 to 1063, and is prominent in traditional history of Rajahmundry, and that about two hundred years later a fort was built in Koti by an early Reddi chief named Annala Deva. The Korukonda fort was built by some time afterwards by Kuna Reddi, a good Sudra who became ruler of the adjoining country, and governed wise and well He was succeeded by his son Mummidi Reddi and his immediate three successors ruled for forty years.

Gangi Reddi is a surname of Mudiraj. Such Reddi surnames are also there among Kapus. Some of the of people Mutharaya clan people used Reddi titles and got seperated into a different community based on some professional practices. Some became Kapus and many others became Reddis. By the time, these people assumed the titles of Kapu, Reddi, all the sections came to be known Sudras including Mudiraj as they lost their kingdoms. Hence, now we can see this Mummidi surname among Mudiraj, Kapus and may also be among Reddis.

Mummadi Singa : In the early fourteenth century, between AD 1303 and 1327, Kampili became the seat of an independent principality for a short time under the family of Kampiladeva. Kampila and his father Mummadi Singa were feudatories of Ramadeva, the Yadava ruler of Devagiri, and often helped him against the Hoysala Ballala III. After the capture of Devagiri by the Sultan of Delhi, Kampila appears to have become an independent ruler.

(Mummudi) Krishna Raja Wodeyar : After restoring the Wodeyars to the throne of Mysore the British shifted the capital back to the city of Mysore from Srirangapatna. The four year old boy (Mummudi) Krishna Raja Wodeyar III, son of the last Wodeyar King Khasa Chamaraja Wodeyar VIII, was anointed as the King of Mysore. Wodeyars were now subsidiaries of the British Raj and had to pay annual subsidy to the British. However British took over the administration of the Kingdom on a specious plea of non-payment of subsidy amount from Mummudi Krishna Raja Wodeyar in 1831 and British appointed commissioners were in charge of the Kingdom.

Mudduraja (Mudiraj) kings of Kodagu used the title of Udayar and Saluva Narasimharaya of Vijayanagar used the Udayar title. Wodeyars are known to be Kuruba (yadava). Wodeyar seems to a gradual modification of the title Udayar. The Kurubas and Kurumbas were Kuruvas ( Erukalas)in their origin, who developed expertise in handling animal herds.

Udayar => Vodayar => Wodayar => Wodeyar

Mummadi : People carrying the last name of Mummadi (variably known as "surname" or "family name") usually hail from the South Indian states of Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka. Many people with the family name Mummadi are seen across the globe, originating across the whole of South India. It is also a small village in Mysore district (Karnataka State). Mummadi is a common surname in the castes/social groups of Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka . It is very interesting to note the fact that many communities with the surname of mummadi worship "Mysoramma"(Mother of Mysore - Goddess Chamundeshwari) as the deity. Cholas and Mutharayars are one of the main royal groups who follow the mother worship. Pardhis and Erukalas also worship mother Goddess.

Webmaster
Kokolu Anka Rao
15/05/2008
Nagpur, Maharastra, India

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ANKOLLA
Ankolla is one the surnames that belongs to Telugu Mudiraj people. These people may be classified as Mudiraju bantlu. It appears that the ancestors of these people were Tuluva Nadavara bunts from Western Coast of India and came to Telugu speaking lands during medieval rule of Vijayanagar kings.

The bant warrior were said to be the prominent kings who ruled Vijayanagar kingdom and Sri Krishna Deva Raya is said to the most famous of all bants. Bants are spread across Telugu speaking lands of Andhra Pradesh and Tuluva speaking lands of Karnataka. This surname of Ankolla among Mudiraj people seems to stand as a testimony to prove that Telugu Bants ( Mudiraju Bantlu ) and Tuluva bunts are one and the same people having Banjara / Vanjara / Vanara origin.

This surname Ankolla seems to be related to Ankola Town in Karnataka. Even Ankolu surname of some other Telugu people also seems to be related to the town Ankola. Ankola is a Taluk in Uttara Kannada district of Gulbarga in Karnataka state, India. It is a small town by any standard surrounded by numerous temples. It is about fifty miles south of Goa. People speak Kannada and Konkani.

Ankola => Ankolla = Ankolu

It appears that the ancestors of Mudiraj people with Ankolla surname were perhaps posted as administrators and soldiers in Telugu country during the time of Vijayanagar kings.

Eight kilometres from Ankola lie the famous Jaina caves of Honnebail. We all know the fact that Muttarasa kings of Western gangas patronised jainism. It was politically an important town in the bygone years of medieval times as it was one of the sea ports of commercial importance in west coast. Ankola is the old seaport and an important centre of trade and commerce under the Kadambas, Chalukyas and Vijayanagara kings.

Ankola is Located 37kms south of Karwar, is a small town with 15th century ruined walls of king Sarpamalika's fort and the ancient Shri Venketaraman Temple. Near the temple there are two giant wooden chariots carved with scenes from the 'Ramayana'. The place has two temples of Jenubeera and Ishwara and also an old inscription dating back to the 15th century. Gokarna, known as the Kashi (Varanasi) of the South is situated at a distance of 60 km from Karwar.

Some sections of Mudiraj people are known as Mudiraju Bantlu (Telugu Bants). This surname indicates that the Teulugu speaking bants and Tulu speaking bunts are one and the same people. The Nadavaru who are also known as Bants / bunts are a well-educated small Kshatriya community ( Nadavar Samaj ) with 30,000 people in Ankola and Kumta Taluks, Uttar Kannada, Karnataka, India. Until the first half of the twentieth century, Nadavaras were mainly landowners and farmers. Nadavaru lived in joint families and their income was from farmlands and temples. Nadavaras / Nadavaru of North Kanara have surnames by Naik/Nayak, Gaonkar, Kavari, Kuchinad, Torke and appear to be affiliated to the Nadavas and Bunts from South Kanara.

Nanavara => Nadavaru => Nadava

They were famous soldiers during the rule of Vijayanagra and Bidanur kings. Many own large area of land. Some being village headmen and money lenders. Nadavas are vigorous, frugal and prosperous class.They are chiefly found in the taluks of Ankola, Karwar and Kumta; also found in Gokarna. Nadavas speak nadavra-kannada(meaning nadava's kannada), which is a dialect resembling old kannada or "Halegannada" During the non tax movement the heroic nadavs of Ankola region known for their martial traits bore all outrageous acts silently as they were wedded ahimsa. This earned North Kanara notable place in the history of freedom movement in India. In November1942 also the entire Nadava community of Ankola participated in the freedom movement of India.

Until the first half of the twentieth century, Nadavaras were mainly landowners and farmers. Since 1930s, they have been diversifying their interests towards education and commerce.Nadavara is an exuberant, closely knit community. The people are well known for their patriotism.

Having a good physique, they were the soldiers of the ancient kingdom. One of the community namely Aluva (surname) perhaps belong to the royal family of Alupa. To be in centre to their ruling place, Alupas shifted their capital to Barakur from where they could look after the vast territory which spread up to Ankola in the North Kanara (Uttara Kannada District). The community is commonly called as Bantas in Kannada or Bunts in English (soldiers). The Adapa surname of Tuluva bunts, Mudiraj and Balija ( = Mudiraju bantlu) seems to be derived from Alupa.

'Nadavara' means husband (Vara) of Country (Nad). They are also known as Jain Nadavaru. Supposedly they were converted to Hinduism from Jainism around the sixteenth century. Nadavara may be related to the Bunts community of South Kanara. Nadavaras religious beliefs, food habits, living style, and etiquettes closely resemble that of the Bunts.Nadavaras were famous chieftains during the rule of the Rashtrakutas, Hoysalas and Vijayanagara Empires.

In the sixth century the earliest Rashtrakuta clan ruled Malva Region (Western Central India). Gradually Rashtrakutas moved southward to Maharashtra and Karnataka in the eighth century. There are a few opinions about the migration of Nadavaras to Karnataka. One school of thinking is that in the eighth century, during Kalachuri Dynasty, Nadavaras came to Karnataka from Rajasthan for the propaganda of Jainism. Kalchuri Dynesty is originally from Rajasthan, ruled in various parts of India including Kalachuris of Karnataka, from the 6th century to 13th century. Even today there are Nadavaras in Ankola Seeme(county) who worship ancient Kalachuri shrines. They believe that they are the descendents Kalchuris of Rajasthan. The Kalachuri King Bijjala (1130-1167 A.D) was related to Nadavaras of Ankola Seeme.Rashtrakutas and Nadavaras are believed to be Kalchuri clans. They were all related by matrimonial alliance. Considering the associations with Rashtrakutas, Nadavaras migration from the Malva Plateau along with Rashtrakutas is also a valid scenario. The Nadavaras were valiant horsemen in the army of the Rashtrakutas.

The King of Vijayanagara, Saluva Narasihma DevaRaya (1485-1491 A.D) in 1488 A.D appointed Tuluva Narasa Nayaka from Dakshina Kannada as the chief general to supress the growing unrest. After taking over the reign, without wasting any time, he recruited Nadavars along with Bunts to the cavalry of the Vijayanagara infantry. Three years after the appointment of Narasa Nayaka, the King died. Narasa Nayaka crowned the king's young son, Saluva Narasihma Raya II and took over the command of Vijayanagara empire.

A highway, Ankola-Bellari road, was constructed for transporting horses by Sri Krishna Deva Raya. Timmanna Nayaka of Ankola Seeme (County) was appointed to comply with the Portuguese trade agreement.

After invading Goa, Portuguese started forcibly converting Goans to Christianity. Many temples of Goa were destroyed. In the process, many Nadavaras were killed; some were converted and three Nadavara Chieftains with their families escaped to Uttar Kannada in the 17th century. Nadavars brought the Shantadurga idol from Goa and instituted a transitory home for the goddess in Agsur, a village near Ankola, Uttar Kannada. A few years later the idol was enshrined in Ankola on the territory then owned by Hiregutti Nadavaras. The temple became the nucleus of art, especially classical dance and music. Expert dancers (Devadasi) were brought from Goa to perform in the temple. The temple corridor became a center for Nadavaras cultural and religious activities.

The Nadavar chieftains remained as advisors even after the fall of Vijayanagra. Madhulinga Nayaka, King of Sonda in the seventeenth century, married a Nadavara woman from Gakarna Seeme (County). A Nadavara chieftain from Hiregutti, Uttar Kannada, became the patron of the Mahabaleshwar Temple, a holy place for Hindus.

Nadavaras are Muktheshwaras (respected members) of many temples, including Mahabaleshwar of Gokarna and Venkataramana of Ankola. At present, Nadavaras have scattered all over India and abroad.

Webmaster
Kokolu Anka Rao
Date : 15/02/2008
Nagpur, M.S, India

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NAYAKWADI
Nayakwadi is one of the surnames that belongs to Telugu Mudiraj community. It seems that Nayakwai is a village and also a surname of the people from Karnataka.

The Boya titles was split into Berad, Bedar, Nayak, Talwar, Nayakwadi, Nayakar, Valmiki nayak, Palegar etc. each having distinctive meaning. Nayakwadi - was the title of 'Killedar'. Those protecting outer walls of forts were called 'Nayakvadi. While Valmikis are a susect of Telugu Mudirajas, the Vetans / Vettuvas ( Bedars ) are a subsect of Tamil Muthurajas. For more details about Nayaka Kingdoms, see for Web Page "KINGDOMS" in this website.

Naikwadi surname is seen prevelent among Maharastrian - Hindu - kolis also. Some sections of Mudiraj people are known as the people of kolis migrated into South India. This surname Nayakawadi stands as a testimony to this fact of link between kolis amd Mudiraj.

Nayakwadi surname also exists among Indian Muslims. The Naikwadis were probably Hindus from Mysore, once upon a time chose to call themselves Pathans. These Naikwadis are believed to be descendants of the soldiers of Tipu who during the disturbances that followed his overthrow settled in the northern districts (Karnatak). Originally Hindus, they are said to have been converted and named by Haider Nai and hence they are called Nayakwadis.Some of them have leanings towards the Wahabi faith. Tadvis are Bhils converted by Aurangzeb. Bhangis are both descendants of converts and others who have lately come from North India. <

Nayakwadi seems to be one of the surnames of Mali community of Maharahtra also . Malis are well known as specialist cultivators.

Malis of Maharastra
The name of Mali community is dervied from Maloi or Malavi or Malli which were the people of Malwa region who migrated down to Khandesh and Godavri and Bhima Valleys.

The Malwa Plains are named for the Malloi peoples (Malavas) who ruled the Punjab in the 4th century BC and offered stiff resistance to Alexander the Great near Multan. They have descended from Mathura's Surasena kingdom.

Both Mali's and Kunbi's claim their movement to southward in ancient times from Multan area to Malwa. Mali caste constitute the third largest cultivator caste of Maharashtra peasant castes after Maratha and Kunbi caste. They are the specialist cultivators involved in the cultivation of Flowers, Vegetables and fruits, Sugarcane, Cotton, Tamarind, Cumin / Jira, Ginger and Haldi / Turmeric alongwith foodgrains and also combines the skill of professional gardening.

The Mali language, customs, traditions, beliefs, religion, culture and social status and geographical distribution is same to Kunbi- Maratha castes. They do not marry in the same gotra and with first and second cousins. Widow marriage and divorce are permitted. Their dead bodies are creamated. Earlier girls were married before puberty but not now.

Mali community is follower of Hinduism and follow the Varkari sect and Vaishnavism. They also follow Lingayat sect in small proportion. Devi is their principal deity and marriages are performed in front of the deity. Devi is local incarnation of Maha Kali and represents the dreaded disease of smallpox and goats are sacrificed to please the Devi.

They employ Brahmin priests for marriage ceremony and other hindu rituals. Pandharpur is a sacred place for the community and Abhang kirtana is part of their spirtual life. They have established Sant Swata Mali temples allover the state. Mali community is also a part of Gosain/Gosavi sect and Yogi castes of Nath Sampardaya.. Their language is Marathi and speak all the dialects of this language like Ahirani, Manedeshi etc. based on region. In the bordering areas they also speak Gujrati, Kannad, Telugu and Hindustani.

Mali community constructed Mali kund in Nasik in 1870 AD. Mali are majority community in Dhule and Jalgaon. Mahatama Phule belonged to the Gorhe family mali community of Pune.

Malwa of Central India
Malwa is a region in western India occupying a plateau of volcanic origin in the western part of Madhya Pradesh state and the south-eastern part of Rajasthan. This region has been a separate political unit from the time of the Aryan tribe of Malavas until 1947. The region includes the Madhya Pradesh districts of Dewas, Dhar, Indore, Jhabua, Mandsaur, Neemuch, Rajgarh, Ratlam, Shajapur, Ujjain, and parts of Guna and Sehore, and the Rajasthan districts of Jhalawar and parts of Banswara and Chittorgarh. Politically and administratively, the definition of Malwa is sometimes extended to include the Nimar region south of the Vindhyas. Ujjain was located in the important province of Malwa, which connected the Deccan to the Mughal capitals of Agra and Delhi.

According to Thakur Deshraj Malwa gets its name from Mall republics who were famous during Mahabharata and Bhuddhist periods. There Mall tribe was known as Malloi at the time of Alexander. Mall tribe is found in Jats and Brahmans. According to Katyayan they became Malwi in Brahmans and Mali in Jat Kshatriyas. Both these words have been derived from Sanskrit word Malav.

Apart from the Rajput principalities, the remote forest areas in Gujarat and Malwa had tribes like the Kolis, Bhils, Gonds, and Ahirs. Vast territories in the northern part of India were covered by forest and inhabited by tribes. Civilized settlements existed in the plains of the Indus and the Ganga. Four important kingdoms of this period were the Magadha, the Avadh, the Vatsa and the Malwa. The other small kingdoms were Kasi, Matsya, Kuru and Panchala.

The first significant kingdom in the region was Avanti, an important power in western India by around 500 BCE, when it was annexed by the Maurya empire. The fifth-century Gupta period was a golden age in the history of Malwa. The dynasties of the Parmaras, the Malwa sultans, and the Marathas have ruled Malwa at various times.

Naganath Anna Nayakwadi was a maharastrian revolutionary freedom fighter.
In Whole India Nagnath Anna Nayakwadi is known as "Krantiveer" due to his revolutionary role in freedom movement and after independance. He is born in poor farmer's family at Walwe on 15th July 1922. The names of his parents are Shri Ramchandra Ganapati Nayakawadi (Father) and Sou Laxmibai Ramchandra Nayakawadi (Mother) His parents were also participated in struggle of freedom movement which was accepted by Nagnath Anna. His parents were imprisoned during freedom movement. Due to this devotion mother Laxmibai Nayakawadi was known every where as Krantivirangana or Krantimata.

Nagnath Anna completed his primary education at Walwa & Ashta while secondary education at Rajaram High School, Kolhapur. In 1942 He joined underground movement of freedom fighters by leaving incomplete matric education. In 1948 he passed Matric examination and then joined Rajaram College, Kolhapur for higher education.

A movement was organised by the Shetmajoor Kashtakari Shetakari Sanghatna, ('landless labourers and toiling peasants organisation') (SKSS) and it was led by the legendary firebrand 75-year-old freedom fighter Nagnath Anna Nayakwadi. He was also a supporter of Jainism.

Naganath Anna Nayakwadi, revolutionary, now alive gives the date-wise information of disclosure by Sawarkar of the names and plans of the revolutionaries. While many dignitaries like Krantisimha Nana Patil, Subhash Chandra Bose, Punjabrao Deshmukh, Dr. Ambedkar and others were fighting for bringing the democratic Bahujan rule of equality, liberty, fraternity and justice. Sawarkar wanted to remove the British to bring back the Peshawai. Many associates of Nana Patil were caught by the British on the information furnished by Sawarkar.

Sawarkar suffered for 11 years in the Cellular Jail but he was the one with the minimum number of years among the suffering revolutionaries. Nearly 130 revolutionaries suffered for over 19 years in the Cellular Jail and over 100 of them were hanged later in the same jail. All these were real revolutionaries. Indians have no knowledge even of their names. Their names with dates were engraved on a huge stone there.

Webmaster
Kokolu Anka Rao
Date : 05/02/2008
Nagpur, M.S, India

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ADONI :
Adoni - surname belongs to Telugu Mudiraj community people. Adoni is the name of a town in Western Andhra Pradesh and it was an important historical place during medieval times of Vijayanagar empire. It is a well known fact that Mudiraj warriors who are also known as bants were closely associated with the Vijayanagar kingdom from the time of its foundation to its glorious period under Tuluvas.

Adoni was under the rule of Yadavas in 16th century. At that time Adoni was known as Yadavagiri. Yadavagiri changed into Adavani under the Islamic rule. Later Adavani changed into the now called Adoni. Under British rule Adoni was in Bellary district of Madras presidency.

Yadavagiri => Aadavagiri => Adavari => Adavani => Adoni

Adoni was once a stronghold of the medieval Vijayanagar kingdom. There is a fort in Adoni which was once a stronghold of Vijayanagar Empire, but now stands in ruins upon five rocky granite hills. The fort at the place standing on the rocky granite hills was founded some 300 years ago. The hill-fort was an important seat of government in Islamic times and is frequently mentioned in the wars of the 18th century.

Yusuf Adil Khan of Bijapur tried to extend his domains south of the Tungabhadra. The Vijayanagar regent was supported by Ramaraja of the Aravidu family and his son Thimma. With their help, Adil Khan was defeated and pushed back. Adoni and Kurnool area became a part of Vijayanagar Empire.

the Moslems secretly made a pact with each other and launched a Jihad on the Hindus in 1568. A twin Moslem army attacked the Vijayanagarans at Adoni and Penugonda. Hard pressed in Adoni the Hindu armies capitulated but Tirumala and Chennappa put up a strong resistance at Penukonda and repulsed the Moslem forces from the Telugu country. In 1761 AD , Bellary became tributary to Basalat Jang, the brother of the then Nizam Salabat Jang and the Subedar of Aadavaani (Adoni) and Raichur. Muslims later controlled it until 1792, when a war between the British East India Company and Tippu Sultan resulted in its cession to the nizam of Hyderabad. Adoni at present is a commercial town, mandal headquarters and a municipality in Kurnool district in the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh.

Konda (son of Linga I) who served Saluva Timmaraya ( Chief Minister of Sri Krishna Deva Raya) conquered Adoni fort by defeating Naudul Khan at Manavapuri. Tippa II's son Ayyappa was a decorated commander in the army of Rama Raya. He ruled from Tirumanikota. He recovered Penukonda and Adoni forts from Abdullah Qutbshah of Golkonda in 1611 CE. Later, Linga II, grandson of Ayyappa, commanded the Vijayanagar army and captured the forts of Kurnool, Gandikota and Adoni.

Yadavagiri Kshethra (Adoni/Adavani): This great land made sacred by Seethapathi. Shree Ramachandra's samchara is located 27 km from Ashrama. This kshetra has special sannidhana of Shri Hari-Vayu-Guru's. It is said that Shri Vyasaraja installed close to about 200 Shri Mukhya PraNa idols around this place. Shri RaNa Mandala Mukhya PraNa and Shri Mangarayakote are two such kshetras where Shri Vyasaraja installed Shri Mukhya PraNa. Shri Vijaya Raya stayed at Adoni for almost 12 years before moving to chippagiri. Sri Guru Rayar ( Sri Raghavendraswamy ) also visited Adoni.

Webmaster
Kokolu Anka Rao
Date - 16/01/2008
Nagpur, M.S, India


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ADDAKULA
Addakula - is one of the surnames of Telugu Mudiraj community people. This surname is seen among some Scheduled caste (Madiga) people also. There is one village by name Addakula in Mahaboobnagar (Palamoor) district of Andhra Pradesh. Mahaboobnagar earlier was also known as " Palamooru" and "Rukmammapeta". Where there is a historical place, there has to be some mudiraj people as they belonged to glorious past & ruling class of people, who created history in this country.

If the town or city is very old and ancient, the name of that place transformd into a surname for many community people who descended from such place. Subsequently their descendants too got the same surname inspite of their migration to far away lands. Some times, some villages which are not very old also get their names from the surname of the majority of the people who live in the village. The surname "Addakula" could have also possibly originated from the people who were professionals in collecting "Addakulu" which means "leaf-plates" or "Istharaakulu".

Addakulu => Addakula

There are some tribal people in Araku valley in Vishakhapatanam district of Andhra Pradesh who toil in the forests cutting firewood or picking "Addakulu" for making leaf-plates. They make bundles of addakulu and sell them to earn their livelihood. In Telugu language, these leaf-plates are known as "Estharaakulu" or "Istharaakulu" or "Vistaraakulu" which are extensively used for serving meals during the marriages and all other social functions and pujas.

Adda - is the name of a tree
Aaku = Aku = leaf
Aakulu => Akulu = Leaves
Adda + Akulu = Addakulu = Istharaakulu

The Addakulu or Adda leaves which are available in plenty in forests are used for making leaf-plates and it is one of the professions of poor tribal people.

Addakula town is a mandal headquarters in Mahabubnagar District. The city of Mahboobnagar(Palamooru) is surrounded by small mountains. The Mahaboobnagar District is located in the Central Part of Peninsular India. Mahaboobnagar is one of the poorest and most backward districts of the state. Mahabubnagar is the largest district in Telangana Region and the second largest in Andhra Pradesh State. Mahabubnagar town is located at a distance of 96-km from Hyderabad. It is generally considered a drought-hit area. This is a backward District with diverse socio-economic problems like lowest literacy rate, migrations, extreme poverty, etc.

Telangana forms the core of the Satavahana Dynasty (221BC-218 AD), Part of Chalukyan Dynasty in South India (between 5th and 11th century AD) and in the recent history, it formed the core of the Golconda State and Hyderabad State, ruled by Qutub Shahi Dynasty (1520-1687) and Nizam Dynasty (Asaf Jahi Dynasty) (1724-1948) until it was taken over by New Delhi in 1948. This place was formerly known as "Rukmammapeta" and "Palamooru". The name was changed to Mahabubnagar on 4th December 1890, in honour of Mir Mahbub Ali Khan Asaf Jah VI, the Nizam of Hyderabad (1869-1911 AD).

The Mahabubnagar region was once known as Cholawadi or the land of the Cholas'. It is said that the famous Golconda diamonds including famous "KOHINOOR" diamond came from Mahabubnagar district. Most of the time, this region was ruled by very small regional rulers, Samasthans, Jamindars, Doras or land lords. The history of Mahabubnagar no-doubt had Buddhism with lot of historic Temples which are destroyed.

Pillalamarry town just 2 miles away from Mahabubnagar town, where one can find so many bhuddist statues virtually broken away by moslem rulers. Mahabubnagar suffered the worst muslim rulers in past which you can see by broken temples which are reconstructed in Jetpole, Somashila, Kollapur and salleshwaram.

Historically significant this ancient village consists of many splendid temples maintained by State Government. The temples stand testimony to the architectural style of the Kakatiya period. The intricately carved stone pillars add grandeur to these archaeologically significant temples. There is a Kannada, Telugu inscription dated S. 1130 (A.D 1208) on a stone referring to king Ganapati. Another inscription of S.1117 (A.D 1195) found on a stone in the temple mentions the rule of Rudradeva. Ancient coins have also been discovered at this place. Pillalamarri, being the birth place of the famous Telugu poet Pillamarri Pina Virabhadrudu, is not only historically but also culturally and religiously significant. The sanctorum of Lord Chennakesavaswami is much revered and the annual celebation of the deity, held during February - March is waited to be attended by thousands of devotees. This historical Pillalamarri village, with three stunning temples built by Recharla Reddy kings is in Suryapet mandal. Recharla gotram also belongs to mudiraj people.

The most important place of interest near Mahaboobnagar is the famous banyan tree called Pillalamarri, which is about 8-km from the city. There is a shrine of a Muslim saint under the tree. From a distance the tree presents the appearance of a small hillock with green foliage but on reaching nearer, it looks like a large green umbrella under which about thousand people can easily take shelter. The tree is a very old one and it covers an area of 3 acres (1.21 hectares).

Webmaster
Kokolu Anka Rao
Date :11/01/2008
Nagpur, M.S, India

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AJMIRA :
Ajmira is one of the surnames that belong to Mudiraj caste people. This surname is also seen among many Nayaks ( Naiks ) who are either Kolis or Lambadas. This name is seen in Telangana region where Lambadas are more in number and who live in earlier thandas (settlements) . There are a number of people with this surname in Karimnagar, and Khammam districts of Andhra Pradesh. This surname seems to be related to the people of North Indian origin. Ajmira or Ajmeera surname seems to have its origins in the city of Ajmeer in Rajastan.

Ajmira = Ajmeera = Ajmera = Azmeera = Azmira
Thanda = a group
Thandas = settlements of moving groups (original meaning)

Rajastan, during prehistoric period, was a home land for many dravidian tribes before the arrival of alien aryans. It is already explained that balijas are the descendants of banjaras (Lambadas) and balijas were part of Mudiraju bantlu during medieval times. Some sections of Mudiraj people had their roots from Rajputs of Rajastan who migrated due to on slaught of Muslim invaders. It is a well known fact that many banjaras or Lambadas migrated from Rajastan to all over the world to save their women who are generally regarded as most beautiful from the exploitation by Muslim invaders, apart for other reasons.

Rajasthan's culture comes from its two main tribes-Bhils and Minas. The Bhils form an important group in the southern part of the state. The Minas are Rajasthan's largest and most widely spread tribal group. Ajmer is often considered the 'oasis' of Rajasthan and the Thar desert, where the vibrant tribal culture shifts your focus from the sand to the colorful desert traditions and tribal rituals. Todgarh is picturesque place situated in the Aravallis, the oldest mountain range in the world and situated 120 kms south of Ajmer. In early times, nomadic tribes like the Banjaras and Gurjars inhabited this area. The state has a large population of the Bhil tribals who were actually the rulers of some of the princely states, which the Rajputs seized from them in later years.

Rajputs established independant states. Prominent among them were: Chauhans of Ajmer, Gadhwals of Kanauj, Ranas of Mewad, Solankis of Gujarat, Paramaras of Malwa, Chandellas of Bundelkhand, and Tomaras of Gwalior.The Chambal divides the two Hara kingdoms created by the descendants of the Chauhans of Ajmer who bore the brunt of the Islamic crusades of the late 7th century.

Ajmer is a city in Ajmer District in India's Rajasthan state. Ajmer, also known as Ajaymeru, was the city which was ruled by Prithviraj Chauhan. Ajmer was founded in the 10th A.D by Raja Ajay Pal Chauhan. He established the Chauhan dynasty which continued to rule the country while repeated waves of Muslim invasion swept across India. Muhammad of Ghori , the first to march his troops through Rajasthan, met with the fierce defiance of the Chauhan Rajputs at Ajmer.

According to the Rajput bards the Chauhan is one of the four (and the last) Agnikula or 'fire sprung' tribes who were created by the gods in the anali kund or 'fountain of fire' on Mount Abu to fight against the Asuras or demons. Chauhan is also one of the 36 (royal) ruling races of the Rajputs. The Chauhans come from Jaipur and its environ Sambhar (as found from inscriptions) and Ajmer (which is said to been founded by them in the 11th century) in Rajputana appear to have been the first home of the clan, and inscriptions record a long line of 39 kings as reigning from Anhul, the first created Chauhan. Ajmer has always been a coveted and strategic place for the Rajputs, and the Mughals. Ajmer was the seat of administration for the Chauhans till Prithviraj was defeated in 1193 AD by Mohammad Ghauri. With the defeat of Prithviraj Chauhan at the hands of Sultan Mohammed Ghori (1193), Ajmer was rendered vulnerable to many an invasion and gory battles.

According to the Hindu Mythology, the Rajputs of Rajasthan were the descendants of the Kshatriyas or warriors of Vedic India. The emergence of the Rajput warrior clans was in the 6th and 7th centuries. Rajputs ancestry can be divided into two: the "solar" or suryavanshi-those descended from Rama, the hero of the epic Ramayana, and the "lunar" or chandravanshi, who claimed descent from Krishana, the hero of the epic Mahabharata. Later a third clan was added, the agnikula or fire-born, said to have emerged from the flames of a sacrificial fire on Mt Abu.

The ancient history of Rajasthan belongs to 1200 AD when Rajasthan was a part of different dynasties including the glorious Mauryan Empire in around (321-184 BC). The Dundhmer region was the first Aryan settlement and the first inhabitants of this area were the Bhil and the Mina. The earliest Rajput dynasty that emerged around 700 AD was the Gurjara Partiharas and since then Rajasthan was cited as Rajputana (the land of the Rajputs).

There is still a village Narayan in the vicinity of Ajmer. The Narayan was a famous town, from where roads were going on all sides, It was destroyed by Mahmud of Ghazna. Afterwards, Ajmer was founded which was conquered by Muhammad Ghauri in 1192. Ranthambhore the last stronghold of Chauhan Gurjars fell into the hands of Alladdin Khilji in about 1300 A.D.

The Rajputs waged some of the fiercest battles against Muslim invasion. Despite this, Mohammed Ghori beat the passionate Rajputs in Ajmer and established the Sultanate in Delhi. However, the establishment of Islamic rule could never undermine the solidarity of the clans or lead to the take over of Rajasthan. It was only during Akbar's rule, (the grandson of Babur who upstaged Ghori's descendents) that a peaceful accord was chartered. The Moghul, realising the futility of warfare with the Rajputs married Rani Jodha Bai the Princess of Ajmer. This union resulted in a peace and coexistence and created a confluence of Moghul and Rajput art and architecture which is evident in the palaces, mosques, temples and pleasure gardens throughout Rajasthan.

Rajastan was the home land for many rajaput clans and warriors who migrated to all over Indian subcontinent and other parts of the world. Now we know that gypsies are basically banjaras of Rajastan, who migrated to East Asia, Europe and America.

There are some Luthras who are Mair Rajputs and originated from the Rajput clans of Rajasthan. These Luthras are related to the Arora Luthras, but originated in Ajmer and migrated to the Punjab. Mairs were greatly associated in protection of their homeland of Ajmer. The Mair Rajputs at one time were warriors. The Mair Rajputs have some kind of connection to the Chauhan Rajput tribe. This is the reason why many Mair Rajput families write their last name as Chauhan, even though their gothra may be something else. Mair Rajputs eventually adopted the goldsmith profession after centuries of being warriors.

The word "Mair" , is derived from the Sanskrit word for a mountain or hill, "mera". The word "Mairs" therefore signifies those who reside in the mountains, or hills. The name of the city Ajmer can be easily traced. It is derived from "ajya" meaning "invincible" and "mer" meaning "hill." Therefore, Ajmer literally is the "invincible hill." It was founded by the great Chauhan king Ajipal in the tenth century. The region in which Ajmer is located was called Mairwarra by the local people. Its name was derived from its Mair inhabitants. This region contains the Aravulli Hills and is also known as Mewat. Thus there is a correlation between the Mairs, Ajmer, and the Chauhans. The Mairs of Rajasthan most commonly spelled the name of their tribe as Mairs, Mers, Meds, or Medas.

Tod claimed that the Mairs of Rajasthan were a branch of the aboriginal Mina tribe. Other sources usually list the ancient Mairs and Minas as distinctly separate tribes. The general consensus is that the Mina was an aboriginal tribe of Rajasthan and may have intermarried with the Mairs, but that the Mairs and Minas are two separate tribes.

Nischals came to be known as Mair Rajputs from within amongst the Punjabi Hindu Bhatti / Bhati Rajputs and originate from the Rajput clans of Rajasthan in Ajmer and migrated to the Punjab later in their history.

For more details on bant / bunt origins, please see web page on "origins" in this website.

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ADAPA :
This surname is also found in Tuluva bunts in Karnataka. It is a well known fact that there are some sections of people in Mudiraj community who are also known as bants / bunts. Earlier Miss world Aiswarya Rai, and Cine actress Shilpa Shetty belong to Tuluva bunts community.

Adapa is one of the surnames of Mudiraj caste people in Andhra Pradesh. This surname can also be seen among kapu / balijas. This surname can also be seen among Tuluva bunts. The kapus / balijas seems to be the people of Mudiraju bantlu during medieval times and later on got separated into a separate community for various socio-political reasons. This clearly indicates that Tuluva bunts and Telugu bants (Mudiraj) are one and the same people.

"Adapa" seems to a modification of the name "Alapa or Alupa". Adapa and Alva are Tuluva bant surnames. Alupas were Pandya related Tuluva bunt kings who established their own kingdoms in Tulunadu. Alvas ruled without interuption for almost 1000 - 1200 years over the small territory of coastal Karnataka. Mangalore was one of their capital cities. In the native Tulu language, the city is known as Kudla meaning 'junction' as the city is situated at the confluence of the two rivers – Nethravathi and Phalguni. Konkanis use the variant Kodial. In Telugu language Kudla has its equivalent as Koodali.

Kudla (Tulu) = Kodial (Konkani) = Junction
Kudla (Tulu) = Koodali (Telugu) = Junction.

The various names used for Alups in the inscriptions are - Alupa, Alapa, Aluka, Aluva, and Alva. Telugu Mudiraj surname ALLA could also be a modification of the Tulu surname ALVA.

Alapa => Adapa
Alapa => Alupa => Adupa => Adapa
Alapa => Alupa => Aluva
Aluva => Alva => Alla

. The first clear mention of Alupas come from the Halmidi inscription of 450 C.E. where their possible early ruler Pashupathi of Alapa (Alupa) gana is mentioned. The dynastic formation of Alupas took place around 5th century C.E. Their royal emblem was the double fish and they claimed to belong to the Pandyavamsha and Soma Kula (lunar).Their coins carried the dynastic title "Sri Pandya Dhananjaya" which means "Arjuna among the Pandyas". Pandyas are said to be the descendants of Pandavas.

The Alupa dynasty, as revealed through records, starts only from the 7thcentury. In the 8th century they fixed Udayapura (Udyavara) as the center of their political activity, then Barakuru drew their attention and perhaps from the 11th - 12th centuries, Mangalapura became the capital and it continued to occupy that position until the end of their political power.

Alupa Kings used to declare in their inscriptions that they are of Pandya dynasty.Maybe some of early Pandyans migrated in Tulunad and took over early chieftainships. The Alupa claim of Pandya heritage is probably of 6 to 8th C AD. By 13-14th C AD Tulunadu was under the suzeranity of Vijayanagar Kings.

Although the Alupas were subordinate to the overlordship of the Karnataka suzerains, for all political purposes and intents, they were indipendent and there seemed hardly any interference in the administation of the territory until the advent of Vijayanagara rule. Nearly 35 kings ruled in the Alupa dynasty.

The Alupa rulers were of local origin and were subordinate to the Kadamba's of Banavasi according to the lithic records discovered near Banavasi. A king named Buthala Pandya is special in the history of South Kanara as he introduced the system of Aliya Sanatana Kattu (the system of inheritance through female line). The Alupa kings ruled over till the 14th century and Veera Pandya was perhaps the last Alupa king of this region.

According to Govind Pai, the renowed Kannada poet, 'Alupa' rulers became Tulu 'Aluvas' and Alupa dynasty is synonymous with Naga dynasty and Tulu people are the same as the those Chandra dynasty.

Nadavas are the people of Nadu (town). The term basically indicates that these the stake holders of the land of Alvakheda or Tulunadu. Having a good physique, they were the soldiers of the ancient kingdom. One of the community namely Aluva (surname) perhaps belong to the royal family of Alupa. The community is commonly called as Bantas in Kannada or Bunts in English (soldiers).

The term Alvakheda could be seen in several of ancient inscriptions of the Alupas. The term Alvakheda is not seen in the inscriptions during the Vijayanagara period, when the region of Barakuru and Mangalore were two separate provinces under the administration of Governors who started controlling the territory without interfering in the autonomy of the Alupas.

There is no written proof for this occurrence and the only mention of the Nairs in the inscriptions comes after the Alupa period (early part of 14th century.) It is postulated that the Nairs were later absorbed into the social stratum of the Nadava community. Nadavars are said to be the Nattars of Tamilnadu who are related to Mukkalathor and Muthuraja (Mudiraja) communities. Mudiraju people are also known as bantlu (Bants) and they are the same people as Tuluva bants having lot of common surnames.

One inscription states that States that ADAPA Ketana-Boya, a subordinate of Kota Ganapatideva gave 55 inupa-yedlu for a perpetual lamp in the temple of Ramesvara of Velpuru as per inscription .No. 291. (A. R. No. 556 of 1925.)On a pillar in the outer mandapa of the temple of Ramalingesvara, Velpuru, Sattenepalli Taluk, same District. S. 1162.

One inscription states that states that Adapa Ketana-Boya gave 55 inupa-yedlu for a perpetual lamp in the temple of Ramesvara-Mahadeva of Velpunuru. Inscription No. 300. (A. R. No. 598 of 1925.) On a mutilated stone lying near a well at Velpuru, Sattenepalli Taluk, Guntur District. S. 1165. (Sobhakrit)

The mention of name - Adapa Ketana Boya, also points that Adapa bunts are Boya / bhoyar related people who most probably belong to Bellary districts where once Kishkinda vanara kingdom existed. The bhoyars / Boyas are non ther than the descendats of vanaras of Kishkinda. The bant / bunt has its origins in in the name - Banjara / vanjara / vanara.

Vanachara => Vanara
Vanachara => Vanchara => Vanjara => Banjara
Banjara => Bant(z)ara => Bantara => Banta => Bant => Bunt

Military contingent of one Adapa Nayaka took part in the battle of Sri Krishna Deva Raya for Raichur under the leadership of chief of the guard Pemmasani Ramalinga Nayaka.

For more details on "Alupas" please see the chapter on "Alupa Dynasty" in the webpage "Kingdoms" in this website.

Webmaster
Kokolu Anka Rao
Date : 05/01/2008
Nagpur, MS, India

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ORUGANTI :
Oruganti is one of the surnames that belong to Mudiraj community people. This surname can also be seen among people of kapu / balija caste who were part of mudiraju bantlu. It is said the Mudiraj warriors were once the head of the department for research wing of martial arts in Kakatiya kingdom.

Oruganti surname is derived from Orugallu , the modern day Warangal, Andhra Pradesh, India. Orugallu was also known as Ekasilanagaram or Omtikonda or Ontimitta on account of huge boulder like hillock situated near the Swayambhu Siva Temple. Orugallu was once the capital of kingdom ruled by Kakatiya Dynasty who ruled the city for more than 2 centuries.

Oru = Omti = Onti = Eka = one or single
Sila = Shila = Kal = Kallu = Gal = Gallu = Rock
Mitta = Kond = Hill or Hillock
Nagaram = Nagar = City
Orekallu = Orugallu = Ekasilanagaram = City of one rock
Varankal = Warangal = City of a single rock

kallu in surnames might indicate -- kal, -- gal, which means " rock " for denoting a place; like Orugallu ( warangal),etc. In medieval telugu " gal" becomes " ganti" denoting origin from. Someone from Orugal became Oruganti. Sometimes it was simplified again back to the -- gal or - kal. Many placenames ending in -- kal. e.g. Dornakal.

'Oru' means one and 'Kallu' means stone. The entire city was carved in a single rock, hence the name Orukallu meaning 'one rock'. The city was also called Ekasila nagaram. The Kakatiyas left many monuments, including an impressive fortress, four massive stone gateways, the Swayambhu temple dedicated to Shiva, and the Ramappa temple situated near Ramappa Lake.

Kakatiyas (1200-1323AD.) of Kakatiya kingdom were a dominant power and ruled Andhradesa from Orugallu. The first king in their lineage was Prola, followed by his successor, Ganapati Deva who ruled for a long period of over 60 years (1200-62) and made extensive conquests. Famous or well-known rulers included Ganapathi Deva, Prathapa Rudra, and Rani (queen) Rudramma Devi. After the defeat of Prataparadura, the Musunuri Nayaks united seventy two Nayak chieftains and captured Warangal from Delhi sultanate and ruled for fifty years.

After the fall of kakatiya dynasty which ruled over Andhra, with Orugallu as their capital, the three chieftains who served the kakatiya kings established three independent , small kingdoms at Hampi- Vijayanagaram, Addanki-Kondaveedu, and Rachakonda in Telingana and they are called Vijayanagar kings, Reddi kings and Velama kings respectively.

Nannaya was one of the trinity of poets and the other two were , Tikkana and Yerrapragada Kavitrayam popularly refers to the trinity of poets who translated the great epic Mahabharata into Telugu. Tikkana belonged to Nellore, a territory in 13th century's Orugallu kingdom. Tikkana besides being the Court Poet was also the Minister of Manumasiddi, who ruled over Nellore. Nannaya came over to Ganapati Rudradeva of Orugallu and got laurels after his recitation of Mahabarata. When Ganapati Deva thought of honouring him his only request was to enable his deposed King to be re-instated. Ganapati Rudradeva granted his wish. .

Pothana hailed from Bammera village near Warangal and what he mentioned in his Bhagavatham as Orugallu was nothing but Warangal and not Ontimitta of Kadapa.

In 1323 AD UlgKhan (Muhmad-bin Tughlak) conquered Orugallu and the Kakatiya dynasty came to an end.

Webmaster
Date : 31/12/2007
Nagpur, MS, India.


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KADU :
Kadu from Kaduvetti
Kadava was the name of a South Indian ruling dynasty who ruled parts of the Tamil country during the thirteenth and the fourteenth century CE. Kadavas were related to the Pallava dynasty and ruled from Kudalur near Cuddalore in Tamil Nadu. The Kadava name with Tondaiyar and Kaduvetti, is found in Tamil literature to refer to the Pallavas. The relationship of the Kadavas to the main Pallava dynasty is documented in an inscription in Kanchipuram. The kings of the collateral line of the Pallavas who were descended from Bhimavarman, the brother of Simhavishnu, are called the Kadavas. The Pallava king Nandivarman (Pallavamalla) is praised as 'one who was born to raise the prestige of the Kadava family'. The title Kaduvetti is also used in some inscriptions to denote the Pallavas.

There was one Kaduvetti Muttarasa who ruled kodumbalur region and a subordinate of Pallavas. He was also matrimonially aligned with pallavas through his daughter who married a Pallava prince. Pallavas and Mudirajas were matrimonialyy related to each other in Tamilnadu. Kadu could also be a corrupted form of Kadava.

Kadava => Kaduva => Kadu
Kaduvetti => Kadu

The kings of the collateral line of the Pallavas who were descended from Bhimavarman, the brother of Simhavishnu, are called the Kadavas. The Kadavas of the 13th century were the descendants of the Pallavas. Kadavas are a sub group of Pallavas. Kaduvetti was a variant of Kadava and stood for Pallava. Kadavas, who must have been minor chieftains under the Cholas, began to raise their power during the reign of Kulothunga Chola III (1178-1218 CE). When the great Pandya king Jatavarman Sundara Pandyan invaded the Chola country, the Kadavas went into obscurity along with the Cholas.

Kaduvetti was a variant of Kadava and stood for Pallava. We hear of Tondaimans and Kadavas from the beginning of Imperial Chola power indicating that the fall of Aparajita did not mean the extinction of the Pallava. Azhakiya Siyan Kopperunjinkan, son of Azhakiya Pallava Sadumperumal was a Kadava and the Kadavas of the 13th century were the descendants of the Pallavas.

Kadava => Kaduvetti => Kadu

In Periya Puranam Sekkizhar when mentioning about Appar Piran and His conversion into saivism, narrated how 'Kadava King' rushed to seek the pardon of Appar Piran. Kadava, the word may be started used from 6th century onwards for Pallavas. Ayyadigal Kadavarkon, a nayanmar related to Pallava Simhavarman (Mahendra's grandfather) was a King turned 'Sivanadiyaar' who sang 'Kshetra Thiruvenbaa' which was included in ThirumuRai. In later chola inscriptions the pallava sub-ordinates being called as Kadavarayas.

By far the most important among the later chiefs claiming Pallava descent are the Kadava rulers Kopperunjingadeva I and Kopperunjingadeva II. They have left a large number of inscriptions mostly in the North and South Arcot districts and in the Chingleput district. Though the epithet 'Kadava' is not found among the several birudas assumed by Mahendravarman I, Narasimhavarman I and Narasimhavarman II, this epithet along with Tondaiyar and Kaduvetti, is invariably used in Tamil literature to denote the Pallavas.

The relationship of the Kadavas to the main line is revealed by an inscription in the Vaikuntha-Perumal temple at Conjeeveram where the kings of the collateral line of the Pallavas who were descended from Bhimavarman, the brother of Simhavishnu, are called the 'Kadavas'. Though the epithet 'Kadava' is not found among the several birudas assumed by Mahendravarman I, Narasimhavarman I and Narasimhavarman II, this epithet along with Tondaiyar and Kaduvetti, is invariably used in Tamil literature to denote the Pallavas. The relationship of the Kadavas to the main line is revealed by an inscription in the Vaikuntha-Perumal temple at Conjeeveram where the kings of the collateral line of the Pallavas who were descended from Bhimavarman, the brother of Simhavishnu, are called the 'Kadavas'.

The Pallava King HiranyaVarman is stated to have belonged to the Kadava Kula. Nandivarman Pallavamalla is praised as "one who was born to raise the prestige of the Kadava family.

There is a Ganga inscription which speaks of Durvinita as having acquired fame in the land of Jayasimha Vallabha (founder of the Chalukya house of Badami) by seizing the Kaduvetti (meaning Pallava, i.e. the Pallava king of Kanchi) and setting up his own daughter's son, probably Vikramaditya I.

Palli is a common name among vanniyars, pallavas and mutrachas
Saturday, 05 July , 2008, 12:11 : Tiruchirappalli: Vanniyar Sangam President 'Kaduvetti' Guru, whose controversial statements against the DMK leadership led the ruling party to sever its alliance with the PMK, was arrested at his residence at Kaduvetti Village in Ariyalur district on Saturday, police said.

Vanniyars in Tamilnadu are generally Tamil-speaking while in Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka they speak their native Dravidian languages namely, Telugu and Kannada respectively. Vanniyar puranam narrates the story of Veera Vanniyan and Vanniyars are believed to be the decendants of Veera Vanniyan. Veera Vanniyan was born from the fire yaga of SambuMaharishi (fire pit of Mount Abu ?) or JammuMaharishi (Sanskrit). This is known as Sambu miendhar(son) kappiyam or VannivarPuranam. This Puranam is written by Saiva Sri VeeraPillai at Madurai Royal Court in the presence of King Sundara Pandian. Origin of Vanniya puranam was Agni Puranam or Aagneya puranam which is one of the 18 puranams written in Sankirit. Like Vanniyars, Rajputs also called themselves as AgniKulaKshatriya and they are following the Same Agni Puranam as their Myth.Even some Gujarati comunities called themselves as Vaniya.

Vanniyas are Agnikula kshatriyas
The four Agnikula Rajput clans – Chauhans, Paramaras, Pratiharas and Solankis originated from fire pit at Mount Abu. The descendants of these warriors were to rule a large part of lace. Pallavas are believed from Pratiharas Clans. As noted Vanniyars live in an area where three South Indian states meet. They currently predominate in northern Tamilnadu where as sizable numbers are found in southern Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka

Vanniyar sangam uses firepot as the symbol of Vanniars. Firepot is the symbol of the Pallava empire who used the symbol in the rock cut temples. Vanniyarkulashatariyar in Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh and the Tigalain Karnataka are of same sect and are from the tribe called palli. Their principal chieftains were known as Sambuvarays, Kadavarayas, Mazhavarayas and Kachirayas. Vanniyars are the Dravidian descendants of the Palli tribe.

Sambuvarayars were chieftains who belong to the Palli(Vanniyar) caste.In Madhura Vijayam written by Gangamadevi its mentioned that the Sambuvarayas were Vanniyars.The Sambuvarayars ruled mainly northern districts. The first chieftain identified is Omainthan Munnutruvan Palliyana karanamanikam.In this inscription this chieftain is mentioned as a Palli.(South Indian Inscriptions Vol.7,Number 500).He is considered to be the ancestor of the Sengeni Sambuvarayas.

One section of the Palli or Pallava tribe, called the Muttarasar (Telugu Mutracha) ruled in the Chola country, first as feudatories of the Pallava and then of the pandya kings during the 8th century A.D. It was during this period that Naladiyar was composed under the auspices of muttarasa governers . They are still to be found in the North Arcot district under the name of talaiyaris, and many poligars of chittoor and other minor rulers are of this class.

Talari or Talaiyari is one of the surnames of Telugu Mudiraju community today. Kaduvettimutharayar, Kachirayar are the surnames of Tamil Muthurahas.


The surname "Kadu" belongs to Mudiraj community and seems to indicate the descendancy of these mudiraj people from Kadu Kurubas of Western Ghats of present day Karnataka. The Kurubas of Karnataka are known as Yadavas in Telugu speaking lands. Yadavas and Mudirajas are closely related warrior communities with lot of common surnames. These two communities were matrimonially aligned in Tamilnadu during medieval times.

Kadu Kurubas are a subcaste of Kurubas and they do not rear sheep. The Kurubas are shepherds and weavers of native blankets (kambli). Kurubas (Yadavas) of Karnataka are known as bunts. Some sections of Mudiraj are also known as bunts. The people having surname "Kadu" may indicate the unkown link between these two groups (Telugu and Tuluva speaking ) of bunts.

Kadu in kannada means forest and Kuruba is the tribe, Kadu Kurubas are the people living in forests. Pallava kingdom is said to belong to kurubas. After the fall of the pallava empire many kurubas settled down in south India as small land owners and farmers. Kadu Kurubas also seems to be related kadavas who had close links to pallavas.

The Kadu Kurubas are the original inhabitants of the forests of Nagarahole and Kakanakote in the Western Ghats , Southern India . Nagarhole is a land of tribal forest people. Nagarahole is situated in the picturesque districts of Kodagu and Mysore in southern Karnataka. Nagarahole is 236 Kms from Bangalore and 96 Kms from Mysore. Nagarahole is a national park in coorg. It is a wildlife santuary renowned for its natural beauty. It is renamed as Rajiv ghandi national park now. Nagarahole is one of the best game sanctuaries in South India, providing a natural living conditions to several wild animals like elephants, tigers, panthers etc. Jungle Safari could be done by Elephant ride.One of the finest remaining habitats of the Asiatic Elephant, Nagarahole is situated in the Deccan Plateau and forms an integral part of the Nilgiri biosphere. Huge herds of elephants amble down to Nagarahole in the summer months, which is an excellent time to watch them in their element. The Kadu kurubas of Nagarhole are said to be elephant trainers. Here they have some similarity with kalvars (Kalabhras) of Tirupati who are also said to be the elephant trainers. Kodagu kingdom was ruled by Mudduraja (Mudiraj) kings.

The word Kuruba means "shepherd" in Kannada, and Kadu is forest. Kadukuruba -forest shepherd is a misnomer. They do not raise sheep. Instead these tribals collect honey (jenu) and some who are identified as Betta-Kurubas produce household items like baskets and sieves. Ethnically Jenu Kurubas and Betta Kurubas (Betta = hill) are the same. Honey collection is seasonal and the inter-action of Jenu Kurubas with traders took place occasionally.

They live in small settlements calles Hadi or Hatti. Mud-walled homes of Kadu Kurubas are known as "Hadis" . There are about two thousand households (hadis) or settlements of Kadu Kurubas along Kabini river, Nagarhole river and Nugu river. Each settlement may consist of five to twenty huts. They worked as a community in collection (of honey) production and marketing. Their huts are small with very low doorway. Living space is compact and less. The huts are clean, with fire burning in one corner all the time. Perhaps it was a safety measure to keep wild beasts and reptiles away, while people were busy in the forest.

They have traditionally been food-gatherers, practicing shifting cultivation, leading to a nomadic existence. They practice agriculture as a subsidiary occupation. Instead of ploughing the field, they scratch the surface with a sort of bamboo spear.

Jenu in Kannada means honey and kuruba is the caste. As the name suggests Jenu Kurubas are honey gatherers. Like the Kadu Kurubas, Jenu kurubas are the original inhabitants of the forests of the Western Ghats , Southern India. The Jenu Kurubas are experts in collecting honey which has been their traditional skill. The Kadu Kurubas have expertise with making bamboo products. Except for the Jenu Kurubas, the other groups have adapted to farming.

Most people in the haadies worked for the forest department some work on daily wages on road construction and maintenance. They had ommunity halls where they follow their traditional occupation of making baskets, mats, etc. These were sold either to middle men or at local weekly shandies. They ate root vegetables and greens that grew abundantly in their area. Children were given raagi as food. Raagi is staple diet which is rich in protein. Kadu Kurubas believe in herbal traditional treatment for common illnessess.

Kurubas are one of the dominant tribal groups in the forests of Mudumalai and there are two communities of them – Bette (or) Kadu Kurubas and Jain Kuruabas.

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KOKOLU ANKA RAO
DT:27/12/2007
NAGPUR, MAHARASTRA, INDIA.

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CHOWTI :
Chowti is one of the surnames of Telugu Mudiraj people today. This surname Chowti seems to be closely related to Chowta surname of Tuluva Bunts. The chowta surname can also be seen among Erukalas of Andhra pradesh who are supposed to be bracnch or variants of North Indian bhil-banjara tribes to which Ekalavya belonged and to which some sections of Mudiraj also belonged. This chowta surname among Telugu Erukala people once again confirms that Telugu bants ( Mudiraju Bantlu ) and Tuluva bunts are one and the same people.

Further analysis reveals the fact that the Chowtas of Karnataka were the Chowdas of Gujarat Rajputs who were driven out by Waghelas from Saurastra. Chowdas built the famous Somanath Temple in Gujarat. The Chowtas also built Somanatheswara temple at Ullal. Ullal is very famous for historic locations like Someshwara Temple, Summer Sands Beach Resort and Queen Abbakka's Fort at Ranipura. The family diety of Abbakka Rani of Jain Chowta dynsty was Somanathesvara. The remains of Rani Abbakka's fort can be seen in the vicinity of Someshwara Temple.

Chowta <=> Chowti

Chowta is one of the surnames of Tuluva bants of Karnataka. We also know that some sections of Mudiraj people are known as bants. Chowti seems to be a modification of the surname Chowta of Tuluva bunts, who are mostly jains. These chowti Mudiraj people could be the descendants of Chowta Tuluva Jain Bunts as it is a well known fact that Mudiraja / Muttarasa kings were jains in Karnataka. This stands as a strong proof that Telugu Mudiraja bants and Tulu speaking bunts are one and the same people.

It is said that many Bunt's with high social standing were converted to Jainism and took to that religion many of the Bunt social customs like Aliyasanthana which is not found in Jainism elsewhere. Also BUNT surnames like Chowta, Banga, Ajila, are found coinage in Jainism.

Chauta => Chowta => Chowti

The community has a large number of North Indian sounding surnames- Bhandari, Punja, Naik, Rai to name a few. For there is a theory that they belong to Vijaynagar King Krishnadeveraya's Tuluvamsha. Sri Krishna Deva Raya is also said to be a bant. These North Indian sounding surnames are mostly related to vanra / vanjara / banjara races.

Banjara => Banjari => Band(z)ari => Bandari = Bhandari

The Chowta Jain dynasty ruled the Moodabidri region for several centuries. They moved to Moodabidri in the 17th century, where the last Chowta ruler died in 1833. The ornate Chowta Palace still exists and is occupied by the descendants of the Chowtas. The Chowta queen Abbakka Rani fought the Portuguese army during 1530-1599.

Moodabidri was also the seat of the Chowta's, a local Jain ruling family, who were originally ruling from Puthige, a village about 5 km from here. This area was ruled by the Jain Chautar dynasty for about 700 years. Their descendants still live in an old palace.

Repairs were carried out to Chowtar's Palace, Mudabidri, in Mysore State. The 17th century Chowta Place, which is still occupied by descendants of the royal family, is also worth visiting for its beautifully carved wooden pillars, ceilings and screen.

According to the folklore, Abbakka Chowta is the last known person to have the Agnivana (fire-arrow) in her fight against the Portuguese. She fought the portuuese with courage and intelligence. The Portuguese account (where the queen is referred to as Buca Devi Chauta) also supplies us with details about a surprise attack by Abbakka Devi on the Portuguese garrison at night in Mangalore. The Portuguese suffered many casualties in this bold attack by the Rani's forces.

The Chauta rulers were one of the many small feudatory states in Tulu nadu that paid their allegiance to the rulers of Vijayanagara. The Chauta dynasty followed the matrilineal system, and the ruler Thirumala Raya had carefully prepared his niece Abbakka both in art of diplomacy and the martial arts, in anticipation of her taking the reign of the kingdom. The Chowta head of the dynasty Thirumala Raya had ensured Abbakka's proficiency in martial arts and combat strategies through her training before sending her to Ullal, he also taught her the nuances of diplomacy and State-craft. The Chauta king Thirumala Raya astutely arranged an alliance of marriage between Abbakka Devi and Lakshmappa Banga-raja of the powerful Banga dynasty of Mangalore.

There used to be frequent skirmishes and battles between him and the neighboring Chowta king and Domba Heggade of Vittal.

The Kundur Motte Chowti Mariyamma temple, situated close to the Raja Seat in Madikeri, has great historical significance. Madikeri was the capital city of Mudduraja (Mudiraja) kings kodagu kingdom. The temple is said to be established about three centuries ago. The Chowti Mariyamma, to whom the first poojas are offered for the Dussehra festival, is considered to be the eldest of the four deity sisters - Dandina Mariyamma, Kote Mariyamma and Kanchi Kamakshi. The annual Kola festival of the Kundurmotte Sri Chowti Mariyamma temple is normally held in the month of May. The 'Karaga utsava' of the four 'Shakti Devathas' (deities) during Dasara festival. This place is infested with forests and wild elephants.

There is one Ashta Sambhu Temple ruins (12th cent) at Chaudar near Cuttack Which is perhaps related Eastern Gangas who were also remotly connected Western Gangas (Muttarasas).

To know more details about "Chowta", please refere to chapter "Chowta Y Chowda Dynasties" in the webpage on "kingdoms" and chapter on "Rani Abbakka Devi Chowta" in the webpage on "Queens" in this MUDIRAJA website.

Webmaster
Kokolu Anka Rao
Date = 20/12/2007
Nagpur, Maharastra, India

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MACHCHA & ALWAL :
Machcha and Alwal are two surnames of Mudiraj people which point their origin to North Indian koli / Ganga / Matsya fishing communities. Since these of people of North India were closely connected to Buddhism, it once again proves that the Jain / Buddist Kalabhras who came down to South India were most probably the ancestors of present day Mudiraj people in South India.

Matsya or Machcha (Sanskrit word for fish) was the name of a tribe and the state of the Vedic civilization of India. It lay to south of the kingdom of Kurus and west of the Yamuna which separated it from the kingdom of Panchalas. It roughly corresponded to former state of Jaipur in Rajasthan, and included the whole of Alwar with portions of Bharatpur. The capital of Matsya was at Viratanagara (modern Bairat) which is said to have been named after its founder king Virata. In Pali literature, the Matsya tribe is usually associated with the Surasena. The western Matsya was the hill tract on the north bank of Chambal. A branch of Matsya is also found in later days in Visakhapatnam region.

Machcha = Matsya = Fish
Alwar => Alwal

Alwal is a suburb of Secunderabad which is a twin city of Hyderabad city. A part of the British cantonment, Alwal got its name from the residents of Alwar a city in Rajasthan who settled here in late 1800s. The people who came from Rajastan to Hyderabad could be soldier fit koli warrior community people. The kolis are mainly distributed in Bharatpur, Swaimadhopur, Jaipur, Kota and Alwar districts of Rajastan. Koli users used to live in the valley of Nepal about 2500 years back. After the fall of their regime, they settled in different parts of India. After the end of Gupta ruls in 6th A.D, Moriya, Mura and Maurya began to work on threads to hide their identity in course of time, they came to be known as kolis. Kolis are also known as koria. The kolis also used to be called kuleen Kshatriya in the past. Later on they came to be known as kohli, kholi, kohil and koly. Now they are known as koli and kori. Koris are known to be specialised in weaving.

In early 6th century BCE, Matsya was one the solasa (sixteen) Mahajanapadas (great kingdoms) mentioned in the Buddhist text Anguttara Nikaya, but its political clout had greatly dwindled and had not much of political importance left by the time of Buddha. The Mahabharata (V.74.16) refers to a King Sahaja, who ruled over both the Chedis and the Matsyas which implicates that Matsya once formed a part of the Chedi Kingdom. Meenas are considered the brothers and kinsmen of Virata, the ruler of Virat Nagar. They ruled this area(Near to Virat Nagar) till 11th century CE.

Matsya Kingdom was founded by fishermen community who later attained kingship. The Sanskrit word Matsya means fish. Satyavati, the wife of Kuru king Santanu was from this community. King Virata, a Matsya king, founded the kingdom of Virata. He was the father-in-law of Abhimanyu the son of Arjuna. The epic Mahabharata relates the founder of Matsya kingdom to the ruler of Chedi, viz Uparichara Vasu.

An interesting fact is that fishing was the main occupation of the people who lived near river Saraswati. After the Saraswati River dried up, they migrated to river Charmanwati now known as Chambal meaning fish in Dravidian languages. Krishna Dwaipayana Vyasa, was son of Satyavati who belogned to this fishermen community and yet was a Vedic scholar, thus attesting the origin of Vedas from the Saraswati basin.

Other than the Matsya kingdom to the south of Kuru Kingdom, which falls in the Alwar, Bharatpur districts of Rajasthan, the epic refers to many other (as many as, six other) Matsya kingdoms. The Pandya Kingdom in the extreme south, also bears the icon of a fish on its official banner showing some connection with the Matsya kings. The main Matsyas under Virata had its capital named Viratanagari which is now known as Bairat in Jaipur district of Rajasthan. Upaplavya was another famous city in this kingdom.

In present days Meenas of Rajasthan are considered the brothers and kinsmen of Virata, the ruler of Virat Nagar. They ruled this area (Near to Virat Nagar) till 11 th century. Many historical evidence is recovered from this area all belonging to time of Lord Buddha. Among their last Kingdoms Dhundhar was the biggest and later on the region was governed by the Kachwaha dynasty from the 11th century until after India's independence in 1947.

Matsya is a Sanskrit word and it means . It was the first Avatara of Vishnu. According to legend, the mantri to the king of pre-ancient Dravida, Satyavata who later becomes known as Manu was washing his hands in a river when a little fish swam into his hands and begged him to save its life. He put it in a jar, which it soon outgrew; he successively moved it to a tank, a river and then the ocean. The fish then warned him that a deluge would occur in a week that would destroy all life. Manu therefore built a boat which the fish towed to a mountaintop when the flood came, and thus he survived along with some "seeds of life" to re-establish life on earth.

Emperor Mandhata is said to be the descendant of Manu and an ancestor of Kolis. A majority of Mudiraj / Muthuraj people in South India are the Kolis who migrated to South India.

Mumbai was named after Mumbadevi, the Koli stone goddess whose temple stands tall amid the chaotic bustle of Babulnath market in south Mumbai. The Kolis are a traditional fishing community whose links with Mumbai date back to the time when it was an archipelago of seven islands with lush palm trees, protected by mangroves and reefs. The names of some islands still endure. For example, Colaba (Kol-aba), which means Koli estate, and Mazagaon, which is apparently derived from Machcha gaun, meaning fish village. Koli village.

Most scholars• today believe in some form of the Indo-Aryan migration hypothesis, which proposes that the Aryans, a semi-nomadic people, possibly from Central Asia or northern Iran, migrated into the north-west regions of the Indian subcontinent between 2000 and 1500 BCE. The merger of the Vedic culture with the earlier Dravidian cultures (presumably of the descendants of the Indus Valley Civilization) apparently resulted in classical Indian culture. This theory suggests that the Indus Valley Civilization was essentially Vedic and spread to other parts of Europe between the 6th and 2nd millennia BCE. The births of Mahavira and Buddha in the 6th century BCE mark the beginning of well-recorded Indian history.

There are also Mudiraj people with surname ALWAL among Mudiraj community. So it appears that the presence of people in Mudiraj community with surname MACHCHA and ALWAL reinforces the theory that the Mudiraj people are descendants of Koli / Ganga warrior kings of North Indian origin.

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Kokolu Anka Rao
30/11/2007
Nagpur, Maharastra, India


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NAWADA OR NAVADA :
Nawada or Navada is a surname of Telugu Mudiraj people of Andhra Pradesh. Nawada is the name of a place in Nalanda district of Bihar which is an important location for Jainis and Buddhists as well. The places such as Nalanda, Gaya, Rajgir, Vaishali, etc which are famous for Jainsm and Buddism are located in the surrounding of Nawada. There is also a village Nawada in Panipat district of Haryana state. Haryana and Punjab are known places of Khatris (Koli Kshatriyas).

We have records and inscriptions with information that Western Ganga Kings were Muttarasas ( ancestors of Mudiraj ). Western Ganga kings Sripurisha and his son Shivamara-II even assumed the title of MUTTARASA. They were great patrons of Jainism and the huge Gomateswara Bahubali statue was constructed during their rule. The Western Gangas are said to come down to South India from Gangetic river basin in North India.

Since the ancestors of many Mudiraj kings are said to be Jains & Buddists and came to South India, it many be assumed that the Mudiraj people having Nawda surname could possibly be the descendants of those Jain kings who came from Bihar.

Nawada, founded in the 5th century AD, is famous as the ancient seat of learning. A sinless city it is a great pilgrimage center of the Jains.

Nawada is a city and a municipality in and headquarters of Nawada district in the Indian state of Bihar. National Highway-31 passes through the town and it is also connected by rail as it is on gaya-kiul oxilliary line. It is an ancient place and spritually important for jainism. There is Jalmandir and gunawan jee mandir related to jainism. It is a spritually sound place and pawapuri-tirthankar mahavir's nirwan sthal, gaya, bodh gaya, rajgir and nalanda is very near places of historical importance. On Nawada - Patna Road, there are a handsome Jain temple standing. The temple reminds one of the great jain influence . It is one of International Importance place for jain and Budhist tourist spots. Gonawan Jee or other Jain temples are visited by native as well as forgein pilgrims.

Near to Nawada, there is one village Ghosrawan where there is a rundown museum with a small collection of Buddha statues found in the area. Ghosrawa village is on the site of what was once a very large and important Buddhist monastery, probably the Kapotaka Vihara visited by Hiuen Tsiang. Just outside the village and besides the lake is a fine Buddha statue nearly 10 feet high calved out of shiny black stone. The temple in the village of Tetrawan, a few kilometres to the south contains an astonishing collection of beautifully calved Buddhas and bodhisattvas.

Ghosrawan village has a temple, housing a rich as well as valuable collection of carved Buddhas and Bodhisattvas. Also nearby, is Nawada, boasting of a museum with an amazing display of Buddha statues found in the adjoining areas. Ghosrawan is a small village situated in the state of Bihar, India. The significance of Ghosrawan stems from the fact that it stands on the site of a very large and important Buddhist Monastery. The monastery, probably known as the Kapotaka Vihara, even founds a mention in the account of travels of Hiuen Tsang, the famous Chinese traveler. One of the major attractions of Ghosrawan is a huge statue of Lord Buddha, approximately 10 ft high. One can easily reach Ghosrawan from Rajgir.

In Bihar there is, as a rule, a large mart every 15 miles, where grain can be stored in a warehouse, it is generally to these that the larger producers and the beparis ( Vyaparis ) take their grain rather than to the local hats , where commodities of all kinds are bought and sold once a week. their ranks in the nineteenth century were filled increasingly by members of the socalled bania castes, mostly Marwaris and Aggarwals, but also Khatris ( Many of them are Koli Kshtriyas ) ; some were also Agrahris and Muslims. A Marwari and Aggarwal presence in the ranks of traders and merchants dates back at least to the Mughal period, when Jains from the western Indian areas of Rajasthan and Gujarat, many of whom were Marwari Banias, settled in eastern India in the train of Rajputs allied to Mughal rulers. Their arrival in eastern India marked a return of sorts, because the region was the site of many holy places associated with Jainism. By the seventeenth century Jains had taken up residence in Bihar; by the 1630s Patna was considered to be a "homeland" of the Jains.

Geographically Nawada is surrounded by the places which one of greatly historical and geographical importance. Nalanda which is matchlessly unique for its glorious past is in the North direction to Nawada. Hajaribagh a well-known magically wonderful spot of parks and natural beauty is in the South . Giridih a beautiful holly place is in its East. Gaya an International tourist place is in its West. The language is basically magahi a sub-language to hindi. it is 105 km from patna and 60 km from gaya.Kakolat is exactly.

Rajgir,19 kms from Nalanda, was the ancient capital of Magadha Empire. Lord Buddha often visited the monastery here to meditate and to preach. Rajgir is also a place sacred to the Jains, Since Lord Mahavira spent many years here. In Pawapuri, or Apapuri, 38 kilometres from Rajgir and 90 kilometres from Patna, all sins end for a devout Jain. Lord Mahavira, the final tirthankar and founder of Jainism, breathed his last at this place.

Pawapuri is one of the centres of Jain pilgrimage. It is said that Vardhamana Mahavira. the last Jain Tirthankar, attained Nirvana here at Pawapuri in 490 B.C. It is situated on the Patna-Ranchi Road, 80 km east of Patna. Buses also ply from Rajgir and Nawada to Pawapuri. The Water temple, built in Kamal Sarobar is very sacred. The large tank, excavated in the beautiful surroundings, is full of lotus, and in the midst of the tank has been built the temple of white marble by the Swetambara sect of the Jains.

Near the holy city of Gaya, the Buddha attained enlightenment. The tree that had sheltered him came to be known as the Bodhi tree and the place Bodhgaya. Today Bodhgaya, an important place of pilgrimage, has a number of monasteries, some of them established by Buddhists of Japan, Thailand, Myanmar, Sri Lanka etc. Nalanda, a great centre of Buddhist learning center, came into prominence around the 5th century BC and was a flourishing university town with over ten thousand scholars and an extensive library. Vaishali was one of the earliest republics in the world (6th century BC).It was here that Buddha preached his last sermon. Vaishali, birthplace of Lord Mahavira is also Sacred to Jains.

Nawada district is one of the thirty-seven districts of Bihar state, India, and Nawada town is the administrative headquarters of this district. Kadirganj, located 10 km from Nawada, has a very old and famous silk small scale industry where many workers carry out the activities of cleaning and weaving of silk. Weaving is one of the professions of Koris of North India ( a variant of Kolis ) and Mudiraj / Muthuraj people are known to be kolis who came to South India.

Nawada is a conjugation of natural seen and scenery with many panoramic views. Kakolat, the famed waterfall in the district of Nawada, finds references in ancients texts. Kakolat is a waterfall in Gobindpur police-station, about 21 miles away from Nawada. Just below the fall there is a deep reservoir natural in character. The fall is about 150 to 160 feet, from the ground level. The scene is panoramic due to all-round green forest area, which is very pleasant to the eyes.

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Kokolu Anka Rao
29/11/2007
Nagpur, Maharastra, India


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PADIGA :
Padiga surname is seen among the people of Tenugu (Tenugollu) sub caste of Telugu Mudiraj community of Andhra Pradesh. From the inscriptional evidence, it appears that people of this surname belonged to Bellary district and worked as warriors for the Rastrakuta kings of those times. Padigala and Padige are also surnames which seems to be a modification of Padiga. Padiga means Hood (of a snake).

Padiga => Padige
Padiga => Padigala => Padigela

Miscellaneous Inscriptions in Kannada - VOLUME IX - Part - I : RASHTRAKUTAS : 61- (A.R. No. 297 of 1918.) -ON A HERO-STONE SET UP NEAR THE SANKARALINGASVAMI TEMPLE IN SIRASTAHALLI, HARAPANAHALLI TALUK, BELLARY DISTRICT - This inscription dated Saka 853 ( = A.D. 931-32) records the death of a warrior named Padiga-Nomba in a village raid in the reign of the Rashtrakuta king king Goyi[nda*]ra-Vallabha (Govinda IV) and the grant of some wet and dry fields to the family of the dead warrior by Ayyapayya, who was ruling over Masevadi hundred-and-forty and Kogali-nadu. No details are given to verify the date.

Kaki Padigalavallu : Patam Katha is performed by the members of the Kakipadigela Vallu community. Kakipadigela VaIlu are dependent caste singers of the Mudiraj caste. At one time the Kakipadigele Vallu and the Mudiraj castes were one and the same. But legend has it that once a Mudiraj boy brought home a dead crow. Outraged at the sight of a dead crow in the hands of a Mudiraj boy Sabari Mahalakshmi cursed the boy's family to become Kakipadigela Vallu. She also deemed that they would always be dependent on the Mudiraj community for their livelihood and since then the Kakipadigela Vallu have been under the patronage of the Mudiraj. For more details see page on ARTS in this website.

Padiga Rajulu : Three kinds of beggars are attached to Padma Saalis (Sales) viz Sadhana Surulu (Soorulu), Padiga Rajulu or Koona Pilli Vandlu and Inaka Mukku Bhatrajus.

The Padiga Rajulu are supposed to be the descendants of three persons - Adigadu, Padigadu and Baludu who sprang from the sweat of Bhavana Rishi and the following legend is current concerning the origin of the Padmasalees and Padiga Rajulu. At the creation of the world men were naked and one Markandeya, who was sixteen years old, was asked to weave cloths. To enable him to do so, he did thapas (Penance ), and from the sacred fire arose Bhavana rishi, bearing a bundle of thread obtained from the lotus which sprang from Vishnu's navel. Bhavana Rishi made cloths and presented them to Devatas, and offered a cloth to Bhairava also.

There seems to be some relation between Mudiraj and Padma Salee communities. While Mudiraj people are closely related to North Indian koli fishing community, the Padma salee people are weavers like Noth Indian Kori weaving community. And we also know that both Kolis and Koris belong to the Bhil community. Koris seems to a section of Kolis who became a separate community as they initially took to weaving of fishing nets as full time profession .

Webmaster
Kokolu Anka Rao
05/10/2007
Nagpur, Maharastra, India


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KODIMELA & KODEMALA :
Kodemala and Kodimela are two surnames that belong to some Telugu Mudiraj caste people today. They seems to closely related Coorg or Kodagu region which is also known as "Kodamale Nadu" or "Kodimale Nadu". These two surnames seems to be resulted due to gradual modification of the country name of their ancestors. This part of the country of was ruled by a well known haleri king Muddaraja. The Mudiraj people in Karnataka are known as Mudduraja or Muddaraja.

Kodimalenadu => Kodimale => Kodimela
Kodamalenadu => Kodamale = Kodemala

The prominent rulers of kodagu country were Mudduraja (1633-87), Lingaraja (1775-80) and Virarajendra Wodeyar (1789-1809). Dodda Vira Raja (also called Siribai Dodda Vira Raja) ruled from 1687 � 1736. Dodda Vira Rajendra (1780 � 1809) and Linga Raja II (1811 � 1820) also had significant impact on the history of the region. Dodda Vira Raja improved transportation by building bridges across ancient trenches. He also streamlined the administration of the region into villages, districts and appointed district headmen.

The history of Madikeri is related to the history of Kodagu. Mudduraja was one of the famous kings of Kodagu region who founded the Madikeri Town and ruled his kingdom from Madikeri as his capital city. Mercara, or Madikeri as is commonly known by the local populace is the headquarters of Coorg (Kodagu) district. It was founded by a prince - Mudduraja of Haleri dynasty in 1681 AD. It owes its name to him as Muddurajanakeri which became Muddurakayray which in time became Madikeri for the locals whilst the British called this province as Mercara. Muddurajakeri which means Mudduraja's town, was named after the prominent Haleri king, Mudduraja who ruled Kodagu from 1633-1687.

Historical inscriptions show that Kodagu was included in the Kingdom of Gangas in the 9th and 10th centuries and Cholas in the 11th century. The historical evidences indicate that Cholas were non other than Muthurajas or a variants of Muthurajas. Lot of Muthurajas use Chola or Cholai in their surnames. The Puranic name for Coorg was also Matsyadesa (matsya, meaning fish) as is recorded in the Kaveri Purana. Down the ages, it came to be known as Kodagu and the people, Kodavas.

According to purana Chandravarma the youngest son of King Siddhartha of Matsya country came on pilgrimage to Brahmagiri the origin of river Kaveri. He settled down with eleven sons married and each having more than hundred sons. The eldest son Devakanta was crowned who with all the members presented before Goddess Kaveri flowing down at Balamuri (Balumberi) in the early hours of Tulasankranthi, the time of sun's entering the sigh of Libra. During the flow the sari knot of Kaveri got turned backwards at Balamuri while she blessed the members present. All of them (Kodavas) took the first bath in the river here.

There is some thing significant for the people of Mudiraj, when Kodagu or Coorg was referred as Matsyadesa (Country of fishermen). A large section of Mudiraj people are descendants of ganga kings who ruled Kodagu region. The gangas were also the fishermen warrior kings who migrated from the banks of river ganga in North India. The Western Ganga Dynasty king Sripurisha who ruled this part of Karnataka assumed the title MUTTARASA. His son Shivamara-II was also known as Muttarasa by many historians.

For more detailed information, readers are requested to page on "CITIES" in this website and check for MADIKERI- CAPTAL CITY OF MUDDARAJA.

Webmaster
Kokolu Anka Rao
28/09/2007
Nagpur, Maharastra, India


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MANNE, MANNEM & MANNEMALA :
These surnames of Mudiraj people seems to be related to each other and modified versions of the same one original word Manne. This surname can also be seem among Kammas, Reddys, Malas and may be among some other Andhra castes.

Manne indicates the name of a tribe who are closely related to Koyas of Andhra Pradesh. They are could be a variant of koyas. In Chandrapur district of Maharastra these people are known as Mannewar. Most of the WARS in Maharastra are descendants of telugu speaking people but settled in Marathi speaking Maharastra.

Mannem = Forest
Mannem <=> Manne <=> Mane =>Manewada
Mannem <=> Manne => Mannewar
Manne <=> Mannem <=> Mannemala

The MANE is a surname among Kaikadis of Maharastra. For proof, readers may refer to e-mail no.28 in the webpage "UREMAILS" in this website written by Sharad Mane to the webmaster. Sharad Mane is from Kaikadi cate of Maharastra. Kaikadis are the descendants of Kakatiyas who established one of the greatest Hindu - Telugu Kingdom in Deccan India that boldly stood against the onslaught of Muslim invading forces into South India.

The word Mannewar is derived from a Telugu word MANNEM, meaning forest. AS it is said above "war" indicates their Telugu descendancy. The name Mannewars indicate that they were the forest people or descendants of forest people of Telugu speaking lands. Mannewars are commonly called Mannewar Koyas indicating their main class of Koyas. Koya Doras correspond to the Raj-Gonds of the north of the Province and the Mannewar Koyas to the Dhur or 'dust' Gonds. Mannewars are known to slightly inferior to Koya Doras and thus these Mannewars might have belonged to lower strata of Koyas who did not have joined the ruling class like Racha Koyas.

Mannemala = Manne + Mala
Mala = hill
Mannemala = hill covered with forest

Mannewar --A small tribe belonging to the south or Telugu-speaking portion of the Chanda District, where they mustered about 1600 persons in 1911. The home of the tribe is the Hyderabad State, where it numbers 22,000 persons, and the Mannewars are said to have once been dominant over a part of that territory.

The name is derived from a Telugu word mannem, meaning forest, while war is the plural termination in Telugu, Mannewar thus signifying 'the people of the forest.' The tribe appear to be the inferior branch of the Koya Gonds, and they are commonly called Mannewar Koyas as opposed to the Koya Doras or the superior branch, Dora meaning 'lord' or master. The Koya Doras thus correspond to the Raj-Gonds of the north of the Province and the Mannewar Koyas to the Dhur or 'dust' Gonds.

The tribe is divided into three exogamous groups: the Nalugu Velpulu worshipping four gods, the Ayidu Velpulu worshipping five, and the Anu Velpulu six. A man must marry a woman of one of the divisions worshipping a different number of gods from his own, but the Mannewars do not appear to know the names of these gods, and consequently no veneration can be paid to them at present, and they survive solely for the purpose of regulating marriage.

Mannewars of Maharastra
Mannewars seems to be recognised as Gonds. The word Gond is said to be derived from Telugu word Konda and hence these people are originally Telugu speaking dravidians having their ancestral origins in Central India. These people could be from hilly forest regions and hence came to be known as Mannewar. Mannewar (Gond) is a forest tribe of India. This community lives in Madhya Pradesh, and Maharashtra.

The Manne are a Telugu-speaking subgroup of the Kolams and have forgotten Kolami under the dominance of Telugu culture. In Sironcha, the smelters are a tribe of Mannewars. Sandeep Chavan is a Mannewar from Maharastra. Some Chanas are from Scheduled Caste.

The Gonds have a subdivision called Mannewar, and as "war" is only a Telugu suffix for the plural, the proper name Manne closely resembles Mana. Mana is a Dravidian caste of cultivators and labourers belonging to Chandra district, from which they have spread Nagpur, Bhandara, and Balaghat. Manas were also rulers till Gonds of South India invaded them.

Manne => Mannewar

The suffix "WAR" in the surnames of Maharastrians generally indicates that they are the descendants of originally Telugu speaking people living in Vidarbha region of Maharastra. There is a Mannewar subsect among Telugu Mala community in Andhra Pradesh.

There is evidence that as recent as 100 years ago many interior tribal people who moved out of forests to find sustenance during famines were incorporated as Malas by the caste Hindu cultivators. These people holds the surname as Mannem or Manne. In telugu Mannem means forest area where tribal live.

Konda = Hill
Konda => Gonda => Gond

The word mannewar is derived from the Telugu word mannet meaning jungle or forest and as these people lived in the forest, they are known as Mannewar. The Mannewar, a Telugui speaking people, live in the districts of Chandrapur, Gadchiroli, Amaravati, Yeotmal and Nagpur. There is one Mannewar Colony in Anant Nagar part of Nagapur city of Maharastra.

For more details, readers are requested to see web page "WAR(ROIR) TRIBES" in this website MUDIRAJA.

Webmaster
Kokolu Anka Rao
Date : 27/11/2008
Nagpur, Maharastra, India


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u>KONGA :
People having Konga surname are among Mudiraj today. Kongani was a ganga king who ruled western ganga kingdom before the famous king Durnivita. Dr. Nagaswamy, in his Mutharayar - defines them (Mutharays) as Ganga Kings of Kongani belonging to Tamil Mudhu Velir kudi. Kongunadu was known as konga desa. They seem to be the descendants of Western Ganga kings. Also, the earliest lithic record calling the Ganga kings Konganipattam (Kongani crown) starts only with the Serugunda inscription of 6th century, during the rule of King Avinita, indicating the conquest of the Kongu region by Avinita. This is proof enough, it is claimed, that the Gangas were not natives of the Kongu region of modern Tamil Nadu either. The Western Ganga King, when the century began, was Durvinfta Kongani, son of Avanlta.

Konga country was located in the present day - districts of Coimbatore and Salem.

Kongani => Konga => kongu

Kongu Nadu is a region in the state of Tamil Nadu in Southern India.The word Kongu is derived from Kanku found in inscritions which inturmn is from the name of the dominant community Kankas (Gangas) or Kongar or the modern Kongu Vellala Gounder (caste). An alternative (dravidian) theory says it to be rich in honey or nectar of flowers and hence it came to be known as the Kongu Nadu meaning country. The people who lived in that part of the Tamil country were called Kongars. The ancient Kongu country extended up to the River Kaveri in Mysore. The people of this region identified themselves by either wearing garlands of distinct flowers or by having the totem of an animal or a bird.

An alternative theory says that it is the land of Gangas. Ganga in Tamil is written Kanka which subsequently has become Kongu. The Kongu Vellalar community living here is the majority, its original name is Ganga kulam Gounder (caste).

In the ancient period the region around Coimbatore was known as Kongu Nadu (Kongu country) and was ruled by local Velir chiefs, who were of Tamil origin. In the course of time Kongu country witnessed long drawn out struggles between the different kingdoms of south India: the Cholas (who ruled the area of Tanjore), the Pandyas (who ruled in the region of Madurai) and the Cheras or Keralas (who ruled the Kerala coast). The region ruled by these kingdoms was known as the land of the Tamils, as Tamil was the language spoken here. The information we get about these three states is mainly based on Tamil literature also called the 'Sangam literature'.

The Kingdom of Punnata was perhaps a small state corresponding to parts of S. Mysore and N. Coimbatore during rule of the Gangas over Kongu, possibly immediately after the death of Vishnugopa. Some historians claim the earliest home of the Gangas was the Kongu region in Tamil Nadu accepting in toto the twelfth century Shimoga inscription. They further qualify their reasoning with a seventeenth century chronicle called Kongidesarajakkal. They have identified Perur (the place where the princes supposedly met the Jain guru) as a location in the Coimbatore district of Tamil Nadu. This is because some Tamil inscriptions call them Konganiyarasas (kings of Kongu region). the earliest lithic record calling the Ganga kings Konganipattam (Kongani crown) starts only with the Serugunda inscription of 6th century, during the rule of King Avinita, indicating the conquest of the Kongu region by Avinita. This is proof enough, it is claimed, that the Gangas were not natives of the Kongu region of modern Tamil Nadu either. For more details read about King Sripurusha under KINGS in this website.

There are many inscriptions of the Ganga kings of Mysore that speak of a marriage alliance between the kadamba and the Ganga Royal families. Some inscriptions of Ganga king Avinita record that he was the son of Kongani Mahadhiraja by the beloved sister of the Kadamba king Krishnavarmma.

Mutharayars kings are also said to have originated from vellalars by some historians and hence the Kongu vellalars could be the same people as those of mutharayars. There is also the Kalabhra link to Mutharaiyar, they could have been what was left over of the Kalabhra rule of Tamil Nadu, Kalabhra and Gangas of Talakkad - do they belong the same geneology.

Webmaster
Kokolu Ankarao
Date : 29th August 2008
Nagpur, Maharastra, India


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SINGANAMALA :
Singanamala is a village in Penagalur mandal of Rajampet constituency in Kadapa (Cuddapa) district of Andhra Pradesh.


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DRONADULA :
This suname exists in Reddy coomunity also. The people having Dronadula belong to Recharla gotram. The famous Brahmanaidu who was a prominent personality in the war of Paldu belongs to Recharla gotram / surname. As per the story of Goddess Ankamaa narrated by ballads, mudiraj chieftains Kommaraju or Choda chari joined the court of Brahma Nayud. These people belong to ruling & administrative class.

One inscription mentions grants of land made by Dronadula Poti-Nayudu and others to god Ramanatha-Mahadeva at Ravulapadu. Inscription No. 295. (A. R. No. 254 of 1924.)On a slab lying close to the stream at Adaviravulapadu, Nandigama Taluk, Krishna District. S. 1164. (Subhakrit)


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KOLI & KOLA :
These surnames seem to indicate the descendancy of these people from Kolis, who are also known as kolas. Kolas and kolis are one and the same people belonging to kolarian race. Mudiraj people of Andhra Pradesh are known to be a variants of kolis of North India. Son Kolas as a subsect among kolis in Maharastra. The kolis near Benaras, Nepal and at Himalaya foot hils are known as Kolas, Kolyas, Koliyans, kuliyans. Gautama Buddha's mother and wife were the daughters of Koliyan kings. Colas or Cholas are expected to be the warrior people of Kolas who migrated to South India even before Ramayana times. Kolas and Cholas are solar race (suryavamsi) people having hunting and fishing as their basic professional background.

Koliyans => kolis => kolas => colas => cholas


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ALUGU :
Alugu was the surname of Kalchuri kings of Palnadu, a northern region located in Guntur district of present Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. Nalagama Raju was the son of Alugu Bhupathi Raju of the Palanati Kalachuris. His step brother was Malideva Raju, who was married to a princess of the Kalyani branch of Kalachuris.

Alugu Radhayya and Talari Mallesham were fishermen and members from the local Mudiraj Association, Mudiraj near Patancheruvu. This once again strengthens the fact that the people of Mudiraj are the descendants of Kalchuris who were originally from Central India.

There are Mudiraj people with surname Elugu also. Further Alagan is also a surname of Muthuraja in Tamilnadu and it was proved to be a modification of Elugu. Alagans were one of the well known rulers of Tamilakam areas of present Tamilnadu & Kerala. It appears that Elugu and Alugu were related to each other.

Elugu <=> Alugu
Alugu => Alagu => Alagan


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BANDARI :
This surname Bandari seems to be closely related to Bhandary. Bhandary is also one of the surnames of Tuluva Bunts. Bandari, Bantari and Banjari are related names to vanara.

Vanara <=> Vanachara
Vanachara => Vanajara => Vanjara =>Banjara
Banjara => Ban(d)jara => Bandara => Bandar
Bhandary <=> Bhandari <=> Bandari

Bandargaon means port towns on Indian seacoast. The people who established port towns / cities in ancient India were all Indian fishermen relating to koli / mudiraj and these people are also known valmikis & vanaras in ancient India. Kolis claim that valmiki belonged to their caste and the ramayana written by valmiki is known by them as koli valmiki ramayana.

Valmikis = Kolis

The Telugu Bants and Tuluva Bunts were closely related racially and professionally. The warrior people of Tuluva Bunts and Telugu Bants were the founders of Vijayanagar Kingdom.


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BAIRI :
BAIRI seems to be closely related to BAARI, the surname of Tuluva bunts. Mudiraju people are also known as bants. There are several common surnames which have close resemblance among Telugu Mudiraju bants and Tuluva Bunts indicating that they are one and the same people or variants.

Bairi <=> Baari


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BONAM :
Bonam is one the surnames of Telugu Mudiraj people of Andhra Pradesh. This surname closely related to Motherworship. Bonam is the food offered to Mother Goddess. Kalabhras who are believed to be the ancestors of Mudiraj were Motherworshippers. They worshipped both Gangamma and Mangamma (Angamma = Ankamma). This surname is also found among Kapu / Telaga / Balija families.

Gangamma = Ganga
Mangamma = Mangala Gaurri = Parvathi = Ankamma
Ankamma = Angamma

Bonalu is a Hindu festival celebrated in Hyderabad, Secunderabad and some parts of Telangana, in ritual honour of Mahankali, The Mother Goddess. Women go to the temple carrying it on their heads and offer the bonam to the deity. Hence the Jathara acquired the name `Bonalu'- plural of bonam.

Bojanaalu => Bojanalu => Bonalu
Bojanaalu = Bojanam => Bonam

The festival starts with the Golconda Mahankali, which is located inside the Golconda fort, and then to Secunderabad's Ujjani Mahankali temple, and then to old city and its suburbs.

Bonam means Bojanaalu, meaning a meal in Telugu , is an offering to the Goddess. Women bring cooked rice mixed with milk and sugar, sometimes onions, filled with water in polished brass vessels or in earthen-pots (usually two pots), put small neem branches, spotted in scared colors of turmeric (pasupu), vermilion (kunkum), sometimes Kadi(white chalk). The bonam is lit atop with a deepam/diya and put the vessel on their heads and gather with other women, and proceed to a local Goddess temple. They are led by pounding drum beaters and dancing men. This century-old tradition is celebrated since the time of the Nizams, who participated in the event.

Bonalu is also celebrated for goddess Gangamma thalli and his brother PothulaRaju in Balijapalli, Rajampet, Kadapa, Andhra Pradesh.

Ankamma is the Goddess of a large section of Mudiraj in East and South Andhra Pradesh. Pothuraju is also said to be the brother of Goddess Ankamma and her sister Poleramma. This give rise to speculation that either Ankamma and Gangamma are sisters or they are one and the same Goddess. It is quite probable that while Gangamma ( Ganga) is worshipped by koli fishermen descendant Mudiraj people, Ankamma ( Parvathi = Manga ) is worshipped by forest dwelling and hunting vanara descendant Mudiraj people. Both Ganga and Manga are the wives of Shiva whom the Dravidians worshipped as a part of their Vedic religion.

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KOKOLU :
This surname seems to relate Kalchuri kings. Kokalla or kokkula was one great king of Kalchuri clans who ruled Haihaya dynasty from Tripuri (Jabalpur). In fact, about 15 kings of kalchuri clan who ruled Haihaya dynasty from Tripuri (Jabalpur) were known as Kokalla-I to Kokalla-15. There are several surnames which are in use at present by different groups of people in the society which resemble to kokalla and kokkula. kokolu seems to be one of such modified surnames and which prevail among some Mudiraj families of today. For more details, please see the page about Mudiraj related kings in this website

kokalla => kokkula => kokkola => kokola => kokolu


In the stone inscriptions of King Jajalwa Dev of Ratanpur, during the year 866 (as per Hindu calendar/or 1114 A.D.), it is mentioned that Kokkula of Cheds dynasty had 8 sons. The first son was the ruler of Tripuri and the others became the administrators of small kingdoms. Kalingraj were ancestors of these younger sons. Kalingraj occupied South Kaushal (present Chhattisgarh) and stayed there. He made Tumman as his capital. Kalingraj's son was Kamalraj.Kamalraj's son Ratnaraj or Ratnesh built temples, gardens etc. to make Tumman a beautiful place. Ratnaraj also founded Ratanpur. His son Prithvidev also constructed a temple at Tumman and a lake at Ratanpur. In one of the ancient writings of Prithvidev-I named Amodhapatt(at the time of year 831, Chedi Samvat, 1079 A.D.) there is reference to the dedication of Chatushk(building standing on four pillars) in Tumman. Ratnadev-I made Ratanpur which is now in Bilaspur District, as his capital in place of Tumman.


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BADDIGAM :
BADDIGA also seems to relate to kalchuri clans. BADDIGAM is perhaps a modified form of surname in telugu for BADDIGA.In Mudiraja community, there are people with surname Baddigam and they are matrimonially related to the people having Kokolu surname at Addanki near Ongole.

Baddiga => Baddigam

Amoghavarsha III (934 - 939) C.E. also known as Baddiga was in exile in Tripuri and was a younger brother of Indra III and uncle to Govinda IV. With the help of King Arikesari of Vemulavada in Andhra and other feudatories who revolted against Govinda IV he came to power. Not much is known about his uneventful reign. His advanced age and religious temperament did not allow him to show any interest in the governance of the kingdom, which was left to his son Krishna III.[1] He was married to Kundakadevi, a princess from the Kalachuri dynasty of Tripuri. His daughter was married to Western Ganga Dynasty King Bhutuga II to whom a large territory was given as dowry.

The Rastrakutas of Manyakheta and the Kalacuris of Tripuri were matrimonially connected and their relations were generally friendly. But in the reign of Govinda IV, they became strained. The Kalacuri king Yuvarajadeva I espoused the cause of his son-in-low Baddiga-Amoghavarsa III, the uncle of Govinda IV and fought on the bank of the Payosni (Puna) 16.093 km. (10 miles) from Achalpura, between the Kalacuri and Rastrakuta forces, in which the former became victorious. As per the story narrated by ballads during Ankamma Kolupu, one Mudiraj warrior ancestor Dharma Choda Chari belonged to the city of Deavagiri which falls in Marathi speaking lands of Maharastra now.

Baddiga => Baddigam

> Baddige : There was chieftain whose name was Baddige Bhupala and ruled the areas that included Vemulavada in Andhra Pradesh. Baddige seems to be a surname which might have got modified form of Baddiga.

Baddiga => Baddige
Baddie => Baddia => Baddigam

Baddiga Bhupal was a nenowned feudatory. There is a temple of Sitala Devi, popularly known as Baddipochamma which deserves space and ardent worship. There are two independent temples in the same campus and enshrining the self same goddess Sitala Devi, but there is a discernable difference in the archamurtis. The temple being ancient is vast in dimensions and majestic with elegant sculpture. It faces west and is said to have been built by Baddige Bhupal, a feudatory of great renown. The august icon of Sitala Devi enshrined in the garbha grisha is made of granite and grand to look at with hands adorned with sword and anaatra. Her facial features are masterly chiselled and elevate the viewers at first sight itself. And the other granrtie icon installed in a pretty shrine outside, but in the prakara itself is a Chaturbhuja Devi. She is comparatively less benign, but grand, inviting reverent attention. She holds in her four hands, Trisula, Fire-pot, dhamaru and broom and is consonance with her fierce a sect. She is receiving Agamic puja regularly. .

Vemulavada lies 25km of Karimnagar, the district head quarters town of Andhra Pradesh connected by bus. Though predominantly a Saiva kshetra of immense spiritual eminence, and a centre of pilgrimage this temple town is deemed a hallowed haven for a wide variety of Hindu gods of many denominations like Nageswara alayam. Kedareswara aalayam, Kanakadurga aalayam, Nrisimha aalayam, Sitladevi aalayam etc. Each has a legendary back ground and does not lag behind the other either in popularity or enshrining adorable deity. It is a veritable Hari-Hara-Sakti kshetra throbbing with spiritual activities round the year at it. Its tourist appeal is not inferior too. .


Webmaster
Kokolu Anka Rao
DT:10/01/2006



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ELUGU & ALAGAN :
The surname ELUGU in Telugu and ALAGAN in Tamil are one and the same. The surname Elugu belongs to the people of Mudiraj community in Andhra Pradesh and the surname Alagan belongs to the people of Muthuraj in Tamilnadu. This has become very clear from the email received from Parameswaran Alagan from Malaysia.

Elugu => Elugon => Elugan => Elagan => Alagan
Elugu => Alugu => Alagu => Alaga => Alagan

This Title ALAGAN can be seen Kogu Vellalars in Tamilnadu or Tamilakam. Unlike other Vellalar of whose totemic clan and tribal origins have been eclipsed and totally erased by Sanskritisation, Kongu Vellalar still maintain their tribal and clan divisions.

The tamil word Kootam is used to denote a clan. There are about 63 of them listed. Some starting with 'A' are :

Adhitreya Kumban
Aadai
Aadhi
Adhirai
Aavan
Andai
Akini
Anangan
Andhuvan
Ariyan
Alagan

This information once again makes it clear that Vellalars are racially and professionally belong to Mudiraja / Muturaja. Vellalars also built Ankalamman Temples and worship her similar to Mudiraj / Muthuraj / Vettuvas / Vadderas / Valmikis.


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GANJI:
This surname is also prevelent among Padmasali caste people. Padmasalis are weavers. Koris who are variants of kolis are also weavers. Mudiraj people are known to be kolis spread into South India. Weaving was invented first by kolis for making fishing nets. These fishing people are known as valya kolis in North India and they seems to be valayars ( a subsect of Muthuraja ) in Tamilnadu. It is said that Padmasalis are closely related and have liking to Mudaliyars (a variants of Muthuraja) in Tamilnadu. Mudaliyars could be related to koris of North India. Ganji also means starch made out of rice or any other ceral. This ganji is also used in preparing cotton threads ready for weaving.


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MEKALA :
The surname MEKALA is also found among the people of Kamma, Reddy, fishermen, Boya, and Chenchus. It is once again a clear indication that Mudiraj stands for a class of ruling class people / kings and there were many groups of tribal dravidian & Indo-Aryan warriors in this caste.

Mekala is the name of a mountain from which the Narmada river is said to rise, and from which it is called Mekala and Mekala-kanya, daughter of Mekala. There are a people of this name, who probably lived in the vicinity of this mountain. Their kings were also called Mekalas, and there appears to have been a city Mekala. The Narmada river region was also the birth place of Kalchuri clans who are considered to be the ancestors to Kalabhras and in turn to Mudiraja / Muthiraja warrior kings of South India.

Once there was a kingdom by name Mekala in ancient India. There was close family relation between the Sarabhapuriya of Kosala and the Panduvamsis of Mekala. King Bharatavala of Mekala married princess Lokaprakasa of Kosala. Suravala, the son of Lokaprakasa, succeeded his father to the throne of Mekala. The Sarabhapuriya king Sudevaraja I was probably the maternal uncle of Suravala and it is therefore natural that Sudevaraja II got the help of Suravala in his attempt to gain back Sripura. Indravala who belonged to the royal family of Mekala was getting great honour from Sudevaraja II who made him a Mahasamanta.

The people of Mekala Participated in Kurukshetra war. A military array was created by on eighth day of the war where Bhishma with the, Dakshinatyas and battalions from Avanti formed its vanguard. Bhishma was followed by Drona with Pulindas, and the ganas of the Kshudraka-Malavas. Behind them came Bhagadatta surrounded by the battalions from Magadha, Kalinga and Pisachas. After Bhagadatta came Brahadbala of Kosala supported by Mekala, Kuruvinda and Tripura soldiery.

Indradyumna was a king of Malava and belonged to the dynasty of the Pandava. While attempting to identify Indradyumna of Malava, the name of one celebrated king Shri Maharaja Indra, or Bharatavala of the Pandava dynasty often comes to discussion.. Shri Maharaja Indra, was son of Nagavala and grandson of Vatsaraja, grandson of Jayavala of Mekala. He was ruling sometime in the 5th century A.D.King Indrabala was married to Lokaprakasa, the daughter (princess) of the Amararyakula of South Kosala kings.


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MISC :

Akula; Aaku = Leaf
Avula; Aavu = Cow; Avula => Cow related
Bathula; Baathu = Duck; Bathula => Duck related
Battala; Batta = Cloth
Chapala; Chaapa = Fish; Chapala => Fish related
Cheerala; Cheera = Sari (of a woman)
Chenagala; Chenaga = Gram seed
Chiguru; Chiguru = Tender leaf
Dumpala; Dump = Root
Eaga = House Fly
Ginka; Ginka or Jinka = Deer; Ginka => Deer related
Godugu = Umbrella
Gurrala; Gurram = Horse; Gurrala = Horse related
Gurram = horse
Kapi = Monkey
Komma = Branch of a tree
Kommu = Horn of an animal
Konga = Crane (white flying water bird)
Maddhi = Teak
Maddi
Mamidi = Mango
Mamindla => Mango related
Marri = Baniyan Tree
Meka = Goat
Mekala = Goat related
Nakka = Fox
Pettala => Hen related; Petta = Hen
Pittala; Pitta = Bird; Pittala => Bird related
Poola; Poolu = Flower; Poola => Flower related
Puli = Tiger
Ragula; Raagi = Raagi grains; Ragula => Raagi related
Teppa = Boat
Thati = Palm Tree
Yedla; Yeddu = Bull; Yedla => Bull related





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03. LIST OF TAMIL MUTHURAJA SURNAMES - TAMILNADU :

The following are the surnames of Tamil Mutharayars as per the research conducted by Chola Mutharayar Research Center, Tanjore, Tamilnadu.

Surnames with Star (*) indicate that the surname is analysed to find its origins and people of the surnames. For the details of analysis, readers may refer to item-03 on surname analysis in this page itself.


Aabathsagayarayar
Aerikattirayar
Alagarmalairayar
Ambalakkarar *
Anaikattirayar
Anjatha singamutharaiyar
Anjatha singarayar
Annavirayar
Arayar
Arittarkandarayar
Arkotturayar
Arunavinayar
Aruvimalairayar
Beemrayar
Chatrubayangaramutharayar
Chatrukesarirayar
Cholamutharayar *
Cholan
Cholavalavan
Cholavallakamayar
Ellamkondarayar
Enthalkattirayar
Ettikudirayar
Ettipulirayar
Idumbavanarayar
Ilanthivelrayar
Irandampulirayar
Irukkaikudirayar
Irunchonatarayar
Kadanthairayar
Kadothkajarayar
Kaduvelirayar
Kaduvettimutharayar
Kaduvizhirayar
Kalimoorkarayar
Kalvarkalvar
Kanatarayar
Kanchirayar
Kanhamudirayar
Kannangarayar
Kanthlurkondarayar
Karikalarayar
Kariventrayar
Karuvurarayar
Katahamutharayar
Katakarayar
Kathamaravarayar
Kathamaravillaliyar
Kathaperumal
Kaukuntla
Keerthirayar
Killirayar
Killivazhavan *
Kolalimoimburayar
Kolalirayar
Kolalivalavarayar
Kolarirayar
Konadulunar
Konattarayar
Kongandamutharasar
Kongandarayar
Kongarayar
Kongukalamventrarayar
Kongukalavazhirayar
Kongukalimookarayar
Kongukanikodutharayar
Kongukarikalarayar
Kongukonattaraiyar
Kongumusukuntharayar
Kongumutharasar
Kongusenthalai Kounder
Kongusenthalairayar
Konguvalavar
Konguvikkiramarayar
Kookurrayar
Koorvelrayar
Kotampattimaravarayar
Kumararayar
Kurinchinattaraiyar
Kutralarayar
Maacholarayar
Maasilimutharayar
Maasilirayar
Malainattaraiyar
Mangamaikatharayar
Mangattumutharayar
Mangatturayar
Maravamutharaiyar *
Meechiramkondarayar
Meechurayar
Menattaaryar
Meykkarayar
Moopaagathiyarkavalan
Moopaazhahanar
Moopabarathavarayar
Moopakadampavanarayar
Moopakkadamparayar
Moopakon
Moopakoodalrayar
Moopakurinchirayar
Moopamuruhanar
Moopanar Arayar *
Moopar
Moopasangamudayar
Moopathamizharayar
Moopavelaliyar
Moopavelanar
Moopavillaliyar
Moothaaryar
Moothakudiaryar
Mudiraj
Murugavelarayar
Musirirajar
Mutharasar (Mutha Arasar)
Mutharayar (Mutha Arayar)
Muthuraja
Nallarayar
Nalmadibeemarayar
Natambalakarar
Nathampadimaravar
Nattalvar
Nattaraiyar *
Nayakkar
Ochanrayar
Oorali gounder
Otriyurrayar
Oyyakirayar
Padaiventrarayar
Palaimaravar
Pampalimutharayar
Pazhayarayar
Pazhierinthar
Peivettirayar
Perambalarayar
Peraraiyar
Periyacholarayar
Peruvalarayar
Ponninattaraiyar
Poovandarayar
Poovanrayar
Pothikairayar
Poyyilirayar
Pulirayar
Pulivalarayar
Puliyakudirayar
Puliyurrayar
Rao
Rethinakiriyar
Rettapadikondar
Sennivalavar
Senniyar
Senthalaikounder
Senthalairayar
Senthilvelarayar
Senthurarayar
Serukalamutharayar
Serumaramutharayar
Seruvalavamutharayar
Seruvalavarayar
Seruventrarayar
Servai
Servaikarar
Setrambadimutharayar
Setramihumutharayar
Setramvalarmutharayar
Silanbumaravar
Silanthirayar
Singamutharayar
Singarayar
Sithirayar
Sivanesarayar
Suryamutharayar
Thanamarayar
Thananjayarayar *
Thandalaiudayar
Thanjaiyarkon
Therinthavillalirayar
Thirumalrayar
Thirumangairayar
Thirumoorthirayar
Udutha
Uraiyurrayar
Uranthaikoman Uttamaseelirayar
Uttamathanirayar
Valanattarayar
Valarikondarayar
Valavan
Valavar
Valavarkoman
Vallakkamanyar
Vallakkamayar
Vallaththarayar
Vallkkon
Vankaramutharayar
Vankarurayar
Veliyan *
Veliyangarayar
Velkodirayar
Vengaikodirayar
Vengaiyar
Venniventrarayar

The above mentioned list of surnames were collected and compiled after a long research by the organizer Mr. C.Sundararajan Servai, Mutharaya Chola Alias Early Chola History Research Center, 129, Fifth Street, Abraham Pandithar Nagar, Thanjavur, Pin- 613 001, Tamilnadu.

The remaining surnames will be published in course of time after further collection & compilation by the research center.

Matrimonial Relations between Chola and Mutharayars:

Mutharayars are well cultured and civilized community.Some historical evidence shows that mutharayars had close matrimonial relation with cholas and pandyas.Pandyas of medival times were having the epithets varman it was coming from both mutharayars and pallavas.The Mutharayars only first formed the forts in thanjavur and vallam.From this only cholas changed their capital to thanjai.Mutharayars have been portraited in sangam tamil text NALADIYAR .This may be the only caste which has been portraited in sangam texts.Mutharayars have subsects --> Ambalakkarar, servai, servaikkarar, wttaikkarar, muthuraja etc.

Some of the following surnames may probably indicate chola-mutharayar matrimonial relations:

Cholan
Cholai Alagan
Cholamutharayar
Cholavalavan
Cholavallakamayar
Periyacholarayar
Maacholarayar

It was quite a common practice among the kings to marry the daughters of enemies, who were defeated in the war as a part of war compromise / treaty. The girls from enemy side are married by the winning kings or broght as daughter-in-laws so that the defeated enemy agree to maintain a peaceful relationship with the winning king and become a subruler.

Sri Krishna Deva Raya of Vijayanagar empire too married the daughter of Gajapathis of Orissa, who were defeated in the war.

NALADIYAR : Tirukkural, Naladiyar and Pazhamozhi are known for ethical literature and throw sufficient light on the inculcation of human values leading to human perfection. Ethics and other theological codes find powerful expression in these secular Tamil Classics - Tirukkural and Naladiyar.

The period 450 AD to 550AD was followed by works of wisdom and teaching like the Thiruk Kural and the Naladiyar believed by many to have written by Buddhist/jain monks. According to ancient Tamil poem - `Naladiyar , the nature of society can be inferred from the nature of music in the society. It can also be applied to an individual. Naladiyar' refers to the economic value of children.

The sages who composed the 400 classic quatrains of Naladiyar included bits of verse that poignantly describe the lush mountain scenery of Kodaikanal.

WEBMASTER
KOKOLU ANKA RAO
DT:01/12/2005
NAGPUR, MAHARASTRA, INDIA.



Addiional List of MUTHURAJA SURNAMES received later on:

Alagan
Cholai Alagan


(The above surnames are listed here based on email received by webmaster from Parameswaran)

shiva adm wrote:

Sir,

My Fathers Name is Nalla Alagan,My grandfather and his father is Alagan, My great Grandfathers name is Cholai Alagan, and his forefathers. The entire lineage has Alagan as Surname. Elugu in Telugu.

Maybe this will be of help a little bit.

Best regards,

Parameswaran Nalla Alagan
Malaysia
25/08/2006


Is Surname ELUGU => ALAGAN ???

The following chain of words indicate the probable photetic path of transfermation of surname ELUGU (in Telugu) to ALAGAN (in Tamil)

Elugu => Elugo => Elugon =>Elugan => Elagan => Alagan ??


Below is the list of sub class name for Muthuraja that Mr. Kiruban, Malaysia found out in one of the Tamilnadu government website and sent this website on 28/09/2006:

  • Muthuracha, Muthiriyar,
  • Mutharaiyar (Including
  • Muthuraja, Muttiriyar,
  • Ambalakaran, Servai,
  • Servaikkaran, Valaiyar,
  • Kannappa Kula Valaiyar,
  • Bharatava Valaiyar
  • (Paratava Valayar),
  • Palayakkaran, Kavalgar,
  • Talaiyari, Vazhuvadiyar,
  • Poosari, Muthuraj,
  • Muthiriya Moopar (Shanan),
  • Muthiriya
  • Moopanar (Parkava Kulam)* ,
  • Muthiriya Naidu (Gavara),
  • Muthiriya Naicker,
  • Palayakara
  • Naidu, Palayakara Naicker,
  • Muthuraja Naidu,
  • Vanniyarkula Muthuraj,
  • Muthiriya Urali Gounder *,
  • Muthiriya Rao, Vettuva
  • Valaiyar, Arayar,
  • Ambalam, Pillai)




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04. ANALYSYS OF TAMIL MUTHURAJ SURNAMES

The Surnames of Mutharaiyar people of Tamilnadu mostly indicate the names of some famous Muthuraja kings / chieftains / rulers of medieval times in Tamilnadu.

THANANJAYARAYAR & TANJORE
"Thananjayarayar" is one of the surnames of Tamil Mutharayar clans of South India as per the research paper published by chola-Mutharayar research center, Tanjore. This name seems gradually modified from Thananjayarayar to Thanjairayar. Thanjai is another alternative of Thanjore city by which it is known among the people. It appears that the Mutharayar king Thananjaya and or his descendants ruled their kingdom from the Tanjai. This proves that city name Thanjore was a gradual modification of the surname of Thananjayarayar.

Ur => Oor => Voor => Vur = City
Thananjaya => Thananjai => Thanjai => Tanjai
Thananjaya + Ur => Thananjayaur
Thanjayaur => Thanjayavoor =. Thanjavur => Thanjore
Thananjayarayar => Thananjairayar => Thanjairayar => Thanjai

The original name "Thananjaya Ur" might have gradually modified to "Thanja Voor". The legend which says that city was named after a demon "Tanjan" seems to be a cooked up story by Hindu Vaishnava high class priests, who were most probably anti-buddhist & anti-Mutharayars. The demon Tanjam who attacked Tanjore is said to be killed by Vishnu and the city was named after the demon as per his request. Some tell that the demon was killed by mother Goddess. It is a genious method normally adopted by brahmins to earse the old history of the royal clans who were anti-brahmins.

There are Mutharayars or related clans whose surname is - Thanjairayar. Among kongu Vellala Gounders, there are people who claim to belong to Thananjai Kulam ( Thananjai kootam or clan). They could perhaps be the descendants of Thananjayarayar / Dhananjayarayar. Mutharayars are said to be the descendants of vellala / kalabhras.

Webmaster
Kokolu Anka Rao
Date : 16/04/2008
Nagpur, M.S, India

NATTARAIYAR :
Nattaraiyar seems to come under Nattars group of Kallars who in turn belong to Mukkulathor community of of Royal clans of Tamilnadu. Natambalkar, Nattalvar and Nattaraiyar are surnames of Tamil Muthurajas. Ambalakarars, a subcaste of Muthuraja fall under Kallar as well as Marvar groups. These people are said to be the descendants of Kalabhras or Kalabrars.

Natambalakarar
Nathampadimaravar (Nathampattimaravar)
Nattalvar
Nattaraiyar
Kallars = Kallars + Nattars + Ambalakarars.

Kalbhras => Kalabrar => Kalabar => Kalavar
Kalavar => Kalvar => Kallar

Nattars belong to the caste-Hindu Kallar community. The leaders of Nattars, Ambalams, are the self-styled heads of the people in four "nadus" lying in Sivaganga and adjacent districts. The Nattars had the right to hold the "vadam" (rope) and pull the car, besides receiving temple honours before the pulling of the car at temple car of Sri Swarnamoorthi Eswarar temple, during the annual festival.

In ancient and medieval south India, from about the fifth century, the term nadu denoted a micro-region which was important as the basic unit of agricultural production. The agricultural community formed in the nadu was called nattar or nattavar, literally meaning the people of the nadu. Initially it was exclusively composed of the Vellala peasantry, but from the eleventh century there began to appear in Tamil inscriptions the term periyanadu meaning "big nadu" to denote a supra-nadu assembly.

Nattars = Kallars

Nattars headed administrative bodies of Nadus during chola rule : A 1,100-year-old stone inscription of the Parantaka Chola period has been discovered at a Siva temple at Ezhuchur, near Padappai, in Sriperumbudur taluk of Kancheepuram district, 56 km from here. The inscription, datable to 920 A.D., is in Tamil. It was found in the door jamb of the temple which is called Nal-Inakkisvarar (Deity of Good Harmony). The inscription says that Nocci Kilan Kaliya Peruman gave the gold (``pon'' in Tamil) to ``nattar'' to build (``thali'') the temple. The Nattar formed the administrative body of Velima Nallur-Nadu. A ``nadu'' was a geographical division. From the inscription, it was inferred that the present village Ezhuchur was called Velima Nallur in those days and it served as the headquarters of the Nadu of the same name. According to Dr. Rajavelu, ``nattar'' were ``vellalars'' (agriculturists). Most of them owned vast lands. Another inscription too was found as a door jamb in the same temple but its letters have faded out.

The warlike castes such as the Kallars and Maravars of South India maintain a martial tradition and deem themselves to be Ksatriyas, but the Ksatriya model of domination has never found currency in the heartland of the South, the rice-growing lowlands. Kallars are peripheral to the agrarian social formation.

The nattavar were the traditional leaders of Tamil society. ‘nattavar’(nattar)were the traditional leaders of local communities, who, because of their status and knowledge of local conditions would be an effective and loyal ally of government in effecting the revenue settlement.

For more details about Nattars including Kallars, readers may kindly see chapter on " Muttu Ramalinga Devar & Kukkulathors " under menu "Various Names" in this website.

MARAVAMUTHARAIYAR :
Maravamutharayar, Kotampattimaravarayar, Katahamaravarayar and Katahamaravarayar are some surnames that belong to Tamil Muthuraja community. The presence of Marava in Mutharayar surnames suggest that Maravars were part of Mutharayar community. Marvars became an integral part of Muthuraja warrior ruling community in Tamilnadu a long time ago.

Katahamaravarayar => Kataha + Marava + Rayar
Kotampattimaravarayar => Kotampatti + Marava + Rayar
Maravamutharaiyar => Marava + Mutha + Raiyar
Katahamaravarayar => Nathampadi + Maravar

Maravar is one of the three clans that form Mukkulathor ( Mudukulathur ) community in Tamilnadu. The other two are Kallar and Agamudayar. Mukkulathor is used to refer to the trinity of ancient royal lineages.

For more details about Maravars, please refer to chapter on "Muttu Ramalinga Devar & Mukkulathor" under menu "Various Names" in this website.

MOOPANAR ARAYAR
Moopanars are richest Tanjore Farmers. G.K. Moopanar was the tallest leaders of composite Thanjavur district and the TMC president. Parkavakulam -Suruthimar including those Suruthimar who call themselves as Moopanar. Moopanars are known for their hospitality, maintaining friendship and helping those loyal to them.

Once upon a time, there was a queen by name Moopi. Her lineal descendents were known as Moopanars. Tiru Kavith thalam, the well known divya desam is under the trusteeship of the Moopanar clan. Long time back, they were poets, scholars and warriors. Hence this place was known as Kavi sthalam. Over a period of time, it got changed to Kapisthalam.

The artisans from Tachanalur, who are called Pandal moopanars, had their hands very much set on decorations of marriage parties,temple festivals and vvip visits. Their arches on the road side when welcoming the political leaders are fally worth seeing and enjoying. The temple outer decorations are a simple examples of their handi and noble works.

OORALI GOUNDER / URALI GOUNDER
The various castes like Ezhavas, Nadars, Uralis were formed on the basis of their occupation. Urali is a tribal group of Wayanad and also known as is Uralikuruma, which is an artisan tribe. These tribal people in Wayanad have a dialect that is a mix of Kannada (local language of Karnataka) and Malayalam (local language of Kerala). The main occupations of the Uralis are pottery, basket weaving, mat weaving and farm labour. The Uralis are the primitive artisans of Wayanad whose pot-making technique is very primitive as no potter's wheel is used. The Uralis do not marry outside their tribal society. They worship deities and ancestral spirits. The important musical instruments associated with the Uralis are the flute and the local drum, and Urali dances are performed to these instruments. There is a colourful Urali hamlet near the Muthanga entrance to the Wayanad Sanctuary.

Urali is a Dravidian tribal speech variety spoken in the Sathyamangalam Taluk of the Periyar district in Tamilnadu. The hamlets occupied by this ethnic community are situated in the hill tracts bordering Karnataka and Tamilnadu at an altitude of 1105 meters above the mean sea level. The dominant language of the area is Tamil. Tamil is extensively used for all purposes, including official communications and education.

The Uralis now have frequent verbal and other material interaction with the non-Uralis, especially the Tamils living in the region. The impact of this contact is reflected not only in their culture but also in their language. In this sociolinguistic setting, it is the Urali speech that is heavily impacted by the Tamil speech around them.

Ooralis Tribe : The Western Ghats as well as the coastal plains of Kerala are home to a number of tribes. The Ooralisare among the few tree-dwelling tribes of the nation, found around the famous Periyar Tiger Reserve. Not many trees are used to live in, yet they serve as watchtowers to keep a check on elephants and boars that stray into the fields. The Mananns, or expert fishermen, traditionally collect honey from heights usually abuzz with dangerous hill bees. These fishermen who usually climb at night to avoid being stung, scale the trees with the help of bamboo spikes that are hammered into these trees.

Gounder is the name of the head in a system of decentralised panchayat administration used with various regional variations by distinct castes. The root word is Kavunda. This system gained political ascendancy during the greatest king of the Ganga dynasty. The posts of the village headmen were usually assumed by the warrior clans of the Kongu Nadu region and so fell to the ruling Gangakulam, (ref:Kongudesa rajakkal) which was continued by local dynasties until the Hoysalas. The traditional Gounder belt is the area now known as Kongu Nadu, derived from Ganganadu (Gangeya in Sanskrit means: "the one descended from Ganga"). This system of administration was supposedly started by the kings of the Ganga dynasty who ruled the area of mixed Tamil and Kannada speaking people. Currently many castes use this as a caste title as listed.

Ganga in Tamil is written Kanka which subsequently has become Kongu. The Kongu Vellalar community living here is the majority, its original name is Ganga kulam Gounder (caste).

Ganga => Kanka => Kongu
Ganganadu => Gangunadu => Kongunadu
Kavunda => Kaoundar => Goundar

In the ancient period the region around Coimbatore was known as Kanga Nadu (Ganga country) and was ruled by local Velir chiefs of the Western Ganga Dynasty, whose origins are unclear. In the course of time Kongu country witnessed long drawn out power struggles between the different kingdoms of south India: here mainly within the Gounder clans of the Satiyaputra (Adiyaman) of Dharmapuri (the Adi kootam of modern Gounders) , Cheras (the Cheran kootam of modern Gounders) of Karur (Vanchi) and during the decline of the Sangam, the Gangas dynasty of Kannuva Gotra (the Kannan kootam of modern Gounders).

The region ruled by these kingdoms was known as the land of the Gangas (Kongus),by the last dynasty where native Gounders ruled, the language Gangee Tamil (Kongu tamil) is spoken here. The information we get about these three states is mainly based on Tamil literature also called the 'Sangam literature' and Kongudesarajakkal.

This area now comprises the lower Kaveri catchment basin (after the loss of the upper basin to Kannada), consisting the following districts in the western part of Tamil Nadu: Erode, Coimbatore, Ooty, Karur, Dindigul (Palani, Oddanchattiram, Dindugul, Vedasandur and northward slope region of Kodaikkanal taluk), Tiruchirapalli (Tottiyam, Turaiyur taluks and Musiri panchayat union), Salem, Namakkal, Dharmapuri, Krishnagiri and Vellore (Tirupattur taluk) . These districts have a Gounder population somewhere between 50 and 80%.

Gowda ( Gauda or Gowdru) is usually the name given to the head of the family or family group in the state of Karnataka in India. It is similar to Goundar or Kaoundar of Tamilnadu. It is derived from Archaic Tamil-Kannada term Kavunda denoting a village or family head. People belonging to certain castes and communities in Karnataka and Tamil Nadu use it as a surname. Gowda or Gowdar is commonly used as surnames by people belonging to Kuruba, Lingayat,Vokkaliga, Ediga,Madiga communities.

Kavunda => Gaunda => Gauda => Gowda

VELIYAN
Veliyan is a subcaste / surname of Tamil Muthurajas. Veliyam is a very beautiful village in Kerala. It is situated near Kottarakara in the Kollam district of Kerala. A king named "VELIYAN" ruled this place , nearly 2500 years back. Later this place known as VELIYAM. It is located on the Oyoor Kottarakara road in between Pooyapally and Odanavattom, 12 km from Kottarakara and about 6 km from Oyoor. Veliyan seems to be a Chera realted king. It is a well known fact that Mutharayars are believed to be the descendats of Kalabhras and Kalabhras invaded Chola, Chera and Pandya dynasties and also intermarried with these rival warrior kings for maintaning political peace.

CHOLAMUTHARAYAR :
Mutharayars are well cultured and civilized community. Some historical evidence shows that mutharayars had close matrimonial relation with cholas and pandyas. Pandyas of medival times were having the epithets varman it was coming from both mutharayars and pallavas. The Mutharayars only first formed the forts in thanjavur and vallam. From this only cholas changed their capital to thanjai. Mutharayars have been portraited in sangam tamil text NALADIYAR. This may be the only caste which has been portraited in sangam texts. Mutharayars have subsects such as Ambalakkarar, servai, servaikkarar, vwttaikkarar, muthuraja etc. The Chola Mutharayar Research center, Thanjavore have drawn their charts showing common ancestry of Sugreevan to both Mutharayars and Cholas.

Some of the following surnames may probably indicate chola-mutharayar connection through common ancestry / matrimonial relations:

Cholamutharayar
Cholan
Cholavalavan
Cholavallakamayar
Periyacholarayar
Maacholarayar

Killirayar
Killivalavan

It was quite a common practice among the kings to marry the daughters of enemies, who were defeated in the war as a part of war compromise / treaty. The girls from enemy side are married by the winning kings or broght as daughter-in-laws so that the defeated enemy agree to maintain a peaceful relationship with the winning king and become a subruler.

The Tirumittakkode temple epigraphs are one of the most important docu�ments as far as the political and cultural situation of Nila river valley is concerned. This erigraph is the only evidence tv prove the Chola supremacy in lOth Centtury AD in Kerala, which in turn accelerated the fall of Kulasekharas of Cranganore. The epigraph says that Cholamuttarayan with his army came over to Tirumittakkode (Tiruvittuvakkode - a place were Vittuva or Vishnu is worshipped) and the Vaishnava temple was brought to his custody. The 'Cholasenapati' was the army chief of RajendraChola of the 10-11th Century AD. He came aver to Tirumittakode, conquered the area where Valluvanadu Utaiyavar had their 'original ancestoral house at Arangot, a neighboring village and the temple com�plex. The Chola muttarayan constructed a temple of Siva in front of the Vittuva temple itself so that the front part of the Vittuva temple is barred from visionof the devotees. The tt.mple - (Siva in the Sanctum Sanctorum in front of the Vishnu's Sanctum Sanctorum - a twin 'Sreekovil' system) is a unique architectural pattern of temple construction seen at Tirumittacode.

KILLIVAZHAVAN :
Killivazhavan or Killivalavan is one of the surnames of Muthuraja (Mudiraj) caste in Tamilnadu today. Killivalavan is the name of early Chola king. Similarly Killirayar is another surname of Mutharaiyars in Tamilnadu that starts with the term "killi".

Killi and valavan are the two names that are normally associated with chola kings of Tamilnadu. It is a well known fact that Cholas and Mutharayars are one and the same people with fishing background and belonging to koli-bhil dravidian tribes of North India who came down to South even before Ramayana times. We all know that every thing is fair in love and war. This fact seems to be true bewtween the cholas and mutharayars as these two factions fought wars to establish their royal supremacy, particularly in Thanjavur, at the same time these two royal clans continued to establish strong matrimonial relations among them to consoldate their royal community bonds. Cholas and Mutharayars were so very well integrated into a single community over a period of thousands of years. and today they are known as "Muthuraja"

Valavan seems to be related "vala", which means "net or fishing net" in Telugu language. Valmiki, the author who is believed to be a bhil - koli belonged to Valaya koli sect of fishing comminity. The kolis (kolas) and Cholas (colas) belong to solar race. According to Ankamma story narrated by ballads, the mudiraj people who worship Ankamma belong to Solar Race. The cholas also worshipped Goddess Ankamma and the name of Rajandra Cholan's daughter who married a prince of Eastern Chalukyas (near Godavari) was Angamma (Ankamma).

Killivalavan (200 C.E) was one of the Early Cholas mentioned in Sangam Literature. There are a number of poems in Purananuru sung in praise of the Killivalavan who died at Kulamuttram (Kulamuttrathu Tunjiya Killivalavan) and a solitary poem of another Killivalavan who died at Kurappalli. As Kovur Kilar is the poet who has written about these two Killis, it is reasonable to suppose that these two kings are identical.

Killivalavan is celebrated in eighteen songs by ten different minstrels and himself figures as the author of a poem sung in praise of his friend Pannan who was the chieftain of Sirukudi (Purananuru � 173). Urayur was the capital of Killivalavan (Purananuru � 69).

Killivalavan also waged a battle against the Malainadu chief Malayaman Tirumudikkari, who was famous for his liberal patronage of poets. The Malayaman chief was killed in battle and his two children were about to be condemned to a cruel death by the victorious Chola. The poet Kovur Kilar again pleaded for the lives of these children (Purananuru � 46)

Killivalavan was a capable king and was both brave and generous, but somewhat headstrong. A great deal of good advice was very tactfully offered to him by the poets.

Purananuru poems are silent on Killivalavan's campaigns in the south against the Pandyas, but the poet Nakkirar in a poem in Akananuru (poem 345) makes reference to the defeat suffered by the forces of Killivalavan in the hands of the Pandya commander Palayan Maran.

According to Sangam literature he was a contemporary of Pandya king Talaiyaalam-Kaanattu Seru Vendra Neduncezhian. Purananuru is part of the Ettuthokai anthology which is the oldest available collection of poems of Sangam literature in Tamil. Purananuru states that Yanaikat-sey Mantaran Cheral, a Chera king who ruled during the Sangam period (between the first and the third century CE), participated in the battle of Talaiyaalam-Kaanam allied by Chola emperor Killivalavan and five other small rulers including Ezhini, Thithiyan, Irungo Vaenmaan, Porunan and Erumaiyuran.

Tamil literature relates the story of Chola king Killivalavan who moved his capital to Uraiyar after the destruction of the Chola capital of Puhar. Mudaliyar C. Rasanayagam of Colombo claims that Killi Valavan had a liaison with the daughter of Naga king Valaivanam of Manipallavanam (in Jaffna peninsula) in Ceylon. From this union was born a child who was named Tondaiman Ilantirayan whom his father, Killi Valavan, made the ruler of a territory which was named Tondamandlam with capital at Kanchi.

Killivallavan Chola built Sri Ranganathar temple in Tiruchchirappalli, the only temple in south India with seven inner circles (each named after an ancestor). The South Tower, which is 236 feet tall, was the highest tower in ancient Asia. The history of the holy place srirangam is thousands of years old. Dharmavarma was another ancestor of Killivallavan, possibly his father. It is located in the middle of the Trichy town. It is hardly 5 kms from Trichy well connected by road and rail. The temple is located on Trichy-Madras road. After crossing the River Cauvery Bridge while coming from Trichy, we can see the temple Rajagopuram. While coming by Train we can get down at Sri Rangam Station. We have either stay at Trichy or even at Sri Rangam.

The Surya Dynasty from King Ikshavagu to Lord Rama worshipped the Sriranga Vimanam. Lord Rama after Pattabishekam gave the Sriranga Vimanam to King Vibeeshana of Eezha (Lanka) Dynasty. While King Vibeeshana taking the Sriranga Vimanam to SriLanka, placed on the banks of River Cauvery & Kollidam. After some time when King Vibeeshana tried to unearth it , he couldn't as Lord Vishnu has already given a boon to River Cauvery that Lord will come to Earth and wear her as a garland. Lord Vishnu appeared before him and told that Lord Ranganathar will be lying here and will be seeing the Sri Lanka from here. The Sriranga Vimanam was placed on the banks of Cauvery near Trichy and the ruler of Chola Dynasty at that time was King Dharmavarma. He was very happy and immediately built a small temple there for Lord Ranganathar and worshipped daily. When there was a flood in the Cauvery the temple went inside the Earth. From the heredity of King Dharmavarma came a King called Killivallavan, he while resting under a tree, a parrot advised him that the Lord Ranganathar is under this tree. He immediately unearthed the Sriranga Vimanam and renovated it and named the place as Sri Rangam.

Ten Tirumullaivayil near Sirkali (Chola Naadu -North of Kaveri) is a Shiva Temple where Shiva is known as Mullaivananathar and Parvathi is known as Kothaiyammai. This temple is said to have been worshipped (and built ) by Killivalavan a King of the Sangam period. The deity here is also known by the name Yutika Parameswarar and his consort is known by the name Satyananda Soundari. Legend also has it that Indra worshipped at this shrine.

For more details about king Killivallavan, please refer to page about MUDIRAJ & RELATED KINGS in this website.

AMBALAM :
Ambalams in Tamilnadu were the heads of people in four nadus, lying in Sivaganga and adjacent districts.

KAVALGARS :
The Men-Kavalgars were the Poligar Chiefs; the Sthala Kavalgars were the village watchmen or Taliyaris, quasi Sthaliyaris or local guardians.

AMBALAKKARAR
The Surname "AMBALAKKARAR" of Tamilian Muthurajas has similarty with some of the Maharastrian surnames - Ambhore, Ambekar, Ambedkar, Ambade, & Ambadekar. As per the information received from Shri L. Subhash Chandra Bose, a Mutharayar Research Scholar from Thiruchirapalli, the Ambalakkarars believe that their ancestors came from some hil top located near Nagpur. Nagpur is a hilly region to some extent and it may be possible that people having some of the above mentioned surnames hight have gone on migration to South India.

They are also known to part of Marvar and Kallar clans who along with Agamudayar are known as Mukkulathor (Three erstwhile ruling clans).

I am staying in Nagpur for the last 30 years since 1975 and I am very much familiar with the surnames of Maharastrians in and around Nagpur. We all know that Dr. Ambedkar, one of the founder pillars of Indian constitution and a great reformist who fought for the rights of scheduled caste people belonged to Nagpur region. The belief of Ambalakarns gives rise to speculation that their ancestors mighty be the people belonging to Ambedkar / Ambadekar community.

These people seems to be migrated migrated from the region of Ambala region located in Haryana, when they clashed with Aryans who arrived at Ambala via Sindhu river belt. These people might have first shifted to Cental India region and settled there before further migrating to Tamil speaking areas in South India. In central India, people use surnames indicating their native places.Some of such surnames are as given below :

Aurangaba => Aurangabadkar
Rampur => Rampurkar
Jam => Jamkar
Karhad = Karhadkar
Ambala => Ambalakar

Ambalakar => Ambalekar => Ambadekar => Ambedkar

There are many more such surnames in cental India and Maharastra which are perhaps the modifications of Ambalakar.

Ambalekar => Ambale
Ambadekar => Ambade => Ambore => Ambhore
Ambalekar => Ambale

Similarly, the people from Ambala who arrived in central India might have got the surname Ambalakar. When they further migrated to Tamil speaking areas, their surname got further modified from Ambalakar to Ambalakarar. In Tamil "ar" is added to indicate respect.
Mutharaya = Mutharayar
Srikrishnaraya => Srikrishnarayar
Ambalakar => Ambalakarar => Ambalakaran

For more details about possible origins of Ambalakarars from Ambala, readers may please see a separate chapter on kalabhras under "Origins" in this website.

Palk Bay and northern end of Gulf of Mannar are occupied by assortment of fishing castes (Ambalakarars, Karaiyars) and some non fishing castes (Vanniyars, Nadars) involved in fishing.

Thurston writes: "Round about Devakotta in the Sivaganga zamindari there are fourteen nadus, representatives of which meet once a year at Kandadevi, to arrange for the annual festival at the temple dedicated to Swarnamurthi Swami." Each "nadu" is headed by an Ambalakaran (president of an assembly) and the Ambalakarans took upon themselves the power to adjudicate disputes that arose among the inhabitants in the "nadu", belonging to different castes. They used to hear complaints, hold inquiries and punish the offenders. They wielded considerable powers to intervene in any kind of transaction or transfer of property among the people. No land could be alienated from one man to another without the permission of the Ambalakkarans. They were known for awarding crude punishments and collecting oppressive taxes from the people.

Mukkulathors are known to be a combination of three castes (Kallars/ Ambalakarans /Nattars, Maravars and Agambadyars). This group is also called Thevars. During the British rule they were considered a criminal group.

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Nagpur, Maharastra, India

PULI :
The name puli appears to be originated from name of a chieftain called pulli. Puli also means Tiger in Telugu.

Pulli => puli.

Some of the following surnames used by Mutharaiyar people in Tamilnadu & Andhra Pradesh indicate their origin to the chieftain PULLI of Vengadam (Tirupati).

Ettipulirayar => Etti + Puli + Rayar
Irandampulirayar => Irandam + Puli + Rayar
Puli
Pulirayar => Puli +Rayar
Pulivalarayar => Puli +vala + Rayar
Puliyakudirayar => Puli + Yakudi + Rayar
Puliyurrayar => Puli + Oor + Rayar

More details about Pulli:

The old name of Vengadam was Pullikunran, the land of Pullis. The name of the Thirupathi hill was Vengadam. Mamulanur, the most important and perhaps the oldest poet, has seven poems referring to Vengadam. He refers to Vengadam as belonging to Pulli, the Chieftain of Kalvar, and notes that Vengadam was famous for its festivals. In another poem he refers undoubtedly to Tirupati as Pullikunran, the Hill of Chieftain Pulli. Another poem says these Pullis were liberal in gifts.

Some references by Sangam poets:

The region was under government of chieftain by name Pulli ruling over a people who are described as Kalvar, possibly with a variant from Kalvar (Mutharaiyars ?). Subsequently to him it seems to have come under the authority of a chieftain called Tiraiyan with a capital at Pavattiri, a little further north

The chieftain of Kalvar who are in the habit of handing over elephant tusks, barter in them for liquor prepared from paddy, and who wore anklets characteristic of warriors, was Pulli famed for conquest of the land of the Malavar, and for great gifts to those who went to him. (Your lover) it is rarely possible will reconcile himself to stay away even if he got thereby Vengadam, the capital of Pulli which is prosperous because of the festivals celebrated in it. This is how a heart broken damsel is consoled for delay of her lover's arrival from distant parts."

Rulers of Vengadam were Kalabhras who were Buddhists :

These Kalavars are the same as Kalabhras. When Satvahanas put pressure on them, these anti-Brahmanic Buddhist people who were ruling around Tirupati migrated to whole of South India and ruled most of it for centuries, and these centuries are now termed by Brahmin historians as `dark age', not only because scanty information is available from Brahmanic sources but also because it was anti-Brahmanic age. They were abused by the Brahmins and their history was wiped out. But the Buddhist books still preserve their history.

The local people were the Pullis and Tiraiyan of Pavattiri and these so called less civilized Kalavar people later migrated from the land of Tondamandalam to southward areas and caused so called anarchy and got designated as wicked by the Brahmin epigraphists. And these Kalabars were the same as Kalabhras, and were Buddhists. The whole situation boils down to one thing that during the period from Satvahanas to the ascendancy of Imperial Pallavas and even in later times the area of Tondamandalam was inhabited by the Buddhist people and ruled by the Buddhist kings, initially under the Satvahanas and later independently, and not only that but they ruled whole of South India for about three centuries. And these Kalabhras were termed as 'uncivilized', 'wicked' and by all sorts of abuses, and their history suppressed, only evidences remaining extant in Buddhist books, i.e. whatever was left of these books. The real bone of contention seems to be that they cancelled the rights of the Brahmins from the brahmdeya villages, i.e. the villages gifted to Brahmins.

VENGADAM / THIRUPATHI:
Vengadam => venga => vengai.
Thirumal => Thirumala => Thirumalai => Thirupathi

Vengaikodirayar
Vengaiyar
Thirumalrayar

Kalvars and Mutharaiyars are one and the same people at one time and the following surname of Mutharaiyar people of Tamilnadu indicates this fact.

Kalvarkalvar


Surnames relating to Kongunadu:The following surnames of Mutharaiyars may be an indication of the descendancy of Mutharaiyars from Kalabhras and their rule over Kongunadu.

Kongukalamventrarayar
Kongukalavazhirayar
Kongukalimookarayar
Kongukanikodutharayar
Kongukarikalarayar => Kongu + Karikala + Rayar
Kongukonattaraiyar => Kongu + Konatta + Raiyar
Kongumusukuntharayar
Kongumutharasar => Kongu + Mutha + Rasar
Kongusenthalai Kounder
Kongusenthalairayar
Konguvalavar
Konguvikkiramarayar => kongu + Vikrama + Rayar

Brief History of Kongunadu: From time immemorial, Kongunadu has been in existence as "The home of Tamilians". The history of Kongunadu dates back to the 8th century AD. The name Kongunadu originated from the term "Kongu", meaning nectar or honey. Kongu came to be called as Kongunadu with the growth of civilization. The ancient Kongunadu country was made up of various districts and taluks which are currently known as Palani, Dharapuram, Karur, Nammakkal, Thiruchengodu, Erode, Salem, Dharmapuri, Satyamangalam, Nilgiris, Avinashi, Coimbatore, Pollachi and Udumalpet.

In the dawn of historical period, the ancient Kongu country was ruled over by the Velir chiefs. An active trade between Kongu and the classical Roman world had attained it's peak during that period. After the close of the Sangam epoch from about 300 A.D.- 600 A.D., there is almost a total lack of coherent information regarding events in this Tamil land. It was said that the Kalabaras , who were described as the evil rulers overthrew many kings of the land and got a strangle hold of the country.

The South-Western part of Kongu was under the control of the Chera kings who were then confined only to the Southern part of the present Kerala. The South-Eastern Kongu was in possession of the Pandya kings.

It is understood that one Achhuta Vikranta of Kalabhra Kula imprisoned many Adhirajas of Chola, Chera & Pandyan kings and took over possession of their countries.

Mudirajas are also known as Bants. Telugu Bants and Tulu Bunts are one and the same people having their roots embedded in Vanaras of Kishkinda in Bellary districts, which were once part & parcel of undivided Rayalaseema. Bants are also known as bantaras. Bantaras means banjaras. The banjaras means Vanjaras and Vanjaras were Vanaras.

Bant <=Bantara
Bantara <= Bant(z)ara <= Banjara
Banjara <= Vanjara <= Vanchara <= Vanara

According to fables, monkey king Sukreevan ruled nearby Kollimalai, known as `Madhuvanam,' (land of honey). There was King Sugreevan's private garden known as Madhu Vanam. It was a place where the vanara warriors used to drink honey. The chief administrator of the Madhu Vanam was Dadhimukhan.

The Kongu heartland is rich in culture and was known for its valour. The compassionate legendary chieftains, Valvil Ori and Kumanan, lived in the hills of Namakkal. Later Buddhism and Jainism also flourished here.

RAYA :
The RAYA title during medieval times stood for the community / caste name of the ruling class people and who were mostly the Telugu / Tulu speaking bunts / bants. The origin of these Rayas can be traced to telugu speaking Rayalaseema & Bellary districs of erstwhile Andhra State. These people later on spread to Tulanadu, Telugunadu & Tamilnadu. The people who founded and ruled Vijayanagar Empire for more than 300 years were all Raya kings and mostly Tulu / Telugu speaking bunts. The following were some of the kings who ruled Vijayanagar Empire and indicate their belongingness to RAYA community.

Harihara Raya
Bukka Raya
Deva Raya
Saluva Narasimha Raya
Krishna Deva Raya ( Krishnadevarayar )
Achuta Deva Maharayar ( Son of Krishnadevarayar )
Rama Raya
Tirumala Raya
Elugu Rayudu (Chieftain of Podili)

The Mudirajas are also known as Bant / Bunts. The Muthurajas / Mudirajas of today are the descendants of those RAYA kings of medieval times and this fact is very clear from the community surnames of Muthurajas of Tamilnadu. In Tamilnadu, people normally add the name of their father as a suffix to their own name. Thus father�s name stands for a persons surname in Tamilnadu. This fathers name goes on changing from person to person in the succeeding generations and thus there is no single / fixed surname.

But, if there was any great person with high social reputation ( like a famous king), such a personalitys name was also perhaps added to their name along with their fathers name to project his / her belongingness to such great personality and enhance their public image.

The community title RAYA had several equivalent names such as Racha, Rasa, Raja, Rai, etc. which were in use by Rayal class people of medieval times. Here it is worth to note that Miss world Aiswarya Rai belonged to Tulu speaking BUNT community of people.

Raja => Racha => Rasa => Raya => Rai = King
Rajar => Rasar => Rayar => Raiyar = King
Mutha => A group of villages forming the smallest administrative unit
Mudi => Great

MOOPAR :
Moopar or Moopan means head of a few villages. Moopan literally means chieftain. Each of the tribes (The indigenous groups living in Anamalais) - Kaadars, Malasars, Malaimalasars, Pulaiyars, Muduvars and the Eravalars is headed by a moopan who is generally the oldest member in the settlement. In Kerala Ooru moopan means hamlet tribal leader.

Moopan in Minicoy of Lakshadweep : Furthest from Kavaratti island, 200 km away to the south and also nearest to the Maldives, Minicoy has a culture very different from any other island. It has a cluster of 10 villages, which are called Athiris each presided over by a Moopan.

Trippapur Moopan : Some time in the 14th century, the Trippapur Moopan, head of the Trippapur Swaroopam family that ruled Padmanabhapuram, built a palace with a mud-fort at Kalkulam in the traditional Kerala Nalukettu style and called it Darpakulangara. In the 18th century, after renovating the palace and replacing the mud-fort with a four-km-long granite wall, Anizham Thirunal Marthanda Varma, the ruler of Travancore, renamed the fort, the palace and the surrounding areas Padmanabhapuram, in honour of the Lord Padmanabha, the patron deity of the royal family of Travancore. Padmanabhapuram continued as the seat of the royal family of Travancore, till the capital was shifted to Thiruvananthapuram in 1780.

MISC :
The following are the surnames of Muthurajas of Tamilnadu, which most probably indicate the names of famous personalities / chieftains / kings who once ruled parts of Tamilnadu. The suffix titles such as Rayar, Raiyar, Rasar, Rajar, etc make it amply clear that they also belonged to the same community of people who ruled the famous Vijayanagar Empire.

Aabathsagayarayar => Aabathsagaya + Rayar
Aerikattirayar => Aerikatti + Rayar
Alagarmalairayar = Alagarmalai + Rayar
Anaikattirayar => Anaikatti + Rayar
Anjatha singamutharaiyar => Anjatha + Singa + mutha + Raiyar
Anjatha singarayar => Anjatha + Singa + Rayar
Annavirayar => Annavi + Rayar
Arittarkandarayar => Arittarkanda + Rayar
Arkotturayar => Arkottu + Rayar
Aruvimalairayar => Aruvimalai + Rayar
Beemrayar => Beem + Rayar
Chatrubayangaramutharayar => Chatrubayangara + Mutha + Rayar
Chatrukesarirayar => Chatrukesari + Rayar
Cholamutharayar => Chola + Mutha + Rayar
Ellamkondarayar => Ellamkonda + Rayar
Enthalkattirayar => Enthalkatti + Rayar
Ettikudirayar => Ettikudi + Rayar
Ettipulirayar => Ettipuli + Rayar
Idumbavanarayar => Idumbavana + Rayar
Ilanthivelrayar => Ilanthivel + Rayar
Irandampulirayar => Irandampuli + Rayar
Irukkaikudirayar => Irukkaikudi + Rayar
Irunchonatarayar => Irunchonata + Rayar
Kadanthairayar => Kadanthai + Rayar
Kadothkajarayar => Kadothkaja + Rayar
Kaduvelirayar => Kaduveli + Rayar
Kaduvettimutharayar => Kaduvetti + Mutha + Rayar
Kaduvizhirayar => Kaduvizhi + Rayar
Kalimoorkarayar => Kalimoorka + Rayar
Kanatarayar => Kanata + Rayar
Kanchirayar => Kanchi + rayar
Kanhamudirayar => Kanha + Mudi + Rayar
Kannangarayar => Kannanga + Rayar
Kanthlurkondarayar => Kanthlurkonda + Rayar
Karikalarayar => Karikala + Rayar
Kariventrayar => Karivent + Rayar
Karuvurarayar => Karuvura + Rayar
Katahamutharayar => Kataha + Mutha + Rayar
Katakarayar => Kataka + Rayar
Kathamaravarayar => Katha + Marava + Rayar
Keerthirayar => Keerthi + Rayar
Killirayar => Killi + Rayar
Kolalimoimburayar => Kolalimoimbu + Rayar
Kolalirayar => Kolali + Rayar
Kolalivalavarayar => Kolalivalava + Rayar
Kolarirayar => Kolari + Rayar
Konattarayar =>Konatta + Rayar
Kongandamutharasar => Konganda + Mutha + Rasar
Kongandarayar => Konganda + Rayar
Kongarayar => Konga + Rayar
Kongukalamventrarayar => Kongu + Kalamventra + Rayar
Kongukalavazhirayar => Kongu + Kalavazhi + Rayar
Kongukalimookarayar => Kongu + Kalimooka + Rayar
Kongukanikodutharayar => Kongu + Kanikodutha + Rayar
Kongukarikalarayar => Kongu + Karikala + Rayar
Kongukonattaraiyar => Kongu + Konatta + Raiyar
Kongumusukuntharayar => Kongumusukuntha + Rayar
Kongumutharasar => Kongu + Mutha + Rasar
Kongusenthalairayar => Kongu + Senthalai + Rayar
Konguvikkiramarayar => Kongu + Vikkirama + Rayar
Kookurrayar => Kookur + Rayar
Koorvelrayar => Koorvel + Rayar
Kotampattimaravarayar => Kotampatti + Marava + Rayar
Kumararayar => Kumara + Rayar
Kurinchinattaraiyar => Kurinchi + Natta + Raiyar
Kutralarayar => Kutrala + Rayar
Maacholarayar => Maachola + Rayar
Maasilimutharayar => Maasili + Mutha + Rayar
Maasilirayar => Maasili + Rayar
Malainattaraiyar => Malai + Natta + Raiyar
Mangamaikatharayar => Mangamai + Katha + Rayar
Mangattumutharayar => Mangattu + Mutha + Rayar
Mangatturayar => Mangattu + Rayar
Maravamutharaiyar => Marava + Mutha + Raiyar
Meechiramkondarayar => Meechi+ Ramkonda + Rayar
Meechurayar => Meechu + Rayar
Menattarayar => Menatta + Rayar
Meykkarayar => Meykka + Rayar
Moopabarathavarayar => Moopa + Barathava + Rayar
Moopakadampavanarayar => Moopa + Kadampavana + Rayar
Moopakkadamparayar => Moopa + Kkadampa + Rayar
Moopakoodalrayar => Moopa + Koodal + Rayar
Moopakurinchirayar => Moopa + Kurinchi + Rayar
Moopathamizharayar => Moopa + Thamizha + Rayar
Murugavelarayar => Murugavela + Rayar
Musirirajar => Musiri + Rajar
Mutharasar => Mutha + Rasar
Mutharayar => Mutha + Rayar
Nallarayar => Nalla + Rayar
Nalmadibeemarayar => Nalmadibeema + Rayar
Nattaraiyar => Natta + Raiyar
Ochanrayar => Ochan + Rayar
Otriyurrayar => Otriyur + Rayar
Oyyakirayar => Oyyaki + Rayar
Padaiventrarayar => Padaiventra + Rayar
Pampalimutharayar => Pampali + Mutha + Rayar
Pazhayarayar => Pazhaya + Rayar
Peivettirayar => Peivett + Rayar
Perambalarayar => Perambala + Rayar
Peraraiyar => Pera + Raiyar
Periyacholarayar => Periya + Chola + Rayar
Peruvalarayar => Peruvala + Rayar
Ponninattaraiyar => Ponni + Natta + Raiyar
Poovandarayar => Poovanda + Rayar
Poovanrayar => Poovan + Rayar
Pothikairayar => Pothikai + Rayar
Poyyilirayar => Poyyili + Rayar
Pulirayar => Puli + Rayar
Pulivalarayar => Pulivala + Rayar
Puliyakudirayar => Puliyakudi + Rayar
Puliyurrayar => Puliyur + Rayar
Senthalairayar => Senthalai + Rayar
Senthilvelarayar => Senthilvela + Rayar
Senthurarayar => Senthura + Rayar
Serukalamutharayar => Serukala + Mutha + Rayar
Serumaramutharayar => Serumara + Mutha + Rayar
Seruvalavamutharayar => Seruvalava + Mutha + Rayar
Seruvalavarayar => Seruvalava + Rayar
Seruventrarayar => Seruventra + Rayar
Setrambadimutharayar => Setrambadi + Mutha + Rayar
Setramihumutharayar => Setramihu + Mutha + Rayar
Setramvalarmutharayar => Setramvalar + Mutha + Rayar
Silanthirayar => Silanthi + Rayar
Singamutharayar => Singa + Mutha + Rayar
Singarayar => Singa + Rayar
Sithirayar => Sithi + Rayar
Sivanesarayar => Sivanesa + Rayar
Suryamutharayar => Surya + Mutha + Rayar
Thanamarayar => Thanama + Rayar
Thananjayarayar => Thananjaya + Rayar
Therinthavillalirayar => Therinthavillali + Rayar
Thirumalrayar => Thirumal + Rayar
Thirumangairayar => Thirumangai + Rayar
Thirumoorthirayar => Thirumoorthi + Rayar
Uraiyurrayar => Uraiyur + Rayar
Uttamaseelirayar => Uttamaseeli + Rayar
Uttamathanirayar => Uttamathani + Rayar
Valanattarayar => Valanatta + Rayar
Valarikondarayar => Valarikonda + Rayar
Vallaththarayar => Vallaththa + Rayar
Vankaramutharayar => Vankara + Mutha + Rayar
Vankarurayar => Vankaru + Rayar
Veliyangarayar => Veliyanga + Rayar
Velkodirayar => Velkodi + Rayar
Vengaikodirayar => Vengaikodi + Rayar
Venniventrarayar => Venniventra + Rayar

Analysis of some Mutharaiyar surnames :

The people of Tamilnadu do not have surnames which are similar to those being used in Andhra Pradesh & other North Indian States. Instead, they add fathers name as a surname. That way the surnames of Tamil speaking people are the names of either their fathers or that of some famous personality in their clan. Most of the Mutharaiyar surnames indicate the names of famous kings / rulers. The descendants use those kings names as surnames or as subsect names.

Aabathsagayarayar => Aapathsamaya +Rayar
Aapathsamaya => Aapath + Samaya
Aapath => Difficult
Samaya = > Times
Aabathsagayarayar => King who is helpful during difficult Times.

Alagarmalairayar => Alagar + Malai + Rayar
Alagar + Malai => Alagar + Hill
Alagarmalairayar => king, who was named after "Alagarmalai" hill.

Beemrayar => Beem + Rayar => Bheema +Rayar
Bheema => One of five Pandavas of Maha Bharata.
Beemrayar => King, who was named after Bheema

Chatrubayangaramutharayar = Chatru + Bayangara + Mutharayar
Chatru => Shatru = Enemy
Bayangara => Bhayankara => Fearful
Mutharayar -> It stand for community title of Muthurajas
Chatrubayangaramutharayar => King, who was fearful to enemies

Chatrukesarirayar => Chatru + Kesari + Rayar
Chatru => Shatru => Enemy
Kesari => Tiger
Chatrukesarirayar => King, who was like a tiger for enemies

Ellamkondarayar => Ellam + Konda + Rayar
Ellam + Konda => Ellam + Hill
Ellamkondarayar => King, who was named after "Ellamkond" hill

Ettikudirayar = > Ettikudi + Rayar= > King, who ruled Ettikudi Region

Kadothkajarayar => Kadothkaja + Rayar
Kadothkaja => Ghatothgaja
Ghatothgaja is the name of Bheema's son born for demon Hidimbi

Kanchirayar => Kanchi + Rayar => King who ruled kanchi

Kanhamudirayar => Kanha + Mudirayar
Kanthlurkondarayar => Kanthlur + konda + Rayar

Karikalarayar => Karikala + Rayar
Karikala seems to be a common name used by both Mutharayars and Cholas. Karkala Chola was a well known Chola King during the times of Kalabra kings.

Karuvurarayar => The Rayas who ruled Karuvur

Thananjayarayar => Thananjaya + Rayar => Dhananjaya + king
Uttamaseelirayar => Uttama + seeli + Rayar => Good + Character + King

Uttamathanirayar => Uttama + thani + Rayar
Uttama = Good Thani => Dhani => Money
Uttamathanirayar => King having good money

WEBMASTER
KOKOLU ANKA RAO
DT:19/12/2005
NAGPUR, MAHARASTRA, INDIA.






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